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  1. Redox pioneer: professor Roland Stocker.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Nicholas H

    2011-12-15

    Dr. Roland Stocker (Ph.D. 1985) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer, because he has published one article on antioxidant/redox biology as first author that has been cited over 1000 times and has published another 32 articles, each cited over 100 times. Dr. Stocker received his undergraduate education at the Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Switzerland (1975-1981), followed by postgraduate training at the Australian National University Canberra, Australia (1982-1985) and postdoctoral training at the University of California, Berkeley (1986-1987), and the University of Berne, Switzerland (1987-1988). Dr. Stocker's top scientific contributions are in the following areas: (i) molecular action and interaction of nonproteinaceous antioxidants, particularly bilirubin, α-tocopherol, and ubiquinol-10; (ii) lipoprotein lipid oxidation and its inhibition, with a particular focus on how α-tocopherol affects these processes; (iii) the role of arterial lipoprotein lipid oxidation in atherosclerosis and related diseases; (iv) modes of antiatherosclerotic action of probucol and the involvement of heme oxygenase-1 in vascular protection; and (v) the regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and its contribution to vascular tone and blood pressure in inflammatory diseases.

  2. Rasch analysis of the Roland disability questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Garratt, Andrew M

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey using patient questionnaires was conducted. OBJECTIVE To assess whether the Roland Disability Questionnaire satisfies the Rasch model including unidimensionality and item separation. The Roland Disability Questionnaire, the most widely used patient-assessed measure of health outcome for back pain, has undergone several evaluations for its measurement properties including reliability, validity, and responsiveness. However, there is no published work relating to the underlying dimensionality of the instrument and the extent to which individual items contribute to the construct of physical disability resulting from low back pain. Patients entering a randomized controlled trial of exercise, manipulation, and usual management for back pain completed a questionnaire that included the Roland Disability Questionnaire. The Winsteps program was used to assess whether the Roland Disability Questionnaire fits the Rasch model. Item fit was assessed using the Infit and Outfit statistics. The Roland Disability Questionnaire was completed by 1008 (90%) of the patients taking part in the trial. Most of the items in the Roland Disability Questionnaire contribute to a single underlying construct. However, four items had poor Outfit statistics, suggesting that they do not contribute sufficiently to the scale hierarchy. Several items positioned around the middle of the hierarchy are not sufficiently distinct in terms of difficulty. There were very few items positioned at the extremes of the hierarchy. The Roland Disability Questionnaire largely satisfies the Rasch model for unidimensionality. However, the instrument could be improved through the removal of poorly fitting items and the addition of items at the upper and lower points of the scale hierarchy. The distribution of Roland Disability Questionnaire scores should be carefully considered before statistical testing is undertaken. Rasch transformed scores can be used to deal with deficiencies in the scale

  3. Obituary: Roland Svensson, 1950-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björnsson, Claes-Ingvar

    2003-12-01

    Roland Svensson was found dead on 8 April 2003. He succumbed to the complications arising from diabetes. His contribution to the understanding of the basic properties of relativistic plasmas remains a cornerstone when studying radiation processes in many astrophysical contexts. Roland was born on 6 May 1950 in Karlshamn, Sweden. At a young age he moved with his family to Skåne, the southernmost part of Sweden. This is where he received his early education including a BS in Physics at the University of Lund in 1973. For the rest of his life, this region was home for Roland. His mother and father are Linnea Martinsson (d. 1984) and Sune Svensson. The two younger brothers are Lennart and Peter. Lennart works as a machine engineer in Sweden while Peter has settled in California as a biology professor. Roland started graduate studies in theoretical physics in Lund before receiving a Fulbright Scholarship in 1976. He then moved to the University of California in Santa Cruz and enrolled in the astronomy and astrophysics graduate program. Although his interest in astronomy had been raised during the time in Lund, it was the stimulating environment in Santa Cruz that convinced Roland to concentrate on research in astronomy. With Roland's attitude of never accepting anything unless he understood its roots, his extended background in physics served him well throughout his astronomy career; in particular, it influenced his choice of a thesis topic. At the time, the importance of relativistic temperatures attained by accreting matter in the immediate vicinity of neutron stars and black holes was becoming clear. Roland set out to make a detailed description of the physical effects electron-positron pair production and annihilation would have on such plasmas. In 1981 Roland defended his thesis titled ``Physical Properties in Relativistic Plasmas" and completed his PhD under the supervision of Bill Mathews. Roland extended the results of his thesis during two post-docs, first at

  4. Academic Performance in Children with Rolandic Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccinelli, P.; Borgatti, R.; Aldini, A.; Bindelli, D.; Ferri, M.; Perna, S.; Pitillo, G.; Termine, C.; Zambonin, F.; Balottin, U.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of reading, writing, and calculation disabilities in children with typical rolandic epilepsy (RE) and healthy control children. We also aimed to define the possible electroclinical markers of specific cognitive dysfunctions in RE. School abilities were evaluated and compared in 20 children…

  5. Academic Performance in Children with Rolandic Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccinelli, P.; Borgatti, R.; Aldini, A.; Bindelli, D.; Ferri, M.; Perna, S.; Pitillo, G.; Termine, C.; Zambonin, F.; Balottin, U.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of reading, writing, and calculation disabilities in children with typical rolandic epilepsy (RE) and healthy control children. We also aimed to define the possible electroclinical markers of specific cognitive dysfunctions in RE. School abilities were evaluated and compared in 20 children…

  6. DETAIL OF PLAQUE DESCRIBING LION SCULPTURES BY ROLAND HINTON PERRY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE DESCRIBING LION SCULPTURES BY ROLAND HINTON PERRY, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. A Neurocognitive Endophenotype Associated with Rolandic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Anna B; Kavros, Peregrine M; Clarke, Tara; Dorta, Nelson J; Tremont, Geoffrey; Pal, Deb K

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Children with Rolandic Epilepsy (RE) experience difficulties in reading, language and attention. Their siblings are at high risk of dyslexia but are not otherwise known to have neurocognitive deficits. We therefore sought evidence for a RE-associated neurocognitive endophenotype. Methods Thirteen probands (male:female 9:4) and 11 epilepsy-free siblings (male:female 5:6) completed a neurocognitive evaluation within the domains of reading, language and attention. Frequencies of impairment were compared, and mean standardized scores of children with RE and their siblings were each compared against population means. Key findings Frequency of impairment in each domain was comparable for siblings and probands: 9% of siblings and 31% of probands were reading impaired; 36% of siblings and 54% of probands were language impaired; 70% of siblings and 67% of probands had attention impairments. Comparison of differences between sample and population means revealed evidence of a similar pattern of language deficits in both groups, specifically for picture naming and attention to competing words. For measures of attention, both groups made significantly higher omission errors and were impaired in their ability to sustain attention. Significance Children with RE and unaffected siblings demonstrate neurocognitive impairments in the domains of language and attention that are likely to remain undetected with general clinical protocols. Neurocognitively impaired probands and siblings showed a remarkably similar profile of deficits in language and attention that could explain poor academic performance. Early evaluation and intervention may benefit these children academically. PMID:22220688

  8. Sleep and behavioral problems in rolandic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Samaitienė, Rūta; Norkūnienė, Jolita; Tumienė, Birutė; Grikinienė, Jurgita

    2013-02-01

    Although patients with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes exhibit a benign course of the disease, some of them display sleep and behavioral problems. Sixty-one patients with rolandic epilepsy, aged 6-11 years, were included in this study. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of seizures over the preceding 6 months. The control group comprised 25 patients without epilepsy and with similar characteristics in terms of age and sex. All patients underwent evaluation of sleep (Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children) and behavior (Lithuanian version of the Child Behaviour Checklist). Only patients who had had seizures over the preceding 6 months displayed significantly higher scores for sleep problems (disorders of excessive daytime sleepiness, disorders of sleep-wake transition, and scores for total sleep problems), worse sleep quality (longer sleep-onset latency), and behavioral problems (anxiety/depression, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, and aggressive behavior) than the patients of the control group. Our data add to evidence that active epilepsy has an impact on sleep and behavior. Clinically significant sleep problems were related to the higher risk of behavioral problems. Parents' ratings for existing sleep problems were sensitive to Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children scores above normal values.

  9. Superculture? Thoughts Prompted by Roland S. Persson's Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbs, Trevor J.

    2012-01-01

    The author finds Roland S. Persson's (2012a) paper to be timely, fascinating, important and powerful. At risk of mixing metaphors, it provides much food for thought and a penetrating lens through which all those vested in the optimal realisation of human potential would be prudent to review their own perceptions, boundaries of belief and…

  10. Roland: A Case for or Against NATO Standardization?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Western Europe, as for example, CROTALE (France), RAPIER (UK), INDIGO (Italy), ROLAND (France/Germany). 8 Colonel Ott’s article was particularly...For example, in one of the European plants, two Turkish girls had the task of adjusting spin rates on some gyros-they did it by listening to the pitch

  11. Roland Barthes and Decomposing/Deterritorializing the Writing Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Joan L.

    Roland Barthes points out in his pedagogical essays that, although students have been filled with horror stories of professorial expectations, at the same time they have expectations of their own. Barthes' points should be considered as a way of examining the classroom space and common writing teaching practices and opening them up to different…

  12. Roland Barthes and Decomposing/Deterritorializing the Writing Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Joan L.

    Roland Barthes points out in his pedagogical essays that, although students have been filled with horror stories of professorial expectations, at the same time they have expectations of their own. Barthes' points should be considered as a way of examining the classroom space and common writing teaching practices and opening them up to different…

  13. The Clinical Implications of Todd Paralysis in Children With Benign Rolandic Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Alper I; Demiryürek, Seniz

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings of postictal Todd paralysis in benign rolandic epilepsy of childhood and find out the possible correlation with migraine. Based on International Headache Society pediatric migraine criteria, patients were investigated for migraine, and 12 of the 108 patients with benign rolandic epilepsy (6 girls and 6 boys, 11.1%) were found to have postictal Todd paralysis. Ten of these 12 patients (83.3%) had pediatric migraine based on the diagnostic criteria. We showed comorbidity of migraine and benign rolandic epilepsy with postictal Todd paralysis in children. Increased incidence of migraine in the present study suggest that children who have benign rolandic epilepsy and postictal Todd paralysis are more likely to have migraines.

  14. Risk factors for reading disability in families with rolandic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Vega, Yaiza Hernández; Smith, Anna; Cockerill, Hannah; Tang, Shan; Agirre-Arrizubieta, Zaloa; Goyal, Sushma; Pina, Marisa; Akman, Cigdem I; Jolleff, Nicola; McGinnity, Colm; Gomez, Kumudini; Gupta, Rajesh; Hughes, Elaine; Jackman, John; McCormick, David; Oren, Caroline; Scott, David; Taylor, Jacqueline; Trounce, John; Clarke, Tara; Kugler, Steven; Mandelbaum, David E; McGoldrick, Patricia; Wolf, Steven; Strug, Lisa J; Pal, Deb K

    2015-12-01

    The high prevalence and impact of neurodevelopmental comorbidities in childhood epilepsy are now well known, as are the increased risks and familial aggregation of reading disability (RD) and speech sound disorder (SSD) in rolandic epilepsy (RE). The risk factors for RD in the general population include male sex, SSD, and ADHD, but it is not known if these are the same in RE or whether there is a contributory role of seizure and treatment-related variables. An observational study of 108 probands with RE (age range: 3.6-22 years) and their 159 siblings (age range: 1-29 years; 83 with EEG data) were singly ascertained in the US or UK through a proband affected by RE. We used a nested case-control design, multiple logistic regression, and generalized estimating equations to test the hypothesis of an association between RD and seizure variables or antiepileptic drug treatment in RE; we also assessed an association between EEG focal sharp waves and RD in siblings. Reading disability was reported in 42% of probands and 22% of siblings. Among probands, RD was strongly associated with a history of SSD (OR: 9.64, 95% CI: 2.45-37.21), ADHD symptoms (OR: 10.31, 95% CI: 2.15-49.44), and male sex (OR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.11-11.75) but not with seizure or treatment variables. Among siblings, RD was independently associated only with SSD (OR: 4.30, 95% CI: 1.42-13.0) and not with the presence of interictal EEG focal sharp waves. The principal risk factors for RD in RE are SSD, ADHD, and male sex, the same risk factors as for RD without epilepsy. Seizure or treatment variables do not appear to be important risk factors for RD in probands with RE, and there was no evidence to support interictal EEG focal sharp waves as a risk factor for RD in siblings. Future studies should focus on the precise neuropsychological characterization of RD in families with RE and on the effectiveness of standard oral-language and reading interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factors for reading disability in rolandic epilepsy families

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Yaiza Hernández; Smith, Anna; Cockerill, Hannah; Tang, Shan; Agirre-Arrizubieta, Zaloa; Goyal, Sushma; Pina, Marisa; Akman, Cigdem I; Jolleff, Nicola; McGinnity, Colm; Gomez, Kumudini; Gupta, Rajesh; Hughes, Elaine; Jackman, John; McCormick, David; Oren, Caroline; Scott, David; Taylor, Jacqueline; Trounce, John; Clarke, Tara; Kugler, Steven; Mandelbaum, David E; McGoldrick, Patricia; Wolf, Steven; Strug, Lisa J; Pal, Deb K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The high prevalence and impact of neurodevelopmental comorbidities in childhood epilepsy are now well known, as are the increased risks and familial aggregation of reading disability (RD) and speech sound disorder (SSD) in rolandic epilepsy (RE). The risk factors for RD in the general population include male sex, SSD and ADHD but it is not known if these are the same in RE or whether there is a contributory role of seizure and treatment related variables. METHODS An observational study of 108 RE probands (age range 3.6–22 years) and their 159 siblings (age range 1–29 years; 83 with EEG data) singly ascertained in the US or UK through an affected RE proband. We used a nested case-control design, multiple logistic regression and generalized estimating equations to test the hypothesis of association between RD and seizure variables or antiepileptic drug treatment in RE; we also assessed an association between EEG focal sharp waves and RD in siblings. RESULTS RD was reported in 42% of probands and 22% of siblings. Among probands, RD was strongly associated with a history of SSD (OR 9.64, 95% CI: 2.45–37.21), ADHD symptoms (OR 10.31, 95% CI: 2.15–49.44), and male sex (OR 3.62, 95% CI: 1.11–11.75), but not with seizure or treatment variables. Among siblings, RD was independently associated only with SSD (OR 4.30, 95%CI: 1.42–13.0) and not with the presence of interictal EEG focal sharp waves. SIGNIFICANCE The principal risk factors for RD in RE are SSD, ADHD and male sex, the same risk factors as for RD without epilepsy. Seizure or treatment variables do not appear to be important risk factors for RD in RE probands, and there was no evidence to support interictal EEG focal sharp waves as a risk factor for RD in siblings. Future studies should focus on the precise neuropsychological characterisation of RD in RE families, and on the effectiveness of standard oral-language and reading interventions. PMID:26580214

  16. Incidental rolandic spikes: long-term outcomes and impact of treatment.

    PubMed

    McNally, Melanie A; Kossoff, Eric H

    2015-02-01

    We describe a group of 26 children with no prior history of seizures consistent with benign rolandic epilepsy who had rolandic spikes found coincidentally on EEG. A retrospective chart review as well as phone and email follow-ups with families were completed to assess long-term outcomes. A subset of this group (n=7) with reported comorbid language or learning difficulties was then given an empiric trial of levetiracetam. Seven (27%) children eventually developed seizures, with a median of 14months after the abnormal EEG. Of the 7 children ever treated with levetiracetam, 5 exhibited beneficial effects on learning, speech, or behavior. Side effects reported were mild and included irritability and headache. Incidental rolandic spikes may represent a discrete neurologic condition, with approximately one-quarter of the patients later developing epilepsy. Some of these children may experience improved intellectual functioning with levetiracetam. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Item response theory analysis of the modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mielenz, Thelma J; Carey, Timothy S; Edwards, Michael C

    2015-03-15

    This is a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional population-based survey. Shorten the modified 23-item Roland (mRoland) scale using item response theory (IRT) methods and describe where in the functional disability range each scale is the most precise. The Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire is recommended for a functional disability outcome measure in patients with low back pain (LBP). One commonly used version is the Roland. It is unknown where in the functional disability range the Roland measures. One candidate individual with LBP in randomly selected households was interviewed, identifying 694 adults with chronic LBP. To justify the use of a unidimensional 2-parameter logistic IRT model, we performed both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis revealed one dominant eigenvalue. Confirmatory factor analysis results indicate that the 1-factor model fit well. IRT analysis revealed variability in the slopes, in the range from 1.07 to 3.10. The marginal reliability, an IRT-based analog to coefficient α, was 0.88. The mRoland produces reliable scores (i.e., with a standard error <0.3) from 1.4 standard deviations below the mean to roughly 0.2 above the mean. The mRoland measures one construct. The mRoland seems to be an excellent tool for measuring just-below-average levels of functional disability. The mRoland measures high levels of functional disability with relatively poor reliability and may be more appropriate for a less-disabled population with LBP. We demonstrate that the mRoland can be shortened to 11 items with minimal loss of information. We show that there are different ways to go about selecting the set of 11 items that yield short forms with different strengths. 3.

  18. "Profound Levels of Learning" through Brain-Based Teaching: A Tribute to Roland Barth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article is a tribute to the writings of Dr. Roland Barth through a personal story spanning over two decades. It explores Dr. Barth's personal vision of an effective school through recent brain-based principles. It revisits Barth's axioms and uses recent implications from the neurosciences as new supporting evidence for their success in…

  19. "Profound Levels of Learning" through Brain-Based Teaching: A Tribute to Roland Barth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article is a tribute to the writings of Dr. Roland Barth through a personal story spanning over two decades. It explores Dr. Barth's personal vision of an effective school through recent brain-based principles. It revisits Barth's axioms and uses recent implications from the neurosciences as new supporting evidence for their success in…

  20. Kinesigenic reflex epilepsy associated with a glioma in the lateral peri-rolandic region.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Romy; Gonzalez-Toledo, Edouardo; Korniychuk, Elena; Dellabadia, John; Jaffe, Stephen L

    2009-03-01

    A patient with kinesigenic focal motor seizures induced by tongue-jaw movement had a grade III astrocytoma clearly co-localizing with the epileptic network in the appropriate peri-rolandic, motor-sensory, lingual-jaw cortical area. The clinical seizure phenomena were time-locked with the EEG epileptic activity. [Published with video sequences].

  1. Wavelet entropy of BOLD time series: An application to Rolandic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Lalit; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Hofman, Paul A M; Besseling, René M H; de Louw, Anton J A; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Backes, Walter H

    2017-03-11

    To assess the wavelet entropy for the characterization of intrinsic aberrant temporal irregularities in the time series of resting-state blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations. Further, to evaluate the temporal irregularities (disorder/order) on a voxel-by-voxel basis in the brains of children with Rolandic epilepsy. The BOLD time series was decomposed using the discrete wavelet transform and the wavelet entropy was calculated. Using a model time series consisting of multiple harmonics and nonstationary components, the wavelet entropy was compared with Shannon and spectral (Fourier-based) entropy. As an application, the wavelet entropy in 22 children with Rolandic epilepsy was compared to 22 age-matched healthy controls. The images were obtained by performing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a 3T system, an 8-element receive-only head coil, and an echo planar imaging pulse sequence ( T2*-weighted). The wavelet entropy was also compared to spectral entropy, regional homogeneity, and Shannon entropy. Wavelet entropy was found to identify the nonstationary components of the model time series. In Rolandic epilepsy patients, a significantly elevated wavelet entropy was observed relative to controls for the whole cerebrum (P = 0.03). Spectral entropy (P = 0.41), regional homogeneity (P = 0.52), and Shannon entropy (P = 0.32) did not reveal significant differences. The wavelet entropy measure appeared more sensitive to detect abnormalities in cerebral fluctuations represented by nonstationary effects in the BOLD time series than more conventional measures. This effect was observed in the model time series as well as in Rolandic epilepsy. These observations suggest that the brains of children with Rolandic epilepsy exhibit stronger nonstationary temporal signal fluctuations than controls. 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Reduced Structural Connectivity between Sensorimotor and Language Areas in Rolandic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Besseling, René M. H.; Jansen, Jacobus F. A.; Overvliet, Geke M.; van der Kruijs, Sylvie J. M.; Ebus, Saskia C. M.; de Louw, Anton; Hofman, Paul A. M.; Vles, Johannes S. H.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Backes, Walter H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is a childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal (rolandic) spikes, that is increasingly associated with language impairment. In this study, we tested for a white matter (connectivity) correlate, employing diffusion weighted MRI and language testing. Methods Twenty-three children with RE and 23 matched controls (age: 8–14 years) underwent structural (T1-weighted) and diffusion-weighted MRI (b = 1200 s/mm2, 66 gradient directions) at 3T, as well as neuropsychological language testing. Combining tractography and a cortical segmentation derived from the T1-scan, the rolandic tract were reconstructed (pre- and postcentral gyri), and tract fractional anisotropy (FA) values were compared between patients and controls. Aberrant tracts were tested for correlations with language performance. Results Several reductions of tract FA were found in patients compared to controls, mostly in the left hemisphere; the most significant effects involved the left inferior frontal (p = 0.005) and supramarginal (p = 0.004) gyrus. In the patient group, lower tract FA values were correlated with lower language performance, among others for the connection between the left postcentral and inferior frontal gyrus (p = 0.043, R = 0.43). Conclusion In RE, structural connectivity is reduced for several connections involving the rolandic regions, from which the epileptiform activity originates. Most of these aberrant tracts involve the left (typically language mediating) hemisphere, notably the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca’s area) and the supramarginal gyrus (Wernicke’s area). For the former, reduced language performance for lower tract FA was found in the patients. These findings provide a first microstructural white matter correlate for language impairment in RE. PMID:24376719

  3. A meta-analysis of literacy and language in children with rolandic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anna B; Bajomo, Omotomilola; Pal, Deb K

    2015-11-01

    Rolandic epilepsy is the most common childhood epilepsy, often presenting with neuropsychological impairments. The aim of the study was to formally assimilate the findings of existing studies varying widely in methodology, thereby confirming the nature and prevalence of impairments in literacy and language. Using meta-analytical techniques, we evaluated 22 studies of literacy and/or language skills in children with rolandic epilepsy, published after 2000, among participants with IQs>70 and in which effect sizes could be acquired. Diagnosis required the presence of classical centrotemporal spikes arising from a normal background on electroencephalograms; a clinical history including at least one seizure; and no additional neurological condition. Overall effect size and heterogeneity were measured for single-word reading, phonological processing, and expressive and receptive language. Mean effect sizes (Cohen's d) ranged from 0.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.78) for phonological processing, through 0.71 (95% CI 0.52-0.90) for word reading and 0.72 (95% CI 0.34-1.1) for receptive language, to 0.75 (95% CI 0.45-1.05) for expressive language. While group differences for reading measures were consistent, those for language were heterogeneous and varied across studies explained by age and IQ of samples. The presence of reading and phonological processing deficits in children with rolandic epilepsy highlights the importance of early literacy and language assessment in this population. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  4. Altered Regional Homogeneity in Rolandic Epilepsy: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ye-Lei; Ji, Gong-Jun; Yu, Yang; Wang, Jue; Wang, Zhong-Jin; Zang, Yu-Feng; Liao, Wei; Ding, Mei-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Children with rolandic epilepsy (RE) are often associated with cognitive deficits and behavioral problems. Findings from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies in RE have now demonstrated dysfunction not only in rolandic focus, but also in distant neuronal circuits. Little is known, however, about whether there is distributed abnormal spontaneous brain activity in RE. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI), the present study aimed to determine whether children with RE show abnormal local synchronization during resting state and, if so, whether these changes could be associated with the behavioral/clinical characteristics of RE. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) in children with RE (n = 30) and healthy children (n = 20) was computed on resting-state functional MRI data. In comparison with healthy children, children with RE showed increased ReHo in the central, premotor, and prefrontal regions, while they showed decreased ReHo in bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole. In addition, the ReHo value in the left orbitofrontal cortex negatively was corrected with performance intelligence quotient in the children with RE. The aberrant local synchronization, not strictly related to primary site of the typical rolandic focus, indicates the neuropathophysiological mechanism of RE. The study findings may shed new light on the understanding of neural correlation of neuropsychological deficiencies in the children with RE. PMID:25247197

  5. Neurosurgical management of intractable rolandic epilepsy in children: role of resection in eloquent cortex. Clinical article.

    PubMed

    Benifla, Mony; Sala, Francesco; Jane, John; Otsubo, Hiroshi; Ochi, Ayako; Drake, James; Weiss, Shelly; Donner, Elizabeth; Fujimoto, Ayataka; Holowka, Stephanie; Widjaja, Elysa; Snead, O Carter; Smith, Mary Lou; Tamber, Mandeep S; Rutka, James T

    2009-09-01

    The authors undertook this study to review their experience with cortical resections in the rolandic region in children with intractable epilepsy. The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records obtained in 22 children with intractable epilepsy arising from the rolandic region. All patients underwent preoperative electroencephalography (EEG), MR imaging, prolonged video-EEG recordings, functional MR imaging, magnetoencephalography, and in some instances PET/SPECT studies. In 21 patients invasive subdural grid and depth electrode monitoring was performed. Resection of the epileptogenic zones in the rolandic region was undertaken in all cases. Seizure outcome was graded according to the Engel classification. Functional outcome was determined using validated outcome scores. There were 10 girls and 12 boys, whose mean age at seizure onset was 3.2 years. The mean age at surgery was 10 years. Seizure duration prior to surgery was a mean of 7.4 years. Nine patients had preoperative hemiparesis. Neuropsychological testing revealed impairment in some domains in 19 patients in whom evaluation was possible. Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities were identified in 19 patients. Magnetoencephalography was performed in all patients and showed perirolandic spike clusters on the affected side in 20 patients. The mean duration of invasive monitoring was 4.2 days. The mean number of seizures during the period of invasive monitoring was 17. All patients underwent resection that involved primary motor and/or sensory cortex. The most common pathological entity encountered was cortical dysplasia, in 13 children. Immediately postoperatively, 20 patients had differing degrees of hemiparesis, from mild to severe. The hemiparesis improved in all affected patients by 3-6 months postoperatively. With a mean follow-up of 4.1 years (minimum 2 years), seizure outcome in 14 children (64%) was Engel Class I and seizure outcome in 4 (18%) was Engel Class II. In this series, seizure

  6. Bilateral Rolandic operculum processing underlying heartbeat awareness reflects changes in bodily self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Blefari, Maria Laura; Martuzzi, Roberto; Salomon, Roy; Bello-Ruiz, Javier; Herbelin, Bruno; Serino, Andrea; Blanke, Olaf

    2017-05-01

    Exteroceptive bodily signals (including tactile, proprioceptive and visual signals) are important information contributing to self-consciousness. Moreover, prominent theories proposed that visceral signals about internal bodily states are equally or even more important for self-consciousness. Neuroimaging studies have described several brain regions which process signals related to bodily self-consciousness (BSC) based on the integration of exteroceptive signals (e.g. premotor cortex, angular gyrus, supramarginal gyrus and extrastriate body area), and that another brain region, the insula/operculum which is involved in interoception and interoceptive awareness, processes signals critical for self-awareness. Providing evidence for the integration of exteroceptive and interoceptive bodily signals, recent behavioral experiments have demonstrated that the manipulation of interoceptive (e.g. cardiac) signals, coupled with exteroceptive (e.g. visual) signals, also modulates BSC. Does this integration occur within or outside the structures described above? To this end, we adapted a recently designed protocol that uses cardio-visual stimulation to induce altered states of BSC to fMRI. Additionally, we measured neural activity in a classical interoceptive task. We found six brain regions (bilateral Rolandic operculum, bilateral supramarginal gyrus, right frontal inferior operculum and left temporal superior gyrus) that were activated differently during the interoception task as opposed to a control task. The brain regions which showed the highest selectivity for BSC based on our cardio-visual manipulation were found in the bilateral Rolandic operculum. Given our findings, we propose that the Rolandic operculum processes integrated exteroceptive-interoceptive signals that are necessary for interoceptive awareness as well as BSC. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [In memory of Roland Kuhn (1912-2005) and 50 years of imipramine].

    PubMed

    Bossong, F

    2008-09-01

    Based on his clinical experience and knowledge in the humanities, phenomenology, and natural sciences, the Swiss psychiatrist and Rorschach expert Roland Kuhn discovered the specific antidepressant effect of imipramine in the treatment of vital depressive disorder. This discovery of the first tricyclic antidepressant drug shows how an education covering the various fields of psychiatry facilitates therapeutic and scientific achievements. Kuhn's methods as a psychiatrist and his papers can show present and future generations of psychiatrist ways to make new discoveries in the field of psychiatry, psychotherapy, and psychopharmacology.

  8. Comparison of the functional rating index and the 18-item Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire: responsiveness and reliability.

    PubMed

    Chansirinukor, Wunpen; Maher, Christopher G; Latimer, Jane; Hush, Julia

    2005-01-01

    Retrospective design. To compare the responsiveness and test-retest reliability of the Functional Rating Index and the 18-item version of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire in detecting change in disability in patients with work-related low back pain. Many low back pain-specific disability questionnaires are available, including the Functional Rating Index and the 18-item version of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. No previous study has compared the responsiveness and reliability of these questionnaires. Files of patients who had been treated for work-related low back pain at a physical therapy clinic were reviewed, and those containing initial and follow-up Functional Rating Index and 18-item Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaires were selected. The responsiveness of both questionnaires was compared using two different methods. First, using the assumption that patients receiving treatment improve over time, various responsiveness coefficients were calculated. Second, using change in work status as an external criterion to identify improved and nonimproved patients, Spearman's rho and receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated. Reliability was estimated from the subset of patients who reported no change in their condition over this period and expressed with the intraclass correlation coefficient and the minimal detectable change. One hundred and forty-three patient files were retrieved. The responsiveness coefficients for the Functional Rating Index were greater than for the 18-item Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. The intraclass correlation coefficient values for both questionnaires calculated from 96 patient files were similar, but the minimal detectable change for the Functional Rating Index was less than for the 18-item Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. The Functional Rating Index seems preferable to the 18-item Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire for use in clinical trials and clinical practice.

  9. [Cortical mapping and neurophysiological monitoring during resection of an arteriovenous malformation in the rolandic region].

    PubMed

    Vega-Zelaya, Lorena; Pedrosa-Sánchez, Manuel; Pastor, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. Surgery of arteriovenous malformations of eloquent areas has a significant risk of causing severe neurological deficits. CASE REPORT. A 39 years old woman having a headache, showed an arteriovenous malformation in right rolandic region. During resection, performed under general anesthesia, a neurophysiological mapping and subsequently intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring of motor and somatosensory functions was performed. The temporary closure of an artery resulted in a severe motor impairment, reversible after remove the clipping, so that artery had to be respected during the intervention. After resection, the motor and sensory responses were normal. The patient was discharged without any neurological deficits. CONCLUSION. Functional mapping and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring were very helpful for the identification and protection of eloquent areas. The use of these techniques for resection of arteriovenous malformations located in functionally relevant areas, allows a safely surgery in patients under general anesthesia.

  10. Rolandic beta-band activity correlates with decision time to move.

    PubMed

    Jo, Han-Gue; Hinterberger, Thilo; Wittmann, Marc; Schmidt, Stefan

    2016-03-11

    Research findings link rolandic beta-band activity to voluntary movements, but a linkage with the decision time to move remains unknown. We found that beta-band (16-28Hz) activity shortly before the movement onset is relevant for the decision time to move: the more pronounced the decrease in beta-band synchronization, the earlier the subjective experience of the decision to move. The linkage was relevant regarding 'decision', but not regarding 'intention' timing that has been often applied in the study of free will. Our findings suggest that oscillatory neural activity in the beta-band is an important neural signature pertaining to the subjective experience of making a decision to move.

  11. Epilepsy surgery of the rolandic and immediate perirolandic cortex: surgical outcome and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Delev, Daniel; Send, Knut; Wagner, Jan; von Lehe, Marec; Ormond, D Ryan; Schramm, Johannes; Grote, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    Herein we present a single-center retrospective study of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery for seizures arising from the sensorimotor (rolandic) cortex. The goal was to find prognostic factors associated with better seizure outcome and to evaluate both surgical and neurologic outcomes. A total of 66 patients fulfilled eligibility criteria and were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups for analysis: patients with resections within rolandic cortex (RO group; n = 46), and patients with resections in immediate perirolandic cortex and simultaneous sensorimotor multiple subpial transections (IPR group; n = 20). Favorable postoperative seizure outcome (International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE]; ILAE1-ILAE3) was achieved in 42 patients (64%), 39 (59%) of whom were completely seizure-free (ILAE1). The favorable seizure outcome in the RO group (72%) was better than in the IPR group (45%) (p = 0.04, relative risk [RR] 0.51 [0.28-0.94, 95% CI]). Eighteen patients (34%) had a postoperative permanent neurologic deficit. Independent predictors for excellent seizure outcome (ILAE1) after multivariate regression analysis were complete resection of the lesion (p < 0.001), pathology (p = 0.009), age at surgery (p = 0.03), and the absence of preoperative simple partial seizures (p = 0.01). With a 64% favorable seizure outcome, surgery for intractable epilepsy arising from sensorimotor cortex is possible and can be worthwhile. The increased risk for postoperative neurologic deficits is higher than in other locations, and this must be discussed with patients in detail prior to surgery. Best postoperative results can be achieved in cases in which a complete resection is possible without damaging eloquent cortical areas. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Reliability, validity, sensitivity and specificity of Guajarati version of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Nambi, S Gopal

    2013-01-01

    The most common instruments developed to assess the functional status of patients with Non specific low back pain is the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Clinical and epidemiological research related to low back pain in the Gujarati population would be facilitated by the availability of well-established outcome measures. To find the reliability, validity, sensitivity and specificity of the Gujarati version of the RMDQ for use in Non Specific Chronic low back pain. A reliability, validity, sensitivity and specificity study of Gujarati version of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Thirty out patients with Non Specific Chronic low back pain were assessed by the RMDQ. Reliability is assessed by using internal consistency and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Internal construct validity is assessed by RASCH Analysis and external construct validity is assessed by association with pain and spinal movement. Clinical calculator was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity. Internal consistency of the RMDQ is found to be adequate (> 0.65) at both times, with high ICC's also at both time points. Internal construct validity of the scale is good, indicating a single underlying construct. Expected associations with pain and spinal movement confirm external construct validity. The Sensitivity and Specificity at cut off point of 0.5 was 80% and 84% with respectively positive predictive value (PPV) of 83.33% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 80.76%. The Questionnaire is at the ordinal level. The RMDQ is a one-dimensional, ordinal measure, which works well in the Gujarati population.

  13. Psychiatric and Neurocognitive Evaluation Focused on Frontal Lobe Functions in Rolandic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    AYAZ, Muhammed; KARAKAYA, Işık; AYAZ, Ayşe Burcu; KARA, Bülent; KUTLU, Mahire

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we aimed to assess the behavioral problems, psychiatric disorders and neurocognitive functions focusing on frontal lobe functions in children with rolandic epilepsy (RE) and compare them with a control group. Method 31 children with RE, aged between 8 and 13,5 years were compared with a control group matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status. Behavioral problems were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and psychiatric diagnoses were established by using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT) were applied in both groups of children. Result The RE group presented more psychiatric disorders than the control group. Verbal and total IQ scores in the RE group were lower than in the control group. Although the groups did not differ from each other in WCST scores, children with RE displayed lower performance in SCWT. The RE group had a higher externalizing score and higher total scores in CBCL. Conclusion It was concluded that RE did not affect basic frontal lobe functions significantly, had negative effects on attention and IQ performance and increased behavioral problems and psychiatric disorders.

  14. Modulation of Rolandic Beta-Band Oscillations during Motor Simulation of Joint Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ménoret, Mathilde; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Hari, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Successful joint actions require precise temporal and spatial coordination between individuals who aim to achieve a common goal. A growing number of behavioral data suggest that to efficiently couple and coordinate a joint task, the actors have to represent both own and the partner’s actions. However it is unclear how the motor system is specifically recruited for joint actions. To find out how the goal and the presence of the partner’s hand can impact the motor activity during joint action, we assessed the functional state of 16 participants’ motor cortex during observation and associated motor imagery of joint actions, individual actions, and non-goal-directed actions performed with either 1 or 2 hands. As an indicator of the functional state of the motor cortex, we used the reactivity of the rolandic magnetoencephalographic (MEG) beta rhythm following median-nerve stimulation. Motor imagery combined with action observation was associated with activation of the observer’s motor cortex, mainly in the hemisphere contralateral to the viewed (and at the same time imagined) hand actions. The motor-cortex involvement was enhanced when the goal of the actions was visible but also, in the ipsilateral hemisphere, when the partner’s hand was visible in the display. During joint action, the partner’s action, in addition to the participant’s own action, thus seems to be represented in the motor cortex so that it can be triggered by the mere presence of an acting hand in the peripersonal space. PMID:26151634

  15. Modulation of Rolandic Beta-Band Oscillations during Motor Simulation of Joint Actions.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, Mathilde; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Hari, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Successful joint actions require precise temporal and spatial coordination between individuals who aim to achieve a common goal. A growing number of behavioral data suggest that to efficiently couple and coordinate a joint task, the actors have to represent both own and the partner's actions. However it is unclear how the motor system is specifically recruited for joint actions. To find out how the goal and the presence of the partner's hand can impact the motor activity during joint action, we assessed the functional state of 16 participants' motor cortex during observation and associated motor imagery of joint actions, individual actions, and non-goal-directed actions performed with either 1 or 2 hands. As an indicator of the functional state of the motor cortex, we used the reactivity of the rolandic magnetoencephalographic (MEG) beta rhythm following median-nerve stimulation. Motor imagery combined with action observation was associated with activation of the observer's motor cortex, mainly in the hemisphere contralateral to the viewed (and at the same time imagined) hand actions. The motor-cortex involvement was enhanced when the goal of the actions was visible but also, in the ipsilateral hemisphere, when the partner's hand was visible in the display. During joint action, the partner's action, in addition to the participant's own action, thus seems to be represented in the motor cortex so that it can be triggered by the mere presence of an acting hand in the peripersonal space.

  16. Psychometric properties of a modified version of the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (M-RMDQ).

    PubMed

    Asghari, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Chronic pain can be associated with limitations in patient function. Assessment of pain-related limitations is one of the important outcome domains that should be considered when designing chronic pain clinical trials. Although a validated instrument for the assessment of pain-related disability in Iranian chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients exists, to date there is no psychometrically sound instrument to measure pain-related physical disability amongst Iranian chronic pain patients suffering from pain in other parts of their bodies. Six hundred chronic pain patients completed the Modified version of the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (M-RMDQ) in addition to questionnaires on demographic variables, pain intensity and depression. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent and predictive validity were calculated for the M-RMDQ. Internal consistency of the M-RMDQ items was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha=0.88). Test-retest reliability with a mean 36-day interval between assessments in 76 chronic pain patients was high (ICC=0.90). Concurrent validity was confirmed via significant correlations between the scores of M-RMDQ, depression and pain intensity. Predictive validity of the M-RMDQ was confirmed as it successfully differentiated pain clinic chronic pain patients from the non-pain clinic chronic pain population. The M-RMDQ has adequate reliability and validity and can be used as a sound measure of physical disability associated with chronic pain among the Iranian population.

  17. Are dyslexia and dyscalculia associated with Rolandic epilepsy? A short report on ten Italian patients.

    PubMed

    Canavese, Carlotta; Rigardetto, Roberto; Viano, Vilma; Vittorini, Roberta; Bassi, Bianca; Pieri, Ilaria; Capizzi, Giorgio

    2007-12-01

    Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is the most common childhood epilepsy syndrome with a good, long-term outcome. Nevertheless, some studies indicate that children with RE have more scholastic and neuropsychological problems than controls. The purpose of this study was to describe neuropsychological findings in a small group of Italian children with RE, focusing on dyslexia and dyscalculia. Possible correlations between these findings and the age-at-onset of seizures, duration of active epilepsy, frequency, type and localization of epileptic discharges were examined. Children affected by RE, aged nine to eleven years were selected from patients admitted to the outpatient service of our Clinic. They underwent cognitive evaluation, specific evaluation for dyslexia and dyscalculia, and awake and sleep EEG recordings. We found two patients out of the ten with dyscalculia, one of whom also had characteristics of dyslexia. This small study suggests that dyscalculia and dyslexia might be more frequent than expected in children with RE. No significant correlations between this finding and EEG, seizure-frequency or age-at-onset of epilepsy were found in our patients.

  18. Delayed convergence between brain network structure and function in rolandic epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Besseling, René M. H.; Jansen, Jacobus F. A.; Overvliet, Geke M.; van der Kruijs, Sylvie J. M.; Ebus, Saskia C. M.; de Louw, Anton J. A.; Hofman, Paul A. M.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Backes, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Rolandic epilepsy (RE) manifests during a critical phase of brain development, and has been associated with language impairments. Concordant abnormalities in structural and functional connectivity (SC and FC) have been described before. As SC and FC are under mutual influence, the current study investigates abnormalities in the SC-FC synergy in RE. Methods: Twenty-two children with RE (age, mean ± SD: 11.3 ± 2.0 y) and 22 healthy controls (age 10.5 ± 1.6 y) underwent structural, diffusion weighted, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T. The probabilistic anatomical landmarks atlas was used to parcellate the (sub)cortical gray matter. Constrained spherical deconvolution tractography and correlation of time series were used to assess SC and FC, respectively. The SC-FC correlation was assessed as a function of age for the non-zero structural connections over a range of sparsity values (0.01–0.75). A modularity analysis was performed on the mean SC network of the controls to localize potential global effects to subnetworks. SC and FC were also assessed separately using graph analysis. Results: The SC-FC correlation was significantly reduced in children with RE compared to healthy controls, especially for the youngest participants. This effect was most pronounced in a left and a right centro-temporal network, as well as in a medial parietal network. Graph analysis revealed no prominent abnormalities in SC or FC network organization. Conclusion: Since SC and FC converge during normal maturation, our finding of reduced SC-FC correlation illustrates impaired synergy between brain structure and function. More specifically, since this effect was most pronounced in the youngest participants, RE may represent a developmental disorder of delayed brain network maturation. The observed effects seem especially attributable to medial parietal connections, which forms an intermediate between bilateral centro-temporal modules of

  19. 16p11.2 600 kb Duplications confer risk for typical and atypical Rolandic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Reinthaler, Eva M; Lal, Dennis; Lebon, Sebastien; Hildebrand, Michael S; Dahl, Hans-Henrik M; Regan, Brigid M; Feucht, Martha; Steinböck, Hannelore; Neophytou, Birgit; Ronen, Gabriel M; Roche, Laurian; Gruber-Sedlmayr, Ursula; Geldner, Julia; Haberlandt, Edda; Hoffmann, Per; Herms, Stefan; Gieger, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Franke, Andre; Wittig, Michael; Schoch, Susanne; Becker, Albert J; Hahn, Andreas; Männik, Katrin; Toliat, Mohammad R; Winterer, Georg; Lerche, Holger; Nürnberg, Peter; Mefford, Heather; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Berkovic, Samuel F; Beckmann, Jacques S; Sander, Thomas; Jacquemont, Sebastien; Reymond, Alexandre; Zimprich, Fritz; Neubauer, Bernd A

    2014-11-15

    Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is the most common idiopathic focal childhood epilepsy. Its molecular basis is largely unknown and a complex genetic etiology is assumed in the majority of affected individuals. The present study tested whether six large recurrent copy number variants at 1q21, 15q11.2, 15q13.3, 16p11.2, 16p13.11 and 22q11.2 previously associated with neurodevelopmental disorders also increase risk of RE. Our association analyses revealed a significant excess of the 600 kb genomic duplication at the 16p11.2 locus (chr16: 29.5-30.1 Mb) in 393 unrelated patients with typical (n = 339) and atypical (ARE; n = 54) RE compared with the prevalence in 65,046 European population controls (5/393 cases versus 32/65,046 controls; Fisher's exact test P = 2.83 × 10(-6), odds ratio = 26.2, 95% confidence interval: 7.9-68.2). In contrast, the 16p11.2 duplication was not detected in 1738 European epilepsy patients with either temporal lobe epilepsy (n = 330) and genetic generalized epilepsies (n = 1408), suggesting a selective enrichment of the 16p11.2 duplication in idiopathic focal childhood epilepsies (Fisher's exact test P = 2.1 × 10(-4)). In a subsequent screen among children carrying the 16p11.2 600 kb rearrangement we identified three patients with RE-spectrum epilepsies in 117 duplication carriers (2.6%) but none in 202 carriers of the reciprocal deletion. Our results suggest that the 16p11.2 duplication represents a significant genetic risk factor for typical and atypical RE. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Antiepileptic drug treatment of rolandic epilepsy and Panayiotopoulos syndrome: clinical practice survey and clinical trial feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Mellish, Louise C; Dunkley, Colin; Ferrie, Colin D; Pal, Deb K

    2015-01-01

    Background The evidence base for management of childhood epilepsy is poor, especially for the most common specific syndromes such as rolandic epilepsy (RE) and Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS). Considerable international variation in management and controversy about non-treatment indicate the need for high quality randomised controlled trials (RCT). The aim of this study is, therefore, to describe current UK practice and explore the feasibility of different RCT designs for RE and PS. Methods We conducted an online survey of 590 UK paediatricians who treat epilepsy. Thirty-two questions covered annual caseload, investigation and management practice, factors influencing treatment, antiepileptic drug preferences and hypothetical trial design preferences. Results 132 responded (22%): 81% were paediatricians and 95% at consultant seniority. We estimated, annually, 751 new RE cases and 233 PS cases. Electroencephalography (EEG) is requested at least half the time in approximately 70% of cases; MRI brain at least half the time in 40%–65% cases and neuropsychological evaluation in 7%–8%. Clinicians reported non-treatment in 40%: main reasons were low frequency of seizures and parent/child preferences. Carbamazepine is the preferred older, and levetiracetam the preferred newer, RCT arm. Approximately one-half considered active and placebo designs acceptable, choosing seizures as primary and cognitive/behavioural measures as secondary outcomes. Conclusions Management among respondents is broadly in line with national guidance, although with possible overuse of brain imaging and underuse of EEG and neuropsychological assessments. A large proportion of patients in the UK remains untreated, and clinicians seem amenable to a range of RCT designs, with carbamazepine and levetiracetam the preferred active drugs. PMID:25202134

  1. Mapping between the Roland Morris Questionnaire and generic preference-based measures.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamran A; Madan, Jason; Petrou, Stavros; Lamb, Sarah E

    2014-09-01

    The Roland Morris Questionnaire (RMQ) is a widely used health status measure for low back pain (LBP). It is not preference-based, and there are currently no established algorithms for mapping between the RMQ and preference-based health-related quality-of-life measures. Using data from randomized controlled trials of treatment for LBP, we sought to develop algorithms for mapping between RMQ scores and health utilities derived using either the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) or the six-dimensional health state short form (derived from Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey) (SF-6D). This study is based on data from the Back Skills Training Trial in which data were collected from 701 patients at baseline and subsequently at 3, 6, and 12 months postrandomization using a range of outcome measures, including the RMQ, the EQ-5D, and the Short Form 12 item Health Survey (SF-12) (from which SF-6D utilities can be derived). We used baseline trial data to estimate models using both direct and response mapping approaches to predict EQ-5D and SF-6D health utilities and dimension responses. A multistage model selection process was used to assess the predictive accuracy of the models. We then explored different techniques and mapping models that made use of repeated follow-up observations in the data. The estimated mapping algorithms were validated using external data from the UK Back Pain Exercise and Manipulation trial. A number of models were developed that accurately predict health utilities in this context. The best performing model for RMQ to EQ-5D mapping was a beta regression with Bayesian quasi-likelihood estimation that included 24 dummy variables for RMQ responses, age, and sex as covariates (mean squared error 0.0380) based on repeated data. The model selected for RMQ to SF-6D mapping was a finite mixture model that included the overall RMQ score, age, sex, RMQ score squared, age squared, and an interaction term for age and RMQ score as

  2. Gender Anarchy as Social Justice: An Analytic Reconstruction of the Idea of Epistemic Equality in Jane Roland Martin's "Reclaiming a Conversation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Jane Roland Martin's later work, especially as represented in "The Schoolhome: Rethinking Schools for Changing Families," has been attacked as vague, essentialistic, and a formula for the (re)feminization of education. This paper does not attempt to defend Martin against these criticisms because such a defense seems impossible for…

  3. Do numerical rating scales and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire capture changes that are meaningful to patients with persistent back pain?

    PubMed

    Hush, Julia M; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Sullivan, Gerard; De Souza, Lorraine; McAuley, James H

    2010-07-01

    To investigate patients' views about two common outcome measures used for back pain: Numerical Rating Scales for pain and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Thirty-six working adults who had previously sought primary care for back pain and who could speak and read English. Eight focus groups were conducted to explore participants' views about the 11-point Numerical Rating Scales and the 24-item Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Each group was led by a facilitator and an interview topic guide was used. Audio recordings of focus groups were transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was used to chart participants' views and an interpretive analysis performed to explain the findings. Participants reported that neither the Roland-Morris nor the Numerical Rating Scales captured the complex personal experience of pain or relevant changes in their condition. The time-frame of assessment was identified as particularly problematic and the Roland-Morris did not capture relevant functional domains. This study provides empirical data that working adults with persistent back pain consider these clinical outcome measures largely inadequate. These measures currently used for back pain may contribute to misleading conclusions about treatment efficacy and patient recovery.

  4. Revealing Additional Dimensions of Globalisation and Cultural Hegemony: A Response to Roland S. Persson's Call for Cultural Sensitivity in Gifted Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Don

    2012-01-01

    In this commentary, the author finds the interdisciplinary approach of Roland S. Persson's (2012a) target article refreshing. Persson's (2012a) additional emphases on ethnocentricity, cultural bias and strong threads of influence from the global economy also are helpful. They shed light on some strong contextual influences that shape the…

  5. The Genetics of Reading Disability in an Often Excluded Sample: Novel Loci Suggested for Reading Disability in Rolandic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Strug, Lisa J.; Addis, Laura; Chiang, Theodore; Baskurt, Zeynep; Li, Weili; Clarke, Tara; Hardison, Huntley; Kugler, Steven L.; Mandelbaum, David E.; Novotny, Edward J.; Wolf, Steven M.; Pal, Deb K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Reading disability (RD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic basis established in families segregating “pure” dyslexia. RD commonly occurs in neurodevelopmental disorders including Rolandic Epilepsy (RE), a complex genetic disorder. We performed genomewide linkage analysis of RD in RE families, testing the hypotheses that RD in RE families is genetically heterogenenous to pure dyslexia, and shares genetic influences with other sub-phenotypes of RE. Methods We initially performed genome-wide linkage analysis using 1000 STR markers in 38 US families ascertained through a RE proband; most of these families were multiplex for RD. We analyzed the data by two-point and multipoint parametric LOD score methods. We then confirmed the linkage evidence in a second US dataset of 20 RE families. We also resequenced the SEMA3C gene at the 7q21 linkage locus in members of one multiplex RE/RD pedigree and the DISC1 gene in affected pedigrees at the 1q42 locus. Results In the discovery dataset there was suggestive evidence of linkage for RD to chromosome 7q21 (two-point LOD score 3.05, multipoint LOD 3.08) and at 1q42 (two-point LOD 2.87, multipoint LOD 3.03). Much of the linkage evidence at 7q21 derived from families of French-Canadian origin, whereas the linkage evidence at 1q42 was well distributed across all the families. There was little evidence for linkage at known dyslexia loci. Combining the discovery and confirmation datasets increased the evidence at 1q42 (two-point LOD = 3.49, multipoint HLOD = 4.70), but decreased evidence at 7q21 (two-point LOD = 2.28, multipoint HLOD  = 1.81), possibly because the replication sample did not have French Canadian representation. Discussion Reading disability in rolandic epilepsy has a genetic basis and may be influenced by loci at 1q42 and, in some populations, at 7q21; there is little evidence of a role for known DYX loci discovered in “pure” dyslexia pedigrees. 1q42 and 7q21 are

  6. The genetics of reading disability in an often excluded sample: novel loci suggested for reading disability in Rolandic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Strug, Lisa J; Addis, Laura; Chiang, Theodore; Baskurt, Zeynep; Li, Weili; Clarke, Tara; Hardison, Huntley; Kugler, Steven L; Mandelbaum, David E; Novotny, Edward J; Wolf, Steven M; Pal, Deb K

    2012-01-01

    Reading disability (RD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic basis established in families segregating "pure" dyslexia. RD commonly occurs in neurodevelopmental disorders including Rolandic Epilepsy (RE), a complex genetic disorder. We performed genomewide linkage analysis of RD in RE families, testing the hypotheses that RD in RE families is genetically heterogenenous to pure dyslexia, and shares genetic influences with other sub-phenotypes of RE. We initially performed genome-wide linkage analysis using 1000 STR markers in 38 US families ascertained through a RE proband; most of these families were multiplex for RD. We analyzed the data by two-point and multipoint parametric LOD score methods. We then confirmed the linkage evidence in a second US dataset of 20 RE families. We also resequenced the SEMA3C gene at the 7q21 linkage locus in members of one multiplex RE/RD pedigree and the DISC1 gene in affected pedigrees at the 1q42 locus. In the discovery dataset there was suggestive evidence of linkage for RD to chromosome 7q21 (two-point LOD score 3.05, multipoint LOD 3.08) and at 1q42 (two-point LOD 2.87, multipoint LOD 3.03). Much of the linkage evidence at 7q21 derived from families of French-Canadian origin, whereas the linkage evidence at 1q42 was well distributed across all the families. There was little evidence for linkage at known dyslexia loci. Combining the discovery and confirmation datasets increased the evidence at 1q42 (two-point LOD = 3.49, multipoint HLOD = 4.70), but decreased evidence at 7q21 (two-point LOD = 2.28, multipoint HLOD  = 1.81), possibly because the replication sample did not have French Canadian representation. Reading disability in rolandic epilepsy has a genetic basis and may be influenced by loci at 1q42 and, in some populations, at 7q21; there is little evidence of a role for known DYX loci discovered in "pure" dyslexia pedigrees. 1q42 and 7q21 are candidate novel dyslexia loci.

  7. The patient-specific functional scale is more responsive than the Roland Morris disability questionnaire when activity limitation is low.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amanda M; Maher, Chris G; Latimer, Jane; Ferreira, Manuela L; Costa, Leonardo O P

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine which questionnaire, the Roland Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ) or the patient-specific functional scale (PSFS), was better at detecting change in activity limitation in a large cohort of patients with low back pain undergoing rehabilitation. A secondary aim was to determine if the responsiveness of the questionnaires was influenced by the patient's level of activity limitation at baseline. Responsiveness statistics, including effect size statistics, Pearson's r correlations and receiver operative characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used to determine ability to detect change in activity limitation on 831 patients with low back pain. Data were analysed at two time points; directly after treatment (termed short-term) and several weeks post-treatment (termed mid-term). The data were subsequently re-analysed on sub-sets of the full cohort according to the level of activity limitation from RMDQ baseline scores. In the total cohort we found that the PSFS was more responsive than the RMDQ; however, in the subgroup with high activity limitation this pattern was not observed. This is true for time points up to 6 months post-treatment. In conclusion, the RMDQ and PSFS both demonstrate good responsiveness according to the definitions given in previous guidelines. The PSFS is more responsive than the RMDQ for patients with low levels of activity limitation but not for patients with high levels of activity limitation.

  8. A Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire Target Value to Distinguish between Functional and Dysfunctional States in People with Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate a threshold Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ) value that could be used to classify patients with low back pain (LBP) as functional or dysfunctional. Methods: In this secondary analysis of data from a study that estimated clinically important RMQ change scores, participants were adults with LBP attending one of three physical therapy clinics. Diagnostic test methodology and a reference standard of goals met were applied to estimate a threshold RMQ value that best distinguished between participants with a functional status and those whose status was dysfunctional. Results: Of 143 participants, 104 (73%) met their goals. An RMQ threshold value of 4/24 best distinguished between those who met their goals and those who did not. Sensitivity and specificity for a threshold score of 4 were 94% (95% CI, 88–98) and 69% (95% CI, 52–83), respectively. Conclusions: A threshold value of 4 RMQ points provided a reasonably accurate classification of patients. Further research is necessary to cross-validate this estimate and to examine the stability of the estimated value in people with diverse functional demands. PMID:27504045

  9. Comparison of navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging for preoperative mapping in rolandic tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Coburger, Jan; Musahl, Christian; Henkes, Hans; Horvath-Rizea, Diana; Bittl, Markus; Weissbach, Claudia; Hopf, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a novel tool for preoperative functional mapping. It detects eloquent cortical areas directly, comparable to intraoperative direct cortical stimulation (DCS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantage of nTMS in comparison with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the clinical setting. Special focus was placed on accuracy of motor cortex localization in patients with rolandic lesions. Thirty consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. All patients received an fMRI and nTMS examination preoperatively. Feasibility of the technique and spatial resolution of upper and lower extremity cortical mapping were compared with fMRI. Consistency of preoperative mapping with intraoperative DCS was assessed via the neuronavigation system. nTMS was feasible in all 30 patients. fMRI was impossible in 7 out of 30 patients with special clinical conditions, pediatric patients, central vascular lesions, or compliance issues. The mean accuracy to localize motor cortex of nTMS was higher than in fMRI. In the subgroup of intrinsic tumors, nTMS produced statistically significant higher accuracy scores of the lower extremity localization than fMRI. fMRI failed to localize hand or leg areas in 6 out of 23 cases. Using nTMS, a preoperative localization of the central sulcus was possible in all patients. Verification of nTMS motor cortex localization with DCS was achieved in all cases. The fMRI localization of the hand area proved to be postcentral in one case. nTMS has fewer restrictions for preoperative functional mapping than fMRI and requires only a limited level of compliance. nTMS scores higher on the accuracy scale than fMRI. nTMS represents a highly valuable supplement for the preoperative functional planning in the clinical routine.

  10. [Cognitive Development in Children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy of Childhood with Centrotemporal Spikes - Results of a Current Systematic Database Search].

    PubMed

    Neumann, H; Helmke, F; Thiels, C; Polster, T; Selzer, L M; Daseking, M; Petermann, F; Lücke, T

    2016-10-01

    Benign Rolandic Epilepsy (BRE) is one of the most common epilepsy syndromes in childhood. Although global intellectual performance is typically normal in BRE-patients, problems were found in specific cognitive domains. To summarize recent empirical findings concerning cognitive development in children with BRE a systematic literature search of clinical studies published between 2009 and 2015 was performed. 19 studies of relevance were found.In most recent studies children with BRE consistently showed general intellectual performance within the normal range. However, in two of the studies patients showed a significantly poorer (but still normal) performance in comparison to controls. The studies provide clear indications for a high prevalence of impairments in language (10 out of 12 studies) and academic performance (6 out of 8 studies) in children with BRE. Regarding deficits in other cognitive domains (attention, memory, visual/auditory perception, executive functions) current findings are inconsistent. In addition, no clear results are found in studies examining cognitive development after remission of BRE. Studies on the relationship between selected clinical/electroencephalographic characteristics (e. g. EEG-patterns, focus lateralization) and cognitive performance and studies on potential benefits of anti-epileptic therapy for cognitive functions also have not yielded consistent results. Studies using fMRI and evoked potentials provide evidence for functional reorganization of neural networks in BRE.Due to the developmental risks in children with BRE early cognitive assessment, early treatment and follow-up assessments are important. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Molecular evolution of the human SRPX2 gene that causes brain disorders of the Rolandic and Sylvian speech areas

    PubMed Central

    Royer, Barbara; Soares, Dinesh C; Barlow, Paul N; Bontrop, Ronald E; Roll, Patrice; Robaglia-Schlupp, Andrée; Blancher, Antoine; Levasseur, Anthony; Cau, Pierre; Pontarotti, Pierre; Szepetowski, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Background The X-linked SRPX2 gene encodes a Sushi Repeat-containing Protein of unknown function and is mutated in two disorders of the Rolandic/Sylvian speech areas. Since it is linked to defects in the functioning and the development of brain areas for speech production, SRPX2 may thus have participated in the adaptive organization of such brain regions. To address this issue, we have examined the recent molecular evolution of the SRPX2 gene. Results The complete coding region was sequenced in 24 human X chromosomes from worldwide populations and in six representative nonhuman primate species. One single, fixed amino acid change (R75K) has been specifically incorporated in human SRPX2 since the human-chimpanzee split. The R75K substitution occurred in the first sushi domain of SRPX2, only three amino acid residues away from a previously reported disease-causing mutation (Y72S). Three-dimensional structural modeling of the first sushi domain revealed that Y72 and K75 are both situated in the hypervariable loop that is usually implicated in protein-protein interactions. The side-chain of residue 75 is exposed, and is located within an unusual and SRPX-specific protruding extension to the hypervariable loop. The analysis of non-synonymous/synonymous substitution rate (Ka/Ks) ratio in primates was performed in order to test for positive selection during recent evolution. Using the branch models, the Ka/Ks ratio for the human branch was significantly different (p = 0.027) from that of the other branches. In contrast, the branch-site tests did not reach significance. Genetic analysis was also performed by sequencing 9,908 kilobases (kb) of intronic SRPX2 sequences. Despite low nucleotide diversity, neither the HKA (Hudson-Kreitman-Aguadé) test nor the Tajima's D test reached significance. Conclusion The R75K human-specific variation occurred in an important functional loop of the first sushi domain of SRPX2, indicating that this evolutionary mutation may have

  12. Letting the CAT out of the Bag: Comparing Computer Adaptive Tests and an Eleven-Item Short Form of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Karon F.; Choi, Seung W.; Crane, Paul K.; Deyo, Richard A.; Johnson, Kurt L.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Study Design A post-hoc simulation of a computer adaptive administration of the items of a modified version of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of adaptive administration of back pain-related disability items compared to a fixed 11-item short form. Summary of Background Data Short form versions of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire have been developed. An alternative to paper-and -pencil short forms is to administer items adaptively so that items are presented based on a person’s responses to previous items. Theoretically, this allows precise estimation of back pain disability with administration of only a few items. Materials and Methods Data were gathered from two previously conducted studies of persons with back pain. An item response theory model was used to calibrate scores based on all items, items of a paper-and-pencil short form, and several computer adaptive tests (CATs). Results Correlations between each CAT condition and scores based on a 23-item version of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire ranged from 0.93 to 0.98. Compared to an 11-item short form, an 11-item CAT produced scores that were significantly more highly correlated with scores based on the 23-item scale. CATs with even fewer items also produced scores that were highly correlated with scores based on all items. For example, scores from a five-item CAT had a correlation of 0.93 with full scale scores. Seven- and nine-item CATs correlated at 0.95 and 0.97, respectively. A CAT with a standard-error-based stopping rule produced scores that correlated at 0.95 with full scale scores. Conclusions A CAT-based back pain-related disability measure may be a valuable tool for use in clinical and research contexts. Use of CAT for other common measures in back pain research, such as other functional scales or measures of psychological distress, may offer similar advantages. PMID:18496352

  13. A Systematic Review of Head-to-Head Comparison Studies of the Roland-Morris and Oswestry Measures' Abilities to Assess Change.

    PubMed

    Newman, Anastasia N L; Stratford, Paul W; Letts, Lori; Spadoni, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Objectif : Déterminer si la sensibilité au changement des résultats au questionnaire Roland-Morris (Roland-Morris Questionnaire, RMQ) et au questionnaire d'incapacité d'Oswestry (Oswestry Disability Index, ODI) diffèrent lorsqu'on les applique aux patients qui souffrent de lombalgie. Comme objectif secondaire, réaliser une analyse critique de la rigueur méthodologique des études comparatives directes sélectionnées. Méthode : Une revue systématique de cinq bases de données en ligne a été réalisée pour rechercher des études comparatives directes du RMQ et de l'ODI qui évaluaient la sensibilité au changement de ces deux mesures. Les études étaient retenues si elles satisfaisaient à un ensemble de critères d'inclusion préétabli. Un formulaire de critères de qualité nouvellement élaboré a été utilisé pour évaluer la rigueur méthodologique des études comparatives directes. Résultats : Neuf articles satisfaisaient aux critères d'inclusion. Bien que pour deux études, on ait constaté une différence statistique appréciable favorable au RQM, il n'y avait aucun avantage apparent commun pour une mesure plutôt que pour l'autre. Les lacunes méthodologiques fréquentes étaient notamment l'absence de calcul formel de la taille de l'échantillon, l'absence de critère pour la comparaison des mesures et le fait qu'il n'y avait aucune norme de référence indépendante. Conclusion : Il n'y a aucun élément probant commun permettant de privilégier une mesure plutôt qu'une autre. Plusieurs études comportaient des lacunes sur le plan méthodologique.

  14. Evaluation of the effectiveness of short-term rehabilitation of women with chronic low back pain using the Oswestry and Roland-Morris Disability Scales.

    PubMed

    Topolska, Marta; Sapuła, Rafał; Topolski, Adam; Marczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    60-80% of the population experience chronic low back pain at some point in their lives [1], with women suffering more frequently [2]. Low back pain-related ailments lead to long-term or recurrent disability [3, 4]. Rehabilitation based on physiotherapy provides a viable alternative and is rightly regarded as safer for patients. However, finding an effective method of rehabilitation is a difficult task [5, 6]. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of rehabilitation in women with chronic low back pain using the Oswestry and Roland-Morris Disability Scales and to identify factors influencing the degree of functional disability in patients with chronic low back pain. The study involved 319 women aged 18-75 years (mean age = 45 years, SD ± 16. 3). The participants were undergoing treatment at the Rehabilitation Centre of Zamość University of Management and Administration on account of chronic low back pain, following two or more episodes lasting longer than three months. The outcomes of rehabilitation were assessed with ODI and RMDQ. We obtained comparable results with the ODI and RMDQ and found statistically significant improvement in functional status after rehabilitation (ODI: p <0.001, RMDQ: p <0.001). In both cases there was a statistically significant relationship between the degree of functional disability and age (ODI: p <0.001, RMDQ: p <0.001), education (ODI: p <0.004, RMDQ: p <0.004), BMI (ODI: p <0.001, RMDQ : p <0.001), WHR (ODI: p <0.001, RMDQ: p <0.001), and hypertension (ODI: p <0.001, RMDQ: p <0.001). There were no statically significant differences between the degree of disability vs. place of residence (ODI: p <0.5, RMDQ: p <0.867) or the presence of type 2 diabetes (ODI: p <0.321, RMDQ: p <0.06). 1.The programme for rehabilitation of patients with low back pain proved effective in reducing the degree of disability, as demonstrated both by the Oswestry Disability Index and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. 2. The relationship

  15. The Oswestry Disability Index, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale: translation and validation studies of the Iranian versions.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Sayed Javad; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Mehdian, Hossein; Montazeri, Ali; Mobini, Bahram

    2006-06-15

    Cross-cultural translation and psychometric testing were performed. To cross-culturally translate the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ), and Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QDS) into Persian, and then investigate the psychometric properties of the Persian versions produced. To the authors' knowledge, there is no validated instrument to measure functional status in Persian-speaking patients with low back pain (LBP) in Iran. To our knowledge, the widely used back-specific measures, the ODI, RDQ, and QDS, have not been translated and validated for Persian-speaking patients with LBP. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original questionnaires were performed in accordance with published guidelines. A total of 100 patients with chronic LBP were asked to complete a questionnaire booklet (the Persian versions of the ODI, RDQ, QDS, Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and visual analog scale measure of pain). There were 31 randomly select patients with chronic LBP asked to complete the second questionnaire booklet 24 hours later. The Cronbach-alpha for the ODI, RDQ, and QDS was 0.75, 0.83, and 0.92, respectively. The ODI, RDQ, and QDS showed excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91, 0.86, and 0.86, respectively) (P < 0.01). The correlation among the ODI, RDQ, QDS and physical functioning scales of the SF-36 was -0.66, -0.62, and -0.69, respectively (P < 0.001). The correlation among the ODI, RDQ, and QDS and visual analog scale was 0.54, 0.36, and 0.46, respectively (P < 0.001). The Persian versions of the ODI, RDQ, and QDS are reliable and valid instruments to measure functional status in Persian-speaking patients with LBP. They are simple and fast scales, and the use of them can be recommended in a clinical setting and future outcome studies in Iran.

  16. Item response theory analysis to evaluate reliability and minimal clinically important change of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire in patients with severe disability due to back pain from vertebral compression fractures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minji K; Yost, Kathleen J; McDonald, Jennifer S; Dougherty, Ryne W; Vine, Roanna L; Kallmes, David F

    2017-06-01

    The majority of validation done on the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) has been in patients with mild or moderate disability. There is paucity of research focusing on the psychometric quality of the RMDQ in patients with severe disability. To evaluate the psychometric quality of the RMDQ in patients with severe disability. Observational clinical study. The sample consisted of 214 patients with painful vertebral compression fractures who underwent vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. The 23-item version of the RMDQ was completed at two time points: baseline and 30-day postintervention follow-up. With the two-parameter logistic unidimensional item response theory (IRT) analyses, we derived the range of scores that produced reliable measurement and investigated the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Scores for 214 (100%) patients at baseline and 108 (50%) patients at follow-up did not meet the reliability criterion of 0.90 or higher, with the majority of patients having disability due to back pain that was too severe to be reliably measured by the RMDQ. Depending on methodology, MCID estimates ranged from 2 to 8 points and the proportion of patients classified as having experienced meaningful improvement ranged from 26% to 68%. A greater change in score was needed at the extreme ends of the score scale to be classified as having achieved MCID using IRT methods. Replacing items measuring moderate disability with items measuring severe disability could yield a version of the RMDQ that better targets patients with severe disability due to back pain. Improved precision in measuring disability would be valuable to clinicians who treat patients with greater functional impairments. Caution is needed when choosing criteria for interpreting meaningful change using the RMDQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Association of Each Disability Based on the Three Sub-Categories of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire during Hospitalization with Itself at 1 Year Postoperatively in Patients with Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Nodoka; Ino, Masatake

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A prospective study in a hospital. Purpose To investigate whether each disability based on the three sub-categories of the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RDQ) during hospitalization is associated with itself at 1 year postoperatively in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Overview of Literature Although the total score of the RDQ represents whole pain-related disabilities or health-related quality of life, it is a shortcoming that multi-dimensional changes in disabilities are difficult to understand when only using the RDQ. Methods Fifty-seven patients with LSS (men, 28; women, 29; 63.0±12.1 years) were included. Disabilities, pain intensity and depressive feelings were assessed at preoperation, discharge and 1 year postoperatively. Results The range of "mental and physical activities (MPA)," "functional movements on/around a bed (FM)" and "walking function (WF)" scores were 0 to 13 (median, 8), 0 to 6 (median, 6) and 0 to 4 (median, 3) at preoperation; 0 to 12 (median, 0), 0 to 6 (median, 0), and 0 to 4 (median, 0) at discharge; and 0 to 8 (median, 0), 0 to 5 (median, 0), and 0 to 4 (median, 0) at 1 year postoperatively, respectively. The following significant multiple regression equations were obtained: MPA at 1 year postoperatively=0.56 (MPA at discharge)-0.10 (depression at discharge)+0.90 (adjusted r2=0.41), FM at 1 year postoperatively=0.35 (MPA at discharge)-0.06 (depression at discharge)+0.40 (adjusted r2=0.45) and WF at 1 year postoperatively=0.59 (WF at discharge)-0.08 (depression at discharge)+0.63 (adjusted r2=0.29). Conclusions In our LSS population, each disability based on MPA and WF at discharge is associated with itself in the future. Therefore, disabilities excluding functional movements are longitudinally independent. PMID:24596598

  18. [The atypical developments of rolandic epilepsy are predictable complications].

    PubMed

    Pesántez-Ríos, Gabriela; Martínez-Bermejo, Antonio; Arcas, Joaquín; Merino-Andreu, Milagros; Ugalde-Canitrot, Arturo

    2015-08-01

    Introduccion. Las evoluciones atipicas de la epilepsia rolandica son parte de un espectro clinico de fenotipos variables, idiopaticos, dependientes de la edad y con una predisposicion geneticamente determinada. Objetivo. Estudiar las caracteristicas electroclinicas sugestivas de una evolucion atipica en la epilepsia rolandica. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo una busqueda retrospectiva de 133 niños diagnosticados de epilepsia focal benigna atipica (EFBA), sindrome de Landau-Kleffner y epilepsia de punta-onda continua durante el sueño (POCS). Se seleccionaron nueve pacientes que, en el trascurso de su epilepsia rolandica, presentaron un cuadro clinico atipico y un patron electroencefalografico (EEG) de estado epileptico electrico durante el sueño (ESES). Resultados. El inicio de la epilepsia rolandica fue, en promedio, a los 5 años. Los pacientes presentaron un empeoramiento clinico y del EEG año y medio mas tarde en promedio. En tres pacientes se observaron caracteristicas de EFBA, y en seis, de POCS. No se encontraron casos de sindrome de Landau-Kleffner. El EEG en vigilia mostro una focalidad centrotemporal izquierda en seis pacientes, y derecha, en tres. Todos los pacientes presentaron un ESES en el EEG de sueño. En tres de ellos se observo un patron atipico de ESES regional. Ademas, se detectaron alteraciones cognitivas y conductuales por deficits en areas especificas del aprendizaje, como lenguaje, memoria, atencion e inquietud. Conclusiones. El inicio precoz de la epilepsia rolandica, la aparicion de nuevas crisis con un incremento en su frecuencia y una focalidad frontocentrotemporal en el EEG, que aumenta en frecuencia, tanto en vigilia como en sueño, son caracteristicas electroclinicas sugerentes de una evolucion atipica.

  19. The Roland Maze Project — Cosmic Ray Registration at Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feder, J.; JȨDRZEJCZAK, K.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Lewandowski, R.; Swarzyński, J.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Tokarski, P.; Wibig, T.

    Experimental studies of cosmic rays at the highest energies (above 1018 eV) are the main scientific goal of the projected large area network of extensive air shower detectors. Placing the detectors on the roofs of high school buildings will lower the cost by using the existing urban infrastructure (INTERNET, power supply, etc.), and can be a very efficient way of science popularisation by engaging high school students in the research program. 30 high schools in Łódź are already involved in the project. The project has recently obtained some financial support from the City Council of Łódź. The donation enabled us to start experimental work on detector construction details. A cycle of lectures and seminars devoted to different aspects of project realization (detector construction, on-line data acquisition system, C++ programming) has been organized for students at our Institute and at schools.

  20. Identification of Reliable Sulcal Patterns of the Human Rolandic Region

    PubMed Central

    Mellerio, Charles; Lapointe, Marie-Noël; Roca, Pauline; Charron, Sylvain; Legrand, Laurence; Meder, Jean-François; Oppenheim, Catherine; Cachia, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    A major feature of the human cortex is its huge morphological variability. Although a comprehensive literature about the sulco-gyral pattern of the central region is available from post-mortem data, a reliable and reproducible characterization from in vivo data is still lacking. The aim of this study is to test the reliability of morphological criteria of the central region sulci used in post-mortem data, when applied to in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Thirty right-handed healthy individuals were included in the study. Automated segmentation and three dimensional (3D) surface-based rendering were obtained from clinical 3D T1-weighted MRI. Two senior radiologists labeled the three sulci composing the central region (precentral [PreCS], central [CS] and postcentral [PostCS]) and analyzed their morphological variations using 47 standard criteria derived from Ono’s atlas based on post-mortem data. For each criterion, inter-rater concordance and comparison with the occurrence frequency provided in Ono’s atlas were estimated. Overall, the sulcal pattern criteria derived from MRI data were highly reproducible between the raters with a high mean inter-rater concordance in the three sulci (CS: κ = 0.92 in left hemisphere/κ = 0.91 in right hemisphere; PreCS: κ = 0.91/κ = 0.93; PostCS: κ = 0.84/0.79). Only a very limited number of sulcal criteria significantly differed between the in vivo and the post-mortem data (CS: 2 criteria in the left hemisphere/3 criteria in the right hemisphere; PreCS: 3 in the left and right hemispheres; PostCS: 3 in the left hemisphere and 5 in the right hemisphere). Our study provides a comprehensive description of qualitative sulcal patterns in the central region from in vivo clinical MRI with high agreement with previous post-mortem data. Such identification of reliable sulcal patterns of the central region visible with standard clinical MRI data paves the way for the detection of subtle variations of the central sulcation associated with variations of normal or pathological functioning. PMID:27582700

  1. [Health and disease among Panará (Kreen-Akarôre) Indians in Central Brazil after twenty-five years of contact with our world, with an emphasis on tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Baruzzi, R G; Barros, V L; Rodrigues, D; Souza, A L; Pagliaro, H

    2001-01-01

    The Panará, who had previously lived in isolation from Brazilian national society in the Amazon forest, were first contacted in 1973. Two years later they were moved to another area in Central Brazil. During this same period they were reduced to 82 members, the survivors of a population of 400 to 500 in the mid-1960s. In 1995 they returned to a small area in their old territory still not occupied by outsiders. There, three years later, a health survey showed a presumed diagnosis of tuberculosis in 15 individuals out of a population of 181. Further tests in the town of Colider, based on clinical data and chest X-rays, confirmed the diagnosis in 10 Panará (6 children under 10 years of age and 4 adults from 40 to 50 years old). BCG scars were present in the entire population. The nutritional status of Panará children was better than that of other indigenous groups in the Amazon region. The following measures were introduced for Tb control: a) treatment follow-up in the village, under direct supervision by both a nurse and the local indigenous health worker; b) compliance with defined criteria for ending treatment; c) periodic control of contacts and non-contacts; c) and establishment of a reference system with the health services in Colider.

  2. [Neuropsychological alterations are frequent in rolandic epilepsy and its atypical developments].

    PubMed

    Pesantez-Rios, G; Martinez-Bermejo, A; Pesantez-Cuesta, G

    2016-08-01

    Introduccion. La epilepsia rolandica o epilepsia benigna de la infancia con puntas centrotemporales se denomina benigna debido a lo favorables que suelen ser sus crisis y a la espontanea normalizacion del electroencefalograma al llegar a la pubertad, aunque se ha demostrado el impacto sobre el desarrollo cognitivo con la presencia de deficits cognitivos heterogeneos, relacionados especialmente con las descargas intercriticas persistentes durante el sueño no REM. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar las redes epileptogenas involucradas en los trastornos neuropsicologicos de esta patologia. Desarrollo. Las evoluciones atipicas tienen en comun una actividad epileptica persistente durante el sueño lento, que desempeña un papel importante en el desarrollo de los deficits neurocognitivos que se asocian a esta patologia. Factores como la edad de inicio de la epilepsia, el inicio de la evolucion atipica, la localizacion de las descargas interictales y la actividad epileptica continua durante el sueño que persista durante mas de dos años pueden provocar cambios en el funcionamiento de las redes neurocognitivas, con los consecuentes deficits en las funciones neuropsicologicas, que incluso pueden resultar irreversibles. Conclusiones. Es necesario un seguimiento cercano tanto clinico como electroencefalografico; ademas, deben realizarse estudios neuropsicologicos formales desde el inicio de la epilepsia benigna de la infancia con puntas centrotemporales y mas en los casos que es evidente una evolucion atipica para detectar y prevenir los deficits neuropsicologicos antes de que se instauren definitivamente.

  3. The Roland Maze Project school-based extensive air shower network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feder, J.; Jȩdrzejczak, K.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Lewandowski, R.; Swarzyński, J.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Wibig, T.

    2006-01-01

    We plan to construct the large area network of extensive air shower detectors placed on the roofs of high school buildings in the city of Łódź. Detection points will be connected by INTERNET to the central server and their work will be synchronized by GPS. The main scientific goal of the project are studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Using existing town infrastructure (INTERNET, power supply, etc.) will significantly reduce the cost of the experiment. Engaging high school students in the research program should significantly increase their knowledge of science and modern technologies, and can be a very efficient way of science popularisation. We performed simulations of the projected network capabilities of registering Extensive Air Showers and reconstructing energies of primary particles. Results of the simulations and the current status of project realisation will be presented.

  4. The Plural Text/The Plural Self: Roland Barthes and William Coles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Joseph

    The role of the reader in how the meaning of a text is formed has been a nearly obsessive concern of recent critical thought. While theories of reader-response or deconstruction may seem to have had little effect on the practice of teaching literature, they do hold much in common with the way many teachers try to teach writing. The works of Roland…

  5. Roland Barthes, Reading, and Roleplay: Composition's Misguided Rejection of Fragmentary Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitz, James

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that the act of writing can create surprising, experimental, supple forms of written discourse. Argues for exploring more mobile, heteroglot, polyphonic forms of writing. Suggests that attempting roles that produce fragmentary texts might lead toward approaching the challenges of composing unified texts from a more enlivening perspective.…

  6. Roland Barthes, Reading, and Roleplay: Composition's Misguided Rejection of Fragmentary Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitz, James

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that the act of writing can create surprising, experimental, supple forms of written discourse. Argues for exploring more mobile, heteroglot, polyphonic forms of writing. Suggests that attempting roles that produce fragmentary texts might lead toward approaching the challenges of composing unified texts from a more enlivening perspective.…

  7. Cortical and subcortical motor mapping in rolandic and perirolandic glioma surgery: impact on postoperative morbidity and extent of resection.

    PubMed

    Carrabba, G; Fava, E; Giussani, C; Acerbi, F; Portaluri, F; Songa, V; Stocchetti, N; Branca, V; Gaini, S M; Bello, L

    2007-06-01

    Surgery for gliomas located inside or in proximity of motor cortex or tracts requires cortical and subcortical mapping to locate motor function; direct electrical stimulation of brain cortex or subcortical pathways allows identification and preservation of motor function. In this study we evaluated the effect which subcortical motor mapping had on postoperative morbidity and extent of resection in a series of patients with gliomas involving motor areas or pathways. One hundred and forty-six patients were included in the study. Intraoperative findings of primary motor cortex or subcortical tracts were reported, together with incidence of new postoperative deficits at short (1 week) and long term (1 month) examination. The relationship between intraoperative identification of subcortical motor tracts and extent of resection was reported. The motor strip was found in 133 patients (91%) and subcortical motor tracts in 91 patients (62.3%). New immediate postoperative motor deficits were documented in 59.3% of patients in whom a subcortical motor tract was identified intra-operatively and in 10.9% of those in whom subcortical tracts were not observed; permanent deficits were observed in 6.5% and 3.5%, respectively. A total resection was achieved in 94.4% of patients with high-grade gliomas and in 46.1% of those with low-grade gliomas.

  8. "La Chanson de Roland" in the Elementary School Classroom: A Case for Medieval Literature and Young Language Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Karla L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes successful experiment in teaching of medieval literature to elementary French language classes in the Cincinnati public schools. Purpose was to strengthen linguistic awareness and expand social studies unit on medieval France. (BK)

  9. Significant motor improvement in an infant with congenital heart disease and a rolandic stroke: The impact of early intervention.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Anne; Dagenais, Lynn; Doussau, Amélie; Décarie, Jean-Claude; Materassi, Manuela; Gagnon, Karine; Prud'homme, Joelle; Vobecky, Suzanne; Poirier, Nancy; Carmant, Lionel

    2017-04-01

    To report the impact of early motor intervention in an infant with congenital heart disease (CHD) and a stroke. A 35-week newborn with a complex CHD and a normal MRI presented with early motor developmental delay at 2 months. She began an intervention program, which included biweekly motor developmental therapy with a physiotherapist, parental education, and daily home exercises. At 4 months, she underwent cardiac surgery. Following surgery, she was diagnosed with a stroke involving the right sylvian artery territory. She continued her intensive intervention program. The 12-month assessment revealed an evident gain of motor function. Despite MRI evidence of a chronic infarct involving the primary motor cortex, the child had normal motor functions. This case report supports the positive impact of early intervention in infants with CHD and its potential effect on enhancing neuroplasticity, even in children with cerebro-vascular accidents involving areas of motor function.

  10. International Assessment of Research and Development in Brain-Computer Interfaces. WTEC Panel Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    World Technology Evaluation Center, Inc. 4800 Roland Avenue Baltimore, Maryland 21210 WTEC Panel Report on INTERNATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF...World Technology Evaluation Center Inc,4800 Roland Avenue,Balltimore,MD,21210 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING...x2820; Email: fromherz@biochem.mpg.de http://www.biochem.mpg.de/en/rd/fromherz/ Dr. Roland Thewes, guest from Infineon Email: roland.thewes

  11. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Minister of Foreign Affairs Ramiz Alia, who represents the chief executive, and Roland Dumas. Enver Hoxha’s widow, who with the old guard maintains...higher party agencies in the case of unsubstantiated advantage of my stay in Paris to try to meet with Roland political actions against them. Dumas...and others are following us. It is we who tested In a letter to the MTI press agency, Roland Antoniewicz, whether the Brezhnev doctrine holds

  12. Understanding and Communicating through Narratives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    to his environment. As a mode of communication, every human and socially constructed entity communicates utilizing narrative format.24 Roland Barthes ...2001. http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR138 (accessed March 10, 2011). Barthes , Roland . “On Narrative and Narratives.” New Literary...25Roland Barthes , “On Narrative and Narratives,” New Literary History 6, no. 2 (Winter 1975): 238. 26Paul Hazel, “Narrative: An Introduction” blog, entry

  13. Image Understanding: Proceedings of a Workshop (15th) Held at New Orleans, Louisiana on 3-4 October 1984

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Programming. In Proceedings of the First Conference on Technical Report CMU-CS-83-162, CMU, 1983. Artificial Intellegence Applications. Denver, (101...Image Understanding. Proceedings of the 1983 International S package for it 1J, we (Christian Fortunel and John Kender) Joint Conference on Artificial ...accuracy. Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Briefly, the two-dimensional band-pass operators can be Intelligence, Aug., 1983, pp

  14. Parameter Networks: Towards a Theory of Low-level Vision,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    8217Iels suc(h ,-s thiose shown in 1ligure 7 to reorganize origami wo.d- figures. Figoure?7. 1’o show an example In detail, Kender’s techn!Ciue for...Compuiter Science Dept, Carnegie-.Mcllon U., October 1979. Kanade, Tl., "A theory of Origami world," CMU-CS-78-144, Computer Science Dept, Carnegie

  15. Skin Color-Based Video Segmentation under Time-Varying Illumination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-25

    Face and Gesture Recognition , pp. 379–384, 1996. [15] R. Kjeldsen and J. Kender. Finding skin in color images. Proc. International Conf. on Automatic...Face and Gesture Recognition , pp. 312–317, 1996. [16] M. Storring, H.J. Andersen, and E. Granum. Skin colour detection under changing lighting...Object oriented face detection using range and color information. Proc. International Conf. on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition , pp. 76–81, 1998

  16. Justice: A Problem for Military Ethics during Irregular War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    189 (to Boniface),” trans. Roland Teske , ed. Boniface Ramsey (Hyde Park, New York: New York City Press, 2004), 261. 9 society was not the primary...Marcus Dods. New York: The Modern Library, 1950. Augustine. The Works of Saint Augustine. Translated by Roland Teske . Edited by Boniface Ramsey. Hyde

  17. Perceptions of Army Health Care: A Blueprint for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-17

    positive perceptions. A strong, proactive public affairs program is needed to accomplish this task. 6 ENDNOTES 1. Neil Roland , "Problem Doctors," Army Times...2 November 1987, p. 3. 5. "From the Ferment, Profound Changes," Army, March 1986, p. 31. 6. Neil Roland , "Army Accepts Psychiatrist with Revoked...License," Army Times, 18 March 1985, p. 8. 7. Neil Roland , "Man found to be Bogus Doctor Allowed in Army," Army Times, 25 March 1985, p. 4. 8. Interview

  18. US Army Order of Battle 1919-1941. Volume 2. The Arms: Calvary, Field Artillery, and Coast Artillery, 1919-41

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    21 May 1924–ao June 1924 Unknown ao January 1932–14 December 1937 Unknown ao June 1924–ao March 1931 Lt. Col. Roland E. Murphy 14 December 1937–19...a training regiment. Commanders, 322d Cavalry Regiment Capt. Harry Stimpel 11 March 1922–April 1922 Lt. Col. Roland E. Murphy ao February 1931–14...Army Reserve as HHC, 76th Regt. (CST). Commanders, 151st Field Artillery Brigade Maj. James W. Gilson November 1921–12 November 1924 Maj. Roland S

  19. Structuralism: Its Implications for the Performance of Prose Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Mary Francis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the implications of structuralism by examining "Introduction to The Structural Analysis of Narrative", a contemporary writing by Roland Barthes. Explains Barthes' terms and concepts by using Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway character for an example. (MH)

  20. How Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Wears Patients Out

    MedlinePlus

    ... Roland Staud, a professor of rheumatology and clinical immunology at the University of Florida College of Medicine. " ... conditions associated with extreme exhaustion, such as lupus, cancer and depression. "It's unlikely the central nervous system ...

  1. Aping our ancestors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennos, Roland

    2014-08-01

    Roland Ennos argues that the abilities of the great apes to cope in the dangerous mechanical environment of the forest canopy are part of the human species' intellectual inheritance and are intimately connected with our abilities as physicists.

  2. Structuralism: Its Implications for the Performance of Prose Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Mary Francis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the implications of structuralism by examining "Introduction to The Structural Analysis of Narrative", a contemporary writing by Roland Barthes. Explains Barthes' terms and concepts by using Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway character for an example. (MH)

  3. In Vitro Studies of Neurotoxic Substances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-31

    OF BIOLOGY CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA t- WASHINGTON, D.C. 20064 4 Dr. Roland M. Nardone D 6 S-. distrib -:ý- Control .ig Office: USAF Office of...UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA occes___ FWASHINGTON, D.C. 20064 NTIS CRA&I SDTIC TAB [Uoarmnounced Dr. Roland M. Nardone .......................... .. By.... Dizd...cost, time, and control which often outweigh 𔃻 4 the limitations of the systems, provided they are used -. , judiciously ( Nardone , 1980). .-.. The

  4. Numerical Analysis of Plasma Transport in Tandem Volume Magnetic Multicusp Ion Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    oDTIC ELECTE 0 ~OF NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF PLASMA TRANSPORT IN TANDEM VOLUME MAGNETIC MULTICUSP ION SOURCES THESIS Todd Roland Vitko Captain, USAF AFIT...TANDEM VOLUME MAGNETIC MULTICUSP ION SOURCES THESIS Todd Roland Vitko Captain, USAF AFIT/GEP/ENP/92M-01 Approved for public release; distribution...unlimited. AFIT/GEP/ENP/92M-01 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF PLASMA TRANSPORT IN TANDEM VOLUME MAGNETIC MULTICUSP ION SOURCES THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the

  5. POW/MIA Issues. Volume 2. World War II and the Early Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Valentine Bay (105 miles to the east of Vladivostok). 2 0The crew members lost in the B-29 incident of June 13, 1952, were: Major Samuel N. Busch A0733811...Heydekrug, POW Camp No. 6, Grave 3, East Prussia 17. Robinson, Roy A. SIc 611 0637 City Cemetery, Murmansk, in lots for foreigners, USSR 18. Roland ...Nathan Ernser, Roland R. Irving, Edward J. Lang, Frederick A. Lord, Orvil H. Each set of remains was recovered from the far eastern area of the

  6. Survey of Neural Net Paradigms for Specification of Discrete Networks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-31

    appendix. 23 References 1. Cambier, J.L., Barth , S., Reid, W.J., Barrett,S., "Advanced Pattern Recognition", F30602-80-C-0319. ADA 132 339 2. Elman, J.L...Nov. 1985. ., .U U - - A 1 Bibliography Berge, Claude, "Principles of Combinatorics", Academic Press, 1971 Fischer, Roland , "Deconstructing Reality... Roland W., "Cognitive Strategies in Stochastic Thinking", D. Reidel, 1982(?) Searle, John, "Expression and Meaning", Cambridge U. Press, 1979 Talmy

  7. Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan, Rand Counterinsurgency Study, Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Fearon and Laitin, “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War,” pp. 75–90. On the importance of building institutions, see Roland Paris, At War’s End...Tanke Holm and Espen Barth Eide, eds., Peacebuilding and Police Reform (Portland, Oreg.: Frank Cass, 2000). Figure 7.1 Variation in Indigenous...Press, March 1, 2006. Pape, Robert. Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. New York: Random House, 2005. Paris, Roland . At War’s End

  8. Gulf War Illness and the Health of Gulf War Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    veterans: current status of research findings. Epidemiol Rev. 2002;24:218-227. 105. Barth S. Neurological and all-cause mortality among U.S. veterans...proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and plasma homovanillic acid levels. Arch Neurol. 2000;57:1280-1285. 563. Haley RW, Hom J, Roland PS, et al...True Democracy. Spring 2000;2(2). 1304. Roland PS, Haley RW, Yellin W, Owens K, Shoup AG. Vestibular dysfunction in Gulf War syndrome. Otolaryngol

  9. US Army Order of Battle 1919-1941. Volume 3. The Services: Air Service, Engineers, and Special Troops, 1919-41

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Weir 9 Sep 36-13 Oct 38 2nd Lt. Roland O. S. Akre 15 Mar 33-28 Mar 33 Lt. Col. Junius H. Houghton 10 Mar 36-18 Jul 36 2nd Lt. Neal E. Ausman 28...Myers 20 Aug 36-2 Aug 37 1st Lt. John C. Kennedy 20 Apr 26-27 Oct 26 Maj. Donald B. Phillips 2 Aug 37-Jun 40 1st Lt. Roland C. W. Blessley 27 Oct...Vernon L. Burge 27 Aug 30-12 Oct 32 Capt. Roland W. Wittman 18 Nov 22-1 Dec 22 Capt. John G. Whiteside 12 Oct 32-16 Mar 34 Capt. Frederick I. Eglin

  10. Cloud Effects on Ocean Mixed Layer in the Northeast Pacific Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    I’ao- Kuni Wu June 1991. Thesis Advisor: Pecheuig C111 Co-Advisor: Roland W..Garwooci Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 92-05682...POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 1991 Author: ( DL’ KoAJ Pao-Kun Wu Approved by: / c g Chu, Thesis Advisor Roland W. Garwood, Co-Advisor Curtis A . Collins...s0 but since they are typically either transient or oscillatory they do not contribute appreciably to advection on a longer time scale. 7 ... .. ’ J

  11. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-04

    j7,712 39.72 Barth , Dr. Janos MDF 16,753 34.78 Kosa, Andras FKgP 4,947 25.48 8 Kiskun- Horvath, Dr. Laszlo FKgP 8,649 58.52 halas Toth, Zoltan SZDSZ 6,129...its beginning stages; it requires the participation of In addition, the management/consulting firm Roland Western leasing firms or banks that...ingrad. Training courses for Soviet cadres * FRG * USSR -Business/administrative consulting of Soviet cadres _ Metal factory Leningrad - Roland Berger and

  12. Black Superintendents of Selected American Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negro History Bulletin, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents photographs of 12 Black superintendents of urban school districts. They are: J. Jerome Harris, Ronald Lewis, Willie W. Herenton, Robert R. Wheeler, Alonzo A. Crim, Roland N. Patterson, Jean Franklin Emmons, Charles R. Thomas, Richard C. Hunter, Arthur Jefferson, Ulysses Byas, and Howard E. White, Sr. (GC)

  13. Bibliographic Annual in Speech Communication: 1974. Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennicott, Patrick C., Ed.

    This annotated bibliography is an annual volume devoted to maintaining a record of graduate work in speech communication, providing abstracts of doctoral dissertations, and making subject area bibliographies available. The contents of this volume include "Studies in Mass Communication: A Selected Bibliography, 1973" by Roland C. Johnson and…

  14. The United States Humanitarian Demining Program: Civil-Military Relations in Humanitarian Demining

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    Roland Paris and Timothy D. Sisk, eds., The Dilemmas of Statebuilding: Confronting the Contradictions of Postwar Peace Operations ( Milton Park Abingdon...Timothy D. Sisk, eds. The Dilemmas of Statebuilding: Confronting the Contradictions of Postwar Peace Operations. Milton Park Abingdon Oxon

  15. The Proper Place of Theory in Educational History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the proper place of theory in educational history and shares his comments on the essays by Eileen Tamura, Carolyn Eick, and Roland Coloma. Eileen Tamura's positing of most educational historians as practitioners of narrative history is surely on the mark. She invites historians of education to investigate…

  16. The Role of the State and the Social Partners: Mechanisms and Spheres of Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Training, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This serial issue is devoted to clarifying the attitudes of the various parties or "social partners" to vocational training in the Member States of the European Community. Following an editorial introducing the topic are these articles: "The Community Social Dialogue" (Roland Tavitian); "From the Market Jungle to the…

  17. Benign Childhood Focal Epilepsies: Assessment of Established and Newly Recognized Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panayiotopoulos, Chrysostomos P.; Michael, Michael; Sanders, Sue; Valeta, Thalia; Koutroumanidis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A big advance in epileptology has been the recognition of syndromes with distinct aetiology, clinical and EEG features, treatment and prognosis. A prime and common example of this is rolandic epilepsy that is well known by the general paediatricians for over 50 years, thus allowing a precise diagnosis that predicts an excellent prognosis. However,…

  18. Musical Hunger: A Philosophical Testimonial of Miseducation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reflecting upon Simone Weil's conception of beauty as food, this essay proposes musical hunger as a metaphoric way of understanding a particular species of "cultural miseducation" as conceived by Jane Roland Martin, that disadvantages children musically and perhaps therefore also spiritually. It examines such musical miseducation with regard to an…

  19. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  20. Philosophy, Children and Liberal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, T. M.; Hanna, Patricia

    1981-01-01

    Remarks directed to Peter Augustine Lawler and an earlier article are presented. The rationale for a program of philosophy for children developed at Montclair State College is compared with Roland Garrett's conception of philosophy. Distortions in Lawler's perception of current philosophical practice and teaching are indicated. (MLW)

  1. New Inosine and Guanosine Analogs as Inhibitors of Parasitic Infections.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-30

    include Security Clasification ) New Enosine and Guanosine Analogs as Inhibitors of Parasitic Infections 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Roland K. Robins...a Cary Model 15 spectrophotometer. Elemental analyses were performed by Robertson Labs, Florham Park, NJ. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was run on

  2. The Proper Place of Theory in Educational History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the proper place of theory in educational history and shares his comments on the essays by Eileen Tamura, Carolyn Eick, and Roland Coloma. Eileen Tamura's positing of most educational historians as practitioners of narrative history is surely on the mark. She invites historians of education to investigate…

  3. Educational Studies of Cosmic Rays with a Telescope of Geiger-Muller Counters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wibig, T.; Kolodziejczak, K.; Pierzynski, R.; Sobczak, R.

    2006-01-01

    A group of high school students (XII Liceum) in the framework of the Roland Maze Project has built a compact telescope of three Geiger-Muller counters. The connection between the telescope and a PC computer was also created and programmed by students involved in the Project. This has allowed students to use their equipment to perform serious…

  4. Goals and Objectives of National Science Policy. Science Policy Study--Hearings Volume 1. Hearings before the Task Force on Science Policy of the Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (February 28; March 7, 21, 28; April 4, 1985). No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

    These hearings, which focused on the goals and objectives of national science policy, include discussions, questions and answers for the record, and, when applicable, prepared statements. Individuals appearing during the hearings include: (1) George C. Pimentel; (2) Alex Roland; (3) John S. Foster, Jr.; (4) James B. Wyngaarden; and (5) Lewis M.…

  5. On Universals, Cultural Variations and Individual Uniqueness: Throwing down the Gauntlet in Giftedness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra

    2012-01-01

    Roland S. Persson's (2012a) piece is extremely comprehensive, timely and very relevant especially in light of a growing appreciation of cultural diversity and the emergence of a global community--which is an inevitable offshoot of globalisation that goes beyond world economy and international markets. It covers multiple themes; ranging from…

  6. MX Systems Environmental Programs Scoping Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-14

    Phillips Roland Westergard, Director of Conservation and Nat. Res. Robert Hill, State Planning Coordinator James Wadhams, Director of Department of...Health Bureau, Children’s Serv. STATE TIDUSTRIAL ATIRNEY Bureau, Community Serv. Bureau, Consumer Protect. SECRETARY OF STATE Bureau, Dental Health...operations abide by environmental laws? C. What quantities will be required during construction of the following building materialls ? How and when

  7. Black Superintendents of Selected American Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negro History Bulletin, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents photographs of 12 Black superintendents of urban school districts. They are: J. Jerome Harris, Ronald Lewis, Willie W. Herenton, Robert R. Wheeler, Alonzo A. Crim, Roland N. Patterson, Jean Franklin Emmons, Charles R. Thomas, Richard C. Hunter, Arthur Jefferson, Ulysses Byas, and Howard E. White, Sr. (GC)

  8. The Debate on Dominant Culture and Cultural Imperialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    In this commentary, the author reviews in depth Roland S. Persson's (2012a) target article. According to him Persson (2012a) presents a convincing argument as he wove through examples and explanations. The idea of superculture connects well with the established neocolonial literature and the North-South/Centre-Periphery debate. From general to…

  9. Weapons Acquisition. Processes of Selected Foreign Government.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    period from 1977 to 1985: (1) 5.56mm calibre assault rifle. (2) Milan and Hot antitank weapon systems. (3) Roland ground-to-air weapon system. (4) AMX 30...and standardization edicts . Awards and penalties are laid on accordingly. (7/17, 13/20) The ministries stand apart from one another in the same way

  10. Impacts of the Fleet Response Plan on Surface Combatant Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Plan on Surface Combatant Maintenance Roland J. Yardley, Raj Raman, Jessie Riposo, James Chiesa, John F. Schank Prepared for the United States Navy...Command; CDR Robert Johnson, Kevin Alexander, and LCDR Tony Glover of Commander, Naval Surface Forces Atlantic; and CAPT Larry Olsen and Steve Reynolds

  11. What's Foucault Got to Do with It? History, Theory, and Becoming Subjected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butchart, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    The three essays that make up this issue on theory in educational history by Eileen Tamura, Caroline Eick, and Roland Sintos Coloma constitute an indictment of the field of the history of education for its neglect of theory. Read linearly, from the Introduction through Coloma, the indictment becomes increasingly strident, moving from a gentle call…

  12. An Old-Growth Longleaf Standing South Alabama: Study of an Endangered Ecosystem

    Treesearch

    John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl

    1998-01-01

    Roland Harper, The State Geographer for Alabama in the first half of this century, wrote in his Economic Botany of Alabama (1928) "longleaf pine might have once been the most abundant tree in the United States and was certainly the most abundant tree in Alabama." He went on to say "longleaf had more uses than any other tree in North America, if not the...

  13. Educational Studies of Cosmic Rays with a Telescope of Geiger-Muller Counters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wibig, T.; Kolodziejczak, K.; Pierzynski, R.; Sobczak, R.

    2006-01-01

    A group of high school students (XII Liceum) in the framework of the Roland Maze Project has built a compact telescope of three Geiger-Muller counters. The connection between the telescope and a PC computer was also created and programmed by students involved in the Project. This has allowed students to use their equipment to perform serious…

  14. Building Peace in Warlord Situations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Allie and Roland Wright, “Sierra Leone,” in Comprehending and Mastering African Conflicts, ed. Adebayo Adedeji (New York: Zed Book Ltd, 1999), 185. 45...102 Abass Bundu, Democracy by Force? (United States: Universal Publishers, 2001) 63. 54 document reports of atrocities and

  15. Bullying among Students and Its Consequences on Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houbre, Barbara; Tarquinio, Cyril; Thuillier, Isabelle; Hergott, Emmanuelle

    2006-01-01

    Violence among students at school is an ever-growing problem. Bullying can be defined as all forms of repeated physical or mental violence performed by an individual on another person who is not capable of defending him/herself (Roland & Idsoe, 2001). The three studies conducted here reveal some of the characteristics and implications of this type…

  16. No Such Thing as a Consensus: Olive Banks and the Sociology of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delamont, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The title of this article comes from the editorial written for this journal by Olive Banks, Len Barton, Roger Dale, David Hargreaves, Roland Meighan, Ivan Reid and Graham Vulliamy (Banks et al. 1980, 4) that appeared in its first issue, and set out its remit. The seven scholars who wrote that editorial pledged to "publish high quality work of…

  17. The Scenic Route Is Not Always the Most Informative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Roland S. Persson's (2012a) argument is that there is a dominant research culture in the field of gifts and talents, which must of necessity distort research and practice in cultures which are different. He ties this to the dominance of the global economy and points to the need for more cross-cultural studies. In this commentary, the author points…

  18. Low Efficiency Control Measures for Jet Engine Test Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    replacement cost was based upon filter cost data ob- tained from Mr. Roland Langlois, Owens - Corning Fiberglas Inc., Technical Cen- ter, Granville, Ohio. 3...Torgeson’s theory was used to calculate the collection efficiency of three commercial glass fiber filter media samples obtained from Owens - Corning Fiberglas

  19. The use of prolotherapy in the sacroiliac joint.

    PubMed

    Cusi, M; Saunders, J; Hungerford, B; Wisbey-Roth, T; Lucas, P; Wilson, S

    2010-02-01

    In this study the effectiveness of prolotherapy in the treatment of deficient load transfer of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was determined. A prospective descriptive study. Authors' private practice. 25 patients who consented to treatment and attended for at least one follow-up visit and assessment. From April 2004 to July 2007. Three injections of hypertonic dextrose solution into the dorsal interosseous ligament of the affected SIJ, under CT control, 6 weeks apart. Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale, Roland-Morris 24, Roland-Morris 24 Multiform questionnaires and clinical examination by two authors independently. All patients included in this study attended at least one follow-up visit at 3, 12 or 24 months.. The number of patients at follow-up decreased at 12 and 24 months. Functional questionnaires demonstrated significant improvements for those followed-up at 3, 12 and 24 months (p<0.05). Clinical scores showed significant improvement from commencement to 3, 12 and 24 months (p<0.001). This descriptive study of prolotherapy in private practice has shown positive clinical outcomes for the 76% of patients who attended the 3-month follow-up visit (76% at 12 months and 32% at 24 months). Similar results were found in the questionnaires (Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale, Roland-Morris 24 and Roland-Morris 24 Multiform questionnaires) at 3, 12 and 24 months.

  20. Action-perception connection and the cortical mu rhythm.

    PubMed

    Hari, Riitta

    2006-01-01

    The rolandic mu rhythm consists of two main frequency components: one around 10 Hz and the other around 20 Hz. Reactivity of the mu rhythm, especially its motor cortex 20-Hz component, provides an illuminating window to the involvement of the human sensorimotor system in the loop that connects action and perception with the environment.

  1. Das Sprachlabor und der Audiovisuelle Unterricht (The Language Laboratory and Audiovisual Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenstein, Reinhold, Ed.

    Four articles, written in German, discuss such aspects of the language laboratory as: teaching pronunciation in the laboratory (Heinrich Schrand), the dummy-element in transformational grammar (Helmut Heuer), testing in the language laboratory (Kenneth S. Leigh), and language laboratory work in Finland (Roland Freihoff). Nine book reviews on…

  2. European Consciousness: Towards Defining a Complex Concept and Its Educational Significance (Europaisches Bewusstsein: Zur Definition Eines Vielschichtigen Begriffes und Seiner Bildungstheoretischen Bedeutung)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobst, Solvejg

    2005-01-01

    The present study aims at a definition of "European consciousness". In particular, it draws on Henri Tajfel's theory of social identity as well as Roland Wakenhut's and Jutta Gallenmuller's moral determination of national consciousness. European consciousness is then defined as a sense of belonging which, depending on certain…

  3. Laser Cartridge Concept Development Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    particular, the tech- nical guidance provided by Mr. Roland Wright, and the helpful suggestions from Dr. Rudolph Buser are acknowledged. 11 TABLE OF...Blossom Trail Orlando, FL 32804 Martin Marietta Aerospace Orlando Division P.O. Box 5837 Orlando, FL 32805 Bendix Research Labs ATTN: G. E. Busch

  4. An Analysis of the Distinction between Deep and Shallow Expert Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    DISTRIBUTION LIST [ILLINOIS/WILKINS] Dr. Hayir Hirsh Mr. Roland Jones Dr. Wendy Kellogg Dr. Gary Kies. Dept. of Computer Sci.nc. Mitre Corp., K-1I0 IBM...Department of Statiotics for the Mathematical Sciences Newark, D 19711 R-I28 Moore School Chapel Hill, NC 27114 Busch Campus Philadelphia, PA 19104

  5. Some Thoughts on "Cultural Variation and Dominance in a Globalised Knowledge-Economy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yang; Gentry, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    To view giftedness research in a global context is an important and desirable attempt. Roland S. Persson (2012a), in the target article entitled Cultural Variation and Dominance in a Globalised Knowledge-Economy: Towards a Cultural-Sensitive Research Paradigm in the Science of Giftedness, delivers thought-provoking views in the cultural influences…

  6. 1. Photocopy of photograph (original in the the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (original in the the possession of Roland Champoux, Montpelier, Vermont) Photographer unknown, ca. 1876-1880 Note: Negative measures 8' x 5 1/4', but is printed on 8' x 10' paper GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH (FRONT) AND WEST FACADE (LEFT) BEFORE THE ADDITION OF MANSARD ROOF - Pavilion Hotel, State Street, Montpelier, Washington County, VT

  7. Determination of the Conductivity and Permittivity of the Surface Material and Monitoring of the Outgassing Activity of the Cometary Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grard, R.; Laakso, H.; Hamelin, M.; Goldstein, B.; Winterhalter, D.; Kochan, H.; Ulamec, S.

    1996-03-01

    The Permittivity Probe (PP) is one component of the Surface Electrical, Seismic and Acoustic Monitoring Experiments (SESAME). This suite of instruments is presently under consideration as a payload element of Roland, a cometary lander, which is part of the ESA corner stone mission, ROSETTA.

  8. A Catalyst for Charting a Path to Research Validity in the Field of Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dorothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Roland S. Persson's (2012a) article addresses a concern that many educators have stressed in their theoretical models, namely the importance of the interaction between the individual and the environment, and the impact of culture on not only values and beliefs, but on behaviour. As Persson (2012a) points out these models all have merit, but he…

  9. Numerical Investigation of Dynamic Freefall Penetrometers in Soft Cohesive Marine Sediments Using a Finite Difference Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Murff, and others, “Collapse loads for a cylinder embedded in trench in cohesive soil,” International Journal of Geomechanics , vol. 5, 2005, p. 320...International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics , vol. 6, 1982, pp. 47-76. [16] P. Mott, J. Dorgan, and C. Roland, “The

  10. The Role of the Buffalo Soldiers during the Spanish-American War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Albert M. Jones Timothy Breen Berry F. Taylor Thomas P. Ledgwidge John Mulisn Harman H. Wynkoop James M. Dean Edward C. Waller G. Roland Fortescue... Leary 0. Hunt, LeRoy R. Houston, Robert C. James, Frank W. Johnson, Charles Johnson, Harry F. Johnson, Lewis L. Kehoe, Michael J. Keim, Amandus

  11. Antibodies to Squalene in US Navy Persian Gulf War Veterans with Chronic Multisymptom Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    of the Gulf war: cross sectional study. BMJ 2000;320(May (7246)):1363–7 [see comment]. [30] Taylor DN, Sanchez JL, Smoak BL, DeFraites R. Helicobacter ... pylori infection in Desert Storm troops. Clin Infect Dis 1997;25(November (5)):979–82. [31] Haley RW, Hom J, Roland PS, BryanWW, Van Ness PC, Bonte FJ

  12. Musical Hunger: A Philosophical Testimonial of Miseducation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reflecting upon Simone Weil's conception of beauty as food, this essay proposes musical hunger as a metaphoric way of understanding a particular species of "cultural miseducation" as conceived by Jane Roland Martin, that disadvantages children musically and perhaps therefore also spiritually. It examines such musical miseducation with regard to an…

  13. 75 FR 9028 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... JUNG EUN CHOI SOO KYUNG CHOLAT ROMAIN JEAN-PIERRE CHOU KUANG-TAO CHRISTEN JEROME ROLAND FREDERIC CHU... NARENDRA KUMAR JOHNSON KENNETH JOHNSTON PETER BENJAMIN JONES DENIS JAMES JUN KENNETH SUNG HO JUNG DIANNE KAECH ARIANNE KAMER CIHAN KANG JUCHAN KANG JUNG SOOK KAPADIA SALMA I KARCH ROBERT B...

  14. Empire: An Analytical Category for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    In this article Roland Sintos Coloma argues for the relevance of empire as an analytical category in educational research. He points out the silence in mainstream studies of education on the subject of empire, the various interpretive approaches to deploying empire as an analytic, and the importance of indigeneity in research on empire and…

  15. The Body of Persuasion: A Theory of the Enthymeme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Examines the primary and not exclusively Aristotelian sources from which a more adequate concept of the enthymeme can be derived. Considers the relevance of that concept to the analysis of modern discourse. Analyzes works by Martin Luther King, Jr., and Roland Barthes as examples of enthymeming. (HB)

  16. 1967: The Birth of "The Death of the Author"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logie, John

    2013-01-01

    Roland Barthes's "The Death of the Author" is a foundational text for scholars who are addressing questions of authorship and textual ownership in English studies and its neighboring disciplines. Barthes's essay is typically presented without significant attention to the circumstances and context surrounding its initial English…

  17. The Myth in the Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles; Corcoran, Farrel

    Reflecting the ideas of Roland Barthes, this paper examines the nature and importance of myth as a type of speech. The investigation proceeds by discussing myth from the perspectives of both traditional and contemporary disciplines, then considers the universality of myth, its religious impulse, and its functions. Using examples from television…

  18. Revision Hope: Writing Disruption in Composition Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Uses Roland Barthes's metaphor of the "punctum" to explore the transformative potential of disruptions. Argues that writing teachers have been trained to read disruption in texts and classrooms as "evidence of poor taste or failed pedagogy," but that disruptions delay closure and thereby create spaces wherein theories and…

  19. Literary Theory and the Notion of Difficulty. Report Series 4.7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touponce, William

    The works of French literary theorists Jacques Lacan, Jacques Derrida, and Roland Barthes reflect a view of the text as the primary object of investigation for any discipline in the human sciences. Each of the three has been involved with pedagogical reforms within French cultural institutions: Derrida with the teaching of philosophy, Lacan with…

  20. Constructing an Ethical Writer for the Postmodern Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassett, Michael J.

    The advent of postmodern criticism has brought about numerous changes in the way those in the academy read and teach the reading of texts. From Michel Foucault's "What is an Author?" to Roland Barthes'"The Death of the Author" and beyond, critics and theorists have sought to decrease the author-ity of the material that is read.…

  1. Hermeneutic and Cultural Codes of S/Z: A Semiological Reading of James Joyce's "The Boarding House"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booryazadeh, Seyed Ali; Faghfori, Sohila; Shamsi, Habibe

    2014-01-01

    Roland Barthes as a fervent proponent of semiology believes that semiology is a branch of a comprehensive linguistics: it is the study of how language articulates the world. Semiotic codes, the paths of this articulation, accordingly underlie his attention. Barthes in a structural analysis of Balzac's "Sarrasine" in S/Z expounds five…

  2. A Semiotic Perspective on the Technical and Professional Writing Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westmoreland, Kay

    1995-01-01

    Uses central ideas from Roland Barthes's essays on connotative semiotics as a rationale for directing students in technical and professional writing classes to develop the critical reflex to analyze and then make judgments about the values implied by connotative systems. (SR)

  3. Discovery of the Self through the Writing Process: Autobiography as a Heuristic of Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, Mary Ellen

    Although the recent thrust toward writing as interaction with a text has led to de-emphasis of personal-experience writing per se, autobiography, if approached in the context of textuality (in Roland Barthes's sense), can provide a model for writing as a means of discovering one's identity--of interacting with life as text and with the written…

  4. Nouvelle Critique et dix-neuvieme siecle (New Criticism and the Nineteenth Century)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hytier, Jean

    1970-01-01

    Presents contrasting views of some French literary critics including Georges Poulet, Charles Mauron, Jean-Pierre Richard, Jean-Paul Weber, and Roland Barthes. Paper read at the Annual Meeting of the Modern Language Association of America (MLA) December 28, 1968 in New York, New York. (DS)

  5. "Fare from the Madding Crowd": The Lighter Side of Error in Student Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Gary; Wenner, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Discusses two intriguing ways of explaining error in student writing--the work of Michel Foucault and the work of Roland Barthes. Describes in-class activities and essay assignments that use these perspectives to help students to reach improved understanding of error in writing. (SR)

  6. No Child Left Behind and the Spectacle of Failing Schools: The Mythology of Contemporary School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, David A.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses what David Berliner (2005) has called the perverse "spectacle of fear" (208) surrounding issues of teacher quality and accountability in contemporary school reform. Drawing principally on the critical semiotics of Roland Barthes' essay, "The World of Wrestling" (1957), it examines the way that this…

  7. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  8. Wallace Stevens: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borroff, Marie, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Marie Borroff, Wallace Stevens, Joseph N. Riddle, Hi Simons, Sister M. Bernetta Quinn, C. Roland Wagner, Harold Bloom, Ralph J. Mills, Jr., Roy Harvey Pearce, Louis L. Martz, Morton Dauwen Zabel, and Northrop Frye--all…

  9. European Consciousness: Towards Defining a Complex Concept and Its Educational Significance (Europaisches Bewusstsein: Zur Definition Eines Vielschichtigen Begriffes und Seiner Bildungstheoretischen Bedeutung)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobst, Solvejg

    2005-01-01

    The present study aims at a definition of "European consciousness". In particular, it draws on Henri Tajfel's theory of social identity as well as Roland Wakenhut's and Jutta Gallenmuller's moral determination of national consciousness. European consciousness is then defined as a sense of belonging which, depending on certain…

  10. Flomaton Natural Area: A Living Museum for Longleaf Pine

    Treesearch

    John S. Kush

    1999-01-01

    Roland Harper, Alabama state geographer in the first half of this century, wrote in his Economic Botany of Alabama (1928). "Longleaf pine might have once been the most abundant tree in the United States and was certainly the most abundant tree in Alabama." He went on to say, "longleaf had more uses than any other tree in North America...

  11. Benign Childhood Focal Epilepsies: Assessment of Established and Newly Recognized Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panayiotopoulos, Chrysostomos P.; Michael, Michael; Sanders, Sue; Valeta, Thalia; Koutroumanidis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A big advance in epileptology has been the recognition of syndromes with distinct aetiology, clinical and EEG features, treatment and prognosis. A prime and common example of this is rolandic epilepsy that is well known by the general paediatricians for over 50 years, thus allowing a precise diagnosis that predicts an excellent prognosis. However,…

  12. No Such Thing as a Consensus: Olive Banks and the Sociology of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delamont, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The title of this article comes from the editorial written for this journal by Olive Banks, Len Barton, Roger Dale, David Hargreaves, Roland Meighan, Ivan Reid and Graham Vulliamy (Banks et al. 1980, 4) that appeared in its first issue, and set out its remit. The seven scholars who wrote that editorial pledged to "publish high quality work of…

  13. A Semiotic Perspective on the Technical and Professional Writing Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westmoreland, Kay

    1995-01-01

    Uses central ideas from Roland Barthes's essays on connotative semiotics as a rationale for directing students in technical and professional writing classes to develop the critical reflex to analyze and then make judgments about the values implied by connotative systems. (SR)

  14. "Fare from the Madding Crowd": The Lighter Side of Error in Student Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Gary; Wenner, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Discusses two intriguing ways of explaining error in student writing--the work of Michel Foucault and the work of Roland Barthes. Describes in-class activities and essay assignments that use these perspectives to help students to reach improved understanding of error in writing. (SR)

  15. Discovery of the Self through the Writing Process: Autobiography as a Heuristic of Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, Mary Ellen

    Although the recent thrust toward writing as interaction with a text has led to de-emphasis of personal-experience writing per se, autobiography, if approached in the context of textuality (in Roland Barthes's sense), can provide a model for writing as a means of discovering one's identity--of interacting with life as text and with the written…

  16. The Body of Persuasion: A Theory of the Enthymeme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Examines the primary and not exclusively Aristotelian sources from which a more adequate concept of the enthymeme can be derived. Considers the relevance of that concept to the analysis of modern discourse. Analyzes works by Martin Luther King, Jr., and Roland Barthes as examples of enthymeming. (HB)

  17. Nouvelle Critique et dix-neuvieme siecle (New Criticism and the Nineteenth Century)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hytier, Jean

    1970-01-01

    Presents contrasting views of some French literary critics including Georges Poulet, Charles Mauron, Jean-Pierre Richard, Jean-Paul Weber, and Roland Barthes. Paper read at the Annual Meeting of the Modern Language Association of America (MLA) December 28, 1968 in New York, New York. (DS)

  18. 1967: The Birth of "The Death of the Author"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logie, John

    2013-01-01

    Roland Barthes's "The Death of the Author" is a foundational text for scholars who are addressing questions of authorship and textual ownership in English studies and its neighboring disciplines. Barthes's essay is typically presented without significant attention to the circumstances and context surrounding its initial English…

  19. Revision Hope: Writing Disruption in Composition Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Uses Roland Barthes's metaphor of the "punctum" to explore the transformative potential of disruptions. Argues that writing teachers have been trained to read disruption in texts and classrooms as "evidence of poor taste or failed pedagogy," but that disruptions delay closure and thereby create spaces wherein theories and…

  20. No Child Left Behind and the Spectacle of Failing Schools: The Mythology of Contemporary School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, David A.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses what David Berliner (2005) has called the perverse "spectacle of fear" (208) surrounding issues of teacher quality and accountability in contemporary school reform. Drawing principally on the critical semiotics of Roland Barthes' essay, "The World of Wrestling" (1957), it examines the way that this…

  1. Wallace Stevens: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borroff, Marie, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Marie Borroff, Wallace Stevens, Joseph N. Riddle, Hi Simons, Sister M. Bernetta Quinn, C. Roland Wagner, Harold Bloom, Ralph J. Mills, Jr., Roy Harvey Pearce, Louis L. Martz, Morton Dauwen Zabel, and Northrop Frye--all…

  2. Strategies of Organizational Survival: The Case of a National Program for Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Ronald G.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a series of strategies that enabled a nationwide government program, the Teacher Corps, to survive, despite formidable external and internal constraints, and suggests some general patterns that may apply to other cases. Comments by Richard A. Graham and Roland L. Warren. (Author)

  3. Thymic emigration: conveyor belts or lucky dips?

    PubMed

    Scollay, R; Godfrey, D I

    1995-06-01

    The thymic medulla has always seemed a rather uncomplicated compartment, simply storing mature thymocytes until they are exported to the peripheral lymphoid organs. However, as discussed here by Roland Scollay and Dale Godfrey, a careful look at recent data suggests that events in the medulla may be more complex and protracted than previously thought.

  4. The Scenic Route Is Not Always the Most Informative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Roland S. Persson's (2012a) argument is that there is a dominant research culture in the field of gifts and talents, which must of necessity distort research and practice in cultures which are different. He ties this to the dominance of the global economy and points to the need for more cross-cultural studies. In this commentary, the author points…

  5. Geomorphic Mapping Pool 7 - Upper Mississippi River Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-05

    in the conversion of raw organic material to humus , the mixing of organic and inorganic material, the creation of channels, and the vertical...Mississippi River, Quaternary Research 20: 165-176. GALLAGHER, JAMES P., ROLAND RODELL, and KATHERINE STEVENSON , 1982, The 1980-1982 LaCrosse Area

  6. Simulation Development for Silo Test Program (STP). Volume 2. Detonation Characterization of NA/NP (Aqueous Nitric Acid/Nitropropane) and NPN (Nitropropane Nitrate).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-31

    for advice and information on NPN; and Dr. Roland Franzen, Ford Laboratories, Inc., for discussions on NPN. Within SRI, we thank Mr. Darwin R. Henley...for constructing the targets, Mr. Daniel F. Walter for operating electronic instrumentation, Mssrs. Hugh E. Hanna, George S. Cartwright , and Kennard E

  7. PSynUTC - Evaluation of a High-Precision Time Synchronization Prototype System for Ethernet LANs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    now been taken over by our spin-off company Oregano Systems (http://www.oregano.at). Roland Höller, Nikolaus Kerö Department of Computer Technology... Oregano Systems, will demonstrate the feasibility of GPS time distribution and time synchronization in Ethernet- based LANs with a worst-case

  8. Empire: An Analytical Category for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    In this article Roland Sintos Coloma argues for the relevance of empire as an analytical category in educational research. He points out the silence in mainstream studies of education on the subject of empire, the various interpretive approaches to deploying empire as an analytic, and the importance of indigeneity in research on empire and…

  9. What's Foucault Got to Do with It? History, Theory, and Becoming Subjected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butchart, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    The three essays that make up this issue on theory in educational history by Eileen Tamura, Caroline Eick, and Roland Sintos Coloma constitute an indictment of the field of the history of education for its neglect of theory. Read linearly, from the Introduction through Coloma, the indictment becomes increasingly strident, moving from a gentle call…

  10. How We Teach Is What We Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Richard F.

    1989-01-01

    C. Roland Christensen's 13 sessions on "Teaching and the Case Method" are discussed. This collection of cases and readings on teaching with the case method in graduate professional programs and in the liberal arts is a statement of the rationale, methods, and recurring problems of the case method. It has much to say, also, about teaching and…

  11. The Time Is Ripe (Again)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Roland S.

    2013-01-01

    "It's always been a promising time for teacher leadership. It's just never been a successful time," writes noted educator Roland Barth. Why? Barth points to five obstacles: administrator resistance, the taboo in teaching against elevating oneself higher than one's peers, the fact that teachers' plates are full, the…

  12. On Universals, Cultural Variations and Individual Uniqueness: Throwing down the Gauntlet in Giftedness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra

    2012-01-01

    Roland S. Persson's (2012a) piece is extremely comprehensive, timely and very relevant especially in light of a growing appreciation of cultural diversity and the emergence of a global community--which is an inevitable offshoot of globalisation that goes beyond world economy and international markets. It covers multiple themes; ranging from…

  13. The Cenozoic Diversity of Agglutinated Foraminifera - Evidence for a late Oligocene to early Miocene diversification event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Michael; Setoyama, Eiichi; Kender, Sev; Cetean, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The agglutinated foraminifera are among the most abundant micro-organisms in the deep marine environment and have a diversity record extending back to the late Precambrian. We present an updated diversity curve for agglutinated foraminiferal genera based on the stratigraphic ranges of all the agglutinated genera recognized as valid in the classification of Kaminski (2014). The data set for this analysis is based on the stratigraphic ranges of agglutinated genera published in Foraminiferal Genera and their Classification, which has been subsequently updated based on published studies and our new observations. The mean standing diversity of agglutinated foraminiferal genera was compiled by counting the number of boundary crossers rather than the number of genera in each stage. In this study, we report the stratigraphic and geographical occurrence of a benthic foraminiferal diversification event that has previously received little attention. In the latest Oligocene to earliest Miocene a number of trochospiral agglutinated genera with alveolar or canaliculate walls first appeared in the fossil record. Our studies of late Oligocene of the Congo fan, offshore Angola (Kender et al., 2008; Cetean and Kaminski, 2011) have revealed a diverse assemblage that includes new taxa of deep-water agglutinated foraminifera. In a biostratigraphic study of the Miocene foraminiferal assemblages Kender et al. (2008) noted steadily increasing diversity and proportions of infaunal agglutinated foraminiferal morphotypes over the lower Miocene interval. The proportion of infaunal agglutinated foraminifera assigned to the order Textularida increased dramatically in the lower mid-Miocene, suggesting expansion of the oxygen minimum zone into deeper waters. In addition to the trochospiral alveolar genera, several species of Reticulophragmium and Cyclammina display rapid diversification into numerous separate lineages that are at present not reflected in our generic diversity record owing to

  14. Naval Biodynamics Laboratory 1993 Command History

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Institute for Perception, TNO Soesterberg, The Netherlands LCDR Jeff Blevins Navy Foreign Liaison Office, Washington, D.C. Mr. James Bost NAVSEA 05D7...Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, D.C. Captain T. Jones Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA Dr. Jeff Keuhn University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK...National Defence Research Establishment firsoirden, Sweden Mr. Roland Palmer Coastal Systems Station, Panama City, FL Mr. Bill Patten University of Oklahoma

  15. Descriptive Summaries of the Research Development Test & Evaluation Army Appropriation FY 1983. Supporting Data FY 1983, Budget Estimate Submitted to Congress February 1982. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    in such systems as the Medium Antitank Assault Wespon (DRAGON) night tracker (Program Element (PE 2.37.2t.A), the Night Observation Device Long Range...The increase In FY82 funding supports a classified pro- gram . The increase In funding for FY83 results from funding procurement of additional Forward...weather CHAVARRAL demr ,stration pro- gram to provide a hedge against ROLAND technical and funding problems. The program was successfully complet.d

  16. Metabolism, Mass Spectral Analysis and Mode of Action of Trichothecene Mycotoxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-12

    AD --------------- METABOLISM, MASS SPECTRAL ANALYSIS AND MODE OF ACTION OF TRICHOTHECENE MYCOTOXINS W ANNUAL REPORT 12 OCTOBER 1988 CHESTER J...Trichothecene Mycotoxins 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) . Chester J. Mirocha, Robert J. Pawlosky, and Roland Gunther 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14...SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP RA 1, Mycotoxins , T-2 toxin, Mass spectra, metabolism 06

  17. Midwave Infrared Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometry of Combustion Plumes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    an amplitude-splitting interferometer, its most common form being that of a Michel - son interferometer. A Michelson interferometer consists of a lens...with variations in source intensity, as opposed to interference modulation due to the Michel - 53 Figure 18. Rake of six k-type thermocouples to make...imaging sensor”. volume 6398, 63980T. SPIE, 2006. [23] Flores-Jardines, Edgar, Klaus Schäfer, Roland Harig, Peter Rusch, and Michel Grutter

  18. The International Legal Ramifications of United States Counter-Proliferation Strategy: Problems and Prospects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    following individuals for their support throughout this sometimes tortuous process: Lynne Wurzburg, Esq., Dr. William G.D. Frederick , Roland Young...Esq., Ms. Maria Kelly, and Sarah A. Wagman, Esq. I also must express my deepest gratitude to Mrs. Geralyn Frederick , whose strength throughout her...Presiden t F.W. De Klerk admitted that South Africa at one time possessed a small number of nuclear warheads; however, according to De Klerk , South

  19. The Cortical Connectivity of the Prefrontal Cortex in the Monkey Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yeterian, Edward H.; Pandya, Deepak N.; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Petrides, Michael

    2011-01-01

    One dimension of understanding the functions of the prefrontal cortex is knowledge of cortical connectivity. We have surveyed three aspects of prefrontal cortical connections: local projections (within the frontal lobe), the termination patterns of long association (post-Rolandic) projections, and the trajectories of major fiber pathways. The local connections appear to be organized in relation to dorsal (hippocampal origin) and ventral (paleocortical origin) architectonic trends. According to the proposal of a dual origin of the cerebral cortex, cortical areas can be traced as originating from archicortex (hippocampus) on the one hand, and paleocortex, on the other hand, in a stepwise manner (e.g., Sanides, 1969; Pandya and Yeterian, 1985). Prefrontal areas within each trend are connected with less architectonically differentiated areas, and, on the other hand, with more differentiated areas. Such organization may allow for the systematic exchange of information within each architectonic trend. The long connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions seem to be organized preferentially in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Prefrontal areas are connected with post-Rolandic auditory, visual and somatosensory association areas, and with multimodal and paralimbic regions. This long connectivity likely works in conjunction with local connections to serve prefrontal cortical functions. The afferent and efferent connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions are conveyed by specific long association pathways. These pathways as well appear to be organized in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Finally, although prefrontal areas have preferential connections in relation to dual architectonic trends, it is clear that there are interconnections between and among areas in each trend, which may provide a substrate for the overall integrative function of the prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal

  20. TSA - a Two Scale Approximation for Wind-generated Ocean Surface Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    aquaculture , coastal transportation. Better forecasts, with longer lead-time, and better accuracy can help reduce potential risk to these economic...developments, due to ocean waves. Quality of Life Development of the coastal zone involves residences, recreation, fisheries, aquaculture , coastal...Babanin, J. F. Filipot, R. Magne, A. Roland, A. van der Westhuysen, P. Queffeulou, J. M. Lefevre, L . Aouf, and F. Collard (2010), Semiempirical

  1. Performance Analysis of Live-Virtual-Constructive and Distributed Virtual Simulations: Defining Requirements in Terms of Temporal Consistency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    owned and not proprietary. It is managed by the SIMAF facility located at WPAFB, OH. 115 Bibliography BCE+06. Dean Bowley, Paul Comeau, Roland Edwards... Paul J. Hiniker, Geoff Howes, Richard A. Kass, Paul Labbé, Chris Morris, Rick Nunes-Vaz, Jon Vaughan, Sophie Villeneuve, Mike Wahl, Kendall Wheaton...Narayanan. Design & Imple- mentation of Virtual and Constructive Simulations Using OpenEaagles. Linus Publications, 2009. 119 RJL+97. Maria Roussos

  2. Session: Reservoir Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  3. The Independent European Force: Costs of Independence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Western European Union (WEU). Advocates of this approach see the European effort as complementary to NATO and oriented toward coalitional activities...Board Spot) Seaport ofdebarkation USAF United States Air Force WEU Western European Union 1.Introduction Background Th amunceoMentAS I in May 1991...Europe-has sparked criticism within Europe. Speaking at a miseting of the Western European Union (WEU), French Foreign Minister Roland Dumnas argued that

  4. Functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunting for hydrocephalus--case report.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, T; Luciano, M G; Liu, J Z; Yue, G H

    2001-12-01

    A 70-year-old man with hydrocephalus was examined with functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Preoperatively, activation by right hand exercise revealed only a slight signal increase in the peri-rolandic area. However, 3 months after ventriculoperitoneal shunting, a significant signal increase was observed. fMR imaging may detect activity-related improvement of cerebral blood flow responses in patients with hydrocephalus after surgical treatment.

  5. Tactile Sensing and Control in Humans and Robotic/Teleoperated Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-04

    Applied Sciences, Harvard University Cambridge, MA 02138 in collaboration with: Prof. Roland Johansson Dr. Goran Westling Dr. Benoni Edin Dept. of...focused on sensor-based grasp force control. This work was initiated in February, 1991, during a visit by Edin, Westling and Howe at Stanford...Suggestions from Edin and Westling resulted in reformulations of the robotic skin and improved slip detection strategies. A modified version of the

  6. 737 Windshear Tests, Orlando

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA researchers evaluating wind shear sensor displays in the experimental flight deck at NASA's Boeing 737 research aircraft. During this flight test program, over 75 microbursts were penetrated at altitudes from 800-1100 ft to test the performance of radar, lidar and infrared wind shear sensors. Pictured from left to right are Wind Shear Program Manager Roland Bowles, NASA research pilot Lee Person, Wind Shear Program Deputy Manager Michael Lewis, NASA research engineer David Hinton, NASA research engineer Emedio Bracalante.

  7. Fireworks under the microscope: a spectacular new species of Zodiomyces from the Thaxter collection.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Walter; Haelewaters, Danny; Pfister, Donald H

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Zodiomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) is described, Z. rhizophorus, parasitic on a hydrophilid beetle (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) from Trinidad. This species was discovered during the examination of the slides of Laboulbeniales made by Roland Thaxter. It is characterized by numerous long, slender, multicellular and multiseriate outgrowths at the base of the receptacle. Thaxter's outstanding illustrations have set a standard in the field of mycology; we provide a review of the methods he employed in the preparation of these illustrations.

  8. Cortical gamma-oscillations modulated by listening and overt repetition of phonemes

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Miho; Rothermel, Robert; Juhász, Csaba; Nishida, Masaaki; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Both superior temporal gyrus and inferior Rolandic area have been reported to be involved in perception and production of speech in humans. Here, we determined how these cortical structures were activated by listening and subsequent overt articulation of syllables, by measuring event-related gamma-oscillations as quantitative measures of cortical activation. Fifteen subjects were presented an auditory syllable consisting of either ‘fee [fi:]’, ‘faa [fα:]’, ‘hee [hi:]’, or ‘haa [hα:]’, and were instructed to overtly repeat each given syllable. Gamma-oscillations in the superior temporal gyrus were highly augmented during syllable-presentation, least augmented at the onset of syllable-articulation, and again highly augmented following syllable-articulation. Gamma-oscillations were augmented in the inferior Rolandic area prior to and during syllable-articulation with the onset and peak occurring earlier in the left side. Subsets of the inferior Rolandic sites, more frequently on the left side, showed differential gamma-augmentation elicited by articulation of phoneme [f] more than [h] or phoneme [i:] more than [α:]. Our observations suggest that the superior temporal gyrus may be active when externally-presented or articulated auditory stimuli are present, and may be minimally active when articulation is about to be initiated. Our novel observation of phoneme-specific differential gamma-augmentation in the inferior Rolandic area may be partially attributed to the mouth position during phoneme-articulation. Our observations support the hypothesis that positioning of the mouth to articulate phonemes is predominantly driven and/or monitored by the primary sensorimotor area on the left side. PMID:19874898

  9. Data-Based Methods for AB Initio Protein Structure Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Keith L. Frost

    2002-11-07

    OAK 270 - Per the DOE Project Officer ''Roland Hirsh'' Germantown, Md. The required final report for this award has been waived due to the fact Dr Keith Frost who was the P.I. on the research took a leave of absence at the end of March 2000, and left the university without an approval. The University adjusted their records to reflect this early termination; no further funding applied.

  10. 3D Printed Fluidic Hardware for DNA Assembly

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-10

    initiatives such as the FabLab Foundation10. Access to digital fabrication tools and open electronics, such as Arduino and Raspberry Pi, enables access to...mill (Roland DG Corporation, Hamamatsu, Japan) running Arduino firmware. A user interface (Supplementary Figure 9) enabled the user to control the...A3909 stepper motor driver, were soldered onto the milled circuit board (Supplementary Figure 8). Custom Arduino -based firmware was written to take

  11. Concurrent validity of questionnaire and performance-based disability measurements in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain.

    PubMed

    Reneman, Michiel F; Jorritsma, Wim; Schellekens, Jan M H; Göeken, Ludwig N H

    2002-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the concurrent validity of two approaches to disability measurement in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (CLBP). It was hypothesized that if both are measuring the same construct, the instruments would lead to similar disability results and would correlate strongly (r > 0.75). The study compared the results of self-reported and performance-based measures of disability in 64 consecutive patients with CLBP. Participants mean age was 38.0 years, the mean duration of the current episode of back pain 9.9 months, and 90% were off work due to CLBP. The self-report measures used were: the Roland Disability Questionnaire (Roland); the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (Oswestry); and the Quebec Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (Quebec). Performance was measured using the Isernhagen Work Systems Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE). The mean scores from the self-report measure are as follows: Roland 13.5 (scale 0-24), Oswestry 28.2 (scale 0-100), Quebec 37.8 (scale 0-100) consistent with moderate to severe disability. In contrast the results from the performance-based measures suggested that the subjects should be able to work at a physical intensity level of moderate to heavy. Little to moderate correlation was observed between the self-report and performance-based measures (Spearman rank correlations: Roland-FCE (-0.20), p > 0.05; Oswestry-FCE (-0.52), p < 0.01; Quebec-FCE (-0.50), p < 0.01). Results are interpreted to suggest that both performance-based and self-report measures of disability should be used in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the disability in patients with CLBP.

  12. Aircraft Survivability. Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Surviving an Aircraft Crash with Airbag Restraintsby Thomas Barth Inflatable restraint solutions have improved the survivability of commercial...Surviving an Aircraft Crash with Airbag Restraints by Thomas Barth Transport Aircraft Interiors The AmSafe Aviation Airbag entered service on commercial...all night.” Keithley also noted that, in his early days at BRL, Walt teamed up with a group of like-minded innovators, including Jim Foulk, Roland

  13. Neuromagnetic Investigation of Workload and Attention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-24

    known to include large numbers of . . .¢ neurons in the posterior bank of the central sulcus (the Rolandic fissure), and they are likely to be...Subsequent surgery -- ERP researchers are generally convinced that revealed the presence of small tumors. Barth et P300 is related to certain kinds of...sensitive than the rf 16. Sutherling W. Barth DS. Beattv V Mlainetic fields of SQUID used in our earlier systems. SQUID son- epileptic spike foci

  14. The Future of American Power: Energy and National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-17

    that 1.5 million electric cars could be on US highways by 2015, rising to over 10 million by 2020. 36 12 China and India recognize the impending...clean-fleet-articles/top- electric - cars -2010/. Andrews-Speed, Philip, Xuanli Lia, and and Roland Dannreuther. The Strategic Implications of...top- electric - cars -2010/. 37 Wong, Julian and Andrew Light, “China Begins Its Transition to a Clean-Energy Economy,” Washington, DC: Center for

  15. Cortical gamma-oscillations modulated by listening and overt repetition of phonemes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Miho; Rothermel, Robert; Juhász, Csaba; Nishida, Masaaki; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2010-02-01

    Both superior temporal gyrus and inferior Rolandic area have been reported to be involved in perception and production of speech in humans. Here, we determined how these cortical structures were activated by listening and subsequent overt articulation of syllables, by measuring event-related gamma-oscillations as quantitative measures of cortical activation. Fifteen subjects were presented an auditory syllable consisting of either "fee [fi:]," "faa [falpha:]," "hee [hi:]," or "haa [halpha:]," and were instructed to overtly repeat each given syllable. Gamma-oscillations in the superior temporal gyrus were highly augmented during syllable-presentation, least augmented at the onset of syllable-articulation, and again highly augmented following syllable-articulation. Gamma-oscillations were augmented in the inferior Rolandic area prior to and during syllable-articulation with the onset and peak occurring earlier in the left side. Subsets of the inferior Rolandic sites, more frequently on the left side, showed differential gamma-augmentation elicited by articulation of phoneme [f] more than [h] or phoneme [i:] more than [alpha:]. Our observations suggest that the superior temporal gyrus may be active when externally presented or articulated auditory stimuli are present, and may be minimally active when articulation is about to be initiated. Our novel observation of phoneme-specific differential gamma-augmentation in the inferior Rolandic area may be partially attributed to the mouth position during phoneme-articulation. Our observations support the hypothesis that positioning of the mouth to articulate phonemes is predominantly driven and/or monitored by the primary sensorimotor area on the left side. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Al Qaeda’s Millenarian Doctrine: Implications for US Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-15

    Alfred A. Knopf, 2006), 47. 15 Roland Jacquard, In the Name of Osama Bin Laden: Global Terrorism and the Bin Laden Brotherhood (Durham, Duke...C8591-988.xml. 24 Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11, (New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 2006), 37. 25 Mark R. Reiff...Barracks, PA: US Army War College, 2010), 362. 35 Paul Kennedy and William I. Hitchcock , From War to Peace: Altered Strategic Lascapes in the Twentieth

  17. The United States Air Force in Southeast Asia, 1961-1973

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    William Greenhalgh J. C. Hopkins William B. Karstetter Robert R. Kritt Doris A. Krudener Kenneth L. Patchin Ralph A. Rowley Jacob Van Staaveren Bernard T...220 XIII. CONTROL OF STRIKE AND DEFENSE FORCES ................ 223 by Roland W. Doty, Jr. and Doris A. Krudener...power. Friendly casual- ties totaled seven wounded. A few days later Richard M. Nixon During the same period-between 8 defeated Hubert H. Humphrey in the

  18. Extending Depot Length and Intervals for DDG 51 Class Ships: Examining the 72 Month Operational Cycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Extending Depot Length and Intervals for DDG-51-Class Ships Examining the 72- Month Operational Cycle Roland J. Yardley, Daniel Tremblay, Brian...to a 36- month Optimized Fleet Response Plan operational cycle. However, with the constrained budget environment, the Navy is evaluating how best to...Class Ships: The 72- Month Cycle removal of the crew during the execution of maintenance to mitigate costs in this employment approach. This research

  19. Spatial agraphia.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Rosselli, M

    1993-07-01

    Twenty-one patients with right hemisphere damage were studied (11 men, 10 women; average age = 41.33; age range 19-65). Subjects were divided into two groups: pre-Rolandic (6) and retro-Rolandic (15) right hemisphere damaged patients. A special writing test was given to each patient. The writing errors observed included literal substitutions, feature omissions and additions, letter omissions and additions, inability to maintain horizontal writing, inappropriate grouping and fragmentation of elements, and changes in handwriting style. Associated disorders included left-hemiparesis, visual field defects, spatial hemi-neglect, constructional apraxia, spatial alexia, and spatial acalculia. It is proposed that spatial agraphia is related to: (1) left hemi-neglect, (2) constructional deficits, (3) general spatial defects, and (4) some motor disautomatization and tendency to perseverate. In cases of right frontal damage, motor-associated deficits (iterations of features and letters) predominated, whereas in cases of posterior right hemisphere damage, spatial defects (inappropriate distribution of written material in the space, grouping of letters belonging to different words, and splitting of words) were more evident. Writing impairments are in general more noticeable in cases of retro-Rolandic damage.

  20. Investigating emotion with music: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fritz, Thomas; V Cramon, D Yves; Müller, Karsten; Friederici, Angela D

    2006-03-01

    The present study used pleasant and unpleasant music to evoke emotion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine neural correlates of emotion processing. Unpleasant (permanently dissonant) music contrasted with pleasant (consonant) music showed activations of amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and temporal poles. These structures have previously been implicated in the emotional processing of stimuli with (negative) emotional valence; the present data show that a cerebral network comprising these structures can be activated during the perception of auditory (musical) information. Pleasant (contrasted to unpleasant) music showed activations of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, inferior Brodmann's area (BA) 44, BA 45, and BA 46), the anterior superior insula, the ventral striatum, Heschl's gyrus, and the Rolandic operculum. IFG activations appear to reflect processes of music-syntactic analysis and working memory operations. Activations of Rolandic opercular areas possibly reflect the activation of mirror-function mechanisms during the perception of the pleasant tunes. Rolandic operculum, anterior superior insula, and ventral striatum may form a motor-related circuitry that serves the formation of (premotor) representations for vocal sound production during the perception of pleasant auditory information. In all of the mentioned structures, except the hippocampus, activations increased over time during the presentation of the musical stimuli, indicating that the effects of emotion processing have temporal dynamics; the temporal dynamics of emotion have so far mainly been neglected in the functional imaging literature. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. A tailored exercise program versus general exercise for a subgroup of patients with low back pain and movement control impairment: Short-term results of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Saner, Jeannette; Sieben, Judith M; Kool, Jan; Luomajoki, Hannu; Bastiaenen, Carolien H G; de Bie, Rob A

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is an effective treatment for patients with sub-acute and chronic low back pain (LBP). Patients with a movement control impairment (MCI) can be diagnosed as a subgroup of patients with LBP. Unknown is which exercise intervention is most beneficial for this subgroup. This study assessed the short-term effect of a specific exercise program targeting movement control impairment versus general exercise treatment on disability in patients with LBP and MCI. In a multicentre parallel group randomised controlled pragmatic trial, patients with sub-acute and chronic LBP were included. Further inclusion criteria were disability of ≥5 points on the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and ≥2 positive tests out of a set of 6 movement control impairment tests. A total of 106 patients were randomly assigned to either tailored movement control exercise intervention (MC, n = 52) or a general exercise intervention (GE, n = 54); both 9-18 individual treatment sessions, over a maximum of 12 weeks. The primary outcome was disability measured with the Patient Specific Functional scale (PSFS). Secondary outcome was the Roland-Morris disability scale (RMDQ). Measurements were taken pre- and posttreatment. No significant difference was found following the treatment period. Baseline-adjusted between-group mean difference for the PSFS was 0.5 (SD = 0.5; p = 0.32) in favour of MC exercises. The Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire revealed a significant, but not clinically relevant, between-group difference of 2.0 points (SD = 0.8; p = 0.01). Disability in LBP patients was reduced considerably by both interventions. However, the limited contrast between the two exercise programs may have influenced outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Who Pioneered the Use of Antipsychotics in North America?

    PubMed Central

    Stip, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Neuroleptics were introduced into North America 60 years ago. The credit for this advance is generally accorded to Heinz Lehmann. I sought to explore whether Lehmann really was the first North American psychiatrist to study the effects of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and to provide a more balanced view of its application in a clinical context. Method: I searched for historical documents and published articles in several libraries and interviewed psychiatrists active from 1952–1970. Results: The first article in English was published in the July volume of the Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry in 1954 (n = 71). Another article, written in French by Roland Saucier and published in a journal called Le Saguenay Médical, also described the effects of CPZ on a Canadian psychiatric population in August 1954 (n > 200). However, the first prescription for CPZ was written by Roland Saucier, who brought the product back from Paris after a fellowship there. Ruth Kajander, in Ontario, was also one of the first prescribers of this drug, following her study of its use in anesthesia and a publication in the proceedings of a symposium. Conclusion: The contents of the 2 naturalistic studies were compared. Lehmann’s study started 1 month before that of Saucier. Lehmann was the first North American psychiatrist to publish an article on CPZ, but Roland Saucier nevertheless made an important contribution, being the first to prescribe this drug in North America and reporting results for a study with a sample size 3 times that of Lehmann’s study. PMID:25886681

  3. A predictive modeling approach to analyze data in EEG-fMRI experiments.

    PubMed

    Ferdowsi, Saideh; Sanei, Saeid; Abolghasemi, Vahid

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a novel technique based on blind source extraction (BSE) using linear prediction is proposed to extract rolandic beta rhythm from electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment. We call this method CLP-BSE standing for constrained-linear-prediction BSE. Extracting event-related oscillations is a crucial task due to nonphase-locked nature and inter-trial variability of this event. The main objective of this work is to extract rolandic beta rhythm to measure event-related synchronization (ERS) with acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The extracted rhythm is utilized for constructing a regressor to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The proposed method is a semi-blind technique which uses a spatio-temporal constraint for beta rhythm extraction. This constraint is derived from recorded EEG signals based on the prior knowledge about the frequency and location of the source of interest. The main reason of employing linear prediction as an effective algorithm to extract the EEG rhythm is the ability of extracting sources which have specific temporal structure. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated using both synthetic and real EEG data. The obtained results show that the proposed technique is able to extract ERS effectively. The maximum percentage of ERS obtained by filtering is 152% while the obtained ERS by CLP-BSE is 214%. In another experiment, the extracted event-related oscillations in beta band are used to make the necessary regressor for fMRI analysis. The results of EEG-fMRI coregistration confirm that there are correlation between the extracted rolandic beta rhythm and simultaneously recorded fMRI. This conclude that, the results of EEG-fMRI combination support the reliability of CLP-BSE output.

  4. Randomised controlled trial of Alexander technique lessons, exercise, and massage (ATEAM) for chronic and recurrent back pain

    PubMed Central

    Lewith, George; Webley, Fran; Evans, Maggie; Beattie, Angela; Middleton, Karen; Barnett, Jane; Ballard, Kathleen; Oxford, Frances; Smith, Peter; Yardley, Lucy; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Sharp, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of lessons in the Alexander technique, massage therapy, and advice from a doctor to take exercise (exercise prescription) along with nurse delivered behavioural counselling for patients with chronic or recurrent back pain. Design Factorial randomised trial. Setting 64 general practices in England. Participants 579 patients with chronic or recurrent low back pain; 144 were randomised to normal care, 147 to massage, 144 to six Alexander technique lessons, and 144 to 24 Alexander technique lessons; half of each of these groups were randomised to exercise prescription. Interventions Normal care (control), six sessions of massage, six or 24 lessons on the Alexander technique, and prescription for exercise from a doctor with nurse delivered behavioural counselling. Main outcome measures Roland Morris disability score (number of activities impaired by pain) and number of days in pain. Results Exercise and lessons in the Alexander technique, but not massage, remained effective at one year (compared with control Roland disability score 8.1: massage -0.58, 95% confidence interval -1.94 to 0.77, six lessons -1.40, -2.77 to -0.03, 24 lessons -3.4, -4.76 to -2.03, and exercise -1.29, -2.25 to -0.34). Exercise after six lessons achieved 72% of the effect of 24 lessons alone (Roland disability score -2.98 and -4.14, respectively). Number of days with back pain in the past four weeks was lower after lessons (compared with control median 21 days: 24 lessons -18, six lessons -10, massage -7) and quality of life improved significantly. No significant harms were reported. Conclusions One to one lessons in the Alexander technique from registered teachers have long term benefits for patients with chronic back pain. Six lessons followed by exercise prescription were nearly as effective as 24 lessons. Trial registration National Research Register N0028108728. PMID:18713809

  5. Detecting insomnia in patients with low back pain: accuracy of four self-report sleep measures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although insomnia is common in patients with low back pain (LBP), it is unknown whether commonly used self-report sleep measures are sufficiently accurate to screen for insomnia in the LBP population. This study investigated the discriminatory properties of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Pittsburgh questionnaire), Insomnia Severity Index (Insomnia index), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (Epworth scale) and the sleep item of the Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire (Roland item) to detect insomnia in patients with LBP by comparing their accuracy to detect insomnia to a sleep diary. The study also aimed to determine the clinical optimal cut-off scores of the questionnaires to detect insomnia in the LBP population. Methods Seventy nine patients with LBP completed the four self-reported questionnaires and a sleep diary for 7 consecutive nights. The accuracy of the questionnaires was evaluated using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves with the Area Under the Curve (AUC) used to examine each test’s accuracy to discriminate participants with insomnia from those without insomnia. Results The Pittsburgh questionnaire and Insomnia index had moderate accuracy to detect insomnia (AUC = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.87 and AUC = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.86 respectively), whereas the Epworth scale and the Roland item were not found to be accurate discriminators (AUC = 0.53, 95% CI = 0. 41 to 0.64 and AUC = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.75 respectively). The cut-off score of > 6 for the Pittsburgh questionnaire and the cut-off point of > 14 for the Insomnia index provided optimal sensitivity and specificity for the detection of insomnia. Conclusions The Pittsburgh questionnaire and Insomnia index had similar ability to screen for insomnia in patients with low back pain. PMID:23805978

  6. Do tubers contain function? Resection of epileptogenic foci in perirolandic cortex in children with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Moshel, Yaron A; Elliott, Robert; Teutonico, Federica; Sellin, Jonathan; Carlson, Chad; Devinsky, Orrin; Weiner, Howard L

    2010-07-01

    Surgical resection of single, dominant, epileptogenic lesions in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is now accepted as an effective therapy. However, patients with symptomatic tubers in eloquent cortex are sometimes not offered surgery because of the concern for postoperative neurologic morbidity. In this study, we examine our results in children undergoing surgery for resection of tubers and associated seizure foci in rolandic and perirolandic cortex. Between 1998 and 2008, 52 pediatric patients (mean age 4 years) with TSC underwent epilepsy surgery at the NYU Comprehensive Epilepsy Center. Fifteen of these patients underwent multistage surgery for invasive mapping of seizure foci and surrounding functional cortex followed by resection of tubers/seizure foci in or near rolandic cortex. Data were retrospectively collected and neurologic outcomes were tabulated. Postoperatively, four patients (27%) had either new hemiparesis or worsening of a preexisting hemiparesis. However, all patients were back to their neurologic baselines at 3-month follow-up, yielding no permanent postoperative deficits. The modified Engel outcome was class I in nine patients (60%), class II in three patients (20%), class III in two patients (13%), and class IV in one patient (7%) after 40 months mean follow-up. Surgical resection of tubers and associated epileptogenic foci in rolandic and perirolandic cortex in children with TSC is feasible, with low neurologic morbidity, and yields good seizure control. These results suggest that tubers and perituberal epileptogenic foci can be safely resected even in eloquent regions because of reorganization of functional cortex or because these lesions contain no neurologic function.

  7. Detecting insomnia in patients with low back pain: accuracy of four self-report sleep measures.

    PubMed

    Alsaadi, Saad M; McAuley, James H; Hush, Julia M; Bartlett, Delwyn J; Henschke, Nicholas; Grunstein, Ronald R; Maher, Chris G

    2013-06-27

    Although insomnia is common in patients with low back pain (LBP), it is unknown whether commonly used self-report sleep measures are sufficiently accurate to screen for insomnia in the LBP population. This study investigated the discriminatory properties of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Pittsburgh questionnaire), Insomnia Severity Index (Insomnia index), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (Epworth scale) and the sleep item of the Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire (Roland item) to detect insomnia in patients with LBP by comparing their accuracy to detect insomnia to a sleep diary. The study also aimed to determine the clinical optimal cut-off scores of the questionnaires to detect insomnia in the LBP population. Seventy nine patients with LBP completed the four self-reported questionnaires and a sleep diary for 7 consecutive nights. The accuracy of the questionnaires was evaluated using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves with the Area Under the Curve (AUC) used to examine each test's accuracy to discriminate participants with insomnia from those without insomnia. The Pittsburgh questionnaire and Insomnia index had moderate accuracy to detect insomnia (AUC = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.87 and AUC = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.86 respectively), whereas the Epworth scale and the Roland item were not found to be accurate discriminators (AUC = 0.53, 95% CI = 0. 41 to 0.64 and AUC = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.75 respectively). The cut-off score of > 6 for the Pittsburgh questionnaire and the cut-off point of > 14 for the Insomnia index provided optimal sensitivity and specificity for the detection of insomnia. The Pittsburgh questionnaire and Insomnia index had similar ability to screen for insomnia in patients with low back pain.

  8. PV radiometrics workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents presentations and discussions held at the Photovoltaics Radiometeric Measurements Workshop conducted at Vail, Colorado, on July 24 and 25, 1995. The workshop was sponsored and financed by the Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project managed by Richard DeBlasio, Principal Investigator. That project is a component of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaic Research and Development Program, conducted by NREL for the US Department of Energy, through the NREL Photovoltaic Engineering and Applications Branch, managed by Roland Hulstrom. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this workshop.

  9. Evaluation of Clear Sky Models for Satellite-Based Irradiance Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.

    2013-12-01

    This report describes an intercomparison of three popular broadband clear sky solar irradiance model results with measured data, as well as satellite-based model clear sky results compared to measured clear sky data. The authors conclude that one of the popular clear sky models (the Bird clear sky model developed by Richard Bird and Roland Hulstrom) could serve as a more accurate replacement for current satellite-model clear sky estimations. Additionally, the analysis of the model results with respect to model input parameters indicates that rather than climatological, annual, or monthly mean input data, higher-time-resolution input parameters improve the general clear sky model performance.

  10. On the R-Dependence of the Spin-Orbit Coupling Constant: Potential Energy Functions of Xe2+ by High-Resolution Photoelectron Spectroscopy and ab initio Quantum Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    thank Professor Dr. Laura Gagliardi and Professor (1978). Dr. Roland Lindh for helpful discussions regarding the usage 41W. R. Wadt, J. Chem. Phys. 68...Karlstrdm, R. Lindh , P.-A. Malmqvist, B. 0. Roos, U. Ryde, V. Verya- 6 B. J. Whitaker, C. A. Woodward, P. J. Knowles, and A. J. Stace, J. Chem. zov, P...Reiher and A. Wolf, Phys. Lett. A 360, 603 (2007). 3J. Fedor, R. Parajuli, S. Matt-Leubner, 0. Echt, E Hagelberg, K. Gluch, B. 0. Roos, R. Lindh , P-A

  11. Eagles of the RAF. The World War II Eagle Squadrons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    by the press, they always pointed out how a pilot could contact them. 32 There was even an RAF information booth located outside the gate at Maxwell...to the US Army that they made a mistake when they washed me out."" The most effective advertising, however, was by word of mouth. Douglas Booth was...Yorkers Ervin Miller with 200 hours and Douglas Booth with 150 hours. Some, like Roland 54 SI(GNIN(G U P Wolfe with 1,000 hours and Jim DuFour with 1,500

  12. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Defense Systems Acquisition Review Council (DSARC). Volume I. Technical Report with Appendices A and B.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-04

    Roland 11 Perry Nelson* Hacker Murray 6/79 NAVSTAR 11 Dineen’ Shorey’ Hessler’ Murray 11/79 Copperhead 11 LaBerge * Pinie Wacker Murray 1/SO FYS III... LaBerge ’ Danzig’ Uarshman’ Christie’* 10/80 FVS PR LaBerge ’ Danzig* Bting Cua 6/82 LAMPS III Wade* Leach’ Heth h % Not a principal. "no appointee, actg...to illustrate the situation: FVS Program Review 1/80 LaBerge *Danzig* Harshman*Christie* Program Review 10/80 LaBerge *Danzig* Borsting Murray TRIDENT

  13. Sexuality degree zero: pleasure and power in the novels of John Rechy, Arturo Islas, and Michael Nava.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, R L

    1993-01-01

    "Sexuality Degree Zero" explores common themes and formal strategies in the fiction of three prominent gay Chicano writers: John Rechy, Arturo Islas, and Michael Nava. Employing the concept of a politicized textual "pleasure" as theorized by French critic Roland Barthes, the study argues for the political efficacy of aesthetic choices characteristic to the three authors. Analyses of Rechy's use of pornography, of Islas' transgressive use of cultural iconography, and of Nava's use of sexual "perversions" in the context of classic crime fiction, all go to demonstrate the various uses of pleasure in the construction of a doubly marginalized but defiant self and voice in fiction by gay Chicano men.

  14. Spatial disorientation in right-hemisphere infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Meerwaldt, J D; van Harskamp, F

    1982-01-01

    Spatial orientation was tested with the rod orientation test. The subjects were 40 normal controls and 68 brain-damaged patients with cerebral infarcts. Patients in whom the lesion included the post-rolandic region of the right hemisphere performed worse than controls or patients with lesions at other sites. Patients with an exclusively postrolandic (usually occipital) lesion showed higher error rates than patients with a combined prerolandic and postrolandic lesion, but only for the visual part of the test. These patients were re-examined one year after the stroke. Most of them showed an incomplete recovery of spatial function. PMID:7119828

  15. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  16. History of the early dipteran systematics in Italy: from Lyncei to Battista Grassi.

    PubMed

    Baccetti, B

    2008-12-01

    This presentation starts with Galileo's discovery of the microscope and the first Lyncei. Giovanni Heckius and Francesco Stelluti demonstrated different kinds of mosquitoes. Later, in Florence, the Academy of Cimento solved the problem of mosquito reproduction with the discoveries of Francesco Redi, Pietro Paolo da Sangallo, Giuseppe Del Papa and Giovanni Maria Lancisi in the 18th century. In 19th century Eugenio Ficalbi reviewed the Italian Culicids. Once Battista Grassi solved the cycle of Anopheles and Plasmodia, further researches followed by Golgi, Celli, Marchiafava, Bastianelli and Bignami, as well as by Roland Ross.

  17. [Recommendations for a basic functional assessment of low back pain].

    PubMed

    Demoulin, C; Fauconnier, C; Vanderthommen, M; Henrotin, Y

    2005-01-01

    This article aims to recommend easy, reproducible and valid physical tests and questionnaires to allow a functional and physical assessment of sub-acute and chronic low back pain patients. We recommend the pain visual analogue scale, the French translation of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (EIFEL) and the Dallas questionnaire to appreciate pain intensity and its influence on patients' quality of life. Sorensen's test is recommended in order to assess trunk extensor muscles endurance. We suggest to measure pelvic and lumbar flexion mobility by means of the inclinometer technique. The test described by McQuade is recommended to assess abdominal muscles static endurance.

  18. On the nature of the anti-tail of Comet Kohoutek /1973f/. I - A working model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1974-01-01

    The model derived for the anti-tail of Comet Kohoutek describes it as a flat formation, confined essentially to the comet's orbit plane and composed of relatively heavy particles (mostly in the size range 0.1-1 mm) whose motions are controlled by solar gravity and solar radiation pressure. Almost all the material was produced by the comet before perihelion at a rate about an order of magnitude higher than for Comets Arend-Roland and Bennett. The latent heat of vaporization of the particle material is estimated at 40-45 kcal/mole or higher.

  19. The Antiaircraft Journal. Volume 94, Number 3, May-June 1951

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-06-01

    action. Its fast rate of fire and extremely effective fire power make it outstanding for this purpose. Brig. Gen. George B. Barth , Com- manding General...the command posts of Generals Barth . Church, Dean. She writes an engaging story in a simple and irresistible style. Perhaps i\\liss Higgins was not the...to XV Corps, Camp Polk. La. McCravey, James 1.., to 344th ASU AA, Camp Stewart. Ga. Mc~amee. Roland W., to 4054th ASC, AA and GM Br Art\\’ Sch. Ft

  20. Astronomy-Connected Scientific Works in Early Transylvania and Banat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Ladislau

    2008-09-01

    Baron Roland von Eötvös: physicist who demonstrated the proportionality of the inertial and gravitational mass and carried out research on the spatial changes in gravitation. Some of his experiments was made on the territory of Banat and Crisana (south-easter Transylvania). Count Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli: a very complex personality: engineer, diplomat, spy, scientist (geograph, historian, biologist, astronomer), who made the first astronomical observations in Banat and published them. Maximilian Hell: a mathematician and astronomer who founded the first astronomical observatory in Cluj and made observations on a very interesting natural phenomenon: the transit of the planet Venus.

  1. The European Micropaleontological Reference Centre in Kraków

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Michael; Waskowska, Anna; Bebenek, Slawomir; Pilarz, Monika

    2016-04-01

    We are pleased to announce the establishment of the European Micropaleontological Reference Centre, housed in the offices of Micropress Europe at the AGH University of Science & Technology in Krakow, Poland. The new European Micropaleontological Reference Centre is an initiative of the Grzybowski Foundation and Micropress Europe. The centre is designed to serve the micropaleontological community by providing a permanent repository or "museum" for published microfossil collections. The centre houses a growing collection of microfossils picked into faunal slides, as well as a well-stocked library of micropaleontological books, journals, and reprints. We have the only up-to-date paper copy of the Ellis & Messina Catalogue of Foraminifera in Central Europe. Currently, the slide collections include: - Type slides of benthic foraminifera from Poland (the collection of I. Heller from the Polish oil company GEONAFTA), - Carboniferous foraminifera from Germany and Poland (collections of G. Eickhoff and Z. Alexandrowicz), - IODP sites in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans (collections of M. Kaminski, E. Setoyama, A. Holborn), - Exploration wells in the Boreal seas: North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Western Barents Sea, Labrador Sea, Bering Sea, Spitsbergen, Western Siberia (collections of M. Kaminski, J. Nagy, T. Van Den Akker, V. Podobina, and others), - Paratethyan Foraminifera (collections of E. Luczkowska, C. Beldean, F. Szekely), - Mesozoic-Paleogene Foraminifera from Gubbio, Italy (collections of M. Kaminski, C. Cetean, and students) and the Polish Carpathians (collection of A. Waskowska), - Caribbean (collection of M. Kaminski, R. Preece), West Africa (collection of R. Preece, S. Kender, C. Cetean), - We have a separate collection of type specimens of species (paratypes). Slides are housed in cabinet drawers together with the relevant publication. Researchers are welcome to visit the offices of Micropress Europe to view the archived microfossil collections. The center

  2. Sensorimotor activation related to speaker vs. listener role during natural conversation.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Anne; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta

    2016-02-12

    Although the main function of speech is communication, the brain bases of speaking and listening are typically studied in single subjects, leaving unsettled how brain function supports interactive vocal exchange. Here we used whole-scalp magnetoencephalography (MEG) to monitor modulation of sensorimotor brain rhythms related to the speaker vs. listener roles during natural conversation. Nine dyads of healthy adults were recruited. The partners of a dyad were engaged in live conversations via an audio link while their brain activity was measured simultaneously in two separate MEG laboratories. The levels of ∼10-Hz and ∼20-Hz rolandic oscillations depended on the speaker vs. listener role. In the left rolandic cortex, these oscillations were consistently (by ∼20%) weaker during speaking than listening. At the turn changes in conversation, the level of the ∼10Hz oscillations enhanced transiently around 1.0 or 2.3s before the end of the partner's turn. Our findings indicate left-hemisphere-dominant involvement of the sensorimotor cortex during own speech in natural conversation. The ∼10-Hz modulations could be related to preparation for starting one's own turn, already before the partner's turn has finished. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of unstable shoes on chronic low back pain in health professionals: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Armand, Stéphane; Tavcar, Ziva; Turcot, Katia; Allet, Lara; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Genevay, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of unstable shoes in reducing low back pain in health professionals. Of a volunteer sample of 144 participants, 40 with nonspecific chronic low back pain were eligible and enrolled in this study. Participants were randomized to an intervention group, who wore unstable shoes (model MBT Fora), or a control group, who wore conventional sports shoes (model Adidas Bigroar). The participants had to wear the study shoes during their work hours, and at least 6 hours per workday, over a period of 6 weeks. The primary outcome was low back pain assessed on a Visual Analog Scale. The secondary outcomes were patient satisfaction, disability evaluated using Roland-Morris questionnaire and quality of life evaluated using EQ-VAS. The intervention group showed a significant decrease in pain scores compared to the control group. The rate of satisfaction was higher in the intervention group (79%) compared to the control group (25%). There was no significant difference for the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire score and the EQ-VAS scale. The results of this clinical trial suggest that wearing unstable shoes for 6 weeks significantly decreases low back pain in patients suffering from chronic low back pain but had no significant effect on quality of life and disability scores. Copyright © 2014 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Educational studies of cosmic rays with a telescope of Geiger Müller counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibig, T.; Kolodziejczak, K.; Pierzynski, R.; Sobczak, R.

    2006-11-01

    A group of high school students (XII Liceum) in the framework of the Roland Maze Project has built a compact telescope of three Geiger Müller counters. The connection between the telescope and a PC computer was also created and programmed by students involved in the Project. This has allowed students to use their equipment to perform serious scientific measurements concerning the single cosmic ray muon flux at ground level and below. These measurements were then analysed with the programs on the basis of current knowledge on statistics. An overview of the apparatus, methods and results have been presented at several student conferences and recently won the first prize in a national competition for high school students' scientific work. The telescope itself, in spite of its 'scientific' purposes, is built in such a way that it can be hung on a wall in a school physics lab and count muons continuously. This can help to raise in interest in studying physics among others. At present a few (three) groups of young participants of the Roland Maze Project have already built their own telescopes for their schools and some others are working on it. This work is a perfect example of what can be done by young people when respective opportunities are created by more experienced researchers and a little help and advice is given.

  5. [Effects of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivates on the dynamics of vertebral/neurologic symptoms after the surgical treatment of disk herniations].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Mester, K M

    2010-01-01

    A study of 3-hydroxypiridine and succinic acid derivates (emoxipin, reamberin and mexidol) effects on the 14 week dynamics of vertebral/neurologic symptoms was performed in 136 patients after the surgical treatment of disk herniations. Data obtained demonstrated the reduction of severity of neurodystrophic and radicular syndromes without significant changes in dorsalgia, psychological maladaptation (PM) and disability scores (DS) during 3.5 months in patients treated with emoxipin (150 mg i.v., daily) for two weeks after the microdiscectomy. The two-week administration of reamberin (400 mg i.v., daily) led to the early attenuation of neuropathic pain. The reduction of sings of radicular compression and DS measured with the Roland-Morris questionnaire were delayed for 3 months. Mexidol (300 mg i.v., once a day during two weeks) demonstrated the highest efficacy. This drug attenuated radicular and neurodystrophic syndromes, nociceptive and neuropathic pain, reduced PM and DS measured with both the Roland-Morris and the Oswestry questionnaires during 14 weeks after the surgery.

  6. An fMRI study of obesity, food reward, and perceived caloric density. Does a low-fat label make food less appealing?

    PubMed

    Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Bohon, Cara

    2011-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals experience greater activation of the gustatory and somatosensory cortex, but weaker activation of the striatum, in response to intake and anticipated intake of high-fat chocolate milkshake versus an isocaloric milkshake labeled low-fat and a tasteless solution using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 17 obese and 17 lean young women. Obese relative to lean women showed greater activation in somatosensory (Rolandic operculum), gustatory (frontal operculum), and reward valuation regions (amgydala, ventralmedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in response to intake and anticipated intake of milkshake versus tasteless solution, though there was little evidence of reduced striatal activation. Obese relative to lean women also showed greater activation in the Rolandic operculum, frontal operculum, and vmPFC in response to isocaloric milkshakes labeled regular versus low-fat. Results suggest that hyper-responsivity of somatosensory, gustatory, and reward valuation regions may be related to overeating and that top-down processing influence reward encoding, which could further contribute to weight gain.

  7. Fungitoxic phenols from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) effective against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.

    PubMed

    Curir, Paolo; Dolci, Marcello; Dolci, Paola; Lanzotti, Virginia; De Cooman, Luc

    2003-01-01

    The phenol compositions of two cultivars of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) namely "Gloriana" and "Roland", which are partially and highly resistant, respectively, to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi have been investigated with the aim of determining if endogenous phenols could have an anti-fungal effect against the pathogen. Analyses were performed on healthy and F. oxysporum-inoculated in vitro tissues, and on in vivo plants. Two benzoic acid derivatives, protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) and vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid), were found within healthy and inoculated tissues of both cultivars, together with the flavonol glycoside peltatoside (3-[6-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] quercetin). These molecules proved to be only slightly inhibitory towards the pathogen. 2,6-Dimethoxybenzoic acid was detected in small amounts only in the inoculated cultivar "Gloriana", while the highly resistant cultivar "Roland" showed the presence of the flavone datiscetin (3,5,7,2'-tetrahydroxyflavone). The latter compound exhibited an appreciable fungitoxic activity towards F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.

  8. Efficacy and safety of tanezumab versus naproxen in the treatment of chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kivitz, Alan J; Gimbel, Joseph S; Bramson, Candace; Nemeth, Mary Anne; Keller, David S; Brown, Mark T; West, Christine R; Verburg, Kenneth M

    2013-07-01

    Tanezumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that specifically inhibits nerve growth factor as a treatment for chronic pain. This phase IIB study investigated the efficacy and safety of tanezumab for chronic low back pain vs placebo and naproxen. Patients (N=1347) received intravenous tanezumab (5, 10, or 20mg every 8weeks), naproxen (500mg twice daily), or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was mean change in daily average low back pain intensity (LBPI) from baseline to week 16. Secondary end points included mean change from baseline to week 16 in the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and Patient's Global Assessment (PGA) of low back pain. Tanezumab 10 and 20mg had similar efficacy profiles and significantly improved LBPI, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, and PGA scores vs both placebo and naproxen (P⩽.05). Tanezumab 5mg provided improvement of PGA scores vs placebo (P⩽.05), and naproxen resulted in significant improvement of LBPI vs placebo (P⩽.05). Adverse event incidence was comparable across tanezumab doses but higher than with placebo or naproxen. Arthralgia, pain in extremity, headache, and paresthesia were the most commonly reported adverse events by tanezumab-treated patients. The most frequently reported adverse events resulting in discontinuation of tanezumab treatment were arthralgia and paresthesia; the highest frequency was observed with tanezumab 20mg (both 1.4%). Serious adverse event incidence was similar across treatments. In conclusion, tanezumab provided significantly greater improvement in pain, function, and global scores vs placebo and naproxen in patients with chronic low back pain.

  9. Sensorimotor activation related to speaker vs. listener role during natural conversation

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Anne; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Although the main function of speech is communication, the brain bases of speaking and listening are typically studied in single subjects, leaving unsettled how brain function supports interactive vocal exchange. Here we used whole-scalp magnetoencephalography (MEG) to monitor modulation of sensorimotor brain rhythms related to the speaker vs. listener roles during natural conversation. Nine dyads of healthy adults were recruited. The partners of a dyad were engaged in live conversations via an audio link while their brain activity was measured simultaneously in two separate MEG laboratories. The levels of ∼10-Hz and ∼20-Hz rolandic oscillations depended on the speaker vs. listener role. In the left rolandic cortex, these oscillations were consistently (by ∼20%) weaker during speaking than listening. At the turn changes in conversation, the level of the ∼10 Hz oscillations enhanced transiently around 1.0 or 2.3 s before the end of the partner’s turn. Our findings indicate left-hemisphere-dominant involvement of the sensorimotor cortex during own speech in natural conversation. The ∼10-Hz modulations could be related to preparation for starting one’s own turn, already before the partner’s turn has finished. PMID:26742643

  10. The threshold of cortical electrical stimulation for mapping sensory and motor functional areas.

    PubMed

    Guojun, Zhang; Duanyu, Ni; Fu, Paul; Lixin, Cai; Tao, Yu; Wei, Du; Liang, Qiao; Zhiwei, Ren

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the threshold of cortical electrical stimulation (CES) for functional brain mapping during surgery for the treatment of rolandic epilepsy. A total of 21 patients with rolandic epilepsy who underwent surgical treatment at the Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery between October 2006 and March 2008 were included in this study. Their clinical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The thresholds of CES for motor response, sensory response, and after discharge production along with other threshold-related factors were investigated. The thresholds (mean ± standard deviation) for motor response, sensory response, and after discharge production were 3.48 ± 0.87, 3.86 ± 1.31, and 4.84 ± 1.38 mA, respectively. The threshold for after discharge production was significantly higher than those of both the motor and sensory response (both p<0.05). A negative linear correlation was found between the threshold of after discharge production and disease duration. Using the CES parameters at a stimulation frequency of 50 Hz and a pulse width of 0.2 ms, the threshold of sensory and motor responses were similar, and the threshold of after discharge production was higher than that of sensory and motor response.

  11. Primary Care Physicians’ Action Plans for Responding to Results of Screening Tests Based on the Concept of Quaternary Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Since noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are generally controllable rather than curable, more emphasis is placed on prevention than on treatment. For the early detection of diseases, primary care physicians (PCPs), as well as general practitioners and family physicians, should interpret screening results accurately and provide screenees with appropriate information about prevention and treatment, including potential harms. The concept of quaternary prevention (QP), which was introduced by Jamoulle and Roland in 1995, has been applied to screening results. This article summarizes situations that PCPs encounter during screening tests according to the concept of QP, and suggests measures to face such situations. It is suggested that screening tests be customized to fit individual characteristics instead of being performed based on general guidelines. Since screening tests should not be carried out in some circumstances, further studies based on the concept of prevention levels proposed by Jamoulle and Roland are required for the development of strategies to prevent NCDs, including cancers. Thus, applying the concept of QP helps PCPs gain better insights into screening tests aimed at preventing NCDs and also helps improve the doctor-patient relationship by helping screenees understand medical uncertainties. PMID:27951627

  12. Cortical silent period in two patients with meningioma and preoperative seizures: a pre- and postsurgical follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Cincotta, Massimo; Borgheresi, A; Benvenuti, F; Liotta, P; Marin, E; Zaccara, G

    2002-04-01

    Prolongation of the cortical silent period (CSP) following transcranial magnetic stimulation has been reported in patients with partial epilepsy involving the primary motor cortex (M1). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expected intraindividual variations in risk factors for seizures and CSP duration. We studied a 59-year-old woman with a rolandic meningioma and simple motor partial seizures and a 71-year-old woman with a parietal/occipital meningioma and complex partial seizures. Both patients had seizure as their initial symptom with complete postsurgical remission. Repeated pre- and postoperative CSP recordings were made from both first dorsal interosseous muscles. We compared the results to those obtained in 13 normals. In the patient with simple motor partial seizures, the CSP was significantly prolonged in preoperative recordings and 3 weeks after surgery. This CSP lengthening partly subsided 3 months after surgery. Finally, the CSP was normal 6, 8, and 18 months after surgery. In the patient with complex partial seizures, no CSP change was observed. In our patient with a rolandic meningioma, CSP prolongation was observed when the risk of seizure relapse was supposed to be higher (preoperative and early postoperative periods). This supports the view that CSP changes reflect compensatory mechanisms in M1 epilepsy.

  13. Conversion and the Real: The (Im)Possibility of Testimonial Representation.

    PubMed

    Sremac, Srdjan

    Although the spiritual vibration of conversion can be felt (by the curious outsider) through what conversion performers say in their testimonial discourse, what transforms the convert 'on stage' into a 'new being' and what is 'the real' (le réel) in conversion performance remain unclear. An important question in this connection is, What is 'real' in a conversion representation, both with respect to the convert's interaction with the audience and to the construction of social reality? Following Lacan's tripartite register of the imaginary, the symbolic, and the real, in this essay I argue that through testimonial discourse converts construct social reality as an answer to the impossibility of 'the real' in their performative discursive practice. In the first part, I question the constructed nature of testimonial representations-as well as some academic knowledge production that has governed conversion research in the last few decades-and how these representations encourage 'outsiders' to read the narrative repertoire as a negation or mirroring 'the real' of the conversion experience. In the second part, I apply Roland Barthes' analytic reflections on photography to conversion research, especially the notions of the studium (the common ground of cultural meanings) and the punctum (a personal experience that inspires private meaning). This brings me to a number of theorists (mostly never used in the field of religious conversion)-Jacques Lacan, Roland Barthes, and Slavoj Žižek-who are important to the perspective that is developed in this essay.

  14. 365 days UNDER ANTARCTIC ICE - a Djamel Tahi film, produced by Terra Incognita in coproduction with CNRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlich, R.; Lorius, C.

    2009-04-01

    The 1st July 1957 marks the beginning of the International Geophysical Year. The scientific world decided to explore the Antarctic. Twelve nations would join efforts to initiate a vast research programme aimed to penetrate the mysteries of the white continent. Three Frenchmen, Jacques Dubois, a meteorologist, Roland Schlich, a geophysicist, and Claude Lorius a glaciologist, occupied the Charcot Station built near the South magnetic pole and located 320 km from the coast, during a whole year without any possibility of relief. They wintered from January 1957 to January 1958 in an aluminium hut only 24 m2 in size, buried under the ice. Today, Roland Schlich of the School and Observatory of Earth Sciences, Strasbourg and Claude Lorius of the Laboratory of Glaciology and Geophysics of the Environment, Grenoble, are the last witnesses of this wintering and they remember … The film traces this human and scientific adventure, thanks to their evidence and unpublished documents, filmed 50 years ago. The English version of the film is sponsored by the European Geosciences Union (EGU) and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR).

  15. [Low back pain disability assessment tools].

    PubMed

    Calmels, P; Béthoux, F; Condemine, A; Fayolle-Minon, I

    2005-07-01

    To identify and compare low back pain functional assessment tools and to determine their characteristics and the selection criteria for their use. We systematically searched Medline with the key words: low back pain, scale validity, questionnaire, assessment, outcome, and functional evaluation and with some data from the "Guide des Outils de Mesure et d'Evaluation en Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation", which allowed us to complete the search on specific tools including the Roland Disability Questionnaire, Dallas Pain Questionnaire, Quebec Back Pain Questionnaire, and Oswestry Back Pain Questionnaire. We restricted our analysis to studies about the psychometric properties of functional tools. We identified 19 scales or questionnaires, 9 specifically for low back pain and with a concept of functional incapacity. Four tools are recognised as having good psychometric properties and are widely used with linguistic adaptations in different countries. We also identified 10 generic tools proposed to assess outcome in low back pain, which are more conceptually linked to perceived health status, quality of life, and pain assessment. A "gold standard" to evaluate disability in low back pain does not exist, but only 4 tools (the Dallas Pain Questionnaire, Roland Disability Questionnaire, Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire) demonstrated strong qualities (content and construct validity, feasibility, linguistic adaptation and international use).

  16. Psychometric evaluation of a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Spitzer Quality of Life Index in patients with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Rafaela Cunha Matheus Rodrigues; Alexandre, Neusa Maria Costa; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the Spitzer Quality of Life Index and evaluate its reliability in patients with low back pain. The following steps were followed: translation, back-translation, evaluation by a committee, and pretest. The reliability was estimated through stability and homogeneity assessment. The validity was tested comparing scores of the Spitzer (QLI) with the SF-36 and the Roland-Morris. The psychometric properties were evaluated by the self-application on 120 patients. Results showed that the Cronbach's Alpha was 0.77. Intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.960 (p<0.001; IC95%: 0.943; 0.972). Spearman s correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.937 (p<0.001). There was significant correlation between the Spitzer (QLI) scores and the dimensions of the SF-36. A significant negative correlation was found between the Spitzer (QLI) and the Roland-Morris scores (r = - 0.730). The adaptation process was conducted successfully and the questionnaire presented reliable psychometric measures.

  17. Infarct topography and hemiparesis profiles with cerebral convexity infarction: the Stroke Data Bank.

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, J P; Foulkes, M A; Polis, A T; Hier, D B; Kase, C S; Price, T R; Tatemichi, T K; Wolf, P A

    1993-01-01

    For the 183 of 1276 patients in the NINDS Stroke Data Bank with convexity infarction in the middle cerebral artery territory, the size of the infarct did not differ between the two sides but the location of the main site of the infarct differed: on the left side, it was centred in the inferior parietal region, and was mid-frontal on the right. There was a good correlation between infarct size and weakness severity whether estimated by overall motor function on one side, arm, or hand alone. There was a poor correlation, however, for lesion location (lower third, middle third or upper third on either side of the Rolandic fissure) and any of the specific syndromes of focal weakness, no two cases sharing the same lesion for the same syndrome and several cases sharing the same lesion with a different syndrome. The findings indicated a difference in weakness syndromes between the two hemispheres and great individual variation of the acute syndrome caused by a given site of focal infarction along the Rolandic convexity. These variations may explain some of the difficulties showing effects of a given therapeutic agent in studies of acute ischaemic stroke. Large sample sizes will be required for the reliable assessment of any treatment using currently popular clinical stroke scales. Images PMID:8482953

  18. Acute functional reorganisation of the human motor cortex during resection of central lesions: a study using intraoperative brain mapping

    PubMed Central

    Duffau, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Brain plasticity is supposed to allow the compensation of motor function in cases of rolandic lesion. The aim was to analyse the mechanisms of functional reorganisation during surgery in the central area.
METHODS—A motor brain mapping was performed in three right handed patients without any neurological deficit, operated on for a slow growing lesion near the rolandic region (two precentral resected under general anaesthesia and one retrocentral removed under local anaesthesia to allow also sensory mapping) using intraoperative direct electrical stimulations (5 mm space tips bipolar stimulator probe, biphasic square wave pulse current: 1 ms/phase, 60 Hz, 4 to 18mA).
RESULTS—For each patient, the motor areas of the hand and forearm in the primary motor cortex (M1) were identified before and after lesion removal with the same stimulation parameters: the same eloquent sites were found, plus the appearance after resection of additional sites in M1 inducing the same movement during stimulations as the previous areas.
CONCLUSIONS—Multiple cortical representations for hand and forearm movements in M1 seem to exist. In addition, the results demonstrate the short term capacity of the brain to make changes in local motor maps, by sudden unmasking after tumour resection of a second redundant site participating in the same movement. Finally, it seems not necessary for the whole of the redundant sites to be functional to provide normal movement, a concept with potential implications for surgery within the central region.

 PMID:11254775

  19. Imaging and Genetics of Language and Cognition in Pediatric Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Addis, Laura; Lin, Jack J.; Pal, Deb K.; Hermann, Bruce; Caplan, Rochelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents translational aspects of imaging and genetic studies of language and cognition in children with epilepsy of average intelligence. It also discusses current unanswered translational questions in each of these research areas. A brief review of multimodal imaging and language study findings shows that abnormal structure and function, as well as plasticity and reorganization in language-related cortical regions are found both in children with epilepsy with normal language skills and in those with linguistic deficits. The review on cognition highlights that multiple domains of impaired cognition and abnormalities in brain structure and/or connectivity are evident early on in childhood epilepsy and might be specific for epilepsy syndrome. The description of state of the art genetic analyses that can be used to explain the convergence of language impairment and Rolandic epilepsy includes a discussion of the methodological difficulties involved in these analyses. Two junior researchers describe how their current and planned studies address some of the unanswered translational questions regarding cognition and imaging and the genetic analysis of speech sound disorder, reading, and centrotemporal spikes in Rolandic epilepsy. PMID:23116771

  20. Prioritizing Rare Variants with Conditional Likelihood Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weili; Dobbins, Sara; Tomlinson, Ian; Houlston, Richard; Pal, Deb K.; Strug, Lisa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prioritizing individual rare variants within associated genes or regions often consists of an ad hoc combination of statistical and biological considerations. From the statistical perspective, rare variants are often ranked using Fisher’s exact p values, which can lead to different rankings of the same set of variants depending on whether 1- or 2-sided p values are used. Results We propose a likelihood ratio-based measure, maxLRc, for the statistical component of ranking rare variants under a case-control study design that avoids the hypothesis-testing paradigm. We prove analytically that the maxLRc is always well-defined, even when the data has zero cell counts in the 2×2 disease-variant table. Via simulation, we show that the maxLRc outperforms Fisher’s exact p values in most practical scenarios considered. Using next-generation sequence data from 27 rolandic epilepsy cases and 200 controls in a region previously shown to be linked to and associated with rolandic epilepsy, we demonstrate that rankings assigned by the maxLRc and exact p values can differ substantially. Conclusion The maxLRc provides reliable statistical prioritization of rare variants using only the observed data, avoiding the need to specify parameters associated with hypothesis testing that can result in ranking discrepancies across p value procedures; and it is applicable to common variant prioritization. PMID:25659987

  1. Cortical gamma-oscillations modulated by visuomotor tasks -Intracranial recording in patients with epilepsy-

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Tetsuro; Rothermel, Robert; Juhász, Csaba; Nishida, Masaaki; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY We determined how visuomotor tasks modulated gamma-oscillations on electrocorticography in epileptic patients who underwent epilepsy surgery. Each visual-cue consisted of either a sentence or hand gesture instructing the subject to press or not to press the button. Regardless of the recorded hemisphere, viewing sentence and gesture cues elicited gamma-augmentation sequentially in the lateral-polar occipital and inferior occipital-temporal areas; subsequently, button-press movement elicited gamma-augmentation in the Rolandic area. The magnitudes of gamma-augmentation in the Rolandic and inferior occipital-temporal areas were larger when the hand contralateral to the recorded hemisphere was used for motor responses. A double dissociation was found in the left inferior occipital-temporal cortex in one subject; the lateral portion had greater gamma-augmentation elicited by a sentence-cue, whereas the medial portion had greater gamma-augmentation elicited by a gesture-cue. The present study has increased our understanding of the physiology of the human visuomotor system. PMID:20580900

  2. Voxel-Wise Meta-Analysis of Gray Matter Changes in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Dongchao; Cui, Liying; Fang, Jia; Cui, Bo; Li, Dawei; Tai, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing neuroimaging studies have revealed gray matter (GM) anomalies of several brain regions by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A voxel-wise meta-analysis was conducted to integrate the reported studies to determine the consistent GM alterations in ALS based on VBM methods. Methods: Ovid Medline, Pubmed, Emabase, and BrainMap database were searched for relevant studies.Data were extracted by two independent researchers. Voxel-wise meta-analysis was performed using the effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM) software. Results: Twenty-nine VBM studies comprising 638 subjects with ALS and 622 healthy controls (HCs) met inclusion criteria.The global GM volumes of ALS patients were significantly decreased compared with those of HCs. GM reductions in patients were mainly located in the right precentral gyrus, the left Rolandic operculum, the left lenticular nucleus and the right anterior cingulate/paracingulate gyri. The right precentral gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus might be potential anatomical biomarkers to evaluate the severity of the disease, and longer disease duration was associated with more GM atrophy in the left frontal aslant tract and the right precentral gyrus in ALS patients. Conclusion: The results support that ALS is a complex degenerative disease involving multisystems besides the motor system.The mechanism of asymmetric atrophy of the motor cortex and the implication of Rolandic operculum involvement in ALS need to be further elucidated in future studies. PMID:27065078

  3. Regional homogeneity of resting state fMRI signals predicts Stop signal task performance.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lixia; Ren, Juejing; Zang, Yufeng

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) is a promising tool to study the relation between spontaneous brain activity and behavioral performance. However, little is known about whether the local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity could predict response inhibition. In the current study, we used regional homogeneity (ReHo) to measure the local synchronization of RS-fMRI signals, and then investigated the relationship between ReHo and individual differences in response inhibition, as evaluated by the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) in a Stop signal task. The results showed that ReHo of RS-fMRI signals could successfully predict SSRT. Specifically, positive ReHo-SSRT correlations were observed in the bilateral inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and three critical components of the default mode network (DMN), and negative ReHo-SSRT correlations were observed in the rolandic area/posterior insula and the bilateral middle occipital cortex. The present results indicate the possible influence of the IFC and rolandic area/posterior insula on the efficiency of response inhibition, and demonstrate the importance of the DMN for the efficiency of cognitive task performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Probing of structural relaxation times in the glassy state of sucrose and trehalose based on dynamical properties of two secondary relaxation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, K.; Adrjanowicz, K.; Paluch, M.; Kaminska, E.

    2011-06-15

    Time-dependent isothermal dielectric measurements were carried out deeply in the glassy state on two very important saccharides: sucrose and trehalose. In both compounds two prominent secondary relaxation processes were identified. The faster one is an inherent feature of the whole family of carbohydrates. The slower one can also be detected in oligo- and polysaccharides. It was shown earlier that the {beta} process is the Johari-Goldstein (JG) relaxation coupled to motions of the glycosidic linkage, while the {gamma} relaxation originates from motions of the exocyclic hydroxymethyl unit. Recently, it was shown that the JG relaxation process can be used to determine structural relaxation times in the glassy state [R. Casalini and C. M. Roland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 035701 (2009)]. In this paper we present the results of an analysis of the data obtained during aging using two independent approaches. The first was proposed by Casalini and Roland, and the second one is based on the variation of the dielectric strength of the secondary relaxation process during aging [J. K. Vij and G. Power, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 783 (2011)]. Surprisingly, we found that the estimated structural relaxation times in the glassy state of both saccharides are almost the same, independent of the type of secondary mode. This finding calls into question the common view that secondary modes of intramolecular origin do not provide information about the dynamics of the glassy state.

  5. Gain in Body Fat Is Associated with Increased Striatal Response to Palatable Food Cues, whereas Body Fat Stability Is Associated with Decreased Striatal Response

    PubMed Central

    Yokum, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional brain-imaging studies reveal that obese versus lean humans show greater responsivity of reward and attention regions to palatable food cues, but lower responsivity of reward regions to palatable food receipt. However, these individual differences in responsivity may result from a period of overeating. We conducted a repeated-measures fMRI study to test whether healthy weight adolescent humans who gained body fat over a 2 or 3 year follow-up period show an increase in responsivity of reward and attention regions to a cue signaling impending milkshake receipt and a simultaneous decrease in responsivity of reward regions to milkshake receipt versus adolescents who showed stability of or loss of body fat. Adolescents who gained body fat, who largely remained in a healthy weight range, showed increases in activation in the putamen, mid-insula, Rolandic operculum, and precuneus to a cue signaling impending milkshake receipt versus those who showed stability of or loss of body fat, though these effects were partially driven by reductions in responsivity among the latter groups. Adolescents who gained body fat reported significantly greater milkshake wanting and milkshake pleasantness ratings at follow-up compared to those who lost body fat. Adolescents who gained body fat did not show a reduction in responsivity of reward regions to milkshake receipt or changes in responsivity to receipt and anticipated receipt of monetary reward. Data suggest that initiating a prolonged period of overeating may increase striatal responsivity to food cues, and that maintaining a balance between caloric intake and expenditure may reduce striatal, insular, and Rolandic operculum responsivity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This novel, repeated-measures brain-imaging study suggests that adolescents who gained body fat over our follow-up period experienced an increase in striatal responsivity to cues for palatable foods compared to those who showed stability of or loss of body fat

  6. Comparison of epileptic and nonepileptic cases with centrotemporal spikes in view of clinical findings and electroencephalographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tombul, Temel; Anlar, Omer; Caksen, Hüseyin

    2006-03-01

    The morphological features of centrotemporal spike discharges (CTSD) and relationship of them with clinical diagnosis in cases with benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) and the other epileptic syndromes of childhood as well as some nonconvulsive neurological disorders were detected in the routine patient population who referred to the authors' EEG laboratory. Thirty-six cases (21 males, 15 females; 8 months-14 years old), in which awake and/or sleep EEGs revealed CTSD were included in this study. The cases were divided into two groups as epileptic and nonepileptic. The cases with seizure were divided into BECTS and the other epilepsies. Of the epileptic cases, 14 (38.8%) patients had typical rolandic seizures. In five cases, there were partial or secondary generalized seizures. Two cases had myoclonic seizures. In the nonepileptic group, there was mental retardation/behavioral disturbances in five cases; there were periodic syndromes of childhood such as migraine and equivalents of migraine in three cases; febrile convulsion in three cases, breath-holding spells in two cases, and primary enuresis nocturna in two cases. In the nonepileptic group, the discharges were significantly fewer than the other groups (p = .014). More frequent discharges occuring for shorter periods were more significantly observed in BECTS group (64%). Typically isolated spike and slow-waves in T3/T4 and C3/C4 location were significantly more common (86%) in rolandic epilepsy group (p = .01). The EEGs of cases with BECTS had more frequency in the cluster of discharges than the other groups (p = .018). Multifocal discharges were observed in 28.5% of cases with BECTS, in 20% of nonepileptic group, and in 71.4% of other epileptics in the trial. Although these epileptic and nonepileptic conditions have some differences in view of frequency and morphology and location, CTSDs could be manifested in the group without seizure. It was concluded that the similar focal

  7. Association of low back pain, impairment, disability & work limitations in nurses.

    PubMed

    Denis, Suzanne; Shannon, Harry S; Wessel, Jean; Stratford, Paul; Weller, Iris

    2007-06-01

    Health care professionals use measures of pain and impairment to identify potential disability and subsequently to predict workers' ability to do their work. However, there is little evidence that measures used are associated with ability to do one's job. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Nurses (n = 100) were classified into either off/modified work (due to LBP) or regular work groups. Trunk ROM, trunk muscular endurance, pain and disability were measured relative to the outcomes work status and Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) score. Regression analyses which included Roland Morris Questionnaire (RMQ, disability) and Sørenson (back extensor endurance) in the final models correctly classified the work status of 87% of the participants and accounted for 60% of variance in the WLQ score. Use of the RMQ and Sørenson test as diagnostic and prognostic tools should be considered in assisting return to work and treatment decision-making in female nurses with LBP.

  8. The outcome of a functional restoration programme for chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Sivan, M; Sell, B; Sell, P

    2009-12-01

    Multidisciplinary rehabilitation programmes have been successfully advocated for chronic low back pain. The aim of the study was to establish the functional and vocational outcome of a 3-week functional restoration programme. IV, Uncontrolled clinical series. One hundred and eighteen chronic low back pain patients underwent a 100-h programme consisting of back exercises, hydrotherapy, gymnasium work education and cognitive behavioural therapy. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Roland Morris (RM), 'patient global assessment tool' and work status scores were completed pre-programme and at least 1 year post programme. The ODI score improved by 15.6% (95% CI 11.8-19.4) and RM score by 4.6 points (95% CI 3.6-5.6). The proportion of patients who were seriously affected in the workplace had dropped from 59 to 22%. More than 85% of patients were satisfied with the outcome. Functional restoration programme improves the functional activity and vocational status of patients with chronic low back pain.

  9. Clinical Impact of Epileptiform Discharge in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Hye; Choi, Yong Sung; Yoon, Hoi Soo; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of epileptiform discharges in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors retrospectively reviewed 180 children who were diagnosed with ADHD and had an electroencephalography (EEG) recording. Epileptiform discharges were found in 29 (16.1%) of 180 patients with ADHD. Of these, 15 (8.3%) had generalized epileptiform discharges and 14 (7.7%) had focal epileptiform discharges. The focal epileptiform discharges were most prevalent from the frontal (5/14) and rolandic area (5/14). Among the 29 patients with epileptiform discharges and ADHD, 5 patients had previous history of epilepsy and 4 patients developed epilepsy later, whereas none of the normal EEG group developed epilepsy. The authors suggest that interictal epileptiform discharges appear to be associated with seizure occurrence in children with ADHD and might reflect maturational pathophysiology overlapping with epilepsy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. [Roger Frugardi and the tradition of Langobardic surgery].

    PubMed

    Keil, Gundolf

    2002-01-01

    The surgical manual 'Rogerina' ('cyrurgia') of the Lombardic surgeon Roger Frugardi (before 1140, + about 1195) belongs to the most-read texts in medieval Occident. This book laid the foundation for the species of the occidental surgical manuals and influenced them up to modern times. In addition, Roger's manual shows the literation of an segment of knowledge, that has been transmitted until then orally: Roger has completed the surgical knowledge with Salernitan experiences, he arranged it anatomically and presented it in a pathologic-traumatological systematization. This article describes the history of research of the 'cyrurgia' and analyzes to the last detail the later versions of the surgical manual: The addition of glosses by Roland of Parma, 'Additiones', 'Chirurgia Rolandina', 'First Salernitan Gloss', 'Roger Marginalia of Erfurt', 'Four Masters Gloss', 'Therapeutic Roger Gloss', 'Chirurgia Jamati' and the widely extended Middle High German 'Roger Complex'. The authors demonstrate that Roger Frugardi's manual is in the tradition of the Germanic-Langobardic surgery.

  11. Biophysical approach to low back pain: a pilot report.

    PubMed

    Foletti, Alberto; Pokorný, Jiry

    2015-01-01

    Since biophysical treatment has been reported to be effective in the general management of pain, we decided to assess the specific effect and treatment duration of this therapeutic strategy in low back pain. We were interested in verifying the possibility that a single clinical procedure could reduce pain and improve patients' quality of life within a period of three months. An Electromagnetic Information Transfer Through Aqueous System was employed to record endogenous therapeutic signals from each individual using an electromagnetic recording device (Med Select 729). A highly significant reduction in the Roland Morris low back pain and disability questionnaire score was observed after 3 months following a single biophysical intervention (11.83 ± 6 at baseline versus 2.3 ± 3.25 at 3 months, p < 0.0001). This preliminary report provides further evidence of the theoretical implications and clinical applications of Quantum Electro Dynamic concepts in biology and medicine.

  12. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was hosted jointly by NASA Langley (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Williamsburg, Virginia, on October 18 to 20, 1988. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr. Roland Bowles of LaRC and Herbrt Schlickenmaier of the FAA. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the second year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  13. At Home in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, John A.

    Colleague and confidant of Einstein and Bohr and pioneer of nuclear fission -- John A. Wheeler is one of our most original and profound thinkers. In engaging essays formed of reminiscence, science, and conjecture, Wheeler writes of debates and discussions with Bohr, long talks with Einstein in his study at Princeton, and the eloquence and nobility of Hermann Weyl. With simple delight in "the machinery of existence" Wheeler exudes an enthusiasm that illuminates this collection. John Wheeler is one of the 20th century's most notable nuclear physicists and relativity theorists. In addition, he has played a leading role in research on pulsars, black holes, and nuclear reactor safety. Dr. Wheeler is Jan and Roland Blumberg Professor Emeritus at the University of Texas, Austin and Joseph Henry Professor of Physics Emeritus at Princeton University.

  14. Walthère Victor Spring - A Forerunner in the Study of the Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarée, Gaston R.; Verheyden, Rosiane

    2016-01-01

    In 1886, an article by Walthère Spring and Léon Roland, two scientists from the University of Liège, dealing with the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere in Liège appeared in the "Mẻmoires" of the Royal Academy of Belgium. In order to explain the difference between temperatures in the city of Liège and those observed in that city's environs, the authors invoked the high level of atmospheric CO2. Although the climatological argument was rather weak and the article concerned only a local impact, it is obvious that Spring can be viewed as a precursor of Svante Arrhenius who foresaw global warming in 1895-1896.

  15. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Passman, Robert H. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was hosted jointly by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 14-16, 1992. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr. Roland Bowles of LaRC and Bob Passman of the FAA. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant ongoing results of the NASA/FAA Joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements. The present document has been compiled to record the essence of the technology updates and discussions which follow each.

  16. ESA mission ROSETTA will probe for chirality of cometary amino acids.

    PubMed

    Thiemann, W H; Meierhenrich, U

    2001-01-01

    New crucial theoretical investigations on the origin of biomolecular chirality are reviewed briefly. With the goal to investigate these theories our team is going to perform the 'chirality-experiment' in the near future with cometary matter. In 2012 the robotical lander RoLand will detach from the orbiter of the ROSETTA spacecraft and set down on the surface of comet 46P/Wirtanen in order to separate and identify cometary organic compounds via GC-MS in situ. Chiral organics will be separated into their enantiomers by application of 3 capillary columns coated with different kinds of stationary phases. Non-volatile compounds like amino acids will be derivatized in especially developed gas phase alkylation steps avoiding reactions in the liquid phase. The results of these preliminary gas phase reactions are presented in this article.

  17. Opercular myoclonic-anarthric status epilepticus: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskara Rao, Janapareddy Vijaya; Vengamma, Bhuma; Naveen, Thota; Rao, Marella Sudhakar

    2013-01-01

    Opercular myoclonic-anarthric status epilepticus (OMASE) is an uncommon disorder of diverse etiology. This condition is characterized by fluctuating cortical dysarthria associated with epileptic myoclonus involving glossopharyngeal musculature bilaterally. We report two cases of OMASE of vascular etiology in adults. In both patients, ictally clonic expression was consistent with epilepsia partialis continua and bilateral, symmetrical involvement of soft palate in one patient and tongue, lips, chin and inferior jaw in both patients due to bilateral projections of the inferior corticonuclear pathways. The inferior rolandic area of dominant and high frontal region in non-dominant hemispheres were involved by an epileptogenic lesion of vascular etiology, which was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of brain and single photon emission computerized tomography. Carotid Doppler study showed thrombosis of internal carotid artery in both patients, suggestive of an embolic origin. Early recognition of OMASE is important for early management of carotid occlusive disease. PMID:24339580

  18. Opercular myoclonic-anarthric status epilepticus: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Bhaskara Rao, Janapareddy Vijaya; Vengamma, Bhuma; Naveen, Thota; Rao, Marella Sudhakar

    2013-10-01

    Opercular myoclonic-anarthric status epilepticus (OMASE) is an uncommon disorder of diverse etiology. This condition is characterized by fluctuating cortical dysarthria associated with epileptic myoclonus involving glossopharyngeal musculature bilaterally. We report two cases of OMASE of vascular etiology in adults. In both patients, ictally clonic expression was consistent with epilepsia partialis continua and bilateral, symmetrical involvement of soft palate in one patient and tongue, lips, chin and inferior jaw in both patients due to bilateral projections of the inferior corticonuclear pathways. The inferior rolandic area of dominant and high frontal region in non-dominant hemispheres were involved by an epileptogenic lesion of vascular etiology, which was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of brain and single photon emission computerized tomography. Carotid Doppler study showed thrombosis of internal carotid artery in both patients, suggestive of an embolic origin. Early recognition of OMASE is important for early management of carotid occlusive disease.

  19. Impact of a Sit-Stand Workstation on Chronic Low Back Pain: Results of a Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Ognibene, Grant T; Torres, Wilson; von Eyben, Rie; Horst, Kathleen C

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether chronic low back pain (LBP) might be attenuated through the introduction of a sit-stand workstation (SSW) in office employees. Participants were randomized to receive a SSW at the beginning or at the end of a 3-month study period. Participants responded to a short survey at the end of each workday and a comprehensive survey at weeks 1, 6, and 12. Surveys consisted of a modified brief pain inventory and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Forty-six university employees with self-reported chronic LBP were enrolled. Participants who were given access to a SSW reported a significant reduction in current (P = 0.02) and worst (P = 0.04) LBP over time. Our findings support the hypothesis that chronic LBP might be improved by the introduction of a SSW in an office environment.

  20. Reduced fractional anisotropy in the anterior corpus callosum is associated with reduced speech fluency in persistent developmental stuttering.

    PubMed

    Civier, Oren; Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder that severely limits one's ability to communicate. White matter anomalies were reported in stuttering, but their functional significance is unclear. We analyzed the relation between white matter properties and speech fluency in adults who stutter (AWS). We used diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics, and examined group differences as well as correlations with behavioral fluency measures. We detected a region in the anterior corpus callosum with significantly lower fractional anisotropy in AWS relative to controls. Within the AWS group, reduced anisotropy in that region is associated with reduced fluency. A statistically significant interaction was found between group and age in two additional regions: the left Rolandic operculum and the left posterior corpus callosum. Our findings suggest that anterior callosal anomaly in stuttering may represent a maladaptive reduction in interhemispheric inhibition, possibly leading to a disadvantageous recruitment of right frontal cortex in speech production.

  1. Session: Program Review X Wrap-Up

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    This wrap-up session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of Closing Remarks by Roland R. Kessler and six NGA Industry Critique Panel presentations: ''Summary of Comments on DOE-Industry Cooperation by Geothermal Industry Panel'' by James B. Koenig, GeothermEx, Inc.; ''NGA Industry Critique of the Exploration Component'' by Joe L. Iovenitti, Weiss Associates; ''Critique of Drilling Research'' by Jerry Hamblin, UNOCAL Geothermal; ''Critique Panel Comments on Reservoir Engineering, DOE Geothermal Technology Development'' by Dennis Kaspereit, California Energy Company, Inc.; ''DOE Geothermal Program Review - Critique on Production'' by Douglas B. Jung, Two-Phase Engineering and Research; ''Comments on the DOE Hydrothermal Energy Conversion R&D Program'' by David L. Mendive, Geothermal Development Associates.

  2. Neural mechanisms underlying auditory feedback control of speech.

    PubMed

    Tourville, Jason A; Reilly, Kevin J; Guenther, Frank H

    2008-02-01

    The neural substrates underlying auditory feedback control of speech were investigated using a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and computational modeling. Neural responses were measured while subjects spoke monosyllabic words under two conditions: (i) normal auditory feedback of their speech and (ii) auditory feedback in which the first formant frequency of their speech was unexpectedly shifted in real time. Acoustic measurements showed compensation to the shift within approximately 136 ms of onset. Neuroimaging revealed increased activity in bilateral superior temporal cortex during shifted feedback, indicative of neurons coding mismatches between expected and actual auditory signals, as well as right prefrontal and Rolandic cortical activity. Structural equation modeling revealed increased influence of bilateral auditory cortical areas on right frontal areas during shifted speech, indicating that projections from auditory error cells in posterior superior temporal cortex to motor correction cells in right frontal cortex mediate auditory feedback control of speech.

  3. Assessment of functional capacity of the musculoskeletal system in the context of work, daily living, and sport: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wind, Haije; Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to survey methods to assess the functional capacity of the musculoskeletal system within the context of work, daily activities, and sport. The following key words and synonyms were used: functional physical assessment, healthy/disabled subjects, and instruments. After applying the inclusion criteria on 697 potential studies and a methodological quality appraisal, 34 studies were included. A level of reliability > 0.80 and of > 0.60 resp 0.75 and 0.90, dependent of type of validity, was considered high. Four questionnaires (the Oswestry Disability Index, the Pain Disability Index, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and the Upper Extremity Functional Scale) have high levels on both validity and reliability. None of the functional tests had a high level of both reliability and validity. A combination of a questionnaire and a functional test would seem to be the best instrument to assess functional capacity of the musculoskeletal system, but need further examined.

  4. A prospective study predicting the outcome of chronic low back pain and physical therapy: the role of fear-avoidance beliefs and extraspinal pain.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Aloma S A; Lopes, Jaqueline Barros; Bonfa, Eloisa; Halpern, Ari S R

    To identify the prognostic factors for conventional physical therapy in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Prospective observational study. One hundred thirteen patients with CLBP selected at the Spinal Disease Outpatient Clinic. Pain intensity was scored using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), and function was measured using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). The Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire work subscale results (FABQ-work; odds ratio [OR]=0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.56, p<0.001) and extraspinal pain (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.17-0.74, p=0.006) were independently associated with a decreased response to conventional physical therapy for CLBP. We identified high FABQ-work and extraspinal pain scores as key determinants of a worse response to physical therapy among CLBP patients, supporting the need for a special rehabilitation program for this subgroup. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of a Home Exercise Program on the Self-report Disability Index and Gait Parameters in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eui-Ryong; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Yang-Gon; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The present study was performed to identify the effect of a home exercise program on the self-reported disability index and gait parameters in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). [Methods] Fifteen patients with LSS were enrolled in this study and were trained in a 4-week home exercise program (40 min/day). All patients were evaluated with three self-reported disability indices (Oswestry Disability Index, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and Spinal Stenosis Scale), and gait parameters were assessed using a GAITRite system before and after the home exercise program. [Results] Patients with LSS showed significant decreases in the self-reported questionnaire scores and pain intensity after the home exercise program. However, the gait parameters did not significantly change. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that home exercise programs can improve self-reported questionnaire scores and decrease pain in patients with LSS.

  6. STS-92 M.S. Leroy Chiao suits up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During suitup in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-92 Mission Specialist Leroy Chiao gives thumbs up for launch. With him (left) is VITT Mission Lead Roland Nedelkovich, from Houston. During the 11-day mission to the International Space Station, four extravehicular activities (EVAs), or spacewalks, are planned for construction. The payload includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. The Z-1 truss is the first of 10 that will become the backbone of the Space Station, eventually stretching the length of a football field. PMA-3 will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Launch is scheduled for 7:17 p.m. EDT. Landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

  7. Position specificity in Chitonomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) on Laccophilus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae): a molecular approach resolves a century-old debate.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Lauren; Weir, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of Laboulbeniomycete species consistently on a precise portion of beetle integument was investigated in 13 species of Chitonomyces ectoparasitic on the aquatic diving beetle Laccophilus maculosus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae). The phenomenon was called "position specificity" by Roland Thaxter in 1896, yet the mechanism has remained unknown. By using molecular analysis of the nucSSU rRNA gene and the 5.8S and partial ITS1 rRNA regions, 13 species of Chitonomyces reported to exhibit position specificity on Laccophilus maculosus were placed neatly into pairs of morphotypes, resulting in synonomies and recognition of six phylogenetic species (one species is a triplet). Each phylogenetic species was located at corresponding positions on male and female beetles that make contact during mating. In addition, ecological data and video footage of the mating behaviors of Laccophilus confirmed that sexual transmission is the mechanism behind this enigmatic phenomenon.

  8. An unusual neurological feature of HIV-1 encephalopathy: Gerstmann's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cirelli, A; Ciardi, M; Salotti, A; Rossi, F

    1994-06-01

    The authors describe the first case in literature of Gerstmann's syndrome (agraphia, acalculia, finger agnosia) occurred in HIV correlated encephalopathy developed as the first severe manifestation of HIV infection in a patient with prevalent white matter neuroradiologic alterations. The PDL rapidly extended from the left subcortical parietal-occipital regions to the pre-rolandic one, with subsequent involvement of the corpus calosum splenium and the bilateral temporal lobes white matter. The authors indicate the extent of the lesions and the involvement of the interhemispheric connection fibres as the pathogenetic mechanism of the "Gerstmann syndrome", that until today has not been reported in the literature of the wide variety of AIDS dementia complex. The administration of 1 g of zidovudine for about 9 months did not avoid the establishing of the neurologic damage, but the sudden suspension of the drug could have enhanced the exacerbation of inflammation and the involvement of areas whose lesion is classically believed responsible for cognitive impairment.

  9. And to end on a poetic note: Galen's authorial strategies in the pharmacological books.

    PubMed

    Totelin, Laurence M V

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the authorial strategies deployed by Galen in his two main pharmacological treatises devoted to compound remedies: Composition of Medicines according to Types and Composition of Medicines according to Places. Some of Galen's methods of self assertion (use of the first person; writing of prefaces) are conventional. Others have not received much attention from scholars. Thus, here, I examine Galen's borrowing of his sources' 'I'; his use of the phrase 'in these words'; and his recourse to Damocrates' verse to conclude pharmacological books. I argue that Galen's authorial persona is very different from that of the modern author as defined by Roland Barthes. Galen imitates and impersonates his pharmacological sources. This re-enactment becomes a way to gain experience (peira) of remedies and guarantees their efficacy.

  10. New processes harvest farm energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-07

    Three facilities in New York, Connecticut and Arkansas installed by Energy Harvest, a Washington D.C. subsidiary of Sheaffer and Roland (Chicago), will produce gas from cattle and poultry wastes to be used primarily to generate electricity. It is estimated that there is a potential market for three million installations in the U.S. with a 1 quad total energy yield. The three facilities are part of a growing effort to develop new energy sources. Various systems under development are mentioned including a glass-fiber cover digester in Harford, N.Y. costing $15,000 that can generate power for less than 3 cents/kwh and the University of Missouri's scaled up version that can produce 3,500 cubic feet/day of methane at 4 cents/kwh.

  11. And to end on a poetic note: Galen’s authorial strategies in the pharmacological books

    PubMed Central

    Totelin, Laurence M.V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the authorial strategies deployed by Galen in his two main pharmacological treatises devoted to compound remedies: Composition of Medicines according to Types and Composition of Medicines according to Places. Some of Galen’s methods of self assertion (use of the first person; writing of prefaces) are conventional. Others have not received much attention from scholars. Thus, here, I examine Galen’s borrowing of his sources’ ‘I’; his use of the phrase ‘in these words’; and his recourse to Damocrates’ verse to conclude pharmacological books. I argue that Galen’s authorial persona is very different from that of the modern author as defined by Roland Barthes. Galen imitates and impersonates his pharmacological sources. This re-enactment becomes a way to gain experience (peira) of remedies and guarantees their efficacy.

  12. Broca's area in the human brain is involved in the selection of grammatical gender for language production: evidence from event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Heim, St; Opitz, B; Friederici, A D

    2002-08-09

    The neural correlates of the selection of grammatical gender during overt picture naming were investigated by event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in the left hemisphere. Relative to simply naming a picture, the production of the definite determiner of the picture name (requiring gender selection) resulted exclusively in pronounced activation of a single region in the superior portion of Broca's area. This activation was not present in contrasts reflecting lexical access (naming a picture vs. saying "jaja" to a smiley) or articulation (saying "jaja" vs. rest). Rather, lexical access activated other inferior frontal regions, insula, fusiform and inferior temporal gyrus. Articulation involved insula, Rolandic operculum, motor and premotor cortex and superior temporal gyrus. The results are discussed with respect to data from studies investigating gender processing during language comprehension.

  13. Benign nocturnal alternating hemiplegia of childhood: two cases with positive evolution.

    PubMed

    Villéga, Frédéric; Picard, Fabienne; Espil-Taris, Caroline; Husson, Marie; Michel, Véronique; Pedespan, Jean-Michel

    2011-06-01

    Benign nocturnal alternating hemiplegia (BNAH) of childhood is distinct from the classic form of malignant alternating hemiplegia of childhood [1]. It is characterized by hemiplegic attacks occurring exclusively during sleep [2]. It can be misdiagnosed as migraine, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, benign rolandic epilepsy, Panayiotopoulos syndrome, or sleep-related movement disorder [1-4]. Only nine patients have been described to date, with typically, a normal development [1,5-7]. In order to insist about the benignity of the affection, we report two cases: a new three-year-old boy suffering from BNAH and a patient already published to show positive evolution at fourteen years of age. BNAH is a rare disorder but may be underdiagnosed. Making an early diagnosis can help to describe to the parents the good prognosis without treatment.

  14. International Program and Local Organizing Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-12-01

    International Program Committee Dionisio Bermejo (Spain) Roman Ciurylo (Poland) Elisabeth Dalimier (France) Alexander Devdariani (Russia) Milan S Dimitrijevic (Serbia) Robert Gamache (USA) Marco A Gigosos (Spain) Motoshi Goto (Japan) Magnus Gustafsson (Sweden) Jean-Michel Hartmann (France) Carlos Iglesias (USA) John Kielkopf (USA) John C Lewis (Canada) Valery Lisitsa (Russia) Eugene Oks (USA) Christian G Parigger (USA) Gillian Peach (UK) Adriana Predoi-Cross (Canada) Roland Stamm (Germany) Local Organizing Committee Nikolay G Skvortsov (Chair, St Petersburg State University) Evgenii B Aleksandrov (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St Petersburg) Vadim A Alekseev (Scientific Secretary, St Petersburg State University) Sergey F Boureiko (St.Petersburg State University) Yury N Gnedin (Pulkovo Observatory, St Petersburg) Alexander Z Devdariani (Deputy Chair, St Petersburg State University) Alexander P Kouzov (Deputy Chair, St Petersburg State University) Nikolay A Timofeev (St Petersburg State University)

  15. Europäisches Bewusstsein: Zur Definition Eines Vielschichtigen Begriffes und Seiner Bildungstheoretischen Bedeutung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobst, Solvejg

    2005-11-01

    EUROPEAN CONSCIOUSNESS: TOWARDS DEFINING A COMPLEX CONCEPT AND ITS EDUCATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE - The present study aims at a definition of `European consciousness'. In particular, it draws on Henri Tajfel's theory of social identity as well as Roland Wakenhut's and Jutta Gallenmüller's moral determination of national consciousness. European consciousness is then defined as a sense of belonging which, depending on certain identification structures and social perspectives, can take such distinct forms of moral consciousness as `Eurocentrism', `European patriotism', or `reflective European consciousness'. Making reference to Wolfgang Klafki's notion of general education, it is finally argued that the emancipatory contribution of schooling to greater European integration consists in mediating precisely this last way of thinking.

  16. "Atypical forms" of benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS): How to diagnose and guide these children. A practical/scientific approach.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Pasquale; Paolino, Maria Chiara; Raucci, Umberto; Ferretti, Alessandro; Villa, Maria Pia; Trenite, Dorothee Kasteleijn-Nolst

    2017-10-01

    Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) epilepsy, also known as rolandic epilepsy, is the most common childhood type of epilepsy. There is debate on its "benign" definition given the numerous literature data on its correlation to cognitive morbidity. Although its prognosis is often favorable, BECTS can present or evolve however to an atypical form, characterized by a worse prognosis and negative impact on cognitive development. It is possible that abnormal electrical activity, marker of neurological dysfunction, has the potential to disrupt neural network function and development. Numerous studies tried to identify clinical or electroencephalographic criteria for atypical forms and atypical evolution of BECTS in order to guide follow-up and treatment of patients and to predict their outcome. This review provides a compact summery of literature data with a focus on predictive features of future cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. INDIAN CASTE SYSTEM: HISTORICAL AND PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWS.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Madhusudana Rao

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the historical origins and transformations of India's caste system. Surveying the complex developments over many centuries, it points out that three positions have been taken in this regard. One suggests that the caste one is born into can be transcended within one's lifetime by performing good deeds. The other declares caste to be immutable forever. And, the third says that one can be reborn into a higher caste if one lives a virtuous life. Moving on to the sociopolitical realm, the paper notes how these positions have been used and exploited. The paper then attempts to anchor the existence and purpose of the Hindu caste system in Freud's ideas about group psychology and Klein's proposals of splitting and projective identification. The paper also deploys the large group psychology concepts of Volkan and the culturally nuanced psychoanalytic anthropology of Roland and Kakar. It concludes with delineating some ameliorative strategies for this tragic problem in the otherwise robust democratic society of India.

  18. Dyssynergia cerebellaris myoclonica (Ramsay Hunt syndrome): a condition unrelated to mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.

    PubMed Central

    Tassinari, C A; Michelucci, R; Genton, P; Pellissier, J F; Roger, J

    1989-01-01

    Thirteen patients with dyssynergia cerebellaris myoclonica (Ramsay Hunt syndrome) had full clinical and neurophysiological study as well as muscle biopsy. The patients had action myoclonus, generalised epileptic seizures, and mild cerebellar syndrome. The disease was inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern in five patients, and occurred as isolated cases in the remaining eight patients. The age at onset of symptoms ranged from 6 to 15 years (mean, 10.4 years). The EEG and polygraphic findings included normal background activity in most patients, spontaneous fast generalised spike-and-wave discharges, photosensitivity, no activation during slow sleep, and vertex and rolandic spikes in REM sleep. Results of muscle biopsy, performed an average of 14 years after onset of the disease, were normal and showed no mitochondrial abnormalities. These findings suggest that Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a condition with distinctive clinical and neurophysiological features and unrelated to mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. PMID:2703843

  19. Left medial parietal lobe and receptive language functions: mixed transcortical aphasia after left anterior cerebral artery infarction.

    PubMed

    Ross, E D

    1980-02-01

    Three aphasic patients with infarctions involving the left anterior cerebral artery have been studied. Two had trancortical motor aphasia, and one had mixed transcortical (or isolation) aphasia. Based on computerized tomography in two patients and whole-brain sections in one, the patient with mixed transcortical aphasia had a lesion that went beyond the rolandic fissure to involve the anterior precuneus lobule of the left medial parietal lobe. In the patients with transcortical motor aphasia, the lesion was confined to the frontal lobe. From these cases and other data, it seems likely that the left medial parietal lobe has receptive language functions analogous to the motor language functions of the left medial frontal lobe, thus accounting for the mixed transcortical aphasia observed in the patient whose left anterior cerebral artery infarction involved both the medial parietal and medial frontal lobes.

  20. A Mind-Body Program for Older Adults With Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Morone, Natalia E; Greco, Carol M; Moore, Charity G; Rollman, Bruce L; Lane, Bridget; Morrow, Lisa A; Glynn, Nancy W; Weiner, Debra K

    2016-03-01

    Treatment of chronic low back pain (LBP) in older adults is limited by the adverse effects of analgesics. Effective nonpharmacologic treatment options are needed. To determine the effectiveness of a mind-body program at increasing function and reducing pain in older adults with chronic LBP. This single-blind, randomized clinical trial compared a mind-body program (n = 140) with a health education program (n = 142). Community-dwelling older adults residing within the Pittsburgh metropolitan area were recruited from February 14, 2011, to June 30, 2014, with 6-month follow-up completed by April 9, 2015. Eligible participants were 65 years or older with functional limitations owing to their chronic LBP (≥11 points on the Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire) and chronic pain (duration ≥3 months) of moderate intensity. Data were analyzed from March 1 to July 1, 2015. The intervention and control groups received an 8-week group program followed by 6 monthly sessions. The intervention was modeled on the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program; the control program, on the "10 Keys" to Healthy Aging. Follow-up occurred at program completion and 6 months later. The score on the Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire was the primary outcome and measured functional limitations owing to LBP. Pain (current, mean, and most severe in the past week) was measured with the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, pain self-efficacy, and mindfulness. Intent-to-treat analyses were conducted. Of 1160 persons who underwent screening, 282 participants enrolled in the trial (95 men [33.7%] and 187 women [66.3%]; mean [SD] age,74.5 [6.6] years). The baseline mean (SD) Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire scores for the intervention and control groups were 15.6 (3.0) and 15.4 (3.0), respectively. Compared with the control group, intervention participants improved an additional -1.1 (mean, 12.1 vs 13.1) points at 8 weeks and -0.04 (mean

  1. The Effect of Topical Rosa damascena (Rose) Oil on Pregnancy-Related Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Mahbobeh; Mohebitabar, Safieh; Bioos, Sodabeh; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Rahimi, Roja; Shahpiri, Zahra; Malekshahi, Farhad; Nejatbakhsh, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the efficacy of topical rose oil in women with pregnancy-related low back pain. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 120 women with pregnancy-related low back pain. Patients were allocated to 3 parallel groups to receive topical rose oil (in the carrier of almond oil), placebo (carrier oil), or no intervention. All groups were followed for 4 weeks. All participants were evaluated by Visual Analog Scale and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaires to assess the pain intensity and its impact on daily activities before and after the intervention. Significant decrease in pain intensity compared to carrier oil or no intervention was observed. The rose oil also improves the functional ability of these patients in contrast with no intervention, while its effect on function is not significant compared to carrier oil. Rose oil reduced pregnancy-related low back pain intensity without any significant adverse effect.

  2. Oxcarbazepine-induced Stevens–Johnson syndrome: a pediatric case report

    PubMed Central

    Can, Ceren; Örencik, Aysegül; Can, Nuray; Yazıcıoğlu, Mehtap

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis are two rare but life-threatening diseases characterized by detachment of epidermis, bullous skin lesions and mucous membrane erosions. Anti-epileptic drugs are highly suspected to be the causative agents. Although carbamazepine (CBZ) is the most associated anti-epileptic drug, oxcarbazepine (OXC), which is a monohydrated derivative of CBZ, is proposed to be safer because of the different metabolism of the two drugs. Herein, we report a case of SJS induced by oxcarbazepine. A 6-year-old boy with benign rolandic epilepsy, admitted to our hospital with generalized maculopapular rash after starting oxcarbazepine. The diagnosis of SJS was made with cytotoxic skin lesions and mucous membrane involvement. After discontinuing of the drug and topical corticosteroid initiation, the lesions were improved. We report this case to attract attention to the serious side effect of this anti-epileptic drug. PMID:28580160

  3. Functional and structural balances of homologous sensorimotor regions in multiple sclerosis fatigue.

    PubMed

    Cogliati Dezza, I; Zito, G; Tomasevic, L; Filippi, M M; Ghazaryan, A; Porcaro, C; Squitti, R; Ventriglia, M; Lupoi, D; Tecchio, F

    2015-03-01

    Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly disabling symptom. Among the central mechanisms behind it, an involvement of sensorimotor networks is clearly evident from structural and functional studies. We aimed at assessing whether functional/structural balances of homologous sensorimotor regions-known to be crucial for sensorimotor networks effectiveness-decrease with MS fatigue increase. Functional connectivity measures at rest and during a simple motor task (weak handgrip of either the right or left hand) were derived from primary sensorimotor areas electroencephalographic recordings in 27 mildly disabled MS patients. Structural MRI-derived inter-hemispheric asymmetries included the cortical thickness of Rolandic regions and the volume of thalami. Fatigue symptoms increased together with the functional inter-hemispheric imbalance of sensorimotor homologous areas activities at rest and during movement, in absence of any appreciable parenchymal asymmetries. This finding supports the development of compensative interventions that may revert these neuronal activity imbalances to relieve fatigue in MS.

  4. Historical photogrammetry: Bird's Paluxy River dinosaur chase sequence digitally reconstructed as it was prior to excavation 70 years ago.

    PubMed

    Falkingham, Peter L; Bates, Karl T; Farlow, James O

    2014-01-01

    It is inevitable that some important specimens will become lost or damaged over time, conservation is therefore of vital importance. The Paluxy River dinosaur tracksite is among the most famous in the world. In 1940, Roland T. Bird described and excavated a portion of the site containing associated theropod and sauropod trackways. This excavated trackway was split up and housed in different institutions, and during the process a portion was lost or destroyed. We applied photogrammetric techniques to photographs taken by Bird over 70 years ago, before the trackway was removed, to digitally reconstruct the site as it was prior to excavation. The 3D digital model offers the opportunity to corroborate maps drawn by R.T. Bird when the tracksite was first described. More broadly, this work demonstrates the exciting potential for digitally recreating palaeontological, geological, or archaeological specimens that have been lost to science, but for which photographic documentation exists.

  5. Historical Photogrammetry: Bird's Paluxy River Dinosaur Chase Sequence Digitally Reconstructed as It Was prior to Excavation 70 Years Ago

    PubMed Central

    Falkingham, Peter L.; Bates, Karl T.; Farlow, James O.

    2014-01-01

    It is inevitable that some important specimens will become lost or damaged over time, conservation is therefore of vital importance. The Paluxy River dinosaur tracksite is among the most famous in the world. In 1940, Roland T. Bird described and excavated a portion of the site containing associated theropod and sauropod trackways. This excavated trackway was split up and housed in different institutions, and during the process a portion was lost or destroyed. We applied photogrammetric techniques to photographs taken by Bird over 70 years ago, before the trackway was removed, to digitally reconstruct the site as it was prior to excavation. The 3D digital model offers the opportunity to corroborate maps drawn by R.T. Bird when the tracksite was first described. More broadly, this work demonstrates the exciting potential for digitally recreating palaeontological, geological, or archaeological specimens that have been lost to science, but for which photographic documentation exists. PMID:24695537

  6. Exercise, manual therapy, and education with or without high-intensity deep-water running for nonspecific chronic low back pain: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; García-Romero, Jerónimo Carmelo; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Diego-Acosta, Angel Mario; Daly, Daniel J

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study on persons with nonspecific chronic low back pain was to evaluate the effect of a multimodal physical therapy program with or without the addition of deep-water running on pain, physical disability, and general health. A randomized controlled trial involving 46 subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain were treated three times a week for 15 wks. Each group received 60 mins of multimodal physical therapy program (an individualized exercise program; manual therapy; and back care, pain education, and information on an active lifestyle), whereas one group performed additional 20-min sessions of deep-water running at an individual workload of the aerobic threshold. Both interventions resulted in significant improvements in pain, disability, and physical health. The mean change in pain, disability, and physical health state were -36.1 ± 25.1 mm on the visual analog scale, -3.0 ± 4.8 points for the Roland Morris Questionnaire, and 10.6 ± 12.9 points for the Short Form-12 for the physical therapy plus deep-water running group and -34.1 ± 26.0 mm on the visual analog scale, -1.6 ± 1.5 points for the Roland Morris Questionnaire, and 8.9 ± 13.0 points for the Short Form-12 for the physical therapy alone group. Pain, disability, health status, muscle strength and endurance, and lumbar range of motion significantly improved in both groups. The addition of a deep-water running program at an individual workload of the aerobic threshold to the multimodal physical therapy program produced a significant improvement in pain in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain, but this was not significantly different when compared with multimodal physical therapy program alone. Disability, health status, muscle strength and endurance, and lumbar range of motion significantly improved to a similar level in both intervention groups.

  7. Cortical plasticity of motor-eloquent areas measured by navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with glioma.

    PubMed

    Conway, Neal; Wildschuetz, Noémie; Moser, Tobias; Bulubas, Lucia; Sollmann, Nico; Tanigawa, Noriko; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2017-01-20

    OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying cerebral plasticity. Coupled with noninvasive detection of its occurrence, such an understanding has huge potential to improve glioma therapy. The authors aimed to demonstrate the frequency of plastic reshaping, find clues to the patterns behind it, and prove that it can be recognized noninvasively using navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS). METHODS The authors used nTMS to map cortical motor representation in 22 patients with gliomas affecting the precentral gyrus, preoperatively and 3-42 months postoperatively. Location changes of the primary motor area, defined as hotspots and map centers of gravity, were measured. RESULTS Spatial normalization and analysis of hotspots showed an average shift of 5.1 ± 0.9 mm (mean ± SEM) on the mediolateral axis, and 10.7 ± 1.6 mm on the anteroposterior axis. Map centers of gravity were found to have shifted by 4.6 ± 0.8 mm on the mediolateral, and 8.7 ± 1.5 mm on the anteroposterior axis. Motor-eloquent points tended to shift toward the tumor by 4.5 ± 3.6 mm if the lesion was anterior to the rolandic region and by 2.6 ± 3.3 mm if it was located posterior to the rolandic region. Overall, 9 of 16 (56%) patients with high-grade glioma and 3 of 6 (50%) patients with low-grade glioma showed a functional shift > 10 mm at the cortical level. CONCLUSIONS Despite the small size of this series, analysis of these data showed that cortical functional reorganization occurs quite frequently. Moreover, nTMS was shown to detect such plastic reorganization noninvasively.

  8. Molecular networks implicated in speech-related disorders: FOXP2 regulates the SRPX2/uPAR complex.

    PubMed

    Roll, Patrice; Vernes, Sonja C; Bruneau, Nadine; Cillario, Jennifer; Ponsole-Lenfant, Magali; Massacrier, Annick; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Khalife, Manal; Hirsch, Edouard; Fisher, Simon E; Szepetowski, Pierre

    2010-12-15

    It is a challenge to identify the molecular networks contributing to the neural basis of human speech. Mutations in transcription factor FOXP2 cause difficulties mastering fluent speech (developmental verbal dyspraxia, DVD), whereas mutations of sushi-repeat protein SRPX2 lead to epilepsy of the rolandic (sylvian) speech areas, with DVD or with bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria. Pathophysiological mechanisms driven by SRPX2 involve modified interaction with the plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). Independent chromatin-immunoprecipitation microarray screening has identified the uPAR gene promoter as a potential target site bound by FOXP2. Here, we directly tested for the existence of a transcriptional regulatory network between human FOXP2 and the SRPX2/uPAR complex. In silico searches followed by gel retardation assays identified specific efficient FOXP2-binding sites in each of the promoter regions of SRPX2 and uPAR. In FOXP2-transfected cells, significant decreases were observed in the amounts of both SRPX2 (43.6%) and uPAR (38.6%) native transcripts. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that FOXP2 expression yielded a marked inhibition of SRPX2 (80.2%) and uPAR (77.5%) promoter activity. A mutant FOXP2 that causes DVD (p.R553H) failed to bind to SRPX2 and uPAR target sites and showed impaired down-regulation of SRPX2 and uPAR promoter activity. In a patient with polymicrogyria of the left rolandic operculum, a novel FOXP2 mutation (p.M406T) was found in the leucine-zipper (dimerization) domain. p.M406T partially impaired the FOXP2 regulation of SRPX2 promoter activity, whereas that of the uPAR promoter remained unchanged. Together with recently described FOXP2-CNTNAP2 and SRPX2/uPAR links, the FOXP2-SRPX2/uPAR network provides exciting insights into molecular pathways underlying speech-related disorders.

  9. Assessment of the Minimum Clinically Important Difference in the Timed Up and Go Test After Surgery for Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease.

    PubMed

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Stienen, Martin N; Corniola, Marco V; Joswig, Holger; Schaller, Karl; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Smoll, Nicolas R

    2017-03-01

    The Timed Up and Go Test (TUG Test) has previously been described as a reliable tool to evaluate objective functional impairment in patients with degenerative disc disease. The aim of this study was to assess the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) of the TUG Test. The TUG Test (measured in seconds) was correlated with validated patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) of pain intensity (Visual Analog Scale for back and leg pain), functional impairment (Oswestry Disability Index, Roland Morris Disability Index), and health-related quality of life measures (Short Form-12 and EuroQol 5D). Three established methods were used to establish anchor-based MCID values using responders of the following PROs (Visual Analog Scale back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, Roland Morris Disability Index, EuroQol 5D index, and Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary) as anchors: (1) average change, (2) minimum detectable change, and (3) change difference approach. One hundred patients with a mean ± SD age of 56.2 ± 16.1 years, 57 (57%) male, 45 patients undergoing microdiscectomy, 35 undergoing lumbar decompression, and 20 undergoing fusion surgery were studied. The 3 MCID computation methods revealed a range of MCID values according to the PRO used from 0.9 s (Oswestry Disability Index based on the change difference approach) to 6.0 s (EuroQol 5D index based on the minimum detectable change approach), with a mean MCID of 3.4 s for all measured PROs. The MCID for the TUG Test time is highly variable depending on the computation technique used. The average TUG Test MCID was 3.4 s using all 3 methods and all anchors.

  10. Correlation of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System with legacy outcomes measures in assessment of response to lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections.

    PubMed

    Shahgholi, L; Yost, K J; Carter, R E; Geske, J R; Hagen, C E; Amrami, K K; Diehn, F E; Kaufmann, T J; Morris, J M; Murthy, N S; Wald, J T; Thielen, K R; Kallmes, D F; Maus, T P

    2015-03-01

    The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System is a newly developed outcomes measure promulgated by the National Institutes of Health. This study compares changes in pain and physical function-related measures of this system with changes on the Numeric Rating Pain Scale, Roland Morris Disability Index, and the European Quality of Life scale 5D questionnaire in patients undergoing transformational epidural steroid injections for radicular pain. One hundred ninety-nine patients undergoing transforaminal epidural steroid injections for radicular pain were enrolled in the study. Before the procedure, they rated the intensity of their pain by using the 0-10 Numeric Rating Pain Scale, Roland Morris Disability Index, and European Quality of Life scale 5D questionnaire. Patients completed the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Physical Function, Pain Behavior, and Pain Interference short forms before transforaminal epidural steroid injections and at 3 and 6 months. Seventy and 43 subjects replied at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Spearman rank correlations were used to assess the correlation between the instruments. The minimally important differences were calculated for each measurement tool as an indicator of meaningful change. All instruments were responsive in detecting changes at 3- and 6-month follow-up (P < .0001). There was significant correlation between changes in Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System scores and legacy questionnaires from baseline to 3 months (P < .05). There were, however, no significant correlations in changes from 3 to 6 months with any of the instruments. The studied Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System domains offered responsive and correlative psychometric properties compared with legacy instruments in a population of patients undergoing transforaminal epidural steroid injections for radicular pain. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  11. Handgrip strength is associated with, but poorly predicts, disability in older women with acute low back pain: A 12-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Felício, Diogo Carvalho; Diz, Juliano Bergamaschine Mata; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Queiroz, Bárbara Zille de; Silva, Juscélio Pereira de; Moreira, Bruno de Souza; Oliveira, Vinícius Cunha; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2017-10-01

    Older women with low back pain (LBP) constitute a special subpopulation at risk of severe and permanent disability. It is important to identify factors limiting functionality in this population in order to reduce costs and improve both prevention and intervention. Handgrip strength (HGS) is a biomarker of aging associated with several adverse health outcomes, but long-term associations with disability in older patients with LBP are not known. To examine whether HGS predicts disability in older women with acute low back pain (LBP). Longitudinal analyses were conducted with a sample of 135 older women from the international multicenter study Back Complaints in the Elders (BACE-Brazil). Women aged 60 years and over with a new episode of acute LBP were included. HGS was assessed with Jamar(®) dynamometer, and disability was assessed using the Roland Morris questionnaire and gait speed test. Variables were assessed at baseline and at 12-month follow-up. Linear regression models explored associations between HGS and disability measures. Significant association was found between HGS at baseline and gait speed at 12-month follow-up (r=-0.24; p=0.004). A multivariable-adjusted model showed that this association was independent of age, body mass index, and pain intensity (adjusted R(2)=0.13; p<0.001). A final prediction model showed an incremental difference of only 2.1% in gait speed after inclusion of HGS as an independent variable. No association was found between HGS and score on the Roland Morris questionnaire. Caution is needed regarding the use of HGS as a predictive measure of disability in older women with acute LBP. Changes in gait speed were very small and unlikely to be of clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between sleep-activated interictal epileptiform discharges and intelligence in children.

    PubMed

    Scott, Christine M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) during sleep in children with benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE) and cognitive test scores as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) with the hypothesis that, as IEDs increase, cognitive test scores decrease. Studies have shown that generalized seizures and status epilepticus can negatively impact cognition (Dodrill 2004), that children with epilepsy have lower cognitive function on average than children without epilepsy and that children with epilepsy and abnormal electroencephalograms (EEGs) have lower cognitive function than children with epilepsy and normal EEGs (Bailet et al. 2000). Studies have also indicated that as IEDs decrease, neurocognitive test scores increase (Baglietto et al. 2001). The current study evaluated sleep-activated IEDs in children with the specific syndrome of benign rolandic epilepsy based on the frequency of LEDs in sleep in relation to cognitive test scores. Neuropsychological test scores from the WISC-IV were gathered along with the number of spikes per minute detected in EEG recordings. Statistical analysis revealed a negative correlation between spike frequency and both processing speed and coding scores, though the relationship did not reach statistical significance. This study concludes that there may be correlations between increased spike density and cognitive test scores, or there might be other factors impacting cognition in BRE, but a larger sample is needed to further investigate. In addition, it is possible that a negative result in the present study represents good news, that the number of IEDs in BRE does not harm the brain by negatively impacting cognition.

  13. Chiropractic care of musculoskeletal disorders in a unique population within Canadian community health centers.

    PubMed

    Garner, Michael J; Aker, Peter; Balon, Jeff; Birmingham, Michael; Moher, David; Keenan, Dirk; Manga, Pran

    2007-01-01

    This study was part of a larger demonstration project integrating chiropractic care into publicly funded Canadian community health centers. This pre/post study investigated the effectiveness of chiropractic care in reducing pain and disability as well as improving general health status in a unique population of urban, low-income, and multiethnic patients with musculoskeletal (MSK) complaints. All patients who presented to one of two community health center-based chiropractic clinics with MSK complaints between August 2004 and December 2005 were recruited to participate in this study. Outcomes were assessed by a general health measure (Short Form-12), a pain scale (VAS), and site-specific disability indexes (Roland-Morris Questionnaire and Neck Disability Index), which were administered before and after a 12-week treatment period. Three hundred twenty-four patients with MSK conditions were recruited into the study, and 259 (80.0%) of them were followed to the study's conclusion. Clinically important and statistically significant positive changes were observed for all outcomes (Short Form-12: physical composite score mean change = 4.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.8-6.0; VAS: current pain mean change = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.9-2.6; Neck Disability Index: mean change = 6.8, 95% CI = 5.4-8.1; Roland-Morris Questionnaire: mean change = 4.3, 95% CI = 3.6-5.1). No adverse events were reported. Patients of low socioeconomic status face barriers to accessing chiropractic services. This study suggests that chiropractic care reduces pain and disability as well as improves general health status in patients with MSK conditions. Further studies using a more robust methodology are needed to investigate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of introducing chiropractic care into publicly funded health care facilities.

  14. Effects of subclinical depression, anxiety and somatization on brain structure in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Besteher, Bianca; Gaser, Christian; Langbein, Kerstin; Dietzek, Maren; Sauer, Heinrich; Nenadić, Igor

    2017-06-01

    Dimensional approaches in highly prevalent psychiatric disorders like depression or anxiety could lead to a better understanding of pathogenesis and advantages in early detection and prevention. In an effort to better understand associations of brain structural variation across the depression/anxiety spectra, we investigated minor subclinical symptoms in a non-clinical healthy population. We studied 177 healthy subjects from the community, who underwent high-resolution T1-weighted 3T MRI and completed the symptom-checklist-90 (SCL-90-R). Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis with CAT12 software, we correlated SCL-90-R-subscales for depression, anxiety, and somatization with gray matter across the brain. Significant positive gray matter correlations emerged across all three scales in different areas: the depression subscale correlated positively with gray matter in the Rolandic operculum, superior temporal gyrus (left) and postcentral gyrus (bilateral), the anxiety subscale correlated positively with middle temporal gyrus, Rolandic operculum, middle cingular gyrus and precuneus bilaterally, and the somatization subscale with left inferior prefrontal cortex. Somatization also showed negative correlations with cerebellar vermis and right supplementary motor area. Our study is limited to VBM and does not include surface-based measures. It also only contains subjects with very small psychological distress by partly overlapping symptoms. Our findings are consistent with a non-linear relationship between symptom severity and cortical volume in several brain areas involved in both emotion regulation as well as altered in clinically manifest depressive/anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [EEG and ischemic stroke in full-term newborns].

    PubMed

    Selton, D; André, M; Hascoët, J M

    2003-06-01

    The aims of this study were to describe EEG anomalies in unilateral neonatal ischemic stroke without hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and to determine possible links between these abnormalities and long-term outcome. In 6 full-term newborns without severe fetal distress ischemic stroke was confirmed by computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty EEGs were recorded during the neonatal period, 5 in acute stage and 15 later. The duration of the follow-up ranged from 3 to 9 years. All newborns developed unilateral clonic seizures, right-sided (5 cases) or left-sided (1 case); seizures began between 14 and 48 h of life. At follow-up, 3 children were normal at 2 and 6 years of age, while the 3 others had sequelae: epilepsy at 9 years of age in one, and unilateral mild cerebral palsy in the 2 others (3 and 4 years of age), with behavioral problems in one of them. Critical EEG discharges, rhythmic sharp waves and/or slow waves were recorded on the injured side. Abnormalities of interictal activity were excess of alpha or theta rhythms, transitory EEG discontinuity or low voltage. The 2 children with cerebral palsy had numerous unilateral post-ictal positive rolandic slow sharp waves (PRSSWs), which were similar to the positive rolandic sharp waves of premature infants; the child with behavioral problems had numerous positive left-sided temporal fast sharp waves. PRSSWs could be associated with contralateral motor sequelae, while positive left temporal fast sharp waves were associated with long term behavioral problems. These findings may be used for future prospective studies aimed at specifying the relation between EEG abnormalities and long-term outcome.

  16. Therapeutic efficacy of pregabalin in patients with leg symptoms due to lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naoto; Arai, Itaru; Kayama, Satoru; Ichiji, Kenji; Fukuda, Hironari; Kaga, Takahiro; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of pregabalin in patients with leg symptoms due to lumbar spinal stenosis. Study subjects were classified into two groups according to their pharmacotherapy: the pregabalin group, treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and pregabalin combination therapy, and the control group, treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug monotherapy. The two groups were compared in terms of the duration of pain after the onset of leg symptoms and the type of neurogenic intermittent claudication, whether radicular-, caudal-, or mixed-type. Numerical rating scale and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire scores were evaluated before and 3 months after treatment. After 3 months of treatment, there were significant differences in the numerical rating scale for radicular- and mixed-types, but not for caudal-type, between the two groups in the subjects with leg symptoms for greater than 3 months. There were significant differences between the two groups in Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire scores for mixed-type, but not for radicular- and caudal-types, in the subjects with leg symptoms for less than 3 months and for radicular- and mixed-types, but not for caudal-type, in the subjects with leg symptoms for greater than 3 months. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and pregabalin combination therapy may be more effective than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug monotherapy for the relief of leg symptoms due to lumbar spinal stenosis, preventing aggravation of subjective symptoms and improving quality of life for patients with radicular- and mixed-types in subjects with leg symptoms for greater than 3 months, although it may be necessary to consider alternative therapy for patients with caudal-type.

  17. Dilatancy Strengthening As a Mechanism for Earthquake Rupture Barriers and Aseismic Creep Transients on Oceanic Transform Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; McGuire, J. J.; Behn, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean bottom seismometer deployments along the Gofar, Quebrada and Discovery transform faults on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) have revealed strong along-strike variation in M6 earthquake rupture extents and earthquake swarm activity. An active-source refraction survey along the ~ 100-km-long western segment of Gofar found a ~ 10-km-long zone of ~ 10-20% P wave velocity reduction, which extends from the surface to the Moho and acted as a "barrier" to previous cycles of M6 ruptures [McGuire et al., 2012; Roland et al., 2012]. The low velocity zone is interpreted to result primarily from enhanced fault zone porosity. That this region appears to behave as a rupture barrier is interesting from a fault frictional point of view because it nucleates intense microseismicity and hence has velocity-weakening (unstable slip) characteristics. In this study, we use a 3D strike-slip fault model with rate-state friction to investigate how the presence of a high-porosity, strong dilatancy zone embedded in a velocity-weakening transform fault could lead to a persistent earthquake rupture barrier. Rate-state frictional parameters are based on experimental results on gabbro gouge under hydrothermal conditions, and constrained by the tomoDD relocation of seismicity on Gofar [Froment et al., 2014]. Our modeling results reproduce the ~ 5 year recurrence interval of M6 earthquakes on two ~ 20-km-long fault segments separated by a ~ 10 km zone with effective dilatancy strengthening. A stronger dilatancy effect leads to a lower seismic coupling coefficient in the barrier zone. The release of energy in the barrier zone is manifested in various forms of aseismic deformation, including postseismic slip and interseismic slow slip events. The modeled slow slip migration speed and equivalent stress drop are comparable to those estimated from earthquake swarms on transform faults [Roland and McGuire, 2009], and suggests that such swarm activity is primarily driven by aseismic transient slip events.

  18. Probing of structural relaxation times in the glassy state of sucrose and trehalose based on dynamical properties of two secondary relaxation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, K.; Adrjanowicz, K.; Kaminska, E.; Paluch, M.

    2011-06-01

    Time-dependent isothermal dielectric measurements were carried out deeply in the glassy state on two very important saccharides: sucrose and trehalose. In both compounds two prominent secondary relaxation processes were identified. The faster one is an inherent feature of the whole family of carbohydrates. The slower one can also be detected in oligo- and polysaccharides. It was shown earlier that the β process is the Johari-Goldstein (JG) relaxation coupled to motions of the glycosidic linkage, while the γ relaxation originates from motions of the exocyclic hydroxymethyl unit. Recently, it was shown that the JG relaxation process can be used to determine structural relaxation times in the glassy state [R. Casalini and C. M. Roland, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.035701 102, 035701 (2009)]. In this paper we present the results of an analysis of the data obtained during aging using two independent approaches. The first was proposed by Casalini and Roland, and the second one is based on the variation of the dielectric strength of the secondary relaxation process during aging [J. K. Vij and G. Power, J. Non-Cryst. SolidsJNCSBJ0022-309310.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2010.07.067 357, 783 (2011)]. Surprisingly, we found that the estimated structural relaxation times in the glassy state of both saccharides are almost the same, independent of the type of secondary mode. This finding calls into question the common view that secondary modes of intramolecular origin do not provide information about the dynamics of the glassy state.

  19. Problem areas identified as important to older adults with lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Todd C; Lavallee, Danielle C; Bauer, Zoya; Comstock, Bryan A; Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Patrick, Donald L; Makris, Una E; Friedly, Janna L

    2015-07-01

    There is growing concern that patient-reported outcomes (PROs) commonly used in clinical research evaluating treatments such as epidural steroid injections (ESIs) for lumbar spinal stenosis may not adequately capture outcomes of greatest importance to older adults. The purpose of the study was to determine what outcomes are most important to older adults with spinal stenosis, how well commonly used PROs reflect what is most important to these participants, and which outcomes older adults with spinal stenosis would want improved to consider having ESI. This is an outcome prioritization study. Community sample of 33 older adults with spinal stenosis were included. The outcome measures were Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. The methods involve individual sorting and ranking exercises followed by facilitated focus groups. Highest rated problem areas were "experiencing pain/discomfort" (88% of participants), "problems with physical function" (85%), "difficulty exercising" (73%), "difficulty participating in hobbies and leisure activities" (55%), and "problems with weakness" (52%). Only 10 of the 24 Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire items were rated by 50% or more of participants experiencing them as important enough to warrant ESI treatment. Older adults with spinal stenosis rated problems related to pain and physical function as the most important outcomes to them. However, difficulty exercising and difficulty participating in hobbies and leisure activities were also among the most highly rated and were two areas not typically assessed in treatment studies. Commonly used PROs in spinal stenosis treatment studies may be insufficient to comprehensively assess outcomes from the patient perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and interferential currents (IFC) in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain: randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Facci, Ligia Maria; Nowotny, Jean Paulus; Tormem, Fabio; Trevisani, Virgínia Fernandes Moça

    2011-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and interferential current are the most used electrotherapy methods, although there is little scientific evidence to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of TENS and interferential current among patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Single-blind randomized controlled trial in the Department of Physiotherapy, Centro Universitário de Maringá. One hundred and fifty patients were randomly divided into three groups: TENS (group 1), interferential current (group 2) and controls (group 3). The patients designated for electrotherapy received ten 30-minute sessions, while the control group remained untreated. All patients and controls were evaluated before and after treatment using a visual analog scale and the McGill Pain and Roland Morris questionnaires, and regarding their use of additional medications. There was a mean reduction on the visual analog scale of 39.18 mm with TENS, 44.86 mm with interferential current and 8.53 mm among the controls. In the Roland Morris questionnaire, group 1 had a mean reduction of 6.59; group 2, 7.20; and group 3, 0.70 points. In group 1, 84% of the patients stopped using medications after the treatment; in group 2, 75%; and in group 3, 34%. There was no statistically significant difference between the TENS and interferential current groups (P > 0.05); a difference was only found between these groups and the controls (P < 0.0001). There was no difference between TENS and interferential current for chronic low back pain treatment. NCT01017913.

  1. The 27-item Coping Strategies Questionnaire – Revised: Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability and validity in Italian-speaking subjects with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Monticone, Marco; Ferrante, Simona; Giorgi, Ines; Galandra, Caterina; Rocca, Barbara; Foti, Calogero

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing attention is being devoted to cognitive-behavioural measures to improve interventions for chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: To develop an Italian version of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire – Revised (CSQ-R), and to validate it in a study involving 345 Italian subjects with chronic pain. METHODS: The questionnaire was developed following international recommendations. The psychometric analyses included confirmatory factor analysis; reliability, assessed by internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients); and construct validity, assessed by calculating the correlations between the subscales of the CSQ-R and measures of pain (numerical rating scale), disability (Sickness Impact Profile – Roland Scale), depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale) and coping (Chronic Pain Coping Inventory) (Pearson’s correlation). RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the CSQ-R model had an acceptable data-model fit (comparative fit index and normed fit index ≤0.90, root mean square error of approximation ≥0.08). Cronbach’s alpha was satisfactory (CSQ-R 0.914 to 0.961), and the intraclass correlation coefficients were good/excellent (CSQ-R 0.850 to 0.918). As expected, the correlations with the numerical rating scale, Sickness Impact Profile – Roland Scale, Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale and Chronic Pain Coping Inventory highlighted the adaptive and maladaptive properties of most of the CSQ-R subscales. CONCLUSION: The CSQ-R was successfully translated into Italian. The translation proved to have good factorial structure, and its psychometric properties are similar to those of the original and other adapted versions. Its use is recommended for clinical and research purposes in Italy and abroad. PMID:24761430

  2. Clinicopathological correlations in corticobasal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suzee E.; Rabinovici, Gil D.; Mayo, Mary Catherine; Wilson, Stephen M.; Seeley, William W.; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Huang, Eric J.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Growdon, Matthew E.; Jang, Jung Y.; Sidhu, Manu; See, Tricia M.; Karydas, Anna M.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria-Luisa; Boxer, Adam L.; Weiner, Michael W.; Geschwind, Michael D.; Rankin, Katherine P.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To characterize cognitive and behavioral features, physical findings and brain atrophy patterns in pathology-proven corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS) with known histopathology. Methods We reviewed clinical and MRI data in all patients evaluated at our center with either an autopsy diagnosis of CBD (n=18) or clinical CBS at first presentation with known histopathology (n=40). Atrophy patterns were compared using voxel-based morphometry. Results CBD was associated with four clinical syndromes: progressive nonfluent aphasia (5), behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (5), executive-motor (7), and posterior cortical atrophy (1). Behavioral or cognitive problems were the initial symptoms in 15/18 patients; less than half exhibited early motor findings. Compared to controls, CBD patients showed atrophy in dorsal prefrontal and peri-rolandic cortex, striatum and brainstem (p<0.001 uncorrected). The most common pathologic substrates for clinical CBS were CBD (35%), Alzheimer’s disease (AD, 23%), progressive supranuclear palsy (13%), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with TDP inclusions (13%). CBS was associated with perirolandic atrophy irrespective of underlying pathology. In CBS due to FTLD (tau or TDP), atrophy extended into prefrontal cortex, striatum and brainstem, while in CBS due to AD, atrophy extended into temporoparietal cortex and precuneus (p<0.001 uncorrected). Interpretation Frontal lobe involvement is characteristic of CBD, and in many patients frontal, not parietal or basal ganglia symptoms, dominate early-stage disease. CBS is driven by medial peri-rolandic dysfunction, but this anatomy is not specific to one single underlying histopathology. Antemortem prediction of CBD will remain challenging until clinical features of CBD are redefined, and sensitive, specific biomarkers are identified. PMID:21823158

  3. Relative ability of fat and sugar tastes to activate reward, gustatory, and somatosensory regions123

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Kyle S; Yokum, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although the intake of high-fat and high-sugar food activates mesolimbic reward, gustatory, and oral somatosensory brain regions, contributing to overeating, few studies have examined the relative role of fat and sugar in the activation of these brain regions, which would inform policy, prevention, and treatment interventions designed to reduce obesity. Objective: We evaluated the effect of a high-fat or high-sugar equicaloric chocolate milkshake and increasing fat or sugar milkshake content on the activation of these regions. Design: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the neural response to the intake of high-fat/high-sugar, high-fat/low-sugar, low-fat/high-sugar, and low-fat/low-sugar chocolate milkshakes and a tasteless solution in 106 lean adolescents (mean ± SD age = 15.00 ± 0.88 y). Analyses contrasted the activation to the various milkshakes. Results: High-fat compared with high-sugar equicaloric milkshakes caused greater activation in the bilateral caudate, postcentral gyrus, hippocampus, and inferior frontal gyrus. High-sugar compared with high-fat equicaloric milkshakes caused greater activation in the bilateral insula extending into the putamen, the Rolandic operculum, and thalamus, which produced large activation regions. Increasing sugar in low-fat milkshakes caused greater activation in the bilateral insula and Rolandic operculum; increasing fat content did not elicit greater activation in any region. Conclusions: Fat caused greater activation of the caudate and oral somatosensory regions than did sugar, sugar caused greater activation in the putamen and gustatory regions than did fat, increasing sugar caused greater activity in gustatory regions, and increasing fat did not affect the activation. Results imply that sugar more effectively recruits reward and gustatory regions, suggesting that policy, prevention, and treatment interventions should prioritize reductions in sugar intake. This trial was registered at

  4. The usefulness of ICG video angiography in the surgical treatment of superior cluneal nerve entrapment neuropathy: technical note.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyongsong; Isu, Toyohiko; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Daijiro; Ohtsubo, Seiji; Kusano, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Shiro; Morita, Akio

    2013-11-01

    Superior cluneal nerve (SCN) entrapment neuropathy is a known cause of low back pain. Although surgical release at the entrapment point of the osteofibrous orifice is effective, intraoperative identification of the thin SCN in thick fat tissue and confirmation of sufficient decompression are difficult. Intraoperative indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-VA) is simple, clearly demonstrates the vascular flow dynamics, and provides real-time information on vascular patency and flow. The peripheral nerve is supplied from epineurial vessels around the nerve (vasa nervorum), and the authors now present the first ICG-VA documentation of the technique and usefulness of peripheral nerve neurolysis surgery to treat SCN entrapment neuropathy in 16 locally anesthetized patients. Clinical outcomes were assessed with the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire before surgery and at the latest follow-up after surgery. Indocyanine green video angiography was useful for identifying the SCN in fat tissue. It showed that the SCN penetrated and was entrapped by the thoracolumbar fascia through the orifice just before crossing over the iliac crest in all patients. The SCN was decompressed by dissection of the fascia from the orifice. Indocyanine green video angiography visualized the SCN and its termination at the entrapment point. After sufficient decompression, the SCN was clearly visualized on ICG-VA images. Low back pain improved significantly, from a preoperative Roland-Morris Questionnaire score of 13.8 to a postoperative score of 1.3 at the last follow-up visit (p < 0.05). The authors suggest that ICG-VA is useful for the inspection of peripheral nerves such as the SCN and helps to identify the SCN and to confirm sufficient decompression at surgery for SCN entrapment.

  5. Kinesiophobia is not associated with disability in elderly women with acute low back pain: Back Complaints in the Elders (BACE) Brazil study results.

    PubMed

    Felício, Diogo C; Pereira, Daniele S; de Queiroz, Barbara Z; da Silva, Juscelio P; Leopoldino, Amanda A O; Pereira, Leani S M

    2016-05-01

    The study of low back pain (LBP) is complex, and the physical and psychological aspects, including kinesiophobia, should be considered. Several studies have investigated the relationship between kinesiophobia and functionality in patients with chronic LBP. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no studies have investigated the association between kinesiophobia and self-reported assessments of disability and physical performance in elderly patients with acute LBP. The study aimed to investigate the association between kinesiophobia and self-reported and physical performance measures among the elderly with acute LBP. This was an observational, cross-sectional, ancillary study of the Back Complaints in the Elders study, a longitudinal observational epidemiologic research project by an international consortium involving Brazil, the Netherlands, and Australia. Sample selection was carried out by convenience. The study included women from the community aged 60 years old and older who presented with a new episode of LBP. Volunteers with severe diseases, as well as visual, hearing, and mobility losses, or cognitive dysfunction, were excluded. Four hundred fifty nine elderly women (mean age: 69.0±6.1 years) were included. Kinesiophobia was evaluated by Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), subscale FABQ-Phys. Functionality was investigated by the Roland-Morris Questionnaire and the gait speed test. Statistical analysis was performed using hierarchical linear regression model. Statistical significance was established at the level of .05. The additional predictive value because of the inclusion of the FABQ-Phys was 0.1%, using the Roland-Morris score, and 0.2% for the gait speed test. This was the first study to investigate the association between the FABQ-Phys and functionality in elderly patients with acute LBP. The results provide preliminary evidence that kinesiophobia assessed by the FABQ-Phys cannot be generalized to disability. Copyright © 2016

  6. Percutaneous laser disc decompression versus conventional microdiscectomy in sciatica: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Patrick A; Brand, Ronald; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske; Jacobs, Wilco C H; Schenk, Barry; van den Berg-Huijsmans, Annette A; Koes, Bart W; van Buchem, M A; Arts, Mark P; Peul, Wilco C

    2015-05-01

    Percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) is a minimally invasive treatment for lumbar disc herniation, with Food and Drug Administration approval since 1991. However, no randomized trial comparing PLDD to conventional treatment has been performed. In this trial, we assessed the effectiveness of a strategy of PLDD as compared with conventional surgery. This randomized prospective trial with a noninferiority design was carried out in two academic and six teaching hospitals in the Netherlands according to an intent-to-treat protocol with full institutional review board approval. One hundred fifteen eligible surgical candidates, with sciatica from a disc herniation smaller than one-third of the spinal canal, were included. The main outcome measures for this trial were the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire for sciatica, visual analog scores for back and leg pain, and the patient's report of perceived recovery. Patients were randomly allocated to PLDD (n=57) or conventional surgery (n=58). Blinding was impossible because of the nature of the interventions. This study was funded by the Healthcare Insurance Board of the Netherlands. The primary outcome, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, showed noninferiority of PLDD at 8 (-0.1; [95% confidence interval (CI), -2.3 to 2.1]) and 52 weeks (-1.1; 95% CI, -3.4 to 1.1) compared with conventional surgery. There was, however, a higher speed of recovery in favor of conventional surgery (hazard ratio, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.42-0.97]). The number of reoperations was significantly less in the conventional surgery group (38% vs. 16%). Overall, a strategy of PLDD, with delayed surgery if needed, resulted in noninferior outcomes at 1 year. At 1 year, a strategy of PLDD, followed by surgery if needed, resulted in noninferior outcomes compared with surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Topographic movie of intracranial ictal high-frequency oscillations with seizure semiology: epileptic network in Jacksonian seizures.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Chan, Derrick W; Go, Cristina Y; Ochi, Ayako; Elliott, Irene M; Donner, Elizabeth J; Weiss, Shelly K; Snead, O Carter; Rutka, James T; Drake, James M; Otsubo, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We developed a technique to produce images of dynamic changes in ictal high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) >40 Hz recorded on subdural electroencephalography (EEG) that are time-locked to the ictal EEG and ictal semiology video. We applied this technique to Jacksonian seizures to demonstrate ictal HFO propagation along the homunculus in the primary sensory-motor cortex to visualize the underlying epileptic network. We analyzed intracranial ictal EEGs from two patients with intractable Jacksonian seizures who underwent epilepsy surgery. We calculated the degrees of increase in amplitude within 40-80, 80-200, and 200-300 Hz frequency bands compared to the interictal period and converted them into topographic movies projected onto the brain surface picture. We combined these data with the ictal EEGs and video of the patient demonstrating ictal semiology. The ictal HFOs began in the sensory cortex and appeared concomitantly with the sensory aura. They then propagated to the motor cortex at the same time that focal motor symptoms evolved. As the seizure progressed, the ictal HFOs spread or reverberated in the rolandic region. However, even when the seizure became secondarily generalized, the ictal HFOs were confined to the rolandic region. In both cases, there was increased amplitude of higher frequency bands during seizure initiation compared to seizure progression. This combined movie showed the ictal HFO propagation corresponding to the ictal semiology in Jacksonian seizures and revealed the epileptic network involved in seizure initiation and progression. This method may advance understanding of neural network activities relating to clinical seizure generation and propagation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Effect of facet joint injection versus systemic steroids in low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luiza Helena; Furtado, Rita Nely Vilar; Konai, Monique Sayuri; Andreo, Ana Beatriz; Rosenfeld, Andre; Natour, Jamil

    2013-11-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To compare the effectiveness of facet joint injection versus systemic steroid in patients with a diagnosis of facet joint syndrome. The term facet joint syndrome has been used to define back pain originating from the facet joints. Treatment is mainly conservative, although interventions, including intra-articular injections and medial branch nerve blocks are used to manage facet-mediated pain. Several studies have evaluated the effectiveness of these interventions. Results of facet joint injection, however, are conflicting. Sixty subjects with a diagnosis of facet joint syndrome were enrolled in the study. They were randomized into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was administered with intra-articular injection of 6 lumbar facet joints with triamcinolone hexacetonide; the control group was administered with triamcinolone acetonide intramuscular injection of 6 lumbar paravertebral points. Visits were taken at baseline and at 1, 4, 12, and 24 weeks after interventions. Outcome measures were used: pain visual analogue scale, pain visual analogue scale during extension of the spine, Likert scale, improvement percentage scale, Roland-Morris, 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and accountability of medications taken.Homogeneity was tested using the Student t, Pearson χ, and Mann-Whitney tests. Analysis of variance was used to analyze differences in the groups over time and the Student t test to analyze differences between groups at each time evaluation. The groups were similar at baseline. Comparisons between the groups showed, in analysis of variance analysis, an improvement in the experimental group regarding diclofenac intake and quality of life, in the "role physical" profile, assessed by 36-Item Short Form Health Survey.In the analysis at each time point, an improvement in the experimental group was also found in the Roland-Morris questionnaire, in the improvement percentage scale and in the response to treatment

  9. Measurement Properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version of the Lumbar Spine Instability Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Amanda Costa; da Cunha Menezes Costa, Lucíola; de Oliveira, Crystian Bittencourt Soares; Morelhão, Priscila Kalil; de Faria Negrão Filho, Rúben; Pinto, Rafael Zambelli; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena

    2017-07-01

    Cross-cultural adaptation and analysis of measurement properties. To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Lumbar Spine Instability Questionnaire (LSIQ) into Brazilian-Portuguese and to test its measurement properties in Brazilian patients with low back pain. The selection of subgroup of patients that respond better to specific interventions is the top research priority in the field of back pain. The LSIQ is a tool able to stratify patients with low back pain who responds better to motor control exercises. There is no Brazilian-Portuguese version of the LSIQ available. The original version of the LSIQ was translated and cross-culturally adapted. We collected data from 100 patients with low back pain. In addition to LSIQ, we also collected information about physical activity levels (measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short version), disability (measured by the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire), pain intensity (measured by the Pain numerical Rating Scale), kinesiophobia (measured by the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia), and depression (measured by the Beck Depression Inventory). The measurement properties tested were internal consistency, reproducibility (reliability and agreement), construct validity, and ceiling and floor effects. The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the LSIQ showed good measurement properties with a Cronbach alpha of 0.79, an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.75, a standard error of measurement of 1.65 points, and a minimal detectable change of 3.54 points. We did not detect ceiling and floor effects. The construct validity analysis was observed a moderate correlation between the LSIQ and Pain Numerical Rating Scale r = 0.46, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire r = 0.66, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia r = 0.49, and Beck Depression Inventory r = 0.44. The Brazilian-Portuguese version of LIQ has adequate measurement properties and can be used in clinical practice and research. NA.

  10. Determining the structural relaxation times deep in the glassy state of the pharmaceutical Telmisartan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrjanowicz, K.; Paluch, M.; Ngai, K. L.

    2010-03-01

    By using the dielectric relaxation method proposed recently by Casalini and Roland (2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 035701), we were able to determine the structural α-relaxation times deep in the glassy state of the pharmaceutical, Telmisartan. Normally, deep in the glassy state τα is so long that it cannot be measured but τβ, which is usually much shorter, can be directly determined. The method basically takes advantage of the connection between the α-relaxation and the secondary β-relaxation of the Johari-Goldstein kind, including a relation between their relaxation times τα and τβ, respectively. Thus, τα of Telmisartan were determined by monitoring the change of the dielectric β-loss, ɛ'', with physical aging time at temperatures well below the vitrification temperature. The values of τα were compared with those expected by the coupling model (CM). Unequivocal comparison cannot be made in the case of Telmisartan because its β-loss peak is extremely broad, and the CM predicts only an order of magnitude agreement between the primitive relaxation frequency and the β-peak frequency. We also made an attempt to analyze all isothermal and aging susceptibility data after transformation into the electric modulus representation. The τα found in the glass state by using the method of Casalini and Roland in the modulus representation are similar to those obtained in the susceptibility representation. However, it is remarkable that the stretching parameter βKWW - M = 0.51 in the electric modulus representation gives more precise fits to the aging data than in the susceptibility representation with βKWW = 0.61. Our results suggest that the electric modulus representation may be useful as an alternative to analyze aging data, especially in the case of highly polar glassformers having a large ratio of low frequency and high frequency dielectric constants, such as the Telmisartan studied.

  11. Clinical significance and developmental changes of auditory-language-related gamma activity

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Katsuaki; Brown, Erik C.; Rothermel, Robert; Carlson, Alanna; Fuerst, Darren; Matsuzaki, Naoyuki; Shah, Aashit; Atkinson, Marie; Basha, Maysaa; Mittal, Sandeep; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We determined the clinical impact and developmental changes of auditory-language-related augmentation of gamma activity at 50–120 Hz recorded on electrocorticography (ECoG). METHODS We analyzed data from 77 epileptic patients ranging 4 – 56 years in age. We determined the effects of seizure-onset zone, electrode location, and patient-age upon gamma-augmentation elicited by an auditory-naming task. RESULTS Gamma-augmentation was less frequently elicited within seizure-onset sites compared to other sites. Regardless of age, gamma-augmentation most often involved the 80–100 Hz frequency band. Gamma-augmentation initially involved bilateral superior-temporal regions, followed by left-side dominant involvement in the middle-temporal, medial-temporal, inferior-frontal, dorsolateral-premotor, and medial-frontal regions and concluded with bilateral inferior-Rolandic involvement. Compared to younger patients, those older than 10 years had a larger proportion of left dorsolateral-premotor and right inferior-frontal sites showing gamma-augmentation. The incidence of a post-operative language deficit requiring speech therapy was predicted by the number of resected sites with gamma-augmentation in the superior-temporal, inferior-frontal, dorsolateral-premotor, and inferior-Rolandic regions of the left hemisphere assumed to contain essential language function (r2=0.59; p=0.001; odds ratio=6.04 [95% confidence-interval: 2.26 to 16.15]). CONCLUSIONS Auditory-language-related gamma-augmentation can provide additional information useful to localize the primary language areas. SIGNIFICANCE These results derived from a large sample of patients support the utility of auditory-language-related gamma-augmentation in presurgical evaluation. PMID:23141882

  12. Extensive validation of the pain disability index in 3 groups of patients with musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Soer, Remko; Köke, Albère J A; Vroomen, Patrick C A J; Stegeman, Patrick; Smeets, Rob J E M; Coppes, Maarten H; Reneman, Michiel F

    2013-04-20

    A cross-sectional study design was performed. To validate the pain disability index (PDI) extensively in 3 groups of patients with musculoskeletal pain. The PDI is a widely used and studied instrument for disability related to various pain syndromes, although there is conflicting evidence concerning factor structure, test-retest reliability, and missing items. Additionally, an official translation of the Dutch language version has never been performed. For reliability, internal consistency, factor structure, test-retest reliability and measurement error were calculated. Validity was tested with hypothesized correlations with pain intensity, kinesiophobia, Rand-36 subscales, Depression, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Quality of Life, and Work Status. Structural validity was tested with independent backward translation and approval from the original authors. One hundred seventy-eight patients with acute back pain, 425 patients with chronic low back pain and 365 with widespread pain were included. Internal consistency of the PDI was good. One factor was identified with factor analyses. Test-retest reliability was good for the PDI (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.76). Standard error of measurement was 6.5 points and smallest detectable change was 17.9 points. Little correlations between the PDI were observed with kinesiophobia and depression, fair correlations with pain intensity, work status, and vitality and moderate correlations with the Rand-36 subscales and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. The PDI-Dutch language version is internally consistent as a 1-factor structure, and test-retest reliable. Missing items seem high in sexual and professional items. Using the PDI as a 2-factor questionnaire has no additional value and is unreliable.

  13. Patient Expectations as Predictors of Outcome In Patients with Acute Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Russell S.; Davis, Roger B.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Legedza, Anna; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Hrbek, Andrea; Buring, Julie E.; Post, Diana; Connelly, Maureen T.; Eisenberg, David M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few studies have evaluated the association between patient expectations for recovery and clinical outcomes, and no study has evaluated whether asking patients to choose their therapy modifies such an association. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between patients’ expectations and functional recovery in patients with acute low back pain (LBP), and to determine whether that association is affected by giving patients choice of therapy. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing usual care alone to usual care plus choice of chiropractic, acupuncture, or massage in 444 adults with acute LBP, lasting less than 21 days. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Primary outcome was functional disability (Roland score) at 5 and 12 weeks. Patients’ general expectations for improvement were associated with improvement in functional status (β = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.56, 1.36). A 1-point increase in general expectations was associated with a 0.96-point improvement in Roland score. The association of expectation with outcome was 2–3 times greater in the usual care group than the choice group. However, these differences did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS In patients with acute LBP, higher expectations for recovery are associated with greater functional improvement. Eliciting patient expectations for improvement may be a simple way to identify patients with the highest (or lowest) likelihood of experiencing functional improvement. Incorporating questions about patient expectations in future trials may clarify the role of this important correlate of clinical outcomes. PMID:18066631

  14. Seventeenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1992-01-31

    PREFACE The Seventeenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 29-31, 1992. There were one hundred sixteen registered participants which equaled the attendance last year. Participants were from seven foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Mexico and New Zealand. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in the papers. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Raffaele Cataldi. Dr. Cataldi gave a talk on the highlights of his geothermal career. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Cataldi. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award at the banquet. Thirty-eight papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Dr. Roland Horne opened the meeting and the key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who discussed the DOE Geothermal R. & D. Program. The talk focused on aiding long-term, cost effective private resource development. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: geochemistry, hot dry rock, injection, geysers, modeling, and reservoir mechanics. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: Sabodh Garg., Jim Lovekin, Jim Combs, Ben Barker, Marcel Lippmann, Glenn Horton, Steve Enedy, and John Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Francois Groff who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook -vii

  15. Efficacy of aerobic exercise for treatment of chronic low back pain: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Guo; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2015-05-01

    A meta-analysis of relevant cohort studies was performed to investigate the efficacy of aerobic exercise for the treatment of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). A range of electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE (1966-2013), the Cochrane Library Database (issue 12, 2013), EMBASE (1980-2013), CINAHL (1982-2013), Web of Science (1945~2013), and the Chinese Biomedical Database (1982-2013), without language restrictions. The Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, the McGill Pain Questionnaire, visual analog scale, and heart rate, sit-and-reach test, and maximum oxygen consumption were used to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic exercise. Meta-analysis was performed with the use of the STATA statistical software. The standardized mean difference (SMD) with its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Eight clinical cohort studies with a total of 310 CLBP patients were included in the meta-analysis. The results of this meta-analysis indicated that CLBP patients exhibited positive decreases in scores on the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (SMD, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.20-0.68; P < 0.001), Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (SMD, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.67-1.39; P < 0.001), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (SMD, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.34-2.37; P = 0.009), and McGill Pain Questionnaire (SMD, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.07-0.56; P = 0.011) after aerobic exercise. It was also observed that aerobic exercise could markedly reduce the visual analog scale score for pain of CLBP patients (SMD, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.48-1.02; P < 0.001). Nevertheless, this study's findings showed that aerobic exercise had no effects on heart rate, sit-and-reach test, and maximum oxygen consumption of CLBP patients (all P > 0.05). The current meta-analysis provides reliable evidence that aerobic exercise could effectively diminish pain intensity and improve the physical and psychologic functioning of CLBP patients. Thus, aerobic exercise may be a good choice in

  16. Sixteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1991-01-25

    The Sixteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23-25, 1991. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Mohinder Gulati of UNOCAL Geothermal. Dr. Gulati gave an inspiring talk on the impact of numerical simulation on development of geothermal energy both in The Geysers and the Philippines. Dr. Gulati was the first recipient of The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award. The registered attendance figure of one hundred fifteen participants was up slightly from last year. There were seven foreign countries represented: Iceland, Italy, Philippines, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Mexico, and Japan. As last year, papers on about a dozen geothermal fields outside the United States were presented. There were thirty-six papers presented at the Workshop, and two papers were submitted for publication only. Attendees were welcomed by Dr. Khalid Aziz, Chairman of the Petroleum Engineering Department at Stanford. Opening remarks were presented by Dr. Roland Horne, followed by a discussion of the California Energy Commission's Geothermal Activities by Barbara Crowley, Vice Chairman; and J.E. ''Ted'' Mock's presentation of the DOE Geothermal Program: New Emphasis on Industrial Participation. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: hot dry rock, geochemistry, tracer injection, field performance, modeling, and chemistry/gas. As in previous workshops, session chairpersons made major contributions to the program. Special thanks are due to Joel Renner, Jeff Tester, Jim Combs, Kathy Enedy, Elwood Baldwin, Sabodh Garg, Marcel0 Lippman, John Counsil, and Eduardo Iglesias. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Angharad Jones, Rosalee Benelli, Jeanne Mankinen, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes

  17. Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Phase III Trial of Duloxetine Monotherapy in Japanese Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Konno, Shinichi; Oda, Natsuko; Ochiai, Toshimitsu; Alev, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. A 14-week, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study of Japanese patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) who were randomized to either duloxetine 60 mg once daily or placebo. Objective. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of duloxetine monotherapy in Japanese patients with CLBP. Summary of Background Data. In Japan, duloxetine is approved for the treatment of depression, diabetic neuropathic pain, and pain associated with fibromyalgia; however, no clinical study of duloxetine has been conducted for CLBP. Methods. The primary efficacy measure was the change in the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) average pain score from baseline to Week 14. Secondary efficacy measures included BPI pain (worst pain, least pain, pain right now), Patient's Global Impression of Improvement, Clinical Global Impressions of Severity, and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, among other measures, and safety and tolerability. Results. In total, 458 patients were randomized to receive either duloxetine (n = 232) or placebo (n = 226). The BPI average pain score improved significantly in the duloxetine group compared with that in the placebo group at Week 14 [−2.43 ± 0.11 vs. −1.96 ± 0.11, respectively; between-group difference (95% confidence interval), − 0.46 [−0.77 to−0.16]; P = 0.0026]. The duloxetine group showed significant improvement in many secondary measures compared with the placebo group, including BPI pain (least pain, pain right now) (between-group difference: −1.69 ± 0.10, P = 0.0009; −2.42 ± 0.12, P P = 0.0230, respectively), Patient's Global Impression of Improvement (2.46 ± 0.07, P = 0.0026), Clinical Global Impressions of Severity (−1.46 ± 0.06, P = 0.0019), and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (−3.86 ± 0.22, P = 0.0439). Adverse events occurring at a significantly higher incidence in the duloxetine group were somnolence

  18. Kinesiophobia and fear-avoidance beliefs in overweight older adults with chronic low-back pain: relationship to walking endurance--part II.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Heather K; Seay, Amanda N; Montero, Cindy; Conrad, Bryan P; Hurley, Robert W; Vincent, Kevin R

    2013-05-01

    This study determined whether kinesiophobia levels were different among older adults with chronic low back pain (LBP) and varying body mass index and whether kinesiophobia predicted perceived disability or walking endurance. This study was a secondary analysis from a larger interventional study. Older adults with obesity with LBP (N = 55; 60-85 yrs) were participants in this study. Data were stratified on the basis of body mass index: overweight (25-29.9 kg/m), obese (30-34.9 kg/m), and severely obese (35 kg/m). The participants completed a battery of surveys (the modified Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia [TSK-11], the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the perceived disability measures of the Oswestry Disability Index and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire). Walking endurance time was captured using a symptom-limited graded walking treadmill test. The peak LBP ratings were captured during the walk test. Walking endurance times did not differ by body mass index group, but the peak LBP ratings were higher in the moderately and severely obese groups compared with the overweight group (3.0 and 3.1 vs. 2.1 points; P < 0.05). There was no difference in the kinesiophobia scores (the TSK-11, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire work and activity subscores) or the perceived disability scores (the Oswestry Disability Index and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire). However, adjusted regression analyses revealed that the TSK-11 scores contributed 10%-21% of the variance of the models pain with walking and perceived disability caused by back pain. Kinesiophobia was not a significant contributor to the variance of the regression model for walking endurance. In the older population with obesity with LBP, the TSK-11 might be a quick and simple measure to identify patients at risk for poor self-perception of functional ability. The TSK and the Oswestry Disability Index may be quick useful

  19. Transcultural adaptation and validation of Hindi version of Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Sahar; Verma, Shalini; Moiz, Jamal Ali; Hussain, Mohammed E

    2017-08-07

    To transculturally adapt the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale for Hindi-speaking population and examine its psychometric properties in patients with low back pain. The Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale was translated and cross-culturally adapted into Hindi following international guidelines. Hindi version of the scale was completed by 120 patients with low back pain and 60 healthy controls. Patients with low back pain were also administered the Hindi-Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scale. Psychometric evaluation included test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminative validity. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out to determine the factor structure. The factorial analysis revealed a four-factor solution (bending/carrying, ambulation/reach, prolonged postures and rest). Convergent validity was confirmed by high correlation of Hindi Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale to the Hindi version of Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (r = 0.77 and p < 0.001) as well as Visual Analog Scale (r = 0.682 and p < 0.001) scores. Discriminative validity was established by significantly different scores for patients with low back pain and the healthy controls (35.36 ± 18.6 vs. 9.13 ± 6.08 and p < 0.001). The translated version of the scale showed remarkable internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.98) and the intraclass correlation coefficient of test-retest reliability was excellent (ICC2,1=0.96). MDC95 and SEM scores obtained were 10.28 and 3.71, respectively. The Hindi version of Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale has good test-retest reliability, discriminative and convergent validity and is appropriate for clinical and research use in Hindi-speaking low back pain patients. Implications for rehabilitation Linguistically and culturally adapted questionnaires help researchers make adequate inferences about instruments measuring health and quality of life. The translated version would serve as a valid research

  20. Validity and Reliability of a Measurement of Objective Functional Impairment in Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease: The Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test.

    PubMed

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Smoll, Nicolas R; Corniola, Marco V; Joswig, Holger; Chau, Ivan; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Schaller, Karl; Stienen, Martin N

    2016-08-01

    There are few objective measures of functional impairment to support clinical decision making in lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). We present the validation (and reliability measures) of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. In a prospective, 2-center study, 253 consecutive patients were assessed using the TUG test. A representative cohort of 110 volunteers served as control subjects. The TUG test values were assessed for validity and reliability. The TUG test had excellent intra- (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.97) and interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.99), with a standard error of measurement of 0.21 and 0.23 seconds, respectively. The validity of the TUG test was demonstrated by a good correlation with the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) back (Pearson's correlation coefficient [PCC]: 0.25) and VAS (PCC: 0.29) leg pain, functional impairment (Roland-Morris Disability Index [PCC: 0.38] and Oswestry Disability Index [PCC: 0.34]), as well as with health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 Mental Component Summary score [PCC: -0.25], Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary score [PCC: -0.32], and EQ-5D [PCC: -0.28]). The upper limit of "normal" was 11.52 seconds. Mild (lower than the 33rd percentile), moderate (33rd to 66th percentiles), and severe objective functional impairment (higher than the 66th percentile) as determined by the TUG test was <13.4 seconds, 13.4 to 18.4 seconds, and >18.4 seconds, respectively. The TUG test is a quick, easy-to-use, valid, and reliable tool to evaluate objective functional impairment in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease. In the clinical setting, patients scoring a TUG test time of over 12 seconds can be considered to have functional impairment. BMI, body mass indexDDD, degenerative disc diseaseHRQOL, health-related quality of lifeICC, intraclass correlationLDH, lumbar disc herniationLSS, lumbar spinal stenosisODI, Oswestry Disability IndexOFI, objective functional impairment

  1. Effect of stratified care for low back pain in family practice (IMPaCT Back): a prospective population-based sequential comparison.

    PubMed

    Foster, Nadine E; Mullis, Ricky; Hill, Jonathan C; Lewis, Martyn; Whitehurst, David G T; Doyle, Carol; Konstantinou, Kika; Main, Chris; Somerville, Simon; Sowden, Gail; Wathall, Simon; Young, Julie; Hay, Elaine M

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of implementing risk-stratified care for low back pain in family practice on physician's clinical behavior, patient outcomes, and costs. The IMPaCT Back Study (IMplementation to improve Patient Care through Targeted treatment) prospectively compared separate patient cohorts in a preintervention phase (6 months of usual care) and a postintervention phase (12 months of stratified care) in family practice, involving 64 family physicians and linked physical therapy services. A total of 1,647 adults with low back pain were invited to participate. Stratified care entailed use of a risk stratification tool to classify patients into groups at low, medium, or high risk for persistent disability and provision of risk-matched treatment. The primary outcome was 6-month change in disability as assessed with the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Process outcomes captured physician behavior change in risk-appropriate referral to physical therapy, diagnostic tests, medication prescriptions, and sickness certifications. A cost-utility analysis estimated incremental quality-adjusted life-years and back-related health care costs. Analysis was by intention to treat. The 922 patients studied (368 in the preintervention phase and 554 in the postintervention phase) had comparable baseline characteristics. At 6 months follow-up, stratified care had a small but significant benefit relative to usual care as seen from a mean difference in Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire scores of 0.7 (95% CI, 0.1-1.4), with a large, clinically important difference in the high risk group of 2.3 (95% CI, 0.8-3.9). Mean time off work was 50% shorter (4 vs 8 days, P = .03) and the proportion of patients given sickness certifications was 30% lower (9% vs 15%, P = .03) in the postintervention cohort. Health care cost savings were also observed. Stratified care for back pain implemented in family practice leads to significant improvements in patient disability outcomes

  2. Molecular networks implicated in speech-related disorders: FOXP2 regulates the SRPX2/uPAR complex

    PubMed Central

    Roll, Patrice; Vernes, Sonja C.; Bruneau, Nadine; Cillario, Jennifer; Ponsole-Lenfant, Magali; Massacrier, Annick; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Khalife, Manal; Hirsch, Edouard; Fisher, Simon E.; Szepetowski, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    It is a challenge to identify the molecular networks contributing to the neural basis of human speech. Mutations in transcription factor FOXP2 cause difficulties mastering fluent speech (developmental verbal dyspraxia, DVD), whereas mutations of sushi-repeat protein SRPX2 lead to epilepsy of the rolandic (sylvian) speech areas, with DVD or with bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria. Pathophysiological mechanisms driven by SRPX2 involve modified interaction with the plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). Independent chromatin-immunoprecipitation microarray screening has identified the uPAR gene promoter as a potential target site bound by FOXP2. Here, we directly tested for the existence of a transcriptional regulatory network between human FOXP2 and the SRPX2/uPAR complex. In silico searches followed by gel retardation assays identified specific efficient FOXP2-binding sites in each of the promoter regions of SRPX2 and uPAR. In FOXP2-transfected cells, significant decreases were observed in the amounts of both SRPX2 (43.6%) and uPAR (38.6%) native transcripts. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that FOXP2 expression yielded a marked inhibition of SRPX2 (80.2%) and uPAR (77.5%) promoter activity. A mutant FOXP2 that causes DVD (p.R553H) failed to bind to SRPX2 and uPAR target sites and showed impaired down-regulation of SRPX2 and uPAR promoter activity. In a patient with polymicrogyria of the left rolandic operculum, a novel FOXP2 mutation (p.M406T) was found in the leucine-zipper (dimerization) domain. p.M406T partially impaired the FOXP2 regulation of SRPX2 promoter activity, whereas that of the uPAR promoter remained unchanged. Together with recently described FOXP2-CNTNAP2 and SRPX2/uPAR links, the FOXP2-SRPX2/uPAR network provides exciting insights into molecular pathways underlying speech-related disorders. PMID:20858596

  3. Effect of Stratified Care for Low Back Pain in Family Practice (IMPaCT Back): A Prospective Population-Based Sequential Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Nadine E.; Mullis, Ricky; Hill, Jonathan C.; Lewis, Martyn; Whitehurst, David G. T.; Doyle, Carol; Konstantinou, Kika; Main, Chris; Somerville, Simon; Sowden, Gail; Wathall, Simon; Young, Julie; Hay, Elaine M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to determine the effects of implementing risk-stratified care for low back pain in family practice on physician’s clinical behavior, patient outcomes, and costs. METHODS The IMPaCT Back Study (IMplementation to improve Patient Care through Targeted treatment) prospectively compared separate patient cohorts in a preintervention phase (6 months of usual care) and a postintervention phase (12 months of stratified care) in family practice, involving 64 family physicians and linked physical therapy services. A total of 1,647 adults with low back pain were invited to participate. Stratified care entailed use of a risk stratification tool to classify patients into groups at low, medium, or high risk for persistent disability and provision of risk-matched treatment. The primary outcome was 6-month change in disability as assessed with the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Process outcomes captured physician behavior change in risk-appropriate referral to physical therapy, diagnostic tests, medication prescriptions, and sickness certifications. A cost-utility analysis estimated incremental quality-adjusted life-years and back-related health care costs. Analysis was by intention to treat. RESULTS The 922 patients studied (368 in the preintervention phase and 554 in the postintervention phase) had comparable baseline characteristics. At 6 months follow-up, stratified care had a small but significant benefit relative to usual care as seen from a mean difference in Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire scores of 0.7 (95% CI, 0.1–1.4), with a large, clinically important difference in the high risk group of 2.3 (95% CI, 0.8–3.9). Mean time off work was 50% shorter (4 vs 8 days, P = .03) and the proportion of patients given sickness certifications was 30% lower (9% vs 15%, P = .03) in the postintervention cohort. Health care cost savings were also observed. CONCLUSIONS Stratified care for back pain implemented in family practice leads to significant

  4. Increasing Recreational Physical Activity in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain: A Pragmatic Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami, Noa; Chodick, Gabriel; Mirovsky, Yigal; Pincus, Tamar; Shapiro, Yair

    2017-02-01

    Study Design Prospective, pragmatic, nonrandomized controlled clinical trial. Background Clinical guidelines recommend physical activity for the treatment of chronic low back pain. But engaging patients in physical activity has proven difficult. Known obstacles to physical activity include low self-efficacy and fear avoidance. Objectives This study tested the effectiveness of an enhanced transtheoretical model intervention (ETMI) aimed at increasing recreational physical activity in patients with chronic low back pain, in comparison to usual physical therapy. Methods Patients (n = 220) referred to physical therapy for chronic low back pain were allocated to ETMI or to a control group. The ETMI was delivered by physical therapists and based on behavior-change principles, combined with increased reassurance, therapeutic alliance, and exposure to reduce fear avoidance. The primary outcome was back pain-related disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire). Secondary outcomes included pain intensity, mental and physical health, and levels of physical activity. Results Intention-to-treat analysis in 189 patients at 12 months indicated that patients in the ETMI group had significantly lower disability compared to usual physical therapy. The difference in mean change from baseline between the interventions was 2.7 points (95% confidence interval: 0.9, 4.5) on the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. At 12 months, worst pain, physical activity, and physical health were all significantly better in patients receiving ETMI. The average number of sessions was 3.5 for the ETMI group and 5.1 for controls. Conclusion Targeting obstacles to physical activity with an intervention that includes components to address self-efficacy and fear avoidance appears to be more effective than usual physical therapy care in reducing long-term disability. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms that impact outcomes in this intervention package. Level of Evidence Therapy

  5. The SNAP trial: a double blind multi-center randomized controlled trial of a silicon nitride versus a PEEK cage in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in patients with symptomatic degenerative lumbar disc disorders: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages have been widely used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disorders, and show good clinical results. Still, complications such as subsidence and migration of the cage are frequently seen. A lack of osteointegration and fibrous tissues surrounding PEEK cages are held responsible. Ceramic implants made of silicon nitride show better biocompatible and osteoconductive qualities, and therefore are expected to lower complication rates and allow for better fusion. Purpose of this study is to show that fusion with the silicon nitride cage produces non-inferior results in outcome of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire at all follow-up time points as compared to the same procedure with PEEK cages. Methods/Design This study is designed as a double blind multi-center randomized controlled trial with repeated measures analysis. 100 patients (18–75 years) presenting with symptomatic lumbar degenerative disorders unresponsive to at least 6 months of conservative treatment are included. Patients will be randomly assigned to a PEEK cage or a silicon nitride cage, and will undergo a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with pedicle screw fixation. Primary outcome measure is the functional improvement measured by the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Secondary outcome parameters are the VAS leg, VAS back, SF-36, Likert scale, neurological outcome and radiographic assessment of fusion. After 1 year the fusion rate will be measured by radiograms and CT. Follow-up will be continued for 2 years. Patients and clinical observers who will perform the follow-up visits will be blinded for type of cage used during follow-up. Analyses of radiograms and CT will be performed independently by two experienced radiologists. Discussion In this study a PEEK cage will be compared with a silicon nitride cage in the treatment of symptomatic degenerative lumbar disc disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled

  6. The use of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and rehabilitation in the treatment of back pain: effect on health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, M; Sciuscio, M; Cortese, A M; Santamato, A; Di Teo, L; Ianieri, G; Bellomo, R G; Stasi, M; Megna, M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and the beneficial effect of physical exercise on positive sensory symptoms and neuropathic pain in patients with compressive radiculopathy syndrome from disc-nerve root conflict. Often these painful syndromes after the acute event, tend to recurr becoming subacute or chronic syndromes that become for the period of interest disabiling is an event very important in these cases proper prevention, based on a maintenance drug therapy and the strengthening exercises of paravertebral muscles, flexibility exercises on the spine and when needed on the reduction of body weight. In this Observational Cohort, two-arm trial, 203 patients were enrolled and divided into two groups, the first, ALA and GLA group, (n = 101) received oral dose of 600 mg of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and 360 mg of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and a rehabilitation program for six weeks, the second (n = 102) treated with only rehabilitation program. Patients were recruited at the centre of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, they underwent a physiatric examination at the primary outcome (t0) and secondary outcomes were recorded at monitoring visits scheduled at two weeks = t1, four weeks = t2, six weeks = t3, and at the same has been administered the following scale: VAS scale, SF-36, Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire, Aberdeen Back Pain Scale (ABPS), Revised Leeds Disability Questionnaire (LDQ), Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire. Significant improvements was noted in the ALA and GLA group for paresthesia, stabbing and burning pain, as showed by VAS (Visual Analogue Scale), Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale; also, improvements of quality of life has been noted, in the same group, as showed by SF-36, LDQ (Revised Leeds Disability Questionnaire), Roland and Morris disability questionnaire. All these outcome measure showed statistically

  7. Intraoperative subcortical stimulation mapping for hemispherical perirolandic gliomas located within or adjacent to the descending motor pathways: evaluation of morbidity and assessment of functional outcome in 294 patients.

    PubMed

    Keles, G Evren; Lundin, David A; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Chang, Edward F; Ojemann, George; Berger, Mitchel S

    2004-03-01

    Intraoperative stimulation mapping of subcortical white matter tracts during the resection of gliomas has become a valuable surgical adjunct that is used to reduce morbidity associated with tumor removal. The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to assess the morbidity and functional outcome associated with this method, thus allowing the surgeon to predict the likelihood of causing a temporary or permanent motor deficit. In this study, the authors report their experience with intraoperative stimulation mapping to locate subcortical motor pathways in 294 patients who underwent surgery for hemispheric gliomas within or adjacent to the rolandic cortex. Data were collected regarding intraoperative cortical and subcortical stimulation mapping results, along with the patient's neurological status pre- and postoperatively. For patients in whom an additional motor deficit occurred postoperatively, its evolution was examined. Of 294 patients, an additional postoperative motor deficit occurred in 60 (20.4%). Of those 60, 23 (38%) recovered to their preoperative baseline status within the 1st postoperative week. Another 12 (20%) recovered from their postoperative motor deficit by the end of the 4th postoperative week, and 11 more recovered to their baseline status by the end of the 3rd postoperative month. Thus, 46 (76.7%) of 60 patients with postoperative motor deficits regained their baseline function within the first 90 days after surgery. The remaining 14 patients (4.8% of the entire study population of 294) had a persistent motor deficit after 3 months. Patients whose subcortical pathways were identified with stimulation mapping were more prone to develop an additional (temporary or permanent) motor deficit than those in whom subcortical pathways could not be identified (27.5% compared with 13.1%, p = 0.003). This was also true when additional (permanent) motor deficits lasted more than 3 months (7.4% when subcortical pathways were found, compared with 2.1% when

  8. Minimum 20 Years Long-term Clinical Outcome After Spinal Fusion and Instrumentation for Scoliosis: Comparison of the SRS-22 Patient Questionnaire With That in Nonscoliosis Group.

    PubMed

    Iida, Takahiro; Suzuki, Nobumasa; Kono, Katsuki; Ohyama, Yasumasa; Imura, Jyunya; Ato, Akihisa; Ozeki, Satoru; Nohara, Yutaka

    2015-08-15

    A retrospective minimum 20-year follow-up study using 4 standard self-administered questionnaires, one of which, the SRS-22 was also administered to control groups. To evaluate long-term postoperative pain and other clinical outcomes of scoliosis correction and fusion surgery with Harrington instrumentation using Moe square-ended rods for better preservation of sagittal alignment. Only a few long-term outcome studies have used standardized and validated self-administered tools, and no studies have established SRS-22 control data within their own population. There is no previous minimum 20-year follow-up evaluation after correction surgery preserving thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. Of 86 consecutive patients who underwent instrumentation surgery for scoliosis by a single surgeon, 61 patients participated using Japanese Orthopaedic Association, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22) questionnaires and 51 patients were included in this study. Results were analyzed for pain and other clinical outcomes. A total of 771 hospital employees were sent SRS-22 questionnaires. A total of 763 responded, resulting in 2 control groups composed of nonscoliosis and untreated mild scoliosis controls of the same culture and language as the long-term follow-up group. The prevalence of continuous low back pain was about 15%. Average Japanese Orthopaedic Association, Oswestry Disability Index, and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire scores at follow-up were 25 points, 7.3%, and 1.6, respectively. The average SRS-22 scores were 4.2 (function), 4.3 (pain), 3.7 (self-image), and 3.9 (mental health) for the postoperative follow-up group compared with 4.5 (function), 4.3 (pain), 3.5 (self-image), and 3.5 (mental health) for the nonscoliosis controls. Improved preservation of normal sagittal alignment resulted in a prevalence of low back pain comparable with the age-matched general population. Moreover, SRS-22

  9. 3D model of radionuclide dispersion in coastal areas with multifraction cohesive and non-cohesive sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovchenko, Igor; Maderich, Vladimir; Jung, Kyung Tae

    2015-04-01

    We developed new radionuclide dispersion model that may be used in coastal areas, rivers and estuaries with non-uniform distribution of suspended and bed sediments both cohesive and non-cohesive types. Model describes radionuclides concentration in dissolved phase in water column, particulated phase on suspended sediments on each sediment class types, bed sediments and pore water. The transfer of activity between the water column and the pore water in the upper layer of the bottom sediment is governed by diffusion processes. The phase exchange between dissolved and particulate radionuclides is written in terms of desorption rate a12 (s-1) and distribution coefficient Kd,iw and Kd,ib (m3/kg) for water column and for bottom deposit, respectively. Following (Periáñez et al., 1996) the dependence of distribution coefficients is inversely proportional to the sediment particle size. For simulation of 3D circulation, turbulent diffusion and wave fields a hydrostatic model SELFE (Roland et. al. 2010) that solves Reynolds-stress averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and Wave Action transport equation on the unstructured grids was used. Simulation of suspended sediment concentration and bed sediments composition is based on (L. Pinto et. al., 2012) approach that originally was developed for non-cohesive sediments. In present study we modified this approach to include possibility of simulating mixture of cohesive and non-cohesive sediments by implementing parameterizations for erosion and deposition fluxes for cohesive sediments and by implementing flocculation model for determining settling velocity of cohesive flocs. Model of sediment transport was calibrated on measurements in the Yellow Sea which is shallow tidal basin with strongly non-uniform distribution of suspended and bed sediments. Model of radionuclide dispersion was verified on measurements of 137Cs concentration in surface water and bed sediments after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. References Peri

  10. YOGA FOR CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN IN A PREDOMINANTLY MINORITY POPULATION: A PILOT RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Robert B.; Sherman, Karen J.; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Davis, Roger B.; Phillips, Russell S.; Culpepper, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies suggest yoga may be effective for chronic low back pain; however, trials targeting minorities have not been conducted. Primary Study Objectives Assess the feasibility of studying yoga in a predominantly minority population with chronic low back pain. Collect preliminary data to plan a larger powered study. Study Design Pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting Two community health centers in a racially diverse neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. Participants Thirty English-speaking adults (mean age 44 years, 83% female, 83% racial/ethnic minorities; 48% with incomes ≤$30000) with moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. Interventions Standardized series of weekly hatha yoga classes for 12 weeks compared to a waitlist usual care control. Outcome Measures Feasibility measured by time to complete enrollment, proportion of racial/ethnic minorities enrolled, retention rates, and adverse events. Primary efficacy outcomes were changes from baseline to 12 weeks in pain score (0=no pain to 10=worst possible pain) and back-related function using the modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (0–23 point scale, higher scores reflect poorer function). Secondary efficacy outcomes were analgesic use, global improvement, and quality of life (SF-36). Results Recruitment took 2 months. Retention rates were 97% at 12 weeks and 77% at 26 weeks. Mean pain scores for yoga decreased from baseline to 12 weeks (6.7 to 4.4) compared to usual care, which decreased from 7.5 to 7.1 (P=.02). Mean Roland scores for yoga decreased from 14.5 to 8.2 compared to usual care, which decreased from 16.1 to 12.5 (P=.28). At 12 weeks, yoga compared to usual care participants reported less analgesic use (13% vs 73%, P=.003), less opiate use (0% vs 33%, P=.04), and greater overall improvement (73% vs 27%, P=.03). There were no differences in SF-36 scores and no serious adverse events. Conclusion A yoga study intervention in a predominantly minority population with

  11. Hip and Lumbar Spine Physical Examination Findings in People Presenting With Low Back Pain, With or Without Lower Extremity Pain.

    PubMed

    Prather, Heidi; Cheng, Abby; Steger-May, Karen; Maheshwari, Vaibhav; Van Dillen, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study, cross-sectional design. Background The hip-spine syndrome is described in patients with known arthritis of the hip. This study describes the hip examination findings of people presenting with low back pain (LBP). Objectives To (1) report examination findings of the hip in patients with LBP and (2) compare pain and function in patients with positive hip examination findings to those in patients without positive hip examination findings. Methods An examination and validated questionnaires of spine and hip pain and function were completed. Pain and function scores were compared between patients with and without positive hip findings. Results Consecutive patients (68 women, 33 men) with a mean age of 47.6 years (range, 18.4-79.8 years) participated. On physical examination, 81 (80%) had reduced hip flexion; 76 (75%) had reduced hip internal rotation; and 25 (25%) had 1, 32 (32%) had 2, and 23 (23%) had 3 positive provocative hip tests. Patients with reduced hip flexion had worse LBP-related (mean modified Oswestry Disability Index, 35.3 versus 25.6; P = .04) and hip-related function (mean modified Harris Hip Score, 66.0 versus 82.0; P = .03). Patients with reduced hip internal rotation had worse LBP-related function (mean Roland-Morris questionnaire, 12.4 versus 8.2; P = .003). A positive provocative hip test was coupled with more intense pain (median, 9 versus 7; P = .05) and worse LBP-related (mean Roland-Morris questionnaire, 12.1 versus 8.5; P = .02) and hip-related function (mean modified Harris Hip Score, 65.8 versus 89.7; P = .005). Conclusion Physical examination findings indicating hip dysfunction are common in patients presenting with LBP. Patients with LBP and positive hip examination findings have more pain and worse function compared to patients with LBP but without positive hip examination findings. Level of Evidence Symptom prevalence, level 1b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):163-172. Epub 3 Feb 2017. doi:10

  12. Nineteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Horne, R.J.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1994-01-20

    PREFACE The Nineteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 18-20, 1994. This workshop opened on a sad note because of the death of Prof. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. on November 19, 1993. Hank had been fighting leukemia for a long time and finally lost the battle. Many of the workshop participants were present for the celebration of his life on January 21 at Stanford's Memorial Church. Hank was one of the founders of the Stanford Geothermal Program and the Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Workshop. His energy, kindness, quick wit, and knowledge will long be missed at future workshops. Following the Preface we have included a copy of the Memorial Resolution passed by the Stanford University Senate. There were one hundred and four registered participants. Participants were from ten foreign countries: Costa Rica, England, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines and Turkey. Workshop papers described the performance of fourteen geothermal fields outside the United States. Roland N. Home opened the meeting and welcomed the visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who gave a presentation about the future of geothermal development. The banquet speaker was Jesus Rivera and he spoke about Energy Sources of Central American Countries. Forty two papers were presented at the Workshop. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: sciences, injection, production, modeling, and adsorption. Session chairmen are an important part of the workshop and our thanks go to: John Counsil, Mark Walters, Dave Duchane, David Faulder, Gudmundur Bodvarsson, Jim Lovekin, Joel Renner, and Iraj Ershaghi. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual

  13. Nocturnal leg cramps: a common complaint in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Tsuji, Takashi; Ishii, Ken; Takaishi, Hironari; Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Michikawa, Takehiro; Nishiwaki, Yuji

    2009-03-01

    Questionnaire survey on leg cramps for patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LCS). To evaluate the prevalence of leg cramps in patients with LCS treated surgically and the relationship between leg cramps and the surgical outcomes. Although it has been anecdotally reported that LCS patients have suffered from leg cramps, the true prevalence remains unknown. One hundred twenty LCS patients who underwent decompression surgery (men 85, women 35, mean age 73.5) and 370 elderly subjects from the general population (men 162, women 208, mean age 75.6) were enrolled in the study. The participants filled in a questionnaire regarding: (all participants) (1) experience of leg cramps, (2) frequency and time of the day of the cramp attacks; (for LCS patients only), (3) changes in cramps before and after surgery, (4) activities of daily living disturbance because of leg cramps, (5) satisfaction with surgery and walking ability, (6) the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and (7) the Oswestry Disability Index. Eighty-five (70.8%) patients with LCS and 137 (37.2%) of the control population experienced leg cramps (age and sex adjusted odds ratio; 4.6, P < 0.01). Leg cramps occurred once or twice a week in 34.9% of the LCS group and once in several months in 44.5% of the control group, and occurred nocturnally in 73.3% of the LCS patients and in 91.6% of the control group. In LCS patients, leg cramps improved after surgery in 18.2%, remained unchanged in 45.5%, and worsened in 26.1%, and activities of daily living were disturbed in 47.6%. There was no significant difference in satisfaction with surgery, the Oswestry Disability Index, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire scores, or walking ability between the LCS patients with or without leg cramps. LCS patients had significantly more frequent attacks of nocturnal leg cramps than the control population, and leg cramps disturbed the quality of the patients' life, and they rarely improved after decompression surgery. Leg

  14. Effects of a wearable type lumbosacral support for low back pain among hospital workers: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Yutaka; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Takashi; Kanazawa, Kenji; Koide, Masashi; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Hatano, Hirokazu; Itoi, Eiji

    2017-03-28

    To examine the effects of a new wearable type of lumbosacral support on low back pain. A total of 121 healthcare workers participated in this study. They were randomly allocated into the experimental and control groups and the former wore the support with signals of compression on the back by poor posture for the first 3 months. The control group remained on a waiting list for the first 3 months. Medical history, musculoskeletal symptoms, feeling in good posture, sleep habits, psychological distress, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale (SSAS) were evaluated. The range of motion (ROM) in the shoulder and hip joints as well as spinal alignment were evaluated. Our primary concern was the difference in the change of low back pain measured by visual analog scale (VAS) between the two groups. A total of 54 participants in the experimental and 53 participants in the control groups were analyzed. VAS and SSAS scores as well as lumbar spinal ROM in the experimental group significantly decreased. Low back pain (OR=0.401, 95% CI=0.168-0.954) and neck pain in the experimental group (OR=0.198, 95% CI=0.052-0.748) significantly decreased. The new lumbar support reduced VAS and SSAS scores, lumbar spinal ROM, low back pain, and neck pain. This new type of lumbar support reduced low back pain among healthcare workers.

  15. Neural bases of childhood speech disorders: lateralization and plasticity for speech functions during development.

    PubMed

    Liégeois, Frédérique J; Morgan, Angela T

    2012-01-01

    Current models of speech production in adults emphasize the crucial role played by the left perisylvian cortex, primary and pre-motor cortices, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum for normal speech production. Whether similar brain-behaviour relationships and leftward cortical dominance are found in childhood remains unclear. Here we reviewed recent evidence linking motor speech disorders (apraxia of speech and dysarthria) and brain abnormalities in children and adolescents with developmental, progressive, or childhood-acquired conditions. We found no evidence that unilateral damage can result in apraxia of speech, or that left hemisphere lesions are more likely to result in dysarthria than lesion to the right. The few studies reporting on childhood apraxia of speech converged towards morphological, structural, metabolic or epileptic anomalies affecting the basal ganglia, perisylvian and rolandic cortices bilaterally. Persistent dysarthria, similarly, was commonly reported in individuals with syndromes and conditions affecting these same structures bilaterally. In conclusion, for the first time we provide evidence that longterm and severe childhood speech disorders result predominantly from bilateral disruption of the neural networks involved in speech production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Loading is more effective than posture in lumbar spinal stenosis: a study with a treadmill equipment.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Hasan; Levendoğlu, Funda; Oğün, Tunç Cevat; Tantuğ, Aysenur

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) in LSS and different positions as well as loading status, using the treadmill device. The study was a prospective clinical trial on lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) using a treadmill equipment. The study population comprised of 80 LSS patients with a mean age of 61. The equipment included a treadmill, unloading station and loading vests. The patients were instructed to walk in five different positions. The initiation time of symptoms and total walking time were recorded. The examination was stopped after 20 min or at the onset of severe symptoms. In order to obtain pretest demographic data on subjects, visual analog scale, Roland-Morris questionnaire, pain disability index, and Beck depression index were used. The initiation time of symptoms (ITS) and total walking time (TWT) were measured during the test. Unloading provided a longer and loading a shorter ITS and TWT. Decline or incline positions did not affect ITS or TWT. The changes in posture had no correlation with the appearance of symptoms in LSS patients with NIC on a treadmill in this study, rather ITS and TWT were determined by axial loading and unloading.

  17. A tailored exercise program versus general exercise for a subgroup of patients with low back pain and movement control impairment: A randomised controlled trial with one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Saner, Jeannette; Kool, Jan; Sieben, Judith M; Luomajoki, Hannu; Bastiaenen, Carolien H G; de Bie, Rob A

    2015-10-01

    Exercise is an effective treatment for patients with sub-acute and chronic non-specific low back pain (NSLBP). Previous studies have shown that a subgroup of patients with NSLBP and movement control impairment (MCI) can be diagnosed with substantial reliability. However, which type of exercises are most beneficial to this subgroup is still unknown. The effectiveness of a specific exercise treatment to improve movement control was tested in this study. Using a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT), we compared exercises that targeted MCI (MC) with a general exercise (GE) treatment. After randomisation, patients in both groups n(MC = 52; GE = 54) were treated in eight private physiotherapy practices and five hospital outpatient physiotherapy centres. Follow-up measurements were taken at post-treatment, six months and 12 months. The primary outcome measurement was the Patient Specific Function Scale (PSFS). PSFS showed no difference between groups after treatment, or at six months and 12 months. Secondary outcome analysis for pain and disability, measured with the Graded Chronic Pain scale and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire respectively, showed that a small improvement post-treatment levelled off over the long term. Both groups improved significantly (p < 0.001) over the course of one year. This study found no additional benefit of specific exercises targeting MCI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of movement control exercises versus general exercises on recurrent sub-acute nonspecific low back pain in a sub-group of patients with movement control dysfunction. protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Practice guidelines recommend various types of exercise for chronic back pain but there have been few head-to-head comparisons of these interventions. General exercise seems to be an effective option for management of chronic low back pain (LBP) but very little is known about the management of a sub-acute LBP within sub-groups. Recent research has developed clinical tests to identify a subgroup of patients with chronic non-specific LBP who have movement control dysfunction (MD). Method/Design We are conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to compare the effects of general exercise and specific movement control exercise (SMCE) on disability and function in patients with MD within recurrent sub-acute LBP. The main outcome measure is the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Discussion European clinical guideline for management of chronic LBP recommends that more research is required to develop tools to improve the classification and identification of specific clinical sub-groups of chronic LBP patients. Good quality RCTs are then needed to determine the effectiveness of specific interventions aimed at these specific target groups. This RCT aims to test the hypothesis whether patients within a sub-group of MD benefit more through a specific individually tailored movement control exercise program than through general exercises. PMID:22494776

  19. Use of conventional and alternative treatment strategies for a case of low back pain in a F/A-18 aviator

    PubMed Central

    Green, Bart N; Sims, John; Allen, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    Background Low back pain can diminish jet pilot concentration and function during flight and be severe enough to ground pilots or cause decreased flying time. The objective of this case report is to present an example of the integration of chiropractic care with conventional treatments for the management of low back pain in a F/A-18 aviator. Case presentation The patient had insidious severe low back pain without radiation or neurological deficit, resulting in 24 hours of hospitalization. Spinal degeneration was discovered upon imaging. Four months later, it still took up to 10 minutes for him to get out of bed and several minutes to exit the jet due to stiffness and pain. He had discontinued his regular Marine Corps fitness training due to pain avoidance. Pain severity ranged from 1.5–7.1 cm on a visual analog scale. His Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire score was 5 out of 24. The pilot's pain was managed with the coordinated efforts of the flight surgeon, physiatrist, physical therapist, and doctor of chiropractic. Following this regimen he had no pain and no functional disability; he was able to fly multiple training missions per week and exercise to Marine Corps standards. Conclusion A course of care integrating flight medicine, chiropractic, physical therapy, and physiatry appeared to alleviate pain and restore function to this F/A-18 aviator with low back pain. PMID:16820063

  20. Twentieth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-26

    PREFACE The Twentieth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, dedicated to the memory of Professor Hank Ramey, was held at Stanford University on January 24-26, 1995. There were ninety-five registered participants. Participants came from six foreign countries: Japan, Mexico, England, Italy, New Zealand and Iceland. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Thirty-two papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into eleven sessions concerning: field development, modeling, well tesubore, injection, geoscience, geochemistry and field operations. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bob Fournier, Mark Walters, John Counsil, Marcelo Lippmann, Keshav Goyal, Joel Renner and Mike Shook. In addition to the technical sessions, a panel discussion was held on ''What have we learned in 20 years?'' Panel speakers included Patrick Muffler, George Frye, Alfred Truesdell and John Pritchett. The subject was further discussed by Subir Sanyal, who gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager

  1. Quark Matter 2011 (QM11) Quark Matter 2011 (QM11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    International Advisory Committee Antinori, FedericoPaic, Guy Braun-Munzinger, PeterPajares, Carlos Cifarelli, LuisaPeitzmann, Thomas Erazmus, BarbaraRedlich, Krzysztof Eskola, KariRiccati, Lodovico Gaardhøje, Jens JørgenRoland, Gunther Gale, CharlesRoy, Christelle Gelis, FrancoisSchukraft, Jürgen Giubellino, PaoloSinha, Bikash Greiner, CarstenSrivastava, Dinesh Gyulassy, MiklosStachel, Johanna Harris, JohnSteinberg, Peter Hatsuda, TetsuoStroth, Joachim Heinz, UlrichSugitate, Toru Jacak, BarbaraTserruya, Itzhak Karsch, FrithjofVelkovska, Julia Kharzeev, DimaWang, Enke Kodama, TakeshiWang, Xin, Nian Lévai, PéterWessels, Johannes Manko, VladislavXu, Nu Müller, BerndtZajc, William Ollitrault, Jean-Yves Organizing Committee Arleo, FrancoisDupieux, Pascal Bastid, NicoleFurget, Christophe Bourgeois, Marie-LaureGranier de Cassagnac, Raphael Bregant, MarcoGuernane, Rachid Carminati, FedericoHervet, Carnita Castillo, JavierKuhn, Christian Cheynis, BrigitteOlivier, Nathalie Conesa, DelValle, Zaida Connor, MichelleRenshall, Lucy Crochet, PhilippeSuire, Christophe Delagrange, HuguesTihinen, Ulla Program Committee Schutz, Yves (Chair)Baldisseri, Alberto Wiedemann, Urs (co-Chair)Safarik, Karel Aurenche, Patrick

  2. Framing the ultimatum game: the contribution of simulation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Lotto, Lorella; Sarlo, Michela; Civai, Claudia; Rumiati, Rino; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2013-01-01

    It has now become widely accepted that economic decisions are influenced by cognitive and emotional processes. In the present study, we aimed at disentangling the neural mechanisms associated with the way in which the information is formulated, i.e., framing effect, in terms of gain or loss, which influences people's decisions. Participants played a fMRI version of the Ultimatum Game (UG) where we manipulated bids through two different frames: the expression "I give you" (gain) focusing on money the respondent would receive if she/he agreed with the proponent, and the expression "I take" (loss) focusing on the money that would be removed from the respondent in the event that she/he accepted the offer. Neuroimaging data revealed a frame by response interaction, showing an increase of neural activity in the right rolandic operculum/insular cortex, the anterior cingulate, among other regions, for accepting the frame "I take" vs. rejecting, as compared to accepting the frame "I give you" vs. rejecting. In addition, the left occipito-temporal junction was activated for "I take" vs. "I give you" for offer 5, corresponding to the equal offer made unpleasant by the presence of the frame "I take," where is the proposer that takes the money. Our data extend the current understanding of the neural substrates of social decision making, by disentangling the structures sensitive to the way in which the information is formulated (i.e., framing effect), in terms of gain or loss.

  3. Auricular Point Acupressure to Manage Chronic Low Back Pain in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Morone, Natalia E.; Cao, Yuling; Shen, Juan; Bhatnagar, Shreya; Liang, Zhan; Glick, Ronald M.; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This prospective, randomized clinical trial (RCT) pilot study was designed to (1) assess the feasibility and tolerability of an easily administered, auricular point acupressure (APA) intervention and (2) provide an initial assessment of effect size as compared to a sham treatment. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to receive either the real or sham APA treatment. All participants were treated once a week for 4 weeks. Self-report measures were obtained at baseline, weekly during treatment, at end-of-intervention (EOI), and at a 1-month follow-up. A dropout rate of 26% in the real APA group and 50% in the sham group was observed. The reduction in worst pain from baseline to EOI was 41% for the real and 5% for the sham group with a Cohen's effect size of 1.22 (P < 0.00). Disability scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) decreased in the real group by 29% and were unchanged in the sham group (+3%) (P < 0.00). Given the high dropout rate, results must be interpreted with caution; nevertheless, our results suggest that APA may provide an inexpensive and effective complementary approach for the management of back pain in older adults, and further study is warranted. PMID:25147574

  4. Efficacy of Percutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Therapeutic Exercise for Older Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Debra K.; Perera, Subashan; Rudy, Thomas E.; Glick, Ronald M.; Shenoy, Sonali; Delitto, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) in older adults may be disabling and therapeutically challenging, largely because of the inefficacy and/or morbidity associated with traditional pain treatment. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 200 men and women ≥ age 65 with CLBP to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS) with and without general conditioning and aerobic exercise (GCAE), for reducing pain and improving physical function. Participants were randomized to receive 1) PENS, 2) control-PENS (brief electrical stimulation to control for treatment expectancy), 3) PENS + GCAE, or 4) control-PENS + GCAE, twice a week for 6 weeks. All four groups experienced significantly reduced pain (range −2.3 to −4.1 on the McGill Pain Questionnaire short form), improved self-reported disability (range −2.1 to −3.0 on Roland scale) and improved gait velocity (0.04–0.07 m/sec), sustained at 6 months. The GCAE groups experienced significantly fewer fear avoidance beliefs immediately post-intervention and at 6 months than non-GCAE groups. There were no significant side effects. Since brief electrical stimulation (i.e., control-PENS) facilitated comparably reduced pain and improved function at 6 months as compared with PENS, the exact dose of electrical stimulation required for analgesia cannot be determined. GCAE was more effective than PENS alone in reducing fear avoidance beliefs, but not in reducing pain or improving physical function. PMID:18930352

  5. Results of a Pilates exercise program in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Valenza, M C; Rodríguez-Torres, J; Cabrera-Martos, I; Díaz-Pelegrina, A; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, M E; Castellote-Caballero, Y

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of a Pilates exercise program on disability, pain, lumbar mobility, flexibility and balance in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Randomized controlled trial. University laboratory. A total of 54 patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Patients were randomly allocated to an experimental group ( n=27) included in a Pilates exercise program or to a control group ( n=27) receiving information in a form of a leaflet. Disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and Oswestry Disability Index), current, average and pain at it least and at its worst (Visual Analogue Scales), lumbar mobility (modified Shober test), flexibility (finger-to-floor test) and balance (single limb stance test) were measured at baseline and after the intervention. A between-group analysis showed significant differences in the intervention group compared to the control group for both disability scores, the Rolland-Morris questionnaire (mean change±standard deviation of 5.31±3.37 and 2.40±6.78 respectively and between-groups mean difference of 3.2 ± 4.12, p=0.003) and the Oswestry Disability Index ( p<0.001), current pain ( p=0.002) and pain at it least ( p=0.033), flexibility (0.032) and balance (0.043). An 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in improving disability, pain, flexibility and balance in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

  6. Effects of Pilates and trunk strengthening exercises on health-related quality of life in women with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P; Gouitas, Iraklis; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-11-21

    Pilates programs are widely used as a form of regular exercise in a broad range of populations investigating their effectiveness for chronic low back pain (CLBP) treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a Pilates program and a trunk strengthening exercise program on functional disability and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with nonspecific CLBP. A total of 101 volunteer women with CLBP provided data with a 3-month follow-up. They were randomized to either a Pilates (n= 37), trunk strengthening exercise (n= 36) or a control group (n= 28), exercising for a period of 8 weeks, three times a week. Data were collected on HRQOL using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36v2), and functional disability using the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire prior to program initiation, mid-intervention, immediately after program termination, and three months post-intervention. The Pilates participants reported greater improvements on self-reported functional disability and HRQOL compared with participants in the trunk strengthening exercise and control groups (p < 0.05). The effects were retained for a period of three months after program termination for the Pilates group and to a lesser extent for the trunk strengthening exercise group. An 8-week Pilates program improved HRQOL and reduced functional disability more than either a trunk strengthening exercise program or controls among women with CLBP.

  7. Impact of sex and gonadal steroids on neonatal brain structure.

    PubMed

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Wang, Jiaping; Zhu, Hongtu; Geng, Xiujuan; Woolson, Sandra; Hamer, Robert M; Konneker, Thomas; Styner, Martin; Gilmore, John H

    2014-10-01

    There are numerous reports of sexual dimorphism in brain structure in children and adults, but data on sex differences in infancy are extremely limited. Our primary goal was to identify sex differences in neonatal brain structure. Our secondary goal was to explore whether brain structure was related to androgen exposure or sensitivity. Two hundred and ninety-three neonates (149 males) received high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Sensitivity to androgen was measured using the number of cytosine, adenine, guanine (CAG) triplets in the androgen receptor gene and the ratio of the second to fourth digit, provided a proxy measure of prenatal androgen exposure. There was a significant sex difference in intracranial volume of 5.87%, which was not related to CAG triplets or digit ratios. Tensor-based morphometry identified extensive areas of local sexual dimorphism. Males had larger volumes in medial temporal cortex and rolandic operculum, and females had larger volumes in dorsolateral prefrontal, motor, and visual cortices. Androgen exposure and sensitivity had minor sex-specific effects on local gray matter volume, but did not appear to be the primary determinant of sexual dimorphism at this age. Comparing our study with the existing literature suggests that sex differences in cortical structure vary in a complex and highly dynamic way across the human lifespan. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Comparison between Kinesio Taping and a Traditional Physical Therapy Program in Treatment of Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Kachanathu, Shaji John; Alenazi, Aqeel M; Seif, Hamada Eid; Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Alroumim, Meshari Abdulmohsen

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is a very common but largely self-limiting condition. Several types of tape and their associated application methods are available for different conditions. The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of Kinesio taping (KT) compared with traditional management of NSLBP. [Subjects and Methods] Forty male and female patients with a mean age of 34.8±7.54 years were randomly divided into two groups; group 1 (n=20) which underwent conventional physical therapy with KT, and group 2 (n=20), which underwent only conventional physical therapy. The intervention sessions for both groups were three times per week for four weeks. Outcomes were assessed for activities of daily living (ADL) using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, pain severity using a visual analogue scale, and ranges of motion (ROMs) of trunk flexion and extension using the modified Schober's test. [Results] Significant differences in measures of pain, ADL, and trunk flexion and extension ROMs were observed post intervention within each group. In comparison, there were no significant differences in measures of pain, ADL, and trunk flexion and extension ROMs post intervention between groups. [Conclusion] A physical therapy program involving strengthening exercises for abdominal muscles and stretching exercises for back, hamstring, and iliopsoas muscles with or without Kinesio taping was beneficial in the treatment of chronic low back pain.

  9. [The Brazilian version of the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ana Maria de; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais; Cardoso, Sônia Maria Vicente; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties and validate the Portuguese version of the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ-Brazil). This instrument assesses how beliefs and fear of individuals with lower back pain affect two subscales related to their physical activities (FABQ-Phys) and work (FABQ-Work). The questionnaire was translated into Brazilian Portuguese, following the recommended methodology, and applied to 53 individuals with non-specific chronic lower back pain. The test-retest intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.84 and 0.91) and the internal consistency (Cronbach's = 0.80 and 0.90) for FABQ-Phys and FABQ-Work, respectively, were acceptable. The stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed statistically significant correlations between all isolated items with their respective subscales, and the set of the items explained 99% of the changes in scores for each subscale. No significant correlations were found between the subscales; however, both the FABQ-Phys and FABQ-Work subscales were positively associated with pain intensity (visual numerical scale) and degree of disability (Roland Morris Questionnaire). These findings supported the evidence that the FABQ-Brazil showed adequate psychometric properties for individuals with chronic lower back pain.

  10. [A political matter: science and ideology in the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Wahrig, Bettina

    2010-06-01

    In the last two decades, history of science and science studies have been quite reluctant to adopt the notion of ideology when analyzing the dynamics of science. This may be an effect of the decreasing popularity of neo-marxist approaches within this disciplinary field; but it is also due to the fact that alternative approaches have been developed, for example Michel Foucault's notion of problematization, Roland Barthes' semiotic mythology, Bruno Latour's re-interpretation of the ontological difference between fact and fetish in science, or Donna Haraway's semi-fictional re-narrations of the techno-scientific world. This contribution undertakes to sketch the impact of two strands of 19th century immanentism on the authors named above, and on their use of concepts related to the notion of ideology, namely fetish, fetishism, myth and mythology respectively. It is argued that in some respect, Marx' concept of commodity fetishism is worth being re-examined, since it articulates a dialectical relation of 'reality' and 'seeming', and its impact on Barthes' mythology is deeper than it might appear at first glance.

  11. Plasma-photocatalysis combination for air pollutant removal: identification of the synergy mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guaitella, O.; Thevenet, F.; Rousseau, A.; Guillard, C.; Stancu, G.; Roepcke, J.

    2006-10-01

    The coupling of a photocatalyst with a non thermal plasma (DBD) is studied; based on experimental results we discuss separately the contributions of (i) the chemistry involved as a function of the porosity of the material, and (ii) the influence of the photocatalytic activity on the chemistry of C2H2 oxidation. C2H2 removal is strongly increased by the presence of a porous material (SiO2 or TiO2): the destruction of C2H2 is driven by species created by the plasma and concentrated by a porous [1]. Our experiments confirm that C2H2 removal rate increases with the porosity of the material, whereas the selectivity also depends on the chemical composition of the surface. In parallel, the temporal evolution of C2H2 concentration was measured by Tuneable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) in the mid infrared region in a low pressure discharge during a single plasma pulse (one shot). The contribution of external ultraviolet radiation and plasma exposure were quantified, both with and without photocatalyst. The synergetic effect was clearly demonstrated [2]. [1] U. Roland, F. Holzer, F.-D. Kopinke 2002 Catalysis Today 73 315--323 [2] A. Rousseau, O. Guaitella, L.V. Gatilova, F. Thevenet, C. Guillard, J. Roepcke, G. D. Stancu , Appl. Phys. Let. 87, 221501 (2005).

  12. Towards a functional neuroanatomy of conscious perception and its modulation by volition: implications of human auditory neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed Central

    Silbersweig, D A; Stern, E

    1998-01-01

    Conscious sensory perception and its modulation by volition are integral to human mental life. Functional neuroimaging techniques provide a direct means of identifying and characterizing in vivo the systems-level patterns of brain activity associated with such mental functions. In a series of positron emission tomography activation experiments, we and our colleagues have examined a range of normal and abnormal auditory states that, when contrasted, provide dissociations relevant to the question of the neural substrates of sensory awareness. These dissociations include sensory awareness in the presence and absence of external sensory stimuli, the transition from sensory unawareness to awareness (or vice versa) in the presence of sensory stimuli, and sensory awareness with and without volition. The auditory states studied include hallucinations, mental imagery, cortical deafness modulated by attention, and hearing modulated by sedation. The results of these studies highlight the distributed nature of the functional neuroanatomy that is sufficient, if not necessary, for sensory awareness. The probable roles of unimodal association (as compared with primary) cortices, heteromodal cortices, limbic/paralimbic regions and subcortical structures (such as the thalamus) are discussed. In addition, interactions between pre- and post-rolandic regions are examined in the context of top-down, volitional modulation of sensory awareness. PMID:9854260

  13. Map Showing Principal Coal Beds and Bedrock Geology of the Ucross-Arvada Area, Central Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    The Ucross-Arvada area is part of the Powder River Basin, a large, north-trending structural depression between the Black Hills on the east and the Bighorn Mountains on the west. Almost all of the study area is within Sheridan and Johnson Counties, Wyoming. Most of the Ucross-Arvada area lies within the outcrop of the Wasatch Formation of Eocene age; the extreme northeast corner falls within the outcrop of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age. Within the Powder River Basin, both the Wasatch Formation and the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation contain significant coal resources. The map includes locations and elevations of coal beds at 1:50,000 scale for an area that includes ten 7½-minute quadrangles covering some 500 square miles. The Wasatch Formation coal beds shown (in descending order) are Monument Peak, Walters (also called Ulm 1), Healy (also called Ulm 2), Truman, Felix, and Arvada. The Fort Union Formation coal beds shown (in descending order) are Roland (of Baker, 1929) and Smith.

  14. Highlights from SelectBio 2015: Academic Drug Discovery Conference, Cambridge, UK, 19-20 May 2015.

    PubMed

    Spencer, John; Coaker, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    The SelectBio 2015: Academic Drug Discovery Conference was held in Cambridge, UK, on 19-20 May 2015. Building on the success of academic drug discovery events in the USA, this conference aimed to showcase the exciting new research emerging from academic drug discovery and to help bridge the gap between basic research and commercial application. At the event the authors heard from a number of speakers on a broad array of topics, from partnering models for academia and industry to novel drug discovery approaches across various therapeutic areas, with a few talks, such as those by Susanne Muller-Knapp (Structure Genomics Consortium, Oxford University, Oxford, UK) and Julian Blagg (Institute of Cancer Research, UK), covering both remits, by highlighting a number of such partnerships and then delving into some case studies. The conference concluded with a heated debate on whether phenotypic discovery should be favored over targeted discovery in academia and pharma, in a panel discussion chaired by Roland Wolkowicz (San Diego State University, USA).

  15. ACRIDINE ORANGE BINDING BY MICROCOCCUS LYSODEIKTICUS

    PubMed Central

    Beers, Roland F.

    1964-01-01

    Beers, Roland F., Jr. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md). Acridine orange binding by Micrococcus lysodeikticus. J. Bacteriol. 88:1249–1256. 1964.—Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells bind acridine orange (AO) reversibly. The adsorption isotherm is consistent with a highly cooperative-type binding similar to that observed with polyadenylic acid. The cells exhibit a strong buffering action on the concentration of free AO which remains constant (1 μg/ml) over a range from 5 to 95% saturation of the cells by AO. The cells stain either fluorescent orange or green. The fraction stained orange is directly proportional to the quantity of dye adsorbed, indicating that these cells bind a fixed amount of AO (10% of dry weight). The green-stained cells contain less than 1% of the AO bound to orange-stained cells. The results suggest that the abrupt increase in amount of AO bound by the orange-stained cells occurs when the concentration of free AO reaches a threshold concentration. Similar results were obtained with Bacillus cereus. Mg increases the free AO concentration and the extent of binding capacity of the cells. PMID:14234778

  16. Predictors of Persistent Disability and Back Pain in Older Adults with a New Episode of Care for Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Sean D; Sherman, Karen J; Heagerty, Patrick J; Mock, Charles N; Dettori, Nathan J; Comstock, Bryan A; Avins, Andrew L; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Nerenz, David R; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2017-06-01

     To identify predictors of persistent disability and back pain in older adults.  Prospective cohort study.  Back pain outcomes using longitudinal data registry.  Five thousand two hundred twenty adults age 65 years and older with a new primary care visit for back pain.  Baseline measurements included: demographics, health, and back pain characteristics. We abstracted imaging findings from 348 radiology reports. The primary outcomes were the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and back pain intensity. We defined persistent disability as RMDQ of 4/24 or higher at both six and 12 months and persistent back pain as pain 3/10 or higher at both six and 12 months.  There were 2,498 of 4,143 (60.3%) participants with persistent disability, and 2,099 of 4,144 (50.7%) had persistent back pain. Adjusted analyses showed the following characteristics most strongly predictive of persistent disability and persistent back pain: sex, race, worse baseline clinical characteristics of back pain, leg pain, back-related disability and duration of symptoms, smoking, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, a history of falls, greater number of comorbidities, knee osteoarthritis, wide-spread pain syndromes, and an index diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis. Within the imaging data subset, central spinal stenosis was not associated with disability or pain.  We found that many predictors in older adults were similar to those for younger populations.

  17. Risedronate decreases bone resorption and improves low back pain in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients without vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Ohtori, Seiji; Akazawa, Tsutomu; Murata, Yasuaki; Kinoshita, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Masaomi; Nakagawa, Koichi; Inoue, Gen; Nakamura, Junichi; Orita, Sumihisa; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Takaso, Masashi; Eguchi, Yawara; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Munetaka; Aoki, Yasuchika; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2010-02-01

    Elderly postmenopausal women who have osteoporosis sometimes experience low back pain, however, the relationship between low back pain and osteoporosis in the absence of vertebral fractures remains unclear. We examined the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD), bone resorption and low back pain in elderly female patients who did not have osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The average BMD was 0.675 g/cm(2) when assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Patients were excluded from the study if they had vertebral fractures revealed by radiography, CT scans or MRI. Bisphosphonate (risedronate) was administered for 4 months. The visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ), Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire, BMD and N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx; a marker for bone resorption) were examined before and after treatment. DEXA did not increase significantly, but serum and urinary NTx were decreased (-51.4% and -62.0%, respectively) after 4 months of risedronate treatment (p<0.01). The assessment was repeated using the VAS score, RDQ and SF-36, which revealed an improvement after risedronate treatment (p<0.01). A decrease in serum and urinary NTx was associated with improvement of low back pain, suggesting that despite the absence of vertebral fractures, bone resorption due to osteoporosis may cause low back pain. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Therapeutic effects of calcitonin on back pain in the patients with osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Konno, Shin-ichi; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi

    2005-03-01

    A prospective study was performed to clarify the therapeutic effect on calcitonin in the patients with osteoporosis using patient-based outcome measures. A total of 67 patients with primary osteoporosis who complained back pain were included in this study. All patients were administered calcitonin 20 Unit/week intramuscularly. The therapeutic effects were assessed using various patient-based outcome measures before treatment, 2, 4 weeks and 3 months after treatment. We used Short form 12 for measuring general well-being, Roland Morris disability questionnaire for functional status associated with back pain, and visual analogue scale for pain intensity. Statistic analysis was performed using paired-t test. Pain intensity and functional status were significantly recovered at 2 weeks follow-up time and the effects were continued at 3 months follow-up time. Physical component summary (PCS) was recovered at 3 months follow-up tme, whereas mental component summary (MCS) was improved at 2 weeks follow-up time. These facts suggest that improvement of back pain using calcitonin correlates directly with recovery in functional status, indirectly with recovery in general well being.

  19. Is the Zumba fitness responsible for low back pain?

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, A; Maccagnano, G; Pesce, V; Tafuri, S; Leo, N; Moretti, B

    2015-12-01

    Zumba fitness requires aerobic repetition exercises, involving the whole body including the spine. Our study is aimed at verifying whether this sport may cause low back pain. Young healthy females were recruited. They were allocated to a "Zumba group" (n = 25) or an "inactivity control group" (n = 25). The Roland-Morris Disability, the Oswestry, the SF-36 and the Spinal Functional Sort Questionaries of all subjects were measured at the baseline (T0) and at 6 months (T1). During this 6-month study, the number of episodes of low back pain was recorded. At T1, improvements were seen in the "Zumba group." The "inactivity control group" showed worsening in each test at T1. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant for the items Role limitations and physical problems, Physical functioning, Pain and Social activity of SF-36 (p < 0.05). There were no any statistically significant differences in either group of episodes of back pain (p > 0.05). We verified that Zumba is not responsible for low back pain. Furthermore, we revealed that Zumba can increase the normal functional activity of the spine. On the basis of this data, we can recommend the practice of this sport on a regular basis for the healthy population, without worrying about the risk of overloading the spine. Further studies are necessary to check whether the patients with chronic spine disease may practice Zumba.

  20. Long-term safety and effectiveness of tanezumab as treatment for chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Gimbel, Joseph S; Kivitz, Alan J; Bramson, Candace; Nemeth, Mary Anne; Keller, David S; Brown, Mark T; West, Christine R; Verburg, Kenneth M

    2014-09-01

    A noncontrolled, randomized, multicenter study (NCT00924664) evaluated long-term safety and effectiveness of tanezumab in patients with chronic low back pain following a randomized placebo- and active-controlled parent study that evaluated analgesic efficacy. Patients were randomized to tanezumab 10mg (n=321) or 20mg (n=527) administered at 8-week intervals via 3 intravenous injections followed by 4 subcutaneous injections. Effectiveness analyses included change from parent study baseline in Brief Pain Inventory Short Form, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, and Patient's Global Assessment of low back pain. Safety assessments included adverse event documentation, physical/neurological examinations, and laboratory tests. Mean treatment duration during the extension study was 194 and 202 days with tanezumab 10 and 20mg, respectively. Both tanezumab doses provided similar and sustained improvements in all effectiveness outcomes. The most frequently reported adverse events were arthralgia, paresthesia, and hypoesthesia. Adverse events initially described as osteonecrosis were reported in 6 patients (tanezumab 10mg, n=2; tanezumab 20mg, n=4); 9 additional patients (tanezumab 10mg, n=7; tanezumab 20mg, n=2) underwent total joint replacement (TJR). A blinded, independent adjudication committee reviewed all 6 patients with reported osteonecrosis and 4 of the 9 patients undergoing TJR. Adjudication outcomes were osteonecrosis (n=0), worsening osteoarthritis (n=5; 1 rapidly progressive), and another diagnosis or indeterminate (n=5). Tanezumab 10mg had better tolerability than tanezumab 20mg, and may represent an effective long-term treatment for chronic low back pain.

  1. Dipole versus distributed EEG source localization for single versus averaged spikes in focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Plummer, C; Wagner, M; Fuchs, M; Harvey, A S; Cook, M J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize and compare dipole and distributed EEG source localization (ESL) of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in focal epilepsy. Single and averaged scalp IEDs from eight patients-four with benign focal epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BFEC) and four with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE)-underwent independent component analysis (ICA) from IED onset to peak. The boundary element method forward model was applied to one of four inverse models: two dipolar-moving regularized, rotating nonregularized and two distributed-standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography with rotating cortical sources or with fixed extended sources. Solutions were studied at IED onset, midupswing, peak; ESL strength maxima; ESL residual deviation minima (best fit). From 11,040 ESL parameter points and 960 ESL maps, best-fit dipole and distributed solutions fell at the IED midupswing in BFEC and MTLE when the dominant ICA component typically peaked, localizing to the lower Rolandic sulcus in BFEC and to basolateral or anterior temporal cortex in MTLE. Single-to-averaged ESL variability was high in MTLE. Dipole and distributed ESL are complementary; best-fit solutions for both occupy the IED midupswing and not the IED peak. ICA, a "blind" statistical operation, aids clinical interpretation of ESL fit quality. Single-to-averaged IED localization discordance can be high, a problem warranting further scrutiny if ESL is to earn a place in routine epilepsy care.

  2. Work-Related Low Back Pain Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial from Tehran, Iran, Comparing Multidisciplinary Educational Program versus Physiotherapy Education

    PubMed Central

    Ghadyani, Leila; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Wagner, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Clinical trial. Purpose To compare the multidisciplinary educational program versus physiotherapy education among Iranian nurses. Overview of Literature Low back pain (LBP) can accompany significant occupational injuries in the nursing profession. There is no agreement on the most effective educational practice. Methods This study was conducted from August 17, 2014 to September 22, 2014 in Tehran, Iran. Eligible nurses with chronic mechanical LBP (n=136) were classified into an intervention group (n=66) or the control group (n=70). The intervention group received physiotherapy education for 120-minutes followed by a 120-minute health education session based on predictive constructs of social cognitive theory (SCT). The control group received the 120-minute physiotherapy education. Disability rate, pain severity and back pain prevention behavior were measured at initially and 3 months after intervention using visual analogue scale, Roland-Morris disability questionnaire and nursing low back pain preventive behaviors questionnaire. Results The two groups were the same in terms of all studied variables at the initiation of the study. At the 3-month follow up, predictive constructs of LBP preventive behaviors of participants in the intervention were improved (p<0.001). Significant decreases were evident at 3 months in pain severity (p=0.03) and disability (p=0.003). Conclusions The designed multidisciplinary educational intervention could decrease chronic mechanical LBP in nurses. PMID:27559449

  3. Validation of an Arabic version of the Oswestry index in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Algarni, A S; Ghorbel, S; Jones, J G; Guermazi, M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt and validate the Tunisian version of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) within a Saudi Arabian population. The translation of items 8 and 10 taken out of the Tunisian version was conducted according to Beaton's method. Adaptations were made after a pilot study on 100 patients. The validation study included 100 patients suffering from chronic low back pain aged 18 to 65 years old. Intra-observer reliability was assessed using the intra-class coefficient (ICC). Spearman rank correlation coefficient, the Kruskall-Wallis test and factor analysis were used to evaluate construct validity (convergent and divergent validity). Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. One hundred Saudi patients were included in the study. Intra-observer reliability was excellent (ICC: 0.99). The correlations of the index with the VAS pain scale (r=0.708), the Roland-Morris Low Back Pain Disability (r=0.656), and the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (r=0.792) suggest good construct validity. Factor analysis unveiled two main factors explaining a cumulative percentage variance of 63.5%. The first factor represents static activities and the second factor represents dynamic activities. The Arabic version of the ODI adapted to the Saudi population has high metrological qualities. Further studies assessing its responsiveness to change should be conducted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Relation of reward from food intake and anticipated food intake to obesity: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja; Bohon, Cara; Veldhuizen, Marga G; Small, Dana M

    2008-11-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that obese individuals experience greater reward from food consumption (consummatory food reward) and anticipated consumption (anticipatory food reward) than lean individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 33 adolescent girls (mean age = 15.7, SD = 0.9). Obese relative to lean adolescent girls showed greater activation bilaterally in the gustatory cortex (anterior and mid insula, frontal operculum) and in somatosensory regions (parietal operculum and Rolandic operculum) in response to anticipated intake of chocolate milkshake (vs. a tasteless solution) and to actual consumption of milkshake (vs. a tasteless solution); these brain regions encode the sensory and hedonic aspects of food. However, obese relative to lean adolescent girls also showed decreased activation in the caudate nucleus in response to consumption of milkshake versus a tasteless solution, potentially because they have reduced dopamine receptor availability. Results suggest that individuals who show greater activation in the gustatory cortex and somatosensory regions in response to anticipation and consumption of food, but who show weaker activation in the striatum during food intake, may be at risk for overeating and consequent weight gain.

  5. Relativistic Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.; Markovic, Dragoljub

    1997-06-01

    Preface; Prologue: Conference overview Bernard Carr; Part I. The Universe At Large and Very Large Redshifts: 2. The size and age of the Universe Gustav A. Tammann; 3. Active galaxies at large redshifts Malcolm S. Longair; 4. Observational cosmology with the cosmic microwave background George F. Smoot; 5. Future prospects in measuring the CMB power spectrum Philip M. Lubin; 6. Inflationary cosmology Michael S. Turner; 7. The signature of the Universe Bernard J. T. Jones; 8. Theory of large-scale structure Sergei F. Shandarin; 9. The origin of matter in the universe Lev A. Kofman; 10. New guises for cold-dark matter suspects Edward W. Kolb; Part II. Physics and Astrophysics Of Relativistic Compact Objects: 11. On the unification of gravitational and inertial forces Donald Lynden-Bell; 12. Internal structure of astrophysical black holes Werner Israel; 13. Black hole entropy: external facade and internal reality Valery Frolov; 14. Accretion disks around black holes Marek A. Abramowicz; 15. Black hole X-ray transients J. Craig Wheeler; 16. X-rays and gamma rays from active galactic nuclei Roland Svensson; 17. Gamma-ray bursts: a challenge to relativistic astrophysics Martin Rees; 18. Probing black holes and other exotic objects with gravitational waves Kip Thorne; Epilogue: the past and future of relativistic astrophysics Igor D. Novikov; I. D. Novikov's scientific papers and books.

  6. Prevalence and associations of neuropathic pain in a cohort of multi-ethnic Asian low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Kew, Yueting; Tan, Cheng-Yin; Ng, Chong-Jing; Thang, Sue-Sien; Tan, Leong-Hooi; Khoo, Yvonne Khaii; Lim, Jun-Ni; Ng, Jia-Hui; Chan, Chris Yin-Wei; Kwan, Mun-Keong; Goh, Khean-Jin

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of neuropathic low back pain differs in different ethnic populations. The aims of the study are to determine its frequency and associations in a multi-ethnic cohort of Asian low back pain patients. This was a cross-sectional study of low back patients seen at the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Neuropathic low back pain patients were identified using the painDETECT questionnaire and compared with non-neuropathic (unclear or nociceptive) low back pain patients, in terms of socio-demographic and clinical factors, pain severity (numerical pain rating scale, NPRS), disability (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, RMDQ), as well as anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS). Of 210 patients, 26 (12.4%) have neuropathic low back pain. Neuropathic pain is associated with non-Chinese ethnicity, higher body mass index and pain radiation below the knee. Patients with neuropathic pain have significantly higher NPRS and RMDQ scores, and there are more subjects with anxiety on HADS. However, there are no differences between the groups in age, gender, pain duration or underlying diagnosis of low back pain. The prevalence of neuropathic low back pain in a multi-ethnic Malaysian cohort is lower than previously reported in other populations with possible differences between ethnic groups. It is associated with greater pain severity, disability and anxiety.

  7. The study of the variability of anticipatory postural adjustments in patients with recurrent non-specific low back pain.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Rozita; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Parnianpour, Mohammad; Bahrami, Fariba; Kazemnejad, Anushiravan; Mobini, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsic variability is present in all actions, including repetitive tasks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) of trunk muscles in participants with low back pain (LBP). The study included 21 participants with recurrent non-specific LBP (15 men, 6 women) and 21 healthy volunteers. Standard deviation of electromyographic activity of the external oblique (EO), transverse abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles onset relative to deltoid muscle onset was recorded in 75 rapid arm flexions, and the correlation with the participants' avoidance belief (the FABQ score) and disability (the Roland-Morris Questionnaire score) was statistically analyzed. participants with LBP exhibited less variability in timing of APAs of the TrA/IO muscle compared with the control group (P=0.047). The timing of APAs of the TrA/IO muscle was significantly correlated with the FABQ score (P=0.006). There was no significant correlation between this variable and disability (P=0.09). Decrease in variability of the timing of APA of the EO (P=0.45) and ES (P=0.6) muscles was not significant. The variability of the postural responses of participants with LBP decreased. Restoring variability in postural control responses might be a goal in rehabilitating these patients.

  8. The effect of a multimodal group programme in hospital workers with persistent low back pain: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Pillastrini, P; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Banchelli, F; Capra, F; Resende, Fernanda de Lima e Sa'; Villafane, J H; Vanti, Carla; Violante, F S

    2013-01-01

    Low Back Pain (LBP) is a very common disorder in hospital workers. Several studies examined the efficacy of multimodal interventions for health care providers suffering from LBP; nevertheless their results did not appear to be consistent. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a multimodal group programme (MGP) on pain and disability in a sample of hospital workers with persistent LBP. A prospective cohort study was conducted to compare baseline measurements with changes over an eight-month period. The study focused on 109 workers suffering from persistent LBP with or without radiating pain. 62 nurses and 47 blue collars not involved in health care. The MGP consisted of six group sessions including supervised exercises, an at-home programme and ergonomic advice. The primary outcome measurement was the level of disability recorded with the Roland & Morris Disability Questionnaire, while the secondary outcome measurement was the evaluation of lumbar physical discomfort with the Visual Analogue Scale. Data were analyzed using the Multiple Imputation method for dropouts. At the short-term follow-up participants showed a statistically significant reduction (from baseline) of all outcome measurements, particularly for the nurses group. Moreover, about a third of the subjects showed clinically significant improvement. No significant reduction in pain and disability (from baseline) was observed at the mid-term follow-up in either group. An MGP dedicated to hospital workers seems to be partially useful only for short-term follow-up, particularly for health care providers.

  9. Evaluation of metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Turan, Yasemin; Gürgan, Alev; Deveci, Hülya

    2012-03-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome in chronic low back pain and evaluate the differences in clinical and functional parameters in chronic low back pain patients with and without metabolic syndrome. Patients complaining of low back pain complaint lasting for at least 2 months were included in the study. In order to establish functional deficiency, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Istanbul Low Back Pain Disability Index and Oswestry Disability Index were used. To evaluate depression, Beck's depression scale was used. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to the criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) defined in 2001. For this; lumbar circumference around anterior iliac spine, arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, plasma triglyceride levels and HDL cholesterol levels were noted down. Sixty patients (51 women) were included in the study. There was significant difference in terms of BMI (P = 0.034), age (P = 0.001), waist circumference (P = 0.048) and disease duration (P = 0.005) between chronic low back pain patients with and without metabolic syndrome. There was no significant difference in other parameters. Low back pain is a frequent complaint amongst people with obesity in the abdominal area. According to our results, elderly people, people with chronic low back pain and patients with high BMI are under risk for metabolic syndrome. For this reason this group of patients can be screened for metabolic syndrome and preventive measures can be taken.

  10. The phonological short-term store-rehearsal system: patterns of impairment and neural correlates.

    PubMed

    Vallar, G; Di Betta, A M; Silveri, M C

    1997-06-01

    Two left brain-damaged patients (L.A. and T.O.) with a selective impairment of auditory-verbal span are reported. Patient L.A. was unable to hold auditory-verbal material in the phonological store component of short-term memory. His performance was however normal on tasks requiring phonological judgements, which specifically involve the phonological output buffer component of the rehearsal process. He also showed some evidence that rehearsal contributed to the immediate retention of auditory-verbal material. Patient T.O. never made use of the rehearsal process in tasks assessing both immediate retention and the ability to make phonological judgements, but the memory capacity of the phonological short-term store was comparatively preserved. These contrasting patterns of impairment suggest that the phonological store component of verbal short-term memory was severely impaired in patient L.A., and spared, at least in part, in patient T.O. The rehearsal process was preserved in L.A., and primarily defective in T.O. The localisation of the lesions in the left hemisphere (L.A.: inferior parietal lobule, superior and middle temporal gyri; T.O.: sub-cortical premotor and rolandic regions, anterior insula) suggests that these two sub-components of phonological short-term memory have discrete anatomical correlates.

  11. Pain intensity, disability and depression in individuals with chronic back pain1

    PubMed Central

    Garbi, Márcia de Oliveira Sakamoto Silva; Hortense, Priscilla; Gomez, Rodrigo Ramon Falconi; da Silva, Talita de Cássia Raminelli; Castanho, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Sousa, Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to measure the pain intensity, identify the disability and depression levels in people with chronic back pain and to correlate these variables. A cross-sectional, descriptive and exploratory study was undertaken at the Pain Treatment Clinic of the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto Hospital das Clínicas, between February and June 2012, after receiving approval from the Ethics Committee at the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing. METHOD: sixty subjects with chronic back pain participated. The instruments used were: the 11-point Numerical Category Scale, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. To analyze the data, the arithmetic means, standard deviations and Spearman's correlation coefficient were calculated. RESULTS: the findings show that the participants presented high pain, disability and depression levels. The correlation between pain intensity and disability and between pain intensity and depression was positive and weak and, between disability and depression, positive and moderate. CONCLUSION: the study variables showed moderate and weak indices and the mutual correlations were positive. PMID:25296139

  12. Atlas of Great Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyan, Ronald; Dunlop, Storm

    2015-01-01

    Foreword; Using this book; Part I. Introduction: Cometary beliefs and fears; Comets in art; Comets in literature and poetry; Comets in science; Cometary science today; Great comets in antiquity; Great comets of the Middle Ages; Part II. The 30 Greatest Comets of Modern Times: The Great Comet of 1471; Comet Halley 1531; The Great Comet of 1556; The Great Comet of 1577; Comet Halley, 1607; The Great Comet of 1618; The Great Comet of 1664; Comet Kirch, 1680; Comet Halley, 1682; The Great Comet of 1744; Comet Halley, 1759; Comet Messier, 1769; Comet Flaugergues, 1811; Comet Halley, 1835; The Great March Comet of 1843; Comet Donati, 1858; Comet Tebbutt, 1861; The Great September Comet of 1882; The Great January Comet of 1910; Comet Halley, 1910; Comet Arend-Roland, 1956; Comet Ikeya-Seki, 1965; Comet Bennett, 1970; Comet Kohoutek, 1973-4; Comet West, 1976; Comet Halley, 1986; Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, 1994; Comet Hyakutake, 1996; Comet Hale-Bopp, 1997; Comet McNaught, 2007; Part III. Appendices; Table of comet data; Glossary; References; Photo credits; Index.

  13. The Effects of VR-based Wii Fit Yoga on Physical Function in Middle-aged Female LBP Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Sik; Min, Won-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a virtual reality-based yoga program on middle-aged female low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty middle-aged female patients who suffered from low back pain were assigned to either a physical therapy program or a virtual reality-based yoga program for a period of four weeks. Participants could check their posture and weight bearing on a monitor as they shifted their weight or changed their postures on a Wii balance board. There were a total of seven exercise programs. A 30-minute, three times per week, virtual reality-based Wii Fit yoga program or trunk stabilizing exercise was performed, respectively. [Results] Repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed significant differences in between pre- and post-training VAS, algometer, Oswestry low-back pain disability index (ODI), Roland Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), and fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FBQ) scores. The VAS, algometer, ODI, RMDQ, and FBQ scores showed significant differences in groups. Regarding the effect of time-by-group interaction, there were significant differences in VAS, ODI, ODI, and FBQ scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, for middle-aged female patients who have low back pain, a virtual reality-based yoga program was shown to have positive effects on physical improvements, and this program can be employed as a therapeutic medium for prevention and cure of low back pain. PMID:24764631

  14. General Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfle, Gerhard

    Epothilone is a microbial product, and thus its history may be traced back to the discovery of the respective microbe, Sorangium cellulosum, a bacterium belonging to the taxonomic group of myxobacteria, which originally has been described by Roland Thaxter in 1892 (1). Today this group of organisms comprises around 40 species, one of which is Sorangium cellulosum. For a long time, myxobacteria were only known for their gliding motility and sophisticated life cycle, although it had been occasionally speculated that they might produce secondary metabolites like actinomycetes or bacilli (2). In 1975 Hans Reichenbach and his group at the German Centre for Biotechnology (GBF; now called the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research) set out to isolate strains of myxobacteria from soil samples collected all over the world, and to examine their secondary metabolism. In 1978, while work was already ongoing, I joined them and took over the chemistry part. In the same year the first structure of a myxobacterial metabolite, ambruticin, was published by a group from Warner-Lambert (3) making us very confident of being on the right track. Ambruticin had been isolated from a Sorangium cellulosum strain, and was identified as a unique cyclopropane polyketide structure exhibiting potentially useful antifungal properties. Ambruticin and its derivatives had been developed for medical application for some time, and recently gained new interest (4).

  15. Fullerenes produced by harnessing sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Two independent groups of researchers have demonstrated that fullerenes can be produced by harnessing focused sunlight to vaporize carbon. Adapted to a large scale, generation of the carbon-cage molecules in solar furnaces might overcome yield-limiting problems associated with other fullerene production techniques, the researchers suggest. At Rice University, Houston, chemistry professor Richard E. Smalley and graduate students L.P. Felipe Chibante, Andreas Thess, J. Michael Alford, and Michael D. Diener used a parabolic mirror to focus sunlight on a graphite target to produce what appears to be a high yield of fullerenes. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, Colo., Roland R. Pitts, Mary Jane Hale, Carl Bingham, Allan Lewandowski, and David E.King, working in collaboration with Clark L. Fields, a chemistry professor at the University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, used NREL's high-flux solar furnace to produce soot that contains C[sub 60] and C[sub 70]. Papers describing the Rice and NREL results appeared together in last week's Journal of Physical Chemistry (97, 8696 and 8701 (1993)).

  16. The Many Faces of Elongator in Neurodevelopment and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kojic, Marija; Wainwright, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Development of the nervous system requires a variety of cellular activities, such as proliferation, migration, axonal outgrowth and guidance and synapse formation during the differentiation of neural precursors into mature neurons. Malfunction of these highly regulated and coordinated events results in various neurological diseases. The Elongator complex is a multi-subunit complex highly conserved in eukaryotes whose function has been implicated in the majority of cellular activities underlying neurodevelopment. These activities include cell motility, actin cytoskeleton organization, exocytosis, polarized secretion, intracellular trafficking and the maintenance of neural function. Several studies have associated mutations in Elongator subunits with the neurological disorders familial dysautonomia (FD), intellectual disability (ID), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and rolandic epilepsy (RE). Here, we review the various cellular activities assigned to this complex and discuss the implications for neural development and disease. Further research in this area has the potential to generate new diagnostic tools, better prevention strategies and more effective treatment options for a wide variety of neurological disorders. PMID:27847465

  17. Human annoyance and reactions to hotel room specific noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everhard, Ian L.

    2004-05-01

    A new formula is presented where multiple annoyance sources and transmission loss values of any partition are combined to produce a new single number rating of annoyance. The explanation of the formula is based on theoretical psychoacoustics and survey testing used to create variables used to weight the results. An imaginary hotel room is processed through the new formula and is rated based on theoretical survey results that would be taken by guests of the hotel. The new single number rating compares the multiple sources of annoyance to a single imaginary unbiased source where absolute level is the only factor in stimulating a linear rise in annoyance [Fidell et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66, 1427 (1979); D. M. Jones and D. E. Broadbent, ``Human performance and noise,'' in Handbook of Noise Control, 3rd ed., edited by C. M. Harris (ASA, New York, 1998), Chap. 24; J. P. Conroy and J. S. Roland, ``STC Field Testing and Results,'' in Sound and Vibration Magazine, Acoustical Publications, pp. 10-15 (July 2003)].

  18. Charge and energy transfer in a bithiophene perylenediimide based donor-acceptor-donor system for use in organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Jan; Dreuw, Andreas; Burghardt, Irene

    2013-07-28

    The elementary charge and excitation energy transfer steps in a novel symmetric donor-acceptor-donor triad first described in Roland et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 273, consisting of a central perylenediimide moiety as a potential electron acceptor and two identical electron rich bithiophene compounds, have been investigated using quantum chemical methodology. These elementary processes determine the applicability of such systems in photovoltaic devices. The molecular structure, excited states and the photo-physical properties are investigated using smaller model systems and including solvation effects. The donor and acceptor π-systems are separated by an ethyl bridge such that the molecular orbitals are either located on the donor or acceptor moiety making the identification of locally excited versus charge transfer states straightforward. Using excited state geometry optimizations, the mechanism of photo-initiated charge separation could be identified. Geometry relaxation in the excited donor state leads to a near-degeneracy with the locally excited acceptor state, entailing strong excitonic coupling and resonance energy transfer. This energy transfer process is driven by planarization and bond length alternation of the donor molecule. Geometry relaxation of the locally excited acceptor state in turn reveals a crossing with the energetically lowest charge transfer excited state. The energetic position of the latter depends in a sensitive fashion on the solvent. This provides an explanation of the sequential process observed in the experiment, favoring ultrafast (∼130 fs) formation of the excited acceptor state followed by slower (∼3 ps scale) formation of the charge separated state.

  19. Abnormal cortical sensorimotor activity during “Target” sound detection in subjects with acute acoustic trauma sequelae: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Job, Agnès; Pons, Yoann; Lamalle, Laurent; Jaillard, Assia; Buck, Karl; Segebarth, Christoph; Delon-Martin, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    The most common consequences of acute acoustic trauma (AAT) are hearing loss at frequencies above 3 kHz and tinnitus. In this study, we have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to visualize neuronal activation patterns in military adults with AAT and various tinnitus sequelae during an auditory “oddball” attention task. AAT subjects displayed overactivities principally during reflex of target sound detection, in sensorimotor areas and in emotion-related areas such as the insula, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex, in premotor area, in cross-modal sensory associative areas, and, interestingly, in a region of the Rolandic operculum that has recently been shown to be involved in tympanic movements due to air pressure. We propose further investigations of this brain area and fine middle ear investigations, because our results might suggest a model in which AAT tinnitus may arise as a proprioceptive illusion caused by abnormal excitability of middle-ear muscle spindles possibly link with the acoustic reflex and associated with emotional and sensorimotor disturbances. PMID:22574285

  20. A systematic overview of Descolea (Agaricales) in the Nothofagaceae forests of Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Francisco; Smith, Matthew E; Mujic, Alija; Truong, Camille; Nouhra, Eduardo

    2017-10-01

    The descolea clade includes species of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes in the genera Descolea, Setchelliogaster, Descomyces, and Timgrovea that are known primarily from the Southern Hemisphere. Taxa in this group produce basidiomes that range in morphology from typical epigeous mushrooms (Descolea) and secotioid taxa (Setchelliogaster) to fully gasteroid species (Descomyces and Timgrovea). High intraspecific morphological variation has been reported in several species within this clade, suggesting that careful morphological and molecular studies are needed to refine species concepts. Molecular analyses of fresh Patagonian collections in conjunction with taxonomic studies have confirmed high variability in key morphological features, including overall sporocarp form, spore shape and dimensions, universal veil remnants, and cuticle configuration. Based on our synthesis, we emend the genus Descolea to include sequestrate species. We describe the new sequestrate taxon Descolea inferna sp. nov. from Nothofagaceae forests in Patagonia and we propose Cortinarius squamatus as a synonym of our new combination Descolea brunnea. We also formalize the identity of Descolea pallida as a synonym of Descolea antarctica and provide new specimens of Cortinarius archeuretus, a species that has not been encountered since the original discovery during the expeditions of Roland Thaxter in 1905-1906. Here we re-describe and transfer this species to Descolea as D. archeureta. We also discuss diagnostic features that can be used to delimitate the four known South American taxa in the descolea clade. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Elcatonin in combination with risedronate is more effective than risedronate alone for relieving back pain in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Takakuwa, Masayuki; Iwamoto, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Intramuscularly administered elcatonin (ECT) reduces pain via the central nervous system. A prospective study was performed to determine whether ECT has a beneficial effect on back pain and function in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis during bisphosphonate therapy. Sixty-one postmenopausal osteoporotic women with back pain (mean age: 73.7 years, range: 54-96 years) were divided into two groups: the control group (n=30) and the ECT (intramuscular, 20 units a week) group (n=31). All patients received treatment with risedronate (17.5 mg weekly). The duration of the study was 8 weeks. Urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX), visual analogue scale (VAS) for back pain at rest and movement, and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) score for function were assessed. Urinary NTX levels, VAS at rest and movement, and RDQ score markedly decreased during 8 weeks of treatment in both ECT and control groups. A significant reduction in VAS at movement, but not in VAS at rest and RDQ score, was noted in the ECT group than in the control group. This effect was observed from 2 weeks after the start of therapy. These results suggested that ECT in combination with risedronate was more effective than risedronate alone for reducing back pain in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

  2. The role of clinical specialist physiotherapists in the management of low back pain in a spinal triage clinic.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S; Blake, C; Power, C K; Fullen, B M

    2013-12-01

    Traditional care pathways for patients with low back pain (LBP) where general practitioners (GPs) refer to consultant specialists can lead to excessive waiting times for patients and questionable use of health care resources. The evaluation of more cost effective pathways is a priority. The study aims to determine if clinical specialist physiotherapists can allocate patients into the three distinct diagnostic triage categories in line with international guidelines. A secondary aim is to examine the utility of baseline domains to inform clinical decision making. A review of LBP patients (n = 1,532) consecutively referred between 2008 and 2010 to a physiotherapy led spinal triage clinic was undertaken. Baseline demographics, pain severity (Visual Analogue Scale), disability (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire), distress (Distress and Risk Assessment Method), mobility and function were assessed. Relationships between these factors were analysed. Eighty-five percent of the population were deemed suitable for conservative management and were referred for either group exercise intervention (n = 1,125, 73 %) or individual treatment (n = 178, 12 %), in line with clinical guidelines. Fourteen percent were discharged and only 1 % required a specialist opinion. Patients allocated to the three management streams could be clearly discriminated by baseline measures of pain, distress, disability and function (p < 0.01). Clinical Specialist physiotherapists are effective in assessing and selecting appropriate care pathways for LBP patients in line with international LBP clinical guidelines. The utility of the physical and psychological measures to differentiate between groups of varying clinical severity has important implications for treatment selection and management.

  3. Dynamic heterogeneity above and below the mode-coupling temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flenner, Elijah; Szamel, Grzegorz

    2012-02-01

    We study the temperature dependence of the spatial extend of the dynamic heterogeneity in a soft sphere system near the so-called mode-coupling temperature Tc. We utilize a recently introduced procedureootnotetextE. Flenner and G. Szamel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 217801 (2010) to calculate the ensemble independent dynamic susceptibility χ4(τα) and the dynamic correlation length ξ(τα) at the alpha relaxation time τα. Above Tc, we find that χ4(τα) ˜ξ(τα)^3 and ξ(τα) ˜(τα), which is the same behavior found in a binary hard-sphere system. We track these relationships below Tc to examine the recently reported non-monotonic temperature dependence of dynamic correlations found in the same systemootnotetextW. Kob, S. Roland-Vargas and L. Berthier, Nat. Phys. DOI:10.1038/NPHYS2133. Finally, we examine the relationship between dynamic susceptibilities that can be determined from experiments and the dynamic correlation length ξ(τα).

  4. Efficacy of acupuncture for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: protocol for a randomised sham acupuncture-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zongshi; Ding, Yulong; Wu, Jiani; Zhou, Jing; Yang, Likun; Liu, Xiaoxu; Liu, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) is a major public health problem and the primary reason why older adults seek lumbar spine surgery. Acupuncture may be effective for DLSS, but the evidence supporting this possibility is still limited. Methods and analysis A total of 80 participants with DLSS will be randomly allocated to either an acupuncture group or a sham acupuncture (SA) group at a ratio of 1:1. 24 treatments will be provided over 8 weeks. The primary outcome is the score change of the Modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) responses from baseline to week 8. The secondary outcomes include the assessment of lower back pain and leg pain using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the change in the number of steps per month, and the assessment of the specific quality of life using the Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire (SSSQ). We will follow-up with the participants until week 32. All of the participants who received allocation will be included in the statistical analysis. Ethics/dissemination This protocol has been approved by the Research Ethical Committee of Guang'anmen Hospital (Permission number: 2015EC114) and Fengtai Hospital of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine (Permission number: 16KE0409). The full data set will be made available when this trial is completed and published. Applications for the release of data should be made to ZL (principal investigator). Trial registration number NCT02644746. PMID:27852717

  5. The clinical and biomechanical effects of fascial-muscular lengthening therapy on tight hip flexor patients with and without low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Avrahami, Daniel; Potvin, Jim R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many patients have tight hip flexors with or without low back pain. Manual fascial-muscular lengthening therapy (FMLT) is one commonly used treatment for this population. Objective: Investigate the clinical and biomechanical effects of manual FMLT on tight hip flexor patients with and without low back pain. Methods: A nonrandomized trial, before-and-after experiment with multiple baselines conducted on two different patient populations: 1) Mechanical low back pain patients with tight hip flexors (n = 10) and 2) Asymptomatic group with tight hip flexors (n = 8). Four treatments of manual FMLT were performed on the hip flexor of the two groups of patients over a two-week period. Primary outcome measures over the two-week period were 1) Maximum voluntary trunk flexor and extensor moments, 2) Disability (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire) and pain (10-cm Visual Analogue Scale), 3) Passive hip extension mobility. Results: Primary outcome analysis involved within-groups comparisons. Maximum voluntary trunk extension demonstrated increases for the low back pain patients. The low back pain patients demonstrated a small, but significant, reduction in disability and pain. Both groups demonstrated an increase in passive hip extension measurements. Conclusion: This preliminary study demonstrated interesting results from manual FMLT on two tight hip flexor patient populations with and without low back pain. However, there were several significant limitations from this study, which restrict the ability to generalize the results. PMID:25550670

  6. Retrospective on 30 years of nonimaging optics development for solar energy at the University of Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Gallagher, Joseph J.

    2016-09-01

    As the field of nonimaging optics has developed over the last 50 years, among its many applications, the best known and recognized is probably in solar energy. In particular, the approach provides the formalism that allows the design of devices that approach the maximum physically attainable geometric concentration for a given set of optical tolerances. This means that it has the potential to revolutionize the design of solar concentrators. Much of the experimental development and early testing of these concepts was carried out at the University of Chicago by Roland Winston and his colleagues and students. In this presentation, some of many embodiments and variations of the basic Compound Parabolic Concentrator that were developed and tested over a thirty-year period at Chicago are reviewed. Practical and economic aspects of concentrator design for both thermal and photovoltaic applications are discussed. Examples covering the whole range of concentrator applications from simple low-concentration non-tracking designs to ultrahigh-concentration multistage configurations are covered.

  7. Insulin sensitivity and brain reward activation in overweight Hispanic girls: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Tanja C.; Tsao, Sinchai; Page, Kathleen A.; Hu, Houchun; Hasson, Rebecca E.; Goran, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance is a link between obesity and the associated disease risk. In addition to its role as an energy regulatory signal to the hypothalamus, insulin also modulates food reward. Objective To examine the relationship of insulin sensitivity (SI) and fasting insulin with cerebral activation in response to food and non-food cues in children. Methods Twelve overweight Hispanic girls (age: 8–11) participated in two study visits, a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and a functional neuroimaging (fMRI) session (GE HDxt 3.0Tesla)) with visual stimulation tasks. Blocks of images (high calorie (HC), low calorie (LC) and non-food (NF)) were presented in randomized order. Results Comparing HC with NF, SI was inversely associated with activation in the anterior cingulate (r2 = 0.65; p < 0.05), the insula (r2 = 0.69; p < 0.05), the orbitofrontal cortex (r2 = 0.74; p < 0.05), and the frontal and rolandic operculum (r2 = 0.76; p < 0.001). Associations remained significant after adjustment for BMI. Association of fasting insulin and cerebral activation dissapeared after adjustment for waist circumference. Conclusion In addition to weight loss insulin sensitivity may pose an important target to regulate neural responses to food cues in the prevention of excessive weight gain. PMID:24357646

  8. The narrative structure of psychiatric reports.

    PubMed

    Verde, Alfredo; Angelini, Francesca; Boverini, Silvia; Majorana, Margherita

    2006-01-01

    The present contribution illustrates the findings of a research about the narrative structure of psychiatric expertise. We have analysed a sample of nine expertises, using the methodology proposed by Roland Barthes in his book S/Z, in which he applies it to Honoré de Balzac's "Sarrasine". Barthes suggests that every narrative is characterized by the presence of five codes (hermeneutical, proairetic, semantic, symbolic and referential): we have searched for them in the expertises, but we have also observed the presence of many lapsus calami. As for our results, we have interpreted the massive presence of symbolic code in an expertise as a proof of the elaboration of the horror elicited by crime in the expert's narrative and, on the other side, the presence of referential code as the proof of the incapacity to treat such feeling and the necessity to defend himself from it. In this vision, lapsuses arise when the expert is astonished by the horror of the crime, and does not succeed in elaborating it either by using symbolic code or through his cultural resources (referential code). Finally, some reflections are made upon the difficulty for the voice of the defendant to be heard in the texts written about him.

  9. The Effect of Harmonic Technique vs End Range Loading Exercises on Pain and Disability in Patients With Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Amir Massoud; Saadati, Heidar; Sheikhhoseini, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of end range loading (ERL) vs harmonic technique (HT) on patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). Method Fourteen volunteer patients with LBP were randomly assigned to 2 groups based on a blocked randomization method with 7 patients in the HT group and 7 patients in the ERL group. The patients received 10 sessions of treatment for 5 sessions per week. Pain intensity and disability score were recorded using the numeric pain scale and Roland-Morris Disability questionnaire (RMQ), respectively, before and after the treatment period. Results Although pain intensity (P = .02) and the RMQ score (P = .03) decreased in the HT technique group, no statistically significant change was found in the ERL group for the RMQ score (P > .05). The effect size for HT was .6 and .3 for numeric pain scale and RMQ, respectively. Conclusion This preliminary study showed that pain intensity and disability improved in subjects with chronic LBP in the HT group. More investigations with larger sample size are needed to clarify these findings. PMID:27069426

  10. STS-93 crew members look at top of external tank in VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the Vehicle Assembly Building, two STS-93 crew members, (center) Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France and Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, get a close look at something seldom seen, the tip of an external tank. With them are Roland Nedelkovich (far left), with the Vertical Integration Test Team, and John Hlavacka (far right). STS-93 is scheduled to launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia and has the primary mission of the deployment of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Other STS-93 crew members are Commander Eileen M. Collins and Mission Specialists Catherine G. Coleman and Steven A. Hawley.

  11. Pain biology education and exercise classes compared to pain biology education alone for individuals with chronic low back pain: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Cormac G; Gray, Heather G; Newton, Mary; Granat, Malcolm H

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this single-blind pilot RCT was to investigate the effect of pain biology education and group exercise classes compared to pain biology education alone for individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Participants with CLBP were randomised to a pain biology education and group exercise classes group (EDEX) [n = 20] or a pain biology education only group (ED) [n = 18]. The primary outcome was pain (0-100 numerical rating scale), and self-reported function assessed using the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, measured at pre-intervention, post-intervention and three month follow up. Secondary outcome measures were pain self-efficacy, pain related fear, physical performance testing and free-living activity monitoring. Using a linear mixed model analysis, there was a statistically significant interaction effect between time and intervention for both pain (F[2,49] = 3.975, p < 0.05) and pain self-efficacy (F[2,51] = 4.011, p < 0.05) with more favourable results for the ED group. The effects levelled off at the three month follow up point. In the short term, pain biology education alone was more effective for pain and pain self-efficacy than a combination of pain biology education and group exercise classes. This pilot study highlights the need to investigate the combined effects of different interventions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Anabolic therapy of induced osteoporosis in beta-thalassaemia major: case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Trotta, A; Corrado, A; Cantatore, F P

    2010-01-01

    Transfusion program and chelating therapy treatment has extended the life expectancy of thalassaemic patient; osteoporosis is considered an important cause of morbidity in adult patients who display increased fracture risk. This is a case report is about a thalassaemic young female with multiple spine fractures (D11, D12 e L2) and lumbar spine DEXA - T score = -3,1 and femoral = -3,4. This was in spite of therapy with alendronate 70 mg/week from January 2006 to September 2007. The patient was subsequentently treated for 18 months with 1-34 recombinant human parathyroid hormone and colecalciferol (100.000 U/monthly). After 4 months of therapy, the patient showed a decrease in spinal pain (Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire) and an improvement of quality of life (Qualeffo) with normalization of osteocalcin and 25-OHcolecalciferol haematic levels after 6 months. Lumbar spine and femoral DEXA - Tscore, at 18 months, rose respectively to -2,5 and -2,4. Thalassaemia-induced osteoporosis is multifactorial and its management is very difficult. Bone marrow expansion, endocrine dysfunction, iron overload and genetic factors all seem to play important roles in the development of low bone mass in these patients. Bisphosfonates have been used in the management of thalassemia induced osteoporosis but there is no data about fracture risk. Anabolic therapy for thalassemic patients requests additional study on a large scale.

  13. Effect of an exercise programme for the prevention of back and neck pain in poultry slaughterhouse workers.

    PubMed

    Bertozzi, Lucia; Villafañe, Jorge H; Capra, Francesco; Reci, Marsida; Pillastrini, Paolo

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of a programme of prevention exercises conducted in a corporate environment in poultry industry slaughterers suffering from musculoskeletal disorders. Forty workers, 70% female (mean ± SD age: 44.4 ± 8.4 years) were consecutively, in an alternative way, assigned to one of two groups receiving either set of 10 sessions (experimental or control group). The experimental group followed an exercise programme for a period of five weeks and a protocol of home exercises. The control group performed the exercise protocol only at home. The Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) to measure disability, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and the Pain Drawing to measure pain were used as outcome evaluations. A significant effect of time interaction (all P <0.001 and; F = 40.673; F = 33.907 and F = 25.447) existed for lumbar VAS, RMDQ and ODI immediately after the intervention (all P < 0.006). No significant group effect or group-by-time interaction was detected for any of them, which suggests that both groups improved in the same way. This study shows that a programme of prevention exercises may have a positive effect in improving musculoskeletal disorders of slaughterhouse workers. Pain decreased in the lumbar region, and there was an almost significant reduction in disability.

  14. Can a self-administered questionnaire identify workers with chronic or recurring low back pain?

    PubMed

    Takekawa, Karina Satiko; Gonçalves, Josiane Sotrate; Moriguchi, Cristiane Shinohara; Coury, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; Sato, Tatiana de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    To verify if the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) and physical examination of the lumbar spine can identify workers with chronic or recurring low back pain, using health history for reference. Fifty office workers of both sexes, aged between 19 and 55 yr, were evaluated using a standardized physical examination and the NMQ, VAS and RDQ. Discriminant analysis was performed to determine the discriminant properties of these instruments. A higher success rate (94%) was observed in the model including only the NMQ and in the model including the NMQ and the physical examination. The lowest success rate (82%) was observed in the model including the NMQ, RDQ and VAS. The NMQ was able to detect subjects with chronic or recurring low back pain with 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The NMQ appears to be the best instrument for identifying subjects with chronic or recurring low back pain. Thus, this self-reported questionnaire is suitable for screening workers for chronic or recurring low back pain in occupational settings.

  15. Early individualised manipulative rehabilitation following lumbar open laser microdiscectomy improves early post-operative functional disability: A randomized, controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byungho J; Ahn, Junghoon; Cho, Heecheol; Kim, Dongyun; Kim, Taeyeong; Yoon, Bumchul

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar open laser microdiscectomy has been shown to be an effective intervention and safe approach for lumbar disc prolapse. However early post-operative physical disability affecting daily activities have been sporadically reported. To evaluate the feasibility of using early individualised manipulative rehabilitation to improve early post-operative functional disability following lumbar discectomy. Randomised controlled pilot trial. Setting at a major metropolitan spine surgery hospital. Twenty-one patients aged 25-69 years who underwent lumbar microdiscectomy were randomised to either the manipulative rehabilitation treatment group or the active control group. Rehabilitation was initiated 2-3 weeks after surgery, twice a week for 4 weeks. Each session was for 30 minutes. Primary outcomes were the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire and the visual analogue pain scale. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Early post-operative physical disability was improved with a 55% reduction by early individualised manipulative rehabilitation, compared to that of control care with a 5% increase. Early post-operative residual leg pain decreased with rehabilitation (55%) and control care (9%). This pilot study supports the feasibility of a future definitive randomised control trial and indicates this type of rehabilitation may be an important option for post-operative management after spinal surgery.

  16. Temperament and Character Profile in Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Yalbuzdag, Seniz Akcay; Erol, Asiye Mukaddes; Sengul, Ilker; Celik, Canan; Solum, Sezin; Adilay, Huseyin Utku; Gungor, Buket

    2016-01-01

    Some psychometric properties may predict the development of failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). The aim of this study was to determine the pain, disability, and depression severity in patients diagnosed with FBSS, and to determine the temperament and character subgroups in comparison with control group. Thirty-eight patients diagnosed with FBSS, and 35 patients with favourable outcome after lumbar spinal surgery were included to the study. Pain intensity, disability, depression scores, temperament and character profile were determined by the visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris Disability Index, Beck Depression Inventory, and Temperament and Character Inventory. Pain intensity, disability, and depression scores were higher in the FBSS group (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between temperament and character subgroups between study groups except one of the temperament subgroup, reward dependence (p=0.05). There was a negative correlation between self-directedness and leg pain severity in the FBSS group (p=0.01, r=-0.400). No significant differences were found between the FBSS and control groups with respect to temperament and character profile but FBSS was the cause of severe pain, disability, and higher depression scores. This group of patients must therefore be evaluated psychiatrically and should also be subjected to a clinical examination, and they should be managed using a multidisciplinary approach.

  17. Motor features in posterior cortical atrophy and their imaging correlates☆

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Natalie S.; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Lehmann, Manja; Keihaninejad, Shiva; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Leung, Kelvin K.; Fox, Nick C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2014-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by impaired higher visual processing skills; however, motor features more commonly associated with corticobasal syndrome may also occur. We investigated the frequency and clinical characteristics of motor features in 44 PCA patients and, with 30 controls, conducted voxel-based morphometry, cortical thickness, and subcortical volumetric analyses of their magnetic resonance imaging. Prominent limb rigidity was used to define a PCA-motor subgroup. A total of 30% (13) had PCA-motor; all demonstrating asymmetrical left upper limb rigidity. Limb apraxia was more frequent and asymmetrical in PCA-motor, as was myoclonus. Tremor and alien limb phenomena only occurred in this subgroup. The subgroups did not differ in neuropsychological test performance or apolipoprotein E4 allele frequency. Greater asymmetry of atrophy occurred in PCA-motor, particularly involving right frontoparietal and peri-rolandic cortices, putamen, and thalamus. The 9 patients (including 4 PCA-motor) with pathology or cerebrospinal fluid all showed evidence of Alzheimer's disease. Our data suggest that PCA patients with motor features have greater atrophy of contralateral sensorimotor areas but are still likely to have underlying Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25086839

  18. On the nature of the anti-tail of Comet Kohoutek /1973f/. II - Comparison of the working model with ground-based photographic observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.; Miller, F. D.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of photographic observations made at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, the radial and transverse brightness profiles and time variations in the surface brightness of the anti-tail of Comet Kohoutek were examined. In the process of photometric reduction one-dimensional radial tracings passing through the comet's nucleus and covering the entire anti-tail were used in the place of the standard two-dimensional scans. Each radial scan was defined by the position angle, and 'noise' variations were interpolated from the known field brightness outside the anti-tail. An analysis of the results provides quantitative support for a previously proposed model (Sekanina, 1974) suggesting that the dust particles in the anti-tail suffered a significant loss in radius due to evaporation near the perihelion passage. Preliminary calculations indicate that only particles initially larger than 100-150 micrometers in diameter survived. The emission rate of dust may be comparable to those derived for Comets Arend-Roland (1957 III) and Bennett (1970 II).

  19. Mediators of Yoga and Stretching for Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Karen J.; Wellman, Robert D.; Cook, Andrea J.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Ceballos, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. In a trial comparing yoga to intensive stretching and self-care, we explored whether physical (hours of back exercise/week), cognitive (fear avoidance, body awareness, and self-efficacy), affective (psychological distress, perceived stress, positive states of mind, and sleep), and physiological factors (cortisol, DHEA) mediated the effects of yoga or stretching on back-related dysfunction (Roland-Morris Disability Scale (RDQ)). For yoga, 36% of the effect on 12-week RDQ was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 18% by sleep disturbance, 9% by hours of back exercise, and 61% by the best combination of all possible mediators (6 mediators). For stretching, 23% of the effect was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 14% by days of back exercise, and 50% by the best combination of all possible mediators (7 mediators). In open-ended questions, ≥20% of participants noted the following treatment benefits: learning new exercises (both groups), relaxation, increased awareness, and the benefits of breathing (yoga), benefits of regular practice (stretching). Although both self-efficacy and hours of back exercise were the strongest mediators for each intervention, compared to self-care, qualitative data suggest that they may exert their benefits through partially distinct mechanisms. PMID:23690832

  20. A Descriptive Study of Work Ability and Health Problems Among Brazilian Recyclable Waste Pickers.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Nívia Cecília Kruta; Sato, Tatiana de Oliveira

    2017-09-22

    To describe the work ability and health problems among Brazilian recyclable waste pickers. Sixty-one workers answered questionnaires related to the work ability (Work Ability Index-WAI), musculoskeletal problems (Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire-NMQ), low back related disability (Roland Morris Questionnaire-RMQ), physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-IPAQ), smoking (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence-FTND), and alcohol use (The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test AUDIT). Brazilian recyclable waste pickers are mostly young (25-44 years old: 54%), women (88%) with low schooling (incomplete elementary school: 54%), high turnover at work (job seniority < 12 months: 70%), low rates of sick leave (20%) and accidents at work (13%). The workers reported good (44%) or optimal (43%) work ability. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in the last 12 months was high (lower back: 49%, shoulders: 28%, neck: 23%, wrists and hands: 21%), as well as the prevalence of hypertension (28%). Most of the workers reported to be physically active or very active (57%), smoke (34%) and drink alcohol (44%). This study outlined the profile of recyclable waste pickers regarding work ability and health problems, which highlight the need for preventive measures focused on musculoskeletal and cardiovascular diseases among this population.

  1. A prospective study predicting the outcome of chronic low back pain and physical therapy: the role of fear-avoidance beliefs and extraspinal pain.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Aloma S A; Lopes, Jaqueline Barros; Bonfa, Eloisa; Halpern, Ari S R

    2016-03-16

    To identify the prognostic factors for conventional physical therapy in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Prospective observational study. One hundred thirteen patients with CLBP selected at the Spinal Disease Outpatient Clinic. Pain intensity was scored using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), and function was measured using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). The Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire work subscale results (FABQ-work; odds ratio [OR]=0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13 to 0.56, p<0.001) and extraspinal pain (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.74, p=0.006) were independently associated with a decreased response to conventional physical therapy for CLBP. We identified high FABQ-work and extraspinal pain scores as key determinants of a worse response to physical therapy among CLBP patients, supporting the need for a special rehabilitation program for this subgroup. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of transforaminal versus interspinous corticosteroid injectionin discal radiculalgia - a prospective, randomised, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E; Cyteval, C; Abiad, L; Picot, M C; Taourel, P; Blotman, F

    2003-10-01

    A prospective, randomised, double-blind study was carried out to compare the respective efficacies of transforaminal and interspinous epidural corticosteroid injections in discal radiculalgia. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males) with discal radicular pain of less than 3 months' duration were consecutively randomised to receive either radio-guided transforaminal or blindly performed interspinous epidural corticosteroid injections. Post-treatment outcome was evaluated clinically at 6 and 30 days, and then at 6 months, but only by mailed questionnaire. At day 6, the between-group difference was significantly in favour of the transforaminal group with respect to Schober's index, finger-to-floor distance, daily activities, and work and leisure activities on the Dallas pain scale. At day 30, pain relief was significantly better in the transforaminal group. At month 6, answers to the mailed questionnaire still showed significantly better results for transforaminal injection concerning pain, daily activities, work and leisure activities and anxiety and depression, with a decline in the Roland-Morris score. In recent discal radiculalgia, the efficacy of radio-guided transforaminal epidural corticosteroid injections was higher than that obtained with blindly-performed interspinous injections.

  3. Intact brain processing of musical emotions in autism spectrum disorder, but more cognitive load and arousal in happy vs. sad music.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Line; Skewes, Joshua; Westphael, Gitte; Heaton, Pamela; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Music is a potent source for eliciting emotions, but not everybody experience emotions in the same way. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show difficulties with social and emotional cognition. Impairments in emotion recognition are widely studied in ASD, and have been associated with atypical brain activation in response to emotional expressions in faces and speech. Whether these impairments and atypical brain responses generalize to other domains, such as emotional processing of music, is less clear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural correlates of emotion recognition in music in high-functioning adults with ASD and neurotypical adults. Both groups engaged similar neural networks during processing of emotional music, and individuals with ASD rated emotional music comparable to the group of neurotypical individuals. However, in the ASD group, increased activity in response to happy compared to sad music was observed in dorsolateral prefrontal regions and in the rolandic operculum/insula, and we propose that this reflects increased cognitive processing and physiological arousal in response to emotional musical stimuli in this group.

  4. Learning piano melodies in visuo-motor or audio-motor training conditions and the neural correlates of their cross-modal transfer.

    PubMed

    Engel, Annerose; Bangert, Marc; Horbank, David; Hijmans, Brenda S; Wilkens, Katharina; Keller, Peter E; Keysers, Christian

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the cross-modal transfer of movement patterns necessary to perform melodies on the piano, 22 non-musicians learned to play short sequences on a piano keyboard by (1) merely listening and replaying (vision of own fingers occluded) or (2) merely observing silent finger movements and replaying (on a silent keyboard). After training, participants recognized with above chance accuracy (1) audio-motor learned sequences upon visual presentation (89±17%), and (2) visuo-motor learned sequences upon auditory presentation (77±22%). The recognition rates for visual presentation significantly exceeded those for auditory presentation (p<.05). fMRI revealed that observing finger movements corresponding to audio-motor trained melodies is associated with stronger activation in the left rolandic operculum than observing untrained sequences. This region was also involved in silent execution of sequences, suggesting that a link to motor representations may play a role in cross-modal transfer from audio-motor training condition to visual recognition. No significant differences in brain activity were found during listening to visuo-motor trained compared to untrained melodies. Cross-modal transfer was stronger from the audio-motor training condition to visual recognition and this is discussed in relation to the fact that non-musicians are familiar with how their finger movements look (motor-to-vision transformation), but not with how they sound on a piano (motor-to-sound transformation). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intrinsic Functional Plasticity of the Sensory-Motor Network in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, F. Q.; Tan, Y. M.; Wu, L.; Zhuang, Y.; He, L. C.; Gong, H. H.

    2015-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies have suggested brain reorganisation in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, the changes in spontaneous neuronal activity that are associated with connectedness remain largely unknown. In this study, functional connectivity strength (FCS), a data-driven degree centrality method based on a theoretical approach, was applied for the first time to investigate changes in the sensory-motor network (SMN) at the voxel level. Comparatively, CSM not only showed significantly decreased FCS in the operculum-integrated regions, which exhibited reduced resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) around the Rolandic sulcus, but it also showed increased FCS in the premotor, primary somatosensory, and parietal-integrated areas, which primarily showed an enhanced rsFC pattern. Correlation analysis showed that altered FCS (in the left premotor-ventral/precentral-operculum, right operculum-parietale 4, and right S1) was associated with worsening Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores and that the rsFC pattern was influenced by cervical cord micro-structural damage at the C2 level. Together, these findings suggest that during myelopathy, the intrinsic functional plasticity of the SMN responds to the insufficient sensory and motor experience in CSM patients. This knowledge may improve our understanding of the comprehensive functional defects found in CSM patients and may inspire the development of new therapeutic strategies in the future. PMID:25897648

  6. [Healthcare consumption due to musculoskeletal pain in fishery sector workers].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, Beatriz; Pita-Fernández, Salvador; Martínez-Rodríguez, Alicia; Fernández-Cervantes, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    To determine the frequency and factors associated with medicine consumption and consultations with family physicians due to musculoskeletal pain in fishery workers. We performed a cross-sectional study (n = 929). The variables analyzed consisted of sociodemographic factors, the frequency of musculoskeletal pain, healthcare resource consumption, back pain disability (Roland-Morris) and health-related quality of life (SF-36). A total of 98.7% of the sample were women, with a mean age of 50.6 years. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 66.5%, 43% were taking medication, and 64% had consulted their family physician due to musculoskeletal pain. The factors associated with medication intake in the logistic regression analysis were the number of years worked in the sector, hip-knee pain, bodily pain and physical functioning. The variables associated with physician visits were the presence of hip-knee pain, neck-back-shoulder pain, bodily pain, and social functioning. The variables most closely associated with resource utilization were hip-knee pain and the physical dimension of health-related quality of life, especially bodily pain. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Altered gray matter organization in children and adolescents with ADHD: a structural covariance connectome study

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, K R; Grieve, S M; Kohn, M R; Clarke, S; Williams, L M; Korgaonkar, M S

    2016-01-01

    Although multiple studies have reported structural deficits in multiple brain regions in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we do not yet know if these deficits reflect a more systematic disruption to the anatomical organization of large-scale brain networks. Here we used a graph theoretical approach to quantify anatomical organization in children and adolescents with ADHD. We generated anatomical networks based on covariance of gray matter volumes from 92 regions across the brain in children and adolescents with ADHD (n=34) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=28). Using graph theory, we computed metrics that characterize both the global organization of anatomical networks (interconnectivity (clustering), integration (path length) and balance of global integration and localized segregation (small-worldness)) and their local nodal measures (participation (degree) and interaction (betweenness) within a network). Relative to Controls, ADHD participants exhibited altered global organization reflected in more clustering or network segregation. Locally, nodal degree and betweenness were increased in the subcortical amygdalae in ADHD, but reduced in cortical nodes in the anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, mid temporal pole and rolandic operculum. In ADHD, anatomical networks were disrupted and reflected an emphasis on subcortical local connections centered around the amygdala, at the expense of cortical organization. Brains of children and adolescents with ADHD may be anatomically configured to respond impulsively to the automatic significance of stimulus input without having the neural organization to regulate and inhibit these responses. These findings provide a novel addition to our current understanding of the ADHD connectome. PMID:27824356

  8. Cerebral gray matter volume variation in female-to-male transsexuals: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Kwun; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2015-12-16

    Several studies seem to support the hypothesis that brain anatomy is associated with transsexualism. However, these studies were still limited because few neuroanatomical findings have been obtained from female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. This study compared the cerebral regional volumes of gray matter (GM) between FtM transsexuals and female controls using a voxel-based morphometry. Twelve FtM transsexuals who had undergone sex-reassignment surgery and 15 female controls participated in this study. Both groups were age matched and right-handed, with no history of neurological illness. Fifteen female controls were recruited to determine whether GM volumes in FtM transsexuals more closely resembled individuals who shared their biological sex. MRI data were processed using SPM 8 with the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL). FtM transsexuals showed significantly larger volumes of the thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, gyrus rectus, head of caudate nucleus, precentral gyrus, and subcallosal area compared with the female controls. However, the female controls showed a significantly larger volume in the superior temporal gyrus including Heschl's gyrus and Rolandic operculum. These findings confirm that the volume difference in brain substructures in FtM transsexuals is likely to be associated with transsexualism and that transsexualism is probably associated with distinct cerebral structures, determining gender identity.

  9. The Effects of VR-based Wii Fit Yoga on Physical Function in Middle-aged Female LBP Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Sik; Min, Won-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a virtual reality-based yoga program on middle-aged female low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty middle-aged female patients who suffered from low back pain were assigned to either a physical therapy program or a virtual reality-based yoga program for a period of four weeks. Participants could check their posture and weight bearing on a monitor as they shifted their weight or changed their postures on a Wii balance board. There were a total of seven exercise programs. A 30-minute, three times per week, virtual reality-based Wii Fit yoga program or trunk stabilizing exercise was performed, respectively. [Results] Repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed significant differences in between pre- and post-training VAS, algometer, Oswestry low-back pain disability index (ODI), Roland Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), and fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FBQ) scores. The VAS, algometer, ODI, RMDQ, and FBQ scores showed significant differences in groups. Regarding the effect of time-by-group interaction, there were significant differences in VAS, ODI, ODI, and FBQ scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, for middle-aged female patients who have low back pain, a virtual reality-based yoga program was shown to have positive effects on physical improvements, and this program can be employed as a therapeutic medium for prevention and cure of low back pain.

  10. Mediators of yoga and stretching for chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Karen J; Wellman, Robert D; Cook, Andrea J; Cherkin, Daniel C; Ceballos, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. In a trial comparing yoga to intensive stretching and self-care, we explored whether physical (hours of back exercise/week), cognitive (fear avoidance, body awareness, and self-efficacy), affective (psychological distress, perceived stress, positive states of mind, and sleep), and physiological factors (cortisol, DHEA) mediated the effects of yoga or stretching on back-related dysfunction (Roland-Morris Disability Scale (RDQ)). For yoga, 36% of the effect on 12-week RDQ was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 18% by sleep disturbance, 9% by hours of back exercise, and 61% by the best combination of all possible mediators (6 mediators). For stretching, 23% of the effect was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 14% by days of back exercise, and 50% by the best combination of all possible mediators (7 mediators). In open-ended questions, ≥20% of participants noted the following treatment benefits: learning new exercises (both groups), relaxation, increased awareness, and the benefits of breathing (yoga), benefits of regular practice (stretching). Although both self-efficacy and hours of back exercise were the strongest mediators for each intervention, compared to self-care, qualitative data suggest that they may exert their benefits through partially distinct mechanisms.

  11. Nonsurgical Korean Integrative Treatments for Symptomatic Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Three-Armed Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kiok; Shin, Kyung-Min; Lee, Jun-Hwan; Seo, Bok-Nam; Jung, So-Young; Youn, Yousuk; Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Jaehong; Qu, Wenchun

    2016-01-01

    This is a study protocol for a pilot three-armed randomized controlled trial on nonsurgical integrative Korean medicinal treatment for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Thirty-six participants who have been diagnosed with (LSS) and recommended for spinal surgery by neurosurgeons or orthopedics and have had spinal symptoms such as severe low back pain and neurological claudication regardless of at least three months of conservative treatments will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to be one of the three intervention groups, including the Mokhuri treatment program group 1 or 2 or usual care group. All treatments will be administered in inpatient units over a period of 4 weeks. The primary outcomes are 0 to 100 Visual Analogue Scales for low back pain and leg pain and the secondary outcomes are Oswestry Disability Index; EQ-5D; Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire; Oxford Claudication Score; physical function test, including treadmill test, walking duration, and distance assessment for free leg pain; radiologic testing; and adverse events which will be assessed during the 4-week treatment period as well as after 3 and 6 months of follow-up. Then, we will assess the feasibility of the clinical trial design as well as a nonsurgical integrative treatment program. This trial is registered with CRIS registration number: KCT0001218. PMID:26941823

  12. Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep including Landau-Kleffner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Van Bogaert, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (CSWS) is a spectrum of epileptic conditions best defined by the association of cognitive or behavioral impairment acquired during childhood and not related to another factor other than the presence of abundant interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) during sleep, which tend to diffuse over the whole scalp. It is part of the childhood focal epileptic syndromes, some cases being idiopathic and overlapping with benign rolandic epilepsy, and others being symptomatic of a structural brain lesion. Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is a particular presentation where acquired aphasia is the core symptom. Clinical, neurophysiological, and cerebral glucose metabolism data support the hypothesis that IED play a prominent role in the cognitive deficits by interfering with the neuronal networks at the site of the epileptic foci but also at distant connected areas. Therefore, the treatment should aim to suppress IED. This may be achieved using conventional antiepileptic drugs, but corticosteroids seem to have more pronounced and sustained efficacy. Outcome for epilepsy is usually good, CSWS being an age-dependent EEG pattern, whereas outcome for cognition, language, and behavior is variable. Rehabilitation represents an important part of the treatment and visual forms of language should be encouraged in children with LKS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Savage poetry: torture and cruelty in Mirbeau and Barbey d'Aurevilly.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    Octave Mirbeau's Le Jardin des supplices and Barbey d'Aurevilly's L'Ensorcelée and Les Diaboliques depict a range of cruel attacks on the human body. These examples of violence, hitherto neglected by critical readers of the texts, have much to tell us not only about the authors' approach to violence, but also about the relationships between author, reader, and text that such representations of violence foreground. The notion of readerly pleasure theorized by Roland Barthes and linked to identity formation by Emma Wilson is associated with the witnessing or experiencing of pain in these texts. The reader is problematically positioned as both sadist, vicariously enjoying the suffering he or she is forced to witness, and masochist, taking pleasure in the authors' manipulations of them. These depictions of violated bodies ask whether and by what means violence can be represented in language, and this discussion leads to an analysis of the impact that such representations of violence have on the reader's experience of a text.

  14. Diffusion imaging of cerebral white matter in persons who stutter: evidence for network-level anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shanqing; Tourville, Jason A.; Beal, Deryk S.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Guenther, Frank H.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in brain white matter have been a main focus of recent neuroimaging studies on stuttering. However, no prior study has examined brain connectivity on the global level of the cerebral cortex in persons who stutter (PWS). In the current study, we analyzed the results from probabilistic tractography between regions comprising the cortical speech network. An anatomical parcellation scheme was used to define 28 speech production-related ROIs in each hemisphere. We used network-based statistic (NBS) and graph theory to analyze the connectivity patterns obtained from tractography. At the network-level, the probabilistic corticocortical connectivity from the PWS group were significantly weaker than that from persons with fluent speech (PFS). NBS analysis revealed significant components in the bilateral speech networks with negative correlations with stuttering severity. To facilitate comparison with previous studies, we also performed tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and regional fractional anisotropy (FA) averaging. Results from tractography, TBSS and regional FA averaging jointly highlight the importance of several regions in the left peri-Rolandic sensorimotor and premotor areas, most notably the left ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) and middle primary motor cortex, in the neuroanatomical basis of stuttering. PMID:24611042

  15. Was killing the queer author necessary to liberate the queer text?: the case of Andy Warhol's A: a novel.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the decades since Roland Barthes' "The Death of the Author" (1968), Michel Foucault's "What Is an Author?" (1969), and Andy Warhol's novel A (1968), we have become comfortable with the idea that the author is separate from the text. In many ways, however, killing the author was an unnecessary act since critics inherently read their own ideas into texts. Within the span of less than two years, all three texts proposed the removal of the author from the text, all three by prominent gay men in academia and art. The act of removing the author represented a kind of closet protection, separating artist from art, author from text. This aricle examines the convergence of ideas of Barthes and Foucault and how they relate to Warhol's A. In these writers and texts, we see a sexuality eager to burst forth from the page, but one that is hesitant, worried that the sexual politics of the late 1960s are not so liberated as to freely accept homosexuality among the artistic and academic elite. This is the real tragedy in the death of the author, when the identity and spirit of the artist/writer is so denied by the audience that not only is the sexuality lost, but the artist as well.

  16. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional grey and white matter volume abnormalities within the speech production network of children who stutter

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Deryk S.; Gracco, Vincent L.; Brettschneider, Jane; Kroll, Robert M.; De Nil, Luc F.

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that neuroanatomical differences exist between adults who stutter and their fluently speaking peers. Specifically, adults who stutter have been found to have more grey matter volume (GMV) in speech relevant regions including inferior frontal gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus (Beal et al., 2007; Song et al., 2007). Despite stuttering having its onset in childhood only one study has investigated the neuroanatomical differences between children who do and do not stutter. Chang et al. (2008) reported children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyrus relative to fluently speaking children. Thus it appears that children who stutter present with unique neuroanatomical abnormalities as compared to those of adults who stutter. In order to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of stuttering earlier in its development, near the time of onset, we used voxel-based morphometry to examine volumetric differences between 11 children who stutter and 11 fluent children. Children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left putamen but more GMV in right Rolandic operculum and superior temporal gyrus relative to fluent children. Children who stutter also had less white matter volume bilaterally in the forceps minor of the corpus callosum. We discuss our findings of widespread anatomic abnormalities throughout the cortical network for speech motor control within the context of the speech motor skill limitations identified in people who stutter (Namasivayam and van Lieshout, 2008; Smits-Bandstra et al., 2006). PMID:23140891

  17. Functional capacity and its associated factors in the elderly with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Roger; de Conti, Marta Helena Souza; Quintino, Natasha Mendonça; Gatti, Marcia Aparecida Nuevo; Simeão, Sandra Fiorelli Almeida Penteado; de Vitta, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of functional capacity in subjects aged 60 years and older, who have lower back pain, and its association with demographic, socioeconomic, work-related, lifestyle-related and disease mentioned variables. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 246 elderly registered at the Family Health Strategy of Vila São Paulo, Bauru,SP, Brazil, who reported lower back pain and were sampled by a two-stage cluster technique. The subjects were interviewed at home by using a multidimensional instrument (demographic; socioeconomic aspects; life style; work characterization; disease mentioned), and also the IPAQ, the Nordic and the Roland Morris questionnaires. A bivariate and multivariate descriptive logistic regression analysis was carried out. RESULTS: The prevalence of lower back pain in men was of 25.1% and in women it was of 35.1%. The mean score in the functional capacity assessment was 10.46 ± 5.62. A fraction of 67.5% of the elderly demonstrated an inappropriate functional capacity. The age group from 70 to 80 years old, the subjects reporting three or more diseases and the sedentary group presented an independent association with inappropriate functional capacity. CONCLUSION: The older, sedentary subjects and who reported more than three diseases presented low functional capacity. Level of Evidence III, Cross Sectioning. PMID:25538473

  18. Effect of Magnitude Estimation of Pleasantness and Intensity on fMRI Activation to Taste.

    PubMed

    Cerf-Ducastel, B; Haase, L; Murphy, C

    2012-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the psychophysical evaluation of taste stimuli using magnitude estimation influences the pattern of cortical activation observed with neuroimaging. That is, whether different brain areas are involved in the magnitude estimation of pleasantness relative to the magnitude estimation of intensity. fMRI was utilized to examine the patterns of cortical activation involved in magnitude estimation of pleasantness and intensity during hunger in response to taste stimuli. During scanning, subjects were administered taste stimuli orally and were asked to evaluate the perceived pleasantness or intensity using the general Labeled Magnitude Scale (Green 1996, Bartoshuk et al. 2004). Image analysis was conducted using AFNI. Magnitude estimation of intensity and pleasantness shared common activations in the insula, rolandic operculum, and the medio dorsal nucleus of the thalamus. Globally, magnitude estimation of pleasantness produced significantly more activation than magnitude estimation of intensity. Areas differentially activated during magnitude estimation of pleasantness versus intensity included, e.g., the insula, the anterior cingulate gyrus, and putamen; suggesting that different brain areas were recruited when subjects made magnitude estimates of intensity and pleasantness. These findings demonstrate significant differences in brain activation during magnitude estimation of intensity and pleasantness to taste stimuli. An appreciation for the complexity of brain response to taste stimuli may facilitate a clearer understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying eating behavior and over consumption.

  19. Development of Sampling Techniques For Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coste, P.; Eiden, M.; Gromov, V.; Ilykorpi, T.; Kochan, H.; Re, E.; Richter, L.

    During the last 15 years, the European Space Agency has initiated the development of a number of sampling techniques for planetary surfaces, in the frame of its basic Technology and Research Programme (TRP). Sampling may be performed by means of drilling, coring, milling, grain scooping or picking, and penetration. The items addressed in particular are: the Sample Acquisition System (SAS) for the late Comet Nucleus Sample and Return mission; the Small Sample Acquisition and Distribution Tool (SSA/DT): the Mole and the Sampling Mole (SM). Some of these devices have found a direct application within an ESA planetary mission, as expected; in other cases, their concept was used and modified to fulfill updated requirements. Sampling or soil probing capabilities are included to various extents in these current or near-future ESA missions: the Huygens Probe (on NASA's CASSINI spacecraft), on its way to Titan surface; the RoLand Lander (on ROSETTA s/c), onto Comet Wirtanen; the Beagle2 Lander (carried by MARS EXPRESS s/c) sampling the Martian surface and sub- surface. Future sampling missions to Mercury, the Moon and to asteroids are being studied. Even more challenging missions to Venus are considered.

  20. Aberrant functional brain connectome in people with antisocial personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan; Long, Jun; Wang, Wei; Liao, Jian; Xie, Hua; Zhao, Guihu; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by a disregard for social obligations and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. Studies have demonstrated that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain regions and aberrant functional connectivity. In this paper, topological organisation was examined in resting-state fMRI data obtained from 32 ASPD patients and 32 non-ASPD controls. The frequency-dependent functional networks were constructed using wavelet-based correlations over 90 brain regions. The topology of the functional networks of ASPD subjects was analysed via graph theoretical analysis. Furthermore, the abnormal functional connectivity was determined with a network-based statistic (NBS) approach. Our results revealed that, compared with the controls, the ASPD patients exhibited altered topological configuration of the functional connectome in the frequency interval of 0.016–0.031 Hz, as indicated by the increased clustering coefficient and decreased betweenness centrality in the medial superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, Rolandic operculum, superior parietal gyrus, angular gyrus, and middle temporal pole. In addition, the ASPD patients showed increased functional connectivity mainly located in the default-mode network. The present study reveals an aberrant topological organisation of the functional brain network in individuals with ASPD. Our findings provide novel insight into the neuropathological mechanisms of ASPD. PMID:27257047

  1. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lalit; Besseling, René M.H.; Overvliet, Geke M.; Hofman, Paul A.M.; de Louw, Anton; Vaessen, Maarten J.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Ulman, Shrutin; Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Backes, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps appear more (diffusively) distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness), complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix), and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity). To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic) epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70%) and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients. PMID:25161893

  2. Ketogenic diet: electrophysiological effects on the normal human cortex.

    PubMed

    Cantello, Roberto; Varrasi, Claudia; Tarletti, Roberto; Cecchin, Michela; D'Andrea, Federico; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Bellomo, Giorgio; Monaco, Francesco

    2007-09-01

    To explore the cortical electrophysiology of the ketogenic diet (KD) in the normal human. KD is effective against refractory epilepsy, but its precise mechanism is obscure. At the transmitter level, an enhancement of GABA inhibition has often been proposed. We studied eight healthy volunteers undergoing a "classic" KD for 2 weeks. We measured several biochemical variables at baseline (T0), after 1 week (T1) and 2 weeks (T2) of KD, then 3 months after the KD conclusion (T3). Ketosis was quantified as 24-h ketonuria. At the same time, we studied the motor cortical excitability by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We also quantitatively evaluated the EEG signal in search of frequency shifts over the rolandic areas. Significant (p < 0.05) neurophysiological changes appeared at T2. These consisted of a strengthening of short-latency cortical inhibition (SICI), a TMS index which is thought to reflect GABA-A inhibition in the cortex. Then, there was an enhancement of the beta EEG band over the perirolandic region, similar to that following administration of GABA-A agonists. All changes disappeared at T3. A standard, short-term KD affected the cortical physiology of the normal human. The main changes were an augmented SICI and an increased perirolandic beta EEG activity, which are compatible with a lower level of neural excitation within the cortex.

  3. It's in the eye of the beholder: selective attention to drink properties during tasting influences brain activation in gustatory and reward regions.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2017-03-20

    Statements regarding pleasantness, taste intensity or caloric content on a food label may influence the attention consumers pay to such characteristics during consumption. There is little research on the effects of selective attention on taste perception and associated brain activation in regular drinks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of selective attention on hedonics, intensity and caloric content on brain responses during tasting drinks. Using functional MRI brain responses of 27 women were measured while they paid attention to the intensity, pleasantness or caloric content of fruit juice, tomato juice and water. Brain activation during tasting largely overlapped between the three selective attention conditions and was found in the rolandic operculum, insula and overlying frontal operculum, striatum, amygdala, thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex and middle orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Brain activation was higher during selective attention to taste intensity compared to calories in the right middle OFC and during selective attention to pleasantness compared to intensity in the right putamen, right ACC and bilateral middle insula. Intensity ratings correlated with brain activation during selective attention to taste intensity in the anterior insula and lateral OFC. Our data suggest that not only the anterior insula but also the middle and lateral OFC are involved in evaluating taste intensity. Furthermore, selective attention to pleasantness engaged regions associated with food reward. Overall, our results indicate that selective attention to food properties can alter the activation of gustatory and reward regions. This may underlie effects of food labels on the consumption experience of consumers.

  4. A pilot study on using acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation to treat chronic non-specific low back pain.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kazunori; Itoh, Satoko; Katsumi, Yasukazu; Kitakoji, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    The present study tests whether a combined treatment of acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is more effective than acupuncture or TENS alone for treating chronic low back pain (LBP). Thirty-two patients with chronic LBP were randomly allocated to four groups. The acupuncture group (ACP) received only acupuncture treatment at selected acupoints for low back pain; the TENS group (TENS) received only TENS treatment at pain areas; the acupuncture and TENS group (A&T) received both acupuncture and TENS treatments; the control group (CT) received topical poultice (only when necessary). Each group received specific weekly treatment five times during the study. Outcome measures were pain intensity in terms of visual analogue scale (VAS) and QOL of low back in terms of Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ). The ACP, TENS and A&T groups all reported lower VAS and RDQ scores. Significant reduction in pain intensity (P<0.008) and significant improvement in QOL (P<0.008) were shown in the A&T group. Combined acupuncture and TENS treatment is effective in pain relief and QOL of low back improvement for the sampled patients suffering from chronic LBP.

  5. Purification of Staphylococcal β-Hemolysin and Its Action on Staphylococcal and Streptococcal Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Chesbro, William R.; Heydrick, Fred P.; Martineau, Roland; Perkins, Gail N.

    1965-01-01

    Chesbro, William R. (University of New Hampshire, Durham), Fred P. Heydrick, Roland Martineau, and Gail N. Perkins. Purification of staphylococcal β-hemolysin and its action on staphylococcal and streptococcal cell walls. J. Bacteriol. 89:378–389. 1965.—After growth of bovine-derived strains of Staphylococcus aureus in a completely dialyzable medium, the β-hemolysin in the culture supernatant fluids was purified by gradient-elution chromatography on cellulose phosphate. The purified hemolysin contained two components, demonstrable by immunodiffusion or electrophoresis, but was free from α-hemolysin, coagulase, Δ-hemolysin, enterotoxins A and B, glucuronidase, hyaluronidase, lipase, muramidase, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, phosphatase, and protease. The hemolysin was heat-labile and sulfhydryl-dependent, and the preparation was leukocidal for guinea pig macrophages. When rabbit red blood cell (RBC) stroma and staphylococcal or enterococcal cell walls were treated with the purified hemolysin, it liberated mucopolysaccharides from the rabbit RBC stroma, polysaccharides and mucopolysaccharides (or mucopeptides) from the staphyloccoal cell walls, and rhamnose, glucose, an unidentified monosaccharide, N-acetylglucosamine, and at least two polysaccharides from the enterococcal cell walls. The hemolytic and cell-wall degradative activities had similar thermal inactivation kinetics, pH optima, sedimentation coefficients, and chromatographic and electrophoretic mobilities; both required Mg and were inhibited by thiol-inactivating agents. Consequently, it seems likely that both activities are expressions of the same enzyme. PMID:14255704

  6. KSC-2010-5780

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-16

    San Luis Obispo, Calif. -- 101116-F-8290C-060 -- Roland Coelho, a student at California Polytechnic State University Cal Poly, inspects the integration alignment of miniature research satellites called a CubeSats into a Poly Picosatellite Orbital Deployer PPOD container. The PPOD and CubeSat Project were developed by Cal Poly and Stanford University’s Space Systems Development Lab for use on NASA’s Educational Launch of Nanosatellite ELaNa missions. Each CubeSat measures about 4-inches cubed and is about the same volume as a quart. The CubeSats weigh about 2.2 pounds, must conform to standard aerospace materials and must operate without propulsion. The satellites are being prepared to launch with NASA's Glory spacecraft aboard an Orbital Sciences Corp. Taurus XL rocket, targeted to lift off Feb. 23, 2011, from Vandenberg's Space Launch Complex 576-E. Glory is scheduled to collect data on the properties of aerosols and black carbon from its place in low Earth orbit. It also will help scientists understand how the sun's irradiance affects Earth's climate. Photo credit: U.S. Air Force/Jerry E. Clemens Jr.

  7. KSC-2010-5778

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-16

    San Luis Obispo, Calif. -- 101116-F-8290C-054 -- Roland Coelho and Ryan Nugent, students at California Polytechnic State University Cal Poly, integrate miniature research satellites called CubeSats into a Poly Picosatellite Orbital Deployer PPOD container. The PPOD and CubeSat Project were developed by Cal Poly and Stanford University’s Space Systems Development Lab for use on NASA’s Educational Launch of Nanosatellite ELaNa missions. Each CubeSat measures about 4-inches cubed and is about the same volume as a quart. The CubeSats weigh about 2.2 pounds, must conform to standard aerospace materials and must operate without propulsion. The satellites are being prepared to launch with NASA's Glory spacecraft aboard an Orbital Sciences Corp. Taurus XL rocket, targeted to lift off Feb. 23, 2011, from Vandenberg's Space Launch Complex 576-E. Glory is scheduled to collect data on the properties of aerosols and black carbon from its place in low Earth orbit. It also will help scientists understand how the sun's irradiance affects Earth's climate. Photo credit: U.S. Air Force/Jerry E. Clemens Jr.

  8. KSC-2010-5779

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-16

    San Luis Obispo, Calif. -- 101116-F-8290C-059 -- Roland Coelho and Ryan Nugent, students at California Polytechnic State University Cal Poly, integrate miniature research satellites called CubeSats into a Poly Picosatellite Orbital Deployer PPOD container. The PPOD and CubeSat Project were developed by Cal Poly and Stanford University’s Space Systems Development Lab for use on NASA’s Educational Launch of Nanosatellite ELaNa missions. Each CubeSat measures about 4-inches cubed and is about the same volume as a quart. The CubeSats weigh about 2.2 pounds, must conform to standard aerospace materials and must operate without propulsion. The satellites are being prepared to launch with NASA's Glory spacecraft aboard an Orbital Sciences Corp. Taurus XL rocket, targeted to lift off Feb. 23, 2011, from Vandenberg's Space Launch Complex 576-E. Glory is scheduled to collect data on the properties of aerosols and black carbon from its place in low Earth orbit. It also will help scientists understand how the sun's irradiance affects Earth's climate. Photo credit: U.S. Air Force/Jerry E. Clemens Jr.

  9. Support to woman/nourisher in the advertising pieces of the World Breastfeeding Week.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Luciana Alves; Cruz, Nina Velasco E; Linhares, Francisca Marcia Pereira; Guedes, Tatiane Gomes; Martins, Fernanda Demutti Pimpão; Pontes, Cleide Maria

    2017-01-01

    to unveil the support to woman/nourisher in the advertisements of the World Breastfeeding Week. This is a descriptive, exploratory, documentary, qualitative study. Since the collection until the analyses of these advertisements, we adopted the methodological steps of Gemma Penn, based on the semiology of Roland Barthes. The results were interpreted by the theory of Social Network of Sanícola and of the five types of support: companionship, emotional, instrumental, informational, and self-supportive. we identified actors of the social network of the woman/nourisher in nine advertisements of the 22 world breastfeeding weeks. In five of them, partner, grandmother, and brother showed emotional and companionship support to breastfeeding. We observed self-support in three posters; instrumental support in one; and informational support in none. the support unraveled in only five advertisements included: emotional, companionship, instrumental, and self-supportive. In the others, there was no support. The set of supports was not revealed in any of them.

  10. When Is EEG Indicated in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    PubMed

    Zaimoğlu, Sennur; Türkdoğan, Dilşad; Mazlum, Betül; Bekiroğlu, Nural; Tetik-Kabil, Aylin; Eyilikeder, Seda

    2015-11-01

    The authors investigated the parameters for predicting epileptiform abnormalities in a group of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample consisted of 148 subjects aged between 6 and 13 (8.76 ± 1.26; 25.7% female) years. Subtypes of ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised was applied to all patients. Most of the subjects (89.2%) had wakefulness and sleep electroencephalography examinations lasting about one hour. The authors found out that the coexistence of speech sound disorder (odds ratio [OR] 3.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-9.48) and higher Digit Span test performance (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.44) predicted the presence of accompanying epileptiform abnormalities. The prevalence of epileptiform abnormalities was 26.4%, and they were frequently localized in the frontal (41%) and centrotemporal (28.2%) regions. Higher percentage of speech sound disorder co-occurrence (64%) in subjects with rolandic spikes suggests that epileptiform abnormalities associated with ADHD can be determined genetically at least in some cases. Pathophysiology of epileptiform abnormalities in ADHD might have complex genetic and maturational background.

  11. Brain activity associated with skilled finger movements: multichannel magnetic recordings.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, G A; Hari, R K; Karhu, J J; Tessore, S

    1991-01-01

    We recorded with a 24-channel SQUID magnetometer cerebral activity preceding and following self-paced voluntary 'skilled' movements in four healthy adults. The subject pressed buttons successively with the right index and middle fingers aiming at a time difference of 40-60 ms; on-line feedback on performance was given after each movement. Slow magnetic readiness fields (RFs) preceded the movements by 0.5 s and culminated about 20 ms after the electromyogram (EMG) onset. Movement-evoked fields, MEFs, opposite in polarity to RFs, were observed 90-120 ms after the EMG onset. They were followed by an additional 'skilled-performance field', SPF, 400-500 ms after the EMG onset. The source locations of RF, MEF, and SPF were within 2 cm from sources of the somatosensory evoked responses, which were situated in the posterior wall of the Rolandic fissure; the sources of MEF were closest to the midline. Neural generators of these deflections and of the corresponding electric potentials are discussed.

  12. Frontal hemispheric differences in the Bereitschaftspotential associated with writing and drawing.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, H; Lang, M; Lang, W; Kornhuber, A; Heise, B; Keidel, M; Deecke, L; Kornhuber, H H

    1983-01-01

    Twenty right-handed subjects participated in a study investigating the cerebral potentials related to three complex actions: (1) writing one's own signature, (2) drawing a pentagram, and (3) fast meaningless scribbling. The Bereitschaftspotential (BP, readiness potential) started as early as 3 s prior to writing, 2.5 s prior to drawing, but only 1.5 s prior to scribbling. In all three tasks, the BP had its earliest onset over the supplementary motor area (SMA). BP topography was shifted towards the frontal lobes when compared to encephalographic activity reflecting simple finger movements, and was very weak in retro-rolandic leads. The side of the performing hand, as assessed from scribbling, was reflected in a contralateral preponderance of the precentral BP. The maximum BP (about 6 microV) was, in all three tasks, located in FCz (mid fronto-central) overlying the SMA. This location is different from that for simple finger movements, when the maximum is at the vertex. Hemispheric differences were found over the frontal cortex and were characteristic for the verbal and spatial tasks involved: for writing, the BP was significantly larger left frontally than right (even after considering the effect of the performing hand from scribbling), and the difference was largest prior to the onset of movement; for drawing, the BP was larger over the right than over the left frontal lobe, and the difference was largest during the movement.

  13. Intact brain processing of musical emotions in autism spectrum disorder, but more cognitive load and arousal in happy vs. sad music

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, Line; Skewes, Joshua; Westphael, Gitte; Heaton, Pamela; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Music is a potent source for eliciting emotions, but not everybody experience emotions in the same way. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show difficulties with social and emotional cognition. Impairments in emotion recognition are widely studied in ASD, and have been associated with atypical brain activation in response to emotional expressions in faces and speech. Whether these impairments and atypical brain responses generalize to other domains, such as emotional processing of music, is less clear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural correlates of emotion recognition in music in high-functioning adults with ASD and neurotypical adults. Both groups engaged similar neural networks during processing of emotional music, and individuals with ASD rated emotional music comparable to the group of neurotypical individuals. However, in the ASD group, increased activity in response to happy compared to sad music was observed in dorsolateral prefrontal regions and in the rolandic operculum/insula, and we propose that this reflects increased cognitive processing and physiological arousal in response to emotional musical stimuli in this group. PMID:25076869

  14. Disc extrusions and bulges in nonspecific low back pain and sciatica: Exploratory randomised controlled trial comparing yoga therapy and normal medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Monro, Robin; Bhardwaj, Abhishek Kumar; Gupta, Ram Kumar; Telles, Shirley; Allen, Beth; Little, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Previous trials of yoga therapy for nonspecific low back pain (nsLBP) (without sciatica) showed beneficial effects. To test effects of yoga therapy on pain and disability associated with lumbar disc extrusions and bulges. Parallel-group, randomised, controlled trial. Sixty-one adults from rural population, aged 20-45, with nsLBP or sciatica, and disc extrusions or bulges. Randomised to yoga (n=30) and control (n=31). Yoga: 3-month yoga course of group classes and home practice, designed to ensure safety for disc extrusions. normal medical care. OUTCOME MEASURES (3-4 months) Primary: Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ); worst pain in past two weeks. Secondary: Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale; straight leg raise test; structural changes. Disc projections per case ranged from one bulge or one extrusion to three bulges plus two extrusions. Sixty-two percent had sciatica. Intention-to-treat analysis of the RMDQ data, adjusted for age, sex and baseline RMDQ scores, gave a Yoga Group score 3.29 points lower than Control Group (0.98, 5.61; p=0.006) at 3 months. No other significant differences in the endpoints occurred. No adverse effects of yoga were reported. Yoga therapy can be safe and beneficial for patients with nsLBP or sciatica, accompanied by disc extrusions and bulges.

  15. Approach for a Global Height Reference System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihde, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Hermann Drewes, Christoph Foerste, Thomas Gruber, Gunter Liebsch, Roland Pail, Laura Sanchez For Earth system monitoring the heights are main parameters for global changes. Physical heights are potential differences of the outer Earth gravity field at different positions. Long term monitoring of the vertical component of the Earth surface needs a standardized defined and realized global reference relating the geometry and the gravity field of the Earth. In the last two decades, in several working groups of the International Association of Geodesy were different concepts for definition and realization of global height reference system discussed. Furthermore, the satellite gravity missions have the Earth gravity field data basis general extended. So far, it is possible to develop the present local and regional height reference systems concepts to a global approach. The presented proposal has to be understood as a model that consider the present possibilities and actual needs for the realization of a global height reference system. It includes aspects for the combination of observations and products representing the geometry and the gravity field of the Earth.

  16. On the report of the first successful surgical treatment of brain abscess in the Ottoman Empire by Dr. Cemil Topuzlu in 1891.

    PubMed

    Mut, Melike; Dinç, Gülten; Naderi, Sait

    2007-10-01

    IN 1891, Dr. Cemil Topuzlu operated on a brain abscess that originated as a complication of a depression fracture of the cranial inner table. The patient presented with Jacksonian seizures on his left side after a sharp trauma resulting in a 15 cm-long scalp laceration and underlying linear cranial fracture in the right parietal bone. Dr. Topuzlu attributed Jacksonian epilepsy to the fracture irritating the motor area in the right hemisphere and attempted a craniotomy based on his measurements to localize the Rolandic fissure. The operation was complicated by a brain abscess, and Dr. Topuzlu reoperated to drain the abscess. He successfully treated the brain abscess and Jacksonian seizures and then presented this case in the Royal Society of Medicine of the Ottoman Empire and in the International Surgery Congress in Lyon in 1894. The case report was published in his surgery book in 1905. The case was not only the first case of brain abscess to be treated successfully with surgical intervention in the Ottoman Empire, it was also one of the first cases of neurological surgery performed using contemporary anesthesiological and surgical techniques, which reveals the importance of neurological examination and cerebral localization techniques in the era before x-rays. Dr. Topuzlu was the founder of modern surgery in the Ottoman Empire and deserves to be credited for his novel applications in the 19th century.

  17. Effects in Short and Long Term of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) on Chronic Low Back Pain: A Controlled Study with One-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Cecchi, Francesca; Del Canto, Antonio; Paperini, Anita; Boni, Roberta; Pasquini, Guido; Vannetti, Federica; Macchi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Comparing global postural reeducation (GPR) to a standard physiotherapy treatment (PT) based on active exercises, stretching, and massaging for improving pain and function in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Design. Prospective controlled study. Setting. Outpatient rehabilitation facility. Participants. Adult patients with diagnosis of nonspecific, chronic (>6 months) low back pain. Interventions. Both treatments consisted of 15 sessions of one hour each, twice a week including patient education. Measures. Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire to evaluate disability, and Numeric Analog Scale for pain. A score change >30% was considered clinically significant. Past treatments, use of medications, smoking habits, height, weight, profession, and physical activity were also recorded on baseline, on discharge, and 1 year after discharge (resp., T0, T1, and T2). Results. At T0 103 patients with cLBP (51 cases and 52 controls) were recruited. The treatment (T1) has been completed by 79 (T1) of which 60 then carried out the 1-year follow-up (T2). Both GPR and PT at T1 were associated with a significant statistical and clinical improvement in pain and function, compared to T0. At T2, only pain in GPR still registered a statistically significant improvement. PMID:25945360

  18. Dipolar Effects in an Ultracold Gas of LiCs Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidemueller, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    Recently, there has been important progress in the investigation of ultracold polar molecules in the absolute ground state, thus opening intriguing perspectives for strongly correlated quantum systems under the influence of long-range dipolar forces. We have studied the formation of LiCs molecules via photoassociation (PA) in a double-species magneto-optical trap. The LiCs dimer is a particularly promising candidate for observing dipolar effects, as it possesses the largest dipole moment of all alkali dimers (5.5 Debye in the ground state). Ultracold LiCs molecules in the absolute rovibrational ground state are formed by a single photo-association step. The dipole moment of ground state levels is determined by Stark spectroscopy and was found to be in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. Vibrational redistribution due to spontaneous emission and blackbody radiation is observed and compared a rate-equation model.In collaboration with Johannes Deiglmayr, Marc Repp, University of Heidelberg; Roland Wester, University of Innsbruck; and Olivier Dulieu, Laboratoire Aime Cotton. Work was supported by DFG and ESF in the framework of the Eurocores EuroQUAM as well as the Heidelberg Center for Quantum Dynamics.

  19. Brain maturation and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dulac, Olivier; Milh, Mathieu; Holmes, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    At full term, both glutamate and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) are excitatory; cortical synapses are beginning to appear, there is little myelin in the cerebral hemispheres, and long tracts hardly start to develop. Neonatal myoclonic encephalopathy can result from premature activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) transmission. Benign neonatal seizures and migrating partial seizures in infancy could involve excessive or premature excitability of deep cortical layers. Benign rolandic epilepsy and continuous spike waves in slow sleep are consistent with an excess of both excitatory and inhibitory cortical synapses. West and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes express age-related diffuse cortical hyperexcitability, the pattern depending on the age of occurrence; synchronization of spikes is becoming possible with maturation of the myelin. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy is itself modulated by maturation that causes frontal hyperexcitability generating myoclonic-astatic seizures, between the ages of infantile and juvenile myoclonic epilepsies. Physiological delay of hippocampo-neocortical pathways maturation could account for the delayed occurrence of mesial temporal epilepsy following infantile damage, whereas premature maturation could contribute to fronto-temporal damage characteristic of fever-induced epileptic encephalopathy in school-age children, a dramatic school-age epileptic encephalopathy.

  20. Differential psychophysiological interactions of insular subdivisions during varied oropharyngeal swallowing tasks

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Ianessa A.; McLaren, Donald G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The insula is a highly integrated cortical region both anatomically and functionally. It has been shown to have cognitive, social–emotional, gustatory, and sensorimotor functions. Insular involvement in both normal and abnormal swallowing behavior is well established, yet its functional connectivity is unclear. Studies of context‐dependent connectivity, or the connectivity during different task conditions, have the potential to reveal information about synaptic function of the insula. The goal of this study was to examine the functional connectivity of specific insular regions (ventral anterior, dorsal anterior, and posterior) with distant cortical regions during four swallowing conditions (water, sour, e‐stim, and visual biofeedback) using generalized psychophysiological interactions (gPPI). In 19 healthy adults, we found that the visual biofeedback condition was associated with the most and strongest increases in functional connectivity. The posterior insula/rolandic operculum regions had the largest clusters of increases in functional connectivity, but the ventral anterior insula was functionally connected to a more diverse array of cortical regions. Also, laterality assessments showed left lateralized increases in swallowing functional connectivity. Our results are aligned with reports about the insula's interconnectivity and extensive involvement in multisensory and cognitive tasks. PMID:24760502

  1. Short-term outcomes of a back school program for chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Hodselmans, A P; Jaegers, S M; Göeken, L N

    2001-08-01

    To assess the short-term outcome of a back school program for patients suffering from chronic, nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Quasi-experimental cohort study with a waiting list control group. Dutch rehabilitation department. Experimental group (n = 14) participating in the back school program and a waiting list control group (n = 10). A back school program aimed to achieve optimal functional capacity and functional health status by teaching participants to react appropriately to overload signals. Functional capacity assessed by the RAND-36 instrument; functional health status assessed by the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire; and static and dynamic lifting capacity, endurance, and range of motion assessed by objective measures. The experimental group significantly improved in functional capacity and functional health status, with a large power, likely attributable to adequate reactions to signals of overload. Significant differences existed between the 2 groups, with large powers for the main outcomes. The back school program improved the functional capacity and functional health status of patients with chronic, nonspecific LBP.

  2. Can a self-administered questionnaire identify workers with chronic or recurring low back pain?

    PubMed Central

    TAKEKAWA, Karina Satiko; GONÇALVES, Josiane Sotrate; MORIGUCHI, Cristiane Shinohara; COURY, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; SATO, Tatiana de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    To verify if the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) and physical examination of the lumbar spine can identify workers with chronic or recurring low back pain, using health history for reference. Fifty office workers of both sexes, aged between 19 and 55 yr, were evaluated using a standardized physical examination and the NMQ, VAS and RDQ. Discriminant analysis was performed to determine the discriminant properties of these instruments. A higher success rate (94%) was observed in the model including only the NMQ and in the model including the NMQ and the physical examination. The lowest success rate (82%) was observed in the model including the NMQ, RDQ and VAS. The NMQ was able to detect subjects with chronic or recurring low back pain with 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The NMQ appears to be the best instrument for identifying subjects with chronic or recurring low back pain. Thus, this self-reported questionnaire is suitable for screening workers for chronic or recurring low back pain in occupational settings. PMID:25810448

  3. Trunk muscles strength and endurance in chronic low back pain patients with and without clinical instability.

    PubMed

    Davarian, Sanaz; Maroufi, Nader; Ebrahimi, Ismaeil; Farahmand, Farzam; Parnianpour, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown inconsistent findings regarding muscle endurance in chronic low back pain (CLBP). Questions also remain about muscle endurance in patients with clinical instability. The aim of this study was to investigate trunk muscles strength and endurance in CLBP patients with and without clinical instability. 32 CLBP patients (15 with and 17 without clinical instability) and 39 matched healthy subjects participated in this study. The standing extension test was performed to assess the strength and endurance of the lumbar extensors while recording their electromyographic activity. The patients' disability was evaluated using the Oswestry and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaires. Patients with clinical instability showed lower maximal voluntary exertion (MVE) and higher time to fatigue (TTF) compared to healthy subjects (P=0.000 and P=0.008, respectively) and patients without instability (P=0.002 and P=0.02, respectively). There was no difference in these variables between patients without instability and healthy controls. A negative relationship between MVE and TTF and a positive correlation between disability and pain intensity were seen. Strength training of trunk extensor muscles can be considered as part of the treatment protocol for CLBP patients with clinical instability. Although patients without instability suffered from pain or disability, they showed more similarity to healthy subjects in terms of trunk muscles strength and endurance.

  4. Universality of the onset of activated transport in Lennard-Jones liquids with tunable coordination: Implications for the effects of pressure and directional bonding on the crossover to activated transport, configurational entropy, and fragility of glassforming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabochiy, Pyotr; Lubchenko, Vassiliy

    2012-02-01

    We establish, via classical density functional theory, that the crossover to activated transport in liquids takes place when the depth of the metastable minimum in the free energy corresponding to long-lived aperiodic structures reaches a certain near universal value. We show that the particle vibrational displacement is strongly correlated with this depth in a broad range of pressure and temperature, thus providing basis for a Lindemann-like criterion for the onset of activated transport in liquids. The configurational entropy at the crossover temperature Tcr, too, is found to be nearly system-independent, consistent with the random first order transition theory. We show that to reproduce existing data for the pressure dependence of Tcr, the liquid must increase its coordination with pressure. Upon increasing pressure at fixed coordination, the liquid's fragility is predicted to exhibit re-entrant behavior. This prediction is consistent with glycerol data but is in contrast with data in several organic liquids and polymers, whose fragility monotonically decreases with pressure in the so far accessed pressure range. Allowing for increase in coordination with pressure mitigates the disagreement, owing to the resulting decrease in the thermal expansivity. Finally, we rationalize the correlation between the isobaric and isochoric fragilities put forth by Casalini and Roland [Phys. Rev. E 72, 031503 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevE.72.031503] and make predictions on the limiting behavior of the fragility at high pressure.

  5. Comparison between Kinesio Taping and a Traditional Physical Therapy Program in Treatment of Nonspecific Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kachanathu, Shaji John; Alenazi, Aqeel M.; Seif, Hamada Eid; Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Alroumim, Meshari Abdulmohsen

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is a very common but largely self-limiting condition. Several types of tape and their associated application methods are available for different conditions. The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of Kinesio taping (KT) compared with traditional management of NSLBP. [Subjects and Methods] Forty male and female patients with a mean age of 34.8±7.54 years were randomly divided into two groups; group 1 (n=20) which underwent conventional physical therapy with KT, and group 2 (n=20), which underwent only conventional physical therapy. The intervention sessions for both groups were three times per week for four weeks. Outcomes were assessed for activities of daily living (ADL) using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, pain severity using a visual analogue scale, and ranges of motion (ROMs) of trunk flexion and extension using the modified Schober’s test. [Results] Significant differences in measures of pain, ADL, and trunk flexion and extension ROMs were observed post intervention within each group. In comparison, there were no significant differences in measures of pain, ADL, and trunk flexion and extension ROMs post intervention between groups. [Conclusion] A physical therapy program involving strengthening exercises for abdominal muscles and stretching exercises for back, hamstring, and iliopsoas muscles with or without Kinesio taping was beneficial in the treatment of chronic low back pain. PMID:25202177

  6. Animal and cellular models of familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Lefcort, Frances; Mergy, Marc; Ohlen, Sarah B; Ueki, Yumi; George, Lynn

    2017-08-01

    Since Riley and Day first described the clinical phenotype of patients with familial dysautonomia (FD) over 60 years ago, the field has made considerable progress clinically, scientifically, and translationally in treating and understanding the etiology of FD. FD is classified as a hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN type III) and is both a developmental and a progressive neurodegenerative condition that results from an autosomal recessive mutation in the gene IKBKAP, also known as ELP1. FD primarily impacts the peripheral nervous system but also manifests in central nervous system disruption, especially in the retina and optic nerve. While the disease is rare, the rapid progress being made in elucidating the molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating the demise of neurons in FD should provide insight into degenerative pathways common to many neurological disorders. Interestingly, the protein encoded by IKBKAP/ELP1, IKAP or ELP1, is a key scaffolding subunit of the six-subunit Elongator complex, and variants in other Elongator genes are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), intellectual disability, and Rolandic epilepsy. Here we review the recent model systems that are revealing the molecular and cellular pathophysiological mechanisms mediating FD. These powerful model systems can now be used to test targeted therapeutics for mitigating neuronal loss in FD and potentially other disorders.

  7. Altered gray matter organization in children and adolescents with ADHD: a structural covariance connectome study.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, K R; Grieve, S M; Kohn, M R; Clarke, S; Williams, L M; Korgaonkar, M S

    2016-11-08

    Although multiple studies have reported structural deficits in multiple brain regions in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we do not yet know if these deficits reflect a more systematic disruption to the anatomical organization of large-scale brain networks. Here we used a graph theoretical approach to quantify anatomical organization in children and adolescents with ADHD. We generated anatomical networks based on covariance of gray matter volumes from 92 regions across the brain in children and adolescents with ADHD (n=34) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=28). Using graph theory, we computed metrics that characterize both the global organization of anatomical networks (interconnectivity (clustering), integration (path length) and balance of global integration and localized segregation (small-worldness)) and their local nodal measures (participation (degree) and interaction (betweenness) within a network). Relative to Controls, ADHD participants exhibited altered global organization reflected in more clustering or network segregation. Locally, nodal degree and betweenness were increased in the subcortical amygdalae in ADHD, but reduced in cortical nodes in the anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, mid temporal pole and rolandic operculum. In ADHD, anatomical networks were disrupted and reflected an emphasis on subcortical local connections centered around the amygdala, at the expense of cortical organization. Brains of children and adolescents with ADHD may be anatomically configured to respond impulsively to the automatic significance of stimulus input without having the neural organization to regulate and inhibit these responses. These findings provide a novel addition to our current understanding of the ADHD connectome.

  8. Gamma-oscillations modulated by picture naming and word reading: Intracranial recording in epileptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Helen C.; Nagasawa, Tetsuro; Brown, Erik C.; Juhasz, Csaba; Rothermel, Robert; Hoechstetter, Karsten; Shah, Aashit; Mittal, Sandeep; Fuerst, Darren; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2011-01-01

    Objective We measured cortical gamma-oscillations in response to visual-language tasks consisting of picture naming and word reading in an effort to better understand human visual-language pathways. Methods We studied six patients with focal epilepsy who underwent extraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) recording. Patients were asked to overtly name images presented sequentially in the picture naming task and to overtly read written words in the reading task. Results Both tasks commonly elicited gamma-augmentation (maximally at 80–100 Hz) on ECoG in the occipital, inferior-occipital-temporal and inferior-Rolandic areas, bilaterally. Picture naming, compared to reading task, elicited greater gamma-augmentation in portions of pre-motor areas as well as occipital and inferior-occipital-temporal areas, bilaterally. In contrast, word reading elicited greater gamma-augmentation in portions of bilateral occipital, left occipital-temporal and left superior-posterior-parietal areas. Gamma-attenuation was elicited by both tasks in portions of posterior cingulate and ventral premotor-prefrontal areas bilaterally. The number of letters in a presented word was positively correlated to the degree of gamma-augmentation in the medial occipital areas. Conclusions Gamma-augmentation measured on ECoG identified cortical areas commonly and differentially involved in picture naming and reading tasks. Longer words may activate the primary visual cortex for the more peripheral field. Significance The present study increases our understanding of the visual-language pathways. PMID:21498109

  9. Computer-aided combined movement examination of the lumbar spine and manual therapy implications: Case report.

    PubMed

    Monie, A P; Barrett, C J; Price, R I; Lind, C R P; Singer, K P

    2016-02-01

    Combined movement examination (CME) of the lumbar spine has been recommended for clinical examination as it confers information about mechanical pain patterns. However, little quantitative study has been undertaken to validate its use in manual therapy practice. This study used computer aided CME to develop a normal reference range, and to guide provisional diagnosis and management. Two cases were assessed, before and after manual therapy using CME, a pain Visual Analogue Scale, the Roland Morris Low Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire and the Short Form (SF-12) Health Survey. Diagnosis and management were guided by comparing each CME pattern with the age and gender matched reference range. Self-reports data and CME total change scores were markedly improved for both cases, particularly for the most painful and restricted CME directions. This report describes how computer-aided CME and a normal reference range may be used objectively to inform a diagnosis and as an outcome measure in cases of mechanical LBP. Future investigations of cases with specific lumbar pathologies are required to validate this concept. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Language and syntactic impairment following stroke in late bilingual aphasics.

    PubMed

    Tschirren, Muriel; Laganaro, Marina; Michel, Patrik; Martory, Marie-Dominique; Di Pietro, Marie; Abutalebi, Jubin; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2011-12-01

    Bilingual aphasia generally affects both languages. However, the age of acquisition of the second language (L2) seems to play a role in the anatomo-functional correlation of the syntactical/grammatical processes, thus potentially influencing the L2 syntactic impairment following a stroke. The present study aims to analyze the influence of late age of acquisition of the L2 on syntactic impairment in bilingual aphasic patients. Twelve late bilingual participants (speaking French as L2 and either English, German, Italian or Spanish as L1) with stroke-induced aphasia participated in the study. The MAST or BAT aphasia batteries were used to evaluate overall aphasia score. An auditory syntactic judgement task was developed and used to test participants syntactic performance. The overall aphasia scores did not differ between L1 and L2. In a multiple case analysis, only one patient had lower scores in L2. However, four patients presented significantly lower performances in syntactic processing in the late L2 than in their native language (L1). In these four patients the infarct was localized, either exclusively or at least partially, in the pre-rolandic region. This pilot study suggests that, in late bilingual aphasics, syntactic judgment abilities may be more severely impaired in L2, and that this syntactic deficit is most likely to occur following anterior lesions. 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Chronotype predicts activity patterns in the neural underpinnings of the motor system during the day.

    PubMed

    Peres, Isabella; Vetter, Céline; Blautzik, Janusch; Reiser, Maximilian; Pöppel, Ernst; Meindl, Thomas; Roenneberg, Till; Gutyrchik, Evgeny

    2011-12-01

    Neuroimaging is increasingly used to study the motor system in vivo. Despite many reports of time-of-day influences on motor function at the behavioral level, little is known about these influences on neural motor networks and their activations recorded in neuroimaging. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the authors studied 15 healthy subjects (9 females; mean ± SD age: 23 ± 3 yrs) performing a self-paced finger-tapping task at different times of day (morning, midday, afternoon, and evening). Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal showed systematic differences across the day in task-related motor areas of the brain, specifically in the supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, and rolandic operculum (p(corr)< .0125). The authors found that these time-of-day-dependent hemodynamic modulations are associated with chronotype and not with homeostatic sleep pressure. These results show that consideration of time-of-day for the analysis of fMRI studies is imperative.

  12. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Lalit; Besseling, René M H; Overvliet, Geke M; Hofman, Paul A M; de Louw, Anton; Vaessen, Maarten J; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Ulman, Shrutin; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Backes, Walter H

    2014-01-01

    In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps appear more (diffusively) distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness), complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix), and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity). To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic) epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70%) and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients.

  13. Nonoperatively treated type A spinal fractures: mid-term versus long-term functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Post, R B; van der Sluis, C K; Leferink, V J M; Dijkstra, P U; ten Duis, H J

    2009-08-01

    This study focuses on the mid-term (four years) and long-term (ten years) functional outcome of patients treated nonoperatively for a type A spinal fracture without primary neurological deficit. Functional outcome was measured using the visual analogue scale spine score (VAS) and the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ). The 50 patients included were on average 41.2 years old at the time of injury. Four years post injury, a mean VAS score of 74.5 and a mean RMDQ score of 4.9 were found. Ten years after the accident, the mean VAS and RMDQ scores were 72.6 and 4.7, respectively (NS). No significant relationships were found between the difference scores of the VAS and RMDQ compared with age, gender, fracture sub-classification, and time between measurements. Three (6%) patients had a poor long-term outcome. None of the patients required surgery for late onset pain or progressive neurological deficit. Functional outcome after a nonoperatively treated type A spinal fracture is good, both four and ten years post injury. For the group as a whole, four years after the fracture a steady state exists in functional outcome, which does not change for ten years at least after the fracture.

  14. Effect of relative injectate pressures on the efficacy of lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection in patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Hong; Lee, Sang Ho

    2014-03-01

    Transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESIs) are often used to treat lumbar foraminal stenosis. Injectate pressure (of contrast) was monitored during fluoroscopically guided TFESI to assess the effect on short-term pain reduction. A total of 40 patients underwent single-level lumbar TFESI for unilateral lumbar radicular pain ascribed to foraminal stenosis. Relative injectate pressure of contrast epidurography during TFESI was recorded and compared with pre- and postprocedural pain levels using the Roland 5-point pain scoring method. Pain relief achieved after TFESI revealed no statistically significant correlation with injectate pressure (mean 13.0 cm H2 O). Mean pressures in patients with and without demonstrable pain reduction were 12.9 and 13.2 cm H2 O, respectively. Secondary outcomes were not measured, and no mid- or long-term follow-up was conducted. In this setting, relative injectate pressures had no significant effect on immediate outcomes of TFESI. © 2013 The Authors Pain Practice © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  15. Conference scene: DGVS spring conference 2009.

    PubMed

    Kolligs, Frank Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The 3rd annual DGVS Spring Conference of the German Society for Gastroenterology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten) was held at the Seminaris Campus Hotel in Berlin, Germany, on 8-9 May, 2009. The conference was organized by Roland Schmid and Matthias Ebert from the Technical University of Munich, Germany. The central theme of the meeting was 'translational gastrointestinal oncology: towards personalized medicine and individualized therapy'. The conference covered talks on markers for diagnosis, screening and surveillance of colorectal cancer, targets for molecular therapy, response prediction in clinical oncology, development and integration of molecular imaging in gastrointestinal oncology and translational research in clinical trial design. Owing to the broad array of topics and limitations of space, this article will focus on biomarkers, response prediction and the integration of biomarkers into clinical trials. Presentations mentioned in this summary were given by Matthias Ebert (Technical University of Munich, Germany), Esmeralda Heiden (Epigenomics, Berlin, Germany), Frank Kolligs (University of Munich, Germany), Florian Lordick (University of Heidelberg, Germany), Hans Jorgen Nielsen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Anke Reinacher-Schick (University of Bochum, Germany), Christoph Röcken (University of Berlin, Germany), Wolff Schmiegel (University of Bochum, Germany) and Thomas Seufferlein (University of Halle, Germany).

  16. Therapeutic efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy versus exercise therapy in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naoto; Omata, Jun-Ichi; Iwabuchi, Masumi; Fukuda, Hironari; Shirado, Osamu

    2017-03-22

    Therapy for chronic, nonspecific low back pain is mainly conservative: medication and/or exercise. Pharmacotherapy, however, has side effects, and the quantities of concomitant drugs in older persons require attention. Although exercise promises improved function, its use to alleviate pain is controversial. Thus, we compared the efficacy of pharmacotherapy versus exercise for treating chronic nonspecific low back pain. The pharmacotherapy group (n=18: 8 men, 10 women) were prescribed celecoxib monotherapy. The exercise group (n=22: 10 men, 12 women) undertook stretching exercises. Because of drop-outs, the NSAID group (n=15: 7 men, 8 women) and the exercise group (n =18: 8 men, 10 women) were finally analyzed. We applied a visual analog scale, Roland-Morris disability scores, and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. We used a paired t-test for within-group analyses and an unpaired t-test for between-group analyses. Pain relief was achieved after 3 months of pharmacotherapy or exercise. Quality of life improved only in the exercise group. Recovery outcomes for the two groups were not significantly different. Efficacy of exercise therapy for strictly defined low back pain was almost equivalent to that of pharmacotherapy and provided better quality of life.

  17. Statistical design of a uranium corrosion experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelberger, Joanne R; Moore, Leslie M

    2009-01-01

    This work supports an experiment being conducted by Roland Schulze and Mary Ann Hill to study hydride formation, one of the most important forms of corrosion observed in uranium and uranium alloys. The study goals and objectives are described in Schulze and Hill (2008), and the work described here focuses on development of a statistical experiment plan being used for the study. The results of this study will contribute to the development of a uranium hydriding model for use in lifetime prediction models. A parametric study of the effect of hydrogen pressure, gap size and abrasion on hydride initiation and growth is being planned where results can be analyzed statistically to determine individual effects as well as multi-variable interactions. Input to ESC from this experiment will include expected hydride nucleation, size, distribution, and volume on various uranium surface situations (geometry) as a function of age. This study will also address the effect of hydrogen threshold pressure on corrosion nucleation and the effect of oxide abrasion/breach on hydriding processes. Statistical experiment plans provide for efficient collection of data that aids in understanding the impact of specific experiment factors on initiation and growth of corrosion. The experiment planning methods used here also allow for robust data collection accommodating other sources of variation such as the density of inclusions, assumed to vary linearly along the cast rods from which samples are obtained.

  18. Do Patient-Reported Outcome Measures describe functioning in patients with low back pain, using the Brief International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set as a reference?

    PubMed

    Ibsen, Charlotte; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Melchiorsen, Hanne; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Maribo, Thomas

    2016-07-18

    To link the items in the Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs): Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, Short Form 36 (SF-36) and pain scores, to the Brief International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for low back pain, and to examine the extent to which a clinician's assessment of patients' problems according to the Brief ICF Core Set correlates with the scores of matching items from the PROMs. The PROMs were linked to the Brief ICF Core Set for low back pain. Secondly, a cross-sectional study was conducted including 70 patients with low back pain. The patients completed the PROMs, and the Brief ICF Core Set for low back pain was assessed by a clinician using qualifiers. The items in the PROMs were successfully linked to the ICF. Twelve of the 38 unique ICF categories derived from the PROMs were covered by the Brief ICF Core Set (34%). A weak correlation was found between the patients' responses and the clinician's assessment. The selected PROMs do not cover the prototypical spectrum of problems encountered in patients with low back pain as defined by the Brief ICF Core Set. The clinical assessment of patients' problems according to the Brief ICF Core Set does not correlate with the scores of matching items from the PROMs.

  19. [Complicities and ambivalences of psychiatry: Münsterlingen and the 1954 feast of fools].

    PubMed

    Basso, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    In March 1954, Foucault visited the psychiatric asylum of Münsterlingen (Canton Thurgau), on the Swiss side of Lake Constance. Münsterlingen was the chosen place of activity for well-known psychiatrists, including Hermann Rorschach (1910-1913), and it became famous in the history of psychiatry especially through the work of Roland Kuhn, who was active in the asylum from 1939 to 1979. Kuhn was an expert in the Rorschach psycho-diagnostic test, as well as the discoverer of the first antidepressant in the early 1950s. He was also very close to Ludwig Binswanger, whose anthropological approach to mental illness had a strong influence on his own psychiatric practice. It is precisely in order to meet Kuhn and Binswanger that the young Foucault went to Switzerland, at a time when he was interested in philosophical anthropology and "existential psychopathology". Foucault's visit took place during the Carnival at the asylum, when the patients leave the hospital wearing the masks that they have made up and created. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  20. Illness, everyday life and narrative montage: the visual aesthetics of cancer in Sara Bro's Diary.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Nina; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2011-05-01

    This article presents a study of Sara Bro's Diary (2004), a book montage of images and texts recording the experiences of a Danish breast cancer survivor, Sara Bro. It examines two montages of photography and text, drawing on Roland Barthes' concept of 'the third meaning' to explain and discuss the effect of the layered meanings in the montage alongside their multi-medium and self-referential expression. The discussion is centred on the aesthetic practices that are invited by Bro's book montage. The article considers how the juxtaposition of images and texts are experienced and co-created by the reader. It points to the effect of the aesthetics of disguise and carnival implicit in the visual-verbal montage and argues that these generate a third meaning. This meaning is associated with the breast cancer experience but is not directly discernible in the montage. The article concludes by discussing how Bro's montage acts as an ideological statement, subverting or 'poaching on' the health care system.

  1. Intelligence-related differences in the asymmetry of spontaneous cerebral activity.

    PubMed

    Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Tatti, Elisa; Rossi, Simone; Serino, Vinicio; Rossi, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests the spontaneous BOLD signal synchronization of corresponding interhemispheric, homotopic regions as a stable trait of human brain physiology, with emerging differences in such organization being also related to some pathological conditions. To understand whether such brain functional symmetries play a role into higher-order cognitive functioning, here we correlated the functional homotopy profiles of 119 healthy subjects with their intelligence level. Counterintuitively, reduced homotopic connectivity in above average-IQ versus average-IQ subjects was observed, with significant reductions in visual and somatosensory cortices, supplementary motor area, rolandic operculum, and middle temporal gyrus, possibly suggesting that a downgrading of interhemispheric talk at rest could be associated with higher cognitive functioning. These regions also showed an increased spontaneous synchrony with medial structures located in ipsi- and contralateral hemispheres, with such pattern being mostly detectable for regions placed in the left hemisphere. The interactions with age and gender have been also tested, with different patterns for subjects above and below 25 years old and less homotopic connectivity in the prefrontal cortex and posterior midline regions in female participants with higher IQ scores. These findings support prior evidence suggesting a functional role for homotopic connectivity in human cognitive expression, promoting the reduction of synchrony between primary sensory regions as a predictor of higher intelligence levels.

  2. With Weekly Astronomy Tips Against the Weekly Papers' Astrology Humbug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szécsényi-Nagy, G. A.

    2006-08-01

    The true democracy - following a long lasting monolithic political-cultural system of the so-called Peoples' Democracy -- freed the sluices in the early nineties for any absurd written idea. No really powerful newspapers or widely circulated magazines were allowed to publish any destructive astrological advice during those 40 years. Although here and there, somehow, it appeared cloaked but was unable to reach the wide public. The first signs of these unwanted changes reached our nation through the electronic media (first of all television, of course ) but very soon a whirl of everyday astrology has occupied a substantial part of almost every newspaper.This situation urges professional and amateur astronomers, astrophysicists, as well as other skeptic scientists and journalists to set their face against any ideas of pseudo-science. In our country, the most has been done by the Hungarian Astronomical Association and the Roland Eötvös Physical Society.I intend to call the attention of our colleagues from other countries and regions to these brave initiatives, and inform them on some useful steps and their first results. I also expect a vivid exchange of the opinions and strategies that can build and develop a wiser society in the over-industrialized or consuming-oriented countries

  3. An Exploration of Maitland's Concept of Pain Irritability in Patients with Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Barakatt, Edward T.; Romano, Patrick S.; Riddle, Daniel L.; Beckett, Laurel A.; Kravitz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Maitland's construct of musculoskeletal pain irritability is widely used by physical therapists for making decisions about the vigor of examination and treatment, but this construct has not been defined to the extent that its measurement properties can be tested. The purposes of this study were to 1) determine if physical therapists utilize low back pain (LBP) irritability judgments to make treatment decisions, 2) identify LBP characteristics appropriate for an LBP irritability construct, and 3) develop a measurement construct of LBP irritability. Physical therapists evaluated and treated 183 subjects with LBP. The therapists judged the subjects' LBP as irritable or non-irritable, and recorded treatments provided at the initial visit. A principal-components analysis (PCA) was performed on 14 patient-reported LBP characteristics to identify potential components of a measurement construct of LBP irritability. The therapists' irritability judgments were found to be associated with the types of treatments prescribed. Five dimensions of LBP irritability were identified by the PCA from the 14 LBP characteristics considered. Four of these dimensions were associated with the therapists' LBP irritability judgments. The Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, presence of distal symptoms, and forward bending tolerance were found to have a stronger association with the irritability judgments than the dimensions of irritability identified in this study. Validated measures of LBP characteristics in current clinical use may adequately capture Maitland's concept of irritability. PMID:20140150

  4. Electroencephalographic sensorimotor rhythms are modulated in the acute phase following focal vibration in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Susanna; Bini, Fabiano; Del Percio, Claudio; Marinozzi, Franco; Celletti, Claudia; Suppa, Antonio; Ferri, Raffaele; Staltari, Emanuela; Camerota, Filippo; Babiloni, Claudio

    2017-06-03

    Few minutes of focal vibration (FV) on limb muscles can improve motor control in neurological (stroke, Parkinson) patients for unknown underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Here we hypothesized that in healthy volunteers this FV would increase excitability in the primary sensorimotor cortex (S1-M1) during an isometric contraction of the stimulated muscle. The design included an initial control condition with no FV stimulation (Baseline) as well as three short experimental sessions of FV and a Sham (fake) session in a pseudo-random order. In the Baseline condition and immediately after those sessions, electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded during a mild isometric muscle contraction of the right arm. Alpha and beta motor-related EEG power desynchronization (MRPD) at C4 and C3 electrodes overlying Rolandic regions were used as an index of the cortical excitation in S1-M1. Results showed that, compared to the Baseline (no FV) or Sham stimulation, the first two FV sessions showed a cumulative increase in alpha (but not beta) MRPD at C3 electrode, suggesting a specific effect of vibration on the excitability of contralateral S1-M1 generating EEG "mu" rhythms. FV over limb muscles modulates neurophysiological oscillations enhancing excitability of contralateral S1-M1 in healthy volunteers. The proposed mechanism may explain the clinical effects of vibratory rehabilitation in neurological patients with motor deficits. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of Human Gustatory Cortex by Activation Likelihood Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuizen, Maria G.; Albrecht, Jessica; Zelano, Christina; Boesveldt, Sanne; Breslin, Paul; Lundström, Johan N.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades, neuroimaging methods have identified a variety of taste-responsive brain regions. Their precise location, however, remains in dispute. For example, taste stimulation activates areas throughout the insula and overlying operculum, but identification of subregions has been inconsistent. Furthermore, literature reviews and summaries of gustatory brain activations tend to reiterate rather than resolve this ambiguity. Here we used a new meta-analytic method [activation likelihood estimation (ALE)] to obtain a probability map of the location of gustatory brain activation across fourteen studies. The map of activation likelihood values can also serve as a source of independent coordinates for future region-of-interest analyses. We observed significant cortical activation probabilities in: bilateral anterior insula and overlying frontal operculum, bilateral mid dorsal insula and overlying Rolandic operculum, and bilateral posterior insula/parietal operculum/postcentral gyrus, left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), right medial OFC, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (prACC) and right mediodorsal thalamus. This analysis confirms the involvement of multiple cortical areas within insula and overlying operculum in gustatory processing and provides a functional “taste map” which can be used as an inclusive mask in the data analyses of future studies. In light of this new analysis, we discuss human central processing of gustatory stimuli and identify topics where increased research effort is warranted. PMID:21305668

  6. The Five Factors of personality and regional cortical variability in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina; Davatzikos, Christos; Costa, Paul; Resnick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Although personality changes have been associated with brain lesions and atrophy caused by neurodegenerative diseases and aging, neuroanatomical correlates of personality in healthy individuals and their stability over time have received relatively little investigation. In this study, we explored regional gray matter (GM) volumetric associations of the five-factor model of personality. Eighty-seven healthy older adults took the NEO Personality Inventory and had brain MRI at two time points 2 years apart. We performed GM segmentation followed by regional analysis of volumes examined in normalized space map creation and voxel based morphometry-type statistical inference in SPM8. We created a regression model including all five factors and important covariates. Next, a conjunction analysis identified associations between personality scores and GM volumes that were replicable across time, also using cluster-level Family-Wise-Error correction. Larger right orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and rolandic operculum were associated with lower Neuroticism; larger left temporal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and anterior cingulate cortices with higher Extraversion; larger right frontopolar and smaller orbitofrontal and insular cortices with higher Openness; larger right orbitofrontal cortex with higher Agreeableness; larger dorsolateral prefrontal and smaller frontopolar cortices with higher Conscientiousness. In summary, distinct personality traits were associated with stable individual differences in GM volumes. As expected for higher-order traits, regions performing a large number of cognitive and affective functions were implicated. Our findings highlight personality-related variation that may be related to individual differences in brain structure that merit additional attention in neuroimaging research. PMID:22610513

  7. Adolescent patient with bilateral crossbite treated with surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion: a case report evaluated by the 3d laser scanner, and using FESA method.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Ch I; Velemínská, J; Dostálová, T; Foltán, R

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose in this case report is to present an orthodontic treatment obtained and the results achieved in 17-year-old white female patient with Angle Class II malocclusion and bilateral posterior crossbite. Patient was treated with bonded acrylic Hyrax appliance and surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). The multiloop system 0.16 TMA (ß titanium) arch wire was used in the alignment phase and on purpose to prohibit bite opening and optimize threedimensional movement control. After treatment bonded lingual retainers were placed in between maxillary central incisors and in mandible canine-to-canine. A functional removable Klammt appliance was used for retention. The 3D Laser Scanner Roland LPX-250 was used in order to obtain digital dental casts. Evaluation of the treatment results was measured on these models and using finite element scaling analysis (FESA). An Angle Class I relationship was obtained after 2½ years of treatment, function and facial aesthetics were improved. The shape of the palate changed significant in the width direction, not significantly in length and high direction. The greatest expansion of palate was found in the region between the palatal cusps of the first molars 26.6%, followed by first 21.9% and second premolars 16.5%. SARME in adult patients with bilateral cross bite and maxillary deficiency lead to satisfactory results. The 3D laser scanned models and their measurements, using advanced software's are successfully used for precise studies.

  8. Yoga treatment for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    PubMed

    Wieland, L Susan; Skoetz, Nicole; Pilkington, Karen; Vempati, Ramaprabhu; D'Adamo, Christopher R; Berman, Brian M

    2017-01-12

    participants and providers were not blinded to treatment assignment, and outcomes were self-assessed. Therefore, we downgraded all outcomes to 'moderate' certainty evidence because of risk of bias, and when there was additional serious risk of bias, unexplained heterogeneity between studies, or the analyses were imprecise, we downgraded the certainty of the evidence further.For yoga compared to non-exercise controls (9 trials; 810 participants), there was low-certainty evidence that yoga produced small to moderate improvements in back-related function at three to four months (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.66 to -0.14; corresponding to a change in the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire of mean difference (MD) -2.18, 95% -3.60 to -0.76), moderate-certainty evidence for small to moderate improvements at six months (SMD -0.44, 95% CI -0.66 to -0.22; corresponding to a change in the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire of MD -2.15, 95% -3.23 to -1.08), and low-certainty evidence for small improvements at 12 months (SMD -0.26, 95% CI -0.46 to -0.05; corresponding to a change in the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire of MD -1.36, 95% -2.41 to -0.26). On a 0-100 scale there was very low- to moderate-certainty evidence that yoga was slightly better for pain at three to four months (MD -4.55, 95% CI -7.04 to -2.06), six months (MD -7.81, 95% CI -13.37 to -2.25), and 12 months (MD -5.40, 95% CI -14.50 to -3.70), however we pre-defined clinically significant changes in pain as 15 points or greater and this threshold was not met. Based on information from six trials, there was moderate-certainty evidence that the risk of adverse events, primarily increased back pain, was higher in yoga than in non-exercise controls (risk difference (RD) 5%, 95% CI 2% to 8%).For yoga compared to non-yoga exercise controls (4 trials; 394 participants), there was very-low-certainty evidence for little or no difference in back-related function at three

  9. Leaf wax n-alkane patterns from plants and topsoils in the semi-humid to arid southern Caucasus region as a base for paleoenvironmental reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliedtner, Marcel; von Suchodoletz, Hans; Schäfer, Imke; Zech, Roland

    2017-04-01

    degradation effects and allows semi-quantitative reconstructions of past changes in vegetation types. References Bush, Rosemary T.; McInerney, Francesca A. (2013): Leaf wax n-alkane distributions in and across modern plants. Implications for paleoecology and chemotaxonomy. In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 117, S. 161-179. Schäfer, Imke; Lanny, Verena; Franke, Jörg; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Zech, Michael; Vysloužilová, Barbora; Zech, Roland (2016): Leaf waxes in litter and topsoils along a European transect. In: SOIL Discuss., S. 1-18. Zech, Roland; Zech, Michael; Marković, Slobodan; Hambach, Ulrich; Huang, Yongsong (2013): Humid glacials, arid interglacials? Critical thoughts on pedogenesis and paleoclimate based on multi-proxy analyses of the loess-paleosol sequence Crvenka, Northern Serbia. In: Palaeoge-ography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 387, S. 165-175.

  10. PREFACE: International Conference "Trends in Spintronics and Nanomagnetism" (TSN-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruccio, Giuseppe; Sanvito, Stefano; Hoffmann, Germar; Wiesendanger, Roland; Rowan, Alan

    2011-03-01

    Dublin, Ireland), Germar Hoffmann and Roland Wiesendanger (Institute for Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Germany), and Alan Rowan (NSRIM Institute Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands). This group also acted as the Publication Committee and managed all the submitted papers that were reviewed by expert referees in order to meet the standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Conference photographNobel Laureate A Fert with some members of the organizing committee. The conference would not have been possible without the support from the local organizing committee at the University of Salento and NNL Institute Nanoscience-CNR, including Anna Paola Caricato, Luigi Martina and the Conference Secretaries Maria Concetta Gerardi, Adriana Amato, and Gabriella Zammillo. We are grateful for the technical assistance of Michele Linciano, Antonio Guerrieri, Carmine Mangia, Luciano Carluccio, and Tommaso Moscara e Francesco Sabetta. We also gratefully acknowledge Serena Chiriacó, Anna Grazia Mondeduro and Massimo Corrado who helped to run the conference. The conference was made possible by the financial support from the European Commission through the SpiDME project (EU-FP6-029002), the Italian Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the University of Lecce and its Department of Physics, and all of the sponsors (Lot Oriel, Attocube, Schaefer, Cryogenic Ltd, Oxford Instruments, MTI Corporation, Cantele, Monte dei Paschi di Siena). Conference Chair and Co-Chairs Giuseppe MaruccioStefano SanvitoGermar HoffmannRoland WiesendangerAlan Rowan Logos

  11. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping in Women with Pregnancy-Related Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Şeyhmus; Alpayci, Mahmut; Karaman, Erbil; Çetin, Orkun; Özkan, Yasemin; İlter, Server; Şah, Volkan; Şahin, Hanım Güler

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnancy-related low back pain is a common condition during pregnancy. Kinesio tape is a drug-free elastic therapeutic tape used for treating various musculoskeletal problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of lumbar Kinesio taping on pain intensity and disability in women with pregnancy-related low back pain. Material/Methods A total of 65 patients with pregnancy-related low back pain were randomly allocated into either Kinesio taping (n=33) or control (n=32) groups. The intervention group was treated with paracetamol plus Kinesio taping, while the control group received only paracetamol. Kinesio taping was applied in the lumbar flexion position, and four I-shaped bands were used. Two bands were attached horizontally, with space correction technique. The remaining 2 bands, 1 on each side of the lumbar spine, were placed vertically, with inhibition technique. Low back pain intensity was measured on a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS), and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) was used for evaluation of disability. Results Pain intensity and RMDQ scores improved significantly in both groups at 5 days compared with baseline. Considering the degree of treatment effect (the change from baseline to day 5), the Kinesio taping group was significantly superior than the control group in all outcome measures (for all, P<0.001). Conclusions The results of this study indicate that Kinesio taping can be used as a complementary treatment method to achieve effective control of pregnancy-related low back pain. PMID:27088271

  12. Activation and Functional Connectivity of the Left Inferior Temporal Gyrus during Visual Speech Priming in Healthy Listeners and Listeners with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao; Zheng, Yingjun; Li, Juanhua; Zhang, Bei; Li, Ruikeng; Wu, Haibo; She, Shenglin; Liu, Sha; Peng, Hongjun; Ning, Yuping; Li, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Under a “cocktail-party” listening condition with multiple-people talking, compared to healthy people, people with schizophrenia benefit less from the use of visual-speech (lipreading) priming (VSP) cues to improve speech recognition. The neural mechanisms underlying the unmasking effect of VSP remain unknown. This study investigated the brain substrates underlying the unmasking effect of VSP in healthy listeners and the schizophrenia-induced changes in the brain substrates. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain activation and functional connectivity for the contrasts of the VSP listening condition vs. the visual non-speech priming (VNSP) condition were examined in 16 healthy listeners (27.4 ± 8.6 years old, 9 females and 7 males) and 22 listeners with schizophrenia (29.0 ± 8.1 years old, 8 females and 14 males). The results showed that in healthy listeners, but not listeners with schizophrenia, the VSP-induced activation (against the VNSP condition) of the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (pITG) was significantly correlated with the VSP-induced improvement in target-speech recognition against speech masking. Compared to healthy listeners, listeners with schizophrenia showed significantly lower VSP-induced activation of the left pITG and reduced functional connectivity of the left pITG with the bilateral Rolandic operculum, bilateral STG, and left insular. Thus, the left pITG and its functional connectivity may be the brain substrates related to the unmasking effect of VSP, assumedly through enhancing both the processing of target visual-speech signals and the inhibition of masking-speech signals. In people with schizophrenia, the reduced unmasking effect of VSP on speech recognition may be associated with a schizophrenia-related reduction of VSP-induced activation and functional connectivity of the left pITG. PMID:28360829

  13. Effects of Smoking on Subjective and Objective Measures of Pain Intensity, Functional Impairment, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Lumbar Degenerative Disk Disease.

    PubMed

    Joswig, Holger; Stienen, Martin N; Smoll, Nicolas R; Corniola, Marco V; Chau, Ivan; Schaller, Karl; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2017-03-01

    Numerous studies assessed the effects of smoking on lumbar degenerative disk disease (DDD); they focused on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and yielded conflicting results. In this 2-center study on consecutive patients receiving surgical treatment for lumbar DDD, subjective functional impairment (SFI) in terms of PROMs including visual analog scale back and leg pain, Roland-Morris, Oswestry Disability Index, Euro-Qol-5D, and a Short-Form 12 physical component summary was determined at baseline, 3 days, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Age- and sex-adjusted T-scores of objective functional impairment (OFI) were determined using the Timed Up and Go test up to 6 weeks postoperatively. The responder status was defined by the minimal clinically important difference. We analyzed 375 patients (n = 96 [25.6%] smokers and n = 279 [74.4%] nonsmokers). SFI on any of the PROMs before treatment was similar in smokers and nonsmokers. Smokers were more likely to have OFI in univariate logistic regression analysis (95% confidence interval 1.31-3.37, P = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, however, this relationship became insignificant (95% confidence interval 0.85-2.38, P = 0.184). The smoking status had no predictive capacity on the 6-week SFI or OFI responder status, and there were no differences in any of the PROMs until the 1-year follow-up. PROMs measuring SFI for pain intensity, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life were similar in smokers and nonsmokers before surgery for lumbar DDD, as well as postoperatively. The smoking status has negligible impact on the Timed Up and Go test, which appears to be a robust assessment tool for OFI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Randomized, Single-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study on the Efficacy of the Arthrokinematic Approach-Hakata Method in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kogure, Akira; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Katada, Shigehiko; Takagi, Hiroshi; Kamikozuru, Masahiro; Isaji, Takashi; Hakata, Setsuo

    2015-01-01

    Study design cized, single-blind, controlled trial. Objective To investigate the efficacy of the Arthrokinematic approach (AKA)-Hakata (H) method for chronic low back pain. Summary of Background Data The AKA-H method is used to manually treat abnormalities of intra-articular movement. Methods One hundred eighty-six patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain randomly received either the AKA-H method (AKA-H group) or the sham technique (S group) monthly for 6 months. Data were collected at baseline and once a month. Outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale [VAS]) and quality of life (the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire [RDQ] and Short Form SF-36 questionnaire [SF-36]). Results At baseline, the VAS, RDQ, and SF-36 scores showed similar levels between the groups. After 6 months, the AKA-H group had more improvement in the VAS (42.8% improvement) and RDQ score (31.1% improvement) than the sham group (VAS: 10.4% improvement; RDQ: 9.8% improvement; both, P < 0.001). The respective scores for the SF-36 subscales (physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, social functioning, general health perception, role emotional, and mental health) were also significantly more improved in the AKA-H group than in the sham group (all, P < 0.001). The scores for the physical, psychological, and social aspects of the SF-36 subscales showed similar improvement in the AKA-H group. Conclusion The AKA-H method can be effective in managing chronic low back pain. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000006250. PMID:26646534

  15. Reliability and validity of lumbar and abdominal trunk muscle endurance tests in office workers with nonspecific subacute low back pain.

    PubMed

    del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Mocholi, Miguel H; del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Parraca, Jose A; Adsuar, Jose C; Gusi, Narcis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of trunk endurance tests, the reliability and validity of these tests in office workers with subacute nonspecific low back pain are unknown. This cross-sectional study involved 190 subjects: 30 men and 42 women without low back pain and 47 men and 71 women with low back pain. All subjects underwent timed prone and supine isometric lumbar and abdominal trunk endurance tests that were performed until subjective fatigue occurred. All subjects also completed the Roland Morris and Oswestry self-reported disability questionnaires. A test-retest study (7 days) was conducted with 31 participants with low back pain from the study. For the abdominal trunk endurance test, males and females with low back pain had mean (SD) values of 62.06 (36.87) and 46.06 (29.28) seconds, respectively, both significantly lower than the asymptomatic workers. For the lumbar test, males and females with low back pain had mean (SD) values of 79.57 (30.66) and 75.49 (28.97) seconds, respectively, again, both significantly lower than the asymptomatic workers. The intraclass correlation coefficients of both tests exceeded 0.90 and the Kappa indices were excellent for both men and women. Receiver-operating curve analyses revealed areas under the curve very close to or exceeding 0.70 for both men and women for both tests. The lumbar and abdominal trunk muscle endurance tests appeared to be reliable and valid measures in office workers with subacute low back pain.

  16. Resistance Exercise, Disability, and Pain Catastrophizing in Obese Adults with Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Heather K.; George, Steven Z.; Seay, Amanda N.; Vincent, Kevin R.; Hurley, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different resistance exercise protocols on self-reported disability, fear avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing and back pain symptoms in obese, older adults with low back pain. Methods Obese adults (N=49; 60–85 years) with chronic low back pain (LBP) were randomized into a total body resistance exercise intervention (TOTRX), lumbar extensor exercise intervention (LEXT) or a control group (CON). Main outcomes included perceived disability (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire [RMDQ]). Psychosocial measures included the Fear Avoidance Beliefs (FAB) survey, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). LBP severity was measured during three functional tasks: walking, stair climb and chair rise using an 11 point numerical pain rating scale (NRSpain). Results The TOTRX group had greater reductions in self-reported disability scores due to back pain (ODI, RMDQ) compared to LEXT (p<0.05). The PCS scores decreased in the TOTRX compared to CON by month four (64.3% vs 4.8%, p<0.05). Pain severity during chair rise activity, and walking pain severity was decreased in both LEXT and TOTRX relative to the CON group. Conclusions Greater reductions in perceived disability due to LBP can be achieved with TOTRX compared to LEXT. Pain catastrophizing and pain severity decreased most with TOTRX. The positive change in psychological outlook may assist obese, older adults with chronic back pain re-consider the harmfulness of the pain and facilitate regular participation in other exercise programs. PMID:25133997

  17. Effectiveness of Back School program versus hydrotherapy in elderly patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Cosimo; Romiti, Davide

    2014-06-24

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major cause of disability, for which clinical practice guidelines suggest exercise programs, such as Back School program (stretching and selective muscle reinforcement techniques) and Hydrotherapy technique, as an effective treatment to reduce pain intensity and disability. We enrolled 56 elderly individuals, affected by non-specific CLBP, whose pain had worsened in the last three months, which were randomly allocated to Back School (group A) or to Hydrotherapy program (group B). Each group underwent two one-hour-treatment sessions per week, over a 12-week period. Each patient was evaluated using the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) V2.0 at the beginning (T0), at the end of treatment (T1) and at the 3-month follow-up (T2). At T1 and T2 we observed a highly significant statistical difference in the values measured  in both groups: at T1 in group A RMDQ improvement of 3.26±1.02 (p<0.001) and SF-36 of 13.30±1.44 (p<0.001); in group B RMDQ improvement of 4.96±0.71 (p<0.001) and SF-36 of 14.19±1.98 (p<0.001). We have also evaluated the difference in effectiveness of the two programs and no significant statistical differences were found between the two groups. Back School program and Hydrotherapy could be valid treatment options in the rehabilitation of non-specific CLBP in elderly people. Both therapies proved to be effective and can be used in association with other rehabilitation programs. We believe that Back School program should be favored for its simplicity and the small number of resources required. 

  18. Sex differences in associations of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin with resting-state functional brain connectivity.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Leah H; Yao, Li; Keedy, Sarah K; Reilly, James L; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Carter, C Sue; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Drogos, Lauren L; Tamminga, Carol A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Clementz, Brett A; Hill, Scot K; Liao, Wei; Ji, Gong-Jun; Lui, Su; Sweeney, John A

    2017-01-02

    Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) exert robust and sexually dimorphic influences on cognition and emotion. How these hormones regulate relevant functional brain systems is not well understood. OT and AVP serum concentrations were assayed in 60 healthy individuals (36 women). Brain functional networks assessed with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were constructed with graph theory-based approaches that characterize brain networks as connected nodes. Sex differences were demonstrated in rs-fMRI. Men showed higher nodal degree (connectedness) and efficiency (information propagation capacity) in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) and higher nodal degree in left rolandic operculum. Women showed higher nodal betweenness (being part of paths between nodes) in right putamen and left inferior parietal gyrus (IPG). Higher hormone levels were associated with less intrinsic connectivity. In men, higher AVP was associated with lower nodal degree and efficiency in left IFG (pars orbitalis) and left STG and less efficiency in left IFG (pars triangularis). In women, higher AVP was associated with lower betweenness in left IPG, and higher OT was associated with lower nodal degree in left IFG (pars orbitalis). Hormones differentially correlate with brain networks that are important for emotion processing and cognition in men and women. AVP in men and OT in women may regulate orbital frontal cortex connectivity, which is important in emotion processing. Hormone associations with STG and pars triangularis in men and parietal cortex in women may account for well-established sex differences in verbal and visuospatial abilities, respectively. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Eighteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Horne, R.J.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1993-01-28

    PREFACE The Eighteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 26-28, 1993. There were one hundred and seventeen registered participants which was greater than the attendance last year. Participants were from eight foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Guatemala, and Iceland. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Dean Gary Ernst opened the meeting and welcomed the visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Mock who also spoke at the banquet. Thirty-nine papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: field operations, The Geysers, geoscience, hot-dry-rock, injection, modeling, slim hole wells, geochemistry, well test and wellbore. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: John Counsil, Kathleen Enedy, Harry Olson, Eduardo Iglesias, Marcelo Lippmann, Paul Atkinson, Jim Lovekin, Marshall Reed, Antonio Correa, and David Faulder. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to John Hornbrook who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook

  20. The importance of synchrony and temporal order of visual and tactile input for illusory limb ownership experiences - an FMRI study applying virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Foell, Jens; Diers, Martin; Kamping, Sandra; Rance, Mariela; Kirsch, Pinar; Trojan, Jörg; Fuchs, Xaver; Bach, Felix; Çakmak, Hüseyin Kemal; Maaß, Heiko; Flor, Herta

    2014-01-01

    In the so-called rubber hand illusion, synchronous visuotactile stimulation of a visible rubber hand together with one's own hidden hand elicits ownership experiences for the artificial limb. Recently, advanced virtual reality setups were developed to induce a virtual hand illusion (VHI). Here, we present functional imaging data from a sample of 25 healthy participants using a new device to induce the VHI in the environment of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. In order to evaluate the neuronal robustness of the illusion, we varied the degree of synchrony between visual and tactile events in five steps: in two conditions, the tactile stimulation was applied prior to visual stimulation (asynchrony of -300 ms or -600 ms), whereas in another two conditions, the tactile stimulation was applied after visual stimulation (asynchrony of +300 ms or +600 ms). In the fifth condition, tactile and visual stimulation was applied synchronously. On a subjective level, the VHI was successfully induced by synchronous visuotactile stimulation. Asynchronies between visual and tactile input of ±300 ms did not significantly diminish the vividness of illusion, whereas asynchronies of ±600 ms did. The temporal order of visual and tactile stimulation had no effect on VHI vividness. Conjunction analyses of functional MRI data across all conditions revealed significant activation in bilateral ventral premotor cortex (PMv). Further characteristic activation patterns included bilateral activity in the motion-sensitive medial superior temporal area as well as in the bilateral Rolandic operculum, suggesting their involvement in the processing of bodily awareness through the integration of visual and tactile events. A comparison of the VHI-inducing conditions with asynchronous control conditions of ±600 ms yielded significant PMv activity only contralateral to the stimulation site. These results underline the temporal limits of the induction of limb ownership related to multisensory

  1. Functional connectivity between brain regions involved in learning words of a new language.

    PubMed

    Veroude, Kim; Norris, David G; Shumskaya, Elena; Gullberg, Marianne; Indefrey, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have identified several brain regions that appear to be involved in the acquisition of novel word forms. Standard word-by-word presentation is often used although exposure to a new language normally occurs in a natural, real world situation. In the current experiment we investigated naturalistic language exposure and applied a model-free analysis for hemodynamic-response data. Functional connectivity, temporal correlations between hemodynamic activity of different areas, was assessed during rest before and after presentation of a movie of a weather report in Mandarin Chinese to Dutch participants. We hypothesized that learning of novel words might be associated with stronger functional connectivity of regions that are involved in phonological processing. Participants were divided into two groups, learners and non-learners, based on the scores on a post hoc word recognition task. The learners were able to recognize Chinese target words from the weather report, while the non-learners were not. In the first resting state period, before presentation of the movie, stronger functional connectivity was observed for the learners compared to the non-learners between the left supplementary motor area and the left precentral gyrus as well as the left insula and the left rolandic operculum, regions that are important for phonological rehearsal. After exposure to the weather report, functional connectivity between the left and right supramarginal gyrus was stronger for learners than for non-learners. This is consistent with a role of the left supramarginal gyrus in the storage of phonological forms. These results suggest both pre-existing and learning-induced differences between the two groups.

  2. Electrocorticographic correlates of overt articulation of 44 English phonemes: intracranial recording in children with focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Goichiro; Brown, Erik C; Matsuzaki, Naoyuki; Kojima, Katsuaki; Nishida, Masaaki; Asano, Eishi

    2014-06-01

    We determined the temporal-spatial patterns of electrocorticography (ECoG) signal modulation during overt articulation of 44 American English phonemes. We studied two children with focal epilepsy who underwent extraoperative ECoG recording. Using animation movies, we delineated 'when' and 'where' gamma- (70-110 Hz) and low-frequency-band activities (10-30 Hz) were modulated during self-paced articulation. Regardless of the classes of phoneme articulated, gamma-augmentation initially involved a common site within the left inferior Rolandic area. Subsequently, gamma-augmentation and/or attenuation involved distinct sites within the left oral-sensorimotor area with a timing variable across phonemes. Finally, gamma-augmentation in a larynx-sensorimotor area took place uniformly at the onset of sound generation, and effectively distinguished voiced and voiceless phonemes. Gamma-attenuation involved the left inferior-frontal and superior-temporal regions simultaneously during articulation. Low-frequency band attenuation involved widespread regions including the frontal, temporal, and parietal regions. Our preliminary results support the notion that articulation of distinct phonemes recruits specific sensorimotor activation and deactivation. Gamma attenuation in the left inferior-frontal and superior-temporal regions may reflect transient functional suppression in these cortical regions during automatic, self-paced vocalization of phonemes containing no semantic or syntactic information. Further studies are warranted to determine if measurement of event-related modulations of gamma-band activity, compared to that of the low-frequency-band, is more useful for decoding the underlying articulatory functions. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative analysis and biophysically realistic neural modeling of the MEG mu rhythm: rhythmogenesis and modulation of sensory-evoked responses.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie R; Pritchett, Dominique L; Sikora, Michael A; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Hämäläinen, Matti; Moore, Christopher I

    2009-12-01

    Variations in cortical oscillations in the alpha (7-14 Hz) and beta (15-29 Hz) range have been correlated with attention, working memory, and stimulus detection. The mu rhythm recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a prominent oscillation generated by Rolandic cortex containing alpha and beta bands. Despite its prominence, the neural mechanisms regulating mu are unknown. We characterized the ongoing MEG mu rhythm from a localized source in the finger representation of primary somatosensory (SI) cortex. Subjects showed variation in the relative expression of mu-alpha or mu-beta, which were nonoverlapping for roughly 50% of their respective durations on single trials. To delineate the origins of this rhythm, a biophysically principled computational neural model of SI was developed, with distinct laminae, inhibitory and excitatory neurons, and feedforward (FF, representative of lemniscal thalamic drive) and feedback (FB, representative of higher-order cortical drive or input from nonlemniscal thalamic nuclei) inputs defined by the laminar location of their postsynaptic effects. The mu-alpha component was accurately modeled by rhythmic FF input at approximately 10-Hz. The mu-beta component was accurately modeled by the addition of approximately 10-Hz FB input that was nearly synchronous with the FF input. The relative dominance of these two frequencies depended on the delay between FF and FB drives, their relative input strengths, and stochastic changes in these variables. The model also reproduced key features of the impact of high prestimulus mu power on peaks in SI-evoked activity. For stimuli presented during high mu power, the model predicted enhancement in an initial evoked peak and decreased subsequent deflections. In agreement, the MEG-evoked responses showed an enhanced initial peak and a trend to smaller subsequent peaks. These data provide new information on the dynamics of the mu rhythm in humans and the model provides a novel mechanistic

  4. Quantitative Analysis and Biophysically Realistic Neural Modeling of the MEG Mu Rhythm: Rhythmogenesis and Modulation of Sensory-Evoked Responses

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, Dominique L.; Sikora, Michael A.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Hämäläinen, Matti; Moore, Christopher I.

    2009-01-01

    Variations in cortical oscillations in the alpha (7–14 Hz) and beta (15–29 Hz) range have been correlated with attention, working memory, and stimulus detection. The mu rhythm recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a prominent oscillation generated by Rolandic cortex containing alpha and beta bands. Despite its prominence, the neural mechanisms regulating mu are unknown. We characterized the ongoing MEG mu rhythm from a localized source in the finger representation of primary somatosensory (SI) cortex. Subjects showed variation in the relative expression of mu-alpha or mu-beta, which were nonoverlapping for roughly 50% of their respective durations on single trials. To delineate the origins of this rhythm, a biophysically principled computational neural model of SI was developed, with distinct laminae, inhibitory and excitatory neurons, and feedforward (FF, representative of lemniscal thalamic drive) and feedback (FB, representative of higher-order cortical drive or input from nonlemniscal thalamic nuclei) inputs defined by the laminar location of their postsynaptic effects. The mu-alpha component was accurately modeled by rhythmic FF input at approximately 10-Hz. The mu-beta component was accurately modeled by the addition of approximately 10-Hz FB input that was nearly synchronous with the FF input. The relative dominance of these two frequencies depended on the delay between FF and FB drives, their relative input strengths, and stochastic changes in these variables. The model also reproduced key features of the impact of high prestimulus mu power on peaks in SI-evoked activity. For stimuli presented during high mu power, the model predicted enhancement in an initial evoked peak and decreased subsequent deflections. In agreement, the MEG-evoked responses showed an enhanced initial peak and a trend to smaller subsequent peaks. These data provide new information on the dynamics of the mu rhythm in humans and the model provides a novel mechanistic

  5. Auricular acupuncture for primary care treatment of low back pain and posterior pelvic pain in pregnancy: study protocol for a multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background About 45% of all pregnant women suffer low back pain and/or pelvic girdle pain (LBPGP). This study seeks to evaluate the effect of auricular acupuncture on LBPGP compared with placebo auricular acupuncture and with standard obstetric care in the field of primary health care. Methods and design This study will be a four-parallel-arm, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 212 pregnant women (24 to 36 weeks’ gestation), aged at least 17 years, with LBPGP, will be randomly assigned to the verum auricular acupuncture plus standard obstetric care group (VAAc), to the non-specific auricular acupuncture plus standard obstetric care group (NSAAc), to the non-specific placebo auricular acupuncture plus standard obstetric care group (PAAc), or the standard obstetric care group (SOC). The VAAc, NSAAc, and PAAc groups will receive treatment at three auricular acupuncture points (specific points for the VAAc group or non-specific ones for the NSAAc and PAAc groups), once a week for 2 weeks; the SOC group will receive only standard obstetric care during the same period. The primary outcome will be the reduction in pain intensity, according to the visual analogue scale (iVAS), at 2 weeks after the start of treatment. The secondary outcomes will be functional status with respect to LBPGP (according to the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire), health-related quality of life (SF12) at 2 weeks after the start of treatment, and iVAS at 12 and 48 weeks postpartum. Discussion This trial will implement a high-quality methodology and may provide evidence for the efficacy, safety, and specificity of auricular acupuncture as a treatment for pregnant women with LBPGP. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN41033073 (date 20/03/2014). PMID:25027493

  6. Daily pilates exercise or inactivity for patients with low back pain: a clinical prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, A; Fischetti, F; Maccagnano, G; Comes, R; Tafuri, S; Moretti, B

    2014-02-01

    Studies have shown the effectiveness of a few weekly pilates sessions as helping to reduce lower back pain (LBP). However many patients fear that physical activity can actually make the pain and disability worse. We carried out this observational prospective clinical study to look at the effects that taking part in daily pilates has one on side and on the other the effects of LBP management without physical exercise. The volunteers who participated in this study were recruited from among some local cultural associations. Patients affected by LBP were evaluated. The subjects were 60 volunteers (27 males and 33 females) with a mean age of 51.2 years who had chronic low back pain (CLBP). They were allocated to pilates group (N.=30) or inactivity control group (N.=30). The pilates group performed one-hour lesson of pilates exercise, 5 lessons per week during the following 6 months. The inactivity group continued with their normal daily activities. The Roland-Morris Disability, the Oswestry, the SF-36 and the Spinal Functional Sort Questionaries of all subjects were measured at the baseline (T1) and at 6 months (T2). At T2 improvements were observed in the pilates group with increases in physical and social functioning, general health and vitality (P<0.05) and decreases in disability and pain (P<0.05). The inactivity group showed worsening in the same measures at T2. We found an important improvement of pain, disability and physical and psychological perception of health in individuals who did the daily sessions of pilates. Some authors underlined the possible risk of a lack of adherence to an exercise program at home. This study suggests that a daily pilates program is effective for the management of CLBP. On the other hand, the inactivity contributes to further worsening, inducing a vicious cycle in which pain and physical activity intolerance follow each other.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of decompression according to Gill versus instrumented spondylodesis in the treatment of sciatica due to low grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis: a prospective randomised controlled trial [NTR1300].

    PubMed

    Arts, Mark P; Verstegen, Marco J T; Brand, Ronald; Koes, Bart W; van den Akker, M Elske; Peul, Wilco C

    2008-09-28

    Nerve root decompression with instrumented spondylodesis is the most frequently performed surgical procedure in the treatment of patients with symptomatic low-grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. Nerve root decompression without instrumented fusion, i.e. Gill's procedure, is an alternative and less invasive approach. A comparative cost-effectiveness study has not been performed yet. We present the design of a randomised controlled trial on cost-effectiveness of decompression according to Gill versus instrumented spondylodesis. All patients (age between 18 and 70 years) with sciatica or neurogenic claudication lasting more than 3 months due to spondylolytic spondylolisthesis grade I or II, are eligible for inclusion. Patients will be randomly allocated to nerve root decompression according to Gill, either unilateral or bilateral, or pedicle screw fixation with interbody fusion. The main primary outcome measure is the functional assessment of the patient measured with the Roland Disability Questionnaire for Sciatica at 12 weeks and 2 years. Other primary outcome measures are perceived recovery and intensity of leg pain and low back pain. The secondary outcome measures include, incidence of re-operations, complications, serum creatine phosphokinase, quality of life, medical consumption, costs, absenteeism, work perception, depression and anxiety, and treatment preference. The study is a randomised prospective multicenter trial in which two surgical techniques are compared in a parallel group design. Patients and research nurse will not be blinded during the follow-up period of 2 years. Currently, nerve root decompression with instrumented fusion is the golden standard in the surgical treatment of low-grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, although scientific proof justifying instrumented spondylodesis over simple decompression is lacking. This trial is designed to elucidate the controversy in best surgical treatment of symptomatic patients with low

  8. Adolescent smokers show decreased brain responses to pleasurable food images compared with nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Mark L; Luks, Tracy L; Dryden, Wendy Y; Rait, Michelle A; Simpson, Gregory V

    2011-08-01

    Nicotine acts on the mesocorticolimbic circuits of the brain leading to the release of dopamine. Repeated elevations of dopamine in the brain may cause smokers to become less sensitive to "natural reinforcers." To test the theory that adolescents with low nicotine exposure may already have decreased activation when exposed to a natural reinforcer, we looked at the effect of visual cues representing "pleasurable" food on light adolescent smokers compared with nonsmokers. Twelve adolescent light smokers (aged 13-17 years, smoked 1-5 cigarettes/day) and 12 nonsmokers (aged 13-17 years, never smoked a cigarette) from the San Francisco Bay Area underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. During scanning, they viewed blocks of photographic images representing pleasurable foods (sweet, high fat, and salty foods) and control cues. Smokers reported smoking a mean of 3.6 cigarettes/day. There was no difference in body mass index between groups (24.1 vs. 24.0, respectively, p = .99). Food images elicited greater activations in nonsmokers in multiple areas including the insula (T = 4.38, p < .001), inferior frontal region (T = 5.12, p < .001), and rolandic operculum (T = 6.18, p < .001). There were no regions where smokers demonstrated greater blood oxygenation level-dependent activations compared with nonsmokers when viewing food versus neutral images. The finding of decreased activation to pleasurable food among adolescent light smokers supports the theory that these adolescents are displaying decreased sensitivity to at least one natural reinforcer. This also supports the theory that nicotine may affect the brain early in the trajectory of smoking, thus underscoring the need for early intervention among adolescent smokers.

  9. Plasma-Photocatalyst Interaction for VOC Removal: Origin of the Synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Antoine

    2007-10-01

    It is well known that the coupling of an atmospheric non-thermal plasma with catalytic materials lead to synergetic effects for the abatement of some volatiles organic compounds (VOC). We analyze, here, the mechanisms of such a synergy where the catalyst is a porous semi-conductor (TiO2). Different porous materials are compared: silica fibers possibly containing SiO2 and/or TiO2 nanoparticles. The respective influence of the porosity versus the chemical type of the catalyst is investigated and the oxidizing species are identified using two complementary approaches. 1) Efficiency of the plasma-catalyst coupling in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure, 2) Plasma-catalytic surface interaction in a pulsed low pressure discharge. It is shown that the VOC oxidation scales as a function of the specific injected energy and occurs mainly on the porous surface due to short-life species produced the plasma [1-3]; Time resolved and in-situ measurements using laser absorption spectroscopy and emission spectroscopy in a low-pressure experiment have shown that i) plasma-TiO2 synergy is also evidenced at low pressure[4], ii) O atoms are reversively adsorbed on porous nanoparticles of TiO2; their desorption occur during the first millisecond of a plasma pulse [5], iii) air-plasma pre-treatment of the porous material leads to an enhancement of VOC adsorption on porous TiO2 and has no influence on porous silica. [1] U. Roland et al. Catalysis Today 73 315--323 [2] F. Thevenet et al. Catal. Today 122 (2007) 186--194 [3] F. Thevenet et al. International Journal of Plasma Environmental Science and Technology, 1, (2007), 52-56 [4] A. Rousseau et al. Appl. Phys. Let. 87, 221501 (2005) [5] Allegraud et al. J. Phys. D. : Appl. Phys submitted.

  10. What is the optimum fusion technique for adult isthmic spondylolisthesis--PLIF or PLF? A long-term prospective cohort comparison study.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, John Edward; Elling, Elizabeth Mary; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Robertson, Peter Alexander

    2013-07-01

    Long-term prospective observational cohort study. The objective of the study was to compare the long-term functional outcomes of posterolateral fusion (PLF) and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) for the treatment of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS). PLIF has the theoretical advantage of improving sagittal alignment and providing a larger, more consistent fusion mass in patients with IS compared with PLF. Studies to date though have not shown a clinical difference, with follow-up of 2 years. An prospective cohort study was performed of a single surgeon's patients with IS treated surgically over a 10-year period. Average follow-up was 7 years and 10 months. Preoperative patient characteristics between the 2 groups were not significantly different. The return rate of the long-term questionnaires was 83%. Outcome measures were the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), Low Back Outcome Score (LBOS), Short Form (SF)-12v2, and SF-6D R2. PLIF provided better short-term and long-term results than PLF. The PLIF group had significantly better LBOS scores in the long term, and nonsignificantly better RMDQ scores. As measured by the RMDQ Minimal Clinically Important Difference set at 4 and 8, the LBOS Minimal Clinically Important Difference set at 7.5 points and by SF-12v2 Physical Component Score, PLIF patients performed better than PLF patients. When analyzing single-level fusions alone, the difference is more pronounced, with Physical Component Score, Mental Component Scores, and SF-6D R2 all being significantly better in the PLIF group rather than the PLF group. This study strongly supports the use of PLIF to obtain equivalent or superior clinical outcomes compared with PLF for spinal fusion for lumbar IS. Although there are considerable issues when commenting on the results of observational studies, the results of this study are the first to report long-term follow-up beyond 2 years, and further larger long-term randomized studies are suggested.

  11. The effects of physical therapeutic agents on serum levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tönük, Şükrü Burak; Serin, Erdinc; Ayhan, Fikriye Figen; Yorgancioglu, Zeynep Rezan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the effects of physical agents on the levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, hot packs, and therapeutic ultrasound were applied to the lumbar region and knees of patients with OA. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of the serum levels of glucose, insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), cortisol (COR), and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immediately before and after the 1st session, to investigate the acute effects of those physical agents on the endocrine system. The hormone levels were also measured every 5 sessions in a total of 10 sessions. The treatment response was also evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) throughout the therapy period. After the 1st session, there was a decrease in INS levels and a mild decrease in PRL levels (P = 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Throughout the 10-session therapy period, the INS levels increased, whereas the ACTH and COR levels decreased (P < 0.05 for all). The VAS-spine, RMDQ, VAS-knee, and WOMAC scores decreased (P = 0.001 for VAS-spine and P < 0.001 for all others). A positive correlation was detected between the changes in serum COR and WOMAC-pain score (P < 0.05). Although the combination therapy caused changes in INS level accompanied with steady glucose levels, the application of physical agents did not adversely affect the hormone levels. The decrease in ACTH and COR levels may be attributed to the analgesic effect of agents and may be an indicator of patient comfort through a central action. PMID:27583888

  12. Applications of finite element simulation in orthopedic and trauma surgery

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Cegoñino, José; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Puértolas, Sergio; López, Enrique; Mateo, Jesús; Gracia, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Research in different areas of orthopedic and trauma surgery requires a methodology that allows both a more economic approach and the ability to reproduce different situations in an easy way. Simulation models have been introduced recently in bioengineering and could become an essential tool in the study of any physiological unity, regardless of its complexity. The main problem in modeling with finite elements simulation is to achieve an accurate reproduction of the anatomy and a perfect correlation of the different structures, in any region of the human body. Authors have developed a mixed technique, joining the use of a three-dimensional laser scanner Roland Picza captured together with computed tomography (CT) and 3D CT images, to achieve a perfect reproduction of the anatomy. Finite element (FE) simulation lets us know the biomechanical changes that take place after hip prostheses or osteosynthesis implantation and biological responses of bone to biomechanical changes. The simulation models are able to predict changes in bone stress distribution around the implant, so allowing preventing future pathologies. The development of a FE model of lumbar spine is another interesting application of the simulation. The model allows research on the lumbar spine, not only in physiological conditions but also simulating different load conditions, to assess the impact on biomechanics. Different degrees of disc degeneration can also be simulated to determine the impact on adjacent anatomical elements. Finally, FE models may be useful to test different fixation systems, i.e., pedicular screws, interbody devices or rigid fixations compared with the dynamic ones. We have also developed models of lumbar spine and hip joint to predict the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures, based on densitometric determinations and specific biomechanical models, including approaches from damage and fracture mechanics. FE simulations also allow us to predict the behavior of orthopedic splints

  13. A comparison of two short education programs for improving low back pain-related disability in the elderly: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Francisco; Abraira, Víctor; Santos, Severo; Díaz, Elena; Gestoso, Mario; Muriel, Alfonso; Gil del Real, María Teresa; Mufraggi, Nicole; Noguera, Juan; Zamora, Javier

    2007-05-01

    Cluster randomized clinical trial. To assess the effectiveness of 2 minimal education programs for improving low back pain (LBP)-related disability in the elderly. No education program has shown effectiveness on low back pain (LBP)-related disability in the elderly. A total of 129 nursing homes (6389 residents) in northern Spain were invited to participate in the study. The actual participants were 12 nursing homes randomly assigned to 3 groups and 661 subjects. An independent physician gave a 20-minute talk with slide projections summarizing the content of the Back Book (active management group), the Back Guide (postural hygiene group), and a pamphlet on cardiovascular health (controls). Disability was measured with the Roland-Morris questionnaire (RMQ). Blind assessments were performed before the intervention, and 30 and 180 days later. The effect of the intervention on disability was estimated by generalized mixed linear random effects models. Mean age of participants ranged between 79.9 and 81.2 years. Disability improved in all groups, but at the 30-day assessment the postural education group showed an additional improvement of 1.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.2-1.9), RMQ points and at the 180-day assessment the active education group an additional improvement of 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.6-3.4). In the subset of subjects with LBP when entering the study, postural education had no advantages over controls, while an additional improvement of 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.5- 4.5) RMQ points at the 180-day assessment was observed in the active education group. In institutionalized elderly, the handing out of the Back Book supported by a 20-minute group talk improves disability 6 months later, and is even more effective in those subjects with LBP.

  14. The five factors of personality and regional cortical variability in the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging.

    PubMed

    Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Sutin, Angelina; Davatzikos, Christos; Costa, Paul; Resnick, Susan

    2013-11-01

    Although personality changes have been associated with brain lesions and atrophy caused by neurodegenerative diseases and aging, neuroanatomical correlates of personality in healthy individuals and their stability over time have received relatively little investigation. In this study, we explored regional gray matter (GM) volumetric associations of the five-factor model of personality. Eighty-seven healthy older adults took the NEO Personality Inventory and had brain MRI at two time points 2 years apart. We performed GM segmentation followed by regional analysis of volumes examined in normalized space map creation and voxel based morphometry-type statistical inference in SPM8. We created a regression model including all five factors and important covariates. Next, a conjunction analysis identified associations between personality scores and GM volumes that were replicable across time, also using cluster-level Family-Wise-Error correction. Larger right orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and rolandic operculum were associated with lower Neuroticism; larger left temporal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and anterior cingulate cortices with higher Extraversion; larger right frontopolar and smaller orbitofrontal and insular cortices with higher Openness; larger right orbitofrontal cortex with higher Agreeableness; larger dorsolateral prefrontal and smaller frontopolar cortices with higher Conscientiousness. In summary, distinct personality traits were associated with stable individual differences in GM volumes. As expected for higher-order traits, regions performing a large number of cognitive and affective functions were implicated. Our findings highlight personality-related variation that may be related to individual differences in brain structure that merit additional attention in neuroimaging research. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Reduction in the amount of crosstalk with reduced number of focal spot rows in a grating array based zonal wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2015-06-01

    The Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS), named after Johannes Franz Hartmann and Roland Shack, is one of the most well-known and popularly used optical wavefront sensor that finds numerous applications in various optical technologies. SHWS samples the incident wavefront by means of a lenslet array to produce an array of regular 2D array of focal spots on the detector plane of a digital camera, in the case of an unaberrated plane wavefront. If the incident wavefront is aberrated or deviates from a plane wavefront, the respective focal spots get shifted from its reference positions corresponding to the regular grid. If the incident wavefront aberration increases or has a very large curvature, the focal spot of one lenslet may enter the detector sub-aperture of the nearby lenslet. Thus, the SHWS has a limited dynamic range that is restricted to aberrations which do not allow the sub-images to be displaced out from their own detector sub-array. It makes the SHWS sensitive to cross-talk when higher order aberrations are present thereby unavoidably a ecting the wavefront estimation process. The array of tiny lenses of the SHWS can be replaced by an array of gratings followed by a focusing lens, generating an array of focal spots which is similar to that as in the case of a SHWS. In this paper, the spatial frequency of such a grating array based zonal wavefront sensor is configured to produce lesser number of rows of focal spots. The reduction in the number of focal spot rows reduces the amount of cross talk in the vertical direction. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results to demonstrate the above stated reduction in crosstalk.

  16. Neuroscience education in addition to trigger point dry needling for the management of patients with mechanical chronic low back pain: A preliminary clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Téllez-García, Mario; de-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana I; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Palacios-Ceña, Maria; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the short-term effects of trigger point dry needling (TrP-DN) alone or combined with neuroscience education on pain, disability, kinesiophobia and widespread pressure sensitivity in patients with mechanical low back pain (LBP). Twelve patients with LBP were randomly assigned to receive either TrP-DN (TrP-DN) or TrP-DN plus neuroscience education (TrP-DN + EDU). Pain intensity (Numerical Pain Rating Scale, 0-10), disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire-RMQ-, Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index-ODI), kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-TSK), and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, transverse process of L3 vertebra, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle were collected at baseline and 1-week after the intervention. Patients treated with TrP-DN + EDU experienced a significantly greater reduction of kinesiophobia (P = 0.008) and greater increases in PPT over the transverse process of L3 (P = 0.049) than those patients treated only with TrP-DN. Both groups experienced similar decreases in pain, ODI and RMQ, and similar increases in PPT over the C5/C6 joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior after the intervention (all, P > 0.05). The results suggest that TrP-DN was effective for improving pain, disability, kinesiophobia and widespread pressure sensitivity in patients with mechanical LBP at short-term. The inclusion of a neuroscience educational program resulted in a greater improvement in kinesiophobia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Resection of Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Positive Prerolandic Motor Areas Causes Permanent Impairment of Motor Function.

    PubMed

    Moser, Tobias; Bulubas, Lucia; Sabih, Jamil; Conway, Neal; Wildschutz, Noémie; Sollmann, Nico; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian; Krieg, Sandro M

    2017-07-01

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) helps to determine the distribution of motor eloquent areas prior to brain surgery. Yet, the eloquence of primary motor areas frontal to the precentral gyrus identified via nTMS is unclear. To investigate the resection of nTMS-positive prerolandic motor areas and its correlation with postsurgical impairment of motor function. Forty-three patients with rolandic or prerolandic gliomas (WHO grade I-IV) underwent nTMS prior to surgery. Only patients without ischemia within the motor system in postoperative MRI diffusion sequences were enrolled. Based on the 3-dimensional fusion of preoperative nTMS motor mapping data with postsurgical MRI scans, we identified nTMS points that were resected in the infiltration zone of the tumor. We then classified the resected points according to the localization and latency of their motor evoked potentials. Surgery-related paresis was graded as transient (≤6 weeks) or permanent (>6 weeks). Out of 43, 31 patients (72%) showed nTMS-positive motor points in the prerolandic gyri. In general, 13 out of 43 patients (30%) underwent resection of nTMS points. Ten out of these patients showed postoperative paresis. There were 2 (15%) patients with a transient and 8 (62%) with a permanent surgery-related paresis. In 3 cases (23%), motor function remained unimpaired. After resection of nTMS-positive motor points, 62% of patients suffered from a new permanent paresis. Thus, even though they are located in the superior or middle frontal gyrus, these cortical areas must undergo intraoperative mapping.

  18. Risks of postoperative paresis in motor eloquently and non-eloquently located brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When treating cerebral metastases all involved multidisciplinary oncological specialists have to cooperate closely to provide the best care for these patients. For the resection of brain metastasis several studies reported a considerable risk of new postoperative paresis. Pre- and perioperative chemotherapy (Ctx) or radiotherapy (Rtx) alter vasculature and adjacent fiber tracts on the one hand, and many patients already present with paresis prior to surgery on the other hand. As such factors were repeatedly considered risk factors for perioperative complications, we designed this study to also identify risk factors for brain metastases resection. Methods Between 2006 and 2011, we resected 206 brain metastases consecutively, 56 in eloquent motor areas and 150 in non-eloquent ones. We evaluated the influences of preoperative paresis, previous Rtx or Ctx as well as recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class on postoperative outcome. Results In general, 8.7% of all patients postoperatively developed a new permanent paresis. In contrast to preoperative Ctx, previous Rtx as a single or combined treatment strategy was a significant risk factor for postoperative motor weakness. This risk was even increased in perirolandic and rolandic lesions. Our data show significantly increased risk of new deficits for patients assigned to RPA class 3. Even in non-eloquently located brain metastases the risk of new postoperative paresis has not to be underestimated. Despite the microsurgical approach, our cohort shows a high rate of unexpected residual tumors in postoperative MRI, which supports recent data on brain metastases’ infiltrative nature but might also be the result of our strict study protocol. Conclusions Surgical resection is a safe treatment of brain metastases. However, preoperative Rtx and RPA score 3 have to be taken into account when surgical resection is considered. PMID:24422871

  19. fMRI functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray in PTSD and its dissociative subtype.

    PubMed

    Harricharan, Sherain; Rabellino, Daniela; Frewen, Paul A; Densmore, Maria; Théberge, Jean; McKinnon, Margaret C; Schore, Allan N; Lanius, Ruth A

    2016-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hyperarousal and active fight or flight defensive responses. By contrast, the dissociative subtype of PTSD, characterized by depersonalization and derealization symptoms, is frequently accompanied by additional passive or submissive defensive responses associated with autonomic blunting. Here, the periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a central role in defensive responses, where the dorsolateral (DL-PAG) and ventrolateral PAG (VL-PAG) are thought to mediate active and passive defensive responses, respectively. We examined PAG subregion (dorsolateral and ventrolateral) resting-state functional connectivity in three groups: PTSD patients without the dissociative subtype (n = 60); PTSD patients with the dissociative subtype (n = 37); and healthy controls (n = 40) using a seed-based approach via PickAtlas and SPM12. All PTSD patients showed extensive DL- and VL-PAG functional connectivity at rest with areas associated with emotional reactivity and defensive action as compared to controls (n = 40). Although all PTSD patients demonstrated DL-PAG functional connectivity with areas associated with initiation of active coping strategies and hyperarousal (e.g., dorsal anterior cingulate; anterior insula), only dissociative PTSD patients exhibited greater VL-PAG functional connectivity with brain regions linked to passive coping strategies and increased levels of depersonalization (e.g., temporoparietal junction; rolandic operculum). These findings suggest greater defensive posturing in PTSD patients even at rest and demonstrate that those with the dissociative subtype show unique patterns of PAG functional connectivity when compared to those without the subtype. Taken together, these findings represent an important first step toward identifying neural and behavioral targets for therapeutic interventions that address defensive strategies in trauma-related disorders.

  20. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional grey and white matter volume abnormalities within the speech production network of children who stutter.

    PubMed

    Beal, Deryk S; Gracco, Vincent L; Brettschneider, Jane; Kroll, Robert M; De Nil, Luc F

    2013-09-01

    It is well documented that neuroanatomical differences exist between adults who stutter and their fluently speaking peers. Specifically, adults who stutter have been found to have more grey matter volume (GMV) in speech relevant regions including inferior frontal gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus (Beal et al., 2007; Song et al., 2007). Despite stuttering having its onset in childhood only one study has investigated the neuroanatomical differences between children who do and do not stutter. Chang et al. (2008) reported children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyrus relative to fluently speaking children. Thus it appears that children who stutter present with unique neuroanatomical abnormalities as compared to those of adults who stutter. In order to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of stuttering earlier in its development, near the time of onset, we used voxel-based morphometry to examine volumetric differences between 11 children who stutter and 11 fluent children. Children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left putamen but more GMV in right Rolandic operculum and superior temporal gyrus relative to fluent children. Children who stutter also had less white matter volume bilaterally in the forceps minor of the corpus callosum. We discuss our findings of widespread anatomic abnormalities throughout the cortical network for speech motor control within the context of the speech motor skill limitations identified in people who stutter (Namasivayam and van Lieshout, 2008; Smits-Bandstra et al., 2006).