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Sample records for kras gene amplification

  1. Loopback rolling circle amplification for ultrasensitive detection of Kras gene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huo; Wu, Dong; Jiang, Yifan; Zhang, Rongbo; Wu, Qingzheng; Liu, Yiyun; Li, Feng; Wu, Zai-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Mutations in Kras gene may be used as a diagnostic marker and a target for treatment of the broad spectrum of human cancers. In this study, we developed a new class of amplification assay, double-hairpin molecular beacon (DHMB)-based cascade rolling circle amplification (RCA), for ultrasensitive and selective detection of Kras gene in a homogenous solution. Specifically, target DNA can hybridize with DHMB and activate cyclical target strand-displacement polymerization (CTDP) and nicking-mediated strand-displacement polymerization (NMDP). The resulting nicked/displaced fragments substantially outnumber target DNA and cause the cascade rolling circle amplification (C-RCA) and nicked fragment-induced strand-displacement polymerization (NFDP). Even if four amplification processes are designed, only DHMB, padlock probe and polymerization primer are involved. Under optimized conditions, this screening system exhibits a linear range of 5 orders of magnitude (from 100fM to 20nM), and the detection limit is down to 16fM. Moreover, the developed biosensing system offers a high assay specificity for perfectly matched target DNA, and the measured data from practical samples demonstrated the potential application in the cancer diagnoses. As a proof-of-concept genetic assay, the novel signaling strategy, as well as desirable analytical capability, would significantly benefit the development of versatile amplification gene profiling platforms, revealing great promise in biological studies and medical diagnostics.

  2. Comparison of HER2 gene amplification and KRAS alteration in eyelid sebaceous carcinomas with that in other eyelid tumors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mi Jung; Shin, Hyung Sik; Nam, Eun Sook; Cho, Seong Jin; Lee, Min Joung; Lee, Samuel; Park, Hye-Rim

    2015-05-01

    Eyelid sebaceous carcinoma (SC) represents a highly aggressive malignancy. Despite the poor prognosis, genetic alterations as potential molecular targets are not available. KRAS mutation and HER2 gene amplification may be candidates related to their genetic alterations. We examined the HER2 and KRAS alteration status in eyelid SCs and compared it with that in other eyelid tumors. The controversial topics of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and p16 expression were also investigated. HER2 amplification was determined by silver in situ hybridization, while immunohistochemistry was performed to study protein expressions in 14 SCs and controls, including 23 other eyelid malignancies and 14 benign tumors. Peptide nucleic acid-mediated PCR clamping and direct sequencing were used to detect KRAS mutations. HER2 protein overexpression was observed in 85.7% (12/14) of the SCs, of which two-thirds showed HER2 gene amplification. HER2 protein overexpression and HER2 amplification were found more frequently in eyelid SCs than in other eyelid tumors. All SCs harbored wild type KRAS genes. No HPV infections were identified in the SCs. Nevertheless, p16 overexpression was found in 71.4% (10/14) of SCs, irrespective of the status of HPV infection. Furthermore, p16 overexpression in eyelid SCs was also significantly higher than that in other eyelid tumors. HER2 protein overexpression, HER2 gene amplifications, and wild type KRAS genes are common in eyelid SCs. HER2 gene amplification may represent potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of eyelid SCs.

  3. Discordant cellular response to pre-surgical letrozole in bilateral synchronous ER+ breast cancers with a KRAS mutation or FGFR1 gene amplification

    PubMed Central

    Balko, Justin M.; Mayer, Ingrid A.; Sanders, Melinda E.; Miller, Todd W.; Kuba, Maria G.; Meszoely, Ingrid M.; Wagle, Nikhil; Garraway, Levi A.; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2013-01-01

    We describe herein a patient presenting with bilateral ER+ breast tumors who was enrolled in a clinical trial exploring molecular aberrations associated with hormone-refractory tumor cell proliferation. Short-term (2-week) hormonal therapy with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole substantially reduced proliferation as measured by Ki67 immunohistochemistry in one tumor, while the second was essentially unchanged. Extensive molecular and genetic workup of the two tumors yielded divergent lesions in the two tumors: an activating KRAS mutation in the responsive tumor, and an amplification of the FGFR1 locus in the treatment-refractory tumor. These findings provide an insight to possible mechanisms of resistance to antiestrogen therapy in ER+ breast cancers. First, they illustrate the necessity of clinically approved assays to identify FGFR1 gene amplification, which occur in ~5% of breast tumors and have been linked to antiestrogen resistance. It is quite possible that the addition of FGFR inhibitors to ER-targeted therapy will yield a superior antitumor effect and improved patient outcome. Second, they suggest that the role of activating mutations in RAS, although rare in breast cancer, may need to be explored in the context of ER+ breast tumors. PMID:22879364

  4. The status of Her2 amplification and Kras mutations in mucinous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuang-Leei; Lee, Ming-Yung; Chao, Wan-Ru; Han, Chih-Ping

    2016-12-28

    Jayson GC et al. remarked in Lancet that nearly 100% of mucinous ovarian cancer cases have Kras mutation as well as a high frequency of Her2 amplification. Using the Abbott PathVysion Her2 DNA Probe Kit and Kras mutant-enriched PCR Kits (FemtoPath®), 21 samples of primary ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinomas from Taiwanese patients were examined to determine the status of Her2 amplification and Kras mutations. Our results showed the Her2 amplification rates were 33.33%, while the Kras mutation rates were 61.90%. We present here our results in order to enlighten the readership that the ~100% Kras mutant frequency and the high Her2 amplification rate reported by Jayson et al. may be too exaggerated to be applicable into all populations. Additionally, we report another 2 novel Kras mutations (A11V, V14I).

  5. Novel Methodology for Rapid Detection of KRAS Mutation Using PNA-LNA Mediated Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Warigaya, Kenji; Tamura, Takaaki; Shimizu, Yuki; Fujimoto, Masakazu; Kojima, Fumiyoshi; Ichinose, Masao; Murata, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Detecting point mutation of human cancer cells quickly and accurately is gaining in importance for pathological diagnosis and choice of therapeutic approach. In the present study, we present novel methodology, peptide nucleic acid—locked nucleic acid mediated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (PNA-LNA mediated LAMP), for rapid detection of KRAS mutation using advantages of both artificial DNA and LAMP. PNA-LNA mediated LAMP reactions occurred under isothermal temperature conditions of with 4 primary primers set for the target regions on the KRAS gene, clamping PNA probe that was complimentary to the wild type sequence and LNA primers complementary to the mutated sequences. PNA-LNA mediated LAMP was applied for cDNA from 4 kinds of pancreatic carcinoma cell lines with or without KRAS point mutation. The amplified DNA products were verified by naked-eye as well as a real-time PCR equipment. By PNA-LNA mediated LAMP, amplification of wild type KRAS DNA was blocked by clamping PNA probe, whereas, mutant type KRAS DNA was significantly amplified within 50 min. Mutant alleles could be detected in samples which diluted until 0.1% of mutant-to-wild type ratio. On the other hand, mutant alleles could be reproducibly with a mutant-to-wild type ratio of 30% by direct sequencing and of 1% by PNA-clamping PCR. The limit of detection (LOD) of PNA-LNA mediated LAMP was much lower than the other conventional methods. Competition of LNA clamping primers complementary to two different subtypes (G12D and G12V) of mutant KRAS gene indicated different amplification time depend on subtypes of mutant cDNA. PNA-LNA mediated LAMP is a simple, rapid, specific and sensitive methodology for the detection of KRAS mutation. PMID:26999437

  6. Novel Methodology for Rapid Detection of KRAS Mutation Using PNA-LNA Mediated Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification.

    PubMed

    Itonaga, Masahiro; Matsuzaki, Ibu; Warigaya, Kenji; Tamura, Takaaki; Shimizu, Yuki; Fujimoto, Masakazu; Kojima, Fumiyoshi; Ichinose, Masao; Murata, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Detecting point mutation of human cancer cells quickly and accurately is gaining in importance for pathological diagnosis and choice of therapeutic approach. In the present study, we present novel methodology, peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid mediated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (PNA-LNA mediated LAMP), for rapid detection of KRAS mutation using advantages of both artificial DNA and LAMP. PNA-LNA mediated LAMP reactions occurred under isothermal temperature conditions of with 4 primary primers set for the target regions on the KRAS gene, clamping PNA probe that was complimentary to the wild type sequence and LNA primers complementary to the mutated sequences. PNA-LNA mediated LAMP was applied for cDNA from 4 kinds of pancreatic carcinoma cell lines with or without KRAS point mutation. The amplified DNA products were verified by naked-eye as well as a real-time PCR equipment. By PNA-LNA mediated LAMP, amplification of wild type KRAS DNA was blocked by clamping PNA probe, whereas, mutant type KRAS DNA was significantly amplified within 50 min. Mutant alleles could be detected in samples which diluted until 0.1% of mutant-to-wild type ratio. On the other hand, mutant alleles could be reproducibly with a mutant-to-wild type ratio of 30% by direct sequencing and of 1% by PNA-clamping PCR. The limit of detection (LOD) of PNA-LNA mediated LAMP was much lower than the other conventional methods. Competition of LNA clamping primers complementary to two different subtypes (G12D and G12V) of mutant KRAS gene indicated different amplification time depend on subtypes of mutant cDNA. PNA-LNA mediated LAMP is a simple, rapid, specific and sensitive methodology for the detection of KRAS mutation.

  7. ras gene Amplification and malignant transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Pulciani, S; Santos, E; Long, L K; Sorrentino, V; Barbacid, M

    1985-01-01

    Morphologic transformation of NIH 3T3 mouse cells occurs upon transfection of these cells with large amounts (greater than or equal to 10 micrograms) of recombinant DNA molecules carrying the normal human H-ras-1 proto-oncogene. We provide experimental evidence indicating that transformation of these NIH 3T3 cells results from the combined effect of multiple copies of the H-ras-1 proto-oncogene rather than from spontaneous mutation of one of the transfected H-ras-1 clones (E. Santos, E.P. Reddy, S. Pulciani, R.J. Feldman, and M. Barbacid, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:4679-4683, 1983). Levels of H-ras-1 RNA and p21 expression are highly elevated in the NIH 3T3 transformants, and in those cases examined, these levels correlate with the malignant properties of these cells. We have also investigated the presence of amplified ras genes in a variety of human carcinomas. In 75 tumor biopsies, we found amplification of the human K-ras-2 locus in one carcinoma of the lung. These results indicate that ras gene amplification is an alternative pathway by which ras genes may participate in the development of human neoplasia. Images PMID:3915535

  8. Genome position and gene amplification.

    PubMed

    Gajduskova, Pavla; Snijders, Antoine M; Kwek, Serena; Roydasgupta, Ritu; Fridlyand, Jane; Tokuyasu, Taku; Pinkel, Daniel; Albertson, Donna G

    2007-01-01

    Amplifications, regions of focal high-level copy number change, lead to overexpression of oncogenes or drug resistance genes in tumors. Their presence is often associated with poor prognosis; however, the use of amplification as a mechanism for overexpression of a particular gene in tumors varies. To investigate the influence of genome position on propensity to amplify, we integrated a mutant form of the gene encoding dihydrofolate reductase into different positions in the human genome, challenged cells with methotrexate and then studied the genomic alterations arising in drug resistant cells. We observed site-specific differences in methotrexate sensitivity, amplicon organization and amplification frequency. One site was uniquely associated with a significantly enhanced propensity to amplify and recurrent amplicon boundaries, possibly implicating a rare folate-sensitive fragile site in initiating amplification. Hierarchical clustering of gene expression patterns and subsequent gene enrichment analysis revealed two clusters differing significantly in expression of MYC target genes independent of integration site. These studies suggest that genome context together with the particular challenges to genome stability experienced during the progression to cancer contribute to the propensity to amplify a specific oncogene or drug resistance gene, whereas the overall functional response to drug (or other) challenge may be independent of the genomic location of an oncogene.

  9. Chromosomal destabilization during gene amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, J C; Wahl, G M

    1990-01-01

    Acentric extrachromosomal elements, such as submicroscopic autonomously replicating circular molecules (episomes) and double minute chromosomes, are common early, and in some cases initial, intermediates of gene amplification in many drug-resistant and tumor cell lines. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the amplification process, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which such extrachromosomal elements are generated and we traced the fate of these amplification intermediates over time. The model system consists of a Chinese hamster cell line (L46) created by gene transfer in which the initial amplification product was shown previously to be an unstable extrachromosomal element containing an inverted duplication spanning more than 160 kilobases (J. C. Ruiz and G. M. Wahl, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:4302-4313, 1988). In this study, we show that these molecules were formed by a process involving chromosomal deletion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed at multiple time points on cells with amplified sequences. These studies reveal that the extrachromosomal molecules rapidly integrate into chromosomes, often near or at telomeres, and once integrated, the amplified sequences are themselves unstable. These data provide a molecular and cytogenetic chronology for gene amplification in this model system; an early event involves deletion to generate extrachromosomal elements, and subsequent integration of these elements precipitates a cascade of chromosome instability. Images PMID:2188107

  10. A novel KRAS gene mutation report in sporadic colorectal cancer, from Northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Dolatkhah, Roya; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Kermani, Iraj Asvadi; Farassati, Faris; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2017-03-01

    While the role of KRAS gene mutations has been widely accepted for predicting responses to anti-EGFR therapy in patients with colorectal cancer, although this study was based on observation of a single case it gives hope that some KRAS gene mutation may have favorable prognosis. More studies are required on patients with similar mutation to validate this finding.

  11. Mutational analysis of EGFR and K-RAS genes in lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Soung, Young Hwa; Lee, Jong Woo; Kim, Su Young; Seo, Si Hyung; Park, Won Sang; Nam, Suk Woo; Song, Sang Yong; Han, Joung Ho; Park, Cheol Keun; Lee, Jung Young; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2005-05-01

    Both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and RAS gene mutations contribute to the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because RAS is one of the downstream molecules in the EGFR signal transduction, the association between the somatic mutations of EGFR and RAS may be important in the pathogenesis of NSCLC . However, to date, such data are lacking. In this study, we analyzed the hotspot regions of K-RAS gene (codons 12, 13, 59 and 61) and EGFR gene (exons 18, 19 and 21) in 153 NSCLC tissue samples including 69 adenocarcinomas. Overall, we detected 30 EGFR mutations (19.6%) and 6 K-RAS mutations (3.9%) in the 153 NSCLCs. In the 69 adenocarcinomas, 26 EGFR mutations (37.7%) and six K-RAS mutations (8.7%) were detected. Of note, the 26 tumors with EGFR mutations did not harbor any K-RAS mutations, and the six tumors with K-RAS mutations did not harbor any EGFR mutations. Inverse relationship between K-RAS and EGFR mutations in the lung adenocarcinoma was statistically significant (P=0.046, chi2 test). As regards smoking history, EGFR mutation was significantly associated with never-smoking history, whereas K-RAS mutation was significantly associated with smoking history. Our data suggest that mutations of EGFR and K-RAS genes might separately, but not cooperatively, contribute to lung adenocarcinoma pathogenesis, and that EGFR and K-RAS mutants could separately be anti-neoplastic targets in lung adenocarcinomas.

  12. Prognostic significance of KRAS gene mutations in colorectal cancer - preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Dinu, D; Dobre, M; Panaitescu, E; Bîrlă, R; Iosif, C; Hoara, P; Caragui, A; Boeriu, M; Constantinoiu, S; Ardeleanu, C

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The prognostic significance of KRAS gene mutations, evaluated by using two methods in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Material and Methods: Retrospective study involving 58 patients diagnosed with CRC and treated between 2003 and 2010 in the General and Esophageal Surgery Clinic of “Sf. Maria” Hospital, Bucharest. The macroscopic and microscopic examination of the resected specimens was also processed for genetic analysis in NIRDPBS, where KRAS status was determined by using two methods: PCR-RFLP and pyrosequencing. Results: The clinical and biological parameters of the patients were assessed for 72 months in average. A relapse in 21 patients and a 5-year survival rate of 79.3% was discovered. The genetic analyses of KRAS gene found mutations in 22 cases (45.3%): 17 cases had mutations in codon 12, 5 cases in codon 13. The survival rate analyses of patients with wild KRAS gene compared with the patients carrying the mutation on codon 12 /13 revealed a superposition of the survival curve. The statistical analysis based on the TNM stage revealed different survival curves in stage I and II, shorter survival period in patients with KRAS mutation on codon 13 than in those with wild type gene (stage I - p_value=0.015; stage II - p_value=0.000). Conclusions: It was not found that KRAS gene status had any prognostic significance. Nevertheless, for stage I and II patients, the mutation found on codon 13 determined a statistic significant shorter survival rate than for those with wild type. The results obtained by using the pyrosequencing method for the determination of KRAS gene status proved that it represented a reliable and reproducible method. PMID:25713627

  13. Amplification of EGFR and cyclin D1 genes associated with human papillomavirus infection in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chuerduangphui, Jureeporn; Pientong, Chamsai; Patarapadungkit, Natcha; Chotiyano, Apinya; Vatanasapt, Patravoot; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Promthet, Supannee; Swangphon, Piyawut; Bumrungthai, Sureewan; Pimson, Charinya; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya

    2017-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with several genetic alterations including oncogene amplification, leading to increased aggression of tumors. Recently, a relationship between HPV infection and oncogene amplification has been reported, but this finding remains controversial. This study therefore investigated relationships between HPV infection and amplification of genes in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling cascade in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Extracted DNA from 142 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) OSCC tissues was performed to investigate the copy number of EGFR, KRAS, c-myc and cyclin D1 genes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and compared with calibrators. A tissue microarray of OSCC tissues was used for detection of c-Myc expression and HPV infection by immunohistochemistry and HPV E6/E7 RNA in situ hybridization, respectively. HPV infection was also investigated using PCR and RT-PCR. Of the 142 OSCC samples, 81 (57%) were HPV-infected cases. The most frequently amplified gene was c-myc (55.6%), followed by cyclin D1 (26.1%), EGFR (23.9%) and KRAS (19.7%). Amplification of c-myc was significantly associated with levels of its protein product. EGFR amplification was also significantly associated with amplification of genes in the signaling cascade: KRAS (50.0%), c-myc (34.2%) and cyclin D1 (46.0%). Interestingly, HPV infection was significantly associated with amplification of both EGFR (76.5%) and cyclin D1 (73.0%). Only cyclin D1 amplification was significantly associated with severity of OSCC histopathology. HPV infection may play an important synergistic role in amplification of genes in the EGFR signaling cascade, leading to increased aggression in oral malignancies.

  14. Alterations in the K-ras and p53 genes in rat lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Belinsky, S.A.; Swafford, D.S.; Finch, G.L.; Mitchell, C.E.

    1997-06-01

    Activation of the K-ras protooncogene and inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are events common to many types of human cancers. Molecular epidemiology studies have associated mutational profiles in these genes with specific exposures. The purpose of this paper is to review investigations that have examined the role of the K-ras and p53 genes in lung tumors induced in the F344 rat by mutagenic and nonmutagenic exposures. Mutation profiles within the K-ras and p53 genes, if present in rat lung tumors, would help to define some of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer induction by various environmental agents. Pulmonary adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas were induced by tetranitromethane (TNM), 4-methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), beryllium metal, plutonium-239, X-ray, diesel exhaust, or carbon black. These agents were chosen because the tumors they produced could arise via different types of DNA damage. Mutation of the K-ras gene was determined by approaches that included DNA transfection, direct sequencing, mismatch hybridization, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The frequency for mutation of the K-ras gene was exposure dependent. The transition mutations formed could have been derived from deamination of cytosine. Alteration in the p53 gene was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis for p53 protein and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of exons 4 to 9. None of the 93 adenocarinomas examined was immunoreactive toward the anti-p53 antibody CM1. In contrast, 14 of 71 squamous cell carcinomas exhibited nuclear p53 immunoreactivity with no correlation to type of exposure. However, SSCP analysis only detected mutations in 2 of 14 squamous cell tumors that were immunoreactive, suggesting that protein stabilization did not stem from mutations within the p53 gene. Thus, the p53 gene does not appear to be involved in the genesis of most rat lung tumors. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 48 refs.

  15. Heat induces gene amplification in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Bin; Ouyang, Ruoyun; Huang, Chenghui; Liu, Franklin; Neill, Daniel; Li, Chuanyuan; Dewhirst, Mark

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study discovered that heat exposure (hyperthermia) results in gene amplification in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyperthermia induces DNA double strand breaks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA double strand breaks are considered to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The underlying mechanism of heat-induced gene amplification is generation of DNA double strand breaks. -- Abstract: Background: Hyperthermia plays an important role in cancer therapy. However, as with radiation, it can cause DNA damage and therefore genetic instability. We studied whether hyperthermia can induce gene amplification in cancer cells and explored potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods: (1) Hyperthermia: HCT116 colon cancer cells received water-submerged heating treatment at 42 or 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min; (2) gene amplification assay using N-(phosphoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) selection of cabamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbarmylase, dihydro-orotase (cad) gene amplified cells; (3) southern blotting for confirmation of increased cad gene copies in PALA-resistant cells; (4) {gamma}H2AX immunostaining to detect {gamma}H2AX foci as an indication for DNA double strand breaks. Results: (1) Heat exposure at 42 or 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min induces gene amplification. The frequency of cad gene amplification increased by 2.8 and 6.5 folds respectively; (2) heat exposure at both 42 and 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min induces DNA double strand breaks in HCT116 cells as shown by {gamma}H2AX immunostaining. Conclusion: This study shows that heat exposure can induce gene amplification in cancer cells, likely through the generation of DNA double strand breaks, which are believed to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. This process may be promoted by heat when cellular proteins that are responsible for checkpoints, DNA replication, DNA repair and

  16. The cornerstone K-RAS mutation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: From cell signaling network, target genes, biological processes to therapeutic targeting.

    PubMed

    Jonckheere, Nicolas; Vasseur, Romain; Van Seuningen, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    RAS belongs to the super family of small G proteins and plays crucial roles in signal transduction from membrane receptors in the cell. Mutations of K-RAS oncogene lead to an accumulation of GTP-bound proteins that maintains an active conformation. In the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most deadly cancers in occidental countries, mutations of the K-RAS oncogene are nearly systematic (>90%). Moreover, K-RAS mutation is the earliest genetic alteration occurring during pancreatic carcinogenetic sequence. In this review, we discuss the central role of K-RAS mutations and their tremendous diversity of biological properties by the interconnected regulation of signaling pathways (MAPKs, NF-κB, PI3K, Ral…). In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, transcriptome analysis and preclinical animal models showed that K-RAS mutation alters biological behavior of PDAC cells (promoting proliferation, migration and invasion, evading growth suppressors, regulating mucin pattern, and miRNA expression). K-RAS also impacts tumor microenvironment and PDAC metabolism reprogramming. Finally we discuss therapeutic targeting strategies of K-RAS that have been developed without significant clinical success so far. As K-RAS is considered as the undruggable target, targeting its multiple effectors and target genes should be considered as potential alternatives.

  17. KRAS and VEGF gene 3'-UTR single nucleotide polymorphisms predicted susceptibility in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiaorui; Li, Xin; Xia, Tian; Long, Hanan

    2017-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tumor-related genes have been reported to play important roles in cancer development. Recent studies have shown that 3’-untranslated regions (UTR) polymorphisms are associated with the occurrence and prognosis of cancers. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between KRAS and VEGF gene 3’-UTR SNPs and genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). In this case-control study of 371 CRC cases and 246 healthy controls, we analyzed the association between one SNP (rs1137188G > A) in the KRAS gene and four SNPs (rs3025039C > T, rs3025040C > T, rs3025053G > A and rs10434A > G) in the VEGF gene and CRC susceptibility by the improved multiplex ligase detection reaction (iMLDR) method. We checked the selected SNPs’ minor allele frequency and its distribution in the frequency of Chinese people by Hap-map database and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and used multivariate logistic regression models to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We found that the rs3025039C variant genotype in the VEGF gene was associated with a significant protection for CRC (AOR = 0.693, 95% CI = 0.485–0.989; P = 0.043 for CC and CT+TT). Nevertheless, the difference was no longer significant after Bonferroni correction (Bonferroni-adjusted P = 0.172). In genetic polymorphisms analysis, we found that the KRAS rs1137188 variant AA genotype had higher portion of tumor size (≥ 5 cm) (P = 0.01; Bonferroni-adjusted P = 0.04), which suggested that the rs1137188 variant AA genotype may significantly be associated with increased progression of CRC. In conclusion, our study suggested that these five SNPs in the KRAS gene and the VEGF gene were not associated with CRC susceptibility in Han Chinese in Sichuan province. PMID:28328959

  18. Association between the KRAS Gene Polymorphisms and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Lifeng; Rao, Wenwang; Yu, Yaqin; Liu, Xiaoli; Pan, Yuchen; Ma, Yuan; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Shangchao; Sun, Hui; Yu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported the association between MAPK signaling pathway gene polymorphisms and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). KRAS gene, an oncogene from the mammalian RAS gene family plays an important role in the MAPK pathway. This study aimed to identify the potential association of KRAS gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to PTC in a Han Chinese population. A total of 861 patients with PTC, 562 disease controls with nodular goiter and 897 healthy controls were recruited. Four tagSNP polymorphisms (rs12427141, rs712, rs7315339 and rs7960917) of KRAS gene were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Statistical analyses and haplotype estimations were conducted using Haploview and Unphased softwares. Only significant differences were observed in genotypic frequencies of the rs7315339 polymorphism (χ2 =7.234, df=2, p=0.027) between PTC and disease controls. Statistically significant differences in both allelic and genotypic genotypes frequencies for rs712 (Genotype, χ2=8.258, p=0.016) and rs12427141 (Allele, χ2=3.992, p=0.046; Genotype, χ2=8.140, p=0.017) were observed between PTC patients and controls. Haplotype analyses revealed higher frequencies of GA and TA haplotypes (p=0.039 and p=0.003, respectively) from rs712- rs12427141 (two-SNP) or TGA and TTG haplotype containing the alleles from rs7960917, rs712 and rs12427141, as well as the GAT haplotype containing the alleles from rs712, rs12427141 and rs7315339 in PTC patients than in healthy controls (p=0.042, p=0.037, p=0.027, respectively). Inversely, the haplotype TTA from rs7960917, rs712 and rs12427141 or the haplotype TAC from rs712, rs12427141 and rs7315339 was significantly less frequent in the PTC patients than in normal control (p=0.003, p=0.003, respectively). These findings suggest the role of these KRAS gene variants in susceptibility to PTC. Moreover, significant differences of the KRAS gene polymorphisms may occur

  19. Amplification-free In Situ KRAS Point Mutation Detection at 60 copies/mL in Urine in a Background of 1000-fold Wild Type

    PubMed Central

    KirimLi, Ceyhun E.; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y.

    2016-01-01

    We have examined in situ detection of single-nucleotide KRAS mutation in urine using a (Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65(PbTiO3)0.35 (PMN-PT) piezoelectric plate sensor (PEPS) coated with a 17-nucleotide (nt) locked nucleic acid (LNA) probe DNA complementary to the KRAS mutation. To enhance in situ mutant (MT) DNA detection specificity against the wild type (WT), the detection was carried out in a flow with a flow rate of 4 mL/min and at 63°C with the PEPS vertically situated at the center of the flow in which both the temperature and the flow impingement force discriminated the wild type. Under such conditions, PEPS was shown to specifically detect KRAS MT in situ with 60 copies/mL analytical sensitivity in a background of clinically-relevant 1000-fold more WT in 30 min without DNA isolation, amplification, or labeling. For validation, the detection was followed with detection in a mixture of blue MT fluorescent reporter microspheres (FRMs) (MT FRMs) that bound to only the captured MT and orange WT FRMs that bound to only the captured WT. Microscopic examinations showed that the captured blue MT FRMs still outnumbered the orange WT FRMs by a factor of 4 to 1 even though WT was 1000-fold of MT in urine. Finally, multiplexed specific mutation detection was demonstrated using a 6-PEPS array each with a probe DNA targeting one of the 6 codon-12 KRAS mutations. PMID:26783561

  20. A correction to the research article titled: "Amplification of the driving oncogene, KRAS or BRAF, underpins acquired resistance to MEK1/2 inhibitors in colorectal cancer cells" by A. S. Little, K. Balmanno, M. J. Sale, S. Newman, J. R. Dry, M. Hampson, P. A. W. Edwards, P. D. Smith, S. J. Cook.

    PubMed

    Little, Annette S; Balmanno, Kathryn; Sale, Matthew J; Newman, Scott; Dry, Jonathan R; Hampson, Mark; Edwards, Paul A W; Smith, Paul D; Cook, Simon J

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of resistance to protein kinase inhibitors is a growing problem in cancer treatment. We modeled acquired resistance to the MEK1/2 (mitogen-activated or extracellular signal–regulated protein kinase kinases 1 and 2) inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244) in colorectal cancer cell lines harboring mutations in BRAF (COLO205 and HT29 lines) or KRAS (HCT116 and LoVo lines). AZD6244-resistant derivatives were refractory to AZD6244-induced cell cycle arrest and death and exhibited a marked increase in ERK1/2 (extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1 and 2) pathway signaling and cyclin D1 abundance when assessed in the absence of inhibitor. Genomic sequencing revealed no acquired mutations in MEK1 or MEK2, the primary target of AZD6244. Rather, resistant lines showed a marked up-regulation of their respective driving oncogenes, BRAF600E or KRAS13D, due to intrachromosomal amplification. Inhibition of BRAF reversed resistance to AZD6244 in COLO205 cells, which suggested that combined inhibition of MEK1/2 and BRAF may reduce the likelihood of acquired resistance in tumors with BRAF600E. Knockdown of KRAS reversed AZD6244 resistance in HCT116 cells as well as reduced the activation of ERK1/2 and protein kinase B; however, the combined inhibition of ERK1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling had little effect on AZD6244 resistance, suggesting that additional KRAS effector pathways contribute to this process. Microarray analysis identified increased expression of an 18-gene signature previously identified as reflecting MEK1/2 pathway output in resistant cells. Thus, amplification of the driving oncogene (BRAF600E or KRAS13D) can drive acquired resistance to MEK1/2 inhibitors by increasing signaling through the ERK1/2 pathway. However, up-regulation of KRAS13D leads to activation of multiple KRAS effector pathways, underlining the therapeutic challenge posed by KRAS mutations. These results may have implications for the use of combination therapies.

  1. Clinicopathologic characteristics and gene expression analyses of non-KRAS 12/13, RAS-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Morris, V K; Lucas, F A San; Overman, M J; Eng, C; Morelli, M P; Jiang, Z-Q; Luthra, R; Meric-Bernstam, F; Maru, D; Scheet, P; Kopetz, S; Vilar, E

    2014-10-01

    KRAS mutations in codons 12 and 13 are present in ∼40% of all colorectal cancers (CRC). Activating mutations in codons 61 and 146 of KRAS and in codons 12, 13, and 61 of NRAS also occur but are less frequent. The clinicopathologic features and gene expression profiles of this latter subpopulation of RAS-mutant colorectal tumors have not yet been clearly defined but in general are treated similarly to those with KRAS 12 or 13 mutations. Records of patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) treated at MD Anderson Cancer Center between December 2000 and August 2012 were reviewed for RAS (KRAS or NRAS) and BRAF mutation status, clinical characteristics, and survival outcomes. To study further with an independent cohort, data from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed to define a gene expression signature for patients whose tumors feature these atypical RAS mutations and explore differences with KRAS 12/13-mutated colorectal tumors. Among the 484 patients reviewed, KRAS 12/13, KRAS 61/146, NRAS, and BRAF mutations were detected in 47.7%, 3.0%, 4.1%, and 7.4%, respectively, of patients who were tested for each of these aberrations. Lung metastases were more common in both the KRAS 12/13-mutated and atypical RAS-mutated cohorts relative to patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type tumors. Gene expression analyses revealed similar patterns regardless of the site of RAS mutation, and in silico functional algorithms predicted that KRAS and NRAS mutations in codons 12, 13, 61, and 146 alter the protein function and drive tumorgenesis. Clinicopathologic characteristics, survival outcomes, functional impact, and gene expression profiling were similar between patients with KRAS 12/13 and those with NRAS or KRAS 61/146-mutated mCRC. These clinical and bioinformatic findings support the notion that colorectal tumors driven by these RAS mutations are phenotypically similar. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights

  2. Extensive sequence variation in the 3′ untranslated region of the KRAS gene in lung and ovarian cancer cases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minlee; Chen, Xiaowei; Chin, Lena J; Paranjape, Trupti; Speed, William C; Kidd, Kenneth K; Zhao, Hongyu; Weidhaas, Joanne B; Slack, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    While cancer is a serious health issue, there are very few genetic biomarkers that predict predisposition, prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment response. Recently, sequence variations that disrupt microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of genes have been shown to be associated with many human diseases, including cancer. In an early example, a variant at one particular single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a let-7 miRNA complementary site in the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of the KRAS gene was associated with risk and outcome of various cancers. The KRAS oncogene is an important regulator of cellular proliferation, and is frequently mutated in cancers. To discover additional sequence variants in the 3′ UTR of KRAS with the potential as genetic biomarkers, we resequenced the complete region of the 3′ UTR of KRAS in multiple non-small cell lung cancer and epithelial ovarian cancer cases either by Sanger sequencing or capture enrichment followed by high-throughput sequencing. Here we report a comprehensive list of sequence variations identified in cases, with some potentially dysregulating expression of KRAS by altering putative miRNA complementary sites. Notably, rs712, rs9266, and one novel variant may have a functional role in regulation of KRAS by disrupting complementary sites of various miRNAs, including let-7 and miR-181. PMID:24552817

  3. Amplification and characterization of eukaryotic structural genes.

    PubMed

    Maniatis, T; Efstratiadis, A; Sim, G K; Kafatos, F

    1978-05-01

    An approach to the study of eukaryotic structural genes which are differentially expressed during development is described. This approach involves the isolation and amplification of mRNA sequences by in vitro conversion of mRNA to double-stranded cDNA followed by molecular cloning in bacterial plasmids. This procedure provides highly specific hybridization probes that can be used to identify genes and their contiguous DNA sequences in genomic DNA, and to detect specific RNA transcripts during development. The nature of the method allows the isolation of individual mRNA sequences from a complex population of molecules at different stages of development.

  4. p53, erbB-2 and K-ras gene alterations are rare in spontaneous and plutonium-239-induced canine lung neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, L.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Lechner, J.F.

    1996-02-01

    Inhalation of high-linear energy transfer radiation in the form of radon progeny is a suspected cause of human lung cancer. To gain insight into the types of genetic derangements caused by this type of radiation, lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} and those arising in animals with no known carcinogen exposure were examined for evidence of aberrations in genes known to be altered in lung tumors. Altered expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene and proto-oncogene erbB-2 proteins (p185{sup erbB2}) was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of 117 tumors representing different histological types in exposed (n = 80) and unexposed (n = 37) animals. Twenty-eight tumors were analyzed for K-ras proto-oncogene mutations by polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing. Fourteen percent (16/116) of all lung neoplasms showed elevated nuclear accumulation of p53 protein. Regardless of exposure history, adenosquamous and squamous cell cancers comprised 94% of all tumors with p53 abnormalities. Eighteen percent (21/117) of all tumors had evidence of erbB-2 protein overexpression. K-ras mutations were not detected in codons 12, 13 or 61 of tumors from unexposed (n = 9) or plutonium-exposed dogs (n = 19). These data indicate that p53 and K-ras gene abnormalities as a result of missense mutation are infrequent events in spontaneous and {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}-induced lung neoplasia in this colony of beagle dogs. Alternative mechanisms of gene alteration may be involved in canine pulmonary carcinogenesis. 45 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Evolution of Gene Expression after Gene Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Nelson; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Yongrui; Messing, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We took a rather unique approach to investigate the conservation of gene expression of prolamin storage protein genes across two different subfamilies of the Poaceae. We took advantage of oat plants carrying single maize chromosomes in different cultivars, called oat–maize addition (OMA) lines, which permitted us to determine whether regulation of gene expression was conserved between the two species. We found that γ-zeins are expressed in OMA7.06, which carries maize chromosome 7 even in the absence of the trans-acting maize prolamin-box-binding factor (PBF), which regulates their expression. This is likely because oat PBF can substitute for the function of maize PBF as shown in our transient expression data, using a γ-zein promoter fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Despite this conservation, the younger, recently amplified prolamin genes in maize, absent in oat, are not expressed in the corresponding OMAs. However, maize can express the oldest prolamin gene, the wheat high-molecular weight glutenin Dx5 gene, even when maize Pbf is knocked down (through PbfRNAi), and/or another maize transcription factor, Opaque-2 (O2) is knocked out (in maize o2 mutant). Therefore, older genes are conserved in their regulation, whereas younger ones diverged during evolution and eventually acquired a new repertoire of suitable transcriptional activators. PMID:25912045

  6. Induction of gene amplification in Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    Human erythrocytic in vitro cultures of Honduras I strain of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have been stressed stepwise with increasing concentrations of methotrexate (MTX), a folate antagonist. This selection has produced a strain that is 450 times more resistant to the drug than the original culture. Uptake of sublethal doses of radiolabeled MTX by infected red blood cells was 6-36 times greater in the resistant cultures than in the nonresistant controls. DNA isolated from all of the parasites was probed by hybridization with /sup 35/S-labeled DNA derived from a clone of the yeast thymidylate synthetase (TS) gene. This showed 50 to 100 times more increased hybridization of the TS probe to the DNA from the resistant parasites is direct evidence of gene amplification because DHFR and TS are actually one and the same bifunctional enzyme in P. falciparum. Hence, the evidence presented indicates that induced resistance of the malaria parasite to MTX in this case is due to overproduction of DHFR resulting from amplification of the DHFR-TS gene.

  7. FNA smears of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma are superior to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue as a source of DNA: Comparison of targeted KRAS amplification and genotyping in matched preresection and postresection samples.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Christopher P; Mahajan, Aparna M; Selvaggi, Suzanne M; Rehrauer, William M

    2017-10-12

    The current study was conducted to compare DNA yield, including normalization to nuclear area, DNA amplification functionality, and detection of KRAS mutations between matched fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens and pancreatic resections diagnostic of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. A retrospective sample of 30 matched single FNA smears and macrodissected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) curls (2 5-μm curls) were compared by measuring the following: nuclear area (via digital image analysis), DNA yield (via NanoDrop spectrophotometry and Quantus fluorometry), and polymerase chain reaction threshold cycles for KRAS amplifications. Variants in KRAS codons 12/13 and 61 were detected by fluorescent melt curve analyses, followed by Sanger DNA sequencing. Despite a similar nuclear area, FNA smears yielded greater DNA per nuclear area via 2 DNA quantification methods. KRAS codon 12 mutations were detected in 23 of 30 FNA specimens (77%) compared with 17 of 30 matched FFPE specimens (57%), for a concordance rate of 74%. No KRAS codon 13 or 61 mutations were detected. FNA specimens are a more optimal source of DNA, and represent an important resource in the preresection and postresection molecular analysis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Cytopathol 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. Label-free colorimetric detection of cancer related gene based on two-step amplification of molecular machine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huo; Wu, Dong; Li, Chen-Qiao; Lu, Zheng; Liao, Xiao-Yun; Huang, Jie; Wu, Zai-Sheng

    2017-04-15

    Highly sensitive detection of K-ras gene is of great significance in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. Here, we developed a colorimetric biosensing system for the detection of proto-oncogene K-ras based on enhanced amplification effect of DNA molecular machine, where dual isothermal circular strand-displacement amplification (D-SDA) occurs on two arms in one-to-one correspondence. Specifically, we designed a primer-locked hairpin probe (HP) and a primer-contained linear polymerization template (PPT). In the presence of target gene, HP can hybridize with PPT, forming a DNA molecular machine with dual functional arms (called DFA-machine). Each of the two probes in this machine is able to be extended by polymerase on its counterpart species. Moreover, with the help of nicking endonuclease, the dual isothermal polymerization is converted into dual circular strand-displacement amplification, generating a large amount of anti-hemin aptamer-contained products. After binding to hemins, the aptamer/hemin duplex, horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme, was formed and catalyzed the oxidation of colorless ABTS by H2O2, producing a visible green color. The proposed colorimetric assay exhibits a wide linear range from 0.01 to 150nM with a low detection limit of 10pM. More interestingly, the mutations existing in target gene are easily observed by the naked eye. It should be noted that this colorimetric system was proved by the analysis of K-ras gene of SW620 cell lines. The simple and powerful DFA-machine is expected to provide promising potential in the sensitive detection of biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanisms of Gene Duplication and Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Reams, Andrew B.; Roth, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in gene copy number are among the most frequent mutational events in all genomes and were among the mutations for which a physical basis was first known. Yet mechanisms of gene duplication remain uncertain because formation rates are difficult to measure and mechanisms may vary with position in a genome. Duplications are compared here to deletions, which seem formally similar but can arise at very different rates by distinct mechanisms. Methods of assessing duplication rates and dependencies are described with several proposed formation mechanisms. Emphasis is placed on duplications formed in extensively studied experimental situations. Duplications studied in microbes are compared with those observed in metazoan cells, specifically those in genomes of cancer cells. Duplications, and especially their derived amplifications, are suggested to form by multistep processes often under positive selection for increased copy number. PMID:25646380

  10. Missense mutations in MLH1, MSH2, KRAS, and APC genes in colorectal cancer patients in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdul Murad, Nor Azian; Othman, Zulhabri; Khalid, Melati; Abdul Razak, Zuraini; Hussain, Rosniza; Nadesan, Sukumar; Sagap, Ismail; Mohamed Rose, Isa; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Jamal, Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide with approximately 1 million cases diagnosed annually. In Malaysia, CRC is the second most common cancer in women and ranked first in men. The underlying cause of CRC remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the mutations in genes involved in CRC including MLH1, MSH2, KRAS, and APC genes. A total of 76 patients were recruited. We used the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for the detection of mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) and APC genes and the PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism for screening of the KRAS gene mutations. We identified 17 types of missense mutations in 38 out of 76 patients in our patients. Nine mutations were identified in the APC gene, five mutations were detected in the KRAS gene, and two mutations were identified in the MSH2 gene. Only one mutation was identified in MLH1. Out of these 17 mutations, eight mutations (47 %) were predicted to be pathogenic. Seven patients were identified with multiple mutations (3: MSH2 and KRAS, 1: KRAS and APC, 1: MLH1 and APC, 2: APC and APC). We have established the PCR-DHPLC and PCR-SSCP for screening of mutations in CRC patients. This study has given a snapshot of the spectrum of mutations in the four genes that were analyzed. Mutation screening in patients and their family members will help in the early detection of CRC and hence will reduce mortality due to CRC.

  11. Mutualism breakdown by amplification of Wolbachia genes.

    PubMed

    Chrostek, Ewa; Teixeira, Luis

    2015-02-01

    Most insect species are associated with vertically transmitted endosymbionts. Because of the mode of transmission, the fitness of these symbionts is dependent on the fitness of the hosts. Therefore, these endosymbionts need to control their proliferation in order to minimize their cost for the host. The genetic bases and mechanisms of this regulation remain largely undetermined. The maternally inherited bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are the most common endosymbionts of insects, providing some of them with fitness benefits. In Drosophila melanogaster, Wolbachia wMelPop is a unique virulent variant that proliferates massively in the hosts and shortens their lifespan. The genetic bases of wMelPop virulence are unknown, and their identification would allow a better understanding of how Wolbachia levels are regulated. Here we show that amplification of a region containing eight Wolbachia genes, called Octomom, is responsible for wMelPop virulence. Using Drosophila lines selected for carrying Wolbachia with different Octomom copy numbers, we demonstrate that the number of Octomom copies determines Wolbachia titers and the strength of the lethal phenotype. Octomom amplification is unstable, and reversion of copy number to one reverts all the phenotypes. Our results provide a link between genotype and phenotype in Wolbachia and identify a genomic region regulating Wolbachia proliferation. We also prove that these bacteria can evolve rapidly. Rapid evolution by changes in gene copy number may be common in endosymbionts with a high number of mobile elements and other repeated regions. Understanding wMelPop pathogenicity and variability also allows researchers to better control and predict the outcome of releasing mosquitoes transinfected with this variant to block human vector-borne diseases. Our results show that transition from a mutualist to a pathogen may occur because of a single genomic change in the endosymbiont. This implies that there must be constant selection on

  12. Mutualism Breakdown by Amplification of Wolbachia Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chrostek, Ewa; Teixeira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Most insect species are associated with vertically transmitted endosymbionts. Because of the mode of transmission, the fitness of these symbionts is dependent on the fitness of the hosts. Therefore, these endosymbionts need to control their proliferation in order to minimize their cost for the host. The genetic bases and mechanisms of this regulation remain largely undetermined. The maternally inherited bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are the most common endosymbionts of insects, providing some of them with fitness benefits. In Drosophila melanogaster, Wolbachia wMelPop is a unique virulent variant that proliferates massively in the hosts and shortens their lifespan. The genetic bases of wMelPop virulence are unknown, and their identification would allow a better understanding of how Wolbachia levels are regulated. Here we show that amplification of a region containing eight Wolbachia genes, called Octomom, is responsible for wMelPop virulence. Using Drosophila lines selected for carrying Wolbachia with different Octomom copy numbers, we demonstrate that the number of Octomom copies determines Wolbachia titers and the strength of the lethal phenotype. Octomom amplification is unstable, and reversion of copy number to one reverts all the phenotypes. Our results provide a link between genotype and phenotype in Wolbachia and identify a genomic region regulating Wolbachia proliferation. We also prove that these bacteria can evolve rapidly. Rapid evolution by changes in gene copy number may be common in endosymbionts with a high number of mobile elements and other repeated regions. Understanding wMelPop pathogenicity and variability also allows researchers to better control and predict the outcome of releasing mosquitoes transinfected with this variant to block human vector-borne diseases. Our results show that transition from a mutualist to a pathogen may occur because of a single genomic change in the endosymbiont. This implies that there must be constant selection on

  13. Evaluation of KRAS Gene Expression and LCS6 Variant in Genomic and Cell-Free DNA of Iranian Women With Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Maryam Shahrabi; Moghaddam, Soheila Amini; Mahdian, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Since the activation of KRAS results in de novo endometriosis in mice, KRAS is regarded as a crucial gene in ectopic endometrial implantation. Recently, it has been reported that 31% of women with endometriosis have KRAS let-7 complementary binding site 6 single-nucleotide polymorphism (LCS6 SNP). This study addresses the correlation between KRAS LCS6 SNP and endometriosis in a case–control study. To detect probable somatic mutation in ectopic endometrial tissue, we evaluated LCS6 SNP in cell-free DNA samples. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of KRAS transcripts in eutopic endometrial tissue. Our results suggest that the variant is not associated with the development of endometriosis in Iranian women. We observed higher levels of KRAS messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in eutopic endometrium of patients with endometriosis compared to controls. Although, the KRAS LCS6 is neither constitutional nor somatic biomarker for endometriosis, increased expression ratio of KRAS mRNA indicates its role in the implantation of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. PMID:25361550

  14. A New Microarray Substrate for Ultra-Sensitive Genotyping of KRAS and BRAF Gene Variants in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pinzani, Pamela; Mancini, Irene; Vinci, Serena; Chiari, Marcella; Orlando, Claudio; Cremonesi, Laura; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics of human cancers may increase accuracy in prognosis, facilitate the selection of the optimal therapeutic regimen, improve patient outcome, reduce costs of treatment and favour development of personalized approaches to patient care. Moreover sensitivity and specificity are fundamental characteristics of any diagnostic method. We developed a highly sensitive microarray for the detection of common KRAS and BRAF oncogenic mutations. In colorectal cancer, KRAS and BRAF mutations have been shown to identify a cluster of patients that does not respond to anti-EGFR therapies; the identification of these mutations is therefore clinically extremely important. To verify the technical characteristics of the microarray system for the correct identification of the KRAS mutational status at the two hotspot codons 12 and 13 and of the BRAFV600E mutation in colorectal tumor, we selected 75 samples previously characterized by conventional and CO-amplification at Lower Denaturation temperature-PCR (COLD-PCR) followed by High Resolution Melting analysis and direct sequencing. Among these samples, 60 were collected during surgery and immediately steeped in RNAlater while the 15 remainders were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. The detection limit of the proposed method was different for the 7 KRAS mutations tested and for the V600E BRAF mutation. In particular, the microarray system has been able to detect a minimum of about 0.01% of mutated alleles in a background of wild-type DNA. A blind validation displayed complete concordance of results. The excellent agreement of the results showed that the new microarray substrate is highly specific in assigning the correct genotype without any enrichment strategy. PMID:23536897

  15. Gene and library synthesis without amplification: polymerase step reaction (PSR).

    PubMed

    Lee, Zhuo-Bin; Firnhaber, Christopher; Clarke, Jesse; DeDecker, Brian S

    2015-09-01

    Current gene synthesis methods often incorporate a PCR amplification step in order to yield final material sufficient for resolution from multiple off-products. These amplification steps can cause stochastic sampling effects that propagate errors in gene synthesis or decrease variability when applied to the construction of randomized libraries. We have developed a simple DNA polymerase-based gene synthesis reaction, polymerase step reaction (PSR), that assembles DNA oligonucleotides in a unidirectional fashion without the need for amplification. We demonstrate that PSR is efficient, with little off-product production, no detectable error propagation, and maximized variability in the synthesis of a phage display library.

  16. Alcohol and the risk of colon and rectal cancer with mutations in the K-ras gene.

    PubMed

    Bongaerts, Brenda W C; de Goeij, Anton F P M; van den Brandt, Piet A; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2006-04-01

    The first metabolite of alcohol, acetaldehyde, may trigger replication errors and mutations in DNA, which may predispose to developing colorectal cancer (CRC). In a prospective study on colon and rectal cancer, we investigated the following hypotheses: alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of mutations in the K-ras oncogene, and beer consumption is associated with an increased risk of G-->A mutations in this gene. Therefore, we studied the associations between consumption of alcohol and alcoholic beverages and the risk of CRC without and with specific K-ras gene mutations. In 1986, 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, completed a questionnaire on risk factors for cancer. The case-cohort approach was used for data processing and analyses. After 7.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2.3 years, complete data from 4,076 subcohort members, 428 colon and 150 rectal cancer patients, were available for data analyses. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared to abstaining, a total alcohol consumption of 30.0 g/day and more was associated with the risk of colon and rectal cancer with and without a K-ras mutation in both men and women. Independent from alcohol intake, liquor consumption when compared to nonliquor consumption was associated with an increased risk of rectal cancer with a wild type K-ras in men (RR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.0-5.0). Beer consumption was not clearly associated with the risk of colon and rectal tumors harboring G-->A mutations in the K-ras gene in men. This association could not be assessed in women because of sparse beer consumption. In conclusion, alcohol does not seem to be involved in predisposing to CRC through mutations in the K-ras gene, and specifically beer consumption is not associated with colon and rectal tumors harboring a G-->A mutation.

  17. APC, K-ras, and p53 gene mutations in colorectal cancer patients: correlation to clinicopathologic features and postoperative surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jan-Sing; Lin, Shiu-Ru; Chang, Mei-Yin; Chen, Fang-Ming; Lu, Chien-Yu; Huang, Tsung-Jen; Huang, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Che-Jen; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

    2005-04-01

    Current researches have proposed a genetic model for colorectal cancer (CRC), in which the sequential accumulation of mutations in specific cancer-related genes, including adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), K-ras, and p53, drives the transition from normal epithelium through increasing adenomatous dysplasia to colorectal cancer. To identify patients with an increased risk of tumor recurrence or metastasis and evaluate the prognostic values of APC, K-ras, and p53 gene mutations, we investigated the frequency of these three mutated genes in tumors and sera of CRC patients. APC, K-ras, and p53 gene mutations in primary tumor tissues and their paired preoperative serum samples of 118 CRC patients were detected by using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis, followed by direct DNA sequencing of the PCR-amplified genomic DNA. Subsequently, serum molecular markers were analyzed for their correlation with patients' clinicopathologic features and presence of postoperative recurrence/metastasis. We did not observe any significant difference in the association of APC or K-ras or p53 gene mutations in primary tumors with patients' demographic data (all were P > 0.05). In contrast, both serum APC and p53 molecular markers were closely correlated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (both P < 0.05). Moreover, the serum overall molecular markers (at least one of the three markers) were prominently associated with depth of tumor invasion (P = 0.033), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), and TNM stage (P < 0.001). In addition, a significantly higher postoperative metastasis/recurrence rate in patients positive for overall molecular markers compared to those negative for these molecular markers were also demonstrated (P < 0.001). APC and K-ras molecular markers were more frequently observed in patients with locoregional metastasis (both P < 0.05), while p53 molecular marker was usually detected in the cases of peritoneal metastasis (P

  18. Identification of Genetic Elements Associated with EPSPS Gene Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Todd A.; Wright, Alice A.; Molin, William T.; Lorentz, Lothar; Riggins, Chance W.; Tranel, Patrick J.; Beffa, Roland; Westra, Philip; Powles, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Weed populations can have high genetic plasticity and rapid responses to environmental selection pressures. For example, 100-fold amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene evolved in the weed species Amaranthus palmeri to confer resistance to glyphosate, the world’s most important herbicide. However, the gene amplification mechanism is unknown. We sequenced the EPSPS gene and genomic regions flanking EPSPS loci in A. palmeri, and searched for mobile genetic elements or repetitive sequences. The EPSPS gene was 10,229 bp, containing 8 exons and 7 introns. The gene amplification likely proceeded through a DNA-mediated mechanism, as introns exist in the amplified gene copies and the entire amplified sequence is at least 30 kb in length. Our data support the presence of two EPSPS loci in susceptible (S) A. palmeri, and that only one of these was amplified in glyphosate-resistant (R) A. palmeri. The EPSPS gene amplification event likely occurred recently, as no sequence polymorphisms were found within introns of amplified EPSPS copies from R individuals. Sequences with homology to miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) were identified next to EPSPS gene copies only in R individuals. Additionally, a putative Activator (Ac) transposase and a repetitive sequence region were associated with amplified EPSPS genes. The mechanism controlling this DNA-mediated amplification remains unknown. Further investigation is necessary to determine if the gene amplification may have proceeded via DNA transposon-mediated replication, and/or unequal recombination between different genomic regions resulting in replication of the EPSPS gene. PMID:23762434

  19. Somatic recombination, gene amplification and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ramel, C; Cederberg, H; Magnusson, J; Vogel, E; Natarajan, A T; Mullender, L H; Nivard, J M; Parry, J M; Leyson, A; Comendador, M A; Sierra, L M; Ferreiro, J A; Consuegra, S

    1996-06-12

    The principle objective of this research programme, to analyse chemical induction of somatic recombination and related endpoints, i.e., mobilization of transposing elements and gene amplification, has been approached by means of several assay systems. These have included Drosophila, Saccharomyces and mammalian cell cultures. 6.1. Screening assays for mitotic recombination. A large number of chemicals have been investigated in the three Drosophila assay systems employed--the multiple wing hair/flare wing spot system developed by Graf et al., 1984, the white-ivory system developed by Green et al., 1986 and the white/white+ eye spot assay developed by Vogel (Vogel and Nivard, 1993). Particularly the screening of 181 chemicals, covering a wide array of chemical classes, by the last mentioned assay has shown that measurement of somatic recombination in Drosophila constitutes a sensitive and efficient short-term test which shows a remarkably good correlation with the agent score of 83 short-term tests analysed by ICPEMC (Mendelsohn et al., 1992; Table 2) as well as the assay performance in international collaborative programmes measuring carcinogen/non-carcinogens (de Serres and Ashby, 1981; Ashby et al., 1985, 1988). Also the wing spot assay has gained wide international recognition as a similarly sensitive test. These two assay systems in Drosophila measure both intrachromosomal events and interchromosomal recombination. The white-ivory system on the other hand is based on the loss of a tandem duplication in the white locus, the mechanism of which is less known, but probably involves intrachromosomal recombination. The difference in the mechanism between this assay and the former two was indicated by the lack of response to methotrexate in the white-ivory assay, while this compound was strongly recombinogenic in both the wing spot and white/white+ assays. The use of different strains of Drosophila with the white/white+ assay demonstrated the importance of the

  20. Loop mediated isothermal amplification: An innovative gene amplification technique for animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Pravas Ranjan; Sethy, Kamadev; Mohapatra, Swagat; Panda, Debasis

    2016-05-01

    India being a developing country mainly depends on livestock sector for its economy. However, nowadays, there is emergence and reemergence of more transboundary animal diseases. The existing diagnostic techniques are not so quick and with less specificity. To reduce the economy loss, there should be a development of rapid, reliable, robust diagnostic technique, which can work with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay is a rapid gene amplification technique that amplifies nucleic acid under an isothermal condition with a set of designed primers spanning eight distinct sequences of the target. This assay can be used as an emerging powerful, innovative gene amplification diagnostic tool against various pathogens of livestock diseases. This review is to highlight the basic concept and methodology of this assay in livestock disease.

  1. Loop mediated isothermal amplification: An innovative gene amplification technique for animal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Pravas Ranjan; Sethy, Kamadev; Mohapatra, Swagat; Panda, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    India being a developing country mainly depends on livestock sector for its economy. However, nowadays, there is emergence and reemergence of more transboundary animal diseases. The existing diagnostic techniques are not so quick and with less specificity. To reduce the economy loss, there should be a development of rapid, reliable, robust diagnostic technique, which can work with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay is a rapid gene amplification technique that amplifies nucleic acid under an isothermal condition with a set of designed primers spanning eight distinct sequences of the target. This assay can be used as an emerging powerful, innovative gene amplification diagnostic tool against various pathogens of livestock diseases. This review is to highlight the basic concept and methodology of this assay in livestock disease. PMID:27284221

  2. Programming a nonvolatile memory-like sensor for KRAS gene sensing and signal enhancement.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Ting; Purwidyantri, Agnes; Luo, Ji-Dung; Chiou, Chiuan-Chian; Yang, Chia-Ming; Lo, Chih-Hong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2016-05-15

    A programmable field effect-based electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) sensor constructed with a nonvolatile memory-like structure is proposed for KRAS gene DNA hybridization detection. This programmable EIS structure was fabricated with silicon oxide (SiO2)/silicon nitride (Si3N4)/silicon oxide on a p-type silicon wafer, namely electrolyte-oxide-nitride-oxide-Si (EONOS). In this research, voltage stress programming from 4 to 20V was applied to trigger holes confinement in the nitride-trapping layer that, consequently, enhances the DNA attachment onto the sensing surface due to additional electrostatic interaction. Not solely resulting from the higher DNA load, the programming may affect the orientation of the DNA that finally contributes to the change in capacitance. Findings have shown that a higher voltage program is able to increase the total capacitance and results in ~3.5- and ~5.5-times higher sensitivities for a series of concentrations for complementary DNA and wild type versus mutant DNA hybridization detection, respectively. Overall, it has been proven that the voltage program on the nonvolatile memory-like structure of EONOS is a notable candidate for genosensor development, scoping the diagnosis of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-related disease.

  3. Gene amplification system based on double rolling-circle replication as a model for oncogene-type amplification.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takaaki; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Horiuchi, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    Gene amplification contributes to a variety of biological phenomena, including malignant progression and drug resistance. However, details of the molecular mechanisms remain to be determined. Here, we have developed a gene amplification system in yeast and mammalian cells that is based on double rolling-circle replication (DRCR). Cre-lox system is used to efficiently induce DRCR utilizing a recombinational process coupled with replication. This system shows distinctive features seen in amplification of oncogenes and drug-resistance genes: (i) intra- and extrachromosomal amplification, (ii) intensive chromosome rearrangement and (iii) scattered-type amplification resembling those seen in cancer cells. This system can serve as a model for amplification of oncogenes and drug-resistance genes, and improve amplification systems used for making pharmaceutical proteins in mammalian cells.

  4. Inverse Relationship between Microsatellite Instability and K-ras and p53 Gene Alterations in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Samowitz, Wade S.; Holden, Joseph A.; Curtin, Karen; Edwards, Sandra L.; Walker, Adrianne R.; Lin, Heather A.; Robertson, Margaret A.; Nichols, Melanie F.; Gruenthal, Kristin M.; Lynch, Beverly J.; Leppert, Mark F.; Slattery, Martha L.

    2001-01-01

    Some studies have shown an inverse relationship between microsatellite instability in colon cancer and mutations in p53 and K-ras, whereas others have not. We therefore evaluated these features in a population-based sample of 496 individuals with colon cancer. Microsatellite instability was determined by a panel of 10 tetranucleotide repeats, the Bethesda consensus panel of mono- and dinucleotide repeats, and coding mononucleotide repeats in transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II, hMSH3, BAX, hMSH6, and insulin-like growth factor receptor type II. Mutations in codons 12 and 13 in K-ras were evaluated by sequencing. p53 overexpression (as detected by immunohistochemistry) was used as an indicator of p53 mutation; this was evaluated in 275 of the tumors. K-ras mutations were present in 33.2% of tumors, p53 overexpression in 51.5%, and microsatellite instability (as determined by the Bethesda consensus panel) in 12.5%. K-ras mutations were significantly less common in unstable tumors than stable tumors (11.8% versus 36.9%, P < 0.001). p53 overexpression was significantly less common in unstable tumors than stable tumors (20.0% versus 55.7%, P < 0.001). These inverse relationships between microsatellite instability and ras gene mutations and p53 overexpression were shown to be independent of tumor site in logistic regression analyses. All other measures of instability also showed statistically significant inverse relationships independent of tumor site with alterations in ras and p53, and instability results determined by the panel of 10 tetranucleotide repeats were highly significantly related to those determined by the Bethesda consensus panel. Coding mononucleotide repeat mutations were significantly more common in unstable tumors than stable tumors (85.7% versus 1.0%, P < 0.001). We conclude that there is an inverse relationship between microsatellite instability and mutations in p53 and K-ras, and that the molecular profile of colon cancers with

  5. Picoliter droplet-based digital peptide nucleic acid clamp PCR and dielectric sorting for low abundant K-ras mutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huidan; Sperling, Ralph; Rotem, Assaf; Shan, Lianfeng; Heyman, John; Zhang, Yizhe; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the US, and the 5-year survival of metastatic CRC (mCRC) is less than 10%. Although monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) provide incremental improvements in survival, approximately 40% of mCRC patients with activating KRAS mutations won't benefit from this therapy. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA), a synthetic non-extendable oligonucleotides, can bind strongly to completely complementary wild-type KRAS by Watson-Crick base pairing and suppress its amplification during PCR, while any mutant allele will show unhindered amplification. The method is particularly suitable for the simultaneously detection of several adjoining mutant sites, just as mutations of codons 12 and 13 of KRAS gene where there are totally 12 possible mutation types. In this work, we describe the development and validation of this method, based on the droplet-based digital PCR. Using a microfluidic system, single target DNA molecule is compartmentalized in microdroplets together with PNA specific for wild-type KRAS, thermocycled and the fluorescence of each droplet was detected, followed by sorting and sequencing. It enables the precise determination of all possible mutant KRAS simultaneously, and the precise quantification of a single mutated KRAS in excess background unmutated KRAS.

  6. Functional variants in CYP1B1, KRAS and MTHFR genes are associated with shorter telomere length in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cerne, Jasmina Z; Pohar-Perme, Maja; Cerkovnik, Petra; Gersak, Ksenija; Novakovic, Srdjan

    2015-07-01

    Estrogens and antioxidants indirectly alleviate telomere attrition. However, available clinical data on the association between hormone exposure and telomere length are inconclusive. In the present study, we examined the effects of exogenous estrogen use and of some genetic factors implicated in estrogen metabolism and oxidative stress response on mean leukocyte telomere length. We studied 259 postmenopausal women. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1B1 (rs1056836), COMT (rs4680), GSTP1 (rs1695), MnSOD (rs4880), KRAS (rs61764370), and MTHFR (rs1801133 and rs1801131) polymorphisms. Mean leukocyte telomere length was measured using a quantitative real-time PCR assay. In multivariate analysis we found no association between oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and mean leukocyte telomere length. The presence of variant alleles in CYP1B1, KRAS and MTHFR genes was statistically significantly associated with shorter mean leukocyte telomere length. Further, the data provided evidence for the effect modification of the association between HRT and mean leukocyte telomere length by the CYP1B1, KRAS and MTHFR genotypes. Our findings suggest that functionally relevant genetic variants within estrogen and folate metabolic pathways may influence telomere length. We propose these genetic factors should be taken into consideration when interpreting associations between hormone exposure and telomere length.

  7. Evaluation of EGFR, KRAS and BRAF gene mutations in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Haluk; Bulut, Ersan; Cengiz, Beyhan; Karakok, Metin; Erturhan, Sakip; Seckiner, Ilker

    2014-01-01

    A subset of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients has been shown to respond to anti-EGFR therapy. As KRAS and BRAF mutations are associated with poor response to anti-EGFR therapy in some cancers, it has been suggested that screening for KRAS and BRAF mutations in RCC may be a promising strategy to identify patients who might respond to EGFR-targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the mutation status of EGFR, KRAS and BRAF in RCC patients. Renal tumors and normal renal samples from forty-eight patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy for kidney cancer were used in this study. Histological classification of the tumors was performed according to International Union against Cancer (UICC) / American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification. Seventeen patients (48%) had clear-cell RCC, 7 (20%) had chromophobe RCC, and 11 patients (32%) had papillary RCC. DNA isolated from the samples was subjected to melting curve mutation analysis for EGFR, BRAF and KRAS using ABI-3130 DNA sequencer. DNA sequencing analysis of RCC samples, when compared with morphologically normal matched regions, did not show any exon mutations. Our results do not support the notion that EGFR, KRAS and BRAF might be mutated in RCC.

  8. Defining New Treatment Approaches for KRAS-Mutant Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    NSCLC. KEYWORDS: Provide a brief list of keywords (limit to 20 words). Kras, Lung cancer, oncogene addiction . ACCOMPLISHMENTS: The PI is reminded...to KRAS- addicted cancers. In order to identify genes specifically required for KRAS-driven cancers, we conducted a pooled short hairpin RNA (shRNA...While most of the KRAS mutant lines were KRAS addicted , BRAF mutants were not. Our goal was to find genes that, when depleted, would inhibit the

  9. Hormonal Involvement in Breast Cancer Gene Amplification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Sazer S. and Kelly T.J. (2001). Redundant control of rereplication in fission yeast . Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci 98: 13114-13119. Green B.M. and Li J.J...increases in MCM proteins and Cdt1 have been shown to induce DNA amplification in yeast (Gopalakrishnan et al., 2001; Nguyen et al., 2001; Green et al...replication profiles of S-phase checkpoint mutants reveal fragile sites in yeast . EMBO J. 25: 3627-3639. Shi Y-K., Yu Y.P., Zhu Z-H., Han Y-C., Rec B

  10. Amplification of kinetic oscillations in gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, V. P.

    2008-10-01

    Because of the feedbacks between the DNA transcription and mRNA translation, the gene expression in cells may exhibit bistability and oscillations. The deterministic and stochastic calculations presented illustrate how the bistable kinetics of expression of one gene in a cell can be influenced by the kinetic oscillations in the expression of another gene. Due to stability of the states of the bistable kinetics of gene 1 and the relatively small difference between the maximum and minimum protein amounts during the oscillations of gene 2, the induced oscillations of gene 1 are found to typically be related either to the low-or high-reactive state of this gene. The quality of the induced oscillations may be appreciably better than that of the inducing oscillations. This means that gene 1 can serve as an amplifier of the kinetic oscillations of gene 2.

  11. Novel approach to abuse the hyperactive K-Ras pathway for adenoviral gene therapy of colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, Inna; Kazanov, Dina; Lisiansky, Victoria; Starr, Alex; Aroch, Ilan; Shapira, Shiran; Kraus, Sarah; Arber, Nadir

    2012-01-15

    Background: Functional activation of oncogenic K-Ras signaling pathway plays an important role in the early events of colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). K-Ras proto-oncogene is involved in 35-40% of CRC cases. Mutations in the Ras gene trigger the transduction of proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals, even in the absence of extra cellular stimuli. The objective of the current study was to use a gene-targeting approach to kill human CRC cells selectively harboring mutated K-Ras. Results: A recombinant adenovirus that carries a lethal gene, PUMA, under the control of a Ras responsive promoter (Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA) was used selectively to target CRC cells (HCT116, SW480, DLD1 and RIE-Ras) that possess a hyperactive Ras pathway while using HT29 and RIE cells as a control that harbors wild type Ras and exhibit very low Ras activity. Control vector, without the Ras responsive promoter elements was used to assess the specificity of our 'gene therapy' approach. Both adenoviral vectors were assed in vitro and in xenograft model in vivo. Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA showed high potency to induce {approx} 50% apoptosis in vitro, to abolish completely tumor formation by infecting cells with the Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA prior xenografting them in nude mice and high ability to suppress by {approx} 35% tumor progression in vivo in already established tumors. Conclusions: Selective targeting of CRC cells with the activated Ras pathway may be a novel and effective therapy in CRC. The high potency of this adenoviral vector may help to overcome an undetectable micro metastasis that is the major hurdle in challenging with CRC.

  12. Alterations of LKB1 and KRAS and Risk of Brain Metastasis: Comprehensive Characterization by Mutation Analysis, Copy Number, and Gene Expression in Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ni; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Shah, Usman; Yin, Xiaoying; Wang, Anyou; Hayward, Michele C.; Roberts, Patrick; Lee, Carrie B.; Parsons, Alden M.; Thorne, Leigh B.; Haithcock, Benjamin E.; Grilley-Olson, Juneko E.; Stinchcombe, Thomas E.; Funkhouser, William K.; Wong, Kwok K.; Sharpless, Norman E.; Hayes, D. Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background Brain metastases are one of the most malignant complications of lung cancer and constitute a significant cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent years of investigation suggested a role of LKB1 in NSCLC development and progression, in synergy with KRAS alteration. In this study, we systematically analyzed how LKB1 and KRAS alteration, measured by mutation, gene expression (GE) and copy number (CN), are associated with brain metastasis in NSCLC. Materials and Methods Patients treated at University of North Carolina Hospital from 1990 to 2009 with NSCLC provided frozen, surgically extracted tumors for analysis. GE was measured using Agilent 44,000 custom-designed arrays, CN was assessed by Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 250K Sty Array or the Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 and gene mutation was detected using ABI sequencing. Integrated analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between these genetic markers and brain metastasis. A model was proposed for brain metastasis prediction using these genetic measurements. Results 17 of the 174 patients developed brain metastasis. LKB1 wild type tumors had significantly higher LKB1 CN (p < 0.001) and GE (p = 0.002) than the LKB1 mutant group. KRAS wild type tumors had significantly lower KRAS GE (p < 0.001) and lower CN, although the latter failed to be significant (p = 0.295). Lower LKB1 CN (p = 0.039) and KRAS mutation (p = 0.007) were significantly associated with more brain metastasis. The predictive model based on nodal (N) stage, patient age, LKB1 CN and KRAS mutation had a good prediction accuracy, with area under the ROC curve of 0.832 (p < 0.001). Conclusion LKB1 CN in combination with KRAS mutation predicted brain metastasis in NSCLC. PMID:25224251

  13. Genetic Alterations in K-ras and p53 Cancer Genes in Lung Neoplasms From B6C3F1 Mice Exposed to Cumene

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hue-Hua L.; Ton, Thai-Vu. T.; Kim, Yongbaek; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Clayton, Natasha P.; Chan, Po-Chuen; Sills, Robert C.; Lahousse, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in cumene-treated B6C3F1 mice were significantly greater than those of the controls. We evaluated these lung neoplasms for point mutations in the K-ras and p53 genes that are often mutated in humans. K-ras and p53 mutations were detected by cycle sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA isolated from paraffin-embedded neoplasms. K-ras mutations were detected in 87 % cumene-induced lung neoplasms, and the predominant mutations were exon 1 codon 12 G to T transversions and exon 2 codon 61 A to G transitions. P53 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 56 % cumene-induced neoplasms and mutations were detected in 52 % neoplasms. The predominant mutations were exon 5, codon 155 G to A transitions and codon 133 C to T transitions. No p53 mutation and one of 7 (14 %) K-ras mutation was detected in spontaneous neoplasms. Cumene-induced lung carcinomas showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 4 near the p16 gene (13 %) and on chromosome 6 near the K-ras gene (12 %). No LOH was observed in spontaneous carcinomas or normal lung tissues examined. The pattern of mutations identified in the lung tumors suggests that DNA damage and genomic instability may be contributing factors to the mutation profile and development of lung cancer in mice exposed to cumene. PMID:18648094

  14. Genetic alterations in K-ras and p53 cancer genes in lung neoplasms from B6C3F1 mice exposed to cumene.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hue-Hua L; Ton, Thai-Vu T; Kim, Yongbaek; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Clayton, Natasha P; Chan, Po-Chuen; Sills, Robert C; Lahousse, Stephanie A

    2008-07-01

    The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in cumene-treated B6C3F1 mice were significantly greater than those of the control animals. We evaluated these lung neoplasms for point mutations in the K-ras and p53 genes that are often mutated in humans. K-ras and p53 mutations were detected by cycle sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA isolated from paraffin-embedded neoplasms. K-ras mutations were detected in 87% of cumene-induced lung neoplasms, and the predominant mutations were exon 1 codon 12 G to T transversions and exon 2 codon 61 A to G transitions. P53 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 56% of cumene-induced neoplasms, and mutations were detected in 52% of neoplasms. The predominant mutations were exon 5, codon 155 G to A transitions, and codon 133 C to T transitions. No p53 mutations and one of seven (14%) K-ras mutations were detected in spontaneous neoplasms. Cumene-induced lung carcinomas showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 4 near the p16 gene (13%) and on chromosome 6 near the K-ras gene (12%). No LOH was observed in spontaneous carcinomas or normal lung tissues examined. The pattern of mutations identified in the lung tumors suggests that DNA damage and genomic instability may be contributing factors to the mutation profile and development of lung cancer in mice exposed to cumene.

  15. Identification of genetic elements associated with EPSPS gene amplification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed populations can have high genetic plasticity and rapid responses to environmental selection pressures. For example, 100-fold amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene evolved to confer resistance to glyphosate, the world's most important herbicide, in the wee...

  16. Sensitive genotyping of somatic mutations in the EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, BRAF genes from NSCLC patients using hydrogel biochips.

    PubMed

    Emelyanova, Marina; Arkhipova, Ksenia; Mazurenko, Natalia; Chudinov, Alexander; Demidova, Irina; Zborovskaya, Irina; Lyubchenko, Lyudmila; Zasedatelev, Alexander; Nasedkina, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    Targeted inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are used for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Somatic mutations in the EGFR gene and key effectors of the EGFR-signaling pathway (KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA) are associated with sensitivity to these drugs. We developed a highly sensitive LUNG CANCER (LC)-biochip approach for the detection of the most common EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF gene mutations. The locked nucleic acid clamp PCR technique was used to increase the sensitivity of the assay, then allele-specific hybridization of a fluorescently labeled target on a biochip was performed. To prove the feasibility of the approach, clinical samples from 112 patients with NSCLC were analyzed. A total of 14 EGFR (12.5%) mutations, 21 (18.8%) KRAS mutations, 12 (10.7%) PIK3CA mutations, and 1 BRAF mutation (0.9%) were found. We compared the results with those from direct sequencing. We detected 50 different mutations by the LC-biochip assay and only 33 of them were found by direct sequencing. To demonstrate that the LC-biochip assay did not give false-positive results, the 17 specimens with discordant results were subjected to locked nucleic acid clamp PCR followed by sequencing. The results of this analysis were identical to the results obtained by the LC-biochip assay indicating that the biochip-based assay was both accurate and reliable. This approach was able to detect approximately 0.5% of mutated alleles in wild-type DNA background. The biochip-based assay is a reliable and inexpensive method for the identification of NSCLC patients, who may respond to a specific targeted therapy.

  17. Gene amplification confers glyphosate resistance in Amaranthus palmeri

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Todd A.; Zhang, Wenli; Wang, Dafu; Bukun, Bekir; Chisholm, Stephen T.; Shaner, Dale L.; Nissen, Scott J.; Patzoldt, William L.; Tranel, Patrick J.; Culpepper, A. Stanley; Grey, Timothy L.; Webster, Theodore M.; Vencill, William K.; Sammons, R. Douglas; Jiang, Jiming; Preston, Christopher; Leach, Jan E.; Westra, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The herbicide glyphosate became widely used in the United States and other parts of the world after the commercialization of glyphosate-resistant crops. These crops have constitutive overexpression of a glyphosate-insensitive form of the herbicide target site gene, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Increased use of glyphosate over multiple years imposes selective genetic pressure on weed populations. We investigated recently discovered glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri populations from Georgia, in comparison with normally sensitive populations. EPSPS enzyme activity from resistant and susceptible plants was equally inhibited by glyphosate, which led us to use quantitative PCR to measure relative copy numbers of the EPSPS gene. Genomes of resistant plants contained from 5-fold to more than 160-fold more copies of the EPSPS gene than did genomes of susceptible plants. Quantitative RT-PCR on cDNA revealed that EPSPS expression was positively correlated with genomic EPSPS relative copy number. Immunoblot analyses showed that increased EPSPS protein level also correlated with EPSPS genomic copy number. EPSPS gene amplification was heritable, correlated with resistance in pseudo-F2 populations, and is proposed to be the molecular basis of glyphosate resistance. FISH revealed that EPSPS genes were present on every chromosome and, therefore, gene amplification was likely not caused by unequal chromosome crossing over. This occurrence of gene amplification as an herbicide resistance mechanism in a naturally occurring weed population is particularly significant because it could threaten the sustainable use of glyphosate-resistant crop technology. PMID:20018685

  18. Prevalence and clinical association of MET gene overexpression and amplification in patients with NSCLC: Results from the European Thoracic Oncology Platform (ETOP) Lungscape project.

    PubMed

    Bubendorf, Lukas; Dafni, Urania; Schöbel, Martin; Finn, Stephen P; Tischler, Verena; Sejda, Aleksandra; Marchetti, Antonio; Thunnissen, Erik; Verbeken, Eric K; Warth, Arne; Sansano, Irene; Cheney, Richard; Speel, Ernst Jan M; Nonaka, Daisuke; Monkhorst, Kim; Hager, Henrik; Martorell, Miguel; Savic, Spasenija; Kerr, Keith M; Tan, Qiang; Tsourti, Zoi; Geiger, Thomas R; Kammler, Roswitha; Schulze, Katja; Das-Gupta, Ashis; Shames, David; Peters, Solange; Stahel, Rolf A

    2017-09-01

    In a well-defined NSCLC cohort of the ETOP Lungscape program, we explored the epidemiology of IHC MET overexpression and amplification, their inter-correlation, and their association to outcome. Resected NSCLC were assessed for MET gene copy number (GCN) and expression using silver in-situ hybridization (SISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on TMAs in a multicenter setting. MET amplification was defined as MET/centromere ratio≥2 (with average MET GCN≥4), high MET GCN as CGN≥5 and MET IHC+ as ≥2+ intensity in ≥50% of tumor cells. A total of 182 MET IHC+ and EGFR/KRAS WT tumors were analyzed for METex14 skipping mutation. MET IHC+ was found in 23.8% of 2432 patients, significantly associated with female gender, small tumor size, and adenocarcinoma histology. We observed a high inter-laboratory variability in IHC and SISH analysis. MET amplification prevailed in 4.6% and MET GCN≥5 in 4.1% of 1572 patients. MET amplification and MET GCN≥5 were not significantly associated with any tumor characteristics or stage. Both were significantly associated with IHC MET positivity (p<0.001). METex14 skipping mutation prevailed in 5 of 182 (2.7%) MET IHC+ WT EGFR/KRAS NSCLC, 4 of which within the 88 adenocarcinomas (4.5%). No association of IHC MET overexpression, SISH MET amplification or high MET GCN was found with OS, RFS or TTR. MET overexpression is found in 23.8% of surgically resected NSCLC. MET amplification prevails in 4.6% and is associated with MET overexpression. Both have no influence on prognosis. The large inter-laboratory variability in IHC highlights the challenge of MET IHC analysis in routine practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [miR-143 inhibits cell proliferation through targeted regulating the expression of K-ras gene in HeLa cells].

    PubMed

    Qin, H X; Cui, H K; Pan, Y; Hu, R L; Zhu, L H; Wang, S J

    2016-12-23

    Objective: To explore the effect of microRNA miR-143 on the proliferation of cervical cancer HeLa cells through targeted regulating the expression of K-ras gene. Methods: The luciferase report carrier containing wild type 3'-UTR of K-ras gene (K-ras-wt) or mutated 3'-UTR of the K-ras (K-ras-mut) were co-transfected with iR-143 mimic into the HeLa cells respectively, and the targeting effect of miR-143 in the transfectants was verified by the dual luciferase report system. HeLa cells were also transfected with miR-143 mimic (miR-143 mimic group), mimic control (negative control group), and miR-143 mimic plus K-ras gene (miR-143 mimic+ K-ras group), respectively. The expression of miR-143 in the transfected HeLa cells was detected by real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and the expression of K-ras protein was detected by Western blot. The cell proliferation activity of each group was examined by MTT assay. In addition, human cervical cancer tissue samples (n=5) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue samples (n=5) were also examined for the expression of miR-143 and K-ras protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results: The luciferase report assay showed that co-transfection with miR-143 mimic decreased the luciferase activity of the K-ras-wt significantly, but did not inhibit the luciferase activity of the K-ras-mut. The expression of miR-143 in the HeLa cells transfected with miR-143 mimic was significantly higher than that in the HeLa cells transfected with the mimic control (3.31±0.45 vs 0.97±0.22, P<0.05). The MTT assay revealed that the cell proliferative activity of the miR-143 mimic group was significantly lower than that of the negative control group (P<0.05), and the cell proliferative activity of the miR-143 mimic+ K-ras group was also significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05) but higher than the miR-143 mimic group significantly (P<0.05). The expression levels of K-ras protein in the miR-143 mimic group, the negative control group and the

  20. Functional characterization of EMSY gene amplification in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Paul M; Dedes, Konstantin J; Wetterskog, Daniel; Mackay, Alan; Lambros, Maryou B; Mansour, Marthe; Frankum, Jessica; Lord, Christopher J; Natrajan, Rachael; Ashworth, Alan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2011-09-01

    The 11q13-q14 locus is frequently amplified in human cancers, with a complex structure harbouring multiple potential oncogenic drivers. The EMSY gene has been proposed as a driver of the third core of the 11q13-q14 amplicon. This gene encodes a protein reported to be a BRCA2-binding partner, which when over-expressed would lead to impairment of BRCA2 functions and could constitute a mechanism for BRCA2 inactivation in non-hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. We hypothesized that if EMSY amplification abrogates BRCA2 functions, cells harbouring this aberration would be unable to elicit competent homologous recombination DNA repair and, therefore, may have increased sensitivity to genotoxic therapies and potent PARP inhibitors. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization of cell lines from distinct tumour sites, including breast, ovary, pancreas, oesophagus, lung and the oral cavity, led to the identification of 10 cell lines with EMSY amplification and 18 without. EMSY amplification was shown to correlate with EMSY mRNA levels, although not all cell lines harbouring EMSY amplification displayed EMSY mRNA or protein over-expression. RNA interference-mediated silencing of EMSY did not lead to a reduction in cell viability in tumour models harbouring EMSY amplification. Cell lines with and without EMSY amplification displayed a similar ability to elicit RAD51 foci in response to DNA damaging agents, and similar sensitivity to cisplatin and olaparib. Taken together, this suggests that EMSY is unlikely to be a driver of the 11q13-q14 amplicon and does not have a dominant role in modulating the response to agents targeting cells with defective homologous recombination.

  1. KRAS, BRAF oncogene mutations and tissue specific promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor SFRP2, DAPK1, MGMT, HIC1 and p16 genes in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bagci, Binnur; Sari, Musa; Karadayi, Kursat; Turan, Mustafa; Ozdemir, Ozturk; Bagci, Gokhan

    2016-06-24

    Colorectal cancer is a serious disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Genetic changes, such as mutations in proto-oncogenes and DNA repair genes, and loss of function in the tumor suppressor genes cause colorectal cancer development. Abnormal DNA methylation is also known to play a crucial role in colorectal carcinogenesis. In this study, frequencies of KRAS and BRAF mutations, promoter hypermethylation profiles of SFRP2, DAPK1, MGMT, HIC1 and p16 genes, and possible associations between hypermethylation of these genes and KRAS and BRAF mutations were aimed to find out. Ninety three colorectal cancer tissues and 14 normal colon mucosas were included in the study. Common twelve KRAS gene mutation were investigated with using reverse-hybridization strip assay method. BRAF V600E mutations were investigated with RFLP method. Hypermethylation status of five tumor suppressor genes were detected by using reverse-hybridization strip assay method after bisulfite modification of DNA. KRAS and BRAF mutation frequencies were determined as 54.84% and 12.9%, respectively. Promoter hypermethylation frequencies of tumor suppressor genes SFRP2, DAPK1, MGMT, HIC1 and p16 were determined as 66.7%, 45.2%, 40.9%, 40.9% and 15.1%, respectively. Statistically significant associations were found between BRAF mutation and SFRP2 and p16 tumor suppressor genes hypermethylation (SFRP2; p= 0.005, p16; p= 0.016). Compared to rectum, SFRP2 (p= 0.017) and MGMT (p= 0.013) genes have statistically significantly higher promoter hypermethylation in colon. Results of the current study have confirmed that KRAS mutations and SFRP2 hypermethylation can be used as genetic markers in colorectal cancer.

  2. K-Ras gene mutation status as a prognostic and predictive factor in patients with colorectal cancer undergoing irinotecan- or oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Stec, Rafał; Bodnar, Lubomir; Charkiewicz, Radosław; Korniluk, Jan; Rokita, Marta; Smoter, Marta; Ciechowicz, Marzena; Chyczewski, Lech; Nikliński, Jacek; Kozłowski, Wojciech; Szczylik, Cezary

    2012-01-01

    Background: CRC caused more than 600,000 estimated deaths in 2008. Dysregulated signaling through the RAS/RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway due to mutations in K-Ras and B-Raf are common events in CRC. Methods: Incidence of mutations in codons 12 and 13 of K-Ras and exons 11 and 15 of B-Raf were analyzed in amplified PCR products from primary tumors of 273 patients with CRC, and their prognostic and predictive significance was assessed. The prognostic role of clinical and pathological factors was also examined. Results: K-Ras mutations were present in 89 patients (32.6%), of whom 76 (85.4%) had mutations in codon 12 and 10 (11.2%) had mutations in codon 13. B-Raf gene mutations were present in 17 patients (6.9%), of whom 6 (35.3%) had mutations in exon 15. Multivariate analysis revealed a predictive significance for K-Ras mutations with respect to time to progression in patients treated with irinotecan and oxaliplatin as first-line chemotherapy. There was no predictive significance for B-Raf gene mutation status in these patients. The following risk factors were found to affect overall survival (OS) rates: primary tumor location, lymph node involvement grade, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level before treatment, and performance status according to WHO criteria. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, K-Ras mutation status may be a suitable indicator of patient eligibility and a prognostic indicator for responsiveness to anti-EGFR therapy alone, or in combination with chemotherapy. Also, K-Ras mutation status may predict time to progression in patients treated with irinotecan and oxaliplatin. PMID:22909976

  3. Emergence of KRAS mutations and acquired resistance to anti EGFR therapy in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Misale, Sandra; Yaeger, Rona; Hobor, Sebastijan; Scala, Elisa; Janakiraman, Manickam; Liska, David; Valtorta, Emanuele; Schiavo, Roberta; Buscarino, Michela; Siravegna, Giulia; Bencardino, Katia; Cercek, Andrea; Chen, Chin-Tung; Veronese, Silvio; Zanon, Carlo; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Gambacorta, Marcello; Gallicchio, Margherita; Vakiani, Efsevia; Boscaro, Valentina; Medico, Enzo; Weiser, Martin; Siena, Salvatore; Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Solit, David; Bardelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Summary A main limitation of therapies that selectively target kinase signaling pathways is the emergence of secondary drug resistance. Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that binds the extracellular domain of EGFR, is effective in a subset of KRAS wild type metastatic colorectal cancers1. After an initial response, secondary resistance invariably ensues, thereby limiting the clinical benefit of this drug2. The molecular bases of secondary resistance to cetuximab in colorectal cancer are poorly understood3-8. Here, we show for the first time that molecular alterations (in most instances point mutations) of KRAS are causally associated with the onset of acquired resistance to anti-EGFR treatment in colorectal cancers. Expression of mutant KRAS under the control of its endogenous gene promoter was sufficient to confer cetuximab resistance but resistant cells remained sensitive to combinatorial inhibition of EGFR and MEK. Analysis of metastases from patients who developed resistance to cetuximab or panitumumab showed the emergence of KRAS amplification in one sample and acquisition of secondary KRAS mutations in 60% (6/10) of the cases. KRAS mutant alleles were detectable in the blood of cetuximab treated patients as early as 10 months prior to radiographic documentation of disease progression. In summary, the results identify KRAS mutations as frequent drivers of acquired resistance to cetuximab in colorectal cancers, indicate that the emergence of KRAS mutant clones can be detected non-invasively months prior to radiographic progression and suggest early initiation of a MEK inhibitor as a rational strategy for delaying or reversing drug resistance. PMID:22722830

  4. Effectiveness of circulating tumor DNA for detection of KRAS gene mutations in colorectal cancer patients: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yi-Xin; Fu, Qiang; Guo, Yan-Yan; Ye, Ming; Zhao, Hui-Xia; Wang, Qi; Peng, Xiu-Mei; Li, Qiu-Wen; Wang, Ru-Liang; Xiao, Wen-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) can be identified in the peripheral blood of patients and harbors the genomic alterations found in tumor tissues, which provides a noninvasive approach for detection of gene mutations. We conducted this meta-analysis to investigate whether ctDNA can be used for monitoring KRAS gene mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched for the included eligible studies in English, and data were extracted for statistical analysis according to the numbers of true-positive (TP), true-negative (TN), false-positive (FP) and false-negative (FN) cases. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. After independent searching and reviewing, 21 studies involving 1,812 cancer patients were analyzed. The overall sensitivity, specificity and DOR were 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.55–0.78), 0.96 (95% CI =0.93–0.98) and 53.95 (95% CI =26.24–110.92), respectively. The AUROC was 0.95 (95% CI =0.92–0.96), which indicated the high diagnostic accuracy of ctDNA. After stratified analysis, we found the higher diagnostic accuracy in subgroup of patients detected in blood sample of plasma. The ctDNA may be an ideal source for detection of KRAS gene mutations in CRC patients with high specificity and diagnostic value. PMID:28243130

  5. Genome-wide gene amplification during differentiation of neural progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ulrike; Keller, Andreas; Voss, Meike; Backes, Christina; Welter, Cornelius; Meese, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequence amplification is a phenomenon that occurs predictably at defined stages during normal development in some organisms. Developmental gene amplification was first described in amphibians during gametogenesis and has not yet been described in humans. To date gene amplification in humans is a hallmark of many tumors. We used array-CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) to discover gene amplifications during in vitro differentiation of human neural progenitor cells. Here we report a complex gene amplification pattern two and five days after induction of differentiation of human neural progenitor cells. We identified several amplified genes in neural progenitor cells that are known to be amplified in malignant tumors. There is also a striking overlap of amplified chromosomal regions between differentiating neural progenitor cells and malignant tumor cells derived from astrocytes. Gene amplifications in normal human cells as physiological process has not been reported yet and may bear resemblance to developmental gene amplifications in amphibians and insects.

  6. Analysis of p53, K-ras gene mutation & Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer & peptic ulcer disease at a tertiary care hospital in north India.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ashish; Shukla, Sanket Kumar; Prasad, Kashi Nath; Ghoshal, Uday Chand

    2012-10-01

    Mutations in the oncogene and tumour suppressor genes play an important role in carcinogenesis. We investigated the association of p53 and K-ras gene mutation and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) attending a tertiary care hospital in north India. In total, 348 adult patients [62 GC, 45 PUD and 241 non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD)] who underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test, culture, histopathology and PCR. Mutation in the exon 5-8 of p53 gene was analyzed by PCR-single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and confirmed by sequence analysis. K-ras gene codon 12 mutation was analyzed by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Overall p53 gene mutation was found in 4.6 per cent of the study population, and its distribution in GC, PUD and NUD was 21, 4.4 and 0.4 per cent, respectively. p53 gene mutation was significantly higher in patients with GC than PUD (P<0.05) and NUD (P<0.001). No difference in p53 gene mutation was observed between H. pylori infected and non-infected individuals. K-ras gene mutation was absent in all the patients. Our results show that p53 gene mutation may be associated with gastric carcinogenesis independent to H. pylori infection and absence of K-ras gene mutation questions its role in the pathogenesis of GC and PUD in Indian patients.

  7. Analysis of p53, K-ras gene mutation & Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer & peptic ulcer disease at a tertiary care hospital in north India

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ashish; Shukla, Sanket Kumar; Prasad, Kashi Nath; Ghoshal, Uday Chand

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mutations in the oncogene and tumour suppressor genes play an important role in carcinogenesis. We investigated the association of p53 and K-ras gene mutation and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) attending a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: In total, 348 adult patients [62 GC, 45 PUD and 241 non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD)] who underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test, culture, histopathology and PCR. Mutation in the exon 5-8 of p53 gene was analyzed by PCR-single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and confirmed by sequence analysis. K-ras gene codon 12 mutation was analyzed by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: Overall p53 gene mutation was found in 4.6 per cent of the study population, and its distribution in GC, PUD and NUD was 21, 4.4 and 0.4 per cent, respectively. p53 gene mutation was significantly higher in patients with GC than PUD (P<0.05) and NUD (P<0.001). No difference in p53 gene mutation was observed between H. pylori infected and non-infected individuals. K-ras gene mutation was absent in all the patients. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results show that p53 gene mutation may be associated with gastric carcinogenesis independent to H. pylori infection and absence of K-ras gene mutation questions its role in the pathogenesis of GC and PUD in Indian patients. PMID:23168708

  8. Gene Signal Distribution and HER2 Amplification in Gastroesophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst; Nielsen, Karsten Bork; Kjærsgaard, Gitte; Jepsen, Anna; Mollerup, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Background: HER2 serves as an important therapeutic target in gastroesophageal cancer. Differences in HER2 gene signal distribution patterns can be observed at the tissue level, but how it influences the HER2 amplification status has not been studied so far. Here, we investigated the link between HER2 amplification and the different types of gene signal distribution. Methods: Tumor samples from 140 patients with gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma where analyzed using the HER2 IQFISH pharmDx™ assay. Specimens covered non-amplified and amplified cases with a preselected high proportion of HER2 amplified cases. Based on the HER2/CEN-17 ratio, specimens were categorized into amplified or non-amplified. The signal distribution patterns were divided into homogeneous, heterogeneous focal or heterogeneous mosaic. The study was conducted based on anonymized specimens with limited access to clinicopathological data. Results: Among the 140 analyzed specimens 83 had a heterogeneous HER2 signal distribution, with 62 being focal and 21 of the mosaic type. The remaining 57 specimens had a homogeneous signal distribution. HER2 amplification was observed in 63 of the 140 specimens, and nearly all (93.7%) were found among specimens with a heterogeneous focal signal distribution (p<0.0001). The mean HER2/CEN-17 ratio for the focal heterogeneous group was 8.75 (CI95%: 6.87 - 10.63), compared to 1.53 (CI95%: 1.45 - 1.61) and 1.70 (CI95%: 1.22 - 2.18) for the heterogeneous mosaic and homogeneous groups, respectively, (p<0.0001). Conclusions: A clear relationship between HER2 amplification and the focal heterogeneous signal distribution was demonstrated in tumor specimens from patients with gastroesophageal cancer. Furthermore, we raise the hypothesis that the signal distribution patterns observed with FISH might be related to different subpopulations of HER2 positive tumor cells.

  9. De novo generation of simple sequence during gene amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Kirschner, L S

    1996-01-01

    Mammalian cells that have undergone gene amplification and/or gene rearrangement have been used as resources to gain insight into the questions of chromosome structure and dynamics. The multidrug resistant murine cell line J7.V2-1 has been shown previously to contain two distinct forms of the highly amplified mdr2 gene, a member of the mouse gene family responsible for the multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype [Kirschner, L. S. (1995) DNA Cell Biol. 14, 47-59]. Characterization of both forms of the gene revealed that one form corresponded to the wild-type structure of the gene, whereas the other represented a rearrangement. Investigation of this altered gene demonstrated a deletion of 1.6 kb of the wild-type sequence, and replacement of this region with a poly(AT) tract that appears to have been generated de novo. Analysis of the native sequence in this region demonstrated the absence of repetitive elements, but was notable for the presence of two long stretches of polypurine: polypyrimidine strand asymmetry. Analysis of mdr2 transcripts in this cell line revealed that nearly all of the mRNA is transcribed from the rearranged form of the gene. This message is unable to code for a functional mdr2 gene product, owing to a deletion of the fourth exon during this event. Mechanisms of the rearrangement, as well as the significance of this curious effect on transcription, are discussed. PMID:8759018

  10. Mutational analysis of HRAS and KRAS genes in oral carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Maemoto, Sachiko; Yumoto, Megumi; Ibata, Masato; Torizuka, Sho; Ozawa, Naohumi; Tatsumi, Shunsuke; Hashido, Moeko; Morikawa, Masako; Maeda, Genta; Imai, Kazushi

    2012-07-01

    RAS overexpression and its active mutations are involved in malignant tumorigenesis. However, the mutation rates in oral carcinoma cells differ between populations. In the present study, genomic DNA of oral carcinoma cells (HOC313, TSU, HSC2, HSC3, KOSC2, KOSC3, SCCKN, OSC19, Ca9.22, and Ho1u1 cells) or normal gingival fibroblasts (GF12 cells) derived from a Japanese population were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primer sets, spanning HRAS and KRAS exons. Nucleotide substitutions were analyzed by single strand conformation polymorphism. In contrast to no substitutions in KRAS, nine different substitutions were detected in HRAS. Of the nine, six substitutions were located at intron 1 (HSC2 and HSC3 cells) or intron 2 (HSC3, SCCKN and Ca9.22 cells), and one each of exon 1 (all cells), exon 2 (HOC313, TSU, HSC2 and HSC3 cells) and the 5' upstream region (all cells). Substitutions at exons 1 and 2 did not affect the amino acid sequence; the exon 1 substitution was positioned at the 5' untranslated region, which may be a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequence because all the cells were isolated from a Japanese population, and the mutations at exon 2 was a silent mutation. A substitution at the 5' upstream region was an SNP. These data demonstrate that SNPs and point mutations observed in HRAS do not change the amino acid sequence, and suggest that the mutations affecting the amino acid sequence may be a rare event in oral carcinomas of the Japanese population.

  11. Gene amplification during differentiation of mammalian neural stem cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ulrike; Backes, Christina; Raslan, Abdulrahman; Keller, Andreas; Meier, Carola; Meese, Eckart

    2015-03-30

    In development of amphibians and flies, gene amplification is one of mechanisms to increase gene expression. In mammalian cells, gene amplification seems to be restricted to tumorigenesis and acquiring of drug-resistance in cancer cells. Here, we report a complex gene amplification pattern in mouse neural progenitor cells during differentiation with approximately 10% of the genome involved. Half of the amplified mouse chromosome regions overlap with amplified regions previously reported in human neural progenitor cells, indicating conserved mechanisms during differentiation. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we verified the amplification in single cells of primary mouse mesencephalon E14 (embryonic stage) neurosphere cells during differentiation. In vivo we confirmed gene amplifications of the TRP53 gene in cryosections from mouse embryos at stage E11.5. Gene amplification is not only a cancer-related mechanism but is also conserved in evolution, occurring during differentiation of mammalian neural stem cells.

  12. Tetracycline tolerance mediated by gene amplification in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Wannarat, Wannasiri; Motoyama, Shiori; Masuda, Kenta; Kawamura, Fujio; Inaoka, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis can acquire a higher tolerance to tetracycline by increasing the gene dosage of its resistance gene tetB. In this study, we estimated the multiplication effect of tetB on tetracycline tolerance. Cells harbouring multiple copies of tetB were found to comprise approximately 30 % of the total tetracycline-resistant cell population when selected on medium containing 10 µg tetracycline ml(-1). Disruption of recA resulted in a significant decrease in the frequency of tetB amplification. Although four direct repeats exist around tetB, the majority of tetB amplicons were found to be flanked by non-homologous sequences, indicating that the initial duplication of tetB can occur largely through RecA-independent recombination. The correlation between the tetB copy number and the MIC values for tetracycline indicated that more than three copies of tetB were required for tolerance to 10 µg tetracycline ml(-1). Thus, the RecA-dependent expansion step appears to be necessary for developing significant tetracycline tolerance mediated by tetB amplification. © 2014 The Authors.

  13. Mutational status of NRAS, KRAS, and PTPN11 genes is associated with genetic/cytogenetic features in children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Liang, Der-Cherng; Chen, Shih-Hsiang; Liu, Hsi-Che; Yang, Chao-Ping; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Jaing, Tang-Her; Hung, Iou-Jih; Hou, Jen-Yin; Lin, Tung-Huei; Lin, Chun-Hui; Shih, Lee-Yung

    2017-08-29

    We aimed to investigate the frequencies and the association with genetic/cytogenetic abnormalities as well as prognostic relevance of RAS pathway mutations in Taiwanese children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the largest cohort in Asians. Between 1995 and 2012, marrow samples at diagnosis from 535 children were studied for NRAS, KRAS, and PTPN11 mutations. The mutational status of each gene was correlated with the clinico-hematological features, recurrent genetic abnormalities, and outcomes for those treated with TPOG-ALL-2002 protocol (n = 346). The frequencies of NRAS, KRAS, and PTPN11 mutations were 10.8% (57/530), 10.2% (54/530), and 3.0% (16/526), respectively. NRAS mutations were associated with a higher frequency of hyperdiploidy (P = 0.01) and lower frequency of ETV6-RUNX1 (P < 0.01), whereas KRAS mutations were associated with younger age (P < 0.01), a higher frequency of KMT2A rearranged (P < 0.01) but no significant difference if infants with ALL were excluded, and inferior event-free survival (66.6% vs. 80.5%, P = 0.04). None of patients with TCF3-PBX1 had KRAS mutation (P = 0.02). Our study showed that the frequency of KRAS mutations in Taiwan was significantly higher than that reported in Caucasians. The occurrence of RAS pathway mutations was associated with recurrent genetic/cytogenetic abnormalities in pediatric B-precursor ALL. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Analysis of KRAS and BRAF genes mutation in the central nervous system metastases of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nicoś, Marcin; Krawczyk, Paweł; Jarosz, Bożena; Sawicki, Marek; Szumiłło, Justyna; Trojanowski, Tomasz; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-05-01

    KRAS mutations are associated with tumor resistance to EGFR TKIs (erlotinib, gefitinib) and to monoclonal antibody against EGFR (cetuximab). Targeted treatment of mutated RAS patients is still considered as a challenge. Inhibitors of c-Met (onartuzumab or tiwantinib) and MEK (selumetinib-a dual inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2) signaling pathways showed activity in patients with mutations in KRAS that can became an effective approach in carriers of such disorders. BRAF mutation is very rare in patients with NSCLC, and its presence is associated with sensitivity of tumor cells to BRAF inhibitors (vemurafenib, dabrafenib). In the present study, the frequency and type of KRAS and BRAF mutation were assessed in 145 FFPE tissue samples from CNS metastases of NSCLC. In 30 patients, material from the primary tumor was simultaneously available. Real-time PCR technique with allele-specific molecular probe (KRAS/BRAF Mutation Analysis Kit, Entrogen, USA) was used for molecular tests. KRAS mutations were detected in 21.4 % of CNS metastatic lesions and in 23.3 % of corresponding primary tumors. Five mutations were identified both in primary and in metastatic lesions, while one mutation only in primary tumor and one mutation only in the metastatic tumor. Most of mutations were observed in codon 12 of KRAS; however, an individual patient had diagnosed a rare G13D and Q61R substitutions. KRAS mutations were significantly more frequent in adenocarcinoma patients and smokers. Additional analysis indicated one patient with rare coexistence of KRAS and DDR2 mutations. BRAF mutation was not detected in the examined materials. KRAS frequency appears to be similar in primary and CNS.

  15. Genetic disruption of oncogenic Kras sensitizes lung cancer cells to Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mou, Haiwei; Moore, Jill; Malonia, Sunil K; Li, Yingxiang; Ozata, Deniz M; Hough, Soren; Song, Chun-Qing; Smith, Jordan L; Fischer, Andrew; Weng, Zhiping; Green, Michael R; Xue, Wen

    2017-04-04

    Genetic lesions that activate KRAS account for ∼30% of the 1.6 million annual cases of lung cancer. Despite clinical need, KRAS is still undruggable using traditional small-molecule drugs/inhibitors. When oncogenic Kras is suppressed by RNA interference, tumors initially regress but eventually recur and proliferate despite suppression of Kras Here, we show that tumor cells can survive knockout of oncogenic Kras, indicating the existence of Kras-independent survival pathways. Thus, even if clinical KRAS inhibitors were available, resistance would remain an obstacle to treatment. Kras-independent cancer cells exhibit decreased colony formation in vitro but retain the ability to form tumors in mice. Comparing the transcriptomes of oncogenic Kras cells and Kras knockout cells, we identified 603 genes that were specifically up-regulated in Kras knockout cells, including the Fas gene, which encodes a cell surface death receptor involved in physiological regulation of apoptosis. Antibodies recognizing Fas receptor efficiently induced apoptosis of Kras knockout cells but not oncogenic Kras-expressing cells. Increased Fas expression in Kras knockout cells was attributed to decreased association of repressive epigenetic marks at the Fas promoter. Concordant with this observation, treating oncogenic Kras cells with histone deacetylase inhibitor and Fas-activating antibody efficiently induced apoptosis, thus bypassing the need to inhibit Kras. Our results suggest that activation of Fas could be exploited as an Achilles' heel in tumors initiated by oncogenic Kras.

  16. The G protein-coupled receptor GPR31 promotes membrane association of KRAS.

    PubMed

    Fehrenbacher, Nicole; Tojal da Silva, Israel; Ramirez, Craig; Zhou, Yong; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Kuchay, Shafi; Shi, Jie; Thomas, Susan; Pagano, Michele; Hancock, John F; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Philips, Mark R

    2017-08-07

    The product of the KRAS oncogene, KRAS4B, promotes tumor growth when associated with the plasma membrane (PM). PM association is mediated, in part, by farnesylation of KRAS4B, but trafficking of nascent KRAS4B to the PM is incompletely understood. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify genes required for KRAS4B membrane association and identified a G protein-coupled receptor, GPR31. GPR31 associated with KRAS4B on cellular membranes in a farnesylation-dependent fashion, and retention of GPR31 on the endoplasmic reticulum inhibited delivery of KRAS4B to the PM. Silencing of GPR31 expression partially mislocalized KRAS4B, slowed the growth of KRAS-dependent tumor cells, and blocked KRAS-stimulated macropinocytosis. Our data suggest that GPR31 acts as a secretory pathway chaperone for KRAS4B. © 2017 Fehrenbacher et al.

  17. Clinical Significance of EML4-ALK Fusion Gene and Association with EGFR and KRAS Gene Mutations in 208 Chinese Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Sen; Wang, Jing; Wang, Min; Wang, Yuli; Zhou, Qinghua; Liu, Hongyu; Chen, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The EML4-ALK fusion gene has been recently identified in a small subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who respond positively to ALK inhibitors. The characteristics of the EML4-ALK fusion gene in Chinese patients with NSCLC are poorly understood. Here, we report on the prevalence of EML4-ALK, EGFR status and KRAS mutations in 208 Chinese patients with NSCLC. EGFR mutations were found in 24.5% (51/208) of patients. In concordance with previous reports, these mutations were identified at high frequencies in females (47.5% vs 15.0% in males; P<0.05); never-smokers (42.3% vs 13.9% in smokers; P<0.05), and adenocarcinoma patients (44.2% vs 8.0% in non-adenocarcinoma patients; P<0.05). There were only 2.88% (6/208) patients with KRAS mutations in our study group. We identified 7 patients who harbored the EML4-ALK fusion gene (3.37%, 7/208), including 4 cases with variant 3 (57.1%), 2 with variant 1, and 1 with variant 2. All positive cases corresponded to female patients (11.5%, 7/61). Six of the positive cases were non-smokers (7.69%, 6/78). The incidence of EML4-ALK translocation in female, non-smoking adenocarcinoma patients was as high as 15.2% (5/33). No EGFR/KRAS mutations were detected among the EML4-ALK positive patients. Pathological analysis showed no difference between solid signet-ring cell pattern (4/7) and mucinous cribriform pattern (3/7) in ALK-positive patients. Immunostaining showed intratumor heterogeneity of ALK rearrangement in primary carcinomas and 50% (3/6) of metastatic tumors with ALK-negative staining. Meta-analysis demonstrated that EML4-ALK translocation occurred in 4.84% (125/2580) of unselected patients with NSCLC, and was also predominant in non-smoking patients with adenocarcinoma. Taken together, EML4-ALK translocations were infrequent in the entire NSCLC patient population, but were frequent in the NSCLC subgroup of female, non-smoker, adenocarcinoma patients. There was intratumor heterogeneity of ALK rearrangement in

  18. Targeting KRAS-dependent tumors with AZD4785, a high-affinity therapeutic antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of KRAS.

    PubMed

    Ross, Sarah J; Revenko, Alexey S; Hanson, Lyndsey L; Ellston, Rebecca; Staniszewska, Anna; Whalley, Nicky; Pandey, Sanjay K; Revill, Mitchell; Rooney, Claire; Buckett, Linda K; Klein, Stephanie K; Hudson, Kevin; Monia, Brett P; Zinda, Michael; Blakey, David C; Lyne, Paul D; Macleod, A Robert

    2017-06-14

    Activating mutations in KRAS underlie the pathogenesis of up to 20% of human tumors, and KRAS is one of the most frequently mutated genes in cancer. Developing therapeutics to block KRAS activity has proven difficult, and no direct inhibitor of KRAS function has entered clinical trials. We describe the preclinical evaluation of AZD4785, a high-affinity constrained ethyl-containing therapeutic antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeting KRAS mRNA. AZD4785 potently and selectively depleted cellular KRAS mRNA and protein, resulting in inhibition of downstream effector pathways and antiproliferative effects selectively in KRAS mutant cells. AZD4785-mediated depletion of KRAS was not associated with feedback activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which is seen with RAS-MAPK pathway inhibitors. Systemic delivery of AZD4785 to mice bearing KRAS mutant non-small cell lung cancer cell line xenografts or patient-derived xenografts resulted in inhibition of KRAS expression in tumors and antitumor activity. The safety of this approach was demonstrated in mice and monkeys with KRAS ASOs that produced robust target knockdown in a broad set of tissues without any adverse effects. Together, these data suggest that AZD4785 is an attractive therapeutic for the treatment of KRAS-driven human cancers and warrants further development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Gene Amplification of the Multidrug Resistance 1 Gene of Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar▿

    PubMed Central

    Imwong, Mallika; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Pongtavornpinyo, Wirichada; Nakeesathit, Supatchara; Nair, Shalini; Newton, Paul; Nosten, Francois; Anderson, Timothy J. C.; Dondorp, Arjen; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax mdr1 gene amplification, quantified by real-time PCR, was significantly more common on the western Thailand border (6 of 66 samples), where mefloquine pressure has been intense, than elsewhere in southeast Asia (3 of 149; P = 0.02). Five coding mutations in pvmdr1, independent of gene amplification, were also found. PMID:18443118

  20. Genotype-driven therapies for non-small cell lung cancer: focus on EGFR, KRAS and ALK gene abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Elizabeth M; Costa, Daniel B

    2011-05-01

    Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) are heterogeneous cancers. In 2004, the identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) somatic mutations provided the first glimpse of a clinically relevant NSCLC oncogene. Approximately 70% of NSCLCs with EGFR mutations (exon 19 deletions or the exon 21 L858R) attain responses to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib and erlotinib, with improved response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS) and in some reports overall survival (OS) when compared with EGFR wildtype (WT) cases. Three randomized trials of gefitinib versus chemotherapy (IPASS, WJTOG3405, NEJ002) in stage IV NSCLC have consistently demonstrated better RR and PFS (hazard ratios of 0.48 [IPASS], 0.49 [WJTOG3405] and 0.30 [NEJ002]) for EGFR-mutated NSCLCs treated with gefitinib. Novel irreversible EGFR TKIs (afatinib, XL647, PF00299804) show similar activity in EGFR-mutated patients. A translocation involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene with EML4, identified in 2007, is the most recent oncogene found in NSCLC. Crizotinib (PF02341066), an ALK TKI, has shown impressive activity against ALK translocated NSCLC in an expanded cohort of a phase I trial (NCT00585195). Over 80 patients have been treated and the RR is ∼60% with the 6-month PFS rate exceeding 70%. A registration phase III trial of crizotinib versus second-line chemotherapy (pemetrexed/docetaxel) is underway (PROFILE 1007, NCT00932893). KRAS, EGFR mutations and ALK translocations are mutually exclusive and few EGFR WT NSCLCs respond to EGFR TKIs. The promising results of EGFR and ALK TKIs in molecular subgroups of NSCLCs herald a new age of drug and clinical trial development for patients with NSCLC.

  1. KRAS — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The KRAS gene, a Kirsten ras oncogene homolog from the mammalian ras gene family, encodes a protein that is a member of the small GTPase superfamily. A single amino acid substitution is responsible for an activating mutation. The transforming protein that results is implicated in various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenoma, ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and colorectal carcinoma. Alternative splicing leads to variants encoding two isoforms that differ in the C-terminal region.

  2. Ribozyme-mediated inactivation of mutant K-ras oncogene in a colon cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, T; Tsuchida, T; Kijima, H; Okamoto, K; Oshika, Y; Sawa, N; Ohnishi, Y; Yamazaki, H; Miura, S; Ueyama, Y; Nakamura, M

    2000-01-01

    Mutation of c-K-ras oncogene is an important step in progression of colon cancer. We used a hammerhead ribozyme (KrasRz) against mutated K-ras gene transcripts (codon 12, GTT) to inactivate mutant K-ras function in the colon cancer cell line SW480, harbouring a mutant K-ras gene. The β-actin promoter-driven KrasRz sequence (pHβ/KrasRz) was introduced into these cells (SW480/KrasRz), and we evaluated its effects on growth of the colon cancer. The gene expression of angiogenesis-related molecules (vascular endothelial growth factor and thrombospondin) was also estimated in SW480/KrasRz. KrasRz specifically and efficiently cleaved the mutant K-ras mRNA but not wild-type mRNA in vitro. SW480/KrasRz showed decreased growth rate under tissue culture conditions (P< 0.01, Dunnett’s test). The xenotransplantability of SW480/KrasRz (XeSW480/KrasRz) was significantly decreased in nude mice (P< 0.05, Fisher’s exact test). Tumour volume of the xenografts XeSW480/KrasRz was significantly smaller than that of XeSW480/DisKrasRz (P< 0.01, Dunnett’s test). Gene expression of VEGF was suppressed in SW480/KrasRz, while TSP1 gene expression was enhanced. The SW480/KrasRz cells showed apoptosis-related features including nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. These results suggested that the hammerhead ribozyme-mediated inactivation of the mutated K-ras mRNA induced growth suppression, apoptosis and alteration of angiogenic factor expression. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10952790

  3. Deuterium depleted water effects on survival of lung cancer patients and expression of Kras, Bcl2, and Myc genes in mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Gyöngyi, Zoltán; Budán, Ferenc; Szabó, István; Ember, István; Kiss, István; Krempels, Krisztina; Somlyai, Ildikó; Somlyai, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Although advances in cancer therapies continue to develop, the shortness of the survival of lung cancer patients is still disappointing. Therefore, finding new adjuvant strategies is within the focus of cancer cure. Based on observations that deuterium depletion inhibits the growth of cancer cell lines and suppresses certain proto-oncogenes, we have conducted a clinical study in 129 patients with small cell and nonsmall cell lung cancers who consumed deuterium-depleted drinking water (DDW) as a nontoxic agent in addition to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Median survival time (MST) was 25.9 mo in males and 74.1 mo in female patients; the difference between genders was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Median survival of subjects with brain metastasis was 27.1 mo. Cumulative 5-yr survival probabilities were 19%, 52%, and 33% in males, females, and all patients with brain metastasis, respectively. Gene expression analysis in mouse lung indicated that DDW attenuates 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced expression of Bcl2, Kras, and Myc in females. In conclusion, DDW counteracts the DMBA-induced overexpression of Bcl2, Kras and Myc genes in mouse lung, and it may extend survival of lung cancer patients as a nontoxic anticancer dietary supplement, especially for women with tumors overexpressing cancer-related genes, because MST of DDW-consuming group was 2-4 times longer than it is generally observed in lung cancer patients.

  4. Deuterium Depleted Water Effects on Survival of Lung Cancer Patients and Expression of Kras, Bcl2, and Myc Genes in Mouse Lung

    PubMed Central

    Gyöngyi, Zoltán; Budán, Ferenc; Szabó, István; Ember, István; Kiss, István; Krempels, Krisztina; Somlyai, Ildikó; Somlyai, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Although advances in cancer therapies continue to develop, the shortness of the survival of lung cancer patients is still disappointing. Therefore, finding new adjuvant strategies is within the focus of cancer cure. Based on observations that deuterium depletion inhibits the growth of cancer cell lines and suppresses certain proto-oncogenes, we have conducted a clinical study in 129 patients with small cell and nonsmall cell lung cancers who consumed deuterium-depleted drinking water (DDW) as a nontoxic agent in addition to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Median survival time (MST) was 25.9 mo in males and 74.1 mo in female patients; the difference between genders was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Median survival of subjects with brain metastasis was 27.1 mo. Cumulative 5-yr survival probabilities were 19%, 52%, and 33% in males, females, and all patients with brain metastasis, respectively. Gene expression analysis in mouse lung indicated that DDW attenuates 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced expression of Bcl2, Kras, and Myc in females. In conclusion, DDW counteracts the DMBA-induced overexpression of Bcl2, Kras and Myc genes in mouse lung, and it may extend survival of lung cancer patients as a nontoxic anticancer dietary supplement, especially for women with tumors overexpressing cancer-related genes, because MST of DDW-consuming group was 2–4 times longer than it is generally observed in lung cancer patients. PMID:23441611

  5. SPERM RNA AMPLIFICATION FOR GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING BY DNA MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm RNA Amplification for Gene Expression Profiling by DNA Microarray Technology
    Hongzu Ren, Kary E. Thompson, Judith E. Schmid and David J. Dix, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triang...

  6. SPERM RNA AMPLIFICATION FOR GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING BY DNA MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm RNA Amplification for Gene Expression Profiling by DNA Microarray Technology
    Hongzu Ren, Kary E. Thompson, Judith E. Schmid and David J. Dix, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triang...

  7. Double-hairpin molecular-beacon-based amplification detection for gene diagnosis linked to cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huo; Zhang, Rongbo; Li, Feng; Zhou, Yingying; Peng, Ting; Wang, Xuedong; Shen, Zhifa

    2016-09-01

    A powerful double-hairpin molecular beacon (DHMB) was developed for cancer-related KRAS gene detection based on the one-to-two stoichiometry. During target DNA detection, DHMB can execute signal transduction even if no any exogenous element is involved. Unlike the conventional molecular beacon based on the one-to-one interaction, one target DNA not only hybridizes with one DHMB and opens its hairpin but also promotes the interaction between two DHMBs, causing the separation of two fluorophores from quenchers. This leads to an enhanced fluorescence signal. As a result, the target KRAS gene is able to be detected within a wide dynamic range from 0.05 to 200 nM with the detection limit of 50 pM, indicating a dramatic improvement compared with traditional molecular beacons. Moreover, the point mutations existing in target DNAs can be easily screened. The potential application for target species in real samples was indicated by the analysis of PCR amplicons of DNAs from the DNA extracted from SW620 cell. Besides becoming a promising candidate probe for molecular biology research and clinical diagnosis of genetic diseases, the DHMB is expected to provide a significant insight into the design of DNA probe-based homogenous sensing systems. Graphical Abstract A powerful double-hairpin molecular beacon (DHMB) was developed for cancer-related gene KRAS detection based on the one-to-two stoichiometry. Without the help of any exogenous probe, the point mutation is easily screened, and the target DNA can be quantified down to 50 pM, indicating a dramatic improvement compared with traditional molecular beacons.

  8. Marked heterogeneity of HER2/NEU gene amplification in endometrial serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buza, Natalia; Hui, Pei

    2013-12-01

    Significant heterogeneity of HER2 protein expression has been recently observed in HER2 positive endometrial serous carcinomas. Tumor cells with HER2 overexpression and/or gene amplification in a heterogeneous tumor may represent a biologically more aggressive subclone that is clinically relevant to prognosis and potential targeted therapy. To correlate with HER2 protein heterogeneity, we investigated the heterogeneity of HER2/NEU gene amplification in endometrial serous carcinoma. A total of 17 endometrial serous carcinomas with heterogeneous HER2 protein expression were selected for the study, including nine cases with a 3+ and eight cases with a 2+ immunohistochemical score. Initial reflex HER2 FISH was available for seven of the eight 2+ cases, five of which showed HER2/NEU gene amplification. All 17 cases underwent repeat FISH targeting larger tumor tissue areas. Ten cases (72%) displayed striking heterogeneity of HER2/NEU gene copy number in the form of cluster amplification. Diffuse HER2 amplification was observed in four cases, no amplification was seen in three tumors. In cases with cluster amplification, HER2 protein overexpression by immunohistochemistry closely correlated at the cellular level with HER2/NEU gene amplification. In conclusion, the significant percentage of cases with heterogeneous HER2/NEU gene amplification indicates that the existing HER2 testing guidelines designed for breast cancer may not be applicable to endometrial serous carcinoma. Clinical testing on multiple different tumor samples or large tumor tissue sections is recommended for both immunohistochemistry and FISH assessment of HER2 status. Direct comparison with the HER2 immunostaining pattern may be helpful in detecting HER2 amplified areas in a heterogeneous tumor.

  9. Somatic mutation analysis of KRAS, BRAF, HER2 and PTEN in EGFR mutation-negative non-small cell lung carcinoma: determination of frequency, distribution pattern and identification of novel deletion in HER2 gene from Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, Sangeet; Ahmad, Firoz; Das, Bibhu Ranjan

    2016-10-01

    Somatic mutations of KRAS, BRAF, HER2, PTEN genes are the most important molecular markers after the EGFR gene mutation. The current study evaluated the frequency and distribution pattern of KRAS, BRAF, HER2, PTEN mutation in Indian non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. The frequency of KRAS, BRAF, HER2, PTEN mutations was 6.4 % (14/204), 1.5 % (3/204), 1.5 % (3/204), 0 % (0/204), respectively. KRAS, BRAF, HER2 mutations were more prevalent in males than in females. KRAS and HER2 showed a trend of a higher frequency of mutation in the age group of <60 years, whereas BRAF mutations were more frequent in the age group of ≥60 years. Sequencing analysis of KRAS gene revealed c.34G>T (G12C) (n = 8), c.35G>A (G12D) (n = 3), c.35G>T (G12 V) (n = 1) and c.34G>T (G12C)/c.41T>C (V14A) (n = 2) mutations. Three different BRAF mutations (L584P: n = 1, V600E: n = 1, K601E: n = 1) were detected. Two cases harboured c.2324_2325ins12 (ATACGTGATGGC duplication) in HER2 gene, and one case was positive for NG_007503.2 (NM_001005862.2):c.2218-4del. It is less certain, but still quite possible that this mutation will affect splicing as the deletion of one C actually brings in one additional purine into the region. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates an instance of diverse nature of KRAS, BRAF, HER2 and PTEN gene in Indian patients and confirms that the frequency of these gene mutations varies globally. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Indian study to evaluate KRAS, BRAF, HER2 and PTEN gene mutations.

  10. Detection of gene amplification in non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, S.; Houldsworth, J.; Rao, P.H.

    1994-09-01

    Gene amplification characterized by distinct cytogenetic structures, such as homogeneously stained regions (hsrs), aberrantly banded marked chromosomes (abms), and double minutes (dmins) chromosomes is commonly found in tumor cells, and is considered as an important mechanism by which tumor cells gain increased levels of expression of critical genes. Very little is known about gene amplification in NHL. So far, no commonly amplified gene(s) have been identified in NHL. DNA in-gel renaturation assay provided evidence for the presence of amplified DNA fragments in NHL. In order to identify the gene(s) amplified in NHL we performed a modified form of CGH (hybridization and normal chromosomes with biotin labeled tumor DNA) to a panel of 10 NHL, which showed cytogenetic evidence for gene amplification in the form of hsrs and dmins. A number of chromosomal regions were found to be non-randomly amplified: 1p32-36(9/10), 1q32-44(6/10), 6p(9/10), 6q26-27(5/10), 16(8/10), 19(7/10) and 22q(7/10). Amplification of DNA from specific chromosomal bands was noted at 4p16(8/10), 11q13(10/10), and 12q24(8/10). Tumor L-10 showed specific amplification of 2p13. This study details the first CGH study performed on a panel of NHLs to identify gene amplification and chromosomal origin of hsrs and dmins identified by conventional cytogenetic analysis. The modified CGH employed in this study indicated that gene amplification is a frequent genetic alteration in NHL.

  11. Comparative study of mutations in SNP loci of K-RAS, hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes in neoplastic intestinal polyps and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhi-Hui; Cui, Li-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Li, Chao; He, Xing

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the molecular mechanism involved in pathogenesis of colorectal cancer as well as clinical significance of genetic analysis of histological samples. METHODS: A total of 480 blood and tissue specimens were collected in our hospital from January 2011 to October 2012. In the observation group, there were 120 blood specimens and 120 intestinal tract tissue specimens collected from patients with neoplastic intestinal polyps. In the control group I there were 80 blood specimens and 80 intestinal tract tissue specimens collected from patients with colorectal cancer. In the control group II there were 40 blood specimens and 40 intestinal tract tissue specimens collected from healthy individuals. The gene segments were amplified using PCR and DNA gel electrophoresis along with DNA sequence analysis were employed for the detection of the following single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): K-RAS codons 12 and 13; hMLH1 (human mutS homolog 1) gene missense mutation at Va1384Asp; hMSH2 (human mutS homolog 2) gene missense mutation at 2783C/A. RESULTS: The mutation rate of the SNP at Va1384Asp locus of the hMLH1 gene from blood and tissue specimens in the observation group showed no statistical difference from those in the control group I. The mutation rates of SNPs in codons 12 and 13 of K-RAS and at 2783C/A locus of the hMSH2 gene were significantly lower in the observation group than in the control group I (χ2 = 15.476, 29.670, 10.811, 16.618, 33.538, 7.898, P < 0.05). The mutation rate of SNP at Va1384Asp locus of the hMLH1 gene was significantly higher in the observation group when compared to the control group II (χ2 = 10.486, 4.876, P < 0.05). The mutation rates of SNPs in codons 12 and 13 of K-RAS and at 2783C/A locus of the hMSH2 gene did not show any statistical difference from those in the control group II. CONCLUSION: There may be important clinical significance and relevance between neoplastic intestinal polyps and colorectal cancer in terms

  12. Targeting Mutant KRAS for Anticancer Therapeutics: A Review of Novel Small Molecule Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanxiang; Kaiser, Christine E.; Frett, Brendan; Li, Hong-yu

    2015-01-01

    The RAS proteins play a role in cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival. Aberrant RAS signaling has been found to play a role in 30% of all cancers. KRAS, a key member of the RAS protein family, is an attractive cancer target, as frequent point mutations in the KRAS gene render the protein constitutively active. A number of attempts have been made to target aberrant KRAS signaling by identifying small molecule compounds that (1) are synthetic lethal to mutant KRAS, (2) block KRAS/GEF interactions, (3) inhibit downstream KRAS effectors, or (4) inhibit the post-translational processing of RAS proteins. In addition, inhibition of novel targets outside the main KRAS signaling pathway, specifically the cell cycle related kinase PLK1, has been shown have an effect in cells that harbor mutant KRAS. Herein we review the use of various high-throughput screening assays utilized to identify new small-molecule compounds capable of targeting mutant KRAS-driven cancers. PMID:23566315

  13. Oncogenic Kras drives invasion and maintains metastases in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Adam T; Liao, Wen-Ting; Wang, Melody; Hwang, Soyoon Sarah; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Cheung, Hannah; Chu, Gerald C; Jiang, Shan; Hu, Jian; Chang, Kyle; Vilar, Eduardo; Song, Xingzhi; Zhang, Jianhua; Kopetz, Scott; Futreal, Andrew; Wang, Y Alan; Kwong, Lawrence N; DePinho, Ronald A

    2017-02-15

    Human colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer mortality and frequently harbors activating mutations in the KRAS gene. To understand the role of oncogenic KRAS in CRC, we engineered a mouse model of metastatic CRC that harbors an inducible oncogenic Kras allele (Kras(mut) ) and conditional null alleles of Apc and Trp53 (iKAP). The iKAP model recapitulates tumor progression from adenoma through metastases. Whole-exome sequencing revealed that the Kras(mut) allele was heterogenous in primary tumors yet homogenous in metastases, a pattern consistent with activated Kras(mut) signaling being a driver of progression to metastasis. System-level and functional analyses revealed the TGF-β pathway as a key mediator of Kras(mut) -driven invasiveness. Genetic extinction of Kras(mut) resulted in specific elimination of the Kras(mut) subpopulation in primary and metastatic tumors, leading to apoptotic elimination of advanced invasive and metastatic disease. This faithful CRC model provides genetic evidence that Kras(mut) drives CRC invasion and maintenance of metastases. © 2017 Boutin et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. A subset of herpes simplex virus replication genes induces DNA amplification within the host cell genome

    SciTech Connect

    Heilbronn, R.; zur Hausen, H. )

    1989-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) induces DNA amplification of target genes within the host cell chromosome. To characterize the HSV genes that mediate the amplification effect, combinations of cloned DNA fragments covering the entire HSV genome were transiently transfected into simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed hamster cells. This led to amplification of the integrated SV40 DNA sequences to a degree comparable to that observed after transfection of intact virion DNA. Transfection of combinations of subclones and of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter-driven expression constructs for individual open reading frames led to the identification of sic HSV genes which together were necessary and sufficient for the induction of DNA amplification: UL30 (DNA polymerase), UL29 (major DNA-binding protein), UL5, UL8, UL42, and UL52. All of these genes encode proteins necessary for HSV DNA replication. However, an additional gene coding for an HSV origin-binding protein (UL9) was required for origin-dependent HSV DNA replication but was dispensable for SV40 DNA amplification. The results show that a subset of HSV replication genes is sufficient for the induction of DNA amplification. This opens the possibility that HSV expresses functions sufficient for DNA amplification but separate from those responsible for lytic viral growth. HSV infection may thereby induce DNA amplification within the host cell genome without killing the host by lytic viral growth. This may lead to persistence of a cell with a new genetic phenotype, which would have implications for the pathogenicity of the virus in vivo.

  15. Alterations in DNA replication and histone levels promote histone gene amplification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Libuda, Diana E; Winston, Fred

    2010-04-01

    Gene amplification, a process that increases the copy number of a gene or a genomic region to two or more, is utilized by many organisms in response to environmental stress or decreased levels of a gene product. Our previous studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified the amplification of a histone H2A-H2B gene pair, HTA2-HTB2, in response to the deletion of the other H2A-H2B gene pair, HTA1-HTB1. This amplification arises from a recombination event between two flanking Ty1 elements to form a new, stable circular chromosome and occurs at a frequency higher than has been observed for other Ty1-Ty1 recombination events. To understand the regulation of this amplification event, we screened the S. cerevisiae nonessential deletion set for mutations that alter the amplification frequency. Among the deletions that increase HTA2-HTB2 amplification frequency, we identified those that either decrease DNA replication fork progression (rrm3Delta, dpb3Delta, dpb4Delta, and clb5Delta) or that reduce histone H3-H4 levels (hht2-hhf2Delta). These two classes are related because reduced histone H3-H4 levels increase replication fork pauses, and impaired replication forks cause a reduction in histone levels. Consistent with our mutant screen, we found that the introduction of DNA replication stress by hydroxyurea induces the HTA2-HTB2 amplification event. Taken together, our results suggest that either reduced histone levels or slowed replication forks stimulate the HTA2-HTB2 amplification event, contributing to the restoration of normal chromatin structure.

  16. [Principle of LAMP method--a simple and rapid gene amplification method].

    PubMed

    Ushikubo, Hiroshi

    2004-06-01

    So far nucleic acid test (NAT) has been employed in various fields, including infectious disease diagnoses. However, due to its complicated procedures and relatively high cost, it has not been widely utilized in many actual diagnostic applications. We have therefore developed a simple and rapid gene amplification technology, Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) method, which has shown prominent results of surpassing the performance of the conventional gene amplification methods. LAMP method acquires three main features: (1) all reaction can be carried out under isothermal conditions; (2) the amplification efficiency is extremely high and tremendous amount of amplification products can be obtained; and (3) the reaction is highly specific. Furthermore, developed from the standard LAMP method, a rapid LAMP method, by adding in the loop primers, can reduce the amplification time from the previous 1 hour to less than 30 minutes. Enormous amount of white precipitate of magnesium pyrophosphate is produced as a by-product of the amplification, therefore, direct visual detection is possible without using any reaction indicators and detection equipments. We believe LAMP technology, with the integration of these features, can rightly apply to clinical genetic testing, food and environmental analysis, as well as NAT in different fields.

  17. Cortactin gene amplification and expression in breast cancer: a chromogenic in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Dedes, Konstantin J; Lopez-Garcia, Maria-Angeles; Geyer, Felipe C; Lambros, Maryou B K; Savage, Kay; Vatcheva, Radost; Wilkerson, Paul; Wetterskog, Daniel; Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Natrajan, Rachael; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2010-12-01

    Amplification of 11q13 is found in approximately 15% of breast cancers. Cyclin D1 (CCND1) has been reported to be the 'driver' of this amplicon, however, multiple genes map to the smallest region of amplification of 11q13. Out of these genes, cortactin (CTTN) has been shown to be consistently overexpressed at the mRNA level in tumours harbouring 11q13 amplification. The aims of this study are to define whether CTTN is consistently co-amplified with the main core of the 11q13 amplicon, whether it is consistently overexpressed when amplified and to determine correlations between CTTN amplification and overexpression with clinicopathological features of breast cancers and survival of breast cancer patients. CTTN and CCND1 chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) probes and a validated monoclonal antibody against CTTN were applied to a tissue microarray of a cohort of breast cancers from patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. CTTN and CCND1 amplifications were found in 12.3 and 12.4% of cases, respectively. All cases harbouring CTTN amplification also displayed CCND1 amplification. High expression of CTTN was found in 10.8% of cases and was associated with CTTN amplification, expression of 'basal' markers and topoisomerase IIα. Exploratory subgroup analysis of tumours devoid of 11q13 amplification revealed that high expression of CTTN in the absence of CTTN gene amplification was associated with lymph node negative disease, lack of hormone receptors and FOXA1, expression of 'basal' markers, high Ki-67 indices, p53 nuclear expression, and basal-like and triple negative phenotypes. CTTN expression and CTTN gene amplification were not associated with disease-, metastasis-free and overall survival. In conclusion, CTTN is consistently co-amplified with CCND1 and expressed at higher levels in breast cancers harbouring 11q13 amplification, suggesting that CTTN may also constitute one of the drivers of this amplicon. CTTN expression is not associated with the

  18. Flux variability scanning based on enforced objective flux for identifying gene amplification targets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to reduce time and efforts to develop microbial strains with better capability of producing desired bioproducts, genome-scale metabolic simulations have proven useful in identifying gene knockout and amplification targets. Constraints-based flux analysis has successfully been employed for such simulation, but is limited in its ability to properly describe the complex nature of biological systems. Gene knockout simulations are relatively straightforward to implement, simply by constraining the flux values of the target reaction to zero, but the identification of reliable gene amplification targets is rather difficult. Here, we report a new algorithm which incorporates physiological data into a model to improve the model’s prediction capabilities and to capitalize on the relationships between genes and metabolic fluxes. Results We developed an algorithm, flux variability scanning based on enforced objective flux (FVSEOF) with grouping reaction (GR) constraints, in an effort to identify gene amplification targets by considering reactions that co-carry flux values based on physiological omics data via “GR constraints”. This method scans changes in the variabilities of metabolic fluxes in response to an artificially enforced objective flux of product formation. The gene amplification targets predicted using this method were validated by comparing the predicted effects with the previous experimental results obtained for the production of shikimic acid and putrescine in Escherichia coli. Moreover, new gene amplification targets for further enhancing putrescine production were validated through experiments involving the overexpression of each identified targeted gene under condition-controlled batch cultivation. Conclusions FVSEOF with GR constraints allows identification of gene amplification targets for metabolic engineering of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of desired bioproducts. The algorithm was validated through the

  19. Estrogen receptor alpha gene amplification in breast cancer: 25 years of debate.

    PubMed

    Holst, Frederik

    2016-04-10

    Twenty-five years ago, Nembrot and colleagues reported amplification of the estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) in breast cancer, initiating a broad and still ongoing scientific debate on the prevalence and clinical significance of this genetic aberration, which affects one of the most important genes in breast cancer. Since then, a multitude of studies on this topic has been published, covering a wide range of divergent results and arguments. The reported prevalence of this alteration in breast cancer ranges from 0% to 75%, suggesting that ESR1 copy number analysis is hampered by technical and interpreter issues. To date, two major issues related to ESR1 amplification remain to be conclusively addressed: (1) The extent to which abundant amounts of messenger RNA can mimic amplification in standard fluorescence in situ hybridization assays in the analysis of strongly expressed genes like ESR1, and (2) the clinical relevance of ESR1 amplification: Such relevance is strongly disputed, with data showing predictive value for response as well as for resistance of the cancer to anti-estrogen therapies, or for subsequent development of cancers in the case of precursor lesions that display amplification of ESR1. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the various views on ESR1 amplification, and highlights explanations for the contradictions and conflicting data that could inform future ESR1 research.

  20. Oncogene KRAS activates fatty acid synthase, resulting in specific ERK and lipid signatures associated with lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gouw, Arvin M; Eberlin, Livia S; Margulis, Katherine; Sullivan, Delaney K; Toal, Georgia G; Tong, Ling; Zare, Richard N; Felsher, Dean W

    2017-04-11

    KRAS gene mutation causes lung adenocarcinoma. KRAS activation has been associated with altered glucose and glutamine metabolism. Here, we show that KRAS activates lipogenesis, and this activation results in distinct proteomic and lipid signatures. By gene expression analysis, KRAS is shown to be associated with a lipogenesis gene signature and specific induction of fatty acid synthase (FASN). Through desorption electrospray ionization MS imaging (DESI-MSI), specific changes in lipogenesis and specific lipids are identified. By the nanoimmunoassay (NIA), KRAS is found to activate the protein ERK2, whereas ERK1 activation is found in non-KRAS-associated human lung tumors. The inhibition of FASN by cerulenin, a small molecule antibiotic, blocked cellular proliferation of KRAS-associated lung cancer cells. Hence, KRAS is associated with activation of ERK2, induction of FASN, and promotion of lipogenesis. FASN may be a unique target for KRAS-associated lung adenocarcinoma remediation.

  1. Higher metastatic efficiency of KRas G12V than KRas G13D in a colorectal cancer model.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Patricia; Gallardo, Alberto; Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Pavón, Miguel Angel; Casanova, Isolda; Trias, Manuel; Mangues, María Antonia; Lopez-Pousa, Antonio; Villaverde, Antonio; Vázquez, Esther; Bardelli, Alberto; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Mangues, Ramón

    2015-02-01

    Although all KRas (protein that in humans is encoded by the KRas gene) point mutants are considered to have a similar prognostic capacity, their transformation and tumorigenic capacities vary widely. We compared the metastatic efficiency of KRas G12V (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog with valine mutation at codon 12) and KRas G13D (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog with aspartic mutation at codon 13) oncogenes in an orthotopic colorectal cancer (CRC) model. Following subcutaneous preconditioning, recombinant clones of the SW48 CRC cell line [Kras wild-type (Kras WT)] expressing the KRas G12V or KRas G13D allele were microinjected in the mouse cecum. The percentage of animals developing lymph node metastasis was higher in KRas G12V than in KRas G13D mice. Microscopic, macroscopic, and visible lymphatic foci were 1.5- to 3.0-fold larger in KRas G12V than in KRas G13D mice (P < 0.05). In the lung, only microfoci were developed in both groups. KRas G12V primary tumors had lower apoptosis (7.0 ± 1.2 vs. 7.4 ± 1.0 per field, P = 0.02), higher tumor budding at the invasion front (1.2 ± 0.2 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1, P = 0.04), and a higher percentage of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)-overexpressing intravasated tumor emboli (49.8 ± 9.4% vs. 12.8 ± 4.4%, P < 0.001) than KRas G13D tumors. KRas G12V primary tumors showed Akt activation, and β5 integrin, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and Serpine-1 overexpression, whereas KRas G13D tumors showed integrin β1 and angiopoietin 2 (Angpt2) overexpression. The increased cell survival, invasion, intravasation, and specific molecular regulation observed in KRas G12V tumors is consistent with the higher aggressiveness observed in patients with CRC expressing this oncogene.

  2. A lethal course of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in Noonan syndrome due to a novel germline mutation in the KRAS gene: case study

    PubMed Central

    Nosan, Gregor; Bertok, Sara; Vesel, Samo; Yntema, Helger G.; Paro-Panjan, Darja

    2013-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a relatively common and heterogeneous genetic disorder, including congenital heart defect in more than half of the cases. If the defect is not large, life expectancy is normal. Here we report on a case of an infant with Noonan syndrome and rapidly progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with lethal outcome, in whom we identified a novel mutation in the KRAS gene. This heterozygous unclassified missense variant in exon 3: c.179G>T (p.Gly60Val) might be associated with a lethal form of Noonan syndrome. The malignant clinical course of the disease and the lethal outcome in an infant only a few months old might be connected to RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway hyperactivation, consequently promoting cell growth and proliferation, leading to rapidly progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Further biochemical and functional studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:24382853

  3. Deubiquitinase USP18 Loss Mislocalizes and Destabilizes KRAS in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mustachio, Lisa Maria; Lu, Yun; Tafe, Laura J; Memoli, Vincent; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Mino, Barbara; Villalobos, Pamela Andrea; Wistuba, Ignacio; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Hanash, Samir M; Roszik, Jason; Kawakami, Masanori; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Hancock, John F; Chinyengetere, Fadzai; Hu, Shanhu; Liu, Xi; Freemantle, Sarah J; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

    2017-02-27

    KRAS is frequently mutated in lung cancers and is associated with aggressive biology and chemotherapy resistance. Therefore, innovative approaches are needed to treat these lung cancers. Prior work implicated the interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) deubiquitinase (DUB) USP18 as having anti-neoplastic activity by regulating lung cancer growth and oncoprotein stability. This study demonstrates that USP18 affects the stability of the KRAS oncoprotein. Interestingly, loss of USP18 reduced KRAS expression and engineered gain of USP18 expression increased KRAS protein levels in lung cancer cells. Using the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX), USP18 knockdown significantly reduced the half-life of KRAS, but gain of USP18 expression significantly increased its stability. Intriguingly, loss of USP18 altered KRAS subcellular localization by mislocalizing KRAS from the plasma membrane. To explore the biological consequences, immunohistochemical (IHC) expression profiles of USP18 were compared in lung cancers of KrasLA2/+ versus cyclin E engineered mouse models. USP18 expression was higher in Kras-driven murine lung cancers, indicating a link between KRAS and USP18 expression in vivo. To solidify this association, loss of Usp18 in KrasLA2/+/Usp18-/- mice was found to significantly reduce lung cancers as compared to parental KrasLA2/+ mice. Lastly, translational relevance was confirmed in a human lung cancer panel by showing USP18 IHC expression was significantly higher in KRAS mutant versus wild-type lung adenocarcinomas.

  4. Inducible Amplification of Gene Copy Number and Heterologous Protein Production in the Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis

    PubMed Central

    Morlino, Giovanni B.; Tizzani, Lorenza; Fleer, Reinhard; Frontali, Laura; Bianchi, Michele M.

    1999-01-01

    Heterologous protein production can be doubled by increasing the copy number of the corresponding heterologous gene. We constructed a host-vector system in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis that was able to induce copy number amplification of pKD1 plasmid-based vectors upon expression of an integrated copy of the plasmid recombinase gene. We increased the production and secretion of two heterologous proteins, glucoamylase from the yeast Arxula adeninivorans and mammalian interleukin-1β, following gene dosage amplification when the heterologous genes were carried by pKD1-based vectors. The choice of the promoters for expression of the integrated recombinase gene and of the episomal heterologous genes are critical for the mitotic stability of the host-vector system. PMID:10543790

  5. Inducible amplification of gene copy number and heterologous protein production in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Morlino, G B; Tizzani, L; Fleer, R; Frontali, L; Bianchi, M M

    1999-11-01

    Heterologous protein production can be doubled by increasing the copy number of the corresponding heterologous gene. We constructed a host-vector system in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis that was able to induce copy number amplification of pKD1 plasmid-based vectors upon expression of an integrated copy of the plasmid recombinase gene. We increased the production and secretion of two heterologous proteins, glucoamylase from the yeast Arxula adeninivorans and mammalian interleukin-1beta, following gene dosage amplification when the heterologous genes were carried by pKD1-based vectors. The choice of the promoters for expression of the integrated recombinase gene and of the episomal heterologous genes are critical for the mitotic stability of the host-vector system.

  6. Distinct outcome of stage I lung adenocarcinoma with ACTN4 cell motility gene amplification.

    PubMed

    Noro, R; Honda, K; Tsuta, K; Ishii, G; Maeshima, A M; Miura, N; Furuta, K; Shibata, T; Tsuda, H; Ochiai, A; Sakuma, T; Nishijima, N; Gemma, A; Asamura, H; Nagai, K; Yamada, T

    2013-10-01

    Even if detected at an early stage, a substantial number of lung cancers relapse after curative surgery. However, no method for distinguishing such tumors has yet been established. The copy number of the actinin-4 (ACTN4) gene was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization on tissue microarrays comprising 543 surgically resected adenocarcinomas of the lung. Amplification (an increase in the copy number by ≥ 2.0 fold) of the ACTN4 gene was detected in two of seven lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and 79 (15%) of 543 cases of pathological stage I-IV lung adenocarcinoma. Multivariate analysis revealed that ACTN4 gene amplification was the most significant independent factor associated with an extremely high risk of death (hazard ratio, 6.78; P = 9.48 × 10(-5), Cox regression analysis) among 290 patients with stage I lung adenocarcinoma. The prognostic significance of ACTN gene amplification was further validated in three independent cohorts totaling 1033 patients. Amplification of the ACTN4 gene defines a small but substantial subset of patients with stage I lung adenocarcinoma showing a distinct outcome. Such patients require intensive medical attention and might benefit from postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.

  7. Trisomy of the Dscr1 gene suppresses early progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia driven by oncogenic Kras

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jang Choon; Shin, Jimin; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •A single extra copy of Dscr1 restrains progression of PanIN-1A to PanIN-1B lesions. •Dscr1 trisomy attenuates calcineurin–NFAT pathway in neoplastic ductal epithelium. •Dscr1 trisomy leads to upregulation of p15{sup INK4b} in neoplastic ductal epithelium. •A single extra copy of Dscr1 reduces epithelial proliferation in early PanIN lesions. •Dscr1 trisomy may protect Down syndrome individuals from pancreatic cancer. -- Abstract: Individuals with Down syndrome exhibit remarkably reduced incidence of most solid tumors including pancreatic cancer. Multiple mechanisms arising from the genetic complexity underlying Down syndrome has been suggested to contribute to such a broad cancer protection. In this study, utilizing a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic cancer, we demonstrate that trisomy of the Down syndrome critical region-1 (Dscr1), an endogenous calcineurin inhibitor localized on chromosome 21, suppresses the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1A (PanIN-1A) to PanIN-1B lesions without affecting the initiation of PanIN lesions mediated by oncogenic Kras{sup G12D}. In addition, we show that Dscr1 trisomy attenuates nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) accompanied by upregulation of the p15{sup Ink4b} tumor suppressor and reduction of cell proliferation in early PanIN lesions. Our data suggest that attenuation of calcineurin–NFAT signaling in neoplastic pancreatic ductal epithelium by a single extra copy of Dscr1 is sufficient to inhibit the progression of early PanIN lesions driven by oncogenic Kras, and thus may be a potential mechanism underlying reduced incidence of pancreatic cancer in Down syndrome individuals.

  8. Co-amplification at lower denaturation-temperature PCR combined with unlabled-probe high-resolution melting to detect KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations in plasma-circulating DNA of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiong; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Song, Bin-Bin; Wang, Bei-Li; Pan, Bai-Shen; Lou, Wen-Hui; Guo, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to establish COLD-PCR combined with an unlabeled-probe HRM approach for detecting KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations in plasma-circulating DNA of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) cases as a novel and effective diagnostic technique. We tested the sensitivity and specificity of this approach with dilutions of known mutated cell lines. We screened 36 plasma-circulating DNA samples, 24 from the disease control group and 25 of a healthy group, to be subsequently sequenced to confirm mutations. Simultaneously, we tested the specimens using conventional PCR followed by HRM and then used target-DNA cloning and sequencing for verification. The ROC and respective AUC were calculated for KRAS mutations and/or serum CA 19-9. It was found that the sensitivity of Sanger reached 0.5% with COLD- PCR, whereas that obtained after conventional PCR did 20%; that of COLD-PCR based on unlabeled-probe HRM, 0.1%. KRAS mutations were identified in 26 of 36 PA cases (72.2%), while none were detected in the disease control and/or healthy group. KRAS mutations were identified both in 26 PA tissues and plasma samples. The AUC of COLD-PCR based unlabeled probe HRM turned out to be 0.861, which when combined with CA 19-9 increased to 0.934. It was concluded that COLD-PCR with unlabeled-probe HRM can be a sensitive and accurate screening technique to detect KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations in plasma-circulating DNA for diagnosing and treating PA.

  9. ALK gene copy number in lung cancer: Unspecific polyploidy versus specific amplification visible as double minutes.

    PubMed

    Caliò, Anna; Bria, Emilio; Pilotto, Sara; Gilioli, Eliana; Nottegar, Alessia; Eccher, Albino; Cima, Luca; Santo, Antonio; Pedron, Serena; Turri, Giona; Knuutila, Sakari; Chilosi, Marco; Vanzo, Francesca; Bogina, Giuseppe; Terzi, Alberto; Tortora, Giampaolo; Scarpa, Aldo; Loda, Massimo; Martignoni, Guido; Brunelli, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Gains of a gene due to DNA polyploidy versus amplification of the specific locus are distinct molecular alterations in tumors. We quantified copy number gains of ALK gene due to unspecific polyploidy versus amplifications of the specific locus in a series of non-small cell lung cancers. The locus specific ALK copy (LSI) number status was evaluated in 205 cases by FISH. Ratio LSI ALK copy number corrected for control probes CEP2, CEP3 and CEP17 (CEPs) was scored. Amplification of the specific ALK locus was defined when ratio set to ≥ 2 while polyploidy was interpreted when the increase in gene copy resulted < 2 in ratio (LSI/control CEPs). Twenty one cases (10.2%) showed ≥ 8 ALK signals, 68 cases (33.2%) 3-7 signals and 116 cases (56.6%) a mean of 2 signals. Only 2/21 cases of the cohort harboring ≥ 8 signals showed a ratio ≥ 2 after CEPs correction interpretable as amplified, showing numerous doubled fluorescent spots. All the remaining cases showed a mirrored number of fluorescent spots per each CEPs, interpretable as polyploidy. We detected a high prevalence of ALK gene copy number usually due to polyploidy rather than ALK locus amplification, the latter visible prevalently as double minutes.

  10. Novel bright field molecular morphology methods for detection of HER2 gene amplification.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, Raymond; Pettay, James; Hicks, David; Skacel, Marek; Powell, Richard; Grogan, Tom; Hainfeld, James

    2004-08-01

    Profiling the amplification and over-expression of the HER2 gene is a key component for defining the prognosis and management of invasive breast carcinoma. Clinical laboratory testing for HER2 gene amplification and over expression has been complicated by an unacceptably high rate of false positive immunohistochemistry (IHC) results, poor reproducibility for the '2+' category of IHC scoring, and reluctant acceptance of alternative testing by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) by the diagnostic pathology community. Novel chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) assays have been developed that utilize bright field microscopy and a conventional light microscope for interpretation, but the analytical sensitivity of first generation CISH systems has been problematic. Novel second generation in situ hybridization detection methods based upon polymerized lg detection chemistry, autometallography or enzyme metallography, have been developed that routinely detect endogenous HER2 signals in normal cells (on slide hybridization control) and HER2 signals in both non-amplified and amplified patterns of HER2 genomic signatures. By combining the strength of polymerized peroxidase-labeled antibodies and metallography for gene amplification, with the detection of expression of HER2 encoded protein by IHC on the same slide, both HER2 gene amplification and protein over-expression can be simultaneously evaluated on a cell-by-cell basis in each microscopic field of carcinoma.

  11. Genomic markers of panitumumab resistance including ERBB2/ HER2 in a phase II study of KRAS wild-type (wt) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).

    PubMed

    Barry, Garrett S; Cheang, Maggie C; Chang, Hector Li; Kennecke, Hagen F

    2016-04-05

    A prospective study was conducted to identify biomarkers associated with resistance to panitumumab monotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Patients with previously treated, codon 12/13 KRAS wt, mCRC were prospectively administered panitumumab 6 mg/kg IV q2weeks. Of 34 panitumumab-treated patients, 11 (32%) had progressive disease at 8 weeks and were classified as non-responders. A Nanostring nCounter-based assay identified a 5-gene expression signature (ERBB2, MLPH, IRX3, MYRF, and KLK6) associated with panitumumab resistance (P = 0.001). Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization determined that the HER2 (ERBB2) protein was overexpressed in 4/11 non-responding and 0/21 responding cases (P = 0.035). Two non-responding tumors had ERBB2 gene amplification only, and one demonstrated both ERBB2 amplification and mutation. A non-codon 12/13 KRAS mutation occurred in one panitumumab-resistant patient and was mutually exclusive with ERBB2/HER2 abnormalities. This study identifies a 5-gene signature associated with non-response to single agent panitumumab, including a subgroup of non-responders with evidence of aberrant ERBB2/HER2 signaling. KRAS wt tumors resistant to EGFRi may be identified by gene signature analysis, and the HER2 pathway plays an important role in resistance to therapy.

  12. Amplification of prolamin storage protein genes in different subfamilies of the Poaceae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Hong; Messing, Joachim

    2009-11-01

    Prolamins are seed storage proteins in cereals and represent an important source of essential amino acids for feed and food. Genes encoding these proteins resulted from dispersed and tandem amplification. While previous studies have concentrated on protein sequences from different grass species, we now can add a new perspective to their relationships by asking how their genes are shared by ancestry and copied in different lineages of the same family of species. These differences are derived from alignment of chromosomal regions, where collinearity is used to identify prolamin genes in syntenic positions, also called orthologous gene copies. New or paralogous gene copies are inserted in tandem or new locations of the same genome. More importantly, one can detect the loss of older genes. We analyzed chromosomal intervals containing prolamin genes from rice, sorghum, wheat, barley, and Brachypodium, representing different subfamilies of the Poaceae. The Poaceae commonly known as the grasses includes three major subfamilies, the Ehrhartoideae (rice), Pooideae (wheat, barley, and Brachypodium), and Panicoideae (millets, maize, sorghum, and switchgrass). Based on chromosomal position and sequence divergence, it becomes possible to infer the order of gene amplification events. Furthermore, the loss of older genes in different subfamilies seems to permit a faster pace of divergence of paralogous genes. Change in protein structure affects their physical properties, subcellular location, and amino acid composition. On the other hand, regulatory sequence elements and corresponding transcriptional activators of new gene copies are more conserved than coding sequences, consistent with the tissue-specific expression of these genes.

  13. [Effects of K-ras gene mutation on colon cancer cell line Caco-2 metastasis by regulating E-cadherin/beta-catenin/p120 protein complex formation and RhoA protein activity].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-nan; Li, Xiao; Qian, Jia-ming; Lu, Xin-qing; Yang, Hong

    2010-02-01

    To explore the effects of K-ras gene mutation on colon cancer cell line Caco-2 metastasis by regulating E-cadherin/beta-catenin/p120 protein complex formation and RhoA protein activity. K-ras wild-type colon cancer cell line Caco-2 was transiently transfected by phr-GFP vector (control group), transfected by mutant K-ras gene phr-K-ras (Val12) vector (transfection group), transfected by mutant K-ras gene phr-K-ras (Val12) vector and treated by specific MAPK pathway inhibitor PD98059 (MAPK inhibition group), or transfected by mutant K-ras gene phr-K-ras (Val12) vector and treated by specific PI-3K pathway inhibitor LY294002 (PI-3K inhibition group), respectively. Cell migration was tested by Transwell experiment. E-cadherin and beta-catenin protein expression and intracellular location were detected by cell immunofluorescence method. Intracellular p120 protein expression was detected by Western blot. beta-catenin protein level which combined with E-cadherin was detected by immunoprecipitation. RhoA activity was analyzed by Pull-down assay. The Caco-2 cell migration rate was (19.8 +/- 5.6) % in transfection group, which was significantly higher than that in control group [(14.0 +/- 4.2) %] (P = 0.001) and in MAPK inhibition group [(15.8 +/- 1.2) %] (P = 0.044), but was not significantly different from that in PI-3K inhibition group [(17.5 +/- 2.8) %] (P = 0.095). Immunofluorescence method showed that the E-cadherin and beta-catenin stain located in the cell membrane decreased in transfection group. Western blot showed that the total intracellular p120 protein decreased in transfection group and PI-3K inhibition group. Immunoprecipitation data showed that beta-catenin protein level combined with E-cadherin decreased in transfection group and PI-3K group. Pull-down test showed that RhoA protein activity was up-regulated in transfection group. K-ras gene mutation stimulates the migration of colon cancer cell Caco-2, which may be achieved by decreasing the E

  14. Endogenous K-ras signaling in erythroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2007-08-15

    K-ras is one of the most frequently mutated genes in virtually all types of human cancers. Using mouse fetal liver erythroid progenitors as a model system, we studied the role of endogenous K-ras signaling in erythroid differentiation. When oncogenic K-ras is expressed from its endogenous promoter, it hyperactivates cytokine-dependent signaling pathways and results in a partial block in erythroid differentiation. In erythroid progenitors deficient in K-ras, cytokine-dependent Akt activation is greatly reduced, leading to delays in erythroid differentiation. Thus, both loss- and gain-of-Kras functions affect erythroid differentiation through modulation of cytokine signaling. These results support the notion that in human cancer patients oncogenic Ras signaling might be controlled by antagonizing essential cytokines.

  15. Gene amplification of the transcription factor DP1 and CTNND1 in human lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Sandra D; Angulo, Barbara; Suarez-Gauthier, Ana; Melchor, Lorenzo; Medina, Pedro P; Sanchez-Verde, Lydia; Torres-Lanzas, Juan; Pita, Guillermo; Benitez, Javier; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse

    2010-09-01

    The search for novel oncogenes is important because they could be the target of future specific anticancer therapies. In the present paper we report the identification of novel amplified genes in lung cancer by means of global gene expression analysis. To screen for amplicons, we aligned the gene expression data according to the position of transcripts in the human genome and searched for clusters of over-expressed genes. We found several clusters with gene over-expression, suggesting an underlying genomic amplification. FISH and microarray analysis for DNA copy number in two clusters, at chromosomes 11q12 and 13q34, confirmed the presence of amplifications spanning about 0.4 and 1 Mb for 11q12 and 13q34, respectively. Amplification at these regions each occurred at a frequency of 3%. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR of each individual transcript within the amplicons allowed us to verify the increased in gene expression of several genes. The p120ctn and DP1 proteins, encoded by two candidate oncogenes, CTNND1 and TFDP1, at 11q12 and 13q amplicons, respectively, showed very strong immunostaining in lung tumours with gene amplification. We then focused on the 13q34 amplicon and in the TFDP1 candidate oncogene. To further determine the oncogenic properties of DP1, we searched for lung cancer cell lines carrying TFDP1 amplification. Depletion of TFDP1 expression by small interference RNA in a lung cancer cell line (HCC33) with TFDP1 amplification and protein over-expression reduced cell viability by 50%. In conclusion, we report the identification of two novel amplicons, at 13q34 and 11q12, each occurring at a frequency of 3% of non-small cell lung cancers. TFDP1, which encodes the E2F-associated transcription factor DP1 is a candidate oncogene at 13q34. The data discussed in this publication have been deposited in NCBIs Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) and are accessible through GEO Series Accession No. GSE21168.

  16. Super resolution imaging of HER2 gene amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Masaya; Kubo, Takuya; Masumoto, Kanako; Iwanaga, Shigeki

    2016-02-01

    HER2 positive breast cancer is currently examined by counting HER2 genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-stained breast carcinoma samples. In this research, two-dimensional super resolution fluorescence microscopy based on stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), with a spatial resolution of approximately 20 nm in the lateral direction, was used to more precisely distinguish and count HER2 genes in a FISH-stained tissue section. Furthermore, by introducing double-helix point spread function (DH-PSF), an optical phase modulation technique, to super resolution microscopy, three-dimensional images were obtained of HER2 in a breast carcinoma sample approximately 4 μm thick.

  17. Integrative analysis of gene amplification in Drosophila follicle cells: parameters of origin activation and repression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jane C.; Nordman, Jared; Xie, Fang; Kashevsky, Helena; Eng, Thomas; Li, Sharon; MacAlpine, David M.; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    In metazoans, how replication origins are specified and subsequently activated is not well understood. Drosophila amplicons in follicle cells (DAFCs) are genomic regions that undergo rereplication to increase DNA copy number. We identified all DAFCs by comparative genomic hybridization, uncovering two new amplicons in addition to four known previously. The complete identification of all DAFCs enabled us to investigate these in vivo replicons with respect to parameters of transcription, localization of the origin recognition complex (ORC), and histone acetylation, yielding important insights into gene amplification as a metazoan replication model. Significantly, ORC is bound across domains spanning 10 or more kilobases at the DAFC rather than at a specific site. Additionally, ORC is bound at many regions that do not undergo amplification, and, in contrast to cell culture, these regions do not correlate with high gene expression. As a developmental strategy, gene amplification is not the predominant means of achieving high expression levels, even in cells capable of amplification. Intriguingly, we found that, in some strains, a new amplicon, DAFC-22B, does not amplify, a consequence of distant repression of ORC binding and origin activation. This repression is alleviated when a fragment containing the origin is placed in different genomic contexts. PMID:21724831

  18. Clinical Implications of FADD Gene Amplification and Protein Overexpression in Taiwanese Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Huei-Tzu; Cheng, Sou-De; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Liao, Chun-Ta; Wang, Hung-Ming; Huang, Shiang-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Amplification of 11q13.3 is a frequent event in human cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. This chromosome region contains several genes that are potentially cancer drivers, including FADD (Fas associated via death domain), an apoptotic effector that was previously identified as a novel oncogene in laryngeal/pharyngeal cancer. This study was designed to explore the role of FADD in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) samples from Taiwanese patients, by assessing copy number variations (CNVs) and protein expression and the clinical implications of these factors in 339 male OSCCs. The intensity of FADD protein expression, as determined by immunohistochemistry, was strongly correlated with gene copy number amplification, as analyzed using a TaqMan CNV assay. Both FADD gene copy number amplification and high protein expression were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Patients with both FADD copy number amplification and high protein expression had the shortest disease-free survival (DFS; P = 0.074 and P = 0.002) and overall survival (OS; P = 0.011 and P = 0.027). After adjusting for primary tumor status, tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis and age at diagnosis, DFS was still significantly lower in patients with either copy number amplification or high protein expression (hazard ratio [H.R.] = 1.483; 95% confidence interval [C.I.], 1.044–2.106). In conclusion, our data reveal that FADD gene copy number and protein expression can be considered potential prognostic markers and are closely associated with lymph node metastasis in patients with OSCC in Taiwan. PMID:27764170

  19. EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA characterization in squamous cell anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Martin, Vittoria; Zanellato, Elena; Franzetti-Pellanda, Alessandra; Molinari, Francesca; Movilia, Alessandra; Paganotti, Alessia; Deantonio, Letizia; De Dosso, Sara; Assi, Agnese; Crippa, Stefano; Boldorini, Renzo; Mazzucchelli, Luca; Saletti, Piercarlo; Frattini, Milo

    2014-04-01

    Combined chemoradiation therapy is the gold standard in the treatment of squamous cell anal cancer (SCAC). However, even if the response rate is very high, many patients eventually relapse or experience a reccurrence, thus requiring an invasive surgical procedure that has severe side effects. Most SCAC tumors overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); therefore, it is reasonable to consider anti-EGFR drugs as a new treatment option, as demonstrated by anecdotal reports. Promising results obtained in other solid tumors, both squamous and non-squamous, have revealed that an increase in the EGFR gene copy number may predict the efficacy of anti-EGFR therapies, while the presence of mutations in downstream members of the EGFR pathway may confer resistance. These markers have been only sporadically considered in SCAC. We investigated the status of the EGFR gene using FISH and examined KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA hot-spots mutations using sequencing analysis in a cohort of 84 patients affected by SCAC. Twenty-eight patients (34%) showed an increase in EGFR gene copy number due to amplification (4%) or to polysomy (30%). KRAS and PIK3CA gene mutations were found in 4 (5%) and 13 patients (16%), respectively. No mutations were found in the BRAF gene. The characterization of the EGFR pathway may help in identifying different subgroups of SCAC that have specific molecular features, which may have implications in what targeted therapies are used to treat each patient.

  20. Intrinsic challenges in ancient microbiome reconstruction using 16S rRNA gene amplification.

    PubMed

    Ziesemer, Kirsten A; Mann, Allison E; Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan; Schroeder, Hannes; Ozga, Andrew T; Brandt, Bernd W; Zaura, Egija; Waters-Rist, Andrea; Hoogland, Menno; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Aldenderfer, Mark; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Weston, Darlene A; MacDonald, Sandy J; Thomas, Gavin H; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M; Hofman, Corinne; Warinner, Christina

    2015-11-13

    To date, characterization of ancient oral (dental calculus) and gut (coprolite) microbiota has been primarily accomplished through a metataxonomic approach involving targeted amplification of one or more variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene. Specifically, the V3 region (E. coli 341-534) of this gene has been suggested as an excellent candidate for ancient DNA amplification and microbial community reconstruction. However, in practice this metataxonomic approach often produces highly skewed taxonomic frequency data. In this study, we use non-targeted (shotgun metagenomics) sequencing methods to better understand skewed microbial profiles observed in four ancient dental calculus specimens previously analyzed by amplicon sequencing. Through comparisons of microbial taxonomic counts from paired amplicon (V3 U341F/534R) and shotgun sequencing datasets, we demonstrate that extensive length polymorphisms in the V3 region are a consistent and major cause of differential amplification leading to taxonomic bias in ancient microbiome reconstructions based on amplicon sequencing. We conclude that systematic amplification bias confounds attempts to accurately reconstruct microbiome taxonomic profiles from 16S rRNA V3 amplicon data generated using universal primers. Because in silico analysis indicates that alternative 16S rRNA hypervariable regions will present similar challenges, we advocate for the use of a shotgun metagenomics approach in ancient microbiome reconstructions.

  1. Intrinsic challenges in ancient microbiome reconstruction using 16S rRNA gene amplification

    PubMed Central

    Ziesemer, Kirsten A.; Mann, Allison E.; Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan; Schroeder, Hannes; Ozga, Andrew T.; Brandt, Bernd W.; Zaura, Egija; Waters-Rist, Andrea; Hoogland, Menno; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Aldenderfer, Mark; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Weston, Darlene A.; MacDonald, Sandy J.; Thomas, Gavin H.; Collins, Matthew J.; Lewis, Cecil M.; Hofman, Corinne; Warinner, Christina

    2015-01-01

    To date, characterization of ancient oral (dental calculus) and gut (coprolite) microbiota has been primarily accomplished through a metataxonomic approach involving targeted amplification of one or more variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene. Specifically, the V3 region (E. coli 341–534) of this gene has been suggested as an excellent candidate for ancient DNA amplification and microbial community reconstruction. However, in practice this metataxonomic approach often produces highly skewed taxonomic frequency data. In this study, we use non-targeted (shotgun metagenomics) sequencing methods to better understand skewed microbial profiles observed in four ancient dental calculus specimens previously analyzed by amplicon sequencing. Through comparisons of microbial taxonomic counts from paired amplicon (V3 U341F/534R) and shotgun sequencing datasets, we demonstrate that extensive length polymorphisms in the V3 region are a consistent and major cause of differential amplification leading to taxonomic bias in ancient microbiome reconstructions based on amplicon sequencing. We conclude that systematic amplification bias confounds attempts to accurately reconstruct microbiome taxonomic profiles from 16S rRNA V3 amplicon data generated using universal primers. Because in silico analysis indicates that alternative 16S rRNA hypervariable regions will present similar challenges, we advocate for the use of a shotgun metagenomics approach in ancient microbiome reconstructions. PMID:26563586

  2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction-based exponential sample amplification for microarray gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsolt B; Kelemen, János Z; Fehér, Liliána Z; Zvara, Agnes; Juhász, Kata; Puskás, László G

    2005-02-01

    Conventional approaches to target labeling for gene expression analysis using microarray technology typically require relatively large amounts of RNA, a serious limitation when the available sample is limited. Here we describe an alternative exponential sample amplification method by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) to follow the amplification and eliminate the overamplified cDNA which could distort the quantitative ratio of the starting mRNA population. Probes generated from nonamplified, PCR-amplified, and real-time-PCR-amplified cDNA samples were generated from lipopolysaccharide-treated and nontreated mouse macrophages and hybridized to mouse cDNA microarrays. Signals obtained from the three protocols were compared. Reproducibility and reliability of the methods were determined. The Pearson correlation coefficients for replica experiments were r=0.927 and r=0.687 for QRT-PCR-amplification and PCR-overamplification protocols, respectively. Chi2 test showed that overamplification resulted in major biases in expression ratios, while these alterations could be eliminated by following the cycling status with QRT-PCR. Our exponential sample amplification protocol preserves the original expression ratios and allows unbiased gene expression analysis from minute amounts of starting material.

  3. Establishment of a Three-dimensional Floating Cell Culture System for Screening Drugs Targeting KRAS-mediated Signaling Molecules.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Toshiyuki; Ishikura, Shuhei; Doi, Keiko; Iwaihara, Yuri; Hidesima, Hiromasa; Luo, Hao; Hirose, Yumiko; Shirasawa, Senji

    2015-08-01

    Oncogenic mutations in the KRAS gene are critically involved in many human tumors but drugs targeting oncogenic KRAS have not yet been clinically developed. Herein, we established a three-dimensional floating (3DF) culture system for screening drugs that target KRAS-mediated signaling molecules. HKe3 cells, derived from colorectal cancer HCT116 cells and disrupted at mutated (mt) KRAS gene, were infected with a retrovirus expressing wild-type (wt) KRAS or mtKRAS to establish HKe3-derived cells expressing wtKRAS or mtKRAS. Established cells were cultured in 96-well plates with an ultra-low attachment surface and round bottom for 3DF culture. HKe3-wtKRAS and HKe3-mtKRAS cells in 3DF culture rapidly assembled into respective single spherical structures (spheroids). Furthermore, mtKRAS but not wtKRAS expression inhibited luminal apoptosis in spheroids indicating that the 3DF culture was compatible with the 3D matrigel culture. This 3DF culture system could be useful for screening drugs that target KRAS-mediated signaling molecules. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Adenocarcinoma arising from intracranial recurrent mature teratoma and featuring mutated KRAS and wild-type BRAF genes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Soo; Kwon, Mi Jung; Song, Joon Ho; Kim, Dong Hoon; Park, Hye-Rim

    2015-02-01

    Malignant transformation or recurrence of intracranial mature teratoma is an extremely rare occurrence, compared to the usual ovarian counterpart. Previously, yolk sac tumor elements have been considered to be selective progenitors of enteric-type adenocarcinoma arising from intracranial germ cell tumors. However, the present case demonstrates the occurrence of enteric-type adenocarcinoma in recurrent intracranial mature cystic teratoma 12 years after gross total removal, a case of which has not previously been documented in the literature. The 11.5-cm long, dura mater-based tumor on the right fronto-temporal lobe displaced the brain; however, the patient had no neurologic symptoms or discomfort other than pus-like discharge on the scalp. Microscopic examinations revealed a small focus of adenocarcinoma and dysplastic colonic mucosa in the mature cystic teratoma. No immature elements were seen. The cystic wall was almost denuded and showed an exuberant xanthogranulomatous reaction with foreign-body type giant cells engulfing keratin materials and cholesterol clefts, suggesting that chronic inflammation due to repeated cyst wall rupture and the previous resection may contribute to malignant transformation. The adenocarcinoma showed strong immunohistochemical expression of CK20 and p53, but CK7 in patches. The molecular profile of the adenocarcinoma showed a mutation in KRAS and wild-type BRAF, which might be associated with malignant transformation of intracranial mature teratomas. In conclusion, the intracranial mature teratomas should require long-term follow-up, and clinicians, radiologists and pathologists should be aware of the potential for malignant progression of recurrent intracranial mature cystic teratoma despite gross total resection and no neurologic symptoms. © 2014 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  5. Screening of mutations in the additional sex combs like 1, transcriptional regulator, tumor protein p53, and KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase/NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase genes of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leite, Carolina; Delmonico, Lucas; Alves, Gilda; Gomes, Romario José; Martino, Mariana Rodrigues; da Silva, Aline Rodrigues; Moreira, Aline Dos Santos; Maioli, Maria Christina; Scherrer, Luciano Rios; Bastos, Elenice Ferreira; Irineu, Roberto; Ornellas, Maria Helena

    2017-10-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of clonal bone marrow disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, different degrees of cellular dysplasia, and increased risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia. International Prognostic Scoring System is the gold standard for MDS classification; however, patients exhibiting different clinical behaviors often coexist in the same group, indicating that the currently available scoring systems are insufficient. The genes that have recently been identified as mutated in MDS, including additional sex combs like 1, transcriptional regulator (ASXL1), tumor protein p53 (TP53), and KRAS proto-oncogene and GTPase (KRAS)/NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase (NRAS), may contribute to a more comprehensive classification, as well as to the prognosis and progression of the disease. In the present study, the mutations in the ASXL1, TP53 and NRAS/KRAS genes in 50 patients were evaluated by sequencing genomic bone marrow DNA. Nine patients (18%) presented with at least one type of mutation. Mutations in TP53 were the most frequent in six patients (12%), followed by ASXL1 in two patients (4%) and NRAS in one patient (2%). The nine mutations were detected in patients with low- and high-risk MDS. The screening of mutations in MDS cases contributes to the application of personalized medicine.

  6. In vitro gene amplification for prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Rumsby, G; Honour, J W

    1990-01-01

    A simple, rapid, non-radioactive method for detecting homozygous deletions/conversions of the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene is described. In our experience this method will be useful for first trimester prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 17% of families of a child with the salt losing form. This test includes an internal control to monitor the success of amplification. Images PMID:2277381

  7. Microarray analysis after RNA amplification can detect pronounced differences in gene expression using limma.

    PubMed

    Diboun, Ilhem; Wernisch, Lorenz; Orengo, Christine Anne; Koltzenburg, Martin

    2006-10-09

    RNA amplification is necessary for profiling gene expression from small tissue samples. Previous studies have shown that the T7 based amplification techniques are reproducible but may distort the true abundance of targets. However, the consequences of such distortions on the ability to detect biological variation in expression have not been explored sufficiently to define the true extent of usability and limitations of such amplification techniques. We show that expression ratios are occasionally distorted by amplification using the Affymetrix small sample protocol version 2 due to a disproportional shift in intensity across biological samples. This occurs when a shift in one sample cannot be reflected in the other sample because the intensity would lie outside the dynamic range of the scanner. Interestingly, such distortions most commonly result in smaller ratios with the consequence of reducing the statistical significance of the ratios. This becomes more critical for less pronounced ratios where the evidence for differential expression is not strong. Indeed, statistical analysis by limma suggests that up to 87% of the genes with the largest and therefore most significant ratios (p < 10e(-20)) in the unamplified group have a p-value below 10e(-20) in the amplified group. On the other hand, only 69% of the more moderate ratios (10e(-20) < p < 10e(-10)) in the unamplified group have a p-value below 10e(-10) in the amplified group. Our analysis also suggests that, overall, limma shows better overlap of genes found to be significant in the amplified and unamplified groups than the Z-scores statistics. We conclude that microarray analysis of amplified samples performs best at detecting differences in gene expression, when these are large and when limma statistics are used.

  8. Microarray analysis after RNA amplification can detect pronounced differences in gene expression using limma

    PubMed Central

    Diboun, Ilhem; Wernisch, Lorenz; Orengo, Christine Anne; Koltzenburg, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Background RNA amplification is necessary for profiling gene expression from small tissue samples. Previous studies have shown that the T7 based amplification techniques are reproducible but may distort the true abundance of targets. However, the consequences of such distortions on the ability to detect biological variation in expression have not been explored sufficiently to define the true extent of usability and limitations of such amplification techniques. Results We show that expression ratios are occasionally distorted by amplification using the Affymetrix small sample protocol version 2 due to a disproportional shift in intensity across biological samples. This occurs when a shift in one sample cannot be reflected in the other sample because the intensity would lie outside the dynamic range of the scanner. Interestingly, such distortions most commonly result in smaller ratios with the consequence of reducing the statistical significance of the ratios. This becomes more critical for less pronounced ratios where the evidence for differential expression is not strong. Indeed, statistical analysis by limma suggests that up to 87% of the genes with the largest and therefore most significant ratios (p < 10e-20) in the unamplified group have a p-value below 10e-20 in the amplified group. On the other hand, only 69% of the more moderate ratios (10e-20 < p < 10e-10) in the unamplified group have a p-value below 10e-10 in the amplified group. Our analysis also suggests that, overall, limma shows better overlap of genes found to be significant in the amplified and unamplified groups than the Z-scores statistics. Conclusion We conclude that microarray analysis of amplified samples performs best at detecting differences in gene expression, when these are large and when limma statistics are used. PMID:17029630

  9. Analysis of TSC cortical tubers by deep sequencing of TSC1, TSC2, and KRAS demonstrates that small second hit mutations in these genes are rare events

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Chan, Jennifer A.; Vinters, Harry V.; Mathern, Gary W.; Franz, David Neal; Taillon, Bruce E.; Bouffard, Pascal; Kwiatkowski, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an often severe neurocutaneous syndrome. Cortical tubers are the predominant neuropathological finding in TSC, and their number and location has been shown to correlate roughly with the severity of neurologic features in TSC. Past studies have shown that genomic deletion events in TSC1 or TSC2 are very rare in tubers, and suggested the potential involvement of the MAPK pathway in their pathogenesis. We used deep sequencing to assess all coding exons of TSC1 and TSC2, and the activating mutation hot spots within KRAS in 46 tubers from TSC patients. Germline heterozygous mutations were identified in 81% of tubers. The same secondary mutation in TSC2 was identified in 6 tuber samples from one individual. Further study showed that this second hit mutation was widely distributed in the cortex from one cerebral hemisphere of this individual at frequencies up to 10%. No other secondary mutations were found in the other 40 tubers analyzed. These data indicate that small second hit mutations in any of these three genes are very rare in TSC tubers. However, in one TSC individual, a second hit TSC2 point mutation occurred early during brain development, and likely contributed to tuber formation. PMID:20633017

  10. Gene amplification-associated overexpression of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 enhances human lung tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Anadón, C; Guil, S; Simó-Riudalbas, L; Moutinho, C; Setien, F; Martínez-Cardús, A; Moran, S; Villanueva, A; Calaf, M; Vidal, A; Lazo, P A; Zondervan, I; Savola, S; Kohno, T; Yokota, J; de Pouplana, L R; Esteller, M

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of new therapies against particular genetic mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer is a promising avenue for improving patient survival, but the target population is small. There is a need to discover new potential actionable genetic lesions, to which end, non-conventional cancer pathways, such as RNA editing, are worth exploring. Herein we show that the adenosine-to-inosine editing enzyme ADAR1 undergoes gene amplification in non-small cancer cell lines and primary tumors in association with higher levels of the corresponding mRNA and protein. From a growth and invasion standpoint, the depletion of ADAR1 expression in amplified cells reduces their tumorigenic potential in cell culture and mouse models, whereas its overexpression has the opposite effects. From a functional perspective, ADAR1 overexpression enhances the editing frequencies of target transcripts such as NEIL1 and miR-381. In the clinical setting, patients with early-stage lung cancer, but harboring ADAR1 gene amplification, have poor outcomes. Overall, our results indicate a role for ADAR1 as a lung cancer oncogene undergoing gene amplification-associated activation that affects downstream RNA editing patterns and patient prognosis. PMID:26640150

  11. Gene amplification-associated overexpression of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 enhances human lung tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Anadón, C; Guil, S; Simó-Riudalbas, L; Moutinho, C; Setien, F; Martínez-Cardús, A; Moran, S; Villanueva, A; Calaf, M; Vidal, A; Lazo, P A; Zondervan, I; Savola, S; Kohno, T; Yokota, J; de Pouplana, L R; Esteller, M

    2016-08-18

    The introduction of new therapies against particular genetic mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer is a promising avenue for improving patient survival, but the target population is small. There is a need to discover new potential actionable genetic lesions, to which end, non-conventional cancer pathways, such as RNA editing, are worth exploring. Herein we show that the adenosine-to-inosine editing enzyme ADAR1 undergoes gene amplification in non-small cancer cell lines and primary tumors in association with higher levels of the corresponding mRNA and protein. From a growth and invasion standpoint, the depletion of ADAR1 expression in amplified cells reduces their tumorigenic potential in cell culture and mouse models, whereas its overexpression has the opposite effects. From a functional perspective, ADAR1 overexpression enhances the editing frequencies of target transcripts such as NEIL1 and miR-381. In the clinical setting, patients with early-stage lung cancer, but harboring ADAR1 gene amplification, have poor outcomes. Overall, our results indicate a role for ADAR1 as a lung cancer oncogene undergoing gene amplification-associated activation that affects downstream RNA editing patterns and patient prognosis.

  12. Site-specific in situ amplification of the integrated polyomavirus genome: a case for a context-specific over-replication model of gene amplification.

    PubMed

    Syu, L J; Fluck, M M

    1997-08-08

    The fate of the genome of the polyoma (Py) tumor virus following integration in the chromosomes of transformed rat FR3T3 cells was re-examined. The viral sequences were integrated at a single transformant-specific chromosomal site in each of 22 transformants tested. In situ amplification of the viral sequences was observed in 24 of 34 transformants analyzed. Large T antigen, the unique viral function involved in initiating DNA replication from the viral origin, was essential for the amplification process. There was an absolute requirement for a reiteration of viral sequences and the extent of the reiteration affected the degree of amplification. The reiteration may be important for homologous recombination-mediated resolution of in situ amplified sequences. Among 11 transformants harboring a 1 to 2 kb repeat, the degree of amplification was transformant-specific and varied over a wide range. At the high end of the spectrum, the genome copy number increased 1300-fold at steady state, while at the low end, amplification was below twofold. Some aspect of the host chromatin at the site integration that affected viral gene expression, also directly or indirectly modulated the amplification. Use of high-resolution electrophoresis for the analysis of the integrated amplified sequences revealed a recurring novel pattern, consisting of a ladder with numerous bands separated by a constant distance approximately the size of the Py genome. We suggest that this pattern was generated by conversion of the amplified viral genomes to head to tail linear arrays with cell to cell variations in the number of genome repeats at single, transformant-specific, chromosomal sites. In light of the known "out of schedule" firing of the Py origin, we propose an "onion skin" structure intermediate and present a homologous recombination model for the conversion from onion skins to linear arrays. The relevance of the in situ amplification of the Py genome to cellular gene amplification is

  13. Single Synonymous Mutations in KRAS Cause Transformed Phenotypes in NIH3T3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Andrew M.; Bagni, Rachel; Portugal, Franklin; Hartley, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Synonymous mutations in the KRAS gene are clustered at G12, G13, and G60 in human cancers. We constructed 9 stable NIH3T3 cell lines expressing KRAS, each with one of these synonymous mutations. Compared to the negative control cell line expressing the wild type human KRAS gene, all the synonymous mutant lines expressed more KRAS protein, grew more rapidly and to higher densities, and were more invasive in multiple assays. Three of the cell lines showed dramatic loss of contact inhibition, were more refractile under phase contrast, and their refractility was greatly reduced by treatment with trametinib. Codon usage at these glycines is highly conserved in KRAS compared to HRAS, indicating selective pressure. These transformed phenotypes suggest that synonymous mutations found in driver genes such as KRAS may play a role in human cancers. PMID:27684555

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification and protein expression in glioblastoma multiforme: prognostic significance and relationship to other prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Layfield, Lester J; Willmore, Carlynn; Tripp, Sheryl; Jones, Claudia; Jensen, Randy L

    2006-03-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression occurs in a significant percentage of cases of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and amplification has been found in approximately 40% of these neoplasms. Controversy exists as to the prognostic significance of EGFR gene amplification: some reports have indicated that amplification is associated with a poor prognosis, while other authors have reported no relationship between gene amplification and prognosis. Some reports have found a poor prognosis to be associated with amplification of the EGFR gene in patients of all ages with GBM, while other authors have found EGFR amplification to be an independent predictor of prolonged survival in patients with GBM who are older than 60 years of age. The authors studied a series of 34 specimens (32 patients) with histologically proven GBM by immunohistochemistry for the presence of EGFR overexpression and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for gene amplification of the EGFR gene. Results of these studies and data on patient age, sex, functional status, therapy, and survival were correlated to determine which variables were predictive of survival. p53 expression was also determined by immunohistochemistry and correlated with the other variables and survival.

  15. Amplification of thermostable lipase genes fragment from thermogenic phase of domestic waste composting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhasanah, Nurbaiti, Santi; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

    2015-09-01

    Lipases are lipolytic enzymes, catalyze the hydrolysis of fatty acid ester bonds of triglycerides to produce free fatty acids and glycerol. The enzyme is widely used in various fields of biotechnological industry. Hence, lipases with unique properties (e.g.thermostable lipase) are still being explored by variation methods. One of the strategy is by using metagenomic approach to amplify the gene directly from environmental sample. This research was focused on amplification of lipase gene fragment directly from the thermogenic phase of domestic waste composting in aerated trenches. We used domestic waste compost from waste treatment at SABUGA, ITB for the sample. Total chromosomal DNA were directly extracted from several stages at thermogenic phase of compost. The DNA was then directly used as a template for amplification of thermostable lipase gene fragments using a set of internal primers namely Flip-1a and Rlip-1a that has been affixed with a GC clamp in reverse primer. The results showed that the primers amplified the gene from four stages of thermogenic phase with the size of lipase gene fragment of approximately 570 base pairs (bp). These results were further used for Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis to determine diversity of thermostable lipase gene fragments.

  16. Maize R2R3 Myb genes: Sequence analysis reveals amplification in the higher plants.

    PubMed

    Rabinowicz, P D; Braun, E L; Wolfe, A D; Bowen, B; Grotewold, E

    1999-09-01

    Transcription factors containing the Myb-homologous DNA-binding domain are widely found in eukaryotes. In plants, R2R3 Myb-domain proteins are involved in the control of form and metabolism. The Arabidopsis genome harbors >100 R2R3 Myb genes, but few have been found in monocots, animals, and fungi. Using RT-PCR from different maize organs, we cloned 480 fragments corresponding to a 42-44 residue-long sequence spanning the region between the conserved DNA-recognition helices (Myb(BRH)) of R2R3 Myb domains. We determined that maize expresses >80 different R2R3 Myb genes, and evolutionary distances among maize Myb(BRH) sequences indicate that most of the amplification of the R2R3 Myb gene family occurred after the origin of land plants but prior to the separation of monocots and dicots. In addition, evidence is provided for the very recent duplication of particular classes of R2R3 Myb genes in the grasses. Together, these findings render a novel line of evidence for the amplification of the R2R3 Myb gene family in the early history of land plants and suggest that maize provides a possible model system to examine the hypothesis that the expansion of Myb genes is associated with the regulation of novel plant cellular functions.

  17. Detection of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene in lambs by loop mediated isothermal amplification

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, B.; Kumar, N. Vinod; Sreenivasulu, D.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was standardized for rapid detection of Clostridium perfringens. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from enterotoxemia suspected lambs were used for screening of C. perfringens cpa gene by LAMP. The specificity of the LAMP amplified products was tested by digesting with restriction enzyme XmnI for alpha toxin gene. Results: Out of 120 samples screened 112 (93.3%) samples were positive by both LAMP and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of cpa gene which indicated the equal sensitivity of both the tests. The enzyme produced single cut in 162 base pair amplified product of alpha toxin gene at 81 base pair resulting in a single band in gel electrophoresis. Conclusion: Both LAMP and PCR for detection of cpa gene indicated the equal sensitivity of both the tests. Standardization of LAMP reaction for amplification of epsilon and beta toxin genes will help to identify the C. perfringens toxin types from the clinical samples. The test could be a suitable alternative to the PCR in detection of toxin types without the help of sophisticated machinery like thermal cycler. Considering its simplicity in operation and high sensitivity, there is the potential use of this technique in clinical diagnosis and surveillance of infectious diseases. PMID:27051186

  18. K-ras cancer gene mutations in lung tumors from female Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed transplacentally to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine.

    PubMed

    Koujitani, Takatoshi; Ton, Tai-Vu T; Lahousse, Stephanie A; Hong, Hue-Hua L; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Sills, Robert C

    2008-12-01

    A transplacental carcinogenicity study was conducted by exposing pregnant Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 50, 100, 200, or 300 mg 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT)/kg body weight (BW) daily for the duration of gestation (18-19 days) [National Toxicology Program,2006]. The incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in the 200 and 300 mg/kg groups was significantly higher (P = 0.027 and 0.007, respectively) in male offspring, but not in females (P = 0.338 and 0.315, respectively). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate K-ras mutation status in lung tumors from the female offspring in AZT exposed groups and to determine whether at the molecular level there were signature K-ras mutations in lung tumors that were different from spontaneous tumors. K-ras mutation was detected by cycle sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified DNA, isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tumors. K-ras mutations were detected in 17 of 28 (61%) lung tumors from the female offspring in AZT exposed groups. No K-ras mutations were detected in the 8 tumors examined from the female control group. The predominant mutations were Codon 12 G-->T transversions in the 50, 100, and 300 mg/kg groups, and Codon 12 G-->C transversions in the 200 and 300 mg/kg groups. K-ras Codon 12 G-->T transversions (TGT mutations) may be induced by oxidative DNA damage and 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), while K-ras Codon 12 G-->C transversions (CGT mutations) may be due to further oxidative lesions of guanine and 8-oxoG.

  19. Enteric-type adenocarcinoma of the lung harbouring a novel KRAS Q22K mutation with concomitant KRAS polysomy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Metro, Giulio; Valtorta, Emanuele; Siggillino, Annamaria; Lauricella, Calogero; Cenci, Matteo; Ludovini, Vienna; Minenza, Elisa; Prosperi, Enrico; Ricciuti, Biagio; Rebonato, Alberto; Bassetti, Alessandra; Crinò, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    This case describes a novel KRAS Q22K mutation with simultaneous KRAS polysomy in a patient with advanced, enteric-type, adenocarcinoma of the lung. Despite the administration of systemic chemotherapy, the disease underwent rapid progression and led to the patient’s death in a short period of time. Such an aggressive clinical course suggests that, in this specific case, KRAS dependency was the major genetic driver of poor prognosis. Direct deoxy ribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing of the KRAS gene allows for the detection of novel KRAS mutations, and it might be advocated in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer in view of the emerging role of KRAS as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26284123

  20. Scalable gene synthesis by selective amplification of DNA pools from high-fidelity microchips.

    PubMed

    Kosuri, Sriram; Eroshenko, Nikolai; Leproust, Emily M; Super, Michael; Way, Jeffrey; Li, Jin Billy; Church, George M

    2010-12-01

    Development of cheap, high-throughput and reliable gene synthesis methods will broadly stimulate progress in biology and biotechnology. Currently, the reliance on column-synthesized oligonucleotides as a source of DNA limits further cost reductions in gene synthesis. Oligonucleotides from DNA microchips can reduce costs by at least an order of magnitude, yet efforts to scale their use have been largely unsuccessful owing to the high error rates and complexity of the oligonucleotide mixtures. Here we use high-fidelity DNA microchips, selective oligonucleotide pool amplification, optimized gene assembly protocols and enzymatic error correction to develop a method for highly parallel gene synthesis. We tested our approach by assembling 47 genes, including 42 challenging therapeutic antibody sequences, encoding a total of ∼35 kilobase pairs of DNA. These assemblies were performed from a complex background containing 13,000 oligonucleotides encoding ∼2.5 megabases of DNA, which is at least 50 times larger than in previously published attempts.

  1. Gene amplification in thyroid cancer: A new mechanism defined by comparative genomic hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.N.; Lai, E.; Fagin, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    More than 12,000 new cases of thyroid cancer develop each year in the USA for which scant information is available on cytogenetic abnormalities. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) now permits the detection and mapping of amplified regions in DNAs without the need for metaphase tumor preparations. Using CGH, we have analyzed the DNA copy number changes in 10 human thyroid tumors. Further, the procedure of CGH was modified by using a chromomycin and sitamycin reverse-banding technique to provide a high resolution assignment of amplified regions. The results revealed a series of copy number changes including amplifications of chromosome bands 1p36, 1q42, 2p13, 2p21, 19q13.1 and losses of chromosome bands 16q12-13 and 16q22-23. The most striking regions of amplifications, band 2p21 and 2p13 were further analyzed by constructing a 90-member chromosome 2 BAC map and using 9 members of this to analyze WRO, a thyroid follicular carcinoma cell line containing double minutes (dm). Eight BACs revealed three copies of chromosome 2; one BAC mapping at the 2p21-22 border revealed significant and variable amplification in all of the metaphase dm`s suggesting a local amplification. Interphase analyses revealed about 40-70 signals per nucleus. The variable signals seen in the WRO cell population suggest the existence of a minor population with higher copy number and smaller amplicon size. In summary, high resolution CGH has been combined with BAC contig construction for the analysis of thyroid tumor to reveal a very specific region amplification on chromosome 2p21 likely to contain a new gene involved in thyroid cancer tumorigenesis.

  2. Sensitive and isothermal electrochemiluminescence gene-sensing of Listeria monocytogenes with hyperbranching rolling circle amplification technology.

    PubMed

    Long, Yi; Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da

    2011-02-15

    Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is one of the most problematic human pathogens, as it is mainly transmitted through the food chain and cause listeriosis. Thus, specific and sensitive detection of L. monocytogenes is required to ensure food safety. In this study, we proposed a method using hyperbranching rolling circle amplification (HRCA) combined with magnetic beads based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) to offer an isothermal, highly sensitive and specific assay for the detection of L. monocytogenes. At first, a linear padlock probe was designed to target a specific sequence in the hly gene which is specific to L. monocytogenes and then ligated by Taq DNA ligase. After ligation and digestion, further amplification by HRCA with a biotiny labeled primer and a tris (bipyridine) ruthenium (TBR) labeled primer was performed. The resulting HRCA products were then captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads and were analyzed by magnetic beads based ECL platform to confirm the presence of targets. Through this approach, as low as 10 aM synthetic hly gene targets and about 0.0002 ng/μl of genomic DNA from L. monocytogenes can be detected, the ability to detect at such ultratrace levels could be attributed to the powerful amplification of HRCA and the high sensitivity of current magnetic bead based ECL detection platform. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Human U1 small nuclear RNA genes: extensive conservation of flanking sequences suggests cycles of gene amplification and transposition.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, L B; Manser, T; Weiner, A M

    1985-01-01

    The DNA immediately flanking the 164-base-pair U1 RNA coding region is highly conserved among the approximately 30 human U1 genes. The U1 multigene family also contains many U1 pseudogenes (designated class I) with striking although imperfect flanking homology to the true U1 genes. Using cosmid vectors, we now have cloned, characterized, and partially sequenced three 35-kilobase (kb) regions of the human genome spanning U1 homologies. Two clones contain one true U1 gene each, and the third bears two class I pseudogenes 9 kb apart in the opposite orientation. We show by genomic blotting and by direct DNA sequence determination that the conserved sequences surrounding U1 genes are much more extensive than previously estimated: nearly perfect sequence homology between many true U1 genes extends for at least 24 kb upstream and at least 20 kb downstream from the U1 coding region. In addition, the sequences of the two new pseudogenes provide evidence that class I U1 pseudogenes are more closely related to each other than to true genes. Finally, it is demonstrated elsewhere (Lindgren et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 5:2190-2196, 1985) that both true U1 genes and class I U1 pseudogenes map to chromosome 1, but in separate clusters located far apart on opposite sides of the centromere. Taken together, these results suggest a model for the evolution of the U1 multigene family. We speculate that the contemporary family of true U1 genes was derived from a more ancient family of U1 genes (now class I U1 pseudogenes) by gene amplification and transposition. Gene amplification provides the simplest explanation for the clustering of both U1 genes and class I pseudogenes and for the conservation of at least 44 kb of DNA flanking the U1 coding region in a large fraction of the 30 true U1 genes. Images PMID:3837185

  4. [Establishment of loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique for rapid detection of NDM-1 gene].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyi; Wu, Na; Zhu, Baoli; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Yuzhuo

    2011-08-01

    We established a rapid detection method of New Delhi Metallo-beta-Lactamase Gene (NDM-1) based on Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP). With the application of LAMP, we designed four sets of LAMP premiers, using NDM-1 gene as the target sequence, and selected the set of optimal primers. Meanwhile, we established optimal reaction systems and conditions to carry out the sensitivity and specificity experiments. The experiment results showed that the whole detection process took only one hour and could be observed visually. In the experiment of sensitivity, NDM-1 gene had a detection limit of 6 copies in each reaction. In the experiment of specificity, we detected NDM-1 gene in 4 pathogen strains (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae), and the total DNA from intestinal microbes and the total DNA from soil microbes. We had not detected the amplification reactions. The detection method established could rapidly detect NDM-1 gene and visualize the experiment result. The method is easy to operate and has high sensitivity and specificity and thus has great application value in basic research laboratories, emergent detection and spot detection.

  5. Gene amplification of the histone methyltransferase SETDB1 contributes to human lung tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Paredes, M; Martinez de Paz, A; Simó-Riudalbas, L; Sayols, S; Moutinho, C; Moran, S; Villanueva, A; Vázquez-Cedeira, M; Lazo, P A; Carneiro, F; Moura, C S; Vieira, J; Teixeira, M R; Esteller, M

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the histone modification patterns is one of the most common features of human tumors. However, few genetic alterations in the histone modifier genes have been described in tumorigenesis. Herein we show that the histone methyltransferase SETDB1 undergoes gene amplification in non-small and small lung cancer cell lines and primary tumors. The existence of additional copies of the SETDB1 gene in these transformed cells is associated with higher levels of the corresponding mRNA and protein. From a functional standpoint, the depletion of SETDB1 expression in amplified cells reduces cancer growth in cell culture and nude mice models, whereas its overexpression increases the tumor invasiveness. The increased gene dosage of SETDB1 is also associated with enhanced sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effect mediated by the SETDB1-interfering drug mithramycin. Overall, the findings identify SETDB1 as a bona fide oncogene undergoing gene amplification-associated activation in lung cancer and suggest its potential for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23770855

  6. De novo amplification within a silent human cholinesterase gene in a family subjected to prolonged exposure to organophosphorus insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Prody, C.A.; Dreyfus, P.; Soreq, H. ); Zamir, R. Tel-Aviv Univ. ); Zakut, H. )

    1989-01-01

    A 100-fold DNA amplification in the CHE gene, coding for serum butyrylcholinesterase (BtChoEase), was found in a farmer expressing silent CHE phenotype. Individuals homozygous for this gene display a defective serum BtChoEase and are particularly vulnerable to poisoning by agricultural organophosphorus insecticides, to which all members of this family had long been exposed. DNA blot hybridization with regional BtChoEase cDNA probes suggested that the amplification was most intense in regions encoding central sequences within BtChoEase cDNA, whereas distal sequences were amplified to a much lower extent. This is in agreement with the onion skin model, based on amplification of genes in cultured cells and primary tumors. The amplification was absent in the grandparents but present at the same extent in one of their sons and in a grandson, with similar DNA blot hybridization patterns. In situ hybridization experiments localized the amplified sequences to the long arm of chromosome 3, close to the site where the authors previously mapped the CHE gene. Altogether, these observations suggest that the initial amplification event occurred early in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, or oogenesis, where the CHE gene is intensely active and where cholinergic functioning was indicated to be physiologically necessary. These findings demonstrate a de novo amplification in apparently healthy individuals within an autosomal gene producing a target protein to an inhibitor.

  7. Relief of amplification inhibition in PCR with bovine serum albumin or T4 gene 32 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Kreader, C.A.

    1996-03-01

    The benefits of adding bovine serum albumin (BSA) or T4 gene 32 proteins (gp32) to PCR were evaluated with reaction mixtures containing substances that inhibit amplification. Whereas 10- to 1,000-fold more FeCl{sub 3}, hemin, fulvic acids, humic acids, tannic acids, or extracts from feces, freshwater, or marine water were accommodated in PCR when either 400 ng of BSA per {mu}l was included in the reactions, neither BSA nor gp32 relieved interference significantly when minimum inhibitory levels of bile salts, bilirubin, EDTA, NaCl, sodium dodecyl sulfate, or Triton X-100 were present. Use of BSA and gp32 together offered no more relief of inhibition than either alone at its optimal level, and neither protein had any noticeable effect on amplification in the absence of inhibitors. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Gene amplification as a cause of inherited thyroxine-binding globulin excess in two Japanese families

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Yuichi; Miura, Yoshitaka; Saito, Hidehiko

    1995-12-01

    T{sub 4}-binding globulin (TBG) is the major thyroid hormone transport protein in man. Inherited abnormalities in the level of serum TBG have been classified as partial deficiency, complete deficiency, and excess. Sequencing analysis of the TBG gene, located on Xq21-22, has uncovered the molecular defects causing partial and complete deficiency. However, the mechanism leading to inherited TBG excess remains unknown. In this study, two Japanese families, F-A and F-T, with inherited TBG excess were analyzed. Serum TBG levels in hemizygous males were 58 and 44 {mu}g/mL, 3- and 2-fold the normal value, respectively. The molecule had normal properties in terms of heat stability and isoelectric focussing pattern. The sequence of the coding region and the promoter activity of the TBG gene were also indistinguishable between hemizygotes and normal subjects. The gene dosage of TBG relative to that of {beta}-globin, which is located on chromosome 11, and Duchenne muscular dystropy, which is located on Xp, was evaluated by coamplification of these target genes using polymerase chain reaction and subsequent quantitation by HPLC. The TBG/{beta}-globin ratios of the affected male and female of F-A were 3.13 and 4.13 times, respectively, that in the normal males. The TBG/Duchenne muscular dystrophy ratios were 2.92 and 2.09 times the normal value, respectively. These results are compatible with three copies of TBG gene on the affected X-chromosome. Similarly, a 2-fold increase in gene dosage was demonstrated in the affected hemizygote of F-T. A 3-fold tandem amplification of the TBG gene was shown by in situ hybridization of prometaphase and interphase chromosomes from the affected male with a biotinylated genomic TBG probe, confirming the gene dosage results. Gene amplification of TBG is the cause of inherited TBG excess in these two families. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. A label-free colorimetric isothermal cascade amplification for the detection of disease-related nucleic acids based on double-hairpin molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong; Xu, Huo; Shi, Haimei; Li, Weihong; Sun, Mengze; Wu, Zai-Sheng

    2017-03-08

    K-Ras mutations at codon 12 play an important role in an early step of carcinogenesis. Here, a label-free colorimetric isothermal cascade amplification for ultrasensitive and specific detection of K-Ras point mutation is developed based on a double-hairpin molecular beacon (DHMB). The biosensor consists of DHMB probe and a primer-incorporated polymerization template (PPT) designed partly complementary to DHMB. In the presence of polymerase, target DNA is designed to trigger strand displacement amplification (SDA) via promote the hybridization of PPT with DHMB and subsequently initiates cascade amplification process with the help of the nicking endonuclease. During the hybridization and enzymatic reaction, G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzymes are generated, catalyzing the oxidation of ABTS(2-) by H2O2 in the presence of hemin. Utilizing the proposed facile colorimetric scheme, the target DNA can be quantified down to 4 pM with the dynamic response range of 5 orders of magnitude, indicating the substantially improved detection capability. Even more strikingly, point mutation in K-ras gene can be readily observed by the naked eye without the need for the labeling or expensive equipment. Given the high-performance for K-Ras analysis, the enhanced signal transduction capability associated with double-hairpin structure of DHMB provides a novel rout to screen biomarkers, and the descripted colorimetric biosensor seems to hold great promise for diagnostic applications of genetic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Duplication and amplification of antibiotic resistance genes enable increased resistance in isolates of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During normal bacterial DNA replication, gene duplication and amplification (GDA) events occur randomly at a low frequency in the genome throughout a population. In the absence of selection, GDA events that increase the number of copies of a bacterial gene (or a set of genes) are lost. Antibiotic ...

  11. Isolation, amplification and characterization of foodborne pathogen disease bacteria gene for rapid kit test development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurjayadi, M.; Santoso, I.; Kartika, I. R.; Kurniadewi, F.; Saamia, V.; Sofihan, W.; Nurkhasanah, D.

    2017-07-01

    There is a lot of public concern over food safety. Food-safety cases recently, including many food poisoning cases in both the developed and developing countries, considered to be the national security threats which involved police investigation. Quick and accurate detection methods are needed to handle the food poisoning cases with a big number of sufferers at the same time. Therefore, the research is aimed to develop a specific, sensitive, and rapid result molecular detection tool for foodborne pathogen bacteria. We, thus, propose genomic level approach with Polymerase Chain Reaction. The research has successfully produced a specific primer to perform amplification to fim-C S. typhi, E. coli, and pef Salmonella typhimurium genes. The electrophoresis result shows that amplification products are 95 base pairs, 121 base pairs, and 139 base pairs; and all three genes are in accordance with the size of the in silico to third genes bacteria. In conclusion, the research has been successfully designed a specific detection tool to three foodborne pathogen bacteria genes. Further stages test and the uses of Real-time PCR in the detection are still in the trial process for better detection method.

  12. DNMT3B gene amplification predicts resistance to DNA demethylating drugs.

    PubMed

    Simó-Riudalbas, Laia; Melo, Sónia A; Esteller, Manel

    2011-07-01

    Disruption of the DNA methylation landscape is one of the most common features of human tumors. However, genetic alterations of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) have not been described in carcinogenesis. Herein, we show that pancreatic and breast cancer cells undergo gene amplification of the DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B). The presence of extra copies of the DNMT3B gene is linked to higher levels of the corresponding mRNA and protein. Most importantly, the elevated gene dosage of DNMT3B is associated with increased resistance to the growth-inhibitory effect mediated by DNA demethylating agents. In particular, cancer cells harboring DNMT3B gene amplification are less sensitive to the decrease in cell viability caused by 5-azacytidine (Vidaza), 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (Decitabine), and SGI-1027. Overall, the data confirm DNMT3B as a bona fide oncogene in human cancer and support the incorporation of the DNMT3B copy number assay into current clinical trials assessing the efficacy of DNA demethylating drugs in solid tumors.

  13. Amplification of complete gag gene sequences from geographically distinct equine infectious anemia virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Bazartseren, Tsevel; Koba, Ryota; Murakami, Hironobu; Oguma, Keisuke; Murakami, Kenji; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    In the current study, primers described previously and modified versions of these primers were evaluated for amplification of full-length gag genes from different equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) strains from several countries, including the USA, Germany and Japan. Each strain was inoculated into a primary horse leukocyte culture, and the full-length gag gene was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Each amplified gag gene was cloned into a plasmid vector for sequencing, and the detectable copy numbers of target DNA were determined. Use of a mixture of two forward primers and one reverse primer in the polymerase chain reaction enabled the amplification of all EIAV strains used in this study. However, further study is required to confirm these primers as universal for all EIAV strains. The nucleotide sequence of gag is considered highly conserved, as evidenced by the use of gag-encoded capsid proteins as a common antigen for the detection of EIAV in serological tests. However, significant sequence variation in the gag genes of different EIAV strains was found in the current study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Recurrent gene amplifications in human type I endometrial adenocarcinoma detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, Emma; Levan, Kristina; Adamovic, Tatjana; Levan, Göran; Horvath, György

    2008-02-01

    Determining what genes are actively involved in tumor development is important, because they may provide targets for directed therapy. Human tumors are greatly heterogeneous with respect to etiology and genetic background, which complicates the identification of common genetic aberrations. In contrast, genetic and environmental variation can be in part controlled in experimental animals, which facilitates identification of the important changes. In inbred BDII rats, which are genetically predisposed to endometrial adenocarcinomas (EAC), certain chromosome regions exhibit recurrent amplification in the tumors. Previous CGH analysis had shown that a subset of human EAC tumors exhibited increased copy numbers in the homologous chromosomal regions, located in human 2p21 approximately p25 and 7q21 approximately q31. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on imprints from 13 human EAC tumors, we determined the average copy numbers of each of 15 probes derived from cancer-related genes situated in these chromosome regions. Among the genes analyzed, those most often targeted by amplification were SDC1 and CYP1B1 in 2p21 approximately p25 and CDK6 and MET in 7q21 approximately q31, but all of the 15 genes tested were found to be amplified in at least two tumors.

  15. mTORC1 upregulation via ERK-dependent gene expression change confers intrinsic resistance to MEK inhibitors in oncogenic KRas-mutant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, N; Fujita, Y; Matsuda, M; Aoki, K

    2015-11-05

    Cancer cells harboring oncogenic BRaf mutants, but not oncogenic KRas mutants, are sensitive to MEK inhibitors (MEKi). The mechanism underlying the intrinsic resistance to MEKi in KRas-mutant cells is under intensive investigation. Here, we pursued this mechanism by live imaging of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activities in oncogenic KRas or BRaf-mutant cancer cells. We established eight cancer cell lines expressing Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensors for ERK activity and S6K activity, which was used as a surrogate marker for mTORC1 activity. Under increasing concentrations of MEKi, ERK activity correlated linearly with the cell growth rate in BRaf-mutant cancer cells, but not KRas-mutant cancer cells. The administration of PI3K inhibitors resulted in a linear correlation between ERK activity and cell growth rate in KRas-mutant cancer cells. Intriguingly, mTORC1 activity was correlated linearly with the cell growth rate in both BRaf-mutant cancer cells and KRas-mutant cancer cells. These observations suggested that mTORC1 activity had a pivotal role in cell growth and that the mTORC1 activity was maintained primarily by the ERK pathway in BRaf-mutant cancer cells and by both the ERK and PI3K pathways in KRas-mutant cancer cells. FRET imaging revealed that MEKi inhibited mTORC1 activity with slow kinetics, implying transcriptional control of mTORC1 activity by ERK. In agreement with this observation, MEKi induced the expression of negative regulators of mTORC1, including TSC1, TSC2 and Deptor, which occurred more significantly in BRaf-mutant cells than in KRas-mutant cells. These findings suggested that the suppression of mTORC1 activity and induction of negative regulators of mTORC1 in cancer cells treated for at least 1 day could be used as surrogate markers for the MEKi sensitivity of cancer cells.

  16. CXCR2 signaling regulates KRAS(G12D)-induced autocrine growth of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Abhilasha; Varney, Michelle; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Ouellette, Michel M.; Batra, Surinder K.; Singh, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of RAS, the master regulator of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), continues to be a challenge. Mutations in various isoforms of RAS gene, including KRAS are known to upregulate CXC chemokines; however, their precise role in KRAS-driven pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In this report, we reveal a previously unidentified tumor cell-autonomous role of KRAS(G12D)-induced CXCR2 signaling in mediating growth of neoplastic PDAC cells. Progressively increasing expression of mCXCR2 and its ligands was detected in the malignant ductal cells of Pdx1-cre;LSL-Kras(G12D) mice. Knocking-down CXCR2 in KRAS(G12D)-bearing human pancreatic duct-derived cells demonstrated a significant decrease in the in vitro and in vivo tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, CXCR2 antagonists showed selective growth inhibition of KRAS(G12D)-bearing cells in vitro. Intriguingly, both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of CXCR2 signaling in KRAS(G12D)-bearing pancreatic ductal cells reduced the levels of KRAS protein, strongly implying the presence of a KRAS-CXCR2 feed-forward loop. Together, these data demonstrate the role of CXCR2 signaling in KRAS(G12D)-induced growth transformation and progression in PDAC. PMID:26771140

  17. Sox2 gene amplification significantly impacts overall survival in serous epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Belotte, Jimmy; Fletcher, Nicole M; Alexis, Mitchell; Morris, Robert T; Munkarah, Adnan R; Diamond, Michael P; Saed, Ghassan M

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest gynecologic cancer. Recently, the existence of ovarian cancer stem cells has been reported. Sox2, Nanog and Oct4 are key markers of "stemness". The objective of this study was to determine whether Sox2, Nanog, and Oct4 are associated with EOC and poor outcome. The expression of these markers was assessed by immunofluorescence staining and real-time RT-PCR in human EOC cell lines MDAH-2774 and SKOV-3, while the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) dataset was analyzed for associations with survival. Sox2, Nanog and Oct4 (POU5F1) were all detected by immunofluorescence staining and these results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. The TCGA dataset revealed a 26%, 9%, and 6% amplification of Sox2, Nanog and POU5F1, respectively. Additionally, K-M survival analyses showed a significant median overall survival difference (41 versus 48.3 months, P = .01) for Sox2 amplification, but not for Nanog (44.1 versus 36.2 months, P > .05) and POU5F1 (43.5 versus 45.0 months, P > .05). Our results suggest that Sox2 gene amplification significantly influences overall survival. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Prognostic Value of FGFR Gene Amplification in Patients with Different Types of Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Wu, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaowei; Li, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene amplification has been reported in different types of cancer. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis to further characterize the prognostic value of FGFR gene amplification in patients with cancer. Methods A search of several databases, including MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, was conducted to identify studies examining the association between FGFR gene amplification and cancer. A total of 24 studies met the inclusion criteria, and overall incidence rates, hazard risk (HR), overall survival, disease-free survival, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated employing fixed- or random-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Results In the meta-analysis of 24 studies, the prevalence of FGFR gene amplification was FGFR1: 0.11 (95% CI: 0.08–0.13) and FGFR2: 0.04 (95% CI: 0.02–0.06). Overall survival was significantly worse among patients with FGFR gene amplification: FGFR1 [HR 1.57 (95% CI: 1.23–1.99); p = 0.0002] and FGFR2 [HR 2.27 (95% CI: 1.73–3.00); p<0.00001]. Conclusions Current evidence supports the conclusion that the outcomes of patients with FGFR gene amplified cancers is worse than for those with non-FGFR gene amplified cancers. PMID:25171497

  19. Prognostic value of FGFR gene amplification in patients with different types of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinjia; Liu, Xinyang; Wang, Shanshan; Zhang, Zhe; Wu, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaowei; Li, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene amplification has been reported in different types of cancer. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis to further characterize the prognostic value of FGFR gene amplification in patients with cancer. A search of several databases, including MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, was conducted to identify studies examining the association between FGFR gene amplification and cancer. A total of 24 studies met the inclusion criteria, and overall incidence rates, hazard risk (HR), overall survival, disease-free survival, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated employing fixed- or random-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. In the meta-analysis of 24 studies, the prevalence of FGFR gene amplification was FGFR1: 0.11 (95% CI: 0.08-0.13) and FGFR2: 0.04 (95% CI: 0.02-0.06). Overall survival was significantly worse among patients with FGFR gene amplification: FGFR1 [HR 1.57 (95% CI: 1.23-1.99); p = 0.0002] and FGFR2 [HR 2.27 (95% CI: 1.73-3.00); p<0.00001]. Current evidence supports the conclusion that the outcomes of patients with FGFR gene amplified cancers is worse than for those with non-FGFR gene amplified cancers.

  20. Genetic rearrangements and gene amplification in Escherichia coli: DNA sequences at the junctures of amplified gene fusions.

    PubMed

    Whoriskey, S K; Nghiem, V H; Leong, P M; Masson, J M; Miller, J H

    1987-05-01

    We describe gene fusions that result from genetic duplications of 5-20 kb, which are amplified 50- to 100-fold. Because one end point of the fusion lies within the sequenced lacI gene, the new junctures created by the duplications are readily identified. Using a procedure for dideoxy sequencing of double-stranded DNA, we show that the duplications occur almost exclusively at short sequence repeats (less than 15 bp), sometimes involving broken homologies, in the 30 cases examined. Most of the duplications place the lacI-Z encoded hybrid repressor-beta-galactosidase protein under the control of a downstream promoter, resulting in the production of a more complex hybrid protein with beta-galactosidase activity. In some cases the fusion occurs with the lacY or the lacA gene, which suggests that silent promoters can be uncovered by gene fusion and subsequent amplification. In some ways this system represents a bacterial analog to chromosomal rearrangements of oncogenes in higher cells, since here the expression of a silent gene is the result of a genetic rearrangement that is followed by amplification during selected growth.

  1. A combination therapy for KRAS-mutant lung cancer by targeting synthetic lethal partners of mutant KRAS.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiufeng; Liu, Mingyao

    2016-10-28

    The KRAS gene is frequently mutated in multiple cancer types, but it fell off the drug discovery radar for many years because of its inherent "undruggable" structure and undefined biological properties. As reported in the paper entitled "Suppression of KRas-mutant cancer through the combined inhibition of KRAS with PLK1 and ROCK" in Nature Communications, we performed a synthetic lethal screening with a combinatorial strategy on a panel of clinical drugs; we found that combined inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 and RhoA/Rho kinase markedly suppressed tumor growth in mice. An increase in the expression of the tumor suppressor P21(WAF1/CIP1) contributed to the synergistic mechanism of the combination therapy. These findings open a novel avenue for the treatment of KRAS-mutant lung cancer.

  2. Higher prevalence and gene amplification of HPV16 in oropharynx as compared to oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    SHIGEISHI, Hideo; SUGIYAMA, Masaru; OHTA, Kouji; RAHMAN, Mohammad Zeshaan; TAKECHI, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to clarify differences regarding HPV16 infection and gene amplification between the oral cavity and oropharynx in healthy individuals. Material and Methods The subjects were 94 healthy asymptomatic individuals (41 males, 53 females; mean age 58.6 years, range 16-97 years) who visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery of the Hiroshima University Hospital from 2014 to 2015. Oral epithelial cells were collected from oral rinse and pharynx gargle samples and placed in saline. The human endogenous retrovirus gene ERV3-1 was used as a reference to estimate the number of human cells in each sample. DNA samples were extracted from approximately 10,000 human cells and tested for HPV16 DNA by PCR using a type-specific primer. Similarly, we analyzed the HPV16 viral copy number in HPV16-positive cases using real-time PCR to examine genomic amplification. Results The percentage of HPV16-positive cases was higher in the gargle (28.7%) as compared to the rinse (16.0%) samples. In the oral rinse samples, males (26.8%) showed a significantly higher rate of HPV16 than females (7.5%) (P=0.021). Importantly, in older subjects (aged 60-89 years), gargle samples showed a significantly higher rate of HPV16 (33.3%) than oral rinse samples (13.7%) (P=0.034). The average number of viral copies was approximately 8 times higher in the gargle than in the oral rinse samples (0.16±0.27 vs. 1.35±1.26 copy numbers per cell), a significant difference (P<0.001). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the oropharynx is more susceptible to HPV16 infection as compared to the oral cavity, while HPV16 gene amplification is also more commonly found in the oropharynx. PMID:27556212

  3. Combined comparative genomic hybridization and genomic microarray for detection of gene amplifications in pulmonary artery intimal sarcomas and adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianming; Roth, Jürgen; Bode-Lesniewska, Beata; Pfaltz, Madeleine; Heitz, Philipp U; Komminoth, Paul

    2002-05-01

    Identification of gene amplifications in human tumors is important for the understanding of tumorigenesis and may lead to discovery of diagnostic and prognostic markers. In this study, we used a microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) technique, combined with conventional CGH, to identify gene amplifications in 43 tumors including eight pulmonary artery intimal sarcomas and 35 adrenocortical tumors. Conventional CGH revealed gains or amplifications of 12q13-q15 in six sarcomas and in two adrenocortical carcinomas. Using microarrays, we demonstrated that, among genes located on 12q13-q15, SAS/CDK4 were amplified in six sarcomas, and MDM2 and GLI in five and four sarcomas, respectively. The two adrenocortical tumors showed coamplifications of SAS/CDK4 and MDM2. Furthermore, PDGFRA (located on 4q12) amplification was identified in five sarcomas. Our data demonstrate: (1) amplifications of SAS/CDK4, MDM2, GLI, and PDGFRA are strongly associated with the tumorigenesis of pulmonary artery intimal sarcomas, whereas SAS/CDK4 and MDM2 coamplification may contribute to the progression of adrenocortical tumors; (2) microarray-based CGH is a useful tool for simultaneous detection of multiple gene amplifications, with a high sensitivity and resolution compared to that of conventional CGH.

  4. Assessment of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation/copy number and K-ras mutation in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kang; Wang, Wu-Ping; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Ju-Zheng; Chen, Zhao; Li, Yong; Zhou, Yong-An; Li, Xiao-Fei; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Lan-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The molecular status of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in esophageal cancer has not been well elucidated. The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence of EGFR and K-ras mutation, and EGFR gene copy number status as well as its association with clinicopathologic characteristics, and also to identify the prognostic value of EGFR gene copy number in esophageal cancer. EGFR mutation in exon 19/exon 21 and K-ras mutation in codon 12/codon 13 were detected by real-time PCR method, while EGFR gene copy number status was analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). EGFR gene amplification and high polysomy were defined as high EGFR gene copy number status (FISH-positive), and all else were defined as low EGFR gene copy number status (FISH-negative). The relationship between EGFR gene copy number status and clinicpathologic characteristics was analyzed. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression model were employed to evaluate the effects of EGFR gene copy number status on the patients' survival. A total of 57 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients and 9 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) patients were enrolled in the study. EGFR mutation was identified in one patient who was diagnosed as ESCC with stage IIIC disease. K-ras mutation was identified in one patient who was diagnosed as EADC. In all, 34 of 66 (51.5%) samples were detected as FISH-positive, which includes 30 ESCC and 4 EADC tumor samples. The correlation analysis showed that FISH-positive was significantly associated with the tumor stage (P=0.019) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.005) in esophageal cancer patients, and FISH-positive was also significantly associated with the tumor stage (P=0.007) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.008) in ESCC patients. Cox regression analysis showed that high EGFR gene copy number was not a significant predictor of a poor outcome for esophageal cancer patients (P=0.251) or for ESCC patients (P=0.092), but esophageal cancer

  5. Extensive gene amplification and concerted evolution within the CPR family of cuticular proteins in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Cornman, R Scott; Willis, Judith H

    2008-06-01

    Annotation of the Anopheles gambiae genome has revealed a large increase in the number of genes encoding cuticular proteins with the Rebers and Riddiford Consensus (the CPR gene family) relative to Drosophila melanogaster. This increase reflects an expansion of the RR-2 group of CPR genes, particularly the amplification of sets of highly similar paralogs. Patterns of nucleotide variation indicate that extensive concerted evolution is occurring within these clusters. The pattern of concerted evolution is complex, however, as sequence similarity within clusters is uncorrelated with gene order and orientation, and no comparable clusters occur within similarly compact arrays of the RR-1 group in mosquitoes or in either group in D. melanogaster. The dearth of pseudogenes suggests that sequence clusters are maintained by selection for high gene-copy number, perhaps due to selection for high expression rates. This hypothesis is consistent with the apparently parallel evolution of compact gene architectures within sequence clusters relative to single-copy genes. We show that RR-2 proteins from sequence-cluster genes have complex repeats and extreme amino-acid compositions relative to single-copy CPR proteins in An. gambiae, and that the amino-acid composition of the N-terminal and C-terminal sequence flanking the chitin-binding consensus region evolves in a correlated fashion.

  6. Amplification and loss of dihydrofolate reductase genes in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, R.J.; Schimke, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    During stepwise increases in the methotrexate concentration in culture medium, the authors selected Chinese hamster ovary cells that contained elevated dihydrofolate reductase levels which were proportional to the number of dihydrofolate reductase gene copies (i.e., gene amplification). The authors studied the dihydrofolate reductase levels in individual cells that underwent the initial steps of methotrexate resistance by using the fluorescence-activated cell sorter technique. Such cells constituted a heterogeneous population with differing dihydrofolate reductase levels, and they characteristically lost the elevated enzyme levels when they were grown in the absence of methotrexate. The progeny of individual cells with high enzyme levels behaved differently and could lose all or variable numbers of the amplified genes.

  7. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of NDM-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jing; Du, Yijun; Zhu, Xiaoling; Bai, Hua; Luo, Yanbo; Liu, Yuqing

    2012-08-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of the emerging resistance gene New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1), with its specificity and sensitivity having been evaluated. Six primers, including a pair of outer primers, a pair of inner primers, and a pair of loop primers, were specially designed for recognizing eight distinct sequences on the target NDM-1 gene. The amplification reaction was performed within only 40 min under isothermal conditions at 65°C in a regular water bath. The LAMP assay showed good specificity and higher sensitivity than the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with a detection limit of 1 pg genomic DNA per tube of one NDM-1-positive reference strain. The detection result for the 345 clinical samples showed 100% consistence with the result by the PCR method, and three contaminated samples could be detected correctly by LAMP assays, while they could not be detected by PCR. The LAMP method reported here demonstrated a potential and valuable means for detection of the NDM-1 gene: easy, rapid, visual, specific, accurate, and sensitive, especially useful for on-the-spot investigation.

  8. A PCA3 gene-based transcriptional amplification system targeting primary prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Neveu, Bertrand; Jain, Pallavi; Têtu, Bernard; Wu, Lily; Fradet, Yves; Pouliot, Frédéric

    2016-01-12

    Targeting specifically primary prostate cancer (PCa) cells for immune therapy, gene therapy or molecular imaging is of high importance. The PCA3 long non-coding RNA is a unique PCa biomarker and oncogene that has been widely studied. This gene has been mainly exploited as an accurate diagnostic urine biomarker for PCa detection. In this study, the PCA3 promoter was introduced into a new transcriptional amplification system named the 3-Step Transcriptional Amplification System (PCA3-3STA) and cloned into type 5 adenovirus. PCA3-3STA activity was highly specific for PCa cells, ranging between 98.7- and 108.0-fold higher than that for benign primary prostate epithelial or non-PCa cells, respectively. In human PCa xenografts, PCA3-3STA displayed robust bioluminescent signals at levels that are sufficient to translate to positron emission tomography (PET)-based reporter imaging. Remarkably, when freshly isolated benign or cancerous prostate biopsies were infected with PCA3-3STA, the optical signal produced from primary PCa biopsies was significantly higher than from benign prostate biopsies (4.4-fold, p < 0.0001). PCA3-3STA therefore represents a PCa-specific expression system with the potential to target, with high accuracy, primary or metastatic PCa epithelial cells for imaging, vaccines, or gene therapy.

  9. Optimization of laser capture microdissection and RNA amplification for gene expression profiling of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kube, Dagmar M; Savci-Heijink, Cemile D; Lamblin, Anne-Françoise; Kosari, Farhad; Vasmatzis, George; Cheville, John C; Connelly, Donald P; Klee, George G

    2007-01-01

    Background To discover prostate cancer biomarkers, we profiled gene expression in benign and malignant cells laser capture microdissected (LCM) from prostate tissues and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas. Here we present methods developed, optimized, and validated to obtain high quality gene expression data. Results RNase inhibitor was included in solutions used to stain frozen tissue sections for LCM, which improved RNA quality significantly. Quantitative PCR assays, requiring minimal amounts of LCM RNA, were developed to determine RNA quality and concentration. SuperScript II™ reverse transcriptase was replaced with SuperScript III™, and SpeedVac concentration was eliminated to optimize linear amplification. The GeneChip® IVT labeling kit was used rather than the Enzo BioArray™ HighYield™ RNA transcript labeling kit since side-by-side comparisons indicated high-end signal saturation with the latter. We obtained 72 μg of labeled complementary RNA on average after linear amplification of about 2 ng of total RNA. Conclusion Unsupervised clustering placed 5/5 normal and 2/2 benign prostatic hyperplasia cases in one group, 5/7 Gleason pattern 3 cases in another group, and the remaining 2/7 pattern 3 cases in a third group with 8/8 Gleason pattern 5 cases and 3/3 metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas. Differential expression of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR) and hepsin was confirmed using quantitative PCR. PMID:17376245

  10. TERT promoter mutations and gene amplification: Promoting TERT expression in Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Na; Björnhagen, Viveca; Höög, Anders; Larsson, Catharina; Lui, Weng-Onn; Xu, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Telomerase activation through the induction of its catalytic component TERT is essential in carcinogenesis. The regulatory mechanism and clinical significance underlying cancer-specific TERT expression have been extensively investigated in various human malignancies, but little is known about these in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), an aggressive neuroendocrine skin tumor. Here we addressed these issues by determining TERT promoter mutations, gene amplification, mRNA expression and association with clinical variables in MCC. TERT mRNA was expressed in 6/6 MCC cell lines and 41 of 43 tumors derived from 35 MCC patients. Telomerase activity was detectable in all 6 cell lines and 11 tumors analyzed. TERT promoter mutations were identified in 1/6 cell lines and 4/35 (11.4%) MCC cases. The mutation exhibited UV signature and occurred in sun-exposed areas. Increased TERT gene copy numbers were observed in 1/6 cell lines and 11/14 (79%) tumors, and highly correlated with its mRNA expression (r = 0.7419, P = 0.0024). Shorter overall survival was significantly associated with higher TERT mRNA levels in MCC patients (P = 0.032). Collectively, TERT expression and telomerase activity is widespread in MCC, and may be attributable to TERT promoter mutations and gene amplification. Higher TERT expression predicts poor patient outcomes. PMID:25301727

  11. Visualization and enumeration of bacteria carrying a specific gene sequence by in situ rolling circle amplification.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Fumito; Kenzaka, Takehiko; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Tani, Katsuji; Nasu, Masao

    2005-12-01

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) generates large single-stranded and tandem repeats of target DNA as amplicons. This technique was applied to in situ nucleic acid amplification (in situ RCA) to visualize and count single Escherichia coli cells carrying a specific gene sequence. The method features (i) one short target sequence (35 to 39 bp) that allows specific detection; (ii) maintaining constant fluorescent intensity of positive cells permeabilized extensively after amplicon detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization, which facilitates the detection of target bacteria in various physiological states; and (iii) reliable enumeration of target bacteria by concentration on a gelatin-coated membrane filter. To test our approach, the presence of the following genes were visualized by in situ RCA: green fluorescent protein gene, the ampicillin resistance gene and the replication origin region on multicopy pUC19 plasmid, as well as the single-copy Shiga-like toxin gene on chromosomes inside E. coli cells. Fluorescent antibody staining after in situ RCA also simultaneously identified cells harboring target genes and determined the specificity of in situ RCA. E. coli cells in a nonculturable state from a prolonged incubation were periodically sampled and used for plasmid uptake study. The numbers of cells taking up plasmids determined by in situ RCA was up to 10(6)-fold higher than that measured by selective plating. In addition, in situ RCA allowed the detection of cells taking up plasmids even when colony-forming cells were not detected during the incubation period. By optimizing the cell permeabilization condition for in situ RCA, this method can become a valuable tool for studying free DNA uptake, especially in nonculturable bacteria.

  12. Artificial gene amplification reveals an abundance of promiscuous resistance determinants in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Valerie W. C.; Hanson-Manful, Paulina; Patrick, Wayne M.

    2011-01-01

    Duplicated genes provide an important raw material for adaptive evolution. However, the relationship between gene duplication and the emergence of new biochemical functions is complicated, and it has been difficult to quantify the likelihood of evolving novelty in any systematic manner. Here, we describe a comprehensive search for artificially amplified genes that are able to impart new phenotypes on Escherichia coli, provided their expression is up-regulated. We used a high-throughput, library-on-library strategy to screen for resistance to antibiotics and toxins. Cells containing a complete E. coli ORF library were exposed to 237 toxin-containing environments. From 86 of these environments, we identified a total of 115 cases where overexpressed ORFs imparted improved growth. Of the overexpressed ORFs that we tested, most conferred small but reproducible increases in minimum inhibitory concentration (≤16-fold) for their corresponding antibiotics. In many cases, proteins were acting promiscuously to impart resistance. In the absence of toxins, most strains bore no fitness cost associated with ORF overexpression. Our results show that even the genome of a nonpathogenic bacterium harbors a substantial reservoir of resistance genes, which can be readily accessed through overexpression mutations. During the growth of a population under selection, these mutations are most likely to be gene amplifications. Therefore, our work provides validation and biochemical insight into the innovation, amplification, and divergence model of gene evolution under continuous selection [Bergthorsson U, Andersson DI, Roth JR (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:17004–17009], and also illustrates the high frequency at which novel traits can evolve in bacterial populations. PMID:21173244

  13. Ultra-fast electronic detection of antimicrobial resistance genes using isothermal amplification and Thin Film Transistor sensors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunxiao; Kalsi, Sumit; Zeimpekis, Ioannis; Sun, Kai; Ashburn, Peter; Turner, Carrie; Sutton, J Mark; Morgan, Hywel

    2017-10-15

    A low cost thin-film transistor (TFT) nanoribbon (NR) sensor has been developed for rapid real-time detection of DNA amplification using an isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) method. The semiconductor chip measures DNA amplification through a pH change, rather than via fluorescence. The utility of the method was demonstrated by amplifying CTX-M and NDM, two genes that confer bacterial resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems, respectively. It is shown that this approach provides extremely fast and sensitive detection. It can detect <10 copies of the gene in genomic DNA extracted from E. coli or K. pneumoniae clinical isolates within a few minutes. A differential readout system was developed to minimize the effect of primer-dimer amplification on the assay. The simple device has the potential for low cost, portable and real-time nucleic acid analysis as a Point of Care device. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Disruption of p16 and Activation of Kras in Pancreas Increase Ductal Adenocarcinoma Formation and Metastasis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wanglong; Sahin, Fikret; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Garcia-Carracedo, Dario; Wang, Wendy M.; Kuo, Chia-Yu; Chen, Doris; Arking, Dan E.; Lowy, Andrew M.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Remotti, Helen E.; Su, Gloria H.

    2011-01-01

    Inactivation of tumor suppressor gene p16/INK4A and oncogenic activation of KRAS occur in almost all pancreatic cancers. To better understand the roles of p16 in pancreatic tumorigenesis, we created a conditional p16 knockout mouse line (p16flox/flox), in which p16 is specifically disrupted in a tissue-specific manner without affecting p19/ARF expression. p16flox/flox; LSL-KrasG12D; Pdx1-Cre mice developed the full spectrum of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPanIN) lesions, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), and metastases were observed in all the mice. Here we report a mouse model that simulates human pancreatic tumorigenesis at both genetic and histologic levels and is ideal for studies of metastasis. During the progression from primary tumors to metastases, the wild-type allele of Kras was progressively lost (loss of heterozygosity at Kras or LOH at Kras) in p16flox/flox; LSL- KrasG12D; Pdx1-Cre mice. These observations suggest a role for Kras beyond tumor initiation. In vitro assays performed with cancer cell lines derived from primary pancreatic tumors of these mice showed that cancer cells with LOH at Kras exhibited more aggressive phenotypes than those retained the wild-type Kras allele, indicating that LOH at Kras can provide cancer cells functional growth advantages and promote metastasis. Increased LOH at KRAS was also observed in progression of human pancreatic primary tumors to metastases, again supporting a role for the KRAS gene in cancer metastasis. This finding has potential translational implications- future KRAS target therapies may need to consider targeting oncogenic KRAS specifically without inhibiting wild-type KRAS function. PMID:22113502

  15. Chromosomal Amplification of the blaOXA-58 Carbapenemase Gene in a Proteus mirabilis Clinical Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Girlich, Delphine; Bogaerts, Pierre; De Laveleye, Morgane; Huang, Daniel T.; Glupczynski, Youri

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Horizontal gene transfer may occur between distantly related bacteria, thus leading to genetic plasticity and in some cases to acquisition of novel resistance traits. Proteus mirabilis is an enterobacterial species responsible for human infections that may express various acquired β-lactam resistance genes, including different classes of carbapenemase genes. Here we report a Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate (strain 1091) displaying resistance to penicillin, including temocillin, together with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems and susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. Using biochemical tests, significant carbapenem hydrolysis was detected in P. mirabilis 1091. Since PCR failed to detect acquired carbapenemase genes commonly found in Enterobacteriaceae, we used a whole-genome sequencing approach that revealed the presence of blaOXA-58 class D carbapenemase gene, so far identified only in Acinetobacter species. This gene was located on a 3.1-kb element coharboring a blaAmpC-like gene. Remarkably, these two genes were bracketed by putative XerC-XerD binding sites and inserted at a XerC-XerD site located between the terminase-like small- and large-subunit genes of a bacteriophage. Increased expression of the two bla genes resulted from a 6-time tandem amplification of the element as revealed by Southern blotting. This is the first isolation of a clinical P. mirabilis strain producing OXA-58, a class D carbapenemase, and the first description of a XerC-XerD-dependent insertion of antibiotic resistance genes within a bacteriophage. This study revealed a new role for the XerC-XerD recombinase in bacteriophage biology. PMID:27855079

  16. Oncogenic Kras is required for both the initiation and maintenance of pancreatic cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Meredith A.; Bednar, Filip; Zhang, Yaqing; Brisset, Jean-Christophe; Galbán, Stefanie; Galbán, Craig J.; Rakshit, Sabita; Flannagan, Karen S.; Adsay, N. Volkan; Pasca di Magliano, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is almost invariably associated with mutations in the KRAS gene, most commonly KRASG12D, that result in a dominant-active form of the KRAS GTPase. However, how KRAS mutations promote pancreatic carcinogenesis is not fully understood, and whether oncogenic KRAS is required for the maintenance of pancreatic cancer has not been established. To address these questions, we generated two mouse models of pancreatic tumorigenesis: mice transgenic for inducible KrasG12D, which allows for inducible, pancreas-specific, and reversible expression of the oncogenic KrasG12D, with or without inactivation of one allele of the tumor suppressor gene p53. Here, we report that, early in tumorigenesis, induction of oncogenic KrasG12D reversibly altered normal epithelial differentiation following tissue damage, leading to precancerous lesions. Inactivation of KrasG12D in established precursor lesions and during progression to cancer led to regression of the lesions, indicating that KrasG12D was required for tumor cell survival. Strikingly, during all stages of carcinogenesis, KrasG12D upregulated Hedgehog signaling, inflammatory pathways, and several pathways known to mediate paracrine interactions between epithelial cells and their surrounding microenvironment, thus promoting formation and maintenance of the fibroinflammatory stroma that plays a pivotal role in pancreatic cancer. Our data establish that epithelial KrasG12D influences multiple cell types to drive pancreatic tumorigenesis and is essential for tumor maintenance. They also strongly support the notion that inhibiting KrasG12D, or its downstream effectors, could provide a new approach for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22232209

  17. Recent amplification of the human FRG1 gene during primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Grewal, P K; van Geel, M; Frants, R R; de Jong, P; Hewitt, J E

    1999-02-04

    There is evidence of multiple copies of the FSHD Region Candidate Gene 1 (FRG1) in humans. Analysis of human FRG1 ESTs showed many of them to be non-processed pseudogenes dispersed throughout the genome. To determine when the amplification of FRG1 occurred, we used a PCR-based approach to identify FRG1 sequences from great apes, chimpanzee, gorilla and orang-utan, and an Old World monkey, Macaca mulatta. In common with humans, multiple copies of FRG1 were detected in the great apes. However, in Macaca mulatta, only two FRG1 loci were identified, one presumed to be the homologue of the human chromosome 4q gene. This is strikingly similar to the distribution of a dispersed 3.3-kb repeat family in primates. A member of this family, D4Z4, maps to the subtelomeric region of 4q, in close proximity to FRG1. We propose that an ancestral duplication of distal 4q included FRG1. This duplication is present in Macaca mulatta whose divergence from hominoids is thought to have occurred at least 33 million years ago. We propose that this telomeric region then underwent further amplification and dispersion events in the great ape lineage, with copies of FRG1 and the 3.3-kb repeats being localized in heterochromatic regions.

  18. Isolation of epithelial cells from tooth brush and gender identification by amplification of SRY gene

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vikram Simha A; Sriram, G; Saraswathi, TR; Sivapathasundharam, B

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study determines the importance of tooth brush from which DNA can be isolated and used for sex determination in forensic analysis. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 samples were collected and stored at room temperature for different periods of time interval. The epithelial cells adhered to the bristles of tooth brush were collected and genomic DNA was extracted and quantified using Nanodrop 1000 spectrophotometer. Results: Gender identification was done by amplification of sex determining region on Y chromosome (SRY) gene using real-time polymerase chain reaction and minimal amount of DNA (in pico grams) with 100% sensitivity and 73.3% specificity, i.e., all male samples showed positive results and out of 15 female samples 4 showed false positive results, i.e wrongly identified as males. Conclusion: With this study, we conclude that PCR is a valuable and sensitive procedure where minute contamination may cause alteration in the result, i.e, 4 females showed false positive result. Minute amount of DNA in picograms, which was collected at different intervals is enough for amplification of SRY gene and tooth brush can be used as one of the very valuable sources of gender identification. PMID:22022136

  19. Sensitive colorimetric detection of Listeria monocytogenes based on isothermal gene amplification and unmodified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhongyu; Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da

    2013-12-15

    Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), one of most problematic food-borne bacteria, is mainly transmitted through the food chain and may cause listeriosis. Therefore, the development of rapid and sensitive L. monocytogenes detection technique has become an urgent task. In this study, we proposed a method using hyperbranching rolling circle amplification (HRCA) combined with gold nanoparticle (GNP) based colorimetric strategy to offer an isothermal, highly sensitive and specific assay for the detection of L. monocytogenes. First, a linear padlock probe targeting a specific sequence in the hly gene was designed and followed with a ligation by Taq DNA ligase. After ligation, further amplification by HRCA with a thiolated primer and an unlabeled primer is performed. The resulting thiolated HRCA products were then captured onto GNP surface and made GNP more salt-tolerant. Detection of the bacteria can be achieved by a facilitated GNP based colorimetric testing using naked eyes. Through this approach, as low as 100 aM synthetic hly gene targets and about 75 copies of L. monocytogenes can be detected. The specificity is evaluated by distinguishing target L. monocytogenes from other bacteria. The artificial contaminated food samples were also detected for its potential applications in real food detection. This method described here is ideal for bacteria detection due to its simplicity and high sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation of candidate genes from the Batten Disease (JNCL) region using exon amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, T.J.; Haines, J.L.; Buckler, A. |

    1994-09-01

    Batten Disease (juvenile neuronal cercoid lipofuscinosis; JNCL) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder of childhood. Clinically, this autosomal recessive disorder is characterized by loss of vision, seizures, and progressive encephalopathy. The JNCL gene CLN3 has been genetically mapped to a 2 cM region in 16p12.1-11.2 and shows significant allelic association with alleles at five marker loci, D16S288, D16S272, D16S299, D16S298, and SPN, within this interval. Extended haplotype analysis strongly suggests that CLN3 must lie in the vicinity of D16S299/D16S298. We have used these markers as STSs to isolate YACs from the CEPH and Los Alamos flow-sorted chromosome 16 YAC libraries. These YACs, in turn, have been used to generate cosmid contigs by hybridization of inter-Alu PCR products to the gridded Los Alamos chr. 16 cosmid library and by direct sub-cloning. In order to identify genes originating from this region we have used the technique of exon amplification. This procedure produces trapped exon clones, which can represent single exons or multiple exons spliced together and is an efficient method for obtaining probes for physical mapping and for screening cDNA libraries. In all experiments, we have analyzed cosmid DNA using a modification of the original exon amplification procedure that increases both the efficiency and sensitivity of the approach. We have used the resulting exon probes to screen retina and brain cDNA libraries for candidate JNCL genes. Our preliminary studies indicate that the Batten candidate region is gene-rich.

  1. Monosomy of chromosome 17 in breast cancer during interpretation of HER2 gene amplification

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Matteo; Nottegar, Alessia; Bogina, Giuseppe; Caliò, Anna; Cima, Luca; Eccher, Albino; Vicentini, Caterina; Marcolini, Lisa; Scarpa, Aldo; Pedron, Serena; Brunello, Eleonora; Knuutila, Sakari; Sapino, Anna; Marchiò, Caterina; Bria, Emilio; Molino, Annamaria; Carbognin, Luisa; Tortora, Giampaolo; Jasani, Bharat; Miller, Keith; Merdol, Ibrahim; Zanatta, Lucia; Laurino, Licia; Wirtanen, Tiina; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Marconi, Marcella; Chilosi, Marco; Manfrin, Erminia; Martignoni, Guido; Bonetti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Monosomy of chromosome 17 may affect the assessment of HER2 amplification. Notably, the prevalence ranges from 1% up to 49% due to lack of consensus in recognition. We sought to investigate the impact of monosomy of chromosome 17 to interpretation of HER2 gene status. 201 breast carcinoma were reviewed for HER2 gene amplification and chromosome 17 status. FISH analysis was performed by using double probes (LSI/CEP). Absolute gene copy number was also scored per each probe. HER2 FISH test was repeated on serial tissue sections, ranging in thickness from 3 to 20 µm. Ratio was scored and subsequently corrected by monosomy after gold control test using the aCGH method to overcome false interpretation due to artefactual nuclear truncation. HER2 immunotests was performed on all cases. 26/201 cases were amplified (13%). Single signals per CEP17 were revealed in 7/201 (3.5%) cases. Five out of 7 cases appeared monosomic with aCGH (overall, 5/201, 2.5%) and evidenced single signals in >60% of nuclei after second-look on FISH when matching both techniques. Among 5, one case showed amplification with a pattern 7/1 (HER2/CEP17>2) of copies (3+ at immunotest); three cases revealed single signals per both probes (LSI/CEP=1) and one case revealed a 3:1 ratio; all last 4 cases showed 0/1+ immunoscore. We concluded that: 1) monosomy of chromosome 17 may be observed in 2.5% of breast carcinoma; 2) monosomy of chromosome 17 due to biological reasons rather than nuclear truncation was observed when using the cut-off of 60% of nuclei harboring single signals; 3) the skewing of the ratio due to single centromeric 17 probe may lead to false positive evaluation; 4) breast carcinomas showing a 3:1 ratio (HER2/CEP17) usually show negative 0/1+ immunoscore and <6 gene copy number at FISH. PMID:26328251

  2. HER-2/neu and topoisomerase IIa gene amplification and protein expression in invasive breast carcinomas: chromogenic in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Rohit; Lal, Priti; Chen, Beiyun

    2005-06-01

    We studied HER-2/neu (HER-2) and topoisomerase IIa (topo2a) amplification (using chromogenic in situ hybridization) and overexpression (immunohistochemical analysis) in 113 invasive breast carcinomas. A gene copy number/chromosome 17 copy number ratio of 2.0 or higher indicated amplification. A topo2a/chromosome 17 ratio of less than 0.8 indicated gene deletion. HER-2 overexpression was scored according to standard HercepTest guidelines (DAKO, Carpinteria, CA). Overexpression of topo2a was identified when nuclear staining was found in more than 5% of tumor cells. Of 113 tumors, 104 were analyzed successfully for HER-2 and topo2a amplification. Of the 104, 64 showed HER-2 amplification; 25 of these (39%) also showed topo2a amplification. No amplification was found in 40 tumors. Deletion of topo2a was seen in 7 (11%) of 64 HER-2-amplified tumors and 2 (5%) of 40 nonamplified tumors. Of 25 tumors with topo2a amplification, 18 (72%) overexpressed topo2a. Only 3 (4%) of 79 tumors without topo2a amplification overexpressed topo2a. Amplification of topo2a is associated with HER-2 amplification but not vice versa. Amplification of topo2a resulted in protein overexpression in 72% of tumors, but topo2a overexpression rarely occurred without gene amplification. Identification of topo2a and HER-2 status might have therapeutic and prognostic implications.

  3. Sequencing the mouse Y chromosome reveals convergent gene acquisition and amplification on both sex chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Y.Q. Shirleen; Alföldi, Jessica; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Brown, Laura G.; Graves, Tina; Minx, Patrick J.; Fulton, Robert S.; Kremitzki, Colin; Koutseva, Natalia; Mueller, Jacob L.; Rozen, Steve; Hughes, Jennifer F.; Owens, Elaine; Womack, James E.; Murphy, William J.; Cao, Qing; de Jong, Pieter; Warren, Wesley C.; Wilson, Richard K.; Skaletsky, Helen; Page, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We sequenced the MSY (Male-Specific region of the Y chromosome) of the C57BL/6J strain of the laboratory mouse Mus musculus. In contrast to theories that Y chromosomes are heterochromatic and gene poor, the mouse MSY is 99.9% euchromatic and contains about 700 protein-coding genes. Only two percent of the MSY derives from the ancestral autosomes that gave rise to the mammalian sex chromosomes. Instead, all but 50 of the MSY's genes belong to three acquired, massively amplified gene families that have no homologs on primate MSYs, but do have acquired, amplified homologs on the mouse X chromosome. The complete mouse MSY sequence brings to light dramatic forces in sex chromosome evolution: lineage-specific convergent acquisition and amplification of X-Y gene families, possibly fueled by antagonism between acquired X-Y homologs. The mouse MSY sequence presents opportunities for experimental studies of a sex-specific chromosome in its entirety, in a genetically tractable model organism. PMID:25417157

  4. Amplification of the groESL operon in Pseudomonas putida increases siderophore gene promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Venturi, V; Wolfs, K; Leong, J; Weisbeek, P J

    1994-10-17

    Pseudobactin 358 is the yellow-green fluorescent siderophore [microbial iron(III) transport agent] produced by Pseudomonas putida WCS358 under iron-limiting conditions. The genes encoding pseudobactin 358 biosynthesis are iron-regulated at the level of transcription. In this study, the molecular characterization is reported of a cosmid clone of WCS358 DNA that can stimulate, in an iron-dependent manner, the activity of a WCS358 siderophore gene promoter in the heterologous Pseudomonas strain A225. The functional region in the clone was identified by subcloning, transposon mutagenesis and DNA sequencing as the groESL operon of strain WCS358. This increase in promoter activity was not observed when the groESL genes of strain WCS358 were integrated via a transposon vector into the genome of Pseudomonas A225, indicating that multiple copies of the operon are necessary for the increase in siderophore gene promoter activity. Amplification of the Escherichia coli and WCS358 groESL genes also increased iron-regulated promoter activity in the parent strain WCS358. The groESL operon codes for the chaperone proteins GroES and GroEL, which are responsible for mediating the folding and assembly of many proteins.

  5. Non-Mendelian inheritance induced by gene amplification in the germ nucleus of Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Takahashi, Mihoko

    2005-01-01

    A genetic investigation of strain d4-95, which carries a recessive mutant allele (pwB(95)) of pawn-B, one of the controlling elements of voltage-dependent calcium channels in Paramecium tetraurelia, revealed a non-Mendelian feature. Progeny of the cross between d4-95 and wild type often expressed a clonally stable mutant phenotype, even when they had a wild-type gene. The mutant phenotype was also expressed after self-fertilization of theoretical wild-type homozygotes recovered from the cross. Our molecular analysis demonstrated that the copy number of the mutant pwB gene in the micro- and macronucleus of d4-95 was much greater than that of the wild type. Most of the amplified, extra pwB gene copies in d4-95 were heritable independently from the original pwB locus. Repeated backcrossing of d4-95 with the wild type to dilute extra pwB genes in the strain produced segregants with a completely normal Mendelian trait in testcrosses. These results strongly suggest that a non-Mendelian inheritance of d4-95 was induced by gene amplification in the micronucleus.

  6. Sequencing the mouse Y chromosome reveals convergent gene acquisition and amplification on both sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Soh, Y Q Shirleen; Alföldi, Jessica; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Brown, Laura G; Graves, Tina; Minx, Patrick J; Fulton, Robert S; Kremitzki, Colin; Koutseva, Natalia; Mueller, Jacob L; Rozen, Steve; Hughes, Jennifer F; Owens, Elaine; Womack, James E; Murphy, William J; Cao, Qing; de Jong, Pieter; Warren, Wesley C; Wilson, Richard K; Skaletsky, Helen; Page, David C

    2014-11-06

    We sequenced the MSY (male-specific region of the Y chromosome) of the C57BL/6J strain of the laboratory mouse Mus musculus. In contrast to theories that Y chromosomes are heterochromatic and gene poor, the mouse MSY is 99.9% euchromatic and contains about 700 protein-coding genes. Only 2% of the MSY derives from the ancestral autosomes that gave rise to the mammalian sex chromosomes. Instead, all but 45 of the MSY's genes belong to three acquired, massively amplified gene families that have no homologs on primate MSYs but do have acquired, amplified homologs on the mouse X chromosome. The complete mouse MSY sequence brings to light dramatic forces in sex chromosome evolution: lineage-specific convergent acquisition and amplification of X-Y gene families, possibly fueled by antagonism between acquired X-Y homologs. The mouse MSY sequence presents opportunities for experimental studies of a sex-specific chromosome in its entirety, in a genetically tractable model organism.

  7. Induction of the progesterone receptor gene in estrogen target cells monitored by branched DNA signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Allan, G F; Hutchins, A; Liu, X; Clancy, J

    2001-09-01

    Estrogens have multiple effects on the growth and development of cells in their target tissues, including the uterus, ovary, breast, bone marrow and brain. The hormone regulates the transcription of diverse genes in these tissues via the estrogen receptor, a nuclear transcription factor. Naturally occurring estrogens and estrogen analogs including selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), constitute important therapies for breast cancer and osteoporosis, and are major components of oral contraceptives. The in vitro biologic activities of pharmaceutical estrogen agonists and antagonists have frequently been monitored by cotransfection assay, where exogenous estrogen receptor and reporter genes are transiently inserted into a heterologous, non receptor-containing cell line, such as those derived from kidney cells. Here we describe an alternative to this method, where induction of an endogenous estrogen-responsive gene, the progesterone receptor gene, is monitored by branched DNA signal amplification. Assays are performed with cultured cells derived from estrogen-responsive tissues; namely, breast, uterine endothelium and bone. Hormonal induction occurs via the endogenous estrogen receptor of these cells. Our data show that SERMs, which are estrogen agonists on bone in vivo, antagonize estrogen-dependent target gene induction in conditionally immortalized osteoblast-like cells.

  8. Both gene amplification and allelic loss occur at 14q13.3 in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Thomas; Pan, Qiulu; Sironi, Juan; Lutz, Dionne; Tian, Jianmin; Sapkar, Jana; Perez-Soler, Roman; Keller, Steven; Locker, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Because loss of Nkx2-8 increases lung cancer in the mouse, we studied suppressive mechanisms in human lung cancer. Experimental Design NKX2-8 is located within 14q13.3, adjacent to its close relative TTF1/NKX2-1. We first analyzed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 14q13.3 in 45 matched human lung cancer and control specimens. DNA from tumors with LOH was then analyzed with high-density SNP arrays. For correlation with this genetic analysis, we quantified expression of Nkx2-8 and TTF1 mRNA in tumors. Finally, suppressive function of Nkx2-8 was assessed via colony formation assays in 5 lung cancer cell lines. Results 13/45 (29%) tumors had LOH. In 6 tumors, most adenocarcinomas, LOH was caused by gene amplification. The 0.8 Mb common region of amplification included MBIP, SFTA, TTF1, NKX2-8, and PAX9. In 4 squamous or adenosquamous cancers, LOH was caused by deletion. In 3 other tumors, LOH resulted from whole chromosome mechanisms (14−, 14+, or aneuploidy). The 1.2 Mb common region of deletion included MBIP, SFTA, TTF1, NKX2-8, PAX9, SLC25A21, and MIPOL1. Most tumors had low expression of Nkx2-8. Nevertheless, sequencing did not show NKX2-8 mutations that could explain the low expression. TTF1 overexpression, in contrast, was common and usually independent of Nkx2-8 expression. Finally, stable transfection of Nkx2-8 selectively inhibited growth of H522 lung cancer cells. Conclusions 14q13.3, which contains NKX2-8, is subject to both amplification and deletion in lung cancer. Most tumors have low expression of NKX2-8, and its expression can inhibit growth of some lung cancer cells. PMID:21148747

  9. CASCADE, a platform for controlled gene amplification for high, tunable and selection-free gene expression in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Strucko, Tomas; Buron, Line Due; Jarczynska, Zofia Dorota; Nødvig, Christina Spuur; Mølgaard, Louise; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2017-01-01

    Over-expression of a gene by increasing its copy number is often desirable in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may facilitate elucidation of enzyme functions, and in cell factory design it is used to increase production of proteins and metabolites. Current methods are typically exploiting expression from the multicopy 2 μ-derived plasmid or by targeting genes repeatedly into sequences like Ty or rDNA; in both cases, high gene expression levels are often reached. However, with 2 μ-based plasmid expression, the population of cells is very heterogeneous with respect to protein production; and for integration into repeated sequences it is difficult to determine the genetic setup of the resulting strains and to achieve specific gene doses. For both types of systems, the strains often suffer from genetic instability if proper selection pressure is not applied. Here we present a gene amplification system, CASCADE, which enables construction of strains with defined gene copy numbers. One or more genes can be amplified simultaneously and the resulting strains can be stably propagated on selection-free medium. As proof-of-concept, we have successfully used CASCADE to increase heterologous production of two fluorescent proteins, the enzyme β-galactosidase the fungal polyketide 6-methyl salicylic acid and the plant metabolite vanillin glucoside. PMID:28134264

  10. Potential Role of TRAIL in Metastasis of Mutant KRAS Expressing Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pal, Shyama; Amin, Prayag J; Sainis, K B; Shankar, Bhavani S

    2016-12-01

    Apo2L/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, TNFSF10) is an important cytokine in the tumor microenvironment and plays a major role in the balance of cell survival/death pathways. Bioinformatic analyses of 839 adenocarcinoma (AC) and 356 squamous cell lung carcinoma patient data (SCC) by cBioPortal (genomic analyses) shows that TRAIL expression leads to differential outcomes of disease free survival in AC and SCC. Oncomine datamining (transcript analyses) reveal that TRAIL is upregulated in 167 SCC as compared to 350 AC patients from six data sets. Genomic analyses using cBioPortal revealed high rates of KRAS mutation in AC accompanied by higher incidence of metastasis and increased amplifications of TRAIL gene in SCC. Bioinformatic analyses of an additional lung cancer patient database also showed that risk of disease progression was significantly increased with high TRAIL expression in AC (461 samples). In vitro studies demonstrated that TRAIL increased phosphorylation of ERK only in adenocarcinoma cell lines with mutant KRAS. This was associated with increased migration that was abrogated by MEK inhibitor PD98059. Effects of increased migration induced by TRAIL persisted even after exposure to ionizing radiation with suppression of DNA damage response. These results help understand the role of TRAIL signaling in metastasis which is essential to develop strategies to revert these signals into pro-apoptotic pathways.

  11. KRAS Mutation Detection in Paired Frozen and Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Colorectal Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Solassol, Jérome; Ramos, Jeanne; Crapez, Evelyne; Saifi, Majda; Mangé, Alain; Vianès, Evelyne; Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Costes, Valérie; Maudelonde, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    KRAS mutation has been unambiguously identified as a marker of resistance to cetuximab-based treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. However, most studies of KRAS mutation analysis have been performed using homogenously archived CRC specimens, and studies that compare freshly frozen specimens and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens of CRC are lacking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of tissue preservation on the determination of KRAS mutational status. A series of 131 mCRC fresh-frozen tissues were first analyzed using both high-resolution melting (HRM) and direct sequencing. KRAS mutations were found in 47/131 (35.8%) using both approaches. Out of the 47 samples that were positive for KRAS mutations, 33 had available matched FFPE specimens. Using HRM, 2/33 (6%) demonstrated suboptimal template amplification, and 2/33 (6%) expressed an erroneous wild-type KRAS profile. Using direct sequencing, 6/33 (18.1%) displayed a wild-type KRAS status, and 3/33 (9.1%) showed discordant mutations. Finally, the detection of KRAS mutations was lower among the FFPE samples compared with the freshly frozen samples, demonstrating that tissue processing clearly impacts the accuracy of KRAS genotyping. PMID:21686179

  12. KRAS mutant allele-specific imbalance is associated with worse prognosis in pancreatic cancer and progression to undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Krasinskas, Alyssa M; Moser, A James; Saka, Burcu; Adsay, N Volkan; Chiosea, Simion I

    2013-10-01

    KRAS codon 12 mutations are present in about 90% of ductal adenocarcinomas and in undifferentiated carcinomas of the pancreas. The role of KRAS copy number changes and resulting KRAS mutant allele-specific imbalance (MASI) in ductal adenocarcinoma (n=94), and its progression into undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas (n=25) was studied by direct sequencing and KRAS fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Semi-quantitative evaluation of sequencing electropherograms showed KRAS MASI (ie, mutant allele peak higher than or equal to the wild-type allele peak) in 22 (18.4%) cases. KRAS FISH (performed on 45 cases) revealed a trend for more frequent KRAS amplification among cases with KRAS MASI (7/20, 35% vs 3/25, 12%, P=0.08). KRAS amplification by FISH was seen only in undifferentiated carcinomas (10/24, 42% vs 0/21 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, 0%, P=0.0007). In 6 of 11 cases with both undifferentiated and well-differentiated components, transition to undifferentiated carcinoma was associated with an increase in KRAS copy number, due to amplification and/or chromosome 12 hyperploidy. Pancreatic carcinomas with KRAS MASI (compared to those without MASI) were predominantly undifferentiated (16/22, 73% vs 9/97, 9%, P<0.001), more likely to present at clinical stage IV (5/22, 23% vs 7/97, 7%, P=0.009), and were associated with shorter overall survival (9 months, 95% confidence interval, 5-13, vs 22 months, 95% confidence interval, 17-27; P=0.015) and shorter disease-free survival (5 months, 95% confidence interval, 2-8 vs 13 months, 95% confidence interval, 10-16; P=0.02). Our findings suggest that in a subset of ductal adenocarcinomas, KRAS MASI correlates with the progression to undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas.

  13. Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Biosensor for HIV Gene Detection Based on Graphene Stabilized Gold Nanoclusters with Exonuclease Amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijia; Bai, Xiaoning; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2015-08-26

    Because human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been one of the most terrible viruses in recent decades, early diagnosis of the HIV gene is of great importance for all scientists around the world. In our work, we developed a novel electrochemical biosensor based on one-step ultrasonic synthesized graphene stabilized gold nanocluster (GR/AuNC) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with an exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted target recycling amplification strategy for the detection of HIV DNA. It is the first time that GR/AuNCs have been used as biosensor platform and aptamer with cytosine-rich base set as capture probe to construct the biosensor. With the combination of cytosine-rich capture probe, good conductivity and high surfaces of GR/AuNCs, and Exo III-assisted target recycling amplification, we realized high sensitivity and good selectivity detection of target HIV DNA with a detection limit of 30 aM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the proposed biosensor has a promising potential application for target detection in human serum analysis.

  14. Molecular spectrum of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, and APC somatic gene mutations in Arab patients with colorectal cancer: determination of frequency and distribution pattern

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shamsi, Humaid O.; Jones, Jeremy; Fahmawi, Yazan; Dahbour, Ibrahim; Tabash, Aziz; Abdel-Wahab, Reham; Abousamra, Ahmed O. S.; Shaw, Kenna R.; Xiao, Lianchun; Hassan, Manal M.; Kipp, Benjamin R.; Kopetz, Scott; Soliman, Amr S.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Wolff, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The frequency rates of mutations such as KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA in colorectal cancer (CRC) differ among populations. The aim of this study was to assess mutation frequencies in the Arab population and determine their correlations with certain clinicopathological features. Methods Arab patients from the Arab Gulf region and a population of age- and sex-matched Western patients with CRC whose tumors were evaluated with next-generation sequencing (NGS) were identified and retrospectively reviewed. The mutation rates of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, and APC were recorded, along with clinicopathological features. Other somatic mutation and their rates were also identified. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine the association between mutation status and clinical features. Results A total of 198 cases were identified; 99 Arab patients and 99 Western patients. Fifty-two point seven percent of Arab patients had stage IV disease at initial presentation, 74.2% had left-sided tumors. Eighty-nine point two percent had tubular adenocarcinoma and 10.8% had mucinous adenocarcinoma. The prevalence rates of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, APC, SMAD, FBXW7 mutations in Arab population were 44.4%, 4%, 4%, 13.1%, 52.5%, 27.3%, 2% and 3% respectively. Compared to 48.4%, 4%, 4%, 12.1%, 47.5%, 24.2%, 11.1% and 0% respectively in matched Western population. Associations between these mutations and patient clinicopathological features were not statistically significant. Conclusions This is the first study to report comprehensive hotspot mutations using NGS in Arab patients with CRC. The frequency of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, TP53, APC and PIK3CA mutations were similar to reported frequencies in Western population except SMAD4 that had a lower frequency and higher frequency of FBXW7 mutation. PMID:28078112

  15. Molecular spectrum of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, and APC somatic gene mutations in Arab patients with colorectal cancer: determination of frequency and distribution pattern.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamsi, Humaid O; Jones, Jeremy; Fahmawi, Yazan; Dahbour, Ibrahim; Tabash, Aziz; Abdel-Wahab, Reham; Abousamra, Ahmed O S; Shaw, Kenna R; Xiao, Lianchun; Hassan, Manal M; Kipp, Benjamin R; Kopetz, Scott; Soliman, Amr S; McWilliams, Robert R; Wolff, Robert A

    2016-12-01

    The frequency rates of mutations such as KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA in colorectal cancer (CRC) differ among populations. The aim of this study was to assess mutation frequencies in the Arab population and determine their correlations with certain clinicopathological features. Arab patients from the Arab Gulf region and a population of age- and sex-matched Western patients with CRC whose tumors were evaluated with next-generation sequencing (NGS) were identified and retrospectively reviewed. The mutation rates of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, and APC were recorded, along with clinicopathological features. Other somatic mutation and their rates were also identified. Fisher's exact test was used to determine the association between mutation status and clinical features. A total of 198 cases were identified; 99 Arab patients and 99 Western patients. Fifty-two point seven percent of Arab patients had stage IV disease at initial presentation, 74.2% had left-sided tumors. Eighty-nine point two percent had tubular adenocarcinoma and 10.8% had mucinous adenocarcinoma. The prevalence rates of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, APC, SMAD, FBXW7 mutations in Arab population were 44.4%, 4%, 4%, 13.1%, 52.5%, 27.3%, 2% and 3% respectively. Compared to 48.4%, 4%, 4%, 12.1%, 47.5%, 24.2%, 11.1% and 0% respectively in matched Western population. Associations between these mutations and patient clinicopathological features were not statistically significant. This is the first study to report comprehensive hotspot mutations using NGS in Arab patients with CRC. The frequency of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, TP53, APC and PIK3CA mutations were similar to reported frequencies in Western population except SMAD4 that had a lower frequency and higher frequency of FBXW7 mutation.

  16. Amplification of a Gene Related to Mammalian mdr Genes in Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Craig M.; Serrano, Adelfa E.; Wasley, Annemarie; Bogenschutz, Michael P.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Wirth, Dyann F.

    1989-06-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum contains at least two genes related to the mammalian multiple drug resistance genes, and at least one of the P. falciparum genes is expressed at a higher level and is present in higher copy number in a strain that is resistant to multiple drugs than in a strain that is sensitive to the drugs.

  17. Overproduction of Magnetosomes by Genomic Amplification of Biosynthesis-Related Gene Clusters in a Magnetotactic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Lohße, Anna; Kolinko, Isabel; Raschdorf, Oliver; Uebe, René; Borg, Sarah; Brachmann, Andreas; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Müller, Rolf; Zhang, Youming

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Magnetotactic bacteria biosynthesize specific organelles, the magnetosomes, which are membrane-enclosed crystals of a magnetic iron mineral that are aligned in a linear chain. The number and size of magnetosome particles have to be critically controlled to build a sensor sufficiently strong to ensure the efficient alignment of cells within Earth's weak magnetic field while at the same time minimizing the metabolic costs imposed by excessive magnetosome biosynthesis. Apart from their biological function, bacterial magnetosomes have gained considerable interest since they provide a highly useful model for prokaryotic organelle formation and represent biogenic magnetic nanoparticles with exceptional properties. However, potential applications have been hampered by the difficult cultivation of these fastidious bacteria and their poor yields of magnetosomes. In this study, we found that the size and number of magnetosomes within the cell are controlled by many different Mam and Mms proteins. We present a strategy for the overexpression of magnetosome biosynthesis genes in the alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense by chromosomal multiplication of individual and multiple magnetosome gene clusters via transposition. While stepwise amplification of the mms6 operon resulted in the formation of increasingly larger crystals (increase of ∼35%), the duplication of all major magnetosome operons (mamGFDC, mamAB, mms6, and mamXY, comprising 29 genes in total) yielded an overproducing strain in which magnetosome numbers were 2.2-fold increased. We demonstrate that the tuned expression of the mam and mms clusters provides a powerful strategy for the control of magnetosome size and number, thereby setting the stage for high-yield production of tailored magnetic nanoparticles by synthetic biology approaches. IMPORTANCE Before our study, it had remained unknown how the upper sizes and numbers of magnetosomes are genetically regulated, and overproduction of

  18. American Society of Clinical Oncology provisional clinical opinion: testing for KRAS gene mutations in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma to predict response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody therapy.

    PubMed

    Allegra, Carmen J; Jessup, J Milburn; Somerfield, Mark R; Hamilton, Stanley R; Hammond, Elizabeth H; Hayes, Daniel F; McAllister, Pamela K; Morton, Roscoe F; Schilsky, Richard L

    2009-04-20

    An American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) provisional clinical opinion (PCO), offers timely clinical direction to ASCO's oncologists following publication or presentation of potentially practice-changing data from major studies. This PCO addresses the utility of KRAS gene mutation testing in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma to predict response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) monoclonal antibody (MoAb) therapy with cetuximab or panitumumab (see Note). Recent results from phase II and III clinical trials demonstrate that patients with metastatic colorectal cancer benefit from therapy with monoclonal antibodies directed against the EGFR, when used either as monotherapy or combined with chemotherapy. Retrospective subset analyses of the data from these trials strongly suggest that patients who have KRAS mutations detected in codon 12 or 13 do not benefit from this therapy. Five randomized controlled trials of cetuximab or panitumumab have evaluated outcomes for patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma in relation to KRAS mutational status as no mutation detected (wild type) or abnormal (mutated). Another five single-arm studies have retrospectively evaluated tumor response according to KRAS status. Based on systematic reviews of the relevant literature, all patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma who are candidates for anti-EGFR antibody therapy should have their tumor tested for KRAS mutations in a CLIA-accredited laboratory. If KRAS mutation in codon 12 or 13 is detected, then patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma should not receive anti-EGFR antibody therapy as part of their treatment. ASCO's provisional clinical opinions (PCOs) reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and literature available at the time they are written, and are intended to assist physicians in clinical decision-making and identify questions and settings for further research. Due to the rapid flow of scientific information in

  19. Human-specific gene ARHGAP11B promotes basal progenitor amplification and neocortex expansion.

    PubMed

    Florio, Marta; Albert, Mareike; Taverna, Elena; Namba, Takashi; Brandl, Holger; Lewitus, Eric; Haffner, Christiane; Sykes, Alex; Wong, Fong Kuan; Peters, Jula; Guhr, Elaine; Klemroth, Sylvia; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Naumann, Ronald; Nüsslein, Ina; Dahl, Andreas; Lachmann, Robert; Pääbo, Svante; Huttner, Wieland B

    2015-03-27

    Evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex reflects increased amplification of basal progenitors in the subventricular zone, producing more neurons during fetal corticogenesis. In this work, we analyze the transcriptomes of distinct progenitor subpopulations isolated by a cell polarity-based approach from developing mouse and human neocortex. We identify 56 genes preferentially expressed in human apical and basal radial glia that lack mouse orthologs. Among these, ARHGAP11B has the highest degree of radial glia-specific expression. ARHGAP11B arose from partial duplication of ARHGAP11A (which encodes a Rho guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein) on the human lineage after separation from the chimpanzee lineage. Expression of ARHGAP11B in embryonic mouse neocortex promotes basal progenitor generation and self-renewal and can increase cortical plate area and induce gyrification. Hence, ARHGAP11B may have contributed to evolutionary expansion of human neocortex.

  20. Simple and rapid detection of Salmonella by direct PCR amplification of gene fimW.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang-ying; Dong, Li-wei; Ren, Qian; Wang, Xiao-zhou; Yang, Yi; Zhou, Wen; Zhu, Chun-hong; Meng, Xia; Zhu, Guo-qiang

    2014-10-01

    This study established a simple method of specifically detecting Salmonella species by amplifying fimW gene, which was involved in regulating Salmonella type I fimbriae expression. A pair of primers was designed to target and discriminate the 68 Salmonella strains of 23 Salmonella serovars available to us from 12 non-Salmonella strains of five different kinds of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Results showed that specific DNA fragment with an expected size of 477 bp was successfully amplified from all Salmonella serovars, while no target band was detected in non-Salmonella species. The sensitivity of this PCR-amplifying system reached to 1 pg DNA chromosome and 10(2) cfu of Salmonella enteritis strain CMCC(B) 50336. The above results demonstrated the method as a simple, sensitive, and specific way for Salmonella detection.

  1. PCR-sequencing is a complementary method to amplification refractory mutation system for EGFR gene mutation analysis in FFPE samples.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junchang; Wang, Chunhua; Yu, Xiaoli; Sheng, Danli; Zuo, Chen; Ren, Minpu; Wu, Yaqin; Shen, Jie; Jin, Mei; Xu, Songxiao

    2015-12-01

    Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) is the most popular technology for EGFR gene mutation analysis in China. Cutoff Ct or ΔCt values were used to differentiate low mutation abundance cases from no mutation cases. In this study, all of 359 NSCLC samples were tested by ARMS. Seventeen samples with larger Ct or ΔCt than cutoff values were retested by PCR-sequencing. TKI treatment responses were monitored on the cases with ARMS negative and PCR-sequencing positive results. One exon 18 G719X case, 67 exon 19 deletion cases, 2 exon 20 insertion cases, 1 exon 20 T790M case, 60 exon 21 L858R cases, 5 exon 21 L861Q cases and 201 wild type cases were identified by ARMS. Another 22 cases were evaluated as wild type but had later amplification fluorescent curves. Seventeen out of these 22 cases were retested by PCR-sequencing. It turns out that 3 out of 3 cases with exon 19 deletion later amplifications, 2 out of 2 cases with L858R later amplifications and 4 out of 12 cases with T790M later amplifications were identified as mutation positive. Two cases with exon 19 deletion and L858R respectively were treated by TKI and got responses. Our study indicated that PCR-sequencing might be a complementary way to confirm ARMS results with later amplifications.

  2. KRAS oncogene repression in colon cancer cell lines by G-quadruplex binding indolo[3,2-c]quinolines

    PubMed Central

    Lavrado, João; Brito, Hugo; Borralho, Pedro M.; Ohnmacht, Stephan A.; Kim, Nam-Soon; Leitão, Clara; Pisco, Sílvia; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Rodrigues, Cecília M. P.; Moreira, Rui; Neidle, Stephen; Paulo, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    KRAS is one of the most frequently mutated oncogenes in human cancer, yet remaining undruggable. To explore a new therapeutic strategy, a library of 5-methyl-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline derivatives (IQc) with a range of alkyldiamine side chains was designed to target DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes (G4) in the promoter and 5′-UTR mRNA of the KRAS gene. Biophysical experiments showed that di-substituted IQc compounds are potent and selective KRAS G4 stabilizers. They preferentially inhibit the proliferation of KRAS mutant cancer cell lines (0.22 < IC50 < 4.80 μM), down-regulate KRAS promoter activity in a luciferase reporter assay, and reduce both KRAS mRNA and p21KRAS steady-state levels in mutant KRAS colon cancer cell lines. Additionally, IQcs induce cancer cell death by apoptosis, explained in part by their capacity to repress KRAS expression. Overall, the results suggest that targeting mutant KRAS at the gene level with G4 binding small molecules is a promising anticancer strategy. PMID:25853628

  3. Increased angiogenesis is associated with a 32-gene expression signature and 6p21 amplification in aggressive endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wik, Elisabeth; Mannelqvist, Monica; Kusonmano, Kanthida; Knutsvik, Gøril; Haldorsen, Ingfrid; Trovik, Jone; Øyan, Anne M.; Kalland, Karl-H.; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Salvesen, Helga B.; Akslen, Lars A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer. The aim of this study was to explore whether microvessel proliferation is associated with gene expression profiles or copy number alterations in endometrial cancer. Methods A prospective series of endometrial carcinomas was studied for angiogenesis markers, gene expression profiles, and gene copy number data. For validation, an independent series of endometrial carcinomas as well as an external cohort of endometrial cancer patients were examined by gene expression microarrays. Results Increased microvessel proliferation (MVP) was associated with aggressive tumor features and reduced survival, and a 32-gene expression signature was found to separate tumors with high versus low MVP. An increased 32-gene signature score was confirmed to associate with high-grade tumor features and reduced survival by independent cohorts. Copy number studies revealed that amplification of the 6p21 region was significantly associated with MVP, a high 32-gene score, as well as reduced survival. Conclusion Increased MVP was significantly associated with aggressive endometrial cancer and reduced survival. Integrated analyses demonstrated significant associations between increased vascular proliferation, amplification of the 6p21 region, VEGF-A mRNA expression, and the 32-gene angiogenesis signature. Our findings indicate amplification of 6p21 as a possible driver of tumor vascular proliferation in endometrial cancer. PMID:25860936

  4. Gene synthesis by integrated polymerase chain assembly and PCR amplification using a high-speed thermocycler

    PubMed Central

    TerMaat, Joel R.; Pienaar, Elsje; Whitney, Scott E.; Mamedov, Tarlan G.; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Polymerase chain assembly (PCA) is a technique used to synthesize genes ranging from a few hundred base pairs to many kilobase pairs in length. In traditional PCA, equimolar concentrations of single stranded DNA oligonucleotides are repeatedly hybridized and extended by a polymerase enzyme into longer dsDNA constructs, with relatively few full-length sequences being assembled. Thus, traditional PCA is followed by a second primer-mediated PCR reaction to amplify the desired full-length sequence to useful, detectable quantities. Integration of assembly and primer-mediated amplification steps into a single reaction using a high-speed thermocycler is shown to produce similar results. For the integrated technique, the effects of oligo concentration, primer concentration, and number of oligonucleotides are explored. The technique is successfully demonstrated for the synthesis of two genes encoding EPCR-1 (653 bp) and pUC19 β-lactamase (929 bp) in under 20 min. However, rapid integrated PCA–PCR was found to be problematic when attempted with the TM-1 gene (1509 bp). Partial oligonucleotide sets of TM-1 could be assembled and amplified simultaneously, indicating that the technique may be limited to a maximum number of oligonucleotides due to competitive annealing and competition for primers. PMID:19799938

  5. Sex identification of pigs using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the amelogenin gene.

    PubMed

    Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shun-ichi; Fuchimoto, Dai-ichiro; Iwamoto, Masaki; Kawarasaki, Tatsuo; Onishi, Akira

    2008-11-01

    The amelogenin (AMEL) gene exists on both sex chromosomes of various mammalian species and the length and sequence of the noncoding regions differ between the two chromosome-specific alleles. Because both forms can be amplified using a single primer set, the use of AMEL in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods has facilitated sex identification in various mammalian species, including cattle, sheep and humans. In this study, we designed PCR primers to yield different-sized products from the AMEL genes on the X (AMELX) and Y (AMELY) chromosomes of pigs. PCR amplification of genomic DNA samples collected from various breeds of pigs (European breeds: Landrace, Large White, Duroc and Berkshire; Chinese breeds: Meishan and Jinhua and their crossbreeds) yielded the expected products. For all breeds, DNA from male pigs produced two bands (520 and 350 bp; AMELX and AMELY, respectively), whereas samples from female pigs generated only the 520 bp product. We then tested the use of PCR of AMEL for sex identification of in vitro-produced (IVP) porcine embryos sampled at 2 or 5 to 6 days after fertilization; germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes and electroactivated embryos were used as controls. More than 88% of the GV-stage oocytes and electroactivated embryos yielded a single 520 bp single band and about 50% of the IVP embryos tested produced both bands. Our findings show that PCR analysis of the AMEL gene is reliable for sex identification of pigs and porcine embryos.

  6. EPSPS gene amplification conferring resistance to glyphosate in windmill grass (Chloris truncata) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ngo, The D; Malone, Jenna M; Boutsalis, Peter; Gill, Gurjeet; Preston, Christopher

    2017-03-20

    Five glyphosate-resistant populations of Chloris truncata originally collected from New South Wales were compared with one susceptible (S) population from South Australia to confirm glyphosate resistance and elucidate possible mechanisms of resistance. Based on the amounts of glyphosate required to kill 50% of treated plants (LD50 ), glyphosate resistance (GR) was confirmed in five populations of C. truncata (A536, A528, T27, A534 and A535.1). GR plants were 2.4-8.7-fold more resistant and accumulated less shikimate after glyphosate treatment than S plants. There was no difference in glyphosate absorption and translocation between GR and S plants. The EPSPS gene did not contain any point mutation that had previously been associated with resistance to glyphosate. The resistant plants (A528 and A536) contained up to 32-48 more copies of the EPSPS gene than the susceptible plants. This study has identified EPSPS gene amplification contributing to glyphosate resistance in C. truncata. In addition, a Glu-91-Ala mutation within EPSPS was identified that may contribute to glyphosate resistance in this species. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Silencing KRAS Overexpression in Cadmium-Transformed Prostate Epithelial Cells Mitigates Malignant Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ngalame, Ntube N O; Waalkes, Michael P; Tokar, Erik J

    2016-09-19

    Cadmium (Cd) is a potential human prostate carcinogen. Chronic Cd exposure malignantly transforms RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial cells into CTPE cells by an unclear mechanism. Previous studies show that RWPE-1 can also be malignantly transformed by arsenic, and KRAS activation is key to causation and maintenance of this phenotype. Although Cd and arsenic can both transform prostate epithelial cells, it is uncertain whether their mechanisms are similar. Thus, here we determined whether KRAS activation is critical in causing and maintaining Cd-induced malignant transformation in CTPE cells. Expression of KRAS, miRNAs, and other genes of interest was analyzed by Western blot and RT-PCR. Following stable KRAS knockdown (KD) by RNA interference using shRNAmir, the malignant phenotype was assessed by various physical and genetic parameters. CTPE cells greatly overexpressed KRAS by 20-fold, indicating a likely role in Cd transformation. Thus, we attempted to reverse the malignant phenotype via KRAS KD. Two weeks after shRNAmir transduction, KRAS protein was undetectable in CTPE KD cells, confirming stable KD. KRAS KD reduced stimulated RAS/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and markedly mitigated multiple physical and molecular malignant cell characteristics including: hypersecretion of MMP-2, colony formation, cell survival, and expression of cancer-relevant genes (reduced proliferation and cell cycle-related genes; activated tumor suppressor PTEN). However, KRAS KD did not reverse miRNA expression originally down-regulated by Cd transformation. These data strongly suggest KRAS is a key gene in development and maintenance of the Cd-induced malignant phenotype, at least in the prostate. It is not, however, the only genetic factor sustaining this phenotype.

  8. MLL gene amplification in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes is associated with characteristic clinicopathological findings and TP53 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Guilin; DiNardo, Courtney; Zhang, Liping; Ravandi, Farhad; Khoury, Joseph D; Huh, Yang O; Muzzafar, Tariq; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Wang, Sa A; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E

    2015-01-01

    MLL gene rearrangements are well-recognized aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In contrast, MLL gene amplification in AML/MDS remains poorly characterized. Here, we report a series of 21 patients with myeloid neoplasms associated with MLL gene amplification from 1 institution. This series included 13 men and 8 women, with a median age of 64 years. Eleven patients presented as AML with myelodysplasia-related changes, 6 as therapy-related AML, and 4 as therapy-related MDS. All patients had a highly complex karyotype, including frequent -5/del(5q), -18, and -17/del(17p) abnormalities; 16 patients were hypodiploid. TP53 mutations were detected in all 12 patients tested, and 3 patients showed TP53 mutation before MLL amplification. Morphologically, the leukemic cells frequently showed cytoplasmic vacuoles, bilobed nuclei, and were associated with background dyspoiesis. Immunophenotypically, 15 patients had a myeloid and 4 had myelomonocytic immunophenotype. Laboratory coagulopathies were common; 7 patients developed disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, and 3 died of intracranial bleeding. All patients were refractory to therapy; the median overall survival was 1 month, after MLL gene amplification was detected. We concluded that AML/MDS with MLL gene amplification is likely a subset of therapy-related AML/MDS or AML with myelodysplasia-related changes, associated with distinct clinicopathological features, frequent disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, a highly complex karyotype, TP53 deletion/mutation, and an aggressive clinical course. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Amplification of the Gp41 gene for detection of mutations conferring resistance to HIV-1 fusion inhibitors on genotypic assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanumihardja, J.; Bela, B.

    2017-08-01

    Fusion inhibitors have potential for future use in HIV control programs in Indonesia, so the capacity to test resistance to such drugs needs to be developed. Resistance-detection with a genotypic assay began with amplification of the target gene, gp41. Based on the sequence of the two most common HIV subtypes in Indonesia, AE and B, a primer pair was designed. Plasma samples containing both subtypes were extracted to obtain HIV RNA. Using PCR, the primer pair was used to produce the amplification product, the identity of which was checked based on length under electrophoresis. Eleven plasma samples were included in this study. One-step PCR using the primer pair was able to amplify gp41 from 54.5% of the samples, and an unspecific amplification product was seen in 1.1% of the samples. Amplification failed in 36.4% of the samples, which may be due to an inappropriate primer sequence. It was also found that the optimal annealing temperature for producing the single expected band was 57.2 °C. With one-step PCR, the designed primer pair amplified the HIV-1 gp41 gene from subtypes AE and B. However, further research should be done to determine the conditions that will increase the sensitivity and specificity of the amplification process.

  10. Development of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay Targeting the mpb64 Gene for Diagnosis of Intraocular Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Balne, Praveen Kumar; Barik, Manas Ranjan; Sharma, Savitri

    2013-01-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the mpb64 gene for the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis was highly specific (100%), sensitive (85.7%), rapid, and easy to perform. The LAMP assay can be an alternative to conventional PCR for the diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis in resource-limited settings. PMID:23966513

  11. Lack of correlation between BRCA1 carrier status and HER-2/neu (ERBB2) gene amplification in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, J.S.; Giraldez, R.A.; Flom, K.

    1994-09-01

    We examined 4{mu}m paraffin-embedded tissue sections from twenty female breast tumors for the presence of HER-2/neu (ERBB2) gene amplification. The study population consisted of ten BRCA1 carriers and ten non-BRCA1 carriers. Carrier status was assessed through linkage analysis. Detection of HER-2/neu gene amplification was performed blinded with respect to BRCA1 status. Forty cells representing at least two different areas of each tumor were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a HER-2/neu cosmid probe. We did not find any cases which showed the typical HER-2/neu gene amplification profile (homogeneous distribution of cells with > 4 signals per cell). In half of the cases, small foci that appeared amplified were identified as clusters of cells with > 4 signals. Modifying our analysis to compensate for this, cases were considered to be amplified if nine or more cells out of forty contained over four HER-2/neu signals. For the 10 BRCA1 carrier positive samples, 5 were HER-2/neu amplified and 5 were not. Similarly, of the 10 BRCA1 carrier negative samples, 5 were HER-2/neu amplified and 5 were not. Therefore, we found no statistical correlation between BRCA1 carrier status and amplification of the HER-2/neu gene in the tumors studied.

  12. Activation by Gene Amplification of pitB, Encoding a Third Phosphate Transporter of Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, Sally M.; Schoondermark, Paul; van Veen, Hendrik W.; Tommassen, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Two systems for the uptake of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in Escherichia coli, PitA and Pst, have been described. A revertant of a pitA pstS double mutant that could grow on Pi was isolated. We demonstrate that the expression of a new Pi transporter, PitB, is activated in this strain by a gene amplification event. PMID:11443103

  13. Molecular diagnosis of Kingella kingae pericarditis by amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Matta, Matta; Wermert, Delphine; Podglajen, Isabelle; Sanchez, Olivier; Buu-Hoï, Annie; Gutmann, Laurent; Meyer, Guy; Mainardi, Jean-Luc

    2007-09-01

    Kingella kingae is a fastidious gram-negative bacillus that is considered an emerging pathogen in pediatric settings but remains less common in adults. Here we describe a case of pericarditis in an immunocompetent adult host. The microorganism was identified directly from the clinical sample by molecular techniques, i.e., 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing.

  14. AIB1 gene amplification and the instability of polyQ encoding sequence in breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lee-Jun C; Dai, Pu; Lu, Jyh-Feng; Lou, Mary Ann; Clarke, Robert; Nazarov, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    Background The poly Q polymorphism in AIB1 (amplified in breast cancer) gene is usually assessed by fragment length analysis which does not reveal the actual sequence variation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the sequence variation of poly Q encoding region in breast cancer cell lines at single molecule level, and to determine if the sequence variation is related to AIB1 gene amplification. Methods The polymorphic poly Q encoding region of AIB1 gene was investigated at the single molecule level by PCR cloning/sequencing. The amplification of AIB1 gene in various breast cancer cell lines were studied by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Significant amplifications (5–23 folds) of AIB1 gene were found in 2 out of 9 (22%) ER positive cell lines (in BT-474 and MCF-7 but not in BT-20, ZR-75-1, T47D, BT483, MDA-MB-361, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-330). The AIB1 gene was not amplified in any of the ER negative cell lines. Different passages of MCF-7 cell lines and their derivatives maintained the feature of AIB1 amplification. When the cells were selected for hormone independence (LCC1) and resistance to 4-hydroxy tamoxifen (4-OH TAM) (LCC2 and R27), ICI 182,780 (LCC9) or 4-OH TAM, KEO and LY 117018 (LY-2), AIB1 copy number decreased but still remained highly amplified. Sequencing analysis of poly Q encoding region of AIB1 gene did not reveal specific patterns that could be correlated with AIB1 gene amplification. However, about 72% of the breast cancer cell lines had at least one under represented (<20%) extra poly Q encoding sequence patterns that were derived from the original allele, presumably due to somatic instability. Although all MCF-7 cells and their variants had the same predominant poly Q encoding sequence pattern of (CAG)3CAA(CAG)9(CAACAG)3(CAACAGCAG)2CAA of the original cell line, a number of altered poly Q encoding sequences were found in the derivatives of MCF-7 cell lines. Conclusion These data suggest that poly Q encoding region of AIB1 gene is

  15. AIB1 gene amplification and the instability of polyQ encoding sequence in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lee-Jun C; Dai, Pu; Lu, Jyh-Feng; Lou, Mary Ann; Clarke, Robert; Nazarov, Viktor

    2006-05-02

    The poly Q polymorphism in AIB1 (amplified in breast cancer) gene is usually assessed by fragment length analysis which does not reveal the actual sequence variation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the sequence variation of poly Q encoding region in breast cancer cell lines at single molecule level, and to determine if the sequence variation is related to AIB1 gene amplification. The polymorphic poly Q encoding region of AIB1 gene was investigated at the single molecule level by PCR cloning/sequencing. The amplification of AIB1 gene in various breast cancer cell lines were studied by real-time quantitative PCR. Significant amplifications (5-23 folds) of AIB1 gene were found in 2 out of 9 (22%) ER positive cell lines (in BT-474 and MCF-7 but not in BT-20, ZR-75-1, T47D, BT483, MDA-MB-361, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-330). The AIB1 gene was not amplified in any of the ER negative cell lines. Different passages of MCF-7 cell lines and their derivatives maintained the feature of AIB1 amplification. When the cells were selected for hormone independence (LCC1) and resistance to 4-hydroxy tamoxifen (4-OH TAM) (LCC2 and R27), ICI 182,780 (LCC9) or 4-OH TAM, KEO and LY 117018 (LY-2), AIB1 copy number decreased but still remained highly amplified. Sequencing analysis of poly Q encoding region of AIB1 gene did not reveal specific patterns that could be correlated with AIB1 gene amplification. However, about 72% of the breast cancer cell lines had at least one under represented (<20%) extra poly Q encoding sequence patterns that were derived from the original allele, presumably due to somatic instability. Although all MCF-7 cells and their variants had the same predominant poly Q encoding sequence pattern of (CAG)3CAA(CAG)9(CAACAG)3(CAACAGCAG)2CAA of the original cell line, a number of altered poly Q encoding sequences were found in the derivatives of MCF-7 cell lines. These data suggest that poly Q encoding region of AIB1 gene is somatic unstable in breast cancer cell

  16. Gene Amplification and Point Mutations in Pyrimidine Metabolic Genes in 5-Fluorouracil Resistant Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Ritt, Jean-François; Raymond, Frédéric; Leprohon, Philippe; Légaré, Danielle; Corbeil, Jacques; Ouellette, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background The human protozoan parasites Leishmania are prototrophic for pyrimidines with the ability of both de novo biosynthesis and uptake of pyrimidines. Methodology/Principal Findings Five independent L. infantum mutants were selected for resistance to the pyrimidine analogue 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the hope to better understand the metabolism of pyrimidine in Leishmania. Analysis of the 5-FU mutants by comparative genomic hybridization and whole genome sequencing revealed in selected mutants the amplification of DHFR-TS and a deletion of part of chromosome 10. Point mutations in uracil phosphorybosyl transferase (UPRT), thymidine kinase (TK) and uridine phosphorylase (UP) were also observed in three individual resistant mutants. Transfection experiments confirmed that these point mutations were responsible for 5-FU resistance. Transport studies revealed that one resistant mutant was defective for uracil and 5-FU import. Conclusion/Significance This study provided further insights in pyrimidine metabolism in Leishmania and confirmed that multiple mutations can co-exist and lead to resistance in Leishmania. PMID:24278495

  17. KRAS Testing and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor Treatment for Colorectal Cancer in Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Jennifer; Kauffman, Tia L.; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Potosky, Arnold L.; Cross, Deanna; Meier, Paul R.; Mirabedi, Anousheh S.; Delate, Thomas; Daida, Yihe; Williams, Andrew E.; Alexander, Gwen L.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Honda, Stacey; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Goddard, Katrina A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), mutations in the KRAS gene predict poor response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. Clinical treatment guidelines now recommend KRAS testing if EGFR inhibitors are considered. Our study investigates the clinical uptake and utilization of KRAS testing. Methods We included 1,188 patients with mCRC diagnosed from 2004 to 2009, from seven integrated health care delivery systems with a combined membership of 5.5 million. We used electronic medical records and targeted manual chart review to capture the complexity and breadth of real-world clinical oncology care. Results Overall, 428 patients (36%) received KRAS testing during their clinical care, and 266 (22%) were treated with EGFR inhibitors. Age at diagnosis (p=0.0034), comorbid conditions (p=0.0316), and survival time from diagnosis (p<0.0001) influence KRAS testing and EGFR inhibitor prescribing. The proportion who received KRAS testing increased from 7% to 97% for those treated in 2006 and 2010, respectively, and 83% of all treated patients had a KRAS wild type genotype. Most patients with a KRAS mutation (86%) were not treated with EGFR inhibitors. The interval between mCRC diagnosis and receipt of KRAS testing decreased from 26 months (2006) to 10 months (2009). Conclusions These findings demonstrate rapid uptake and incorporation of this predictive biomarker into clinical oncology care. Impact In this delivery setting, KRAS testing is widely used to guide treatment decisions with EGFR inhibitors in patients with mCRC. An important future research goal is to evaluate utilization of KRAS testing in other delivery settings in the US. PMID:23155138

  18. Calcium Channel Genes Associated with Bipolar Disorder Modulate Lithium's Amplification of Circadian Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Michael J.; LeRoux, Melissa; Wei, Heather; Beesley, Stephen; Kelsoe, John R.; Welsh, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with mood episodes and low amplitude circadian rhythms. Previously, we demonstrated that fibroblasts grown from BD patients show weaker amplification of circadian rhythms by lithium compared to control cells. Since calcium signals impact upon the circadian clock, and L-type calcium channels (LTCC) have emerged as genetic risk factors for BD, we examined whether loss of function in LTCCs accounts for the attenuated response to lithium in BD cells. We used fluorescent dyes to measure Ca2+ changes in BD and control fibroblasts after lithium treatment, and bioluminescent reporters to measure Per2∷luc rhythms in fibroblasts from BD patients, human controls, and mice while pharmacologically or genetically manipulating calcium channels. Longitudinal expression of LTCC genes (CACNA1C, CACNA1D and CACNB3) was then measured over 12-24 hr in BD and control cells. Our results indicate that independently of LTCCs, lithium stimulated intracellular Ca2+ less effectively in BD vs. control fibroblasts. In longitudinal studies, pharmacological inhibition of LTCCs or knockdown of CACNA1A, CACNA1C, CACNA1D and CACNB3 altered circadian rhythm amplitude. Diltiazem and knockdown of CACNA1C or CACNA1D eliminated lithium's ability to amplify rhythms. Knockdown of CACNA1A or CACNB3 altered baseline rhythms, but did not affect rhythm amplification by lithium. In human fibroblasts, CACNA1C genotype predicted the amplitude response to lithium, and the expression profiles of CACNA1C, CACNA1D and CACNB3 were altered in BD vs. controls. We conclude that in cells from BD patients, calcium signaling is abnormal, and that LTCCs underlie the failure of lithium to amplify circadian rhythms. PMID:26476274

  19. PCR amplification and typing of the HLA DQ alpha gene in forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Comey, C T; Budowle, B; Adams, D E; Baumstark, A L; Lindsey, J A; Presley, L A

    1993-03-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the HLA DQ alpha gene using DNA recovered from evidentiary samples. Amplified HLA DQ alpha DNA was then typed using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. Slight modifications of previously published DNA extraction methods improved typing success of bloodstains and semen-containing material. Evidentiary samples, consisting of 206 known bloodstains, 26 questioned bloodstains, and 123 questioned semen-containing evidentiary materials were analyzed from 96 cases previously analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing in the FBI Laboratory. Of the known bloodstains, 98.5% yielded DQ alpha typing results. Of the questioned samples, 102 of 149 (24/26 bloodstains and 78/123 semen-containing materials), or 68%, produced typing results. Of the 78 cases that were RFLP inclusions, 59 yielded interpretable DQ alpha results and these were all inclusions. The remaining 19 cases could not be interpreted for DQ alpha. Of the 18 RFLP exclusions, eleven were DQ alpha exclusions, four were DQ alpha inclusions, and three could not be interpreted for DQ alpha. It is expected that because of the difference in discrimination potential of the two methods, some RFLP exclusions would be DQ alpha inclusions. Some samples that failed to produce typing results may have had insufficient DNA for analysis. Employment of a human DNA quantification method in DQ alpha casework would allow the user to more consistently use sufficient quantities of DNA for amplification. It also could provide a guide for determining if an inhibitor of PCR is present, thus suggesting the use of a procedure to improve amplification. This study provides support that the HLA DQ alpha typing procedure is valid for typing forensic samples.

  20. Tyrosine kinase activation in breast carcinoma with correlation to HER-2/neu gene amplification and receptor overexpression.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, R; Naeem, R; Marconi, S; Luszcz, J; Garb, J; Gasparini, R; Otis, C N

    2001-12-01

    The HER-2/neu oncogene encodes a transmembrane receptor with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. A pilot study was performed to investigate downstream effects of HER-2/neu (or related growth factor receptor) activation by identifying phosphorylated tyrosine. Fifty-four breast carcinomas were evaluated for HER-2/neu overexpression by the HercepTest (Dako, Carpinteria, CA) and the monoclonal CB11 antibody (Ventana, Tucson, AZ). Phosphotyrosine (an indication of tyrosine kinase activity) was detected by an antiphosphotyrosine mouse monoclonal antibody (Upstate Biotechnology, Lake Placid, NY). The gene amplification status was evaluated in 50 of the 54 cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the Ventana gene probe. The HER-2/neu oncogene amplification was detected in 28% (14 of 50) of cases. Of the 14 cases showing oncogene amplification, tyrosine kinase activity was detected in 9 (64.2%) cases. There was moderate agreement between HER-2/neu gene amplification and tyrosine kinase activity (kappa = 0.43). Immunohistochemical staining of 3+ (with both HercepTest and CB11) showed better agreement with HER-2/neu oncogene amplification and increased tyrosine kinase activity than 2+ immunohistochemical staining. Overall, oncogene amplification and overexpression correlated with increased tyrosine kinase activity, supporting the mechanism of tyrosine kinase activation by HER-2/neu amplification and overexpression. However, 7 cases showing increased tyrosine kinase activity did not show gene amplification or 3+ receptor expression (by either HercepTest or CB11), raising the possibility of other growth factor receptors operating via the tyrosine kinase pathway. There was no apparent correlation between tyrosine kinase activity and hormone receptor status (estrogen or progesterone). Increased tyrosine kinase activity is more commonly associated with higher-grade tumors and thus may correlate with aggressive biologic behavior in breast carcinoma. The results of

  1. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a nucleoprotein gene sequence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arakawa, C.K.; Deering, R.E.; Higman, K.H.; Oshima, K.H.; O'Hara, P.J.; Winton, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction [PCR) was used to amplify a portion of the nucleoprotein [NI gene of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Using a published sequence for the Round Butte isolate of IHNV, a pair of PCR pnmers was synthesized that spanned a 252 nucleotide region of the N gene from residue 319 to residue 570 of the open reading frame. This region included a 30 nucleotide target sequence for a synthetic oligonucleotide probe developed for detection of IHNV N gene messenger RNA. After 25 cycles of amplification of either messenger or genomic RNA, the PCR product (DNA) of the expected size was easily visible on agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide. The specificity of the amplified DNA was confirmed by Southern and dot-blot analysis using the biotinylated oligonucleotide probe. The PCR was able to amplify the N gene sequence of purified genomic RNA from isolates of IHNV representing 5 different electropherotypes. Using the IHNV primer set, no PCR product was obtained from viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus RNA, but 2 higher molecular weight products were synthesized from hirame rhabdovirus RNA that did not hybridize with the biotinylated probe. The PCR could be efficiently performed with all IHNV genomic RNA template concentrations tested (1 ng to 1 pg). The lowest level of sensitivity was not determined. The PCR was used to amplify RNA extracted from infected cell cultures and selected tissues of Infected rainbow trout. The combination of PCR and nucleic acid probe promises to provide a detection method for IHNV that is rapid, h~ghly specific, and sensitive.

  2. Colorimetric TMPRSS2-ERG Gene Fusion Detection in Prostate Cancer Urinary Samples via Recombinase Polymerase Amplification.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kevin M; Wee, Eugene J H; Trau, Matt

    2016-01-01

    TMPRSS2 (Exon 1)-ERG (Exon 4) is the most frequent gene fusion event in prostate cancer (PC), and is highly PC-specific unlike the current serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) biomarker. However, TMPRSS2-ERG levels are currently measured with quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) which is time-consuming and requires costly equipment, thus limiting its use in clinical diagnostics. Herein, we report a novel rapid, cost-efficient and minimal-equipment assay named "FusBLU" for detecting TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions from urine. TMPRSS2-ERG mRNA was amplified by isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA), magnetically-isolated, and detected through horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed colorimetric reaction. FusBLU was specific for TMPRSS2-ERG mRNA with a low visual detection limit of 10(5) copies. We also demonstrated assay readout versatility on 3 potentially useful platforms. The colorimetric readout was detectable by naked eye for a quick yes/no evaluation of gene fusion presence. On the other hand, a more quantitative TMPRSS2-ERG detection was achievable by absorbance/electrochemical measurements. FusBLU was successfully applied to 12 urinary samples and results were validated by gold-standard RT-qPCR. We also showed that sediment RNA was likely the main source of TMPRSS2-ERG mRNA in urinary samples. We believe that our assay is a potential clinical screening tool for PC and could also have wide applications for other disease-related fusion genes.

  3. Colorimetric TMPRSS2-ERG Gene Fusion Detection in Prostate Cancer Urinary Samples via Recombinase Polymerase Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Kevin M.; Wee, Eugene J.H.; Trau, Matt

    2016-01-01

    TMPRSS2 (Exon 1)-ERG (Exon 4) is the most frequent gene fusion event in prostate cancer (PC), and is highly PC-specific unlike the current serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) biomarker. However, TMPRSS2-ERG levels are currently measured with quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) which is time-consuming and requires costly equipment, thus limiting its use in clinical diagnostics. Herein, we report a novel rapid, cost-efficient and minimal-equipment assay named “FusBLU” for detecting TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions from urine. TMPRSS2-ERG mRNA was amplified by isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA), magnetically-isolated, and detected through horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed colorimetric reaction. FusBLU was specific for TMPRSS2-ERG mRNA with a low visual detection limit of 105 copies. We also demonstrated assay readout versatility on 3 potentially useful platforms. The colorimetric readout was detectable by naked eye for a quick yes/no evaluation of gene fusion presence. On the other hand, a more quantitative TMPRSS2-ERG detection was achievable by absorbance/electrochemical measurements. FusBLU was successfully applied to 12 urinary samples and results were validated by gold-standard RT-qPCR. We also showed that sediment RNA was likely the main source of TMPRSS2-ERG mRNA in urinary samples. We believe that our assay is a potential clinical screening tool for PC and could also have wide applications for other disease-related fusion genes. PMID:27375789

  4. Lager yeasts possess dynamic genomes that undergo rearrangements and gene amplification in response to stress.

    PubMed

    James, Tharappel C; Usher, Jane; Campbell, Susan; Bond, Ursula

    2008-03-01

    A long-term goal of the brewing industry is to identify yeast strains with increased tolerance to the stresses experienced during the brewing process. We have characterised the genomes of a number of stress-tolerant mutants, derived from the lager yeast strain CMBS-33, that were selected for tolerance to high temperatures and to growth in high specific gravity wort. Our results indicate that the heat-tolerant strains have undergone a number of gross chromosomal rearrangements when compared to the parental strain. To determine if such rearrangements can spontaneously arise in response to exposure to stress conditions experienced during the brewing process, we examined the chromosome integrity of both the stress-tolerant strains and their parent during a single round of fermentation under a variety of environmental stresses. Our results show that the lager yeast genome shows tremendous plasticity during fermentation, especially when fermentations are carried out in high specific gravity wort and at higher than normal temperatures. Many localised regions of gene amplification were observed especially at the telomeres and at the rRNA gene locus on chromosome XII, and general chromosomal instability was evident. However, gross chromosomal rearrangements were not detected, indicating that continued selection in the stress conditions are required to obtain clonal isolates with stable rearrangements. Taken together, the data suggest that lager yeasts display a high degree of genomic plasticity and undergo genomic changes in response to environmental stress.

  5. Downstream of Mutant KRAS, the Transcription Regulator YAP Is Essential for Neoplastic Progression to Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiying; Nandakumar, Nivedita; Shi, Yuhao; Manzano, Mark; Smith, Alias; Graham, Garrett; Gupta, Swati; Vietsch, Eveline E.; Laughlin, Sean Z.; Wadhwa, Mandheer; Chetram, Mahandranauth; Joshi, Mrinmayi; Wang, Fen; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Toretsky, Jeffrey; Wellstein, Anton; Yi, Chunling

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer with poor survival rates and frequently carries oncogenic KRAS mutation. However, KRAS has thus far not been a viable therapeutic target. We found that the abundance of YAP mRNA, which encodes Yes-associated protein (YAP), a protein regulated by the Hippo pathway during tissue development and homeostasis, was increased in human PDAC tissue compared with that in normal pancreatic epithelia. In genetically engineered KrasG12D and KrasG12D: Trp53R172H mouse models, pancreas-specific deletion of Yap halted the progression of early neoplastic lesions to PDAC without affecting normal pancreatic development and endocrine function. Although Yap was dispensable for acinar to ductal metaplasia (ADM), an initial step in the progression to PDAC, Yap was critically required for the proliferation of mutant Kras or Kras:Trp53 neoplastic pancreatic ductal cells in culture and for their growth and progression to invasive PDAC in mice. Yap functioned as a critical transcriptional switch downstream of the oncogenic KRAS–mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, promoting the expression of genes encoding secretory factors that cumulatively sustained neoplastic proliferation, a tumorigenic stromal response in the tumor microenvironment, and PDAC progression in Kras and Kras: Trp53 mutant pancreas tissue. Together, our findings identified Yap as a critical oncogenic KRAS effector and a promising therapeutic target for PDAC and possibly other types of KRAS-mutant cancers. PMID:24803537

  6. Modulation of RAB5A early endosome trafficking in response to KRas mediated macropinocytic fluxes in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Teske, Christian; Schweitzer, Christine; Palamidessi, Andrea; Aust, Daniela E; Scita, Giorgio; Weitz, Jürgen; Welsch, Thilo

    2017-09-01

    KRAS is the key mutated gene in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Emerging evidence indicates that KRas modulates endocytic uptake. The present study aimed to explore the fate of early endosomal trafficking under the control of KRas expression in PDAC. Surprisingly, PANC-1 cells lacking KRas exhibited significantly enlarged early and late endosomes containing internalized dextran and epidermal growth factor. Endosome enlargement was accompanied by reduced endosomal degradation. Both KRas silencing and lysosomal blockade caused an upregulation of the master regulator of early endosome biogenesis, RAB5A, which is likely responsible for the expansion of the early endosomal compartment, because simultaneous KRAS/RAB5A knockdown abolished endosome enlargement. In contrast, early endosome shrinkage was seen in MIA PaCa-2 cells despite RAB5A upregulation, indicating that distinct KRas-modulated responses operate in different metabolic subtypes of PDAC. In conclusion, mutant KRAS promotes endosomal degradation in PDAC cell lines, which is impaired by KRAS silencing. Moreover, KRAS silencing activates RAB5A upregulation and drives PDAC subtype-dependent modulation of endosome trafficking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Concurrent AURKA and MYCN Gene Amplifications Are Harbingers of Lethal Treatment-Related Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer1 2

    PubMed Central

    Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Beltran, Himisha; Park, Kyung; MacDonald, Theresa Y; Robinson, Brian D; Tagawa, Scott T; Perner, Sven; Bismar, Tarek A; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Dhir, Rajiv; Nelson, Joel B; Nanus, David M; Rubin, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC), also referred to as anaplastic prostate cancer, is a lethal tumor that most commonly arises in late stages of prostate adenocarcinoma (PCA) with predilection to metastasize to visceral organs. In the current study, we explore for evidence that Aurora kinase A (AURKA) and N-myc (MYCN) gene abnormalities are harbingers of treatment-related NEPC (t-NEPC). We studied primary prostate tissue from 15 hormone naïve PCAs, 51 castration-resistant prostate cancers, and 15 metastatic tumors from 72 patients at different stages of disease progression to t-NEPC, some with multiple specimens. Histologic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed and correlated with clinical variables. AURKA amplification was identified in overall 65% of PCAs (hormone naïve and treated) from patients that developed t-NEPC and in 86% of metastases. Concurrent amplification of MYCN was present in 70% of primary PCAs, 69% of treated PCAs, and 83% of metastases. In contrast, in an unselected PCA cohort, AURKA and MYCN amplifications were identified in only 5% of 169 cases. When metastatic t-NEPC was compared to primary PCA from the same patients, there was 100% concordance of ERG rearrangement, 100% concordance of AURKA amplification, and 60% concordance of MYCN amplification. In tumors with mixed features, there was also 100% concordance of ERG rearrangement and 94% concordance of AURKA and MYCN co-amplification between areas of NEPC and adenocarcinoma. AURKA and MYCN amplifications may be prognostic and predictive biomarkers, as they are harbingers of tumors at risk of progressing to t-NEPC after hormonal therapy. PMID:23358695

  8. Gene Amplification on Demand Accelerates Cellobiose Utilization in Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eun Joong; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Kim, Soo Rin; Wei, Na; Turner, Timothy L; Maurer, Matthew J; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-06-15

    Efficient microbial utilization of cellulosic sugars is essential for the economic production of biofuels and chemicals. Although the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust microbial platform widely used in ethanol plants using sugar cane and corn starch in large-scale operations, glucose repression is one of the significant barriers to the efficient fermentation of cellulosic sugar mixtures. A recent study demonstrated that intracellular utilization of cellobiose by engineered yeast expressing a cellobiose transporter (encoded by cdt-1) and an intracellular β-glucosidase (encoded by gh1-1) can alleviate glucose repression, resulting in the simultaneous cofermentation of cellobiose and nonglucose sugars. Here we report enhanced cellobiose fermentation by engineered yeast expressing cdt-1 and gh1-1 through laboratory evolution. When cdt-1 and gh1-1 were integrated into the genome of yeast, the single copy integrant showed a low cellobiose consumption rate. However, cellobiose fermentation rates by engineered yeast increased gradually during serial subcultures on cellobiose. Finally, an evolved strain exhibited a 15-fold-higher cellobiose fermentation rate. To identify the responsible mutations in the evolved strain, genome sequencing was performed. Interestingly, no mutations affecting cellobiose fermentation were identified, but the evolved strain contained 9 copies of cdt-1 and 23 copies of gh1-1 We also traced the copy numbers of cdt-1 and gh1-1 of mixed populations during the serial subcultures. The copy numbers of cdt-1 and gh1-1 in the cultures increased gradually with similar ratios as cellobiose fermentation rates of the cultures increased. These results suggest that the cellobiose assimilation pathway (transport and hydrolysis) might be a rate-limiting step in engineered yeast and copies of genes coding for metabolic enzymes might be amplified in yeast if there is a growth advantage. This study indicates that on-demand gene amplification might be an

  9. Gene Amplification on Demand Accelerates Cellobiose Utilization in Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Eun Joong; Skerker, Jeffrey M.; Kim, Soo Rin; Wei, Na; Turner, Timothy L.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Efficient microbial utilization of cellulosic sugars is essential for the economic production of biofuels and chemicals. Although the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust microbial platform widely used in ethanol plants using sugar cane and corn starch in large-scale operations, glucose repression is one of the significant barriers to the efficient fermentation of cellulosic sugar mixtures. A recent study demonstrated that intracellular utilization of cellobiose by engineered yeast expressing a cellobiose transporter (encoded by cdt-1) and an intracellular β-glucosidase (encoded by gh1-1) can alleviate glucose repression, resulting in the simultaneous cofermentation of cellobiose and nonglucose sugars. Here we report enhanced cellobiose fermentation by engineered yeast expressing cdt-1 and gh1-1 through laboratory evolution. When cdt-1 and gh1-1 were integrated into the genome of yeast, the single copy integrant showed a low cellobiose consumption rate. However, cellobiose fermentation rates by engineered yeast increased gradually during serial subcultures on cellobiose. Finally, an evolved strain exhibited a 15-fold-higher cellobiose fermentation rate. To identify the responsible mutations in the evolved strain, genome sequencing was performed. Interestingly, no mutations affecting cellobiose fermentation were identified, but the evolved strain contained 9 copies of cdt-1 and 23 copies of gh1-1. We also traced the copy numbers of cdt-1 and gh1-1 of mixed populations during the serial subcultures. The copy numbers of cdt-1 and gh1-1 in the cultures increased gradually with similar ratios as cellobiose fermentation rates of the cultures increased. These results suggest that the cellobiose assimilation pathway (transport and hydrolysis) might be a rate-limiting step in engineered yeast and copies of genes coding for metabolic enzymes might be amplified in yeast if there is a growth advantage. This study indicates that on-demand gene amplification

  10. Distinct Phenotypic Differences Associated with Differential Amplification of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Genes at 4q12 in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Burford, Anna; Little, Suzanne E.; Jury, Alexa; Popov, Sergey; Laxton, Ross; Doey, Lawrence; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Jürgensmeier, Juliane M.; Jones, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Gene amplification at chromosome 4q12 is a common alteration in human high grade gliomas including glioblastoma, a CNS tumour with consistently poor prognosis. This locus harbours the known oncogenes encoding the receptor tyrosine kinases PDGFRA, KIT, and VEGFR2. These receptors are potential targets for novel therapeutic intervention in these diseases, with expression noted in tumour cells and/or associated vasculature. Despite this, a detailed assessment of their relative contributions to different high grade glioma histologies and the underlying heterogeneity within glioblastoma has been lacking. We studied 342 primary high grade gliomas for individual gene amplification using specific FISH probes, as well as receptor expression in the tumour and endothelial cells by immunohistochemistry, and correlated our findings with specific tumour cell morphological types and patterns of vasculature. We identified amplicons which encompassed PDGFRA only, PDGFRA/KIT, and PDGFRA/KIT/VEGFR2, with distinct phenotypic correlates. Within glioblastoma specimens, PDGFRA amplification alone was linked to oligodendroglial, small cell and sarcomatous tumour cell morphologies, and rare MGMT promoter methylation. A younger age at diagnosis and better clinical outcome in glioblastoma patients is only seen when PDGFRA and KIT are co-amplified. IDH1 mutation was only found when all three genes are amplified; this is a subgroup which also harbours extensive MGMT promoter methylation. Whilst PDGFRA amplification was tightly linked to tumour expression of the receptor, this was not the case for KIT or VEGFR2. Thus we have identified differential patterns of gene amplification and expression of RTKs at the 4q12 locus to be associated with specific phenotypes which may reflect their distinct underlying mechanisms. PMID:23990986

  11. Towards in vivo amplification: Overcoming hurdles in the use of hematopoietic stem cells in transplantation and gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nagree, Murtaza S; López-Vásquez, Lucía; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of safer and more efficient gene transfer methods, gene therapy has become a viable solution for many inherited and acquired disorders. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a prime cell compartment for gene therapy aimed at correcting blood-based disorders, as well as those amenable to metabolic outcomes that can effect cross-correction. While some resounding clinical successes have recently been demonstrated, ample room remains to increase the therapeutic output from HSC-directed gene therapy. In vivo amplification of therapeutic cells is one avenue to achieve enhanced gene product delivery. To date, attempts have been made to provide HSCs with resistance to cytotoxic drugs, to include drug-inducible growth modules specific to HSCs, and to increase the engraftment potential of transduced HSCs. This review aims to summarize amplification strategies that have been developed and tested and to discuss their advantages along with barriers faced towards their clinical adaptation. In addition, next-generation strategies to circumvent current limitations of specific amplification schemas are discussed. PMID:26730268

  12. Intrachromosomal Amplification, Locus Deletion and Point Mutation in the Aquaglyceroporin AQP1 Gene in Antimony Resistant Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis

    PubMed Central

    Monte-Neto, Rubens; Laffitte, Marie-Claude N.; Leprohon, Philippe; Reis, Priscila; Frézard, Frédéric; Ouellette, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background Antimony resistance complicates the treatment of infections caused by the parasite Leishmania. Methodology/Principal Findings Using next generation sequencing, we sequenced the genome of four independent Leishmania guyanensis antimony-resistant (SbR) mutants and found different chromosomal alterations including aneuploidy, intrachromosomal gene amplification and gene deletion. A segment covering 30 genes on chromosome 19 was amplified intrachromosomally in three of the four mutants. The gene coding for the multidrug resistance associated protein A involved in antimony resistance was also amplified in the four mutants, most likely through chromosomal translocation. All mutants also displayed a reduced accumulation of antimony mainly due to genomic alterations at the level of the subtelomeric region of chromosome 31 harboring the gene coding for the aquaglyceroporin 1 (LgAQP1). Resistance involved the loss of LgAQP1 through subtelomeric deletions in three mutants. Interestingly, the fourth mutant harbored a single G133D point mutation in LgAQP1 whose role in resistance was functionality confirmed through drug sensitivity and antimony accumulation assays. In contrast to the Leishmania subspecies that resort to extrachromosomal amplification, the Viannia strains studied here used intrachromosomal amplification and locus deletion. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of a naturally occurred point mutation in AQP1 in antimony resistant parasites. PMID:25679388

  13. Intrachromosomal amplification, locus deletion and point mutation in the aquaglyceroporin AQP1 gene in antimony resistant Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis.

    PubMed

    Monte-Neto, Rubens; Laffitte, Marie-Claude N; Leprohon, Philippe; Reis, Priscila; Frézard, Frédéric; Ouellette, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Antimony resistance complicates the treatment of infections caused by the parasite Leishmania. Using next generation sequencing, we sequenced the genome of four independent Leishmania guyanensis antimony-resistant (SbR) mutants and found different chromosomal alterations including aneuploidy, intrachromosomal gene amplification and gene deletion. A segment covering 30 genes on chromosome 19 was amplified intrachromosomally in three of the four mutants. The gene coding for the multidrug resistance associated protein A involved in antimony resistance was also amplified in the four mutants, most likely through chromosomal translocation. All mutants also displayed a reduced accumulation of antimony mainly due to genomic alterations at the level of the subtelomeric region of chromosome 31 harboring the gene coding for the aquaglyceroporin 1 (LgAQP1). Resistance involved the loss of LgAQP1 through subtelomeric deletions in three mutants. Interestingly, the fourth mutant harbored a single G133D point mutation in LgAQP1 whose role in resistance was functionality confirmed through drug sensitivity and antimony accumulation assays. In contrast to the Leishmania subspecies that resort to extrachromosomal amplification, the Viannia strains studied here used intrachromosomal amplification and locus deletion. This is the first report of a naturally occurred point mutation in AQP1 in antimony resistant parasites.

  14. Inefficient growth arrest in response to dNTP starvation stimulates gene amplification through bridge-breakage-fusion cycles.

    PubMed Central

    Poupon, M F; Smith, K A; Chernova, O B; Gilbert, C; Stark, G R

    1996-01-01

    Cells often acquire resistance to the antiproliferative agents methotrexate (MTX) or N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate (PALA) through amplification of genes encoding the target enzymes dihydrofolate reductase or carbamylphosphate synthetase/aspartate transcarbamylase/dihydroorotase (CAD), respectively. We showed previously that Syrian hamster BHK cells resistant to selective concentrations of PALA (approximately 3 x ID50) arise at a rate of approximately 10(-4) per cell per generation and contain amplifications of the CAD gene as ladder-like structures on one of the two B9 chromosomes, where CAD is normally located. We now find that BHK cells resistant to high concentrations of PALA (approximately 15 x ID50) appear only after prior exposure to selective concentrations of PALA for approximately 72 h. Furthermore, in contrast to untreated cells, BHK cells pretreated with selective concentrations of MTX give colonies in high concentrations of PALA, and cells pretreated with selective concentrations of PALA give colonies in high concentrations of MTX or 5-fluorouracil. As judged by measuring numbers of cells and metaphase cell pairs, BHK cells do not arrest completely when starved for pyrimidine nucleotides by treatment with selective concentrations of PALA for up to 72 h. We propose that DNA damage, caused when cells fail to stop DNA synthesis promptly under conditions of dNTP starvation, stimulates amplification throughout the genome by mechanisms--such as bridge-breakage-fusion cycles--that are triggered by broken DNA. Amplified CAD genes were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization both in cells where amplification was induced by PALA pretreatment and in cells in which the amplification occurred spontaneously, before selection with PALA. The ladder-like structures that result from bridge-breakage-fusion cycles were observed in both cases. Images PMID:8868464

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Exosomes from Mutant KRAS Colon Cancer Cells Identifies Intercellular Transfer of Mutant KRAS*

    PubMed Central

    Demory Beckler, Michelle; Higginbotham, James N.; Franklin, Jeffrey L.; Ham, Amy-Joan; Halvey, Patrick J.; Imasuen, Imade E.; Whitwell, Corbin; Li, Ming; Liebler, Daniel C.; Coffey, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Activating mutations in KRAS occur in 30% to 40% of colorectal cancers. How mutant KRAS alters cancer cell behavior has been studied intensively, but non-cell autonomous effects of mutant KRAS are less understood. We recently reported that exosomes isolated from mutant KRAS-expressing colon cancer cells enhanced the invasiveness of recipient cells relative to exosomes purified from wild-type KRAS-expressing cells, leading us to hypothesize mutant KRAS might affect neighboring and distant cells by regulating exosome composition and behavior. Herein, we show the results of a comprehensive proteomic analysis of exosomes from parental DLD-1 cells that contain both wild-type and G13D mutant KRAS alleles and isogenically matched derivative cell lines, DKO-1 (mutant KRAS allele only) and DKs-8 (wild-type KRAS allele only). Mutant KRAS status dramatically affects the composition of the exosome proteome. Exosomes from mutant KRAS cells contain many tumor-promoting proteins, including KRAS, EGFR, SRC family kinases, and integrins. DKs-8 cells internalize DKO-1 exosomes, and, notably, DKO-1 exosomes transfer mutant KRAS to DKs-8 cells, leading to enhanced three-dimensional growth of these wild-type KRAS-expressing non-transformed cells. These results have important implications for non-cell autonomous effects of mutant KRAS, such as field effect and tumor progression. PMID:23161513

  16. KRAS driven expression signature has prognostic power superior to mutation status in non‐small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Ádám; Pongor, Lőrinc Sándor; Szabó, András; Santarpia, Mariacarmela

    2016-01-01

    KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the prognostic role of KRAS mutation status in NSCLC still remains controversial. We hypothesize that the expression changes of genes affected by KRAS mutation status will have the most prominent effect and could be used as a prognostic signature in lung cancer. We divided NSCLC patients with mutation and RNA‐seq data into KRAS mutated and wild type groups. Mann‐Whitney test was used to identify genes showing altered expression between these cohorts. Mean expression of the top five genes was designated as a “transcriptomic fingerprint” of the mutation. We evaluated the effect of this signature on clinical outcome in 2,437 NSCLC patients using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Mutation of KRAS was most common in adenocarcinoma. Mutation status and KRAS expression were not correlated to prognosis. The transcriptomic fingerprint of KRAS include FOXRED2, KRAS, TOP1, PEX3 and ABL2. The KRAS signature had a high prognostic power. Similar results were achieved when using the second and third set of strongest genes. Moreover, all cutoff values delivered significant prognostic power (p < 0.01). The KRAS signature also remained significant (p < 0.01) in a multivariate analysis including age, gender, smoking history and tumor stage. We generated a “surrogate signature” of KRAS mutation status in NSCLC patients by computationally linking genotype and gene expression. We show that secondary effects of a mutation can have a higher prognostic relevance than the primary genetic alteration itself. PMID:27859136

  17. Detection of sequences homologous to human retroviral DNA in multiple sclerosis by gene amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, S.J.; Ehrlich, G.D.; Abbott, M.A.; Hurwitz, B.J.; Waldmann, T.A.; Poiesz, B.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Twenty-one patients with multiple sclerosis, chronic progressive type, were examined for DNA sequences homologous to a human retrovirus. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells was analyzed for the presence of homologous sequences to the human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I (HTLV-I) long terminal repeat, 3{prime} gag, pol, and env domains by the enzymatic in vitro gene amplification technique, polymerase chain reaction. Positive identification of homologous pol sequences was made in the amplified DNA from six of these patients (29%). Three of these six patients (14%) also tested positive for the env region, but not for the other regions tested. In contrast, none of the samples from 35 normal individuals studied was positive when amplified and tested with the same primers and probes. Comparison of patterns obtained from controls and from patients with adult T-cell leukemia or tropical spastic paraparesis suggests that the DNA sequences identified are exogenous to the human genome and may correspond to a human retroviral species. The data support the detection of a human retroviral agent in some patients with multiple sclerosis.

  18. BHK cell lines with increased rates of gene amplification are hypersensitive to ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Giulotto, E.; Bertoni, L.; Attolini, C.; Rainaldi, G.; Anglana, M. )

    1991-04-15

    Four cell lines (MP1, -4, -5, -7), isolated from baby hamster kidney cells after simultaneous selection with N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate and methotrexate, have previously been shown to amplify their DNA at an increased rate. We now show that all four lines are hypersensitive to killing by UV light and mitomycin C. At high doses of UV light or mitomycin C, the MP lines survived less than 10% or less than 5% as well as parental cells, respectively. After UV irradiation, inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis was greater in MP than in parental cells, and recovery was slower or absent. A 2- to 3.5-fold increase in the frequency of UV-induced sister chromatid exchange was also seen in the four cell lines. In MP5, unscheduled DNA replication after treatment with UV light was only approximately 70% as great as in parental cells and the other MP lines. In MP4 and MP7 cells S phase was elongated. Although their individual properties confirm that the four cell lines are independent, their common properties suggest a relationship between tolerance of DNA damage and gene amplification.

  19. Rapid detection of ermB gene in Clostridium difficile by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Minyi; Liu, Wei; Wang, Pu; Tan, Jiasheng; Zhou, Youlian; Wu, Peiqun; Zhang, Ting; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Ye

    2015-08-01

    Macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance in Clostridium difficile is mostly due to the ermB resistance determinant. Here, we describe a sensitive and rapid molecular method to detect ermB in C. difficile to contribute to the wider epidemiological study. Five sets of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primers were designed and optimized for rapid detection of ermB. The specificity and sensitivity of the primers for ermB were detected, and the ermB LAMP assay was compared to conventional PCR with 80 clinical isolates of C. difficile. Real-time monitoring of turbidity and chromogenic reaction were used to determine negative and positive results. A total of 26 pathogenic bacterial strains of different species were found to be negative for ermB, which indicated the high specificity of the primers. ermB was detected in 78.8 % (63/80) of the clinical isolates by both LAMP and conventional PCR. The detection limit of LAMP was 36.1  pg DNA μl- 1 and its sensitivity was 10-fold greater than that of conventional PCR. This study is the first report regarding the development and application of the LAMP assay for detection of the ermB gene in C. difficile strains. The developed LAMP method is sensitive, specific and provides a user-friendly visual approach for the rapid detection of ermB-bearing C. difficile.

  20. Activating HER2 mutations in HER2 gene amplification negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Ron; Kavuri, Shyam M.; Searleman, Adam C.; Shen, Wei; Shen, Dong; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Monsey, John; Goel, Nicholas; Aronson, Adam B.; Li, Shunqiang; Ma, Cynthia X.; Ding, Li; Mardis, Elaine R.; Ellis, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Data from eight breast cancer genome sequencing projects identified 25 patients with HER2 somatic mutations in cancers lacking HER2 gene amplification. To determine the phenotype of these mutations, we functionally characterized thirteen HER2 mutations using in vitro kinase assays, protein structure analysis, cell culture and xenograft experiments. Seven of these mutations are activating mutations, including G309A, D769H, D769Y, V777L, P780ins, V842I, and R896C. HER2 in-frame deletion 755-759, which is homologous to EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletions, had a neomorphic phenotype with increased phosphorylation of EGFR or HER3. L755S produced lapatinib resistance, but was not an activating mutation in our experimental systems. All of these mutations were sensitive to the irreversible kinase inhibitor, neratinib. These findings demonstrate that HER2 somatic mutation is an alternative mechanism to activate HER2 in breast cancer and they validate HER2 somatic mutations as drug targets for breast cancer treatment. PMID:23220880

  1. Complex oncogenic translocations with gene amplification are initiated by specific DNA breaks in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wright, Sarah M; Woo, Yong H; Alley, Travis L; Shirley, Bobbi-Jo; Akeson, Ellen C; Snow, Kathy J; Maas, Sarah A; Elwell, Rachel L; Foreman, Oded; Mills, Kevin D

    2009-05-15

    Chromosomal instability is a hallmark of many tumor types. Complex chromosomal rearrangements with associated gene amplification, known as complicons, characterize many hematologic and solid cancers. Whereas chromosomal aberrations, including complicons, are useful diagnostic and prognostic cancer markers, their molecular origins are not known. Although accumulating evidence has implicated DNA double-strand break repair in suppression of oncogenic genome instability, the genomic elements required for chromosome rearrangements, especially complex lesions, have not been elucidated. Using a mouse model of B-lineage lymphoma, characterized by complicon formation involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus and the c-myc oncogene, we have now investigated the requirement for specific genomic segments as donors for complex rearrangements. We now show that specific DNA double-strand breaks, occurring within a narrow segment of Igh, are necessary to initiate complicon formation. By contrast, neither specific DNA breaks nor the powerful intronic enhancer Emu are required for complicon-independent oncogenesis. This study is the first to delineate mechanisms of complex versus simple instability and the first to identify specific chromosomal elements required for complex chromosomal aberrations. These findings will illuminate genomic cancer susceptibility and risk factors.

  2. DNA sequence templates adjacent nucleosome and ORC sites at gene amplification origins in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Zimmer, Kurt; Rusch, Douglas B; Paranjape, Neha; Podicheti, Ram; Tang, Haixu; Calvi, Brian R

    2015-10-15

    Eukaryotic origins of DNA replication are bound by the origin recognition complex (ORC), which scaffolds assembly of a pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) that is then activated to initiate replication. Both pre-RC assembly and activation are strongly influenced by developmental changes to the epigenome, but molecular mechanisms remain incompletely defined. We have been examining the activation of origins responsible for developmental gene amplification in Drosophila. At a specific time in oogenesis, somatic follicle cells transition from genomic replication to a locus-specific replication from six amplicon origins. Previous evidence indicated that these amplicon origins are activated by nucleosome acetylation, but how this affects origin chromatin is unknown. Here, we examine nucleosome position in follicle cells using micrococcal nuclease digestion with Ilumina sequencing. The results indicate that ORC binding sites and other essential origin sequences are nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs). Nucleosome position at the amplicons was highly similar among developmental stages during which ORC is or is not bound, indicating that being an NDR is not sufficient to specify ORC binding. Importantly, the data suggest that nucleosomes and ORC have opposite preferences for DNA sequence and structure. We propose that nucleosome hyperacetylation promotes pre-RC assembly onto adjacent DNA sequences that are disfavored by nucleosomes but favored by ORC.

  3. DNA sequence templates adjacent nucleosome and ORC sites at gene amplification origins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Zimmer, Kurt; Rusch, Douglas B.; Paranjape, Neha; Podicheti, Ram; Tang, Haixu; Calvi, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic origins of DNA replication are bound by the origin recognition complex (ORC), which scaffolds assembly of a pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) that is then activated to initiate replication. Both pre-RC assembly and activation are strongly influenced by developmental changes to the epigenome, but molecular mechanisms remain incompletely defined. We have been examining the activation of origins responsible for developmental gene amplification in Drosophila. At a specific time in oogenesis, somatic follicle cells transition from genomic replication to a locus-specific replication from six amplicon origins. Previous evidence indicated that these amplicon origins are activated by nucleosome acetylation, but how this affects origin chromatin is unknown. Here, we examine nucleosome position in follicle cells using micrococcal nuclease digestion with Ilumina sequencing. The results indicate that ORC binding sites and other essential origin sequences are nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs). Nucleosome position at the amplicons was highly similar among developmental stages during which ORC is or is not bound, indicating that being an NDR is not sufficient to specify ORC binding. Importantly, the data suggest that nucleosomes and ORC have opposite preferences for DNA sequence and structure. We propose that nucleosome hyperacetylation promotes pre-RC assembly onto adjacent DNA sequences that are disfavored by nucleosomes but favored by ORC. PMID:26227968

  4. The effect of forced expression of mutated K-RAS gene on gastrointestinal cancer cell lines and the IGF-1R targeting therapy.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Yasutaka; Adachi, Yasushi; Sasaki, Yasushi; Koide, Hideyuki; Motoya, Masayo; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Takagi, Hideyasu; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Shigeru; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Tokino, Takashi; Carbone, David P; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2017-02-01

    Mutation in K-RAS (K-RAS-MT) plays important roles in both cancer progression and resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy in gastrointestinal tumors. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling is required for carcinogenicity and progression of many tumors as well. We have previously shown successful therapy for gastrointestinal cancer cell lines bearing a K-RAS mutation using an anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody. In this study, we sought to evaluate effects of forced K-RAS-MT expression on gastrointestinal cancer cell lines representing a possible second resistance mechanism for anti-EGFR therapy and IGF-1R-targeted therapy for these transfectants. We made stable transfectants of K-RAS-MT in two gastrointestinal cancer cell lines, colorectal RKO and pancreatic BxPC-3. We assessed the effect of forced expression of K-RAS-MT on proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion in gastrointestinal cancer cells. Then we assessed anti-tumor effects of dominant negative IGF-1R (IGF-1R/dn) and an IGF-1R inhibitor, picropodophyllin, on the K-RAS-MT transfectants. Overexpression of K-RAS-MT in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines led to more aggressive phenotypes, with increased proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and increased motility and invasion. IGF-1R blockade suppressed cell growth, colony formation, migration, and invasion, and up-regulated chemotherapy-induced apoptosis of gastrointestinal cancer cells, even when K-RAS-MT was over-expressed. IGF-1R blockade inhibited the Akt pathway more than the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in the K-RAS-MT transfectants. IGF-1R/dn, moreover, inhibited the growth of murine xenografts expressing K-RAS-MT. Thus, K-RAS-MT might be important for progressive phonotype observed in gastrointestinal cancers. IGF-1R decoy is a candidate molecular therapeutic approach for gastrointestinal cancers even if K-RAS is mutated. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  5. Amplification of hTERT and hTERC genes in leukemic cells with high expression and activity of telomerase.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Tomasz; Januszkiewicz, Danuta; Zawada, Mariola; Pernak, Monika; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Rembowska, Jolanta; Nowicka, Karina; Mankowski, Przemyslaw; Nowak, Jerzy

    2006-08-01

    Reactivation of telomerase plays an important role in carcinogenesis. Malignant cells almost always possess high activity and expression of telomerase. The aim of this study was to see whether there is any relationship between telomerase activity and expression and hTERT and hTERC gene amplification in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-lymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL) cells. In addition telomere length was tested in leukemic cells at the time of diagnosis and during remission. Expression of the three components of telomerase (hTERT, hTERC and TP1) as well as telomerase activity was found both in ALL and ANLL cells. Telomerase activity was diminished in patients in remission. The leukemic cells showed considerable heterogeneity of terminal restriction fragments, that is telomere length. ALL cells showed a variable pattern of telomere length in contrast to ANLL cells which produced a predominantly short telomere pattern. Telomere length in the lymphocytes of leukemia patients was shorter in remission as compared to the time of diagnosis. FISH analysis revealed amplification of hTERT and hTERC genes in ALL and ANLL cells. Quantitative analysis showed that leukemic cells possess higher number of hTERT and hTERC copies than the normal PBL. Our results suggest that the activation of telomerase in leukemic cells is connected with amplification of hTERT and hTERC genes. The high expression and activity of telomerase found in leukemic cells may be partially explained by amplified hTERT and hTERC genes. Amplification of the telomerase genes seems to be a common event in carcinogenesis and may play a role in telomerase reactivation leading to cell immortalization.

  6. A repeat protein-based DNA polymerase inhibitor for an efficient and accurate gene amplification by PCR.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Da-Eun; Shin, Yong-Keol; Munashingha, Palinda Ruvan; Park, So-Yeon; Seo, Yeon-Soo; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-12-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a thermostable DNA polymerase is the most widely applied method in many areas of research, including life sciences, biotechnology, and medical sciences. However, a conventional PCR incurs an amplification of undesired genes mainly owing to non-specifically annealed primers and the formation of a primer-dimer complex. Herein, we present the development of a Taq DNA polymerase-specific repebody, which is a small-sized protein binder composed of leucine rich repeat (LRR) modules, as a thermolabile inhibitor for a precise and accurate gene amplification by PCR. We selected a repebody that specifically binds to the DNA polymerase through a phage display, and increased its affinity to up to 10 nM through a modular evolution approach. The repebody was shown to effectively inhibit DNA polymerase activity at low temperature and undergo thermal denaturation at high temperature, leading to a rapid and full recovery of the polymerase activity, during the initial denaturation step of the PCR. The performance and utility of the repebody was demonstrated through an accurate and efficient amplification of a target gene without nonspecific gene products in both conventional and real-time PCRs. The repebody is expected to be effectively utilized as a thermolabile inhibitor in a PCR. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2544-2552. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A universal primer set for PCR amplification of nuclear histone H4 genes from all animal species.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Pascal; Henry, Michel; Suspène, Rodolphe; Marchio, Agnès; Dettai, Agnès; Debruyne, Régis; Petit, Thierry; Lécu, Alexis; Moisson, Pierre; Dejean, Anne; Wain-Hobson, Simon; Vartanian, Jean-Pierre

    2005-03-01

    To control the quality of genomic DNA of samples from a wide variety of animals, a heminested PCR assay specifically targeting a nuclear gene has been developed. The histone H4 gene family comprises a small number of genes considered among the most conserved genes in living organisms. Tissue samples from necropsies and from cells belonging to 43 different species were studied, eight samples from invertebrates and 35 samples from vertebrates covering all classes. Ancient DNA samples from three Siberian woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) dating between 40,000 and 49,000 years before present were also tested for PCR amplification. Performance of HIST2H4 amplification were also compared with those of previously published universal PCRs (28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and cytochrome b). Overall, 95% of species studied yielded an amplification product, including some old samples from gorilla and chimpanzees. The data indicate that the HIST2H4 amplimers are, thus, suitable for both DNA quality testing as well as species identification in the animal kingdom.

  8. Comparison of the c-MET gene amplification between primary tumor and metastatic lymph nodes in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chun-Wei; Wang, Wen-Xian; Wu, Mei-Juan; Zhu, You-Cai; Zhuang, Wu; Lin, Gen; Du, Kai-Qi; Huang, Yun-Jian; Chen, Yan-Ping; Chen, Gang; Fang, Mei-Yu

    2017-09-01

    c-MET has recently been identified as a promising novel target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We detected the consistency of c-MET gene amplification in metastatic lymph nodes and tumor tissues of NSCLC patients and discuss the clinical application value of c-MET gene amplification in metastatic lymph nodes. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to test tumor tissues in 368 NSCLC patients and 178 paired metastatic lymph node samples. The amplification consistency in metastatic lymph nodes and tissue samples were compared and the correlation between c-MET gene amplification and the clinical characteristics of patients was analyzed. The c-MET gene amplification rate was 8.97% (33/368) in tumor tissues. Of the 178 paired cases, c-MET gene amplification was positive in 7.95% (15/178) of cancerous tissues and 18.54% (33/178) of metastatic lymph nodes. c-MET gene amplification was detected more frequently in metastatic lymph nodes than in primary cancerous tissue. When metastatic lymph nodes were used as surrogate samples of primary cancerous tissues, the sensitivity was 86.67% (13/15) and the specificity was 87.69% (143/163). Screening for c-MET gene amplification in lymph node metastases could determine which patients are eligible for tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Lymph node metastasis can predict c-MET gene amplification in a primary tumor and guide the clinical use of c-MET gene targeted drugs. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Multiple KRAS mutations in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: molecular features of neoplastic clones indicate the selection of divergent populations of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Visani, Michela; de Biase, Dario; Baccarini, Paola; Fabbri, Carlo; Polifemo, Anna Maria; Zanini, Nicola; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

    2013-12-01

    KRAS is one of the most common genes mutated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Multiple KRAS mutations may be detected within the same pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but it is usually unclear whether the different mutations represent biologically irrelevant molecular events or whether they indicate the coexistence of distinct sizable neoplastic clones within a given tumor. We identified a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with 5 different mutations in the KRAS gene and have been able to characterize the allelic distribution of the KRAS mutations and the size of the neoplastic clones using allele-specific locked nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing (454 GS-Junior). The results indicate that the tumor is composed of 5 distinct cell populations: one is KRAS G12V mutated (~38% of neoplastic cells), the second is KRAS G12V in one allele and KRAS G12D in the other (~32%), the third is KRAS G12V in one allele and KRAS G12R in the other (~24%), and the fourth is KRAS G12V in one allele and KRAS G12C in the other (~6%). The fifth clone, representing a minority of neoplastic cells, has a KRAS Q61H mutation in addition to one of the above alterations. Microsatellite analysis identified mutation of the NR21 marker out of the 13 tested, indicating that the tumor has a defect in maintaining DNA integrity different from loss of conventional DNA mismatch repair. These results are consistent with the successive selection of divergent populations of tumor cells and underscore the relevance of nucleotide instability in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  10. The Mutant KRAS Gene Up-regulates BCL-XL Protein via STAT3 to Confer Apoptosis Resistance That Is Reversed by BIM Protein Induction and BCL-XL Antagonism.

    PubMed

    Zaanan, Aziz; Okamoto, Koichi; Kawakami, Hisato; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Huang, Shengbing; Sinicrope, Frank A

    2015-09-25

    In colorectal cancers with oncogenic GTPase Kras (KRAS) mutations, inhibition of downstream MEK/ERK signaling has shown limited efficacy, in part because of failure to induce a robust apoptotic response. We studied the mechanism of apoptosis resistance in mutant KRAS cells and sought to enhance the efficacy of a KRAS-specific MEK/ERK inhibitor, GDC-0623. GDC-0623 was shown to potently up-regulate BIM expression to a greater extent versus other MEK inhibitors in isogenic KRAS HCT116 and mutant KRAS SW620 colon cancer cells. ERK silencing enhanced BIM up-regulation by GDC-0623 that was due to its loss of phosphorylation at Ser(69), confirmed by a BIM-EL phosphorylation-defective mutant (S69G) that increased protein stability and blocked BIM induction. Despite BIM and BIK induction, the isogenic KRAS mutant versus wild-type cells remained resistant to GDC-0623-induced apoptosis, in part because of up-regulation of BCL-XL. KRAS knockdown by a doxycycline-inducible shRNA attenuated BCL-XL expression. BCL-XL knockdown sensitized KRAS mutant cells to GDC-0623-mediated apoptosis, as did the BH3 mimetic ABT-263. GDC-0623 plus ABT-263 induced a synergistic apoptosis by a mechanism that includes release of BIM from its sequestration by BCL-XL. Furthermore, mutant KRAS activated p-STAT3 (Tyr(705)) in the absence of IL-6 secretion, and STAT3 knockdown reduced BCL-XL mRNA and protein expression. These data suggest that BCL-XL up-regulation by STAT3 contributes to mutant KRAS-mediated apoptosis resistance. Such resistance can be overcome by potent BIM induction and concurrent BCL-XL antagonism to enable a synergistic apoptotic response.

  11. K-ras oncogene mutation in pterygium.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, B T; Yıldırım, M S; Zamani, A; Bozkurt, B

    2017-03-01

    PurposePterygium is claimed to be a benign proliferation triggered by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The frequency of K-ras oncogene mutation, which is among the initial mutations in tumorigenesis, is evaluated in this study.Patients and methodsIn this prospective randomized clinical, trial pterygium tissues and normal conjunctiva tissue specimens are obtained from the superotemporal quadrant of patients who underwent primary pterygium excision with autograft transplantation. DNA extraction from tissues was performed using the QIAamp DNA FFPE tissue kit. A PCR reaction was performed to amplify sequences containing codons 12, 13, and 61 of the K-ras gene in DNA. These PCR products then underwent the 'pyrosequencing' procedure for mutations at these codons.ResultsPterygium and normal conjunctival tissue samples of 25 patients (10 females, 15 males) were evaluated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 54.54±13.13 years. Genetic analysis revealed no K-ras mutations in normal conjunctival tissues, whereas pterygium tissues of the same cases demonstrated mutation at codon 12 in one case and mutations at codon 61 in seven cases, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). The point missense mutations at codon 61 were glutamine to arginine (Glu61Arg CAA>CGA) in four cases and glutamine to leucine (Glu61Leu CAA>CTA) in three cases.ConclusionThe significantly higher frequency of codon 61 mutation of the ras oncogene in primary and bilateral pterygium specimens compared with normal conjunctiva supports the tumoral origin of pterygium, and thus set the stage for research into a targeted therapy for pterygium with better outcomes than surgical excision.

  12. [Evaluation of c-myc and CCNE2 amplification in breast cancer with quantitative multi-gene fluorescence in-situ hybridization].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhishuang; Meng, Qingyong; Yu, Qiong; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Li, Li

    2014-07-01

    To investigate c-myc and CCNE2 gene amplifications and their relationship in breast cancer. Sixty-six infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas with foci of ductal carcinoma in situ components collected from January 2005 to December 2007 were selected for tissue microarray and quantitative multi-gene FISH for c-myc and CCNE2 gene amplification, and the relationship with the clinicopathologic features was analyzed. Of the 66 cases, 18 (27.3%) showed c-myc amplification and 23 (34.8%) showed CCNE2 amplification. A strong correlation was found between c-myc and CCNE2 amplification (P < 0.01). The breast cancers showing c-myc and CCNE2 amplifications were all aneuploidy, and were HER2 positive (P < 0.05). Tumors with c-myc amplification also showed higher Ki-67 index (P < 0.05). C-myc and CCNE2 amplifications are common events in breast cancer, and they often coexist. C-myc and CCNE2 genes may play critical roles in the pathogenesis and development of breast cancer through unique and overlapping signaling pathways.

  13. Effects of mRNA amplification on gene expression ratios in cDNA experiments estimated by analysis of variance

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Vigdis; Løland, Anders; Holden, Marit; Langaas, Mette; Rue, Håvard; Liu, Fang; Myklebost, Ola; Fodstad, Øystein; Hovig, Eivind; Smith-Sørensen, Birgitte

    2003-01-01

    Background A limiting factor of cDNA microarray technology is the need for a substantial amount of RNA per labeling reaction. Thus, 20–200 micro-grams total RNA or 0.5–2 micro-grams poly (A) RNA is typically required for monitoring gene expression. In addition, gene expression profiles from large, heterogeneous cell populations provide complex patterns from which biological data for the target cells may be difficult to extract. In this study, we chose to investigate a widely used mRNA amplification protocol that allows gene expression studies to be performed on samples with limited starting material. We present a quantitative study of the variation and noise present in our data set obtained from experiments with either amplified or non-amplified material. Results Using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple hypothesis testing, we estimated the impact of amplification on the preservation of gene expression ratios. Both methods showed that the gene expression ratios were not completely preserved between amplified and non-amplified material. We also compared the expression ratios between the two cell lines for the amplified material with expression ratios between the two cell lines for the non-amplified material for each gene. With the aid of multiple t-testing with a false discovery rate of 5%, we found that 10% of the genes investigated showed significantly different expression ratios. Conclusion Although the ratios were not fully preserved, amplification may prove to be extremely useful with respect to characterizing low expressing genes. PMID:12659661

  14. Regulation of pattern formation and gene amplification during Drosophila oogenesis by the miR-318 microRNA.

    PubMed

    Ge, Wanzhong; Deng, Qiannan; Guo, Ting; Hong, Xin; Kugler, Jan-Michael; Yang, Xiaohang; Cohen, Stephen M

    2015-05-01

    Pattern formation during epithelial development requires the coordination of multiple signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the functions of an ovary-enriched miRNA, miR-318, in epithelial development during Drosophila oogenesis. mir-318 maternal loss-of-function mutants were female-sterile and laid eggs with abnormal morphology. Removal of mir-318 disrupted the dorsal-anterior follicle cell patterning, resulting in abnormal dorsal appendages. mir-318 mutant females also produced thin and fragile eggshells due to impaired chorion gene amplification. We provide evidence that the ecdysone signaling pathway activates expression of miR-318 and that miR-318 cooperates with Tramtrack69 to control the switch from endocycling to chorion gene amplification during differentiation of the follicular epithelium. The multiple functions of miR-318 in oogenesis illustrate the importance of miRNAs in maintaining cell fate and in promoting the developmental transition in the female follicular epithelium.

  15. Certified DNA Reference Materials to Compare HER2 Gene Amplification Measurements Using Next-Generation Sequencing Methods.

    PubMed

    Lih, Chih-Jian; Si, Han; Das, Biswajit; Harrington, Robin D; Harper, Kneshay N; Sims, David J; McGregor, Paul M; Camalier, Corinne E; Kayserian, Andrew Y; Williams, P Mickey; He, Hua-Jun; Almeida, Jamie L; Lund, Steve P; Choquette, Steve; Cole, Kenneth D

    2016-09-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Materials 2373 is a set of genomic DNA samples prepared from five breast cancer cell lines with certified values for the ratio of the HER2 gene copy number to the copy numbers of reference genes determined by real-time quantitative PCR and digital PCR. Targeted-amplicon, whole-exome, and whole-genome sequencing measurements were used with the reference material to compare the performance of both the laboratory steps and the bioinformatic approaches of the different methods using a range of amplification ratios. Although good reproducibility was observed in each next-generation sequencing method, slightly different HER2 copy numbers associated with platform-specific biases were obtained. This study clearly demonstrates the value of Standard Reference Materials 2373 as reference material and as a calibrator for evaluating assay performance as well as for increasing confidence in reporting HER2 amplification for clinical applications.

  16. Molecular interaction between K-Ras and H-REV107 in the Ras signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Han, Chang Woo; Jeong, Mi Suk; Jang, Se Bok

    2017-09-16

    Ras proteins are small GTPases that serve as master moderators of a large number of signaling pathways involved in various cellular processes. Activating mutations in Ras are found in about one-third of cancers. H-REV107, a K-Ras binding protein, plays an important role in determining K-Ras function. H-REV107 is a member of the HREV107 family of class II tumor suppressor genes and a growth inhibitory Ras target gene that suppresses cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Expression of H-REV107 was strongly reduced in about 50% of human carcinoma cell lines. However, the specific molecular mechanism by which H-REV107 inhibits Ras is still unknown. In the present study, we suggest that H-REV107 forms a strong complex with activating oncogenic mutation Q61H K-Ras from various biochemical binding assays and modeled structures. In addition, the interaction sites between K-Ras and H-REV107 were predicted based on homology modeling. Here, we found that some structure-based mutants of the K-Ras disrupted the complex formation with H-REV107. Finally, a novel molecular mechanism describing K-Ras and H-REV107 binding is suggested and insights into new K-Ras effector target drugs are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of ABCG2 gene amplification manifesting as extrachromosomal DNA in mitoxantrone-selected SF295 human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rao, V Koneti; Wangsa, Darawalee; Robey, Robert W; Huff, Lyn; Honjo, Yasumasa; Hung, Jeffrey; Knutsen, Turid; Ried, Thomas; Bates, Susan E

    2005-07-15

    The human ABCG2 gene, located on chromosome 4, encodes an ATP-binding cassette half-transporter that has been shown to confer resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms controlling expression of ABCG2. In previous studies, we had shown that overexpression of ABCG2 can result from rearrangement or gene amplification involving chromosome 4. To better characterize the mechanisms of ABCG2 overexpression, SF295 glioblastoma cells were exposed to increasing amounts of mitoxantrone to generate the SF295 MX50, MX100, MX250, and MX500 sublines, maintained in mitoxantrone concentrations ranging from 50 to 500 nmol/L. Northern blot analysis confirmed overexpression of ABCG2 mRNA, and immunoblot analysis demonstrated increased protein expression in the selected cell lines. Efflux of BODIPY-prazosin confirmed a functional protein. ABCG2 gene amplification was observed in all resistant sublines, as determined by Southern blot analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed amplification of ABCG2 via double minute chromosomes (dmins) detected in metaphase chromosome spreads in the SF295 MX50 and MX100 sublines. At higher levels of drug selection, in the MX250 and MX500 sublines, fewer dmins were observed but homogeneously staining regions (hsr) were visible with FISH analysis, revealing reintegration of the ABCG2 gene into multiple chromosomes. Spectral karyotyping (SKY) demonstrated multiple clonal and nonclonal rearrangements of chromosome 4, including hsrs. These results suggest that amplification of ABCG2 occurred initially in the form of dmins, followed by chromosomal reintegration of the amplicon at multiple sites. This occurred with increasing drug-selection pressure, generating a more stable genotype.

  18. Amplification of the multidrug resistance gene pfmdr1 in Plasmodium falciparum has arisen as multiple independent events.

    PubMed

    Triglia, T; Foote, S J; Kemp, D J; Cowman, A F

    1991-10-01

    The multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in mammalian tumor cells can involve amplification of mdr genes that results in overexpression of the protein product termed P-glycoprotein. Chloroquine resistance (CQR) in Plasmodium falciparum has similarities with the MDR phenotype in tumor cells, and some isolates of P. falciparum have amplified levels of the pfmdr1 gene. To investigate the nature and origin of pfmdr1 amplicons, we have cloned large regions of a 110-kb amplicon from the CQR cloned isolate B8 by using the yeast artificial chromosome system. We have identified and sequenced the breakpoints of the amplicon by a novel method employing inverted polymerase chain reaction that is applicable to analysis of any large-scale repeat. We show that the five copies of the amplicon in this isolate are in a head to tail configuration. A string of 30 A's flank the breakpoints on each side of the amplified segment, suggesting a mechanism for the origin of the tandem amplification. Polymerase chain reaction analysis with oligonucleotides that cross the B8 breakpoint has shown in 26 independent CQR isolates, 16 of which contain amplified copies of pfmdr1, that amplification of the pfmdr1 gene in P. falciparum has arisen as multiple independent events. These results suggest that this region of the genome is under strong selective pressure.

  19. Overexpression and amplification of glutathione S-transferase pi gene in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Pavelic, Z P; Li, Y; Gleich, L; Gartside, P S; Pavelic, L; Gluckman, J L; Stambrook, P J

    1997-01-01

    Human glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-pi) may serve as a useful tumor marker because of the high frequency with which it is found in elevated levels in several tumor types. To determine whether GST-pi is useful as an indicator for cancers of the head and neck, expression of GST-pi mRNA was investigated by Northern analysis in this tumor type. Overexpression of GST-pi mRNA was detected in 9 of 36 (25%) primary head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). When Southern blot analysis was used to examine the relationship between overexpression and amplification of the GST-pi gene, only 3 of 36 tumors (8%) showed GST-pi gene amplification. Thus, gene amplification is not critical to GST-pi mRNA overexpression in HNSCCs. Moderately and poorly differentiated HNSCCs tended to manifest elevated GST-pi mRNA compared with well differentiated tumors (30% for moderately and poorly differentiated tumors versus none of the well differentiated tumors examined). However, there was no significant correlation between GST-% mRNA overexpression and clinical stage, T stage (tumor size), N stage (neck nodal status), pathological nodes, or patient survival.

  20. Analysis of gene expression EGFR and KRAS, microRNA-21 and microRNA-203 in patients with colon and rectal cancer and correlation with clinical outcome and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Thais Inácio de; Novais, Paulo Cezar; Lizarte, Fermino Sanches; Sicchieri, Renata Danielle; Rosa, Marcella Suelma Torrecillas; Carvalho, Camila Albuquerque Mello de; Tirapelli, Daniela Pretti da Cunha; Peria, Fernanda Maris; Rocha, José Joaquim Ribeiro da; Féres, Omar

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the expression of EGFR, KRAS genes, microRNAs-21 and 203 in colon and rectal cancer samples, correlated with their age at diagnosis, histological subtype, value of pretreatment CEA, TNM staging and clinical outcome. Expression of genes and microRNAs by real time PCR in tumor and non-tumor samples obtained from surgical treatment of 50 patients. An increased expression of microRNAs-21 and 203 in tumor samples in relation to non-tumor samples was found. There was no statistically significant difference between the expression of these genes and microRNAs when compared to age at diagnosis and histological subtype. The EGFR gene showed higher expression in relation to the value of CEA diagnosis. The expression of microRNA-203 was progressively lower in relation to the TNM staging and was higher in the patient group in clinical remission. The therapy of colon and rectum tumors based on microRNAs remains under investigation reserving huge potential for future applications and clinical interventions in conjunction with existing therapies. We expect, based on the exposed data, to stimulate the development of new therapeutic possibilities, making the treatment of these tumors more effective.

  1. [Influence of reaction optimization on the results of PCR amplification of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes among Staphylococcus aureus isolates].

    PubMed

    Karahan, Zeynep Ceren; Dolapçi, Iştar; Tekeli, Alper

    2009-10-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an important virulence determinant of Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the genes encoding PVL is the most widely used method for determining PVL-positivity. In this study, we used two different primer sets and different annealing temperatures for each set to investigate the effect of optimization of PCR parameters on the amplification results. A total of 321 S. aureus clinical isolates (84.4% methicillin-resistant S. aureus, 76.9% nosocomial) were included to the study. Two different primer sets and two different annealing temperatures were applied for the amplification of PVL gene. For this purpose while luk-PV-1 and luk-PV-2 primers and 55 degrees C and 58 degrees C annealing temperatures were used to amplify the 433 bp region inhabiting the luk-S PV and luk-F PV genes, PVLup and PVLdn primers and 50 degrees C and 48 degrees C annealing temperatures were used to amplify the 1918 bp region inhabiting the same genes. luk-PV-1 and luk-PV-2 primers yielded amplicons at 55 degrees C in 50.2% (161/321) and at 58 degrees C in 1.6% (5/321) of the isolates. To discriminate the positive amplicons from the crossly amplified PCR products, restriction endonuclease analysis was performed and it was observed that the five amplicons generated by luk-PV-1 and luk-PV-2 primers at 58 degrees C were cut by BspH1 enzyme as expected for the positive amplicons. None of the isolates yielded amplicons by PVLup and PVLdn primers at 50 degrees C, however, only 1.6% of the isolates yielded amplicons at 48 degrees C. These isolates were the same with the ones that were PVL positive with luk-PV-1 and luk-PV-2 primers at 58 degrees C. These data revealed that only 1.6% of the study isolates were PVL positive. These results showed that inappropriate cycling conditions may lead to false-negative or false-positive results in PVL-gene amplification. Restriction endonuclease or sequence analysis may be used to differentiate

  2. Clinical significance of hTERC and C-Myc genes amplification in a group of Egyptian patients with cancer cervix.

    PubMed

    Eid, M M; Nossair, H M; Ismael, M T; Amira, G; Hosney, M M; Abdul Rahman, R

    2011-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide after breast cancer. Cervical cancer is a preventable disease. The implementation of cervical cancer screening programs has greatly decreased the morbidity and mortality, as precancerous lesions and early invasive cervical cancer could be detected and treated effectively. The detection of hTERC gene amplification was suggested as a possible diagnostic marker for use in routine cytological screening. The present study was designed to detect genomic gains of the hTERC and C-MYC genes using FISH technique and to investigate the relationship between genes amplification and the clinical data of the patients. The current study was carried out on twelve cases with cervical cancer at different grades (three cases were grade I, six cases were grade II and three cases were grade III). Interphase FISH analysis using LSI probe, Cervical Cancer probe hTERC (3q26) & C-MYC (8q24), was successfully performed on 12 patients with cancer cervix. Interphase FISH analysis revealed positive hTERC gene amplification in all cases of cancer cervix (100%). However C-MYC gene amplification was detected in four cases only (33.3%). Statistical analysis of the data revealed significant correlation between hTERC amplification and grading. Also, there was significant correlation between C-MYC amplification and grading and highly significant correlation between C-MYC amplification and hTERC amplification. On the other hand hTERC and C-MYC genes amplification showed an inverse correlation with the ages of the patients. The present study highlights the importance of using hTERC and C-MYC genes FISH probes for cases with cancer cervix or pre-malignant lesions as a sensitive technique. This method provides an easy and effective applicable approach which helps in the diagnosis and prognosis, as an increased copy number is associated with a more advanced grade that could be detected in the early stages of the disease.

  3. Concurrent mutation in exons 1 and 2 of the K-ras oncogene in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Palmirotta, Raffaele; Savonarola, Annalisa; Ludovici, Giorgia; De Marchis, Maria Laura; Covello, Renato; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Ialongo, Cristiano; Guadagni, Fiorella

    2011-01-01

    The K-ras gene is frequently mutated in colorectal cancer and has been associated with tumor initiation and progression; approximately 90% of the activating mutations are found in codons 12 and 13 of exon 1 and just under 5% in codon 61 located in exon 2. These mutations determine single aminoacidic substitutions in the GTPase pocket leading to a block of the GTP hydrolytic activity of the K-ras p21 protein, and therefore to its constitutive activation. Point mutations in sites of the K-ras gene, other than codons 12, 13 and 61, and other types of genetic alterations, may occur in a minority of cases, such as in the less frequent cases of double mutations in the K-ras gene. However, all mutations in this gene, even those which occur in non-canonical sites or double mutations, are relevant oncogenic alterations in colorectal cancer and may underlie K-ras pathway hyperactivation. In the present study, we report the case of a patient with colorectal cancer presenting a concurrent point mutation in exons 1 and 2 of the K-ras gene, a GGT to TGT substitution (Glycine to Cysteine) at codon 12, and a GAC to AAC substitution (Aspartic Acid to Asparagine) at codon 57. In addition, we found in the same patient's sample a silent polymorphism at codon 11 (Ala11Ala) of exon 1.

  4. Reliability of differential PCR for the detection of EGFR and MDM2 gene amplification in DNA extracted from FFPE glioma tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.B.; Abbott, K.; Varma, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    A series of 43 human gliomas, consisting of 30 glioblastomas, 7 anaplastic astrocytomas, 3 low grade astrocytomas, 2 ependymomas, and 1 oligodendroglioma, was studied for amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) genes. DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections was analyzed by differential PCR and the results were compared with slot blot examination of DNA extracted from frozen tissue from the same neoplasms. Twelve glioblastomas (40%) showed amplification of the EGFR gene, and overexpression of EGFR was evident in each of these tumors as indicated by the immunoperoxidase technique. Two of the tumors with EGFR gene amplification also revealed amplification of the MDM2 gene, while one additional glioblastoma revealed MDM2 amplification only. A 100% concordance in the detection of amplification was observed between differential PCR and slot blot analysis; consequently these results indicate that differential PCR using DNA extracted front archival tissue sections is a reliable method of demonstrating gene amplifications in glial tumors. 29 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Synthetic Lethality of a Novel Small Molecule Against Mutant KRAS-Expressing Cancer Cells Involves AKT-Dependent ROS Production.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Kartini; Rezlan, Majidah; Yadav, Sanjiv Kumar; Foo, Chuan Han Jonathan; Sethi, Gautam; Qiang, Yu; Bellot, Gregory L; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2016-05-10

    We recently reported the death-inducing activity of a small-molecule compound, C1, which triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent autophagy-associated apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cell lines. In this study, we examine the ability of the compound to specifically target cancer cells harboring mutant KRAS with minimal activity against wild-type (WT) RAS-expressing cells. HCT116 cells expressing mutated KRAS are susceptible, while the WT-expressing HT29 cells are resistant. Interestingly, C1 triggers activation of mutant RAS, which results in the downstream phosphorylation and activation of AKT/PKB. Gene knockdown of KRAS or AKT or their pharmacological inhibition resulted in the abrogation of C1-induced ROS production and rescued tumor colony-forming ability. We also made use of HCT116 mutant KRAS knockout (KO) cells, which express only a single WT KRAS allele. Exposure of KO cells to C1 failed to increase mitochondrial ROS and cell death, unlike the parental cells harboring mutant KRAS. Similarly, mutant KRAS-transformed prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1-RAS) were more sensitive to the ROS-producing and death-inducing effects of C1 than the vector only expressing RWPE-1 cells. An in vivo model of xenograft tumors generated with HCT116 KRAS(WT/MUT) or KRAS(WT/-) cells showed the efficacy of C1 treatment and its ability to affect the relative mitotic index in tumors harboring KRAS mutant. These data indicate a synthetic lethal effect against cells carrying mutant KRAS, which could have therapeutic implications given the paucity of KRAS-specific chemotherapeutic strategies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 781-794.

  6. Unstable tandem gene amplification generates heteroresistance (variation in resistance within a population) to colistin in Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Hjort, Karin; Nicoloff, Hervé; Andersson, Dan I

    2016-10-01

    Heteroresistance, a phenomenon where subpopulations of a bacterial isolate exhibit different susceptibilities to an antibiotic, is a growing clinical problem where the underlying genetic mechanisms in most cases remain unknown. We isolated colistin resistant mutants in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium at different concentrations of colistin. Genetic analysis showed that genetically stable pmrAB point mutations were responsible for colistin resistance during selection at high drug concentrations for both species and at low concentrations for E. coli. In contrast, for S. Typhimurium mutants selected at low colistin concentrations, amplification of different large chromosomal regions conferred a heteroresistant phenotype. All amplifications included the pmrD gene, which encodes a positive regulator that up-regulates proteins that modify lipid A, and as a result increase colistin resistance. Inactivation and over-expression of the pmrD gene prevented and conferred resistance, respectively, demonstrating that the PmrD protein is required and sufficient to confer resistance. The heteroresistance phenotype is explained by the variable gene dosage of pmrD in a population, where sub-populations with different copy number of the pmrD gene show different levels of colistin resistance. We propose that variability in gene copy number of resistance genes can explain the heteroresistance observed in clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Restriction endonuclease-mediated selective polymerase chain reaction: a novel assay for the detection of K-ras mutations in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Ward, R; Hawkins, N; O'Grady, R; Sheehan, C; O'Connor, T; Impey, H; Roberts, N; Fuery, C; Todd, A

    1998-08-01

    The enriched polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay has been used extensively in the detection of ras gene mutations in many types of human malignancies. Although it is very sensitive, it has a number of features that limit its use in the routine diagnostic laboratory. The aim of this study was to develop a novel enriched PCR strategy, in which the concurrent activity of the restriction enzyme BstNI and Taq polymerase allowed the amplification of mutant K-ras while inhibiting the formation of wild-type product. This restriction endonuclease-mediated selective PCR assay uses three sets of primers, together with BstNI, in the reaction mix, and the amplification products are analyzed by gel electrophoresis. The reliability of the restriction endonuclease-mediated selective PCR assay to detect activated K-ras was determined in a variety of clinical samples, including 139 fresh colorectal carcinomas and 113 paraffin-embedded blocks from 80 separate tumors of the colon and rectum, pancreas, breast, or kidney. Codon 12 mutations of the K-ras oncogene were identified in DNA from both fresh and paraffin-embedded tumors in a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible manner. Mutations were detected in 33 (24%) of the fresh colorectal cancers and 16 (20%) of the paraffin-embedded tumors. These results were 97% concordant in cases in which paraffin blocks and fresh specimens from the same tumor were available for analysis. We conclude that restriction endonuclease-mediated selective PCR is a sensitive, rapid, and robust assay for the detection of point mutations in a variety of clinical samples. Importantly, there is no need for manipulation of the sample once the PCR has been set up, and therefore, the chance of contamination is significantly reduced. In contrast to previous assays, restriction endonuclease-mediated selective PCR is not labor intensive, and its format is suitable for use in routine diagnostic laboratory.

  8. Pattern of HER-2 Gene Amplification and Protein Expression in Benign, Borderline, and Malignant Ovarian Serous and Mucinous Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Rabab A A; Makboul, Rania; Elsers, Dalia A H; Elsaba, Tarek M A M; Thalab, Abeer M A B; Shaaban, Omar M

    2016-06-15

    Amplification of HER-2 gene and overexpression of HER-2 receptor play a significant role in the progression of a number of malignancies such as breast cancer. Trastuzumab (anti-HER-2 therapeutic agent) has been used successfully in treatment of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of HER-2 gene amplification and of HER-2 receptor expression in a spectrum of serous and mucinous ovarian tumors to determine whether HER-2 is altered in these neoplasms similar to that occurring in breast cancer. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded microarray tissue sections from 212 specimens were stained with HER-2 antibody using immunohistochemistry and with anti-HER-2 DNA probe using chromogenic in situ hybridization. Specimens consisted of 65 benign tumors (50 serous and 15 mucinous), 26 borderline (13 serous and 13 mucinous), 73 malignant (53 serous carcinoma and 20 mucinous carcinoma), 18 metastatic deposits (13 serous and 5 mucinous), in addition to 30 normal tissues (16 ovarian surface and 14 normal fallopian tube). HER-2 protein-positive expression was not detected in the normal or the benign tissues. Borderline neoplasms showed positive staining, but no overexpression. HER-2 overexpression was seen only in 4 carcinoma specimens: 1/53 (1.8%) primary serous carcinomas and 3/20 (15%) primary mucinous carcinomas. HER-2 gene amplification was seen in 4 specimens: 2 primary mucinous carcinomas and 2 malignant deposits of these 2 mucinous carcinomas. In conclusion, alteration of HER-2 was not detected in ovarian serous neoplasms; however, in mucinous carcinoma, HER-2 amplification and overexpression occur more frequently.

  9. Discordance in HER2 gene amplification in circulating and disseminated tumor cells in patients with operable breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Bischoff, Farideh; Ann Mayer, Julie; Wong, Karina; Pham, Tam; Kuerer, Henry; Lodhi, Ashutosh; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Hall, Carolyn; Lucci, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene amplification in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) might be useful for modifying Herceptin therapy in breast cancer. In the process of investigating the utility of a microfluidic platform for detecting HER2 gene amplification in these cells, we observed novel results on discordance of HER2 status. Peripheral blood (8.5 mL) and bone marrow (BM) (7.5–10 mL) were collected prospectively from patients with clinical stages I–IV breast cancer. Mononuclear cells were recovered, stained with cytokeratin (CK), CD45, and DAPI, and processed through microfluidic channels for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A ratio of HER2:CEP17 >2 in any CK+/CD45 or CK−/CD45 cell was regarded as positive for HER2 gene amplification. Peripheral blood from 95 patients and BM from 78 patients were studied. We found CK+/CD45−/DAPI+ CTCs in 27.3% of patients. We evaluated HER2 gene amplification by FISH in 88 blood and 78 BM specimens and found HER2+ CTCs in 1 of 9 (11.1%) and HER2+ DTCs (27.2%) in 3 of 11 patients with HER2+ primary tumor. Among patients with a HER2− primary tumor, 5 of 79 had HER2+ CTCs (6.3%) and 14 of 67 had HER2+ DTCs (20.8%). The overall rate of discordance in HER2 status was 15% between primary tumor and CTCs and 28.2% between primary tumor and DTCs. HER2 was amplified in CTCs and DTCs in a portion of both HER2+ and HER2− primary tumors. HER2 discordance was more frequent for DTCs. The clinical implications of evaluating HER2 status in CTCs and DTCs in breast cancer needs to be established in prospective clinical trials. The cell enrichment and extraction microfluidic technology provides a sensitive platform for evaluation of HER2 gene amplification in CTCs and DTCs. PMID:23634290

  10. Amplification of 4q21-q22 and the MXR gene in independently derived mitoxantrone-resistant cell lines.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, T; Rao, V K; Ried, T; Mickley, L; Schneider, E; Miyake, K; Ghadimi, B M; Padilla-Nash, H; Pack, S; Greenberger, L; Cowan, K; Dean, M; Fojo, T; Bates, S

    2000-01-01

    Molecular cytogenetic studies were conducted on three multidrug-resistant cancer sublines which are highly resistant to the chemotherapeutic agent mitoxantrone, an anthracenedione. The three independently selected sublines were derived by exposure to mitoxantrone or Adriamycin and do not overexpress MDR1 or MRP. Two sublines, MCF-7 AdVp3000 and MCF-7 MX, showed an amplification peak at 4q21-q22, as demonstrated by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), while the third, S1-M1-80, did not. FISH using a whole chromosome 4 paint demonstrated multiple rearrangements involving chromosome 4 in MCF-7 AdVp3000 and MCF-7 MX, while S1-M1-80 contained only a simple reciprocal translocation. The parental cell lines had no chromosome 4 rearrangements and no copy number gain or amplification of chromosome 4. Spectral karyotyping (SKY) analysis revealed a balanced translocation, t(4;17)(q21-q22;p13) in S1-M1-80 and multiple clonal translocations involving chromosome 4 in MCF-7 AdVp3000 and MCF-7 MX. A novel cDNA, designated MXR, which encodes an ABC half-transporter and is highly overexpressed in the three sublines, was localized to chromosome 4 by somatic cell hybrid analysis. Southern blot analysis demonstrated amplification of the MXR gene in MCF-7 AdVp3000 and MCF-7 MX, but not in S1-M1-80. FISH studies with a BAC probe for MXR localized the gene to 4q21-22 in the normal chromosome 4 and revealed in both MCF-7 AdVp3000 and MCF-7 MX amplification of MXR at one translocation juncture, shown by SKY to be t(4;5)(4qter-->4cen-->4q21-22::5q13-->5qter++ +) in MCF-7 AdVp3000 and t(6;4;6;3)(6pter-->6q15::4q21-q22::hsr::6q?::3q?27-->+ ++3qter) in MCF MX; neither of the breakpoints in the partner chromosomes showed amplification by CGH. The data are consistent with the hypothesis of a transporter, presumably that encoded by the MXR gene, mediating mitoxantrone resistance. The MXR gene encodes a half-transporter and the absence of cytogenetic evidence of coamplification of other regions

  11. Use of aiiA gene amplification for AHL-lactonase production from endophytic bacterium Enterobacter species.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, P S; Rai, V Ravishankar

    2015-01-01

    AHL-lactonase has gained renewed interest due to biotechnological applications such as antiquorum sensing, antibiofilm strategies, biofouling, etc. In our study, the production of AHL-lactonase from endophytic bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes VT66 was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite design (CCD) for four different cultural conditions. The relative activity of AHL-lactonase was correlated with amplification of aiiA homologous gene amplification with respect to cultural conditions. Statistical analysis by ANOVA of the quadratic regression model showed that the RSM model constructed is highly significant, as indicated by F-test with a low probability value (p(model) < 0.0001) and high regression coefficient (0.9997) as well as lower coefficient of variation (1.86%) indicate that suitability of variable parameters. The quadratic regression model of AHL-lactonase production in terms of relative activity was built and the optimal cultural conditions for maximum enzyme production were determined as 32.5 °C temperature, pH 7.0, 350 μM of substrate concentration and 33 h of incubation time. The enhanced AHL-lactonase yielded 1.33 fold increases in relative activity and it positively correlated with the amplification of aiiA gene.

  12. Amplification and overexpression of TGIF2, a novel homeobox gene of the TALE superclass, in ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Imoto, I; Pimkhaokham, A; Watanabe, T; Saito-Ohara, F; Soeda, E; Inazawa, J

    2000-09-16

    Homeodomain transcription factors play important roles in directing cellular proliferation and differentiation. A TALE-superclass homeodomain protein, multifunctional repressor of TGFbeta-induced transcription. Here we report identification of TGIF2, a novel TALE-superclass homeodomain protein that shows distinct homology with TGIF, especially in its DNA-binding domain. TGIF2 is expressed ubiquitously in human tissues, with the highest levels being found in heart, kidney, and testis. The TGIF2 product contains a putative nuclear localization signal; translocation of the protein to the nucleus was confirmed by transfection of epitope-tagged cDNA. TGIF2 lies on chromosome 20q11.2-12. Since amplification of 20q is often observed among ovarian cancers, we determined the status of DNA copy-number and expression of TGIF2 in 14 ovarian-cancer cell lines. This gene was over-expressed in all lines that showed amplification by FISH analysis. The results suggested that TGIF2 may play an important role in the development and/or progression of some ovarian tumors through a mechanism of gene amplification.

  13. KRAS Mutation as a Potential Prognostic Biomarker of Biliary Tract Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Masaaki; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Ohtsuka, Kouki; Matsushima, Satsuki; Ohkura, Yasuo; Furuse, Junji; Watanabe, Takashi; Mori, Toshiyuki; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to identify the unique molecular characteristics of biliary tract cancer (BTC) for the development of novel molecular-targeted therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed mutational analysis of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and FBXW7 and immunohistochemical analysis of EGFR and TP53 in 63 Japanese patients with BTC and retrospectively evaluated the association between the molecular characteristics and clinicopathological features of BTC. RESULTS KRAS mutations were identified in 9 (14%) of the 63 BTC patients; no mutations were detected within the analyzed regions of BRAF, PIK3CA, and FBXW7. EGFR overexpression was observed in 5 (8%) of the 63 tumors, while TP53 overexpression was observed in 48% (30/63) of the patients. Overall survival of patients with KRAS mutation was significantly shorter than that of patients with the wild-type KRAS gene (P = 0.005). By multivariate analysis incorporating molecular and clinicopathological features, KRAS mutations and lymph node metastasis were identified to be independently associated with shorter overall survival (KRAS, P = 0.004; lymph node metastasis, P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that KRAS mutation is a poor prognosis predictive biomarker for the survival in BTC patients. PMID:28008299

  14. Nitrative and oxidative DNA damage caused by K-ras mutation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, Shiho; Saito, Hiromitsu; Suzuki, Noboru; Ma, Ning; Hiraku, Yusuke; Murata, Mariko; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Mutated K-ras in transgenic mice caused nitrative DNA damage, 8-nitroguanine. {yields} The mutagenic 8-nitroguanine seemed to be generated by iNOS via Ras-MAPK signal. {yields} Mutated K-ras produces additional mutagenic lesions, as a new oncogenic role. -- Abstract: Ras mutation is important for carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis consists of multi-step process with mutations in several genes. We investigated the role of DNA damage in carcinogenesis initiated by K-ras mutation, using conditional transgenic mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that mutagenic 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) were apparently formed in adenocarcinoma caused by mutated K-ras. 8-Nitroguanine was co-localized with iNOS, eNOS, NF-{kappa}B, IKK, MAPK, MEK, and mutated K-ras, suggesting that oncogenic K-ras causes additional DNA damage via signaling pathway involving these molecules. It is noteworthy that K-ras mutation mediates not only cell over-proliferation but also the accumulation of mutagenic DNA lesions, leading to carcinogenesis.

  15. EPSPS Gene Amplification in Glyphosate-Resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) Populations from Arkansas (United States).

    PubMed

    Salas, Reiofeli A; Scott, Robert C; Dayan, Franck E; Burgos, Nilda R

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas (United States) in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations were studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify alternative management approaches. Dose-response bioassays, glyphosate absorption and translocation experiments, herbicide target (EPSPS) gene sequence analysis, and gene amplification assays were conducted. The dose causing 50% growth reduction (GR50) was 7-19 times higher for the resistant population than for the susceptible standard. Uptake and translocation of (14)C-glyphosate were similar in resistant and susceptible plants, and no mutation in the EPSPS gene known to be associated with resistance to glyphosate was detected. Resistant plants contained from 11- to >100-fold more copies of the EPSPS gene than the susceptible plants, whereas the susceptible plants had only one copy of EPSPS. Plants surviving the recommended dose of glyphosate contained at least 10 copies. The EPSPS copy number was positively related to glyphosate resistance level (r = 80). Therefore, resistance to glyphosate in these populations is due to multiplication of the target site. Resistance mechanisms could be location-specific. Suppressing the mechanism for gene amplification may overcome resistance.

  16. Isolation of epithelial cells from acrylic removable dentures and gender identification by amplification of SRY gene using real time PCR.

    PubMed

    George, Renjith; Sriram, G; Saraswathi, Tr; Sivapathasundharam, B

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the usefulness of acrylic dentures as the source of DNA for forensic analysis. Thirty-eight samples (21 males and 17 females) were collected and stored for different time periods. The epithelial cells adhered to the dentures were retrieved and the genomic DNA was extracted. All the samples yielded sufficient amount of DNA for analysis irrespective of the storage time. Gender determination was done by amplification of the sex determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) using real-time polymerase chain reaction with 100% accuracy, within minimal time. With this study, we conclude that saliva-stained acrylic dentures can act as a source of forensic DNA and co-amplification of SRY gene with other routine sex typing markers will give unambiguous gender identification.

  17. PCR-mediated recombination of the amplification products of the Hibiscus tiliaceus cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linghui; Tang, Tian; Zhou, Renchao; Shi, Suhua

    2007-03-31

    PCR-mediated recombination describes the process of in vitro chimera formation from related template sequences present in a single PCR amplification. The high levels of genetic redundancy in eukaryotic genomes should make recombination artifacts occur readily. However, few evolutionary biologists adequately consider this phenomenon when studying gene lineages. The cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GapC), which encodes a NADP-dependent nonphosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the cytosol, is a classical low-copy nuclear gene marker and is commonly used in molecular evolutionary studies. Here, we report on the occurrence of PCR-mediated recombination in the GapC gene family of Hibiscus tiliaceus. The study suggests that recombinant areas appear to be correlated with DNA template secondary structures. Our observations highlight that recombination artifacts should be considered when studying specific and allelic phylogenies. The authors suggest that nested PCR be used to suppress PCR-mediated recombination.

  18. Identification of DNA lesions using a third base pair for amplification and nanopore sequencing.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Jan; Ding, Yun; Fleming, Aaron M; Burrows, Cynthia J

    2015-11-06

    Damage to the genome is implicated in the progression of cancer and stress-induced diseases. DNA lesions exist in low levels, and cannot be amplified by standard PCR because they are frequently strong blocks to polymerases. Here, we describe a method for PCR amplification of lesion-containing DNA in which the site and identity could be marked, copied and sequenced. Critical for this method is installation of either the dNaM or d5SICS nucleotides at the lesion site after processing via the base excision repair process. These marker nucleotides constitute an unnatural base pair, allowing large quantities of marked DNA to be made by PCR amplification. Sanger sequencing confirms the potential for this method to locate lesions by marking, amplifying and sequencing a lesion in the KRAS gene. Detection using the α-hemolysin nanopore is also developed to analyse the markers in individual DNA strands with the potential to identify multiple lesions per strand.

  19. Frequent mutations of KRAS in addition to BRAF in colorectal serrated adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stefanius, Karoliina; Ylitalo, Laura; Tuomisto, Anne; Kuivila, Rami; Kantola, Tiina; Sirniö, Päivi; Karttunen, Tuomo J; Mäkinen, Markus J

    2011-01-01

    Aims To define the occurrence of KRAS and BRAF mutations, microsatellite instability (MSI), and MGMT and hMLH1 methylation and expression in colorectal serrated adenocarcinoma. Methods and results KRAS codon 12/13 and 59/61 and BRAF V600E mutations, MSI, and MGMT and hMLH1 methylation and expression in 42 serrated adenocarcinomas and 17 serrated adenomas were compared with those in 59 non-serrated colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) and nine adenomas. KRAS and BRAF mutations were observed in 45% and 33% of serrated adenocarcinomas and in 27% and 0% of non-serrated CRCs (P < 0.001). The KRAS c12G→A transition was the predominant type of mutation in serrated adenocarcinomas. Forty-two per cent of BRAF-mutated serrated adenocarcinomas showed high-level MSI (MSI-H) (P = 0.075), 100% showed hMLH1 methylation (P = 0.001) and 90.9% showed MGMT methylation (P = 0.019). Fifty-six per cent of serrated adenocarcinomas with microsatellite stability/low-level microsatellite instability harboured KRAS mutations. In non-serrated cancers, KRAS mutations were not associated with MSI status. Conclusions A high combined mutation rate (79–82%) of KRAS and BRAF in serrated adenomas and adenocarcinomas indicates that mitogen-activated protein kinase activation is a crucial part of the serrated pathway. BRAF mutations are specific for serrated adenocarcinoma and identify a subset of serrated adenocarcinomas with gene methylation and a tendency for MSI-H. A high frequency of KRAS mutations in serrated adenocarcinomas suggests that a significant proportion of KRAS-mutated CRCs originate from serrated precursors, thus challenging the traditional model of Vogelstein. PMID:21457162

  20. Ladder-like amplification of the type I interferon gene cluster in the human osteosarcoma cell line MG63.

    PubMed

    Marella, Narasimharao V; Zeitz, Michael J; Malyavantham, Kishore S; Pliss, Artem; Matsui, Sei-ichi; Goetze, Sandra; Bode, Juergen; Raska, Ivan; Berezney, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    The organization of the type I interferon (IFN) gene cluster (9p21.3) was studied in a human osteosarcoma cell line (MG63). Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) showed an amplification of approximately 6-fold which ended at both ends of the gene cluster with a deletion that extended throughout the 9p21.3 band. Spectral karyotyping (SKY) combined with fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) identified an arrangement of the gene cluster in a ladder-like array of 5-7 'bands' spanning a single chromosome termed the 'IFN chromosome'. Chromosome painting revealed that the IFN chromosome is derived from components of chromosomes 4, 8 and 9. Labelling with centromeric probes demonstrated a ladder-like amplification of centromeric 4 and 9 sequences that co-localized with each other and a similar banding pattern of chromosome 4, as well as alternating with the IFN gene clusters. In contrast, centromere 8 was not detected on the IFN chromosome. One of the amplified centromeric 9 bands was identified as the functional centromere based on its location at the chromosome constriction and immunolocalization of the CENP-C protein. A model is presented for the generation of the IFN chromosome that involves breakage-fusion-bridge events.

  1. Differential expression of RBM5 and KRAS in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and their association with clinicopathological features

    PubMed Central

    PENG, JIE; VALESHABAD, ALI KORD; LI, QINGFU; WANG, YUAN

    2013-01-01

    RNA binding motif 5 (RBM5) is a tumor suppressor gene that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis through pre-mRNA splicing of related genes. This study aimed to detect RBM5 and KRAS expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and their association with clinicopathological features. Detection of RBM5 and KRAS expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting was performed at mRNA and protein levels, respectively, in pancreatic cancer and non-tumor tissues. In addition, the association of RBM5 and KRAS expression with clinicopathological parameters and tumor recurrence was analyzed. The expression of RBM5 was significantly downregulated in pancreatic cancer tissues compared to peritumoral tissues at the mRNA and protein levels. Contrastingly, KRAS was significantly overexpressed in pancreatic cancerous tissues compared to peritumoral tissues. Analysis revealed that RBM5 expression was negatively correlated with KRAS expression in pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, reduced RBM5 expression has a close association with lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) stage and nerve and venous invasion, while overexpression of KRAS proteins was significantly correlated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, UICC stage and nerve and venous invasion of pancreatic cancer. Significant RBM5 underexpression and KRAS overexpression were observed in pancreatic cancer compared to non-tumor tissues. There is a close association of differential RBM5 and KRAS with poor clinicopathological features, suggesting their potential roles in the progression and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23425895

  2. Amplification of TLO Mediator Subunit Genes Facilitate Filamentous Growth in Candida Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongle; Moran, Gary P.; Myers, Lawrence C.

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous growth is a hallmark of C. albicans pathogenicity compared to less-virulent ascomycetes. A multitude of transcription factors regulate filamentous growth in response to specific environmental cues. Our work, however, suggests the evolutionary history of C. albicans that resulted in its filamentous growth plasticity may be tied to a change in the general transcription machinery rather than transcription factors and their specific targets. A key genomic difference between C. albicans and its less-virulent relatives, including its closest relative C. dubliniensis, is the unique expansion of the TLO (TeLOmere-associated) gene family in C. albicans. Individual Tlo proteins are fungal-specific subunits of Mediator, a large multi-subunit eukaryotic transcriptional co-activator complex. This amplification results in a large pool of ‘free,’ non-Mediator associated, Tlo protein present in C. albicans, but not in C. dubliniensis or other ascomycetes with attenuated virulence. We show that engineering a large ‘free’ pool of the C. dubliniensis Tlo2 (CdTlo2) protein in C. dubliniensis, through overexpression, results in a number of filamentation phenotypes typically associated only with C. albicans. The amplitude of these phenotypes is proportional to the amount of overexpressed CdTlo2 protein. Overexpression of other C. dubliniensis and C. albicans Tlo proteins do result in these phenotypes. Tlo proteins and their orthologs contain a Mediator interaction domain, and a potent transcriptional activation domain. Nuclear localization of the CdTlo2 activation domain, facilitated naturally by the Tlo Mediator binding domain or artificially through an appended nuclear localization signal, is sufficient for the CdTlo2 overexpression phenotypes. A C. albicans med3 null mutant causes multiple defects including the inability to localize Tlo proteins to the nucleus and reduced virulence in a murine systemic infection model. Our data supports a model in which the

  3. PCR-based amplification and heterologous expression of Pseudomonas alcohol dehydrogenase genes from the soil metagenome for biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Nobuya; Isotani, Kentaro; Makino, Yoshihide; Kato, Masaki; Kitayama, Kouta; Ishimota, Tuyoshi

    2014-02-05

    The amplification of useful genes from metagenomes offers great biotechnological potential. We employed this approach to isolate alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) genes from Pseudomonas to aid in the synthesis of optically pure alcohols from various ketones. A PCR primer combination synthesized by reference to the adh sequences of known Pseudomonas genes was used to amplify full-length adh genes directly from 17 samples of DNA extracted from soil. Three such adh preparations were used to construct Escherichia coli plasmid libraries. Of the approximately 2800 colonies obtained, 240 putative adh-positive clones were identified by colony-PCR. Next, 23 functional adh genes named using the descriptors HBadh and HPadh were analyzed. The adh genes obtained via this metagenomic approach varied in their DNA and amino acid sequences. Expression of the gene products in E. coli indicated varying substrate specificity. Two representative genes, HBadh-1 and HPadh-24, expressed in E. coli and Pseudomonas putida, respectively, were purified and characterized in detail. The enzyme products of these genes were confirmed to be useful for producing anti-Prelog chiral alcohols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. KRAS mutation: comparison of testing methods and tissue sampling techniques in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Wilbur A; Haney, Jerry; Sugita, Michio; Bemis, Lynne; Jimeno, Antonio; Messersmith, Wells A

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of colon carcinoma with the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody Cetuximab is reported to be ineffective in KRAS-mutant tumors. Mutation testing techniques have therefore become an urgent concern. We have compared three methods for detecting KRAS mutations in 59 cases of colon carcinoma: 1) high resolution melting, 2) the amplification refractory mutation system using a bifunctional self-probing primer (ARMS/Scorpion, ARMS/S), and 3) direct sequencing. We also evaluated the effects of the methods of sectioning and coring of paraffin blocks to obtain tumor DNA on assay sensitivity and specificity. The most sensitive and specific combination of block sampling and mutational analysis was ARMS/S performed on DNA derived from 1-mm paraffin cores. This combination of tissue sampling and testing method detected KRAS mutations in 46% of colon tumors. Four samples were positive by ARMS/S, but initially negative by direct sequencing. Cloned DNA samples were retested by direct sequencing, and in all four cases KRAS mutations were identified in the DNA. In six cases, high resolution melting abnormalities could not be confirmed as specific mutations either by ARMS/S or direct sequencing. We conclude that coring of the paraffin blocks and testing by ARMS/S is a sensitive, specific, and efficient method for KRAS testing.

  5. EGFR Intron 1 polymorphism in Asian Populations and its correlation with EGFR gene expression and amplification in breast tumor tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingyu; Cheung, Yin Bun; Jada, Srinivasa Rao; Lim, Wan Teck; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Gray, Joe W; Lee, Ann S G; Chowbay, Balram

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis if longer CA dinucleotide repeats are more common in the Asian population and also to gain insights into the interplay between the CA dinucleotide repeats and the frequencies of EGFR gene expression and amplifications as this might have therapeutic implications with regards to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The EGFR intron 1 polymorphism was analysed in three distinct healthy Asian subjects, namely, Chinese (N = 96), Malays (N = 98) and Indians (N = 100). Comparative genomic hybridisation was performed to investigate for changes in DNA copy number in relation to the polymorphic CA dinucleotide repeats in breast tumor tissues (N = 22). The frequency of short alleles with 14 and 15 CA repeats were most common in the Asian populations and significantly higher than those reported for Caucasians. The frequency of 20 CA repeats was 5%, almost 13-fold lower than previous reports. EGFR amplifications were detected in 23% and 11% of breast tumor tissues harboring short and long CA repeats, respectively. Our results show that the frequency of alleles encoding for short CA dinucleotide repeats is common in Asian populations. EGFR expression and amplification levels were also higher in Asian breast tumor tissues with short CA dinucleotide repeats. These findings suggest that the EGFR intron 1 polymorphism may influence response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancer patients and further studies are warranted.

  6. Optimization of direct whole blood PCR amplification with applications on a static thermostat chip.

    PubMed

    Qu, Bai-Yan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Tian, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Kun; Fang, Fang

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, direct whole blood PCR amplifications on a static chip thermostat without sample purifications are demonstrated; in these amplifications, problems such as cross-interferences and contaminations could be avoided. The amplification conditions, such as the compositions of reagents and thermal programs, were investigated systematically by a GeneAmp PCR system with a native p53 gene segment (about 543 bp) of human genome and an exterior lambda DNA segment (about 500 bp) as targets. Direct amplifications of p53 and K-ras (about 157 bp) gene segments from 0.5 microL blood samples were successfully demonstrated by a static PCR chip with an indium tin oxide glass substrate. The chip thermostat has a typical size of 25 mm x 25 mm, and a polyethylene tube was used as the PCR vial on the glass surface of the chip. Fuzzy proportional integration-differentiation algorithms were adopted in temperature controls of the chip with an aid of a micro-Pt100 sensor. In the direct PCR with the thermostat chip, the whole process only involves automatic thermal programs. This work demonstrated that a chip PCR for field test without desktop facilities is possible either for a point of care test or for forensic analysis.

  7. Selective Targeting of CTNNB1-, KRAS- or MYC-Driven Cell Growth by Combinations of Existing Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Uitdehaag, Joost C. M.; de Roos, Jeroen A. D. M.; van Doornmalen, Antoon M.; Prinsen, Martine B. W.; Spijkers-Hagelstein, Jill A. P.; de Vetter, Judith R. F.; de Man, Jos; Buijsman, Rogier C.; Zaman, Guido J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of combination drug treatment in cancer therapy is to improve response rate and to decrease the probability of the development of drug resistance. Preferably, drug combinations are synergistic rather than additive, and, ideally, drug combinations work synergistically only in cancer cells and not in non-malignant cells. We have developed a workflow to identify such targeted synergies, and applied this approach to selectively inhibit the proliferation of cell lines with mutations in genes that are difficult to modulate with small molecules. The approach is based on curve shift analysis, which we demonstrate is a more robust method of determining synergy than combination matrix screening with Bliss-scoring. We show that the MEK inhibitor trametinib is more synergistic in combination with the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib than with vemurafenib, another BRAF inhibitor. In addition, we show that the combination of MEK and BRAF inhibitors is synergistic in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells, and additive or antagonistic in, respectively, BRAF-wild type melanoma cells and non-malignant fibroblasts. This combination exemplifies that synergistic action of drugs can depend on cancer genotype. Next, we used curve shift analysis to identify new drug combinations that specifically inhibit cancer cell proliferation driven by difficult-to-drug cancer genes. Combination studies were performed with compounds that as single agents showed preference for inhibition of cancer cells with mutations in either the CTNNB1 gene (coding for β-catenin), KRAS, or cancer cells expressing increased copy numbers of MYC. We demonstrate that the Wnt-pathway inhibitor ICG-001 and trametinib acted synergistically in Wnt-pathway-mutant cell lines. The ERBB2 inhibitor TAK-165 was synergistic with trametinib in KRAS-mutant cell lines. The EGFR/ERBB2 inhibitor neratinib acted synergistically with the spindle poison docetaxel and with the Aurora kinase inhibitor GSK-1070916 in cell lines with MYC amplification

  8. Optimized Multiplex Detection of 7 KRAS Mutations by Taqman Allele-Specific qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Orue, Andrea; Rieber, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the KRAS mutational status of tumor samples is essential to manage patients with colorectal or lung cancer, since these mutations preclude treatment with monoclonal anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies. We report an inexpensive, rapid multiplex allele-specific qPCR method detecting the 7 most clinically relevant KRAS somatic mutations with concomitant amplification of non-mutated KRAS in tumor cells and tissues from CRC patients. Positive samples evidenced in the multiplex assay were further subjected to individual allele-specific analysis, to define the specific mutation. Reference human cancer DNA harbouring either G12A, G12C, G12D, G12R, G12S, G12V and G13D confirmed assay specificity with ≤1% sensitivity of mutant alleles. KRAS multiplex mutation analysis usefulness was also demonstrated with formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) from CRC biopsies. Conclusion. Co-amplification of non-mutated DNA avoided false negatives from degraded samples. Moreover, this cost effective assay is compatible with mutation detection by DNA sequencing in FFPE tissues, but with a greater sensitivity when mutant DNA concentrations are limiting. PMID:27632281

  9. Whole-genome amplification: a useful approach to characterize new genes in unculturable protozoan parasites such as Bonamia exitiosa.

    PubMed

    Prado-Alvarez, Maria; Couraleau, Yann; Chollet, Bruno; Tourbiez, Delphine; Arzul, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    Bonamia exitiosa is an intracellular parasite (Haplosporidia) that has been associated with mass mortalities in oyster populations in the Southern hemisphere. This parasite was recently detected in the Northern hemisphere including Europe. Some representatives of the Bonamia genus have not been well categorized yet due to the lack of genomic information. In the present work, we have applied Whole-Genome Amplification (WGA) technique in order to characterize the actin gene in the unculturable protozoan B. exitiosa. This is the first protein coding gene described in this species. Molecular analysis revealed that B. exitiosa actin is more similar to Bonamia ostreae actin gene-1. Actin phylogeny placed the Bonamia sp. infected oysters in the same clade where the herein described B. exitiosa actin resolved, offering novel information about the classification of the genus. Our results showed that WGA methodology is a promising and valuable technique to be applied to unculturable protozoans whose genomic material is limited.

  10. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis on capillary electrophoresis instruments for a rapid gene copy number study.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Stéphane; Currie-Fraser, Erica; Xu, Licen; Coffa, Jordy

    2008-09-01

    Annotated DNA samples that had been previously analyzed were tested using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays containing probes targeting BRCA1, BRCA2, and MMR (MLH1/MSH2 genes) and the 9p21 chromosomal region. MLPA polymerase chain reaction products were separated on a capillary electrophoresis platform, and the data were analyzed using GeneMapper v4.0 software (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). After signal normalization, loci regions that had undergone deletions or duplications were identified using the GeneMapper Report Manager and verified using the DyeScale functionality. The results highlight an easy-to-use, optimal sample preparation and analysis workflow that can be used for both small- and large-scale studies.

  11. Enhancement of methotrexate resistance and dihydrofolate reductase gene amplification by treatment of mouse 3T6 cells with hydroxyurea.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, P C; Tlsty, T D; Schimke, R T

    1983-01-01

    We investigated various parameters associated with the initial selection of mouse 3T6 cells for resistance to single concentrations of methotrexate and characterized resistant colonies for the presence of additional (amplified) copies of the dihydrofolate reductase gene. Our results indicate that the frequency of occurrence of dihydrofolate reductase gene amplification varies with the selecting concentration of methotrexate and is highly variable between clonally derived sublines of mouse 3T6 cells. Second, we increased the frequency of occurrence of cells with amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes by transiently inhibiting DNA synthesis with hydroxyurea before the selection of cells in single concentrations of methotrexate. This effect was dependent on the concentration of hydroxyurea, the time of exposure to the drug, and the time interval between the removal of hydroxyurea and the selection of cells in methotrexate. Images PMID:6877240

  12. Gene amplification at a locus encoding a putative Na+/H+ antiporter confers sodium and lithium tolerance in fission yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Z P; McCullough, N; Martel, R; Hemmingsen, S; Young, P G

    1992-01-01

    We have identified a new locus, sodium 2 (sod2) based on selection for increased LiCl tolerance in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Tolerant strains have enhanced pH-dependent Na+ export capacity and sodium transport experiments suggest that the gene encodes an Na+/H+ antiport. The predicted sod2 gene product can be placed in the broad class of transporters which possess 12 hydrophobic transmembrane domains. The protein shows some sequence similarity to the human and bacterial Na+/H+ antiporters. Overexpression of sod2 increased Na+ export capacity and conferred sodium tolerance. Osmotolerance was not affected and sod2 cells were unaffected for growth in K+. In a sod2 disruption strain cells were incapable of exporting sodium. They were hypersensitive to Na+ or Li+ and could not grow under conditions that approximate pH7. The sod2 gene amplification could be selected stepwise and the degree of such amplification correlated with the level of Na+ or Li+ tolerance. Images PMID:1314171

  13. An electrochemical biosensor for double-stranded Wnt7B gene detection based on enzymatic isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Li, Junlong; Chen, Zhongping; Xiang, Yu; Zhou, Lili; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Zhang; Sun, Kexin; Yin, Dan; Li, Yi; Xie, Guoming

    2016-12-15

    Wnt7B gene plays an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer and pancreatic cancer. While, the natural state of DNA is double stranded, which makes it difficult to be directly detected. Here, we develop an electrochemical biosensor method for Wnt7B gene detection without the need to denature the target. This method firstly used nicking enzyme for exploiting in the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Then, long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was generated from the cutting site through polymerase extension reaction. Whereafter, the long ssDNA triggered a hairpin self-assembly recycling reaction, which gave rise to another isothermal amplification reaction. Last, short ssDNA was formed after the this amplification process, which could hybridize with the capture probe immobilized on Au electrode and result in signal variation. This method showed excellent analytical performance for dsDNA, of which the linear range was 2fM to 500pM and the detection limit was 1.6fM (S/N=3). It also showed an good results when applied to the real sample of Wnt7B gene detection.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of KRAS testing and cetuximab as last-line therapy for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Shiroiwa, Takeru; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2010-12-01

    Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor, improves progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, patients with a KRAS gene mutation do not benefit from cetuximab therapy. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of KRAS testing and cetuximab treatment as last-line therapy for patients with mCRC in Japan. In our analysis, we considered three treatment strategies. In the 'KRAS-testing strategy' (strategy A), KRAS testing was performed to guide treatment: patients with wild-type KRAS received cetuximab, and those with mutant KRAS received best supportive care (BSC). In the 'no-KRAS-testing strategy' (strategy B), genetic testing was not conducted and all patients received cetuximab. In the 'no-cetuximab strategy' (strategy C), genetic testing was not conducted and all patients received BSC. To evaluate the cost effectiveness of KRAS testing, the KRAS-testing strategy was compared with the no-KRAS-testing strategy; to evaluate the cost effectiveness of KRAS testing and cetuximab, the KRAS-testing strategy was compared with the no-cetuximab strategy; and to evaluate the cost effectiveness of cetuximab treatment without KRAS testing, the no-KRAS-testing strategy was compared with the no-cetuximab strategy. A three-state Markov model was used to predict expected costs and outcomes for each group. Outcomes in the model were based on those reported in a retrospective analysis of data from the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group CO.17 study. We included only direct medical costs from the perspective of the Japanese healthcare payer. A 3% discount rate was used for both costs and outcome. Two outcomes, life-years (LYs) gained and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained, were used to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Our cost-effectiveness analysis revealed that the KRAS-testing strategy was dominant compared with the

  15. An XIST-related small RNA regulates KRAS G-quadruplex formation beyond X-inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yuli C.; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Yuo, Chung-Yee; Chan, Wen-Ling; Chang, Ya-Sian; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Shou-Mei; Chou, Han-Lin; Liu, Ta-Chih; Lu, Chi-Yu; Yang, Wen-Kuang; Chang, Jan-Gowth

    2016-01-01

    X-inactive-specific transcript (XIST), a long non-coding RNA, is essential for the initiation of X-chromosome inactivation. However, little is known about other roles of XIST in the physiological process in eukaryotic cells. In this study, the bioinformatics approaches revealed XIST could be processed into a small non-coding RNA XPi2. The XPi2 RNA was confirmed by a northern blot assay; its expression was gender-independent, suggesting the role of XPi2 was beyond X-chromosome inactivation. The pull-down assay combined with LC-MS-MS identified two XPi2-associated proteins, nucleolin and hnRNP A1, connected to the formation of G-quadruplex. Moreover, the microarray data showed the knockdown of XPi2 down-regulated the KRAS pathway. Consistently, we tested the expression of ten genes, including KRAS, which was correlated with a G-quadruplex formation and found the knockdown of XPi2 caused a dramatic decrease in the transcription level of KRAS among the ten genes. The results of CD/NMR assay also supported the interaction of XPi2 and the polypurine-polypyrimidine element of KRAS. Accordingly, XPi2 may stimulate the KRAS expression by attenuating G-quadruplex formation. Our present work sheds light on the novel role of small RNA XPi2 in modulating the G-quadruplex formation which may play some essential roles in the KRAS- associated carcinogenesis. PMID:27880931

  16. An XIST-related small RNA regulates KRAS G-quadruplex formation beyond X-inactivation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuli C; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Yuo, Chung-Yee; Chan, Wen-Ling; Chang, Ya-Sian; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Shou-Mei; Chou, Han-Lin; Liu, Ta-Chih; Lu, Chi-Yu; Yang, Wen-Kuang; Chang, Jan-Gowth

    2016-12-27

    X-inactive-specific transcript (XIST), a long non-coding RNA, is essential for the initiation of X-chromosome inactivation. However, little is known about other roles of XIST in the physiological process in eukaryotic cells. In this study, the bioinformatics approaches revealed XIST could be processed into a small non-coding RNA XPi2. The XPi2 RNA was confirmed by a northern blot assay; its expression was gender-independent, suggesting the role of XPi2 was beyond X-chromosome inactivation. The pull-down assay combined with LC-MS-MS identified two XPi2-associated proteins, nucleolin and hnRNP A1, connected to the formation of G-quadruplex. Moreover, the microarray data showed the knockdown of XPi2 down-regulated the KRAS pathway. Consistently, we tested the expression of ten genes, including KRAS, which was correlated with a G-quadruplex formation and found the knockdown of XPi2 caused a dramatic decrease in the transcription level of KRAS among the ten genes. The results of CD/NMR assay also supported the interaction of XPi2 and the polypurine-polypyrimidine element of KRAS. Accordingly, XPi2 may stimulate the KRAS expression by attenuating G-quadruplex formation. Our present work sheds light on the novel role of small RNA XPi2 in modulating the G-quadruplex formation which may play some essential roles in the KRAS- associated carcinogenesis.

  17. KRAS and PIK3CA mutations in colorectal adenocarcinomas correlate with aggressive histological features and behavior.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sejin; Hong, Mineui; Shin, Mi Kyung; Kim, Byung Chun; Shin, Hyung-Sik; Yu, Eunsil; Hong, Seung-Mo; Kim, Jihun; Chun, Sung Min; Kim, Tae-Im; Choi, Kyung-Chan; Ko, Young Woong; Kim, Jeong Won

    2017-02-08

    Tumor budding (TB) in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and has been recently characterized as an indicator of poor prognosis along with lymphovascular tumor emboli (LVE), perineural invasion (PNI), and an infiltrative growth pattern. Mutations in the genes of the Ras-MAPK and PI3K pathways are associated with EMT and an aggressive CRC phenotype and have been used in patient stratification for anti-EGF receptor therapies; however, the impact of these mutations on CRC morphology and behavior remains unclear. In this study, using a multi-gene panel, we detected KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, and POLE mutations in 90 CRCs and investigated their associations with clinicopathological parameters, including TB. Our results showed that 21 of 34 tumors with high-grade TB had KRAS mutations (P=.001) and KRAS G12D and PIK3CA exon 9 variants were significantly associated with high-grade TB (P=.002 and .006, respectively); furthermore, tumors with KRAS mutations in exons 3 and 4 tended to have LVE and PNI (P=.044 and .049, respectively). PIK3CA exon 9 mutations indicated a tendency for shorter disease-free survival (P=.030), whereas BRAF mutations were associated with extracellular mucin deposition (P=.016). Our study revealed a correlation of KRAS mutations with high-grade TB, an association of certain KRAS and PIK3CA variants with aggressive clinicopathological features, as well as a possible relationship between BRAF mutations and mucin production in CRC.

  18. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy continued beyond first progression in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer previously treated with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy: ML18147 study KRAS subgroup findings.

    PubMed

    Kubicka, S; Greil, R; André, T; Bennouna, J; Sastre, J; Van Cutsem, E; von Moos, R; Osterlund, P; Reyes-Rivera, I; Müller, T; Makrutzki, M; Arnold, D

    2013-09-01

    ML18147 evaluated continued bevacizumab with second-line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) progressing after the standard first-line bevacizumab-containing therapy. Evaluating outcomes according to tumor Kirsten rat sarcoma virus oncogene (KRAS) status was an exploratory analysis. KRAS data were collected from local laboratories (using their established methods) and/or from a central laboratory (mutation-specific Scorpion amplification-refractory mutation system). No adjustment was made for multiplicity; analyses were not powered to detect statistically significant differences. Of 820 patients, 616 (75%) had unambiguous KRAS data; 316 (51%) had KRAS wild-type tumors and 300 (49%) had mutant KRAS tumors. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.4 months for bevacizumab plus chemotherapy and 4.5 months for chemotherapy [P < 0.0001; HR = 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-0.77] for wild-type KRAS and 5.5 and 4.1 months, respectively (P = 0.0027; HR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.56-0.89) for mutant KRAS. The median overall survival (OS) was 15.4 and 11.1 months, respectively (P = 0.0052; HR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.53-0.90) for wild-type KRAS and 10.4 versus 10.0 months, respectively (P = 0.4969; HR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.71-1.18) for mutant KRAS. In both analyses, no treatment interaction by KRAS status was observed (PFS, P = 0.4436; OS, P = 0.1266). Bevacizumab beyond first progression represents an option for patients with mCRC treated with bevacizumab plus standard first-line chemotherapy, independent of KRAS status.

  19. Is there a prognostic role of K-ras point mutations in the serum of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Camps, Carlos; Sirera, Rafael; Bremnes, Roy; Blasco, Ana; Sancho, Eva; Bayo, Pilar; Safont, Maria Jose; Sánchez, José Javier; Tarón, Miquel; Rosell, Rafael

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of K-ras mutations in circulating DNA in advanced non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Serum samples were assessed prior to platinum-based chemotherapy start in 67 patients with advanced NSCLC (stage IIIB or IV), treated between April 1999 and June 2002. Patients were not previously treated with chemotherapy. K-ras oncogene mutations at codon 12 were analyzed by genomic amplification and direct sequencing of the patient's DNA present in serum. Pre-treatment serum was available in all 67 patients. Twenty patients (30%) demonstrated K-ras mutations while 47 patients (70%) had wild-type K-ras. Among K-ras mutations, the amino acid glycine was substituted by cystein in 90% and valine in 10%. When patients were grouped according to K-ras genotype, there was no significant difference for any of the baseline patient characteristics. There was a tendency towards a higher response rate for patients with K-ras mutations versus wild-type K-ras in serum, however not statistically significant (p=0.37). Median progression-free survival was 7.3 months versus 5.5 months in patients with mutations and with wild-type K-ras, respectively (p=0.23). For median overall survival time, the mutation group was comparable to the wild-type K-ras group with 12.5 and 11.4 months, respectively (p=0.28). In conclusion, there were no significant differences between the patients with K-ras mutations and those with wild-type genotype with respect to baseline patient characteristics, response rates, progression-free survival, or overall survival.

  20. Amplification of a Cytochrome P450 Gene Is Associated with Resistance to Neonicotinoid Insecticides in the Aphid Myzus persicae

    PubMed Central

    Puinean, Alin M.; Foster, Stephen P.; Oliphant, Linda; Denholm, Ian; Field, Linda M.; Millar, Neil S.; Williamson, Martin S.; Bass, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The aphid Myzus persicae is a globally significant crop pest that has evolved high levels of resistance to almost all classes of insecticide. To date, the neonicotinoids, an economically important class of insecticides that target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), have remained an effective control measure; however, recent reports of resistance in M. persicae represent a threat to the long-term efficacy of this chemical class. In this study, the mechanisms underlying resistance to the neonicotinoid insecticides were investigated using biological, biochemical, and genomic approaches. Bioassays on a resistant M. persicae clone (5191A) suggested that P450-mediated detoxification plays a primary role in resistance, although additional mechanism(s) may also contribute. Microarray analysis, using an array populated with probes corresponding to all known detoxification genes in M. persicae, revealed constitutive over-expression (22-fold) of a single P450 gene (CYP6CY3); and quantitative PCR showed that the over-expression is due, at least in part, to gene amplification. This is the first report of a P450 gene amplification event associated with insecticide resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest. The microarray analysis also showed over-expression of several gene sequences that encode cuticular proteins (2–16-fold), and artificial feeding assays and in vivo penetration assays using radiolabeled insecticide provided direct evidence of a role for reduced cuticular penetration in neonicotinoid resistance. Conversely, receptor radioligand binding studies and nucleotide sequencing of nAChR subunit genes suggest that target-site changes are unlikely to contribute to resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in M. persicae. PMID:20585623

  1. Prognostic role of KRAS mutations in Sardinian patients with colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Palomba, Grazia; Cossu, Antonio; Paliogiannis, Panagiotis; Pazzola, Antonio; Baldino, Giovanni; Scartozzi, Mario; Ionta, Maria Teresa; Ortu, Salvatore; Capelli, Francesca; Lanzillo, Annamaria; Sedda, Tito; Sanna, Giovanni; Barca, Michela; Virdis, Luciano; Budroni, Mario; Palmieri, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The presence of mutations in the KRAS gene is a predictor of a poor clinical response to EGFR-targeted agents in patients affected by colorectal cancer (CRC), but its significance as a global prognostic factor remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the KRAS mutational status on time to first metastasis (TTM) and overall survival (OS) in a cohort of Sardinian CRC patients. A total of 551 patients with metastatic CRC at the time of enrolment were included. Clinical and pathological features of the disease, including follow-up information, were obtained from medical records and cancer registry data. For mutational analysis formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples were processed using a standard protocol. The coding sequence and splice junctions of exons 2 and 3 of the KRAS gene were screened for mutations by direct automated sequencing. Overall, 186 KRAS mutations were detected in 183/551 (33%) patients: 125 (67%) were located in codon 12, 36 (19%) in codon 13, and 18 (10%) in codon 61. The remaining mutations (7; 4%) were detected in uncommonly-affected codons. No significant correlation between KRAS mutations and gender, age, anatomical location and stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis was identified. Furthermore, no prognostic value of KRAS mutations was found considering either TTM or OS. When patients were stratified by KRAS mutational status and gender, males were significantly associated with a longer TTM. The results of the present study indicate that KRAS mutation correlated with a slower metastatic progression in males with CRC from Sardinia, irrespective of the age at diagnosis and the codon of the mutation. PMID:27446446

  2. Oncogenic KRAS triggers MAPK-dependent errors in mitosis and MYC-dependent sensitivity to anti-mitotic agents

    PubMed Central

    Perera, David; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS induces cell proliferation and transformation, but little is known about its effects on cell division. Functional genetic screens have recently revealed that cancer cell lines expressing oncogenic KRAS are sensitive to interference with mitosis, but neither the mechanism nor the uniformity of anti-mitotic drug sensitivity connected with mutant KRAS expression are yet clear. Here, we report that acute expression of oncogenic KRAS in HeLa cells induces mitotic delay and defects in chromosome segregation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation and de-regulated expression of several mitosis-related genes. These anomalies are accompanied by increased sensitivity to anti-mitotic agents, a phenotype dependent on the transcription factor MYC and its downstream target anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL. Unexpectedly, we find no correlation between KRAS mutational status or MYC expression levels and anti-mitotic drug sensitivity when surveying a large database of anti-cancer drug responses. However, we report that the co-existence of KRAS mutations and high MYC expression predicts anti-mitotic drug sensitivity. Our findings reveal a novel function of oncogenic KRAS in regulating accurate mitotic progression and suggest new avenues to therapeutically target KRAS-mutant tumours and stratify patients in ongoing clinical trials of anti-mitotic drugs. PMID:27412232

  3. Accumulation of wild-type p53 protein in astrocytomas is not mediated by MDM2 gene amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, M.P.; Louis, D.N. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1993-05-01

    The authors have previously described ten cases of astrocytoma (three WHO grade II, four grade III and four grade IV) with seemingly contradictory results on immunohistochemical analysis of the p53 protein and molecular genetic analysis of the p53 gene. Fixed, embedded tissues from these cases were immunohistochemically positive with the PAb 1801 antibody, which supposedly implies the presence of mutant protein. These ten cases, however, did not have mutations in exons 5 through 8 of the p53 gene, the conserved regions in which almost all human mutations have been described. The authors suggested that these cases might either represent overexpression of wild-type p53 protein (since the PAb 1801 antibody reacts with both wild-type and mutant p53 protein) or mutations in less conserved regions of the gene. To investigate these possibilities further, they performed single strand conformational polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing on p53 exons 4, 9 and 10 in the nine cases with available DNA, since rare mutations have been noted at these loci. None of the cases showed alterations, making it highly unlikely that these tumors harbor mutations in exons of the p53 gene. They also performed immunohistochemistry on frozen sections from seven available tumors, using the mutant-specific antibody PAb 240 in addition to PAb 1801. All tumors continued to show positive staining with PAb 1801, but only one tumor reacted with PAb 240. The results support the hypothesis that the accumulated p53 protein in most cases is wild-type. Because the product of the MDM2 oncogene can bind to wild-type p53 protein, and because MDM2 amplification has recently been demonstrated in human tumors, the authors evaluated MDM2 amplification in the nine astrocytomas with available DNA. Using slot blot analysis with a 96-base pair, PCR-generated probe to the first exon of the MDM2 gene, they were unable to show MDM2 gene amplification in these tumors or in other assayed astrocytomas.

  4. KRAS mutation leads to decreased expression of regulator of calcineurin 2, resulting in tumor proliferation in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niitsu, H; Hinoi, T; Kawaguchi, Y; Sentani, K; Yuge, R; Kitadai, Y; Sotomaru, Y; Adachi, T; Saito, Y; Miguchi, M; Kochi, M; Sada, H; Shimomura, M; Oue, N; Yasui, W; Ohdan, H

    2016-01-01

    KRAS mutations occur in 30–40% of all cases of human colorectal cancer (CRC). However, to date, specific therapeutic agents against KRAS-mutated CRC have not been developed. We previously described the generation of mouse models of colon cancer with and without Kras mutations (CDX2P-G22Cre;Apcflox/flox; LSL-KrasG12D and CDX2P-G22Cre;Apcflox/flox mice, respectively). Here, the two mouse models were compared to identify candidate genes, which may represent novel therapeutic targets or predictive biomarkers. Differentially expressed genes in tumors from the two mouse models were identified using microarray analysis, and their expression was compared by quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (qRT–PCR) and immunohistochemical analyses in mouse tumors and surgical specimens of human CRC, with or without KRAS mutations, respectively. Furthermore, the functions of candidate genes were studied using human CRC cell lines. Microarray analysis of 34 000 transcripts resulted in the identification of 19 candidate genes. qRT–PCR analysis data showed that four of these candidate genes (Clps, Irx5, Bex1 and Rcan2) exhibited decreased expression in the Kras-mutated mouse model. The expression of the regulator of calcineurin 2 (RCAN2) was also observed to be lower in KRAS-mutated human CRC. Moreover, inhibitory function for cancer cell proliferation dependent on calcineurin was indicated with overexpression and short hairpin RNA knockdown of RCAN2 in human CRC cell lines. KRAS mutations in CRC lead to a decrease in RCAN2 expression, resulting in tumor proliferation due to derepression of calcineurin–nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling. Our findings suggest that calcineurin–NFAT signal may represent a novel molecular target for the treatment of KRAS-mutated CRC. PMID:27526107

  5. Quantification and assessment of viability of Cryptococcus neoformans by LightCycler amplification of capsule gene mRNA.

    PubMed

    Amjad, Muhammad; Kfoury, Najla; Cha, Raymond; Mobarak, Reem

    2004-12-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen. It infects the central nervous system causing meningitis, which is fatal if untreated, especially in AIDS and immunosuppressed patients. In this study a method of quantification and assessment of viability of C. neoformans by LightCycler RT-PCR amplification of the capsule gene mRNA is established. The sequence of primers and probes were derived from C. neoformans capsular CAP10 gene mRNA (GenBank accession number AF144574), and were species specific. Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of LightCycler RT-PCR product showed a single band of 223 bp in length. In order to develop an internal control a 223 bp exon fragment of capsule mRNA was cloned in the pCR2.1 plasmid vector and RNA was generated by in vitro transcription. To determine the sensitivity of the assay, serial dilutions of in vitro-transcribed RNA with known concentrations and copy numbers, and serially diluted cultures of viable and nonviable C. neoformans were used. Under optimal conditions as little as 0.472 fg of capsule mRNA could be detected, corresponding to 1-10 c.f.u. ml(-1) of the sample. No amplification was observed from up to 10(5) heat/UV radiation-killed yeast cells and RNA of other bacterial and fungal pathogens and human genomic DNA or RNA. The amplification of capsule mRNA represents a sensitive, specific and quantitative means of detection of viable C. neoformans in clinical specimens and can be useful in the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of antifungal drugs in the treatment of C. neoformans meningitis.

  6. Amplification and expression of a salivary gland DNA puff gene in the prothoracic gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Candido-Silva, Juliana Aparecida; Machado, Maiaro Cabral Rosa; Hartfelder, Klaus Hartmann; de Almeida, Jorge Cury; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Monesi, Nadia

    2015-03-01

    The DNA puff BhC4-1 gene, located in DNA puff C4 of Bradysiahygida, is amplified and expressed in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar as a late response to the increase in 20-hydroxyecdysone titer that triggers metamorphosis. Functional studies revealed that the mechanisms that regulate BhC4-1 expression in the salivary gland are conserved in transgenic Drosophila. These studies also led to the identification of a cis-regulatory module that drives developmentally regulated expression of BhC4-1-lacZ in the prothoracic gland cells of the ring gland, a compound organ which in Drosophila results from the fusion of the prothoracic glands, the corpus allatum and the corpus cardiacum. Here we have investigated the occurrence of BhC4-1 expression in B. hygida prothoracic glands. We report the identification of the B. hygida prothoracic gland and demonstrate that it releases ecdysone. Using RT-qPCR, western blots and immunolocalization experiments, we demonstrate that the BhC4-1 mRNA and the BhC4-1 protein are both expressed in the B. hygida prothoracic glands at the same time that DNA puff C4 is formed in the salivary gland. We also show that BhC4-1 is concomitantly amplified 4.8-fold in the prothoracic gland and 23-fold in the salivary gland. Our results reveal the occurrence of stage specific expression of a DNA puff gene in the prothoracic glands of B. hygida, and extend previous studies that have shown that DNA puff genes expression is not restricted to the salivary gland. In addition, the description of stage specific gene amplification in the prothoracic glands of B. hygida constitutes the first demonstration that gene amplification in Diptera might occur concomitantly in two different tissues in the same developmental stage.

  7. Altered regulation of DNA ligase IV activity by aberrant promoter DNA methylation and gene amplification in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuhmann, Christine; Li, Carmen; Kloor, Matthias; Salou, Mariam; Weigel, Christoph; Schmidt, Christopher R; Ng, Linda W C; Tsui, Wendy W Y; Leung, Suet Y; Yuen, Siu T; Becker, Natalia; Weichenhan, Dieter; Plass, Christoph; Schmezer, Peter; Chan, Tsun L; Popanda, Odilia

    2014-04-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) presents as a very heterogeneous disease which cannot sufficiently be characterized with the currently known genetic and epigenetic markers. To identify new markers for CRC we scrutinized the methylation status of 231 DNA repair-related genes by methyl-CpG immunoprecipitation followed by global methylation profiling on a CpG island microarray, as altered expression of these genes could drive genomic and chromosomal instability observed in these tumors. We show for the first time hypermethylation of MMP9, DNMT3A and LIG4 in CRC which was confirmed in two CRC patient groups with different ethnicity. DNA ligase IV (LIG4) showed strong differential promoter methylation (up to 60%) which coincided with downregulation of mRNA in 51% of cases. This functional association of LIG4 methylation and gene expression was supported by LIG4 re-expression in 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-treated colon cancer cell lines, and reduced ligase IV amounts and end-joining activity in extracts of tumors with hypermethylation. Methylation of LIG4 was not associated with other genetic and epigenetic markers of CRC in our study. As LIG4 is located on chromosome 13 which is frequently amplified in CRC, two loci were tested for gene amplification in a subset of 47 cases. Comparison of amplification, methylation and expression data revealed that, in 30% of samples, the LIG4 gene was amplified and methylated, but expression was not changed. In conclusion, hypermethylation of the LIG4 promoter is a new mechanism to control ligase IV expression. It may represent a new epigenetic marker for CRC independent of known markers.

  8. Gene amplification and microsatellite instability induced in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells by alpha particles and heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Gene amplification and microsatellite alteration are useful markers of genomic instability in tumor and transformed cell lines. It has been suggested that genomic instability contributes to the progression of tumorigenesis by accumulating genetic changes. In this study, amplification of the carbamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbamylase, dihydro-orotase (CAD) gene in transformed and tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by either alpha particles or (56)Fe ions was assessed by measuring resistance to N-(phosphonacetyl)-l-aspartate (PALA). In addition, alterations of microsatellite loci located on chromosomes 3p and 18q were analyzed in a series of primary and secondary tumor cell lines generated in nude mice. The frequency of PALA-resistant colonies was 1-3 x 10(-3) in tumor cell lines, 5-8 x 10(-5) in transformed cells prior to inoculation into nude mice, and less than 10(-7) in control BEP2D cells. Microsatellite alterations were detected in all 11 tumor cell lines examined at the following loci: D18S34, D18S363, D18S877, D3S1038 and D3S1607. No significant difference in either PALA resistance or microsatellite instability was found in tumor cell lines that were induced by alpha particles compared to those induced by (56)Fe ions.

  9. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Listeria ivanovii by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of the smcL Gene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Xu, Huaqing; Dai, Hang; Meng, Shuang; Ye, Changyun

    2014-01-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and sensitive detection of the L. ivanovii strains had been developed and evaluated in this study. Oligonucleotide primers specific for L. ivanovii species were designed corresponding to smcL gene sequences. The primers set comprise six primers targeting eight regions on the species-specific gene smcL. The LAMP assay could be completed within 1 h at 64°C in a water bath. Amplification products were directly observed by the Loopamp Fluorescent Detection Reagent (FD) or detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Moreover, the LAMP reactions were also detected by real-time measurement of turbidity. The exclusivity of 77 non-L. ivanovii and the inclusivity of 17 L. ivanovii were both 100% in the assay. Sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 250 fg DNA and 16 CFU per reaction for detection of L. ivanovii in pure cultures and simulated human stool. The LAMP assay was 10 and 100-fold more sensitive than quantitative PCR (qPCR) and conventional PCR assays,respectively. When applied to human stool samples spiked with low level (8 CFU/0.5 g) of L. ivanovii strains, the new LAMP assay described here achieved positive detection after 6 hours enrichment. In conclusion, the new LAMP assay in this study can be used as a valuable, rapid and sensitive detection tool for the detection of L. ivanovii in field, medical and veterinary laboratories. PMID:25549337

  10. Gene amplification and microsatellite instability induced in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells by alpha particles and heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Gene amplification and microsatellite alteration are useful markers of genomic instability in tumor and transformed cell lines. It has been suggested that genomic instability contributes to the progression of tumorigenesis by accumulating genetic changes. In this study, amplification of the carbamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbamylase, dihydro-orotase (CAD) gene in transformed and tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by either alpha particles or (56)Fe ions was assessed by measuring resistance to N-(phosphonacetyl)-l-aspartate (PALA). In addition, alterations of microsatellite loci located on chromosomes 3p and 18q were analyzed in a series of primary and secondary tumor cell lines generated in nude mice. The frequency of PALA-resistant colonies was 1-3 x 10(-3) in tumor cell lines, 5-8 x 10(-5) in transformed cells prior to inoculation into nude mice, and less than 10(-7) in control BEP2D cells. Microsatellite alterations were detected in all 11 tumor cell lines examined at the following loci: D18S34, D18S363, D18S877, D3S1038 and D3S1607. No significant difference in either PALA resistance or microsatellite instability was found in tumor cell lines that were induced by alpha particles compared to those induced by (56)Fe ions.

  11. Loop-mediated amplification of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis micA gene is highly specific.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; Kubota, Ryo; Jenkins, Daniel M; Alvarez, Anne M

    2013-12-01

    Loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) was used to specifically identify Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato. LAMP primers were developed to detect micA, a chromosomally stable gene that encodes a type II lantibiotic, michiganin A, which inhibits growth of other C. michiganensis subspecies. In all, 409 bacterial strains (351 C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and 58 non-C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) from a worldwide collection were tested with LAMP to determine its specificity. LAMP results were compared with genetic profiles established using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of seven genes (dnaA, ppaJ, pat-1, chpC, tomA, ppaA, and ppaC). C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains produced eight distinct profiles. The LAMP reaction identified all C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains and discriminated them from other C. michiganensis subspecies and non-Clavibacter bacteria. LAMP has advantages over immunodiagnostic and other molecular detection methods because of its specificity and isothermal nature, which allows for easy field application. The LAMP reaction is also not affected by as many inhibitors as PCR. This diagnostic tool has potential to provide an easy, one-step test for rapid identification of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

  12. Rapid and specific detection of the thermostable direct hemolysin gene in Vibrio parahaemolyticus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Jiro; Sugawara, Chiyo; Akahane, Kenji; Hashimoto, Keiji; Kojima, Tadashi; Ikedo, Masanari; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2009-04-01

    Several investigators have reported that thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin are important virulence factors of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, but it has been difficult to detect these factors rapidly in seafood and other environmental samples. A novel nucleic acid amplification method, termed the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which amplifies DNA with high specificity and rapidity under isothermal conditions, was applied. In this study, we designed tdh gene-specific LAMP primers for detection of TDH-producing V. parahaemolyticus. The specificity of this assay was evaluated with 32 strains of TDH-producing V. parahaemolyticus, one strain of TDH-producing Grimontia hollisae, 10 strains of TDH-nonproducing V. parahaemolyticus, and 94 strains of TDH-nonproducing bacteria, and the sensitivity was high enough to detect one cell per test. Moreover, to investigate the detection of TDH-producing V. parahaemolyticus in oysters, the LAMP assay was performed with enrichment culture in alkaline peptone water of oyster samples inoculated with TDH-producing V. parahaemolyticus and TDH-nonproducing V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus after enrichment in alkaline peptone water. These results suggest that the LAMP assay targeting tdh gene has high sensitivity and specificity and is useful to detect TDH-producing V. parahaemolyticus in oyster after enrichment.

  13. High resolution melting analysis of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA in KRAS exon 2 wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background KRAS is an EGFR effector in the RAS/RAF/ERK cascade that is mutated in about 40% of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Activating mutations in codons 12 and 13 of the KRAS gene are the only established negative predictors of response to anti-EGFR therapy and patients whose tumors harbor such mutations are not candidates for therapy. However, 40 to 60% of wild-type cases do not respond to anti-EGFR therapy, suggesting the involvement of other genes that act downstream of EGFR in the RAS-RAF-MAPK and PI3K-AKT pathways or activating KRAS mutations at other locations of the gene. Methods DNA was obtained from a consecutive series of 201 mCRC cases (FFPE tissue), wild-type for KRAS exon 2 (codons 12 and 13). Mutational analysis of KRAS (exons 3 and 4), BRAF (exons 11 and 15), and PIK3CA (exons 9 and 20) was performed by high resolution melting (HRM) and positive cases were then sequenced. Results One mutation was present in 23.4% (47/201) of the cases and 3.0% additional cases (6/201) had two concomitant mutations. A total of 53 cases showed 59 mutations, with the following distribution: 44.1% (26/59) in KRAS (13 in exon 3 and 13 in exon 4), 18.6% (11/59) in BRAF (two in exon 11 and nine in exon 15) and 37.3% (22/59) in PIK3CA (16 in exon 9 and six in exon 20). In total, 26.4% (53/201) of the cases had at least one mutation and the remaining 73.6% (148/201) were wild-type for all regions studied. Five of the mutations we report, four in KRAS and one in BRAF, have not previously been described in CRC. BRAF and PIK3CA mutations were more frequent in the colon than in the sigmoid or rectum: 20.8% vs. 1.6% vs. 0.0% (P=0.000) for BRAF and 23.4% vs. 12.1% vs. 5.4% (P=0.011) for PIK3CA mutations. Conclusions About one fourth of mCRC cases wild-type for KRAS codons 12 and 13 present other mutations either in KRAS, BRAF, or PIK3CA, many of which may explain the lack of response to anti-EGFR therapy observed in a significant proportion of these patients. PMID

  14. Detection of Salmonella spp. by a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method targeting bcfD gene.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, L; Gong, J; Li, Q; Zhu, C; Yu, Y; Dou, X; Liu, X; Xu, B; Wang, C

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we developed and validated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Salmonella detection targeting bcfD gene, a conserved fimbrial operon gene existing in Salmonella. The Salmonella LAMP assay we developed successfully amplified 44 Salmonella strains (14 standard strains and 30 clinical isolates), but none of 9 non-Salmonella standard strains (Proteus mirabilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni and Vibrio parahemolyticus). The detection limit was 5 CFU of Salmonella pure culture or 200 CFU of artificially spiked faeces per reaction system (equivalent to 5000 CFU g(-1) of faeces), and this method could directly detect Salmonella in chicken faeces free of pre-enrichment in a reaction time of 25 min. Our experiments show that the LAMP method we developed is a rapid, sensitive, specific and practical method for Salmonella detection. The Salmonella LAMP assay can potentially serve as new on-site diagnostics in the food and agricultural industries. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was established to detect Salmonella targeting bcfD gene, a conserved fimbrial operon gene. The detection limit was 5 CFU of Salmonella pure culture or 200 CFU of artificially spiked faeces per reaction system (equivalent to 5000 CFU g(-1) of faeces), and this method could directly detect Salmonella in chicken faeces free of pre-enrichment in a reaction time of 25 min. The Salmonella LAMP assay is a rapid, sensitive, specific and practical method for Salmonella detection and can potentially serve as new on-site diagnostics in the food and agricultural industries. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Across the universe of K-RAS mutations in non-small-cell-lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Piva, Sheila; Ganzinelli, Monica; Garassino, Marina Chiara; Caiola, Elisa; Farina, Gabriella; Broggini, Massimo; Marabese, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    RAS family proteins are important signaling molecules that regulate cell growth, survival and differentiation by coupling receptor activation to downstream effector pathways. Three distinct genes encode for the three different proteins H-, K-, and N- RAS. These proteins share high sequence homology, particularly at the N-Terminal domain. Among them, K-RAS is one of the most frequently mutated in human cancer. The majority of the mutations present in K-RAS are at codon 12 (from 80 to 100%) followed by codon 13 and 61. In all cases, aminoacid change leads to a constitutively activated protein. K-RAS mutations have a role in tumor development as well as in tumor progression and resistance. Despite the various studies which have been published, the prognostic and predictive role of K-RAS mutations is still under debate. Keeping in mind that the glycine present at position 12 can be substituted by valine, aspartic acid or cysteine, it could be well understood that each different substitution plays a different role in K-RAS-dependent processes. The present article focuses on the molecular and biological characteristics of K-RAS protein, its role in NSCLC tumor development and progression. We also present an overview of the preclinical models both in vitro and in vivo available to determine the role of K-RAS in tumor progression and response to treatment and on the recent results obtained in this field. Finally, we have considered the impact of KRAS mutations in clinical practice, analyzing the different recent trials that have taken into consideration K-RAS.

  16. Regulation of KRAS-PAK4 axis by microRNAs in cancer.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Zeshan S; Tripathi, Vraj; Sutton, Mike; Bao, Bin; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Azmi, Asfar S

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), often aberrantly expressed in cancer, have been implicated in the regulation of a number of critical cell survival pathways including the genes in the Kras signaling. Kras mutations are observed in more than half of cancers and its inhibition has been the focus of intense research for the past 30 years. However, Kras itself has proven to be non-druggable due in part to the absence of binding pockets for small molecule drugs. These hurdles resulted in researchers shifting their focus on targeting proteins downstream to Kras pathways. P21 activated kinase 4 (PAK4) belongs to the family of serine/threonine kinases comprising of 6 isoforms (PAK 1-6) and is considered as a key effector of Rho family of GTPases downstream of RAS. PAK4 controls critical processes such as cellular motility, proliferation and survival. Recently a number of small molecule PAK4 antagonists have been investigated in preclinical and clinical setting; albeit without any success. Emerging evidence shows that PAK is tightly regulated by a number of miRNAs that are also recognized to promote hyper-activation of oncogenic Kras signaling. Therefore, the understanding of the role of miRNAs in the regulation of PAK4 is critical to the development of therapies against this important player in the Kras pathway. Through this review, we bring forward mechanistic insights on PAK4 regulation by aberrantly expressed miRNAs in cancer and its implications on Kras signaling. We anticipate that enhanced knowledge of the miRNA-PAK4 interaction network will allow the development of successful therapies targeting this critical protein to ultimately rein in Kras.

  17. Distinctive patterns of Her-2/neu, c-myc, and cyclin D1 gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization in primary human breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Janocko, L E; Brown, K A; Smith, C A; Gu, L P; Pollice, A A; Singh, S G; Julian, T; Wolmark, N; Sweeney, L; Silverman, J F; Shackney, S E

    2001-06-15

    Human solid tumors undergo clonal evolution as they progress, but evidence for specific sequences of genetic changes that occur in individual tumors and are recapitulated in other tumors is difficult to obtain. Patterns of amplification of Her-2/neu, c-myc, and cyclin D1 were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in relation to the presence of p53 dysfunction and ploidy in 60 primary human breast cancers. We show that there are clusters of genophenotypic abnormalities that distinguish lobular breast cancers from nonlobular tumors; that cyclin D1 amplification occurs prior to the divergence of lobular breast cancers from nonlobular cancers; that p53 dysfunction, Her-2/neu amplification, and c-myc amplification are characteristic features of nonlobular breast cancers, but not of lobular breast cancers; and that the frequencies of amplification of all three oncogenes examined increase progressively with increasing aneuploidy, but that each gene exhibits a different profile of increasing amplification in relation to tumor progression. Early amplification of c-myc appears to be an especially prominent feature of hypertetraploid/hypertetrasomic tumors. The data suggest that in tumors containing multiple abnormalities, these abnormalities often accumulate in the same cells within each tumor. Furthermore, the same patterns of accumulation of multiple genophenotypic abnormalities are recapitulated in different tumors.

  18. High MET receptor expression but not gene amplification in ALK 2p23 rearrangement positive non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Minca, Eugen C; Lanigan, Christopher; Liu, Angen; Zhang, Wei; Yin, Lihong; Pennell, Nathan A; Farver, Carol; Tubbs, Raymond; Ma, Patrick C

    2014-05-01

    Overexpression of MET receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and MET gene amplification have been well-documented in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Activated MET signaling plays an important role in human cancer tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. However, the deregulation of MET/HGF pathway in NSCLC harboring ALK gene rearrangement (ALK[+]), which is sensitive to dual ALK and MET inhibitor Crizotinib, has not been reported. We performed systematic analysis of MET/HGF expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and MET gene amplification by dual color, dual hapten bright field in situ hybridization in 19 ALK(+) and 73 ALK(-) NSCLC tumor tissues from those who had clinical ALK rearrangement test done at the Cleveland Clinic from August 2010 to January 2013. IHC scoring was interpreted on a standard four-tier system. The percentage of MET IHC score 0, 1+, 2+, and 3+ were 5.5%, 27.8%, 50.0%, and 16.7% in ALK(+) group, compared with 28.8%, 33.9%, 23.7%, and 13.6% in ALK(-) group, respectively. The MET high expression (IHC score 2 or 3) was significantly higher in ALK(+) group statistically (66.7% versus 37.3%, p = 0.03). HGF-high expression (IHC score 2 or 3) was 33.3% in ALK(+) and 15.8% in ALK(-) (p = 0.17). We identified eight cases in ALK(-) and one case in ALK(+) tumor who had MET gene amplification (18.4% versus 7.1%, p = 0.43) by dual color, dual hapten bright field in situ hybridization. No significant correlation between MET protein receptor expression and gene amplification was identified. Our study demonstrated for the first time that MET receptor expression, but not MET gene amplification, is significantly increased in ALK(+) NSCLC. MET gene amplification is a relatively rare event in this unique population compared with ALK(-) NSCLC.

  19. Improved gene amplification by cell-cycle engineering combined with the Cre-loxP system in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Rima; Tsutsui, Tomomi; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Omasa, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    The dihydrofolate reductase gene amplification system is widely used in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for the industrial production of therapeutic proteins. To enhance the efficiency of conventional gene amplification systems, we previously presented a novel method using cell-cycle checkpoint engineering. Here, we constructed high-producing and stable cells by the conditional expression of mutant cell division cycle 25 homolog B (CDC25B) using the Cre-loxP system. A bispecific antibody-producing CHO DG44-derived cell line was transfected with floxed mutant CDC25B. After inducing gene amplification in the presence of 250 nM methotrexate, mutant CDC25B sequence was removed by Cre recombinase protein expression. Overexpression of the floxed mutant CDC25B significantly enhanced the efficiency of transgene amplification and productivity. Moreover, the specific production rate of the isolated clone CHO Cre-1 and Cre-2 were approximately 11-fold and 15-fold higher than that of mock-transfected clone CHO Mock-S. Chromosomal aneuploidy was increased by mutant CDC25B overexpression, but Cre-1 and Cre-2 did not show any changes in chromosome number during long-term cultivation, as is the case with CHO Mock-S. Our results suggest that high-producing and stable cells can be constructed by conditionally controlling a cell-cycle checkpoint integrated in conventional gene amplification systems. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure and evolution of the U2 small nuclear RNA multigene family in primates: gene amplification under natural selection?

    PubMed Central

    Matera, A G; Weiner, A M; Schmid, C W

    1990-01-01

    The organization of U2 genes was compared in apes, Old World monkeys, and the prosimian galago. In humans and all apes (gibbon, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee), the U2 genes were organized as a tandem repeat of a 6-kb element; however, the restriction maps of the 6-kb elements in these divergent species differed slightly, demonstrating that mechanisms must exist for maintaining sequence homogeneity within this tandem array. In Old World monkeys, the U2 genes were organized as a tandem repeat of an 11-kb element; the restriction maps of the 11-kb elements in baboon and two closely related macaques, bonnet and rhesus monkeys, also differed slightly, confirming that efficient sequence homogenization is an intrinsic property of the U2 tandem array. Interestingly, the 11-kb monkey repeat unit differed from the 6-kb hominid repeat unit by a 5-kb block of monkey-specific sequence. Finally, we found that the U2 genes of the prosimian galago were dispersed rather than tandemly repeated, suggesting that the hominid and Old World monkey U2 tandem arrays resulted from independent amplifications of a common ancestral U2 gene. Alternatively, the 5-kb monkey-specific sequence could have been inserted into the 6-kb array or deleted from the 11-kb array soon after divergence of the hominid and Old World monkey lineages. Images PMID:2233721

  1. Big Results from Small Samples: Evaluation of Amplification Protocols for Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Viale, Agnes; Li, Juan; Tiesman, Jay; Hester, Susan; Massimi, Aldo; Griffin, Chandi; Grills, George; Khitrov, Greg; Lilley, Kathryn; Knudtson, Kevin; Ward, Bill; Kornacker, Karl; Chu, Chin-yi; Auer, Herbert; Brooks, Andrew I.

    2007-01-01

    Microarrays have revolutionized many areas of biology due to our technical ability to quantify tens of thousands of transcripts within a single experiment. However, there are still many areas that cannot benefit from this technology due to the amount of biological material needed for microarray analysis. In response to this demand, chemistries have been developed that boast the capability of generating targets from nanogram amounts of total RnA, reflecting minimal amounts of biological material, on the order of several hundred or thousand cells. Herein, we describe the evaluation of four chemistries for RnA amplification in terms of reproducibility, sensitivity, accuracy, and comparability to results from a single round of T7 amplification. No evidence for false-positive measurements of differential expression was observed. In contrast, clear differences between chemistries in sensitivity and accuracy were detected. PCR validation showed an interaction of probe sequence on the array and target labeling chemistry, resulting in a chemistry-dependent probe set sensitivity varying over an order of magnitude. PMID:17595311

  2. Pronounced chromosomal instability and multiple gene amplifications characterize ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Habermann, Jens K; Upender, Madhvi B; Roblick, Uwe J; Krüger, Stefan; Freitag, Sandra; Blegen, Harald; Bruch, Hans Peter; Schimmelpenning, Hendrik; Auer, Gert; Ried, Thomas

    2003-11-01

    Patients with ulcerative colitis have a significantly increased lifetime risk for the development of colorectal carcinomas. While genetic and genomic changes during carcinogenesis have been thoroughly studied in sporadic colorectal cancers, less is known about ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal carcinomas. The aim of this study was to extend the identification of specific genomic imbalances to ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal carcinomas and to establish a comprehensive map of DNA gains and losses by investigating 23 tumor specimens from 23 patients. The molecular cytogenetic characterization was performed using comparative genomic hybridization; immunohistochemistry was used to measure proliferative activity and laminin-5 expression as a marker for invasiveness. The results indicate that these tumors are invariably aneuploid, with a high proliferative activity and increased invasive potential. The average number of copy alterations correlates with increased cyclin A levels (P=0.044), which is an independent predictor of risk of carcinoma development in ulcerative colitis. Despite severe genetic instability, the general pattern of specific chromosomal aberrations that defines sporadic colorectal carcinomas is maintained in ulcerative colitis-associated malignancies. High-level copy number increases (amplifications) are dispersed throughout the genome. Strikingly, these amplifications are much more frequent than in sporadic carcinomas and map to chromosomal regions that have not been described before.

  3. The PRKD1 promoter is a target of the KRas-NF-κB pathway in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Döppler, Heike; Panayiotou, Richard; Reid, Elizabeth M.; Maimo, Willibroad; Bastea, Ligia; Storz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Increased expression of PRKD1 and its gene product protein kinase D1 (PKD1) are linked to oncogenic signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, but a direct functional relationship to oncogenic KRas has not been established so far. We here describe the PRKD1 gene promoter as a target for oncogenic KRas signaling. We demonstrate that KRas-induced activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway is one mechanism of how PRKD1 expression is increased and identify the binding sites for NF-κB in the PRKD1 promoter. Altogether, these results describe a novel mechanism governing PRKD1 gene expression in PDA and provide a functional link between oncogenic KRas, NF-κB and expression of PRKD1. PMID:27649783

  4. The PRKD1 promoter is a target of the KRas-NF-κB pathway in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Döppler, Heike; Panayiotou, Richard; Reid, Elizabeth M; Maimo, Willibroad; Bastea, Ligia; Storz, Peter

    2016-09-21

    Increased expression of PRKD1 and its gene product protein kinase D1 (PKD1) are linked to oncogenic signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, but a direct functional relationship to oncogenic KRas has not been established so far. We here describe the PRKD1 gene promoter as a target for oncogenic KRas signaling. We demonstrate that KRas-induced activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway is one mechanism of how PRKD1 expression is increased and identify the binding sites for NF-κB in the PRKD1 promoter. Altogether, these results describe a novel mechanism governing PRKD1 gene expression in PDA and provide a functional link between oncogenic KRas, NF-κB and expression of PRKD1.

  5. Development of a reliable dual-gene amplification RT-PCR assay for the detection of Turkey Meningoencephalitis virus in Turkey brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Irit; Raibstein, Israel; Al-Tori, Amira; Khinich, Yevgeny; Simanov, Michael; Yuval, Chanoch; Perk, Shimon; Lublin, Avishai

    2012-11-01

    The Turkey Meningoencephalitis virus (TMEV) causes neuroparalytic signs, paresis, in-coordination, morbidity and mortality in turkeys. In parallel to the increased worldwide scientific interest in veterinary avian flaviviruses, including the Bagaza, Tembusu and Tembusu-related BYD virus, TMEV-caused disease also reemergence in commercial turkeys during late summer of 2010. While initially TMEV was detected by NS5-gene RT-PCR, subsequently, the env-gene RT-PCR was employed. As lately several inconsistencies were observed between the clinical, serological and molecular detection of the TMEV env gene, this study evaluated whether genetic changes occurred in the recently isolated viruses, and sought to optimize and improve the direct TMEV amplification from brain tissues of affected turkeys. The main findings indicated that no changes occurred during the years in the TMEV genome, but the PCR detection sensitivities of the env and NS5 genes differed. The RT-PCR and RNA purification were optimized for direct amplification from brain tissues without pre-replication of clinical samples in tissue cultures or in embryonated eggs. The amplification sensitivity of the NS5-gene was 10-100 times more than the env-gene when separate. The new dual-gene amplification RT-PCR was similar to that of the NS5 gene, therefore the assay can be considered as a reliable diagnostic assay. Cases where one of the two amplicons would be RT-PCR negative would alert and warn on the virus identity, and possible genetic changes. In addition, the biochemical environment of the dual-gene amplification reaction seemed to contribute in deleting non-specific byproducts that occasionally appeared in the singular RT-PCR assays on RNA purified from brain tissues.

  6. Combinatorial codon scrambling enables scalable gene synthesis and amplification of repetitive proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Nicholas C.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2016-04-01

    Most genes are synthesized using seamless assembly methods that rely on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, PCR of genes encoding repetitive proteins either fails or generates nonspecific products. Motivated by the need to efficiently generate new protein polymers through high-throughput gene synthesis, here we report a codon-scrambling algorithm that enables the PCR-based gene synthesis of repetitive proteins by exploiting the codon redundancy of amino acids and finding the least-repetitive synonymous gene sequence. We also show that the codon-scrambling problem is analogous to the well-known travelling salesman problem, and obtain an exact solution to it by using De Bruijn graphs and a modern mixed integer linear programme solver. As experimental proof of the utility of this approach, we use it to optimize the synthetic genes for 19 repetitive proteins, and show that the gene fragments are amenable to PCR-based gene assembly and recombinant expression.

  7. Genome-Wide Analyses Identify Recurrent Amplifications of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases and Cell-Cycle Regulatory Genes in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Paugh, Barbara S.; Broniscer, Alberto; Qu, Chunxu; Miller, Claudia P.; Zhang, Junyuan; Tatevossian, Ruth G.; Olson, James M.; Geyer, J. Russell; Chi, Susan N.; da Silva, Nasjla Saba; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Baker, Justin N.; Gajjar, Amar; Ellison, David W.; Baker, Suzanne J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Long-term survival for children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is less than 10%, and new therapeutic targets are urgently required. We evaluated a large cohort of DIPGs to identify recurrent genomic abnormalities and gene expression signatures underlying DIPG. Patients and Methods Single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays were used to compare the frequencies of genomic copy number abnormalities in 43 DIPGs and eight low-grade brainstem gliomas with data from adult and pediatric (non-DIPG) glioblastomas, and expression profiles were evaluated using gene expression arrays for 27 DIPGs, six low-grade brainstem gliomas, and 66 nonbrainstem low-grade gliomas. Results Frequencies of specific large-scale and focal imbalances varied significantly between DIPGs and nonbrainstem pediatric glioblastomas. Focal amplifications of genes within the receptor tyrosine kinase–Ras–phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway were found in 47% of DIPGs, the most common of which involved PDGFRA and MET. Thirty percent of DIPGs contained focal amplifications of cell-cycle regulatory genes controlling retinoblastoma protein (RB) phosphorylation, and 21% had concurrent amplification of genes from both pathways. Some tumors showed heterogeneity in amplification patterns. DIPGs showed distinct gene expression signatures related to developmental processes compared with nonbrainstem pediatric high-grade gliomas, whereas expression signatures of low-grade brainstem and nonbrainstem gliomas were similar. Conclusion DIPGs comprise a molecularly related but distinct subgroup of pediatric gliomas. Genomic studies suggest that targeted inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinases and RB regulatory proteins may be useful therapies for DIPG. PMID:21931021

  8. Rapid visual detection of phytase gene in genetically modified maize using loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Lili; Xu, Jiangmin; Ji, Hai-Feng; Zhu, Shuifang; Chen, Hongjun

    2014-08-01

    Transgenic maize plant expressing high phytase activity has been reported and approved by Chinese government in 2009. Here, we report a highly specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect the phytase gene in the GMO maize. The LAMP reaction takes less than 20min and the amplification is visible without gel electrophoresis. The detection sensitivity of the LAMP method is about 30 copies of phytase genomic DNA, which is 33.3 times greater than the conventional PCR method with gel electrophoresis. The quantitative detection results showed that the LAMP method has a good linear correlation between the DNA copy number and the associated Tt values over a large dynamic range of template concentration from 6×10(1) to 6×10(7) copies, with a quantification limit of 60 copies. Therefore, the LAMP method is visual, faster, and more sensitive, and does not need special equipment compared to traditional PCR technique, which is very useful for field tests and fast screening of GMO feeds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oncogenic KRAS signalling in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Eser, S; Schnieke, A; Schneider, G; Saur, D

    2014-08-26

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is almost universally fatal. The annual number of deaths equals the number of newly diagnosed cases, despite maximal treatment. The overall 5-year survival rate of <5% has remained stubbornly unchanged over the last 30 years, despite tremendous efforts in preclinical and clinical science. There is unquestionably an urgent need to further improve our understanding of pancreatic cancer biology, treatment response and relapse, and to identify novel therapeutic targets. Rigorous research in the field has uncovered genetic aberrations that occur during PDAC development and progression. In most cases, PDAC is initiated by oncogenic mutant KRAS, which has been shown to drive pancreatic neoplasia. However, all attempts to target KRAS directly have failed in the clinic and KRAS is widely assumed to be undruggable. This has led to intense efforts to identify druggable critical downstream targets and nodes orchestrated by mutationally activated KRAS. This includes context-specific KRAS effector pathways, synthetic lethal interaction partners and KRAS-driven metabolic changes. Here, we review recent advances in oncogenic KRAS signalling and discuss how these might benefit PDAC treatment in the future.

  10. Assignment of genes encoding metallothioneins I and II to Chinese hamster chromosome 3: evidence for the role of chromosome rearrangement in gene amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Stallings, R L; Munk, A C; Longmire, J L; Hildebrand, C E; Crawford, B D

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium resistant (Cdr) variants with coordinately amplified metallothionein I and II (MTI and MTII) genes have been derived from both Chinese hamster ovary and near-euploid Chinese hamster cell lines. Cytogenetic analyses of Cdr variants consistently revealed breakage and rearrangement involving chromosome 3p. In situ hybridization with a Chinese hamster MT-encoding cDNA probe localized amplified MT gene sequences near the translocation breakpoint involving chromosome 3p. These observations suggested that both functionally related, isometallothionein loci are linked on Chinese hamster chromosome 3. Southern blot analyses of DNAs isolated from a panel of Chinese hamster X mouse somatic cell hybrids which segregate hamster chromosomes confirmed that both MTI and MTII are located on chromosome 3. We speculate that rearrangement of chromosome 3p could be causally involved with the amplification of MT genes in Cdr hamster cell lines. Images PMID:6527691

  11. Genetic Characterization of Esterase Activity Variants Associated with an Esterase Gene Amplification in a Strain of Culex pipiens from California.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, James A

    2015-03-01

    In the Culex pipiens complex, a common mechanism of insecticide resistance is amplification of esterase genes leading to overproduction of detoxifying esterase enzymes. A number of electrophoretic esterase alleles have been identified, and in field populations individuals with the same esterase electromorph can exhibit a wide range of esterase enzyme activities. We isolated and characterized esterase activity variants associated with the esterase B1 electromorph from a field strain. A mating scheme was used to isolate chromosomes with esterase genes from the strain into 45 families. Twenty-six of the families received esterase genes from the field strain that conferred elevated esterase activity. Mean esterase activities in these families ranged from 43 to 695 nmoles α-naphthyl acetate hydrolyzed/min/mg protein. Variance components indicated that genetic variance (i.e., genetic differences among families) accounted for 77% of the total variation in esterase activity. A comparison of mean esterase activities indicated that there were at least 11 different esterase activity variants contributing to the observed genetic variation in esterase activity among the 26 families. The relevance of these results to understanding the dynamics of amplified esterase genes in populations is discussed.

  12. Identification of genes from pattern formation, tyrosine kinase, and potassium channel families by DNA amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Kamb, A.; Weir, M.; Rudy, B.; Varmus, H.; Kenyon, C. )

    1989-06-01

    The study of gene family members has been aided by the isolation of related genes on the basis of DNA homology. The authors have adapted the polymerase chain reaction to screen animal genomes very rapidly and reliably for likely gene family members. Using conserved amino acid sequences to design degenerate oligonucleotide primers, they have shown that the genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains sequences homologous to many Drosophila genes involved in pattern formation, including the segment polarity gene wingless (vertebrate int-1), and homeobox sequences characteristic of the Antennapedia, engrailed, and paired families. In addition, they have used this method to show that C. elegans contains at least five different sequences homologous to genes in the tyrosine kinase family. Lastly, they have isolated six potassium channel sequences from humans, a result that validates the utility of the method with large genomes and suggests that human potassium channel gene diversity may be extensive.

  13. Acquisition and amplification of a testis-expressed autosomal gene, SSL, by the Drosophila Y chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Kalmykova, Alla I.; Shevelyov, Yury Y.; Dobritsa, Anna A.; Gvozdev, Vladimir A.

    1997-01-01

    The acquisition of autosomal fertility genes has been proposed to be an important process in human Y chromosome evolution. For example, the Y-linked fertility factor DAZ (Deleted in Azoospermia) appears to have arisen after the transposition and tandem amplification of the autosomal DAZH gene. The Drosophila melanogaster Y chromosome contains tandemly repeated Su(Ste) units that are thought to affect male fertility as suppressors of the homologous X-linked Stellate repeats. Here we report the detection of a testis-expressed autosomal gene, SSL [Su(Ste)-like], that appears to be an ancestor of the Y-linked Su(Ste) units. SSL encodes a casein kinase 2 (CK2) β-subunit-like protein. Its putative ORF shares extensive (45%) homology with the genuine β-subunit of CK2 and retains the conserved C-terminal and Glu/Asp-rich domains that are essential for CK2 holoenzyme regulation. SSL maps within region 60D1–2 of D. melanogaster and D. simulans polytene chromosomes. We present evidence that SSL was derived from the genuine βCK2 gene by reverse transcription. This event resulted in the loss of the first three introns in the coding region of the SSL ancestor gene. Evolutionary analysis indicates that SSL has evolved under selective pressure at the translational level. Its sequence, especially in the 3′ region, is much closer to the Y-linked Su(Ste) tandem repeats than to the βCK2 gene. These results suggest that the acquisition of testis-specific autosomal genes may be important for the evolution of Drosophila as well as human Y chromosomes. PMID:9177211

  14. MicroRNA-224 is associated with colorectal cancer progression and response to 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy by KRAS-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Amankwatia, E B; Chakravarty, P; Carey, F A; Weidlich, S; Steele, R J C; Munro, A J; Wolf, C R; Smith, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancers arise from benign adenomas, although not all adenomas progress to cancer and there are marked interpatient differences in disease progression. We have previously associated KRAS mutations with disease progression and reduced survival in colorectal cancer patients. Methods: We used TaqMan low-density array (TLDA) qRT–PCR analysis to identify miRNAs differentially expressed in normal colorectal mucosa, adenomas and cancers and in isogeneic KRAS WT and mutant HCT116 cells, and used a variety of phenotypic assays to assess the influence of miRNA expression on KRAS activity, chemosensitivity, proliferation and invasion. Results: MicroRNA-224 was differentially expressed in dysplastic colorectal disease and in isogeneic KRAS WT and mutant HCT116 cells. Antagomir-mediated miR-224 silencing in HCT116 KRAS WT cells phenocopied KRAS mutation, increased KRAS activity and ERK and AKT phosphorylation. 5-FU chemosensitivity was significantly increased in miR-224 knockdown cells, and in NIH3T3 cells expressing KRAS and BRAF mutant proteins. Bioinformatics analysis of predicted miR-224 target genes predicted altered cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypes that were experimentally confirmed in miR-224 knockdown cells. Conclusions: We describe a novel mechanism of KRAS regulation, and highlight the clinical utility of colorectal cancer-specific miRNAs as disease progression or clinical response biomarkers. PMID:25919696

  15. Oncogenic Kras drives invasion and maintains metastases in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boutin, Adam T.; Liao, Wen-Ting; Wang, Melody; Hwang, Soyoon Sarah; Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Cheung, Hannah; Chu, Gerald C.; Jiang, Shan; Hu, Jian; Chang, Kyle; Vilar, Eduardo; Song, Xingzhi; Zhang, Jianhua; Kopetz, Scott; Futreal, Andrew; Wang, Y. Alan; Kwong, Lawrence N.; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    Human colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer mortality and frequently harbors activating mutations in the KRAS gene. To understand the role of oncogenic KRAS in CRC, we engineered a mouse model of metastatic CRC that harbors an inducible oncogenic Kras allele (Krasmut) and conditional null alleles of Apc and Trp53 (iKAP). The iKAP model recapitulates tumor progression from adenoma through metastases. Whole-exome sequencing revealed that the Krasmut allele was heterogenous in primary tumors yet homogenous in metastases, a pattern consistent with activated Krasmut signaling being a driver of progression to metastasis. System-level and functional analyses revealed the TGF-β pathway as a key mediator of Krasmut-driven invasiveness. Genetic extinction of Krasmut resulted in specific elimination of the Krasmut subpopulation in primary and metastatic tumors, leading to apoptotic elimination of advanced invasive and metastatic disease. This faithful CRC model provides genetic evidence that Krasmut drives CRC invasion and maintenance of metastases. PMID:28289141

  16. TaqMan probes as blocking agents for enriched PCR amplification and DNA melting analysis of mutant genes.

    PubMed

    Botezatu, Irina V; Panchuk, Irina O; Stroganova, Anna M; Senderovich, Anastasia I; Kondratova, Valentina N; Shelepov, Valery P; Lichtenstein, Anatoly V

    2017-02-01

    Asymmetric PCR and DNA melting analysis with TaqMan probes applied for mutation detection is effectively used in clinical diagnostics. The method is simple, cost-effective, and carried out in a closed-tube format, minimizing time, labor, and risk of sample cross-contamination. Although DNA melting analysis is more sensitive than Sanger sequencing (mutation detection thresholds are ~5% and 15%-20%, respectively), it is less sensitive than more labor-intensive and expensive techniques such as pyrosequencing and droplet digital PCR. Here, we demonstrate that, under specially selected conditions of asymmetric PCR, TaqMan probes can play the role of blocking agents. Preferential blocking of the wild-type allele brings about enriched amplification of mutant alleles. As a result, an ~10-fold increase in the detection sensitivity for mutant BRAF and NRAS genes was achieved.

  17. Molecular detection of field isolates of Turkey Eimeria by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene.

    PubMed

    Rathinam, T; Gadde, U; Chapman, H D

    2015-07-01

    Oocysts of Eimeria spp. were isolated from litter samples obtained from 30 commercial turkey farms. Genomic DNA was extracted from clean oocysts, and polymerase chain amplification of the species-specific cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was performed for five species of turkey Eimeria. The species tested were Eimeria adenoeides, Eimeria meleagrimitis, Eimeria meleagridis, Eimeria dispersa, and Eimeria gallopavonis. All DNA samples were positive for E. meleagrimitis, nine were positive for E. adenoeides, two were positive for E. dispersa, and none for E. meleagridis and E. gallopavonis. E. meleagrimitis occurred as a single species in 21 (70 %) of the farms while 9 (30 %) farms had a mixed species with E. meleagrimitis and E. adenoeides and 2 (7 %) were triple positive with E. meleagrimitis, E. adenoeides, and E. dispersa. This is the first account of the field prevalence of turkey Eimeria species using molecular methods.

  18. Solution structure of an oncogenic DNA duplex, the K-ras gene and the sequence containing a central C.A or A.G mismatch as a function of pH: nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Boulard, Y; Cognet, J A; Gabarro-Arpa, J; Le Bret, M; Carbonnaux, C; Fazakerley, G V

    1995-02-10

    The DNA duplex 5' d(GCCACCAGCTC)-d(GAGCTGGTGGC) corresponds to the sequence 29 to 39 of the K-ras gene, which contains a hot spot for mutations. This has been studied by one and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, energy minimization and molecular dynamics. The results show that it adopts a globally B-DNA type structure. We have introduced, at the central base-pair, the mismatches C.A and A.G. The mismatch position is that of the first base of the Gly12 codon, the hot spot. For the C.A mismatch we observe a structural change as a function of pH with an apparent pKa of 7.2. At low pH, the mismatch pair adopts a structure close to a classic wobble conformation with the cytidine residue displaced into the major groove. It is stabilised by two hydrogen bonds in which the adenosine residue is protonated and the cytidine residue has a significant C3'-endo population. At high pH, the mispair structure is in equilibrium between wobble and reverse wobble conformations. Similar studies are reported on the A.G mismatch, which also undergoes a transition as a function of pH. 31P spectra have been recorded on all systems and as a function of pH. No evidence for BII phosphodiester backbone conformations was found. The NMR results are well corroborated by molecular dynamics calculations performed with or without distance constraints. The dynamics at the mismatch sites have been examined. Although the overall structures are close to B-DNA, helical parameters fluctuate differently at these sites. Different hydrogen bonding alternatives in dynamic equilibrium that can involve three-centred hydrogen bonds are observed.

  19. Characterisation of amplification patterns and target genes at chromosome 11q13 in CCND1-amplified sporadic and familial breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Holm, Karolina; Staaf, Johan; Jönsson, Göran; Vallon-Christersson, Johan; Gunnarsson, Haukur; Arason, Adalgeir; Magnusson, Linda; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Hegardt, Cecilia; Ringnér, Markus; Borg, Ake

    2012-06-01

    Amplification of chromosomal region 11q13, containing the cell cycle regulatory gene CCND1, is frequently found in breast cancer and other malignancies. It is associated with the favourable oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast tumour phenotype, but also with poor prognosis and treatment failure. 11q13 spans almost 14 Mb and contains more than 200 genes and is affected by various patterns of copy number gains, suggesting complex mechanisms and selective pressure during tumour progression. In this study, we used 32 k tiling BAC array CGH to analyse 94 CCND1-amplified breast tumours from sporadic, hereditary, and familial breast cancers to fine map chromosome 11q13. A set containing 281 CCND1-non-amplified breast tumours was used for comparisons. We used gene expression data to further validate the functional effect of gene amplification. We identified six core regions covering 11q13.1-q14.1 that were amplified in different combinations. The major core contained CCND1, whereas two cores were found proximal of CCND1 and three distal. The majority of the CCND1-amplified tumours were ER-positive and classified as luminal B. Furthermore, we found that CCND1 amplification is associated with a more aggressive phenotype within histological grade 2 tumours and luminal A subtype tumours. Amplification was equally prevalent in familial and sporadic tumours, but strikingly rare in BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated tumours. We conclude that 11q13 includes many potential target genes in addition to CCND1.

  20. Relationship of Amplification and Expression of the C-MYC Gene with Survival among Gastric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Khaleghian, Malihea; Shakoori, Abbas; Razavi, Amirnader Emami; Azimi, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    During the past decades, the incidence and mortality rate of stomach cancer has demonstrated a great decrease in the world, but it is still one of the most common and fatal cancers especially among men worldwide, including Iran. The MYC proto-oncogene, which is located at 8q24.1, regulates 15% of genes and is activated in 20% of all human tumors. MYC amplification and overexpression of its protein product has been reported in 15-30% of gastric neoplasias. The aim of this investigation was to find the relative efficacy of CISH (chromogenic in situ hybridization) or IHC (immunohistochemistry) in diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer, as well as the relationship of amplification and expression of C-MYC gene with patient survival. In this cross-sectional study, 102 samples of gastric cancer were collected from patients who had undergone primary surgical resection at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, from July 2009 to March 2014. All samples were randomly selected from those who were diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinomas. CISH and IHC methods were performed on all of them. Patients were classified into two groups. The first consisted of stage I and II cases, and the second of stage III and IV. Survival tests for both groups was carried out with referrnce to CISH test reults. Group II (stage III and IV) with CISH+ featured lower survival than those with CISH- (p=0.233), but group I (stage I and II) patients demonstrated no significant variation with CISH+ or CISH- (p=0.630). Kaplan-Meier for both groups was carried out with IHC test findings and showed similar results. This data revealed that both diffuse and intestinal types of gastric cancer occurred significantly more in men than women. Our data also showed that CISH+ patients (43%) were more frequent in comparison with IHC+ patients (14.7%). For planning treatment of gastric cancer patients, by focusing on expanding tumors, which is the greatest concern of the surgeons and

  1. DNA amplification in neutral liposomes for safe and efficient gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmin; Koo, Heebeom; Na, Jin Hee; Lee, Kyung Eun; Jeong, Seo Young; Choi, Kuiwon; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2014-05-27

    In general, traditional gene carriers contain strong cationic charges to efficiently load anionic genes, but this cationic character also leads to destabilization of plasma membranes and causes severe cytotoxicity. Here, we developed a PCR-based nanofactory as a safe gene delivery system. A few template plasmid DNA can be amplified by PCR inside liposomes about 200 nm in diameter, and the quantity of loaded genes highly increased by more than 8.8-fold. The liposome membrane was composed of neutral lipids free from cationic charges. Consequently, this system is nontoxic, unlike other traditional cationic gene carriers. Intense red fluorescent protein (RFP) expression in CHO-K1 cells showed that the amplified genes could be successfully transfected to cells. Animal experiments with the luciferase gene also showed in vivo gene expression by our system without toxicity. We think that this PCR-based nanofactory system can overcome the toxicity problem that is the critical limitation of current gene delivery to clinical application.

  2. Detection of genomic amplification of the human telomerase gene TERC, a potential marker for triage of women with HPV-positive, abnormal Pap smears.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Sonia; Sowjanya, Pavani; Wangsa, Darawalee; Hjerpe, Anders; Johansson, Bo; Auer, Gert; Gravitt, Patti E; Larsson, Catharina; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Ried, Thomas; Heselmeyer-Haddad, Kerstin

    2009-11-01

    The vast majority of invasive cervical carcinomas harbor additional copies of the chromosome arm 3q, resulting in genomic amplification of the human telomerase gene TERC. Here, we evaluated TERC amplification in routinely collected liquid based cytology (LBC) samples with histologically confirmed diagnoses. A set of 78 LBC samples from a Swedish patient cohort were analyzed with a four-color fluorescence in situ hybridization probe panel that included TERC. Clinical follow-up included additional histological evaluation and Pap smears. Human papillomavirus status was available for all cases. The correlation of cytology, TERC amplification, human papillomavirus typing, and histological diagnosis showed that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus was detected in 64% of the LBC samples with normal histopathology, in 65% of the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1, 95% of the CIN2, 96% of the CIN3 lesions, and all carcinomas. Seven percent of the lesions with normal histopathology were positive for TERC amplification, 24% of the CIN1, 64% of the CIN2, 91% of the CIN3 lesions, and 100% of invasive carcinomas. This demonstrates that detection of genomic amplification of TERC in LBC samples can identify patients with histopathologically confirmed CIN3 or cancer. Indeed, the proportion of TERC-positive cases increases with the severity of dysplasia. Among the markers tested, detection of TERC amplification in cytological samples has the highest combined sensitivity and specificity for discernment of low-grade from high-grade dysplasia and cancer.

  3. Detection of Genomic Amplification of the Human Telomerase Gene TERC, a Potential Marker for Triage of Women with HPV-Positive, Abnormal Pap Smears

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Sonia; Sowjanya, Pavani; Wangsa, Darawalee; Hjerpe, Anders; Johansson, Bo; Auer, Gert; Gravitt, Patti E.; Larsson, Catharina; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Ried, Thomas; Heselmeyer-Haddad, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of invasive cervical carcinomas harbor additional copies of the chromosome arm 3q, resulting in genomic amplification of the human telomerase gene TERC. Here, we evaluated TERC amplification in routinely collected liquid based cytology (LBC) samples with histologically confirmed diagnoses. A set of 78 LBC samples from a Swedish patient cohort were analyzed with a four-color fluorescence in situ hybridization probe panel that included TERC. Clinical follow-up included additional histological evaluation and Pap smears. Human papillomavirus status was available for all cases. The correlation of cytology, TERC amplification, human papillomavirus typing, and histological diagnosis showed that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus was detected in 64% of the LBC samples with normal histopathology, in 65% of the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1, 95% of the CIN2, 96% of the CIN3 lesions, and all carcinomas. Seven percent of the lesions with normal histopathology were positive for TERC amplification, 24% of the CIN1, 64% of the CIN2, 91% of the CIN3 lesions, and 100% of invasive carcinomas. This demonstrates that detection of genomic amplification of TERC in LBC samples can identify patients with histopathologically confirmed CIN3 or cancer. Indeed, the proportion of TERC-positive cases increases with the severity of dysplasia. Among the markers tested, detection of TERC amplification in cytological samples has the highest combined sensitivity and specificity for discernment of low-grade from high-grade dysplasia and cancer. PMID:19880826

  4. Deregulation of the PI3K and KRAS signaling pathways in human cancer cells determines their response to everolimus

    PubMed Central

    Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Arena, Sabrina; Tabernero, Josep; Grosso, Stefano; Molinari, Francesca; Macarulla, Teresa; Russo, Mariangela; Cancelliere, Carlotta; Zecchin, Davide; Mazzucchelli, Luca; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Geuna, Massimo; Frattini, Milo; Baselga, José; Gallicchio, Margherita; Biffo, Stefano; Bardelli, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Personalized cancer medicine is based on the concept that targeted therapies are effective on subsets of patients whose tumors carry specific molecular alterations. Several mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are in preclinical or clinical trials for cancers, but the molecular basis of sensitivity or resistance to these inhibitors among patients is largely unknown. Here we have identified oncogenic variants of phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, α polypeptide (PIK3CA) and KRAS as determinants of response to the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. Human cancer cells carrying alterations in the PI3K pathway were responsive to everolimus, both in vitro and in vivo, except when KRAS mutations occurred concomitantly or were exogenously introduced. In human cancer cells with mutations in both PIK3CA and KRAS, genetic ablation of mutant KRAS reinstated response to the drug. Consistent with these data, PIK3CA mutant cells, but not KRAS mutant cells, displayed everolimus-sensitive translation. Importantly, in a cohort of metastatic cancer patients, the presence of oncogenic KRAS mutations was associated with lack of benefit after everolimus therapy. Thus, our results demonstrate that alterations in the KRAS and PIK3CA genes may represent biomarkers to optimize treatment of patients with mTOR inhibitors. PMID:20664172

  5. Quantitative large scale gene expression profiling from human stem cell culture micro samples using multiplex pre-amplification.

    PubMed

    Kibschull, Mark; Lye, Stephen J; Okino, Steven T; Sarras, Haya

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling is a powerful tool to study biological mechanisms during stem cell differentiation and reprogramming. Genome-wide methods like microarrays or next generation sequencing are expensive, time consuming, and require special equipment and bioinformatics expertise. Quantitative RT-PCR remains one of today's most widely accepted and used methods for analyzing gene expression in biological samples. However, limitations in the amount of starting materials often hinder the quantity and quality of information that could be obtained from a given sample. Here, we present a fast 4-step workflow allowing direct, column-free RNA isolation from limited human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) cultures that is directly compatible with subsequent reverse transcription, target specific multiplex pre-amplification, and standard SYBR-Green quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. The workflow delivers excellent correlations in normalized gene-expression data obtained from different samples of hPSCs over a wide range of cell numbers (500-50,000 cells). We demonstrate accurate and unbiased target gene quantification in limiting stem cell cultures which allows for monitoring embryoid body differentiation and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming. This method highlights a rapid and cost effective screening process, allowing reduction of culture formats and increase of processing throughputs for various stem cell applications.

  6. A new rapid amplification of cDNA ends method for extremely guanine plus cytosine-rich genes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xianzong; Jarvis, Donald L

    2006-09-15

    Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) is widely used to determine the 5'- and 3'-terminal nucleotide sequences of genes. Many different RACE methods have been developed to meet various requirements, but none addresses the difficult problems that arise when trying to isolate the ends of extremely guanine plus cytosine (GC)-rich genes. In this study, we found that we were unable to isolate the correct 5' or 3' end of an insect gene, which appeared to include extremely GC-rich sequences, using current RACE methods. Thus, we developed a new RACE method that can be used for this purpose. This new method entails first-strand cDNA synthesis at 70 degrees C with Thermo-X reverse transcriptase in the presence of homoectoine, followed by a polymerase chain reaction with 98 degrees C denaturation steps and Phusion DNA polymerase in the presence of 1M betaine and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The use of these conditions yielded 5'- and 3'-RACE products that were approximately 80% GC over 213 and 162bp, respectively, and included shorter internal regions of 82 to 89% GC.

  7. Amplification of HER2 and TOP2A and deletion of TOP2A genes in a series of Taiwanese breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jim-Ray; Chien, Hui-Ping; Chen, Kuo-Su; Hwang, Cheng-Cheng; Chen, Huang-Yang; Yeh, Kun-Yan; Hsieh, Tsan-Yu; Chang, Liang-Che; Hsu, Yuan-Chun; Lu, Ren-Jie; Hua, Chung-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The prognostic relevance of topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) copy number change remains not well established. This study is aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of TOP2A aberrations; to correlate TOP2A alterations with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status and clinicopathological parameters, and further to explore prognostic value of TOP2A and HER2 status in breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods: We analyzed tissue samples from 311 invasive carcinomas in tissue microarrays for TOP2A and HER2 status by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Results: TOP2A copy number change is an infrequent genetic event (9.8% amplification and 2.7% deletion) and is present in both HER2-amplified and nonamplified tumors. TOP2A amplification is statistically associated with age >50 at diagnosis (P = 0.016) and HER2 amplification (P < 0.001). HER2 amplification, but not TOP2A amplification, is a predictor of unfavorable prognosis (P = 0.002). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that higher histologic grading, positive nodal involvement, and HER2 positivity were associated with poorer overall survival. Cytogenetically, double minutes-type amplification is the predominant pattern for both genes (HER2: 64% and TOP2A: 93.1%). Homogeneous staining region-type signals of both genes are resistant to RNase digestion, supporting that these were not nuclear accumulation of mRNA transcripts. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the prognostic value of tumor grading, nodal involvement, and HER2 status in Taiwanese breast cancer. TOP2A aberrations are an infrequent event independent of HER2 status, and TOP2A amplification carries no prognostic value. The predictive value of TOP2A aberrations in patients of breast cancer taking athracycline-containing treatment in Taiwan remains to be determined in prospectively well-designed clinical trials. PMID:28079792

  8. Genetic Evidence for XPC-KRAS Interactions During Lung Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoli; He, Nonggao; Gu, Dongsheng; Wickliffe, Jeff; Salazar, James; Boldogh, Istavan; Xie, Jingwu

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer causes more deaths than breast, colorectal and prostate cancers combined. Despite major advances in targeted therapy in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas, the overall 5-year survival rate for lung cancer worldwide has not significantly changed for the last few decades. DNA repair deficiency is known to contribute to lung cancer development. In fact, human polymorphisms in DNA repair genes such as xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) are highly associated with lung cancer incidence. However, the direct genetic evidence for the role of XPC for lung cancer development is still lacking. Mutations of the Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras) or its downstream effector genes occur in almost all lung cancer cells, and there are a number of mouse models for lung cancer using these mutations. Using activated Kras, KrasLA1, as a driver for lung cancer development in mice, we showed for the first time that mice with KrasLA1 and Xpc knockout had worst outcomes in lung cancer development, and this phenotype was associated with accumulated DNA damage. Using cultured cells, we demonstrated that induced expression of oncogenic KRASG12V led to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as DNA damage, and both can be suppressed by anti-oxidants. Thus, it appears that XPC may help repair DNA damage caused by KRAS-mediated production of ROS. PMID:26554912

  9. Mutations of KRAS/NRAS/BRAF predict cetuximab resistance in metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hung-Chih; Thiam, Tan Kien; Lu, Yen-Jung; Yeh, Chien Yuh; Tsai, Wen-Sy; You, Jeng Fu; Hung, Hsin Yuan; Tsai, Chi-Neu; Hsu, An; Chen, Hua-Chien; Chen, Shu-Jen; Yang, Tsai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 45% of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients with wild-type KRAS exon 2 are resistant to cetuximab treatment. We set out to identify additional genetic markers that might predict the response to cetuximab treatment. Fifty-three wild-type KRAS exon 2 mCRC patients were treated with cetuximab/irinotecan-based chemotherapy as a first- or third-line therapy. The mutational statuses of 10 EGFR pathway genes were analyzed in primary tumors using next-generation sequencing. BRAF, PIK3CA, KRAS (exons 3 and 4), NRAS, PTEN, and AKT1 mutations were detected in 6, 6, 5, 4, 1, and 1 patient, respectively. Four of the BRAF mutations were non-V600 variants. Four tumors harbored multiple co-existing (complex) mutations. All patients with BRAF mutations or complex mutation patterns were cetuximab non-responders. All patients but one harboring KRAS, NRAS, or BRAF mutations were non-responders. Mutations in any one of these three genes were associated with a poor response rate (7.1%) and reduced survival (PFS = 8.0 months) compared to wild-type patients (74.4% and 11.6 months). Our data suggest that KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations predict response to cetuximab treatment in mCRC patients. PMID:26989027

  10. Mutant K-RAS Promotes Invasion and Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer Through GTPase Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Padavano, Julianna; Henkhaus, Rebecca S; Chen, Hwudaurw; Skovan, Bethany A; Cui, Haiyan; Ignatenko, Natalia A

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies, characterized by the local invasion into surrounding tissues and early metastasis to distant organs. Oncogenic mutations of the K-RAS gene occur in more than 90% of human pancreatic cancers. The goal of this study was to investigate the functional significance and downstream effectors of mutant K-RAS oncogene in the pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis. We applied the homologous recombination technique to stably disrupt K-RAS oncogene in the human pancreatic cell line MiaPaCa-2, which carries the mutant K-RASG12C oncogene in both alleles. Using in vitro assays, we found that clones with disrupted mutant K-RAS gene exhibited low RAS activity, reduced growth rates, increased sensitivity to the apoptosis inducing agents, and suppressed motility and invasiveness. In vivo assays showed that clones with decreased RAS activity had reduced tumor formation ability in mouse xenograft model and increased survival rates in the mouse orthotopic pancreatic cancer model. We further examined molecular pathways downstream of mutant K-RAS and identified RhoA GTP activating protein 5, caveolin-1, and RAS-like small GTPase A (RalA) as key effector molecules, which control mutant K-RAS-dependent migration and invasion in MiaPaCa-2 cells. Our study provides rational for targeting RhoA and RalA GTPase signaling pathways for inhibition of pancreatic cancer metastasis. PMID:26512205

  11. Amplification of the telomerase RNA component gene as a new genetic marker for disease progression and prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, J-D; Ma, J; Wang, F-Y; Peng, L-B; Wang, X; Shi, S-S; Ma, H-H; Lu, Z-F; Lu, G-M; Zhou, X-J

    2013-01-01

    Amplification of the human telomerase RNA component (TERC) gene was found in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, its roles in the progression and prognosis of ESCC have not been well understood. The amplification of TERC in normal mucosa, low-grade and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, and invasive ESCC samples were evaluated using a fluorescence in situ hybridization assay. The amplification of TERC invariably occurred in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive ESCC, partially occurred in low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia specimens, and seldom occurred in normal mucosa. The average signal ratio of TERC to chromosome 3 centromere-specific probe (TERC/CSP3) was 1.00 ± 0.01 (average ± standard deviation) in normal mucosas, 1.01 ± 0.08 in low-grade intraepithelial neoplasias, 1.39 ± 0.26 in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasias, and 1.56 ± 0.41 in invasive ESCC. High TERC/CSP3 ratio was positively associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.005) and advanced tumor stage (P = 0.045). Patients with high amplification of TERC had poor survival (P = 0.01). The amplification of TERC could be used as a new genomic marker for disease progression and prognosis of ESCC. The amplified TERC gene may be a potential therapeutic target for ESCC.

  12. Mutant KRAS promotes malignant pleural effusion formation.

    PubMed

    Agalioti, Theodora; Giannou, Anastasios D; Krontira, Anthi C; Kanellakis, Nikolaos I; Kati, Danai; Vreka, Malamati; Pepe, Mario; Spella, Magda; Lilis, Ioannis; Zazara, Dimitra E; Nikolouli, Eirini; Spiropoulou, Nikolitsa; Papadakis, Andreas; Papadia, Konstantina; Voulgaridis, Apostolos; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Stamou, Panagiota; Meiners, Silke; Eickelberg, Oliver; Snyder, Linda A; Antimisiaris, Sophia G; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Psallidas, Ioannis; Marazioti, Antonia; Stathopoulos, Georgios T

    2017-05-16

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is the lethal consequence of various human cancers metastatic to the pleural cavity. However, the mechanisms responsible for the development of MPE are still obscure. Here we show that mutant KRAS is important for MPE induction in mice. Pleural disseminated, mutant KRAS bearing tumour cells upregulate and systemically release chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) into the bloodstream to mobilize myeloid cells from the host bone marrow to the pleural space via the spleen. These cells promote MPE formation, as indicated by splenectomy and splenocyte restoration experiments. In addition, KRAS mutations are frequently detected in human MPE and cell lines isolated thereof, but are often lost during automated analyses, as indicated by manual versus automated examination of Sanger sequencing traces. Finally, the novel KRAS inhibitor deltarasin and a monoclonal antibody directed against CCL2 are equally effective against an experimental mouse model of MPE, a result that holds promise for future efficient therapies against the human condition.

  13. ATM-deficient thymic lymphoma is associated with aberrant tcrd rearrangement and gene amplification

    PubMed Central

    Bassing, Craig H.; Sanda, Takaomi; Brush, James W.; Patel, Harin; Goff, Peter H.; Murphy, Michael M.; Tepsuporn, Suprawee; Gatti, Richard A.; Look, A. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) deficiency predisposes humans and mice to T lineage lymphomas with recurrent chromosome 14 translocations involving the T cell receptor α/δ (Tcra/d) locus. Such translocations have been thought to result from aberrant repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during Tcra locus V(D)J recombination, and to require the Tcra enhancer (Eα) for Tcra rearrangement or expression of the translocated oncogene. We now show that, in addition to the known chromosome 14 translocation, ATM-deficient mouse thymic lymphomas routinely contain a centromeric fragment of chromosome 14 that spans up to the 5′ boundary of the Tcra/d locus, at which position a 500-kb or larger region centromeric to Tcra/d is routinely amplified. In addition, they routinely contain a large deletion of the telomeric end of one copy of chromosome 12. In contrast to prior expectations, the recurrent translocations and amplifications involve V(D)J recombination–initiated breaks in the Tcrd locus, as opposed to the Tcra locus, and arise independently of the Eα. Overall, our studies reveal previously unexpected mechanisms that contribute to the oncogenic transformation of ATM-deficient T lineage cells. PMID:20566716

  14. Rapid detection of the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) gene by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryuichi; Nakano, Akiyo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Ubagai, Tsuneyuki; Kikuchi-Ueda, Takane; Kikuchi, Hirotoshi; Tansho-Nagakawa, Shigeru; Kamoshida, Go; Mu, Xiaoqin; Ono, Yasuo

    2015-03-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC), which are associated with resistance to carbapenem, have recently spread worldwide and have become a global concern. It is necessary to detect KPC-producing organisms in clinical settings to be able to control the spread of this resistance. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for rapid detection of KPC producers. LAMP primer sets were designed to recognize the homologous regions of blaKPC-2 to blaKPC-17 and could amplify blaKPC rapidly. The specificity and sensitivity of the primers in the LAMP reactions for blaKPC detection were determined. This LAMP assay was able to specifically detect KPC producers at 68 °C, and no cross-reactivity was observed for other types of β-lactamase (class A, B, C, or D) producers. The detection limit for this assay was found to be 10(0) CFU per tube, in 25 min, which was 10-fold more sensitive than a PCR assay for blaKPC detection. Then, the sensitivity of the LAMP reactions for blaKPC detection in human specimens (sputum samples, urine samples, fecal samples and blood samples) was analyzed; it was observed that the LAMP assay had almost the same sensitivity in these samples as when using purified DNA. The LAMP assay is easy to perform and rapid. It may therefore be routinely applied for detection of KPC producers in the clinical laboratory.

  15. Pharmacological strategies to target oncogenic KRAS signaling in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Ching; Huang, Po-Hsien; Kulp, Samuel K; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2017-03-01

    The clear importance of mutated KRAS as a therapeutic target has driven the investigation of multiple approaches to inhibit oncogenic KRAS signaling at different molecular levels. However, no KRAS-targeted therapy has reached the clinic to date, which underlies the intrinsic difficulty in developing effective, direct inhibitors of KRAS. Thus, this article provides an overview of the history and recent progress in the development of pharmacological strategies to target oncogenic KRAS with small molecule agents. Mechanistically, these KRAS-targeted agents can be classified into the following four categories. (1) Small-molecule RAS-binding ligands that prevent RAS activation by binding within or outside the nucleotide-binding motif. (2) Inhibitors of KRAS membrane anchorage. (3) Inhibitors that bind to RAS-binding domains of RAS-effector proteins. (4) Inhibitors of KRAS expression. The advantage and limitation of each type of these anti-KRAS agents are discussed.

  16. Vectors for gene expression and amplification in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Juretzek, T; Le Dall, M; Mauersberger, S; Gaillardin, C; Barth, G; Nicaud, J

    2001-01-30

    New vector systems were developed for gene expression in Y. lipolytica. These plasmids contain: (a) as integration target sequences, either a rDNA region or the long terminal repeat zeta of the Y. lipolytica retrotransposon Ylt1; (b) the YlURA3 gene as selection marker for Y. lipolytica, either as the non-defective ura3d1 allele for single integration or the promotor truncated ura3d4 allele for multiple integration; (c) the inducible ICL1 or XPR2 promoters for gene expression; and (d) unique restriction sites for gene insertion. Multiple plasmid integration occurred as inserted tandem-repeats, which are present at 3-39 copies per cell. A correlation between gene copy number and the expressed enzyme activity was demonstrated with Escherichia coli lacZ as reporter gene under the control of the regulated ICL1 promoter. Increases in copy numbers from 5 to 13 for the lacZ expression cassettes resulted in an up to 10-11-fold linear increase of the beta-galactosidase activity in multicopy transformants during their growth on ethanol or glucose, compared with the low-copy replicative plasmid transformants (1.6 plasmid copies). These new tools will enhance the interest in Y. lipolytica as an alternative host for heterologous protein production.

  17. Kras is required for adult hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Damnernsawad, Alisa; Kong, Guangyao; Wen, Zhi; Liu, Yangang; Rajagopalan, Adhithi; You, Xiaona; Wang, Jinyong; Zhou, Yun; Ranheim, Erik A.; Luo, Hongbo R.; Chang, Qiang; Zhang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that Kras is dispensable for fetal liver hematopoiesis, but its rolein adult hematopoiesis remains unclear. Here, we generated a Kras conditional knockout allele to address this question. Deletion of Kras in adult bone marrow is mediated by Vav-Cre or inducible Mx1-Cre. We find that loss of Kras leads to greatly reduced TPO signaling in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and multipotent progenitors (MPPs), while SCF-evoked ERK1/2 activation is not affected. The compromised TPO signaling is associated with reduced long term- and intermediate-term HSC compartments and a bias towards myeloid differentiation in MPPs. Although GM-CSF-evoked ERK1/2 activation is only moderately decreased in Kras−/− myeloid progenitors, it is blunted in neutrophils and neutrophil survival is significantly reduced in vitro. At 9–12 months old, Kras conditional knockout mice develop profound hematopoietic defects, including splenomegaly, an expanded neutrophil compartment, and reduced B cell number. In a serial transplantation assay, the reconstitution potential of Kras−/− bone marrow cells is greatly compromised, which is attributable to defects in the self-renewal of Kras−/− HSCs and defects in differentiated hematopietic cells. Our results demonstrate that Kras is a major regulator of TPO and GM-CSF signaling in specific populations of hematopoietic cells and its function is required for adult hematopoiesis. PMID:26972179

  18. Comparison of in situ hybridization methods for the assessment of HER-2/neu gene amplification status in breast cancer using a tissue microarray

    PubMed Central

    Malicka-Durczak, Anna; Korski, Konstanty; Ibbs, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Background This project compared HER-2/neu gene status in breast cancers, as demonstrated by FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) and CISH (chromogenic in situ hybridization) and using a tissue microarray (TMA). The study also aimed to show whether the TMA technique could be used in clinical diagnostics, rather than remain a scientific tool. Materials and methods A TMA was constructed using 121 breast cancer specimens, 6 cores from each specimen. Demonstration and assessment of HER-2/neu gene status was by FISH (Vysis Path) and CISH (DAKO Duo CISH). Results The 121 breast cancer specimens were divided into 3 groups by HER-2 status, as determined by immunohistochemistry. In the HER-2 negative group no amplification was observed in 36 out of 40 cases. 3 cases showed amplification by both methods and one by CISH alone. The equivocal HER-2 group showed no amplification in 30 out of 41 cases and amplification in 9 cases. One case was FISH negative CISH positive and one was discarded. In the HER-2 positive group, amplification was confirmed in 37 of the 40 cases by both methods. 3 cases were unsuitable for assessment. Conclusions This study indicated that CISH is a sensitive alternative to FISH in detecting HER2 gene amplification and may replace FISH in HER2 testing. Good agreement was observed between methods (98.5% – 119 out of 121 cases). Furthermore, as only 4 out of 121 cases were unsuitable for assessment (no signal or missing TMA cores) – it may be feasible to use TMA in diagnostics. PMID:24377000

  19. High frequency of ribosomal protein gene deletions in Italian Diamond-Blackfan anemia patients detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay

    PubMed Central

    Quarello, Paola; Garelli, Emanuela; Brusco, Alfredo; Carando, Adriana; Mancini, Cecilia; Pappi, Patrizia; Vinti, Luciana; Svahn, Johanna; Dianzani, Irma; Ramenghi, Ugo

    2012-01-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia is an autosomal dominant disease due to mutations in nine ribosomal protein encoding genes. Because most mutations are loss of function and detected by direct sequencing of coding exons, we reasoned that part of the approximately 50% mutation negative patients may have carried a copy number variant of ribosomal protein genes. As a proof of concept, we designed a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay targeted to screen the six genes that are most frequently mutated in Diamond-Blackfan anemia patients: RPS17, RPS19, RPS26, RPL5, RPL11, and RPL35A. Using this assay we showed that deletions represent approximately 20% of all mutations. The combination of sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis of these six genes allows the genetic characterization of approximately 65% of patients, showing that Diamond-Blackfan anemia is indisputably a ribosomopathy. PMID:22689679

  20. KRAS and TP53 mutations in bronchoscopy samples from former lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gao, Weimin; Jin, Jide; Yin, Jinling; Land, Stephanie; Gaither-Davis, Autumn; Christie, Neil; Luketich, James D; Siegfried, Jill M; Keohavong, Phouthone

    2017-02-01

    Mutations in the KRAS and TP53 genes have been found frequently in lung tumors and specimens from individuals at high risk for lung cancer and have been suggested as predictive markers for lung cancer. In order to assess the prognostic value of these two genes' mutations in lung cancer recurrence, we analyzed mutations in codon 12 of the KRAS gene and in hotspot codons of the TP53 gene in 176 bronchial biopsies obtained from 77 former lung cancer patients. Forty-seven patients (61.0%) showed mutations, including 35/77 (45.5%) in the KRAS gene and 25/77 (32.5%) in the TP53 gene, among them 13/77 (16.9%) had mutations in both genes. When grouped according to past or current smoking status, a higher proportion of current smokers showed mutations, in particular those in the TP53 gene (P = 0.07), compared with ex-smokers. These mutations were found in both abnormal lesions (8/20 or 40%) and histologically normal tissues (70/156 or 44.9%) (P = 0.812). They consisted primarily of G to A transition and G to T transversion in both the KRAS (41/56 or 73.2%) and TP53 (24/34 or 70.6%) genes, consistent with mutations found in lung tumors of smoking lung cancer patients. Overall, recurrence-free survival (RFS) among all subjects could be explained by age at diagnosis, tumor stage, tumor subtype, and smoking (P < 0.05, Cox proportional hazard). Therefore, KRAS and TP53 mutations were frequently detected in bronchial tissues of former lung cancer patients. However, the presence of mutation of bronchial biopsies was not significantly associated with a shorter RFS time. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Fusion of the Dhfr/Mtx and IR/MAR gene amplification methods produces a rapid and efficient method for stable recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Chiemi; Araki, Yoshio; Miki, Daisuke; Shimizu, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    Amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase gene (Dhfr) by methotrexate (Mtx) exposure is commonly used for recombinant protein expression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. However, this method is both time- and labor-intensive, and the high-producing cells that are generated are frequently unstable in culture. Another gene amplification method is based on using a plasmid bearing a mammalian replication initiation region (IR) and a matrix attachment region (MAR), which result in the spontaneous initiation of gene amplification in transfected cells. The IR/MAR and Dhfr/Mtx methods of gene amplification are based on entirely different principles. In this study, we combine these two methods to yield a novel method, termed the IR/MAR-Dhfr fusion method, which was used to express three proteins, the Fc receptor, GFP, and recombinant antibody. The fusion method resulted in a dramatic increase in expression of all three proteins in two CHO sub-lines, DXB-11, and DG44. The IR/MAR-Dhfr fusion amplified the genes rapidly and efficiently, and produced larger amounts of antibody than the Dhfr/Mtx or IR/MAR methods alone. While the amplified structure produced by the Dhfr/Mtx method was highly unstable, and the antibody production rate rapidly decreased with the culture time of the cells, the IR/MAR-Dhfr fusion method resulted in stable amplification and generated clonal cells that produced large amounts of antibody protein over a long period of time. In summary, the novel IR/MAR-Dhfr fusion method enables isolation of stable cells that produce larger amounts of a target recombinant protein more rapidly and easily than either the Dhfr/Mtx or IR/MAR methods alone.

  2. Fusion of the Dhfr/Mtx and IR/MAR Gene Amplification Methods Produces a Rapid and Efficient Method for Stable Recombinant Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Daisuke; Shimizu, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    Amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase gene (Dhfr) by methotrexate (Mtx) exposure is commonly used for recombinant protein expression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. However, this method is both time- and labor-intensive, and the high-producing cells that are generated are frequently unstable in culture. Another gene amplification method is based on using a plasmid bearing a mammalian replication initiation region (IR) and a matrix attachment region (MAR), which result in the spontaneous initiation of gene amplification in transfected cells. The IR/MAR and Dhfr/Mtx methods of gene amplification are based on entirely different principles. In this study, we combine these two methods to yield a novel method, termed the IR/MAR-Dhfr fusion method, which was used to express three proteins, the Fc receptor, GFP, and recombinant antibody. The fusion method resulted in a dramatic increase in expression of all three proteins in two CHO sub-lines, DXB-11, and DG44. The IR/MAR-Dhfr fusion amplified the genes rapidly and efficiently, and produced larger amounts of antibody than the Dhfr/Mtx or IR/MAR methods alone. While the amplified structure produced by the Dhfr/Mtx method was highly unstable, and the antibody production rate rapidly decreased with the culture time of the cells, the IR/MAR-Dhfr fusion method resulted in stable amplification and generated clonal cells that produced large amounts of antibody protein over a long period of time. In summary, the novel IR/MAR-Dhfr fusion method enables isolation of stable cells that produce larger amounts of a target recombinant protein more rapidly and easily than either the Dhfr/Mtx or IR/MAR methods alone. PMID:23300841

  3. A novel universal DNA labeling and amplification system for rapid microarray-based detection of 117 antibiotic resistance genes in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Christian; Endimiani, Andrea; Perreten, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and simple DNA labeling system has been developed for disposable microarrays and has been validated for the detection of 117 antibiotic resistance genes abundant in Gram-positive bacteria. The DNA was fragmented and amplified using phi-29 polymerase and random primers with linkers. Labeling and further amplification were then performed by classic PCR amplification using biotinylated primers specific for the linkers. The microarray developed by Perreten et al. (Perreten, V., Vorlet-Fawer, L., Slickers, P., Ehricht, R., Kuhnert, P., Frey, J., 2005. Microarray-based detection of 90 antibiotic resistance genes of gram-positive bacteria. J.Clin.Microbiol. 43, 2291-2302.) was improved by additional oligonucleotides. A total of 244 oligonucleotides (26 to 37 nucleotide length and with similar melting temperatures) were spotted on the microarray, including genes conferring resistance to clinically important antibiotic classes like β-lactams, macrolides, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides and tetracyclines. Each antibiotic resistance gene is represented by at least 2 oligonucleotides designed from consensus sequences of gene families. The specificity of the oligonucleotides and the quality of the amplification and labeling were verified by analysis of a collection of 65 strains belonging to 24 species. Association between genotype and phenotype was verified for 6 antibiotics using 77 Staphylococcus strains belonging to different species and revealed 95% test specificity and a 93% predictive value of a positive test. The DNA labeling and amplification is independent of the species and of the target genes and could be used for different types of microarrays. This system has also the advantage to detect several genes within one bacterium at once, like in Staphylococcus aureus strain BM3318, in which up to 15 genes were detected. This new microarray-based detection system offers a large potential for applications in clinical diagnostic, basic research, food safety and

  4. Modified PCR methods for 3' end amplification from serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) tags.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wang-Jie; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2009-05-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful technique to study gene expression at the genome level. However, a disadvantage of the shortness of SAGE tags is that it prevents further study of SAGE library data, thus limiting extensive application of the SAGE method in gene expression studies. However, this problem can be solved by extension of the SAGE tags to 3' cDNAs. Therefore, several methods based on PCR have been developed to generate a 3' longer fragment cDNA corresponding to a SAGE tag. The list of modified methods is extensive, and includes rapid RT-PCR analysis of unknown SAGE tags (RAST-PCR), generation of longer cDNA fragments from SAGE tags for gene identification (GLGI), a high-throughput GLGI procedure, reverse SAGE (rSAGE), two-step analysis of unknown SAGE tags (TSAT-PCR), etc. These procedures are constantly being updated because they have characteristics and advantages that can be shared. Development of these methods has promoted the widespread use of the SAGE technique, and has accelerated the speed of studies of large-scale gene expression.

  5. Gene identification using exon amplification on human chromosome 18q21: implications for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Huo, Y; Patel, S; Zhu, X; Swift-Scanlan, T; Reeves, R H; DePaulo, R; Ross, C A; McInnis, M G

    2000-09-01

    We previously reported linkage between bipolar disorder and a region on human chromosome (HC) 18q21. To identify genes in this region, exon trapping was performed on cosmids isolated from an HC18-specific cosmid library (LL18NC02) using 47 sequence tagged site (STS) markers from 18q21 as hybridization probes. A total of 285 unique sequences (exons) were obtained from 850 sequenced clones. Homology searching of the databases using NCBI's BLAST algorithms revealed that 31 exons have identity to known genes and/or ESTs, seven are identical to regions of finished genomic sequences in the 18q21 region, 20 have significant similarity (>30% sequence identity) to genes from human and/or other species, 19 were repetitive sequences, and 208 sequences (72%) are novel. Seventy per cent of the trapped sequences were predicted to be derived from genes using library screening and RT-PCR analyses. This represents an initial stage in characterizing genes in a susceptibility region for further study in bipolar disorder or other diseases that map to this region.

  6. Development of reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for avian influenza H5N1 HA gene detection.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Nahed; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; El-Sanousi, Ahmed A; Weidmann, Manfred; Shalaby, Mohamed A

    2015-10-01

    The 2006 outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza in Egypt interrupted poultry production and caused staggering economic damage. In addition, H5N1 avian influenza viruses represent a significant threat to public health. Therefore, the rapid detection of H5 viruses is very important in order to control the disease. In this study, a qualitative reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of hemagglutinin gene of H5 subtype influenza viruses was developed. The results were compared to the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). An in vitro transcribed RNA standard of 970 nucleotides of the hemagglutinin gene was developed and used to determine the assay sensitivity. The developed H5 RT-RPA assay was able to detect one RNA molecule within 7 min, while in real-time RT-PCR, at least 90 min was required. H5 RT-RPA assay did not detect nucleic acid extracted from H5 negative samples or from other pathogens producing respiratory manifestation in poultry. The clinical performance of the H5 RT-RPA assay was tested in 30 samples collected between 2014 and 2015; the sensitivity of H5 RT-RPA and real-time RT-PCR was 100%. In conclusion, H5 RT-RPA was faster than real-time RT-PCR and easily operable in a portable device. Moreover, it had an equivalent sensitivity and specificity.

  7. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of specific endoglucanase gene sequence for detection of the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Lenarčič, Rok; Morisset, Dany; Pirc, Manca; Llop, Pablo; Ravnikar, Maja; Dreo, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The increased globalization of crops production and processing industries also promotes the side-effects of more rapid and efficient spread of plant pathogens. To prevent the associated economic losses, and particularly those related to bacterial diseases where their management relies on removal of the infected material from production, simple, easy-to-perform, rapid and cost-effective tests are needed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays that target 16S rRNA, fliC and egl genes were compared and evaluated as on-site applications. The assay with the best performance was that targeted to the egl gene, which shows high analytical specificity for diverse strains of the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia solanacearum, including its non-European and non-race 3 biovar 2 strains. The additional melting curve analysis provides confirmation of the test results. According to our extensive assessment, the egl LAMP assay requires minimum sample preparation (a few minutes of boiling) for the identification of pure cultures and ooze from symptomatic material, and it can also be used in a high-throughput format in the laboratory. This provides sensitive and reliable detection of R. solanacearum strains of different phylotypes.

  8. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of Specific Endoglucanase Gene Sequence for Detection of the Bacterial Wilt Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Pirc, Manca; Llop, Pablo; Ravnikar, Maja; Dreo, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The increased globalization of crops production and processing industries also promotes the side-effects of more rapid and efficient spread of plant pathogens. To prevent the associated economic losses, and particularly those related to bacterial diseases where their management relies on removal of the infected material from production, simple, easy-to-perform, rapid and cost-effective tests are needed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays that target 16S rRNA, fliC and egl genes were compared and evaluated as on-site applications. The assay with the best performance was that targeted to the egl gene, which shows high analytical specificity for diverse strains of the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia solanacearum, including its non-European and non-race 3 biovar 2 strains. The additional melting curve analysis provides confirmation of the test results. According to our extensive assessment, the egl LAMP assay requires minimum sample preparation (a few minutes of boiling) for the identification of pure cultures and ooze from symptomatic material, and it can also be used in a high-throughput format in the laboratory. This provides sensitive and reliable detection of R. solanacearum strains of different phylotypes. PMID:24763488

  9. Gene amplification as a cause for inherited thyroxine-binding globulin excess?

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, J.

    1995-12-01

    This editorial reviews the past research regarding thyroxine-binding globulins (TBGs) and their role in hereditary diseases involving plasma concentrations of protein bound iodine. The genetic basis for TBG excess revolves around the expression and mutations of the gene for TBG. 23 refs.

  10. Accidental Amplification and Inactivation of a Methyltransferase Gene Eliminates Cytosine Methylation in Mycosphaerella Graminicola

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A de novo search for repetitive elements in the genome sequence of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola identified a family of repeats containing a DNA methyltransferase sequence (MgDNMT), which is a homologue of the Neurospora crassa Dim-2 gene. A total of 28 MgDNMT sequences was identifie...

  11. Gene Amplification Is A Mechanism For Rapid Weed Evolution To Herbicide Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The herbicide glyphosate became widely used in the U.S. and other parts of the world following the introduction of glyphosate-resistant crops. These crops were created by introduction of a modified 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene, the herbicide target site. Increased use of ...

  12. Determination of True ERBB2 Gene Amplification in Breast Cancer by Quantitative PCR Using a Reference and a Novel Control Gene.

    PubMed

    Chamizo, Cristina; Rojo, Federico; Madoz-Gúrpide, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2/HER2) is amplified and overexpressed in 20% to 25% of breast carcinomas, correlates with poor outcome, and is an indication for treatment with trastuzumab. Accurate assessment of ERBB2 status is crucial for proper prognosis and to offer appropriate treatment for patients. ERBB2 status is generally determined by immunohistochemistry or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and sporadically by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We developed a new algorithm, termed quantitative PCR algorithm (QPA) score, and compared its performance with the gold standard FISH assay. The QPA is a computation of the relative number of copies of the ERBB2 gene with respect to a nonstandard, short-arm centromeric sequence on chromosome 17, and referenced to a single-copy gene, RPP30. This provides a more reliable determination of ERBB2 amplification, reducing the false polysomy 17 error. A total of 69 breast carcinoma samples were tested for quantitative real-time PCR and FISH, and the degree of concordance was analyzed. Sixty-two cases were in agreement between the 2 methods, and the contingency study assigned a κ value of 0.729 for their correlation. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off point for ERBB2 amplification, which was estimated at a QPA=1.53 (sensitivity=0.863; specificity=0.944). Our data conclude that the QPA is able to determine ERBB2 gene status with high accuracy, while also overcoming the limitations of conventional techniques and providing better cost-effectiveness.

  13. Mutational landscape of EGFR-, MYC-, and Kras-driven genetically engineered mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, David G.; Politi, Katerina; Bhutkar, Arjun; Chen, Frances K.; Song, Xiaoling; Pirun, Mono; Santiago, Philip M.; Kim-Kiselak, Caroline; Platt, James T.; Lee, Emily; Hodges, Emily; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Socci, Nicholas D.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Jacks, Tyler; Varmus, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer are increasingly being used to assess putative driver mutations identified by large-scale sequencing of human cancer genomes. To accurately interpret experiments that introduce additional mutations, an understanding of the somatic genetic profile and evolution of GEMM tumors is necessary. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing of tumors from three GEMMs of lung adenocarcinoma driven by mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras), or overexpression of MYC proto-oncogene. Tumors from EGFR- and Kras-driven models exhibited, respectively, 0.02 and 0.07 nonsynonymous mutations per megabase, a dramatically lower average mutational frequency than observed in human lung adenocarcinomas. Tumors from models driven by strong cancer drivers (mutant EGFR and Kras) harbored few mutations in known cancer genes, whereas tumors driven by MYC, a weaker initiating oncogene in the murine lung, acquired recurrent clonal oncogenic Kras mutations. In addition, although EGFR- and Kras-driven models both exhibited recurrent whole-chromosome DNA copy number alterations, the specific chromosomes altered by gain or loss were different in each model. These data demonstrate that GEMM tumors exhibit relatively simple somatic genotypes compared with human cancers of a similar type, making these autochthonous model systems useful for additive engineering approaches to assess the potential of novel mutations on tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and drug sensitivity. PMID:27702896

  14. Altered detoxification status and increased resistance to oxidative stress by K-ras transformation.

    PubMed

    Recktenwald, Christian V; Kellner, Roland; Lichtenfels, Rudolf; Seliger, Barbara

    2008-12-15

    Mutated K-ras is frequently found in human malignancies and plays a key role in many signal transduction processes resulting in an altered gene and/or protein expression pattern. Proteins controlled by a constitutive activated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway are primarily related to alterations in the mitochondrial and nuclear compartments. Therefore, different K-Ras mutants and respective control cells were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using basic pH gradients. This approach led to the identification of differentially expressed proteins, such as members of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein family, and enzymes involved in cellular detoxification as well as in oxidative stress. Increased expression of these enzymes was paralleled by an elevated tolerance of K-ras mutants against the cytotoxic potential of hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde as well as an altered redox status based on enhanced intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels indicating an improved detoxification potential of defined K-ras transfectants, whereas down-regulation by RNA interference of candidate proteins reversed the tolerance against these compounds. This hypothesis is supported by an up-regulated expression of a key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway resulting in an increased production of NADPH required for anabolic processes as well as the rebuilding of oxidized GSH. Both the enhanced resistance against xenobiotic compounds as well as an altered oxidative pathway might confer growth advantages for tumor cells carrying dominant-positive K-ras mutations such as in lung or pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  15. Different susceptibility to lung tumorigenesis in mice with an identical Kras 2 intron 2

    SciTech Connect

    Manenti, G.; Falvella, F.S.; Gariboldi, M.; Dragani, T.A.; Pierotti, M.A.

    1995-09-20

    The A/J mouse strain is genetically susceptible to pulmonary tumorigenesis. We have performed a genetic linkage analysis to map pulmonary adenoma susceptibility (Pas) loci in an urethane-treated (A/J X Mus spretus) x C57BL/6J (ASB) interspecific testcross. In this interspecific cross we have confirmed our previous results in AC3F2 mice on the mapping of the Pas1 locus to the digital region of chromosome 6, near Kras2. The A/J and M. spretus strains differed as the Pas1 locus, with the M. spretus providing the resistant allele. In the latter strain, we studied the nucleotide sequence of a portion of the second intron of Kras2 that contains polymorphisms associated with lung tumor susceptibility in several inbred strains. The lung tumor-resistant M. spretus strain had the same specific nucleotide sequence of susceptible strains. Mutations in codon 61 of Kras2 in urethane-induced lung tumors from ASF1 hybrids involved the A/J allele in all cases, while the M. spretus allele was never affected. Our results indicate that the M. spretus and A/J mice have an identical structure of the second intron of the Kras2 gene, but they differ in genetic susceptibility to pulmonary tumorigenesis and in mutability of their Kras2 allele. 30 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Honokiol Induces Apoptosis, G1 Arrest, and Autophagy in KRAS Mutant Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lian-Xiang; Li, Ying; Liu, Zhong-Qiu; Fan, Xing-Xing; Duan, Fu-Gang; Li, Run-Ze; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han; Liu, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant signaling transduction induced by mutant KRAS proteins occurs in 20∼30% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, a direct and effective pharmacological inhibitor targeting KRAS has not yet reached the clinic to date. Honokiol, a small molecular polyphenol natural biophenolic compound derived from the bark of magnolia trees, exerts anticancer activity, however, its mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we sought to investigate the in vitro effects of honokiol on NSCLC cell lines harboring KRAS mutations. Honokiol was shown to induce G1 arrest and apoptosis to inhibit the growth of KRAS mutant lung cancer cells, which was weakened by an autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA), suggesting a pro-apoptotic role of honokiol-induced autophagy that was dependent on AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway. In addition, we also discovered that Sirt3 was significantly up-regulated in honokiol treated KRAS mutant lung cancer cells, leading to destabilization of its target gene Hif-1α, which indicated that the anticancer property of honokiol maybe regulated via a novel mechanism associated with the Sirt3/Hif-1α. Taken together, these results broaden our understanding of the mechanisms on honokiol effects in lung cancer, and reinforce the possibility of its potential anticancer benefit as a popular Chinese herbal medicine (CHM).

  17. KRAS mutation and microsatellite instability in endometrial adenocarcinomas showing MELF-type myometrial invasion.

    PubMed

    Stewart, C J R; Amanuel, B; Grieu, F; Carrello, A; Iacopetta, B

    2010-07-01

    Some uterine endometrioid adenocarcinomas exhibit a distinctive morphological phenotype characterised by the formation of microcystic, elongated and fragmented (MELF) glands. Immunohistochemical studies have suggested that MELF-type changes represent an epithelial-mesenchymal transition which has been associated with KRAS activation in various tumours. To investigate the molecular characteristics of endometrial tumours showing MELF, with particular reference to the frequencies of KRAS and BRAF mutations and of microsatellite instability (MSI). MSI, and KRAS and BRAF mutation status, were assessed in 33 low-grade endometrial adenocarcinomas showing MELF features and the results compared with 33 control cases exhibiting a 'conventional' pattern of myometrial invasion. Standard histological parameters were also reviewed. Tumours with a MELF pattern of myometrial invasion showed more frequent vascular invasion and focal mucinous differentiation. KRAS mutations were more frequent in MELF positive than MELF negative tumours (45% vs 30%), but this difference was not statistically significant. BRAF mutations were not identified in any of the cases. MSI was identified in 20% of cases overall but did not correlate with the MELF phenotype. Mutations in KRAS and BRAF genes are not directly implicated in the development of a MELF pattern of invasion in endometrial carcinoma. However, RAS-associated signalling pathways could be activated through other genetic or epigenetic mechanisms. The characterisation of such alterations may become increasingly important as novel therapies are developed that target mediators involved in tumour invasion.

  18. Investigation of Gene Expression Correlating With Centrosome Amplification in Development and Progression of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wilma L. Lingle, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester Rochester, MN 55905...Progression of Breast Cancer 6. AUTHOR(S) Wilma L. Lingle, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZA TION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZA TION Mayo...tumors. The goal of this research is to identify genes important in breast cancer due to their association with amplified centrosomes. We determined that

  19. Amplification of a DEAD box protein gene in retinoblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Godbout, R; Squire, J

    1993-01-01

    DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp, are putative RNA helicases implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. Here, we report that the mRNA encoding a DEAD box protein, designated HuDBP-RB, is present at elevated levels in two of six retinoblastoma (RB) cell lines tested and is preferentially expressed in fetal tissues of neuroectodermal origin. It is not possible to classify HuDBP-RB as a member of any of the DEAD box protein subgroups identified to date since the regions of amino acid similarity between HuDBP-RB and other DEAD box proteins are restricted to the conserved motifs found in all members of this family. The HuDBP-RB gene, which has been mapped to chromosome band 2p24, is amplified in the RB cell lines that overexpress HuDBP-RB RNA. Furthermore, the MYCN gene is also present in multiple copies in these two cell lines, suggesting coamplification of the two genes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7689221

  20. Double-hit mantle cell lymphoma with MYC gene rearrangement or amplification: a report of four cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Setoodeh, Reza; Schwartz, Stuart; Papenhausen, Peter; Zhang, Ling; Sagatys, Elizabeth M; Moscinski, Lynn C; Shao, Haipeng

    2013-01-01

    Mature B-cell lymphomas with both BCL2 and MYC translocations are known as “double hit” lymphomas. These lymphomas are aggressive and show high proliferation rate due to the growth advantages provided by MYC and BCL2 translocation and overexpression. Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a neoplasm of mature B-lymphocytes with characteristic t(11;14) and subsequent Cyclin D1 overexpression. Secondary cytogenetic changes are frequent in MCL, but MYC translocation has only been rarely reported. In this study, we report four cases of MCL with MYC translocation or MYC gene amplification detected by conventional cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization and whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, and determined the clinicopathologic features. Our study provides further evidence supporting the concept of “double hit” MCL with co-involvement of MYC gene rearrangement and/or amplification and CCND1 gene rearrangement. PMID:23330001

  1. Characterization of a novel oncogenic K-ras mutation in colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Akagi, Kiwamu . E-mail: akagi@cancer-c.pref.saitama.jp; Uchibori, Ryosuke; Yamaguchi, Kensei; Kurosawa, Keiko; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Kozu, Tomoko

    2007-01-19

    Activating mutations of RAS are frequently observed in subsets of human cancers, indicating that RAS activation is involved in tumorigenesis. Here, we identified and characterized a novel G to T transversion mutation of the K-ras gene at the third position of codon 19 (TTG) which substituted phenylalanine for leucine in 3 primary colon carcinomas. Biological and biochemical activity was examined using transformed NIH3T3 cells expressing mutant or wild-type K-ras. Transformants harboring the K-ras mutation at codon 19 showed proliferative capacity under serum-starved conditions, less contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, tumorigenicity in nude mice and elevation of active Ras-GTP levels. These results indicated that this novel mutation possesses high oncogenic activity.

  2. Amplification of TGFβ Induced ITGB6 Gene Transcription May Promote Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tatler, Amanda L.; Goodwin, Amanda T.; Gbolahan, Olumide; Saini, Gauri; Porte, Joanne; John, Alison E.; Clifford, Rachel L.; Violette, Shelia M.; Weinreb, Paul H.; Parfrey, Helen; Wolters, Paul J.; Gauldie, Jack; Kolb, Martin; Jenkins, Gisli

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating, progressive disease with poor survival rates and limited treatment options. Upregulation of αvβ6 integrins within the alveolar epithelial cells is a characteristic feature of IPF and correlates with poor patient survival. The pro-fibrotic cytokine TGFβ1 can upregulate αvβ6 integrin expression but the molecular mechanisms driving this effect have not previously been elucidated. We confirm that stimulation with exogenous TGFβ1 increases expression of the integrin β6 subunit gene (ITGB6) and αvβ6 integrin cell surface expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. TGFβ1-induced ITGB6 expression occurs via transcriptional activation of the ITGB6 gene, but does not result from effects on ITGB6 mRNA stability. Basal expression of ITGB6 in, and αvβ6 integrins on, lung epithelial cells occurs via homeostatic αvβ6-mediated TGFβ1 activation in the absence of exogenous stimulation, and can be amplified by TGFβ1 activation. Fundamentally, we show for the first time that TGFβ1-induced ITGB6 expression occurs via canonical Smad signalling since dominant negative constructs directed against Smad3 and 4 inhibit ITGB6 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, disruption of a Smad binding site at -798 in the ITGB6 promoter abolishes TGFβ1-induced ITGB6 transcriptional activity. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation we demonstrate that TGFβ1 stimulation of lung epithelial cells results in direct binding of Smad3, and Smad4, to the ITGB6 gene promoter within this region. Finally, using an adenoviral TGFβ1 over-expression model of pulmonary fibrosis we demonstrate that Smad3 is crucial for TGFβ1-induced αvβ6 integrin expression within the alveolar epithelium in vivo. Together, these data confirm that a homeostatic, autocrine loop of αvβ6 integrin activated TGFβ1-induced ITGB6 gene expression regulates epithelial basal αvβ6 integrin expression, and demonstrates that this occurs via Smad

  3. A phase II study of Epirubicin in oxaliplatin-resistant patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and TOP2A gene amplification.

    PubMed

    Tarpgaard, Line S; Qvortrup, Camilla; Nygård, Sune B; Nielsen, Signe L; Andersen, Diana R; Jensen, Niels Frank; Stenvang, Jan; Detlefsen, Sönke; Brünner, Nils; Pfeiffer, Per

    2016-02-11

    The overall purpose of this study is to provide proof of concept for introducing the anthracycline epirubicin as an effective, biomarker-guided treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients who are refractory to treatment with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy and have TOP2A gene amplification in their tumor cells. Epirubicin is an anthracycline that targets DNA topoisomerase 2-α enzyme encoded by the TOP2A gene. It is used for treatment of several malignancies, but currently not in CRC. TOP2A gene amplifications predict improved efficacy of epirubicin in patients with breast cancer and thus could be an alternative option for patients with CRC and amplified TOP2A gene. We have previously analysed the frequency of TOP2A gene aberrations in CRC and found that 46.6% of these tumors had TOP2A copy gain and 2.0% had loss of TOP2A when compared to adjacent normal tissue. The TOP2A gene is located on chromosome 17 and when the TOP2A/CEN-17 ratio was applied to identify tumors with gene loss or amplifications, 10.5% had a ratio ≥ 1.5 consistent with gene amplification and 2.6% had a ratio ≤ 0.8 suggesting gene deletions. Based on these observations and the knowledge gained from treatment of breast cancer patients, we have initiated a prospective clinical, phase II protocol using epirubicin (90 mg/m2 iv q 3 weeks) in mCRC patients, who are refractory to treatment with oxaliplatin. The study is an open label, single arm, phase II study, investigating the efficacy of epirubicin in patients with oxaliplatin refractory mCRC and with a cancer cell TOP2A/CEN-17 ratio ≥ 1.5. TOP2A gene amplification measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization. A total of 25 evaluable patients (15 + 10 in two steps) will be included (Simon's two-stage minimax design). Every nine weeks, response is measured by computed tomography imaging and evaluated according to RECIST 1.1. The primary end-point of the study is progression-free survival. Eudract no. 2013-001648-79.

  4. Spectroscopic investigation of the interaction between G-quadruplex of KRAS promoter sequence and three isoquinoline alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Li-Na; Xie, Meng-Xia

    2017-01-01

    KRAS promoter can form G-quadruplex structure and regulate gene transcription. The drugs which can bind with G-quadruplex of KRAS promoter may be potential remedy for treatment of cancers associated with KRAS mutation. The interaction mechanism between the G-quadruplex of KRAS promoter and three isoquinoline alkaloids (jatrorrhizine, berberine and sanguinarine) has been investigated by UV-visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods. The results showed that the three alkaloids can form complexes with G-quadruplex KRAS promoter with the molecular ratio of 1:1, and the binding constants were (0.90 ± 0.16) × 106 L mol- 1, (0.93 ± 0.21) × 106 L mol- 1 and (1.16 ± 0.45) × 106 L mol- 1 for jatrorrhizine, berberine and sanguinarine. The absorption spectra, KI quenching and fluorescence anisotropy and polarization studies suggested jatrorrhizine and berberine interacted with G-quadruplex by not only end-stacking binding mode but also grooves or loops binding mode, while sanguinarine by end-stacking binding mode. Sanguinarine was more beneficial to maintain the stability and parallel conformation of KRAS promoter G-quadruplex. MTT assay was performed to evaluate antiproliferation effects of the three isoquinoline alkaloids on SW620 cells, and the antiproliferation effects of the three alkaloids were sanguinarine > berberine > jatrorrhizine. All the three alkaloids can bind with KRAS promoter G-quadruplex, and sanguinarine had the better binding property and antiproliferation effects on SW620 cells. The results obtained are meaningful to explore potential reagents targeting the parallel G-quadruplex structure of KRAS promoter for gene theraphy of colorectal carcinomas.

  5. Improvement of antitumor activity by gene amplification with a replicating but nondisseminating adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Bourbeau, Denis; Lau, Cara Jean; Jaime, Jairo; Koty, Zafiro; Zehntner, Simone P; Lavoie, Geneviève; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Nalbantoglu, Josephine; Massie, Bernard

    2007-04-01

    Gene therapy is a promising approach for cancer treatment; however, efficacy of current vectors remains insufficient. To improve the success of suicide gene therapy, we constructed a replication-competent adenoviral vector that has its protease gene deleted and expresses bacterial cytosine deaminase fused with bacterial uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CU). The prodrug, 5-fluorocytosine, is transformed into the highly toxic and tissue-diffusible 5-fluorouracil by CU in infected cells. This vector is incapable of producing infectious particles but is able to undergo a single round of replication, thereby increasing transgene copy number and expression. In the presence of 5-FC, compared with the first-generation vector (AdCU), the replication-competent vector, Ad(dPS)CU-IRES-E1A, was significantly more efficacious for in vitro tumor cell killing and in bystander assays, whereas 25-fold fewer viral particles were required in a three-dimensional spheroid model. For in vivo experiments, in which virus was injected into preestablished intracranial glioma xenografts, followed by 5-FC treatment, mice receiving Ad(dPS)CU-IRES-E1A had significantly smaller tumors at 35 days postinjection as well as significantly longer median survival than mice treated with the replication-deficient, protease-deleted vector [Ad(dPS)CU]. In an immunocompetent syngeneic model, Ad(dPS)CU + 5-FC-treated mice had a median survival of only 23 days, whereas Ad(dPS)CU-IRES-E1A + 5-FC-treated animals had a survival of 57.1% at 365 days. In conclusion, Ad(dPS)CU-IRES-E1A in the presence of 5-FC produces more potent tumoricidal effects than its replication-deficient counterparts.

  6. Real-time amplification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene for quality control of leukopoor platelets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-Ping; Sun, Chien-Feng; Ning, Hsiao-Chen; Peng, Chien-Ting; Wang, Wei-Ting; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Leukoreduction of blood products is crucial to prevent white blood cell (WBC)-associated complications during transfusion. Of the widely accepted methods for quantifying WBCs in blood components, Nageotte hemocytometry is time-consuming and laborious whereas a specialized instrument is required for flow cytometry. A reliable and affordable method to assess WBC count in blood products is of particular interest. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene was developed for quantifying WBCs in leukopoor platelets (LPPs). After normalization by the cell-free prefiltrated and postfiltrated plasma DNA, the relative copy number of GAPDH gene in the platelet (PLT) concentrate and its corresponding LPPs was calculated according to the equation of 2(-ΔΔCt) of which Ct is defined as the threshold cycle. The percentage and the number of WBCs that remained in LPPs were consequently determined. This method was compared to Nageotte hemocytometry and was validated by using serially diluted PLT concentrate and 10 pairs of PLT concentrate-LPP samples. Consistent with the removal of WBCs after filtration, the Ct values for the LPP samples were increased when compared to their corresponding PLT concentrate. As revealed by real-time PCR of GAPDH gene, there is a correlation between the calculated and theoretical WBC count in the serially diluted PLT concentrate (correlation coefficient, 0.9532). The WBC counts for the 10 LPP samples were comparable between Nageotte and real-time PCR method and were all below 3.3 × 10(6) WBCs/L. The real-time PCR method we report in this study is applicable for routine quality assurance during leukoreduction process. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  7. Assessment of HER2 gene amplification in adenocarcinomas of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction in the INT-0116/SWOG9008 clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, M. A.; Gundacker, H. M.; Benedetti, J.; Macdonald, J. S.; Baranda, J. C.; Levin, W. J.; Blanke, C. D.; Elatre, W.; Weng, P.; Zhou, J. Y.; Lenz, H. J.; Press, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Trastuzumab has been approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic gastric carcinoma; however, relatively little is known about the role of HER2 in the natural history of this disease. Patients and methods Patients enrolled in the INT-0116/SWOG9008 phase III gastric cancer clinical trial with available tissue specimens were retrospectively evaluated for HER2 gene amplification by FISH and overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The original trial was designed to evaluate the benefit of postoperative chemoradiation compared with surgery alone. Results HER2 gene amplification rate by FISH was 10.9% among 258 patients evaluated. HER2 overexpression rate by IHC was 12.2% among 148 patients evaluated, with 90% agreement between FISH and IHC. There was a significant interaction between HER2 amplification and treatment with respect to both disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.020) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.034). Among patients with HER2-non-amplified cancers, treated patients had a median OS of 44 months compared with 24 months in the surgery-only arm (P = 0.003). Among patients with HER2-amplified cancers, there was no significant difference in survival based on treatment arm. HER2 status was not a prognostic marker among patients who received no postoperative chemoradiation. Conclusion Patients lacking HER2 amplification benefited from treatment as indicated by both DFS and OS. Clinical trial INT-0116/SWOG9008 phase III. PMID:23524864

  8. MicroRNA let-7a inhibits the proliferation and invasion of nonsmall cell lung cancer cell line 95D by regulating K-Ras and HMGA2 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ying; Ren, Tao; Cai, Ying-Yun; He, Xiao-Ye

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs are closely linked to tumor metastasis and let-7a may play a role in inhibiting the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of lung cancer. In vitro, we aim to observe the impact of let-7a on the proliferation and invasion of the nonsmall cell lung cancer cell line 95D by constructing a lentiviral vector that expresses let-7a. Cell proliferation assays and Transwell experiments were used to compare the proliferation and invasion of the 95D cell group with let-7a overexpressed or inhibited. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analysis were used to compare the expression of K-RAS and HMGA2 at mRNA and the protein level in the above groups. The results showed the cells in the let-7a overexpressed group were significantly less proliferative and invasive than those in the let-7a inhibited group (p < 0.05). K-RAS and HMGA2 mRNA levels were significantly higher in the let-7a overexpressed group than those in the let-7a inhibited group (p < 0.05). However, the protein levels of K-RAS and HMGA2 were significantly lower in the let-7a overexpressed group than those in the let-7a inhibited group (p < 0.05). We suppose that let-7a inhibits the proliferation and invasion of the cell line 95D by regulating the translation of K-RAS and HMGA2 mRNA, not the transcription of the mRNA itself.

  9. Gene expression modulation is associated with gene amplification, supernumerary chromosomes and chromosome loss in antimony-resistant Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Leprohon, Philippe; Légaré, Danielle; Raymond, Frédéric; Madore, Éric; Hardiman, Gary; Corbeil, Jacques; Ouellette, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Antimonials remain the first line drug against the protozoan parasite Leishmania but their efficacy is threatened by resistance. We carried out a RNA expression profiling analysis comparing an antimony-sensitive and -resistant (Sb2000.1) strain of Leishmania infantum using whole-genome 70-mer oligonucleotide microarrays. Several genes were differentially expressed between the two strains, several of which were found to be physically linked in the genome. MRPA, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene known to be involved in antimony resistance, was overexpressed in the antimony-resistant mutant along with three other tandemly linked genes on chromosome 23. This four gene locus was flanked by 1.4 kb repeated sequences from which an extrachromosomal circular amplicon was generated in the resistant cells. Interestingly, gene expression modulation of entire chromosomes occurred in the antimony-resistant mutant. Southern blots analyses and comparative genomic hybridizations revealed that this was either due to the presence of supernumerary chromosomes or to the loss of one chromosome. Leishmania parasites with haploid chromosomes were viable. Changes in copy number for some of these chromosomes were confirmed in another antimony-resistant strain. Selection of a partial revertant line correlated antimomy resistance levels and the copy number of aneuploid chromosomes, suggesting a putative link between aneuploidy and drug resistance in Leishmania. PMID:19129236

  10. Rapid and sensitive detection of Plesiomonas shigelloides by cross-priming amplification of the hugA gene

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Shuang; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Ye, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    Plesiomonas shigelloides (P. shigelloides) is implicated as an aetiological agent of human gastroenteritis in humans, for which reliable laboratory detection of P. shigelloides is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. A simple molecular method for rapid detection of P. shigelloides using cross-priming amplification (CPA) has been developed, with hugA as the target. The hugA gene is required for haem iron utilisation and is critical for the survival and growth of P. shigelloides. The assay output was visualised as a colour change with no need to open the reaction tubes, and no false-positive results were detected for the 33 non- P. shigelloides strains examined to assess assay specificity. The limit of detection was 200 fg P. shigelloides DNA per reaction and 3×103 CFU per g in human stools, which was 100 and 10-fold more sensitive than polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The CPA method was used to detect the presence of P. shigelloides in stool specimens from 70 patients with diarrhoea and 30 environmental water samples, with no difference in accuracy between the CPA assay and the biological culture. The present study, therefore, suggests that the P. shigelloides hugA CPA assay may represent a valuable tool for rapid and sensitive detection of P. shigelloides in primary care facilities and clinical laboratories. PMID:27878230

  11. Sequence Variation in Amplification Target Genes and Standards Influences Interlaboratory Comparison of BK Virus DNA Load Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Morgane; Meddeb, Mariam; Sueur, Charlotte; Domingo-Calap, Pilar; Soulier, Eric; Chabaud, Angeline; Perrin, Peggy; Moulin, Bruno; Bahram, Seiamak; Stoll-Keller, Françoise; Caillard, Sophie; Barth, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    International guidelines define a BK virus (BKV) load of ≥4 log10 copies/ml as presumptive of BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVN) and a cutoff for therapeutic intervention. To investigate whether BKV DNA loads (BKVL) are comparable between laboratories, 2 panels of 15 and 8 clinical specimens (urine, whole blood, and plasma) harboring different BKV genotypes were distributed to 20 and 27 French hospital centers in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Although 68% of the reported results fell within the acceptable range of the expected result ±0.5 log10, the interlaboratory variation ranged from 1.32 to 5.55 log10. Polymorphisms specific to BKV genotypes II and IV, namely, the number and position of mutations in amplification target genes and/or deletion in standards, arose as major sources of interlaboratory disagreements. The diversity of DNA purification methods also contributed to the interlaboratory variability, in particular for urine samples. Our data strongly suggest that (i) commercial external quality controls for BKVL assessment should include all major BKV genotypes to allow a correct evaluation of BKV assays, and (ii) the BKV sequence of commercial standards should be provided to users to verify the absence of mismatches with the primers and probes of their BKV assays. Finally, the optimization of primer and probe design and standardization of DNA extraction methods may substantially decrease interlaboratory variability and allow interinstitutional studies to define a universal cutoff for presumptive BKVN and, ultimately, ensure adequate patient care. PMID:26468499

  12. Sex identification based on AMEL gene PCR amplification from blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) fecal DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Yang, Y Y; Wang, X M; Liu, Z S; Wang, Z H; Ding, Y Z

    2015-08-07

    The use of noninvasive genetic sampling to identify the sex of wild animals is an extremely valuable and important tool in molecular ecology and wildlife conservation. Sex determination using the amelogenin gene has been conducted in many species because only a single pair of primers is required to amplify both X- and Y-linked alleles. However, this method has not been used in field research with the feces of wildlife. In this study, we applied this method to 222 fecal samples from wild blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) using amelogenin primers (SE47/SE48) after testing the effectiveness of sex determination using tissue samples and fecal samples from blue sheep of known sex. We found this method to be highly reliable (80.2%) for blue sheep. Amelogenin can be used to identify the sex of wild animals using fecal samples.

  13. A protein tagging system for signal amplification in gene expression and fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tanenbaum, Marvin E.; Gilbert, Luke A.; Qi, Lei S.; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Vale, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Signals in many biological processes can be amplified by recruiting multiple copies of regulatory proteins to a site of action. Harnessing this principle, we have developed a novel protein scaffold, a repeating peptide array termed SunTag, which can recruit multiple copies of an antibody-fusion protein. We show that the SunTag can recruit up to 24 copies of GFP, thereby enabling long-term imaging of single protein molecules in living cells. We also use the SunTag to create a potent synthetic transcription factor by recruiting multiple copies of a transcriptional activation domain to a nuclease-deficient CRISPR/Cas9 protein and demonstrate strong activation of endogenous gene expression and re-engineered cell behavior with this system. Thus, the SunTag provides a versatile platform for multimerizing proteins on a target protein scaffold and is likely to have many applications in imaging and in controlling biological outputs. PMID:25307933

  14. Gene Amplifications in Well-Differentiated Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Inactivate the p53 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wenwei; Feng, Zhaohui; Modica, Ippolito; Klimstra, David S.; Song, Lin; Allen, Peter J.; Brennan, Murray F.; Levine, Arnold J.; Tang, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a group of rare tumors derived from the diffuse neuroendocrine system or islet endocrine cells of the pancreas. The molecular mechanisms underlying NETs are largely unknown. The tumor suppressor p53 plays a critical role in maintaining genomic stability and tumor prevention. The p53 pathway is tightly regulated by a number of proteins, among which MDM2, MDM4, and WIP1 are key negative regulators of p53 protein levels or activity. Aberrant activation of these negative regulators can attenuate the p53 function that serves as an important mechanism of tumorigenesis. In this study, several genetic alterations in pancreatic NETs were studied. These tumors exhibit various chromosomal aberrations throughout the whole genome as examined by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Although p53 mutations are rare in NETs (<3%), this study presents evidence that the p53 pathway is altered in pancreatic NETs through aberrant activation of its negative regulators. A high percentage of pancreatic NETs contain extra gene copies of MDM2 (22%), MDM4 (30%), and WIP1 (51%), which are correlated with expression of corresponding mRNAs and proteins. In addition, there is a higher frequency (23% v. 15% in the control population) of the G/G genotype of MDM2 SNP309, a functional single-nucleotide polymorphism in the MDM2 gene that attenuates the function of the p53 protein. Overall, approximately 70% of pancreatic NETs have one or more of these genetic changes. These findings suggest that the negative regulation of p53 function could be an important mechanism for the initiation and/or progression of pancreatic NETs, and reactivation of p53 could be a potential therapeutic strategy for patients with this disease. PMID:20871795

  15. KIT amplification and gene mutations in acral/mucosal melanoma in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jina; Lee, Jeeyun; Jang, Jiryeon; Lee, Eui Jin; Jang, Kee Taek; Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2011-06-01

    Mucosal and acral melanomas have demonstrated different genetic alterations and biological behavior compared with more common cutaneous melanomas. It was recently reported that gain-of-function KIT mutations and/or copy number increases are more common in mucosal and acral melanomas. Thus, we studied the frequency and pattern of KIT aberrations in mucosal and acral melanomas in Korea. We analyzed 97 patients who were pathologically confirmed with mucosal or acral melanoma between 1997 and 2010 at Samsung Medical Center. Of the 97 melanoma patients, 92 were screened for mutations in KIT exons 11, 13, 17, and 18, BRAF and NRAS genes. KIT copy number was assessed by quantitative, real-time PCR. Of the 97 patients, 55 (56.7%) were mucosal, 40 (41.2%) were acral melanoma, and two were of unknown primary origin. Among seven cases with KIT mutation, five (60.0%) occurred in exon 11, one (20.0%) in exon 17, and one (20.0%) in exon 13. Point mutations were the most common, resulting in substitutions in exon 11 (K558R, T574A, L576P, and V559A), exon 13 (N655K), and exon 17 (N822K). A novel Thr574Ala (c.1720A>G) KIT mutation, which has not been reported in melanoma or other tumor types, was identified in one genital melanoma case. Of the 97 mucosal or acral melanoma specimens, 49 were tested for KIT gene copy number changes using quantitative PCR. Increased KIT copy number was identified in 15 patients: seven (40%) of 20 acral melanomas and eight (31%) of 26 mucosal melanomas. Our study implicates that a significant proportion of acral and mucosal melanomas have KIT mutations in Asian population.

  16. Visual System Homeobox 1 (VSX1) Gene Analysis in Keratoconus: Design of Specific Primers and DNA Amplification Protocols for Accurate Molecular Characterization.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jun B; Poh, Rozaida Y Y; Lee, Kenneth R; Subrayan, Visvaraja; Deva, Jenny P; Lau, Amy Y L; Tan, Jin A M A

    2016-09-01

    Keratoconus is an ocular degeneration characterized by the thinning of corneal stroma that may lead to varying degrees of myopia and visual impairment. Genetic factors have been reported in the pathology of keratoconus where Asians have a higher incidence, earlier onset, and undergo earlier corneal grafts compared to Caucasians. The visual system homeobox 1 (VSX1) gene forms part of a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor which is responsible for ocular development. The gene was marked as a candidate in genetic studies of keratoconus in various populations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VSX1 gene have been reported to be associated with keratoconus. The detection of the SNPs involves DNA amplification of the VSX1 gene followed by genomic sequencing. Thus, the objective of this study aims to establish sensitive and accurate screening protocols for the molecular characterization of VSX1 polymorphisms. Keratoconic (n = 74) and control subjects (n = 96) were recruited based on clinical diagnostic tests and selection criteria. DNA extracted from the blood samples was used to genotype VSX1 polymorphisms. In-house designed primers and optimization of PCR conditions were carried out to amplify exons 1 and 3 of the VSX1 gene. PCR conditions including percentage GC content, melting temperatures, and differences in melting temperatures of primers were evaluated to produce sensitive and specific DNA amplifications. Genotyping was successfully carried out in 4 exons of the VSX1 gene. Primer annealing temperatures were observed to be crucial in enhancing PCR sensitivity and specificity. Annealing temperatures were carefully evaluated to produce increased specificity, yet not allowing sensitivity to be compromised. In addition, exon 1 of the VSX1 gene was amplified using 2 different sets of primers to produce 2 smaller amplified products with absence of non-specific bands. DNA amplification of exons 1 and 3 consistently showed single band products which

  17. Two-step amplification of the human PPT sequence provides specific gene expression in an immunocompetent murine prostate cancer model.

    PubMed

    Dzojic, H; Cheng, W-S; Essand, M

    2007-03-01

    The recombinant prostate-specific PPT sequence comprises a prostate-specific antigen enhancer, a PSMA enhancer and a TARP promoter. It is transcriptionally active in human prostate cancer cells both in the presence and absence of testosterone. However, in experimental murine prostate cancer, it has no detectable transcriptional activity. Herein, we describe that the PPT sequence in combination with a two-step transcriptional amplification (TSTA) system becomes active also in murine prostate cancer cells. An adenovirus with TSTA-amplified PPT-controlled expression of the luciferase reporter gene, Ad[PPT/TSTA-Luc], has up to 100-fold higher prostate-specific transcriptional activity than a non-amplified PPT-based adenovirus, Ad[PPT-Luc], in human cells. In addition, Ad[PPT/TSTA-Luc] confers prostate-specific transgene expression in murine cells, with an activity that is approximately 23% of Ad[CMV-Luc] in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP)-C2 cells. Moreover, to visualize luciferase expression in living mice a charge-coupled device camera was used. Ad[PPT/TSTA-Luc] yielded approximately 30-fold higher transgene expression than Ad[PPT-Luc] in LNCaP tumor xenografts. Importantly, Ad[PPT/TSTA-Luc] also showed activity in murine TRAMP-C2 tumors, whereas Ad[PPT-Luc] activity was undetectable. These results highlight that the recombinant PPT sequence is active in murine prostate cancer cells when augmented by a TSTA system. This finding opens up for preclinical studies with prostate-specific therapeutic gene expression in immunocompetent mice.

  18. The polyamine metabolism genes ornithine decarboxylase and antizyme 2 predict aggressive behavior in neuroblastomas with and without MYCN amplification

    PubMed Central

    Geerts, Dirk; Koster, Jan; Albert, David; Koomoa, Dana-Lynn T.; Feith, David J.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Volckmann, Richard; Caron, Huib; Versteeg, Rogier; Bachmann, André S.

    2010-01-01

    High polyamine (PA) levels and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) over-expression are well-known phenomena in many aggressive cancer types. We analyzed the expression of ODC and ODC-activity regulating genes antizymes 1-3 (OAZ1-3) and AZ inhibitors 1-2 (AZ-IN1-2) in human neuroblastoma (NB) tumors and correlated these with genetic and clinical features of NB. Since ODC is a known target gene of MYCN, the correlation between ODC and MYCN was of special interest. Data were obtained from Affymetrix micro-array analysis of 88 NB tumor samples. In addition, mRNA expression levels of ODC, OAZ2, and MYCN in a MYCN-inducible NB cell line were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. ODC mRNA expression in NB tumors was significantly predictive of decreased overall survival probability and correlated with several unfavorable clinical NB characteristics (all P < 0.005). Interestingly, high ODC mRNA expression also showed significant correlation with poor survival prognosis in Kaplan-Meier analyses stratified for patients without MYCN amplification, suggesting an additional role for ODC independent of MYCN. Conversely, high OAZ2 mRNA expression correlated with increased survival and with several favorable clinical NB characteristics (all P < 0.003). In addition, we provide first evidence of a role for MYCN-associated transcription factors MAD2 and MAD7 in ODC regulation. In NB cell cultures, ectopic over-expression of MYCN altered ODC, but not OAZ2 mRNA levels. In conclusion, these data suggest that elevated ODC and low OAZ2 mRNA expression levels correlate with several unfavorable genetic and clinical features in NB, offering new insights into PA pathways and PA metabolism-targeting therapy in NB. PMID:19960435

  19. Ping-pong amplification of a retroviral vector achieves high-level gene expression: human growth hormone production.

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, S L; Kabat, D

    1990-01-01

    Retroviral vectors offer major advantages for gene transfer studies but have not been useful for producing proteins in large quantities. This deficiency has resulted in part from interference to superinfection, which limits the numbers of active proviruses in cells. Recently, we found that these vectors amplify when they are added as calcium phosphate precipitates to cocultures of cells that package retroviruses into ecotropic and amphotropic host range envelopes. Helper-free virions from either cell type can infect the other without interference, resulting in theoretically limitless back-and-forth (ping-pong) vector replication. In initial studies, however, amplifications of a vector that contained the human growth hormone gene ceased when the hormone produced was 0.3% or less of cellular protein synthesis. This limit was caused by two factors. First, recombinant shutoff viruses that are replication defective and encode envelope glycoproteins form at a low probability during any round of the vector replication cycle and these spread in cocultures, thereby establishing interference. Single cells in shutoff cocultures therefore synthesize both ecotropic and amphotropic envelope glycoproteins, and they release promiscuous (presumably hybrid) virions. The probability of forming shutoff viruses before the vector had amplified to a high multiplicity was reduced by using small cocultures. Second, cells with large numbers of proviruses are unhealthy and their proviral expression can be unstable. Stable expresser cell clones were obtained by selection. Thereby, cell lines were readily obtained that stably produce human growth hormone as 4 to 6% of the total protein synthesis. A ping-pong retroviral vector can be used for high-level protein production in vertebrate cells. Images PMID:2352330

  20. Foxm1 transcription factor is required for the initiation of lung tumorigenesis by oncogenic Kras(G12D.).

    PubMed

    Wang, I-C; Ustiyan, V; Zhang, Y; Cai, Y; Kalin, T V; Kalinichenko, V V

    2014-11-13

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of deaths in cancer patients in the United States. Identification of new molecular targets is clearly needed to improve therapeutic outcomes of this devastating human disease. Activating mutations in K-Ras oncogene and increased expression of FOXM1 protein are associated with poor prognosis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Transgenic expression of activated Kras(G12D) in mouse respiratory epithelium is sufficient to induce lung adenocarcinomas; however, transcriptional mechanisms regulated by K-Ras during the initiation of lung cancer remain poorly understood. Foxm1 transcription factor, a downstream target of K-Ras, stimulates cellular proliferation during embryogenesis, organ repair and tumor growth, but its role in tumor initiation is unknown. In the present study, we used transgenic mice expressing Kras(G12D) under control of Sftpc promoter to demonstrate that Foxm1 was induced in type II epithelial cells before the formation of lung tumors. Conditional deletion of Foxm1 from Kras(G12D)-expressing respiratory epithelium prevented the initiation of lung tumors in vivo. The loss of Foxm1 inhibited expression of K-Ras target genes critical for the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, including Ikbkb, Nfkb1, Nfkb2, Rela, Jnk1, N-Myc, Pttg1 and Cdkn2a. Transgenic overexpression of activated FOXM1 mutant was sufficient to induce expression of these genes in alveolar type II cells. FOXM1 directly bound to promoter regions of Ikbkb, Nfkb2, N-Myc, Pttg1 and Cdkn2a, indicating that these genes are direct FOXM1 targets. FOXM1 is required for K-Ras-mediated lung tumorigenesis by activating genes critical for the NF-κB and JNK pathways.

  1. Development of siRNA payloads to target KRAS-mutant cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Cayde D.; Thapar, Vishal; Lee, Liam C.; Hsu, Dennis J.; Grace, Danielle; Carver, Joseph O.; Zuber, Johannes; Luo, Ji; McCormick, Frank; Lowe, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for target identification and can lead to novel therapies for pharmacologically intractable targets such as KRAS. RNAi therapy must combine potent siRNA payloads with reliable in vivo delivery for efficient target inhibition. We employed a functional “Sensor” assay to establish a library of potent siRNAs against RAS pathway genes and show they efficiently suppress their targets at low dose. This reduces off-target effects and enables combination gene knockdown. We administered Sensor siRNAs in vitro and in vivo and validated the delivery of KRAS siRNA alone and siRNA targeting the complete RAF effector node (A/B/C-RAF) as promising strategies to treat KRAS-mutant colorectal cancer. We further demonstrate that improved therapeutic efficacy is achieved by formulating siRNA payloads that combine both single-gene siRNA and node-targeted siRNAs (KRAS+PIK3C-A/B). The customizable nature of Sensor siRNA payloads offers a universal platform for combination target identification and development of RNAi therapeutics. PMID:25100204

  2. Intensity of Mutualism Breakdown Is Determined by Temperature Not Amplification of Wolbachia Genes

    PubMed Central

    Frentiu, Francesca D.; Horn, Emilie; Ritchie, Fiona K.; van Swinderen, Bruno; Weible, Michael W.; O’Neill, Scott L.; Brownlie, Jeremy C.

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally transmitted intracellular bacterial symbionts that infect approximately 40% of all insect species. Though several strains of Wolbachia naturally infect Drosophila melanogaster and provide resistance against viral pathogens, or provision metabolites during periods of nutritional stress, one virulent strain, wMelPop, reduces fly lifespan by half, possibly as a consequence of over-replication. While the mechanisms that allow wMelPop to over-replicate are still of debate, a unique tandem repeat locus in the wMelPop genome that contains eight genes, referred to as the “Octomom” locus has been identified and is thought to play an important regulatory role. Estimates of Octomom locus copy number correlated increasing copy number to both Wolbachia bacterial density and increased pathology. Here we demonstrate that infected fly pathology is not dependent on an increased Octomom copy number, but does strongly correlate with increasing temperature. When measured across developmental time, we also show Octomom copy number to be highly variable across developmental time within a single generation. Using a second pathogenic strain of Wolbachia, we further demonstrate reduced insect lifespan can occur independently of a high Octomom locus copy number. Taken together, this data demonstrates that the mechanism/s of wMelPop virulence is more complex than has been previously described. PMID:27661080

  3. A protein-tagging system for signal amplification in gene expression and fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanenbaum, Marvin E; Gilbert, Luke A; Qi, Lei S; Weissman, Jonathan S; Vale, Ronald D

    2014-10-23

    Signals in many biological processes can be amplified by recruiting multiple copies of regulatory proteins to a site of action. Harnessing this principle, we have developed a protein scaffold, a repeating peptide array termed SunTag, which can recruit multiple copies of an antibody-fusion protein. We show that the SunTag can recruit up to 24 copies of GFP, thereby enabling long-term imaging of single protein molecules in living cells. We also use the SunTag to create a potent synthetic transcription factor by recruiting multiple copies of a transcriptional activation domain to a nuclease-deficient CRISPR/Cas9 protein and demonstrate strong activation of endogenous gene expression and re-engineered cell behavior with this system. Thus, the SunTag provides a versatile platform for multimerizing proteins on a target protein scaffold and is likely to have many applications in imaging and controlling biological outputs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Peripheral amplification of sweating – a role for calcitonin gene-related peptide

    PubMed Central

    Schlereth, Tanja; Dittmar, Jan Oliver; Seewald, Bianca; Birklein, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Neuropeptides are the mediators of neurogenic inflammation. Some pain disorders, e.g. complex regional pain syndromes, are characterized by increased neurogenic inflammation and by exaggerated sudomotor function. The aim of this study was to explore whether neuropeptides have a peripheral effect on human sweating. We investigated the effects of different concentrations of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P (SP) on acetylcholine-induced axon reflex sweating in healthy subjects (total n = 18). All substances were applied via dermal microdialysis. The experiments were done in a parallel setting: ACh alone and ACh combined with CGRP, VIP or SP in various concentrations were applied. Acetylcholine (10−2m) always elicited a sweating response, neuropeptides alone did not. However, CGRP significantly enhanced ACh-induced sweating (P < 0.01). Post hoc tests revealed that CGRP in physiological concentrations of 10−7–10−9m was most effective. VIP at any concentration had no significant effect on axon reflex sweating. The duration of the sweating response (P < 0.01), but not the amount of sweat, was reduced by SP. ACh-induced skin blood flow was significantly increased by CGRP (P < 0.01), but unaltered by VIP and SP. The results indicate that CGRP amplifies axon reflex sweating in human skin. PMID:16931551

  5. Species identification of Asini Corii Collas (donkey glue) by PCR amplification of cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Kumeta, Yukie; Maruyama, Takuro; Asama, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    Asini Corii Collas (ACC; donkey glue) is a crude drug used to promote hematopoiesis and arrest bleeding. Because adulteration of the drug with substances from other animals such as horses, cattle, and pigs has been found, we examined PCR methods based on the sequence of the cytochrome b gene for source species identification. Two strategies for extracting DNA from ACC were compared, and the ion-exchange resin procedure was revealed to be more suitable than the silica-based one. Using DNA extracted from ACC by the ion-exchange resin procedure, PCR methods for species-specific detection of donkey, horse, cattle, and pig substances were established. When these species-specific PCR methods were applied to ACC, amplicons were obtained only by the donkey-specific PCR. Cattle-specific PCR detected as little as 0.1% admixture of cattle glue in the ACC. These results suggest that the species-specific PCR methods established in this study would be useful for simple and easy detection of adulteration of ACC.

  6. Peripheral amplification of sweating--a role for calcitonin gene-related peptide.

    PubMed

    Schlereth, Tanja; Dittmar, Jan Oliver; Seewald, Bianca; Birklein, Frank

    2006-11-01

    Neuropeptides are the mediators of neurogenic inflammation. Some pain disorders, e.g. complex regional pain syndromes, are characterized by increased neurogenic inflammation and by exaggerated sudomotor function. The aim of this study was to explore whether neuropeptides have a peripheral effect on human sweating. We investigated the effects of different concentrations of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P (SP) on acetylcholine-induced axon reflex sweating in healthy subjects (total n = 18). All substances were applied via dermal microdialysis. The experiments were done in a parallel setting: ACh alone and ACh combined with CGRP, VIP or SP in various concentrations were applied. Acetylcholine (10(-2) m) always elicited a sweating response, neuropeptides alone did not. However, CGRP significantly enhanced ACh-induced sweating (P < 0.01). Post hoc tests revealed that CGRP in physiological concentrations of 10(-7)-10(-9) m was most effective. VIP at any concentration had no significant effect on axon reflex sweating. The duration of the sweating response (P < 0.01), but not the amount of sweat, was reduced by SP. ACh-induced skin blood flow was significantly increased by CGRP (P < 0.01), but unaltered by VIP and SP. The results indicate that CGRP amplifies axon reflex sweating in human skin.

  7. Involvement of facultative apomixis in inheritance of EPSPS gene amplification in glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniela N; Pan, Zhiqiang; Duke, Stephen O; Nandula, Vijay K; Baldwin, Brian S; Shaw, David R; Dayan, Franck E

    2014-01-01

    The inheritance of glyphosate resistance in two Amaranthus palmeri populations (R1 and R2) was examined in reciprocal crosses (RC) and second reciprocal crosses (2RC) between glyphosate-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) parents of this dioecious species. R populations and Female-R × Male-S crosses contain higher 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene copy numbers than the S population. EPSPS expression, EPSPS enzyme activity, EPSPS protein quantity, and level of resistance to glyphosate correlated positively with genomic EPSPS relative copy number. Transfer of resistance was more influenced by the female than the male parent in spite of the fact that the multiple copies of EPSPS are amplified in the nuclear genome. This led us to hypothesize that this perplexing pattern of inheritance may result from apomictic seed production in A. palmeri. We confirmed that reproductively isolated R and S female plants produced seeds, indicating that A. palmeri can produce seeds both sexually and apomictically (facultative apomixis). This apomictic trait accounts for the low copy number inheritance in the Female-S × Male-R offsprings. Apomixis may also enhance the stability of the glyphosate resistance trait in the R populations in the absence of reproductive partners.

  8. Investigating AP-2 and YY1 protein expression as a cause of high HER2 gene transcription in breast cancers with discordant HER2 gene amplification.

    PubMed

    Powe, Desmond G; Akhtar, Gulfareen; Habashy, Hany Onsy; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek; Rakha, Emad A; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O

    2009-01-01

    Candidacy for anti-HER2 adjuvant therapy in breast cancer is assessed using tumour HER2 status but recently it has been proposed that the transcription factors AP-2alpha and YY1 may cause Her2 protein overexpression independently of gene amplification. We characterised AP-2alpha/beta, AP-2alpha and YY1 with HER2 gene and protein expression, other relevant biomarkers, and clinical outcome using tissue microarrays (TMAs) and immunohistochemistry in a large (n = 1,176) clinically annotated series of early stage operable breast cancer. The associations and prognostic independence of AP-2 and YY1 was assessed in all patients and an oestrogen receptor negative subgroup. Nuclear expression of AP-2alpha/beta, AP-2alpha and YY1 was detected in 23%, 44% and 33% of cases respectively. AP-2alpha/beta significantly correlated with YY1 and both markers were increased in luminal oestrogen receptor (ER) positive tumours of small size and low grade but only AP-2alpha/beta correlated with good prognosis breast cancer specific survival and disease free interval (BCSS and DFI). These characteristics were lost in oestrogen receptor negative patients. AP-2alpha also correlated with luminal-type tumours but not with YY1 expression or good prognosis. AP-2alpha and YY1 showed a significant correlation with Her2 protein expression and in addition, YY1 correlated with HER2 gene expression. Discordant HER2 gene and protein expression was identified in six cases (0.71% of the study group) with four of these showing AP-2alpha but absence of AP-2alpha/beta and YY1 expression. AP-2alpha/beta and YY1 are markers of good prognosis principally due to their association with oestrogen receptor but are not independent predictors. Discordant HER2 protein/gene expression is a rare event that is not always explained by the actions of AP-2 and YY1.

  9. Identification of druggable cancer driver genes amplified across TCGA datasets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; McGee, Jeremy; Chen, Xianming; Doman, Thompson N; Gong, Xueqian; Zhang, Youyan; Hamm, Nicole; Ma, Xiwen; Higgs, Richard E; Bhagwat, Shripad V; Buchanan, Sean; Peng, Sheng-Bin; Staschke, Kirk A; Yadav, Vipin; Yue, Yong; Kouros-Mehr, Hosein

    2014-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) projects have advanced our understanding of the driver mutations, genetic backgrounds, and key pathways activated across cancer types. Analysis of TCGA datasets have mostly focused on somatic mutations and translocations, with less emphasis placed on gene amplifications. Here we describe a bioinformatics screening strategy to identify putative cancer driver genes amplified across TCGA datasets. We carried out GISTIC2 analysis of TCGA datasets spanning 16 cancer subtypes and identified 486 genes that were amplified in two or more datasets. The list was narrowed to 75 cancer-associated genes with potential "druggable" properties. The majority of the genes were localized to 14 amplicons spread across the genome. To identify potential cancer driver genes, we analyzed gene copy number and mRNA expression data from individual patient samples and identified 42 putative cancer driver genes linked to diverse oncogenic processes. Oncogenic activity was further validated by siRNA/shRNA knockdown and by referencing the Project Achilles datasets. The amplified genes represented a number of gene families, including epigenetic regulators, cell cycle-associated genes, DNA damage response/repair genes, metabolic regulators, and genes linked to the Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, JAK/STAT, NF-KB and MAPK signaling pathways. Among the 42 putative driver genes were known driver genes, such as EGFR, ERBB2 and PIK3CA. Wild-type KRAS was amplified in several cancer types, and KRAS-amplified cancer cell lines were most sensitive to KRAS shRNA, suggesting that KRAS amplification was an independent oncogenic event. A number of MAP kinase adapters were co-amplified with their receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the FGFR adapter FRS2 and the EGFR family adapters GRB2 and GRB7. The ubiquitin-like ligase DCUN1D1 and the histone methyltransferase NSD3 were also identified as novel putative cancer driver genes. We discuss the patient tailoring implications for existing cancer

  10. Identification of endotrypanum species from a sloth, a squirrel and Lutzomyia sandflies in ecuador by PCR amplification and sequencing of the mini-exon gene.

    PubMed

    Katakura, Ken; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Furuya, Masato; Uezato, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Shigeo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Gomez L, Eduardo A; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2003-05-01

    PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the mini-exon gene revealed that four strains isolated from a sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni), a squirrel (Sciurus granatensis) and two sandflies (Lutzomyia hartmanni) in Ecuador were indistinguishable from Endotrypanum monterogeii. Another strain isolated from Lu. hartmanni showed the high sequence similarity to E. schaudinni. Since three of these strains have been previously identified as Leishmania (Viannia) equatorensis, the results demonstrate that L. (V.) equatorensis is genetically closely related to the genus Endotrypanum. The present study also indicates that Endotrypanum species are distributed in arboreal animals and sandflies in Ecuador, and that mini-exon gene amplification is useful for epidemiological studies of Leishmania and Endotrypanum in the New World.

  11. Glycoproteomic Approach Identifies KRAS as a Positive Regulator of CREG1 in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David J.; Mei, Yuping; Sun, Shisheng; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Austin J.; Mao, Li

    2016-01-01

    Protein glycosylation plays a fundamental role in a multitude of biological processes, and the associated aberrant expression of glycoproteins in cancer has made them attractive biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this study, we examined differentially expressed glycoproteins in cell lines derived from three different states of lung tumorigenesis: an immortalized bronchial epithelial cell (HBE) line, a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line harboring a Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) activation mutation and a NSCLC cell line harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation deletion. Using a Triple SILAC proteomic quantification strategy paired with hydrazide chemistry N-linked glycopeptide enrichment, we quantified 118 glycopeptides in the three cell lines derived from 82 glycoproteins. Proteomic profiling revealed 27 glycopeptides overexpressed in both NSCLC cell lines, 6 glycopeptides overexpressed only in the EGFR mutant cells and 19 glycopeptides overexpressed only in the KRAS mutant cells. Further investigation of a panel of NSCLC cell lines found that Cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG1) overexpression was closely correlated with KRAS mutation status in NSCLC cells and could be down-regulated by inhibition of KRAS expression. Our results indicate that CREG1 is a down-stream effector of KRAS in a sub-type of NSCLC cells and a novel candidate biomarker or therapeutic target for KRAS mutant NSCLC. PMID:26722374

  12. Reverse engineering a hierarchical regulatory network downstream of oncogenic KRAS

    PubMed Central

    Stelniec-Klotz, Iwona; Legewie, Stefan; Tchernitsa, Oleg; Witzel, Franziska; Klinger, Bertram; Sers, Christine; Herzel, Hanspeter; Blüthgen, Nils; Schäfer, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    RAS mutations are highly relevant for progression and therapy response of human tumours, but the genetic network that ultimately executes the oncogenic effects is poorly understood. Here, we used a reverse-engineering approach in an ovarian cancer model to reconstruct KRAS oncogene-dependent cytoplasmic and transcriptional networks from perturbation experiments based on gene silencing and pathway inhibitor treatments. We measured mRNA and protein levels in manipulated cells by microarray, RT–PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The reconstructed model revealed complex interactions among the transcriptional and cytoplasmic components, some of which were confirmed by double pertubation experiments. Interestingly, the transcription factors decomposed into two hierarchically arranged groups. To validate the model predictions, we analysed growth parameters and transcriptional deregulation in the KRAS-transformed epithelial cells. As predicted by the model, we found two functional groups among the selected transcription factors. The experiments thus confirmed the predicted hierarchical transcription factor regulation and showed that the hierarchy manifests itself in downstream gene expression patterns and phenotype. PMID:22864383

  13. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) improves the PCR-based isolation of immunoglobulin variable region genes from murine and human lymphoma cells and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Doenecke, A; Winnacker, E L; Hallek, M

    1997-10-01

    The isolation of rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region (V) genes is usually performed by PCR with consensus primers binding to conserved regions within the V sequences. However, the isolation of Ig genes by this method is hampered in 15-35% by technical difficulties, mostly mismatches of oligonucleotide primers to V sequences. In order to obtain DNA sequences from V heavy chain (VH) genes which could not be amplified with consensus primers, we used a modified PCR technique, the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR in combination with new heavy chain constant region primers for the isolation of human and murine VH genes. In comparison, consensus primer PCR with different sets of previously published oligonucleotide primers was used. Both methods were applied to isolate VH genes from murine B cell lymphoma (A20 and BCL1), myeloma (NS1) and hybridoma (SP6) cell lines and from freshly isolated human chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lymphoma cells. RACE PCR allowed the amplification and subsequent cloning of the complete VH gene in all cases. In contrast, consensus primer PCR failed to isolate the VH sequence of the murine A20 cell line; this was explained by a mismatch of consensus primers with VH sequences. When both PCR methods amplified VH sequences, the DNA sequences obtained were identical. Taken together, RACE PCR represents a reliable and versatile method for the isolation of VH genes from human and murine lymphoma cells, in particular if consensus primer PCR fails.

  14. Feasibility of using tissue microarrays for the assessment of HER-2 gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Rohit; Lal, Priti; Chen, Beiyun

    2004-12-01

    Tissue microarrays (TMAs) have been commonly used to study protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). However, limited data exist on the validity of using TMAs to study gene amplification. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using breast carcinoma TMAs to study HER-2 gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In addition, hormonal receptor status (ER and PR) and HER-2 protein overexpression by IHC were also studied, and results were compared with whole tissue sections. FISH for HER-2 was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from 114 invasive breast carcinomas both on whole tissue sections and on TMAs containing the same tumors. The TMA was created using 0.6-mm tissue cores with four sampled cores per tumor from the same tissue block used for whole section FISH. The PathVysion HER-2 probe kit was used for the FISH analysis. A ratio of HER-2:Chromosome17 > or =2.0 was interpreted as positive for gene amplification. The ER or PR was interpreted as positive when nuclear staining was detected in more than 10% of tumor cells. The HER-2 IHC (HercepTest; DAKO Corp, Carpinteria, CA) results were interpreted as 0, 1+, 2+, and 3+ according to standard criteria. The FISH results in the TMA and whole sections were concordant in 99 out of 101 successfully analyzed cases (99%). The FISH scores were consistent among the two to four cores in the majority of the cases. ER and PR results were concordant between whole sections and TMA cores in 97% (107/110) and 89% (97/109) cases, respectively. The overall concordance for HER-2 status by IHC between whole sections and TMA cores was 86% (94 out of 109 cases). TMAs are a reliable approach to study HER-2 gene amplification in a high throughput manner.

  15. Mutant Kras copy number defines metabolic reprogramming and therapeutic susceptibilities.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Emma M; Gaude, Edoardo; Turrell, Frances K; Frezza, Christian; Martins, Carla P

    2016-03-03

    The RAS/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signalling pathway is frequently deregulated in non-small-cell lung cancer, often through KRAS activating mutations. A single endogenous mutant Kras allele is sufficient to promote lung tumour formation in mice but malignant progression requires additional genetic alterations. We recently showed that advanced lung tumours from Kras(G12D/+);p53-null mice frequently exhibit Kras(G12D) allelic enrichment (Kras(G12D)/Kras(wild-type) > 1) (ref. 7), implying that mutant Kras copy gains are positively selected during progression. Here we show, through a comprehensive analysis of mutant Kras homozygous and heterozygous mouse embryonic fibroblasts and lung cancer cells, that these genotypes are phenotypically distinct. In particular, Kras(G12D/G12D) cells exhibit a glycolytic switch coupled to increased channelling of glucose-derived metabolites into the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glutathione biosynthesis, resulting in enhanced glutathione-mediated detoxification. This metabolic rewiring is recapitulated in mutant KRAS homozygous non-small-cell lung cancer cells and in vivo, in spontaneous advanced murine lung tumours (which display a high frequency of Kras(G12D) copy gain), but not in the corresponding early tumours (Kras(G12D) heterozygous). Finally, we demonstrate that mutant Kras copy gain creates unique metabolic dependences that can be exploited to selectively target these aggressive mutant Kras tumours. Our data demonstrate that mutant Kras lung tumours are not a single disease but rather a heterogeneous group comprising two classes of tumours with distinct metabolic profiles, prognosis and therapeutic susceptibility, which can be discriminated on the basis of their relative mutant allelic content. We also provide the first, to our knowledge, in vivo evidence of metabolic rewiring during lung cancer malignant progression.

  16. Implication of K-ras and p53 in colorectal cancer carcinogenesis in Tunisian population cohort.

    PubMed

    Ines, Chaar; Donia, Ounissi; Rahma, Boughriba; Ben Ammar, Azza; Sameh, Amara; Khalfallah, Taher; Abdelmajid, Ben Hmida; Sabeh, Mzabi; Saadia, Bouraoui

    2014-07-01

    According to the multistep route of genetic alterations in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence, the complex K-ras/p53 mutation is one of the first alterations to occur and represent an important genetic event in colorectal cancer (CRC). An evaluation of the mutation spectra in K-ras and p53 gene was effected in 167 Tunisian patients with sporadic CRC to determine whether our populations have similar pattern of genetic alteration as in Maghrebin's population. Mutation patterns of codon 12-13 of K-ras and exon 5-8 of p53 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and PCR-SSCP and confirmed by sequencing. Mutations in the K-ras gene were detected in 31.13 % and affect the women more than the men (p = 0.008). Immunostaining showed that expression of p21 ras was correlated with the advanced age (p = 0.004), whereas loss of signal was associated with mucinous histotype (p = 0.003). Kaplan-Meier survival curve found that patients with the K-ras mutation had a shorter survival compared with patients without mutation (p = 0.005). Alteration in p53 was seen in 17.4 % of patients and affects three hot spot codons such as 175, 245, and 248. Overexpression of p53 was seen in 34.1 % and correlated with tumor node metastasis (TNM) advanced stage (p = 0.037) and mucinous histotype (p = 0.001). A high concordance between p53 expression and alteration (p<0.005) was shown. Concomitant mutations in K-ras and p53 gene were detected in only 4 % of tumors. K-ras and p53 undergo separate pathways in colorectal tumorogenesis. Interestingly, mutations in the K-ras gene might be considered a valuable prognostic factor correlated to poor outcome. p53 gene alterations were rather low in our set, and methylation pattern of p53 is required to elucidate the molecular basis of this protein in CRC.

  17. Prognostic significance of K-Ras mutation rate in metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Bruno; Cremolini, Chiara; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Russo, Antonio; Mannavola, Francesco; Perrone, Giuseppe; Pantano, Francesco; Loupakis, Fotios; Rossini, Daniele; Ongaro, Elena; Bonazzina, Erica; Dell'Aquila, Emanuela; Imperatori, Marco; Zoccoli, Alice; Bronte, Giuseppe; De Maglio, Giovanna; Fontanini, Gabriella; Natoli, Clara; Falcone, Alfredo; Santini, Daniele; Onetti-Muda, Andrea; Siena, Salvatore; Tonini, Giuseppe; Aprile, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Activating mutations of K-Ras gene have a well-established role as predictors of resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Their prognostic value is controversial, and no data regarding the prognostic value of mutation rate, defined as the percentage of mutated alleles/tumor sample, are available. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of K-Rasmutation rate in a homogenous cohort of mCRC patients receiving first-line doublet plus bevacizumab. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 397 K-Ras mutant mCRC patients from 6 Italian centers, and 263 patients were fully evaluable for our analysis. K-Ras mutation rate was assessed by pyrosequencing. Patients with less than 60% of cancer cells in tumor tissue were excluded. No patients received anti-EGFR containing anticancer therapy, at any time. Median mutation rate was 40% and was adopted as cut-off. The primary and secondary endpoints were PFS and OS respectively. Results: At univariate analysis, K-Ras mutation rate higher than 40% was significantly associated with lower PFS (7.3 vs 9.1 months; P < 0.0001) and OS (21 vs 31 months; P = 0.004). A multivariate model adjusted for age at diagnosis, site of origin of tumor tissue (primary vs metastases), referral center, number of metastatic sites, and first-line chemotherapy backbone, showed that K-Ras mutation rate remained a significant predictor of PFS and OS in the whole population. Discussion: Our data demonstrate an association between K-Ras mutation rate and prognosis in mCRC patients treated with bevacizumab-containing first-line therapy. These data deserve to be verified in an independent validation set. PMID:26384309

  18. Prognostic significance of K-Ras mutation rate in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Bruno; Cremolini, Chiara; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Russo, Antonio; Mannavola, Francesco; Perrone, Giuseppe; Pantano, Francesco; Loupakis, Fotios; Rossini, Daniele; Ongaro, Elena; Bonazzina, Erica; Dell'Aquila, Emanuela; Imperatori, Marco; Zoccoli, Alice; Bronte, Giuseppe; De Maglio, Giovanna; Fontanini, Gabriella; Natoli, Clara; Falcone, Alfredo; Santini, Daniele; Onetti-Muda, Andrea; Siena, Salvatore; Tonini, Giuseppe; Aprile, Giuseppe

    2015-10-13

    Activating mutations of K-Ras gene have a well-established role as predictors of resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Their prognostic value is controversial, and no data regarding the prognostic value of mutation rate, defined as the percentage of mutated alleles/tumor sample, are available. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of K-Rasmutation rate in a homogenous cohort of mCRC patients receiving first-line doublet plus bevacizumab. This retrospective study enrolled 397 K-Ras mutant mCRC patients from 6 Italian centers, and 263 patients were fully evaluable for our analysis. K-Ras mutation rate was assessed by pyrosequencing. Patients with less than 60% of cancer cells in tumor tissue were excluded. No patients received anti-EGFR containing anticancer therapy, at any time. Median mutation rate was 40% and was adopted as cut-off. The primary and secondary endpoints were PFS and OS respectively. At univariate analysis, K-Ras mutation rate higher than 40% was significantly associated with lower PFS (7.3 vs 9.1 months; P < 0.0001) and OS (21 vs 31 months; P = 0.004). A multivariate model adjusted for age at diagnosis, site of origin of tumor tissue (primary vs metastases), referral center, number of metastatic sites, and first-line chemotherapy backbone, showed that K-Ras mutation rate remained a significant predictor of PFS and OS in the whole population. Our data demonstrate an association between K-Ras mutation rate and prognosis in mCRC patients treated with bevacizumab-containing first-line therapy. These data deserve to be verified in an independent validation set.

  19. EGFR and KRAS mutations in Turkish non-small cell lung cancer patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bircan, Sema; Baloglu, Huseyin; Kucukodaci, Zafer; Bircan, Ahmet

    2014-08-01

    EGFR and KRAS mutation profile in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) shows wide variations due to geographic and ethnic background. We aimed to determine the frequency and types of EGFR and KRAS mutations in a sample group of Turkish NSCLC cases. The study included 14 adenocarcinomas (ACs), 11 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients selected from archival material including small biopsy or surgical specimens. Their formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues were used for genomic DNA extraction for EGFR exon 19 and 21, and KRAS exon 2 mutations. Eleven NSCLCs (44 %) had EGFR mutations. Exon 19 and 21 mutations were found in 8 (32 %) and 5 (20 %) cases. Two cases showed double EGFR mutations. In ACs, 5 (35.7 %) patients had EGFR gene mutation, 3 in exon 19 and 3 in exon 21. In SCCs, 6 (54.5 %) cases had EGFR mutation, 5 in exon 19 and 2 in exon 21. All exon 19 mutations were deletion-type mutations. For exon 21, 3 cases had L858R point mutation (CTG>CGG) and two cases showed deletion-type mutations. Six (24 %) NSCLCs showed KRAS mutations (three ACC, three SCC), 5 codon 12 mutations (G>T, T>C, G>A) and one codon 13 mutation (G>T). Three NSCLC cases showed both EGFR and KRAS mutations together. The profile of KRAS mutation in our AC cases was quite similar to those seen in the Western countries; however, frequency and clustering of EGFR mutations were similar to those seen in the Eastern countries.

  20. Simultaneous detection of human papillomavirus integration and c-MYC gene amplification in cervical lesions: an emerging marker for the risk to progression.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Fabrícia; Souza, Raquel Pantarotto; de Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta; Pereira, Monalisa Wolski; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; da Silva, Vânia Ramos Sela

    2016-04-01

    The persistence of high-risk oncogenic human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and its integration into the host genome are key steps in the induction of malignant alterations. c-MYC chromosome region is a frequent localization for HPV insertion that has been observed in chromosome band 8q24 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We report the HPV viral integration and amplification patterns of the c-MYC gene in cytological smears with FISH as a potential biomarker for the progression of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL). HPV detection and genotyping by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and FISH analysis by "Vysis Cervical FISH Probe" kit (ABBOTT Molecular Inc.) were performed in 37 cervical samples including 8 NILM, 7 ASC-US, 7 LSIL, 3 ASC-H, 7 HSIL and 5 SCC. The results show concordance between FISH and PCR techniques for HPV detection. The majority of the samples contained HR-HPV, the majority being -16 and -18 genotypes. HPV integration as determined by FISH was most frequent in high-risk lesions. The c-MYC gene amplification was found only in HPV-positive samples and was detected primarily in high-risk lesions and in cells with an integrated form of HPV. HPV integration and c-MYC gene amplification detected by FISH could be an important biomarker for use in clinical practice to determine SIL with a risk of progression.

  1. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate-derived preclinical pancreatic cancer models reveal panitumumab sensitivity in KRAS wild-type tumors.

    PubMed

    Berry, William; Algar, Elizabeth; Kumar, Beena; Desmond, Christopher; Swan, Michael; Jenkins, Brendan J; Croagh, Daniel

    2017-05-15

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is largely refractory to existing therapies used in unselected patient trials, thus emphasizing the pressing need for new approaches for patient selection in personalized medicine. KRAS mutations occur in 90% of PC patients and confer resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors (e.g., panitumumab), suggesting that KRAS wild-type PC patients may benefit from targeted panitumumab therapy. Here, we use tumor tissue procured by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate (EUS-FNA) to compare the in vivo sensitivity in patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of KRAS wild-type and mutant PC tumors to panitumumab, and to profile the molecular signature of these tumors in patients with metastatic or localized disease. Specifically, RNASeq of EUS-FNA-derived tumor RNA from localized (n = 20) and metastatic (n = 20) PC cases revealed a comparable transcriptome profile. Screening the KRAS mutation status of tumor genomic DNA obtained from EUS-FNAs stratified PC patients into either KRAS wild-type or mutant cohorts, and the engraftment of representative KRAS wild-type and mutant EUS-FNA tumor samples into NOD/SCID mice revealed that the growth of KRAS wild-type, but not mutant, PDXs was selectively suppressed with panitumumab. Furthermore, in silico transcriptome interrogation of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-derived KRAS wild-type (n = 38) and mutant (n = 132) PC tumors revealed 391 differentially expressed genes. Taken together, our study validates EUS-FNA for the application of a novel translational pipeline comprising KRAS mutation screening and PDXs, applicable to all PC patients, to evaluate personalized anti-EGFR therapy in patients with KRAS wild-type tumors.

  2. Identification of the size and antigenic determinants of the human C4 gene by a polymerase chain-reaction-based amplification method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsien-Hsiung; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Tseng, Yung-Te; Lee, Yann-Jinn

    2006-10-01

    The human C4 complement components of the C4 locus are encoded by two genes, C4A and C4B, located on chromosome 6p21.3 of the major histocompatibility complex of the human leukocyte antigen class III region. The size difference between the two genes is due to the presence of HERV-K (C4), an endogenous retroviral sequence (6.7 kb long), in intron 9 of the long C4 gene. Whether the C4 is the long (L) or short (S) gene was determined by the Southern blot method, and the antigenic determinants in residues 1,054-1,106 of Rodgers and Chido were generally identified by immunoblot analysis. Herein, we explore a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification method for directly determining the size of C4 loci adjacent to the respective RP1 and RP2 genes and antigenic determinants by DNA sequencing. From the results of this study, we concluded that all of the C4 genes adjacent to the RP1 gene presented the long gene. In addition, 47% of the C4 genes adjacent to the RP2 gene were the short gene and 53% were the long gene. This result was consistent with that of the Southern blot analysis. The PCR method is practical for identifying the C4 genotype and can be used to detect other polymorphisms among variants of C4 genes.

  3. Sequence Variation in Amplification Target Genes and Standards Influences Interlaboratory Comparison of BK Virus DNA Load Measurement.

    PubMed

    Solis, Morgane; Meddeb, Mariam; Sueur, Charlotte; Domingo-Calap, Pilar; Soulier, Eric; Chabaud, Angeline; Perrin, Peggy; Moulin, Bruno;