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Sample records for krik kalev prna

  1. [The structure, function and recent reseach of pRNA].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Tian, Yun; Huang, Cheng-Jiang

    2006-09-01

    In the bacteriophage phi29, a virus-encoded RNA(pRNA) is required for the packaging of its genomic DNA. Six pRNAs form a hexamer through pRNA/pRNA interaction to drive the DNA translocation motor, and ATP as the energy resource. Chimeric pRNAs can steadily combine with siRNA, ribozymes and anti-sense RNA, and then be transferred into the cancer cells and viral-infected cells by RNA nanotechnology. The continued study of pRNA will help us to understand the origin of the life and explore its possible applications.

  2. Fabrication of pRNA nanoparticles to deliver therapeutic RNAs and bioactive compounds into tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yi; Shu, Dan; Haque, Farzin; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-01-01

    RNA nanotechnology is a term that refers to the design, fabrication, and utilization of nanoparticles mainly composed of ribonucleic acids via bottom-up self-assembly. The packaging RNA (pRNA) of the bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor has been developed into a nano-delivery platform. This protocol describes the synthesis, assembly, and functionalization of pRNA nanoparticles based on three ‘toolkits’ derived from pRNA structural features: interlocking loops for hand-in-hand interactions, palindrome sequences for foot-to-foot interactions, and an RNA three-way junction for branch-extension. siRNAs, ribozymes, aptamers, chemical ligands, fluorophores, and other functionalities can also be fused to the pRNA prior to the assembly of the nanoparticles, so as to ensure the production of homogeneous nanoparticles and the retention of appropriate folding and function of the incorporated modules. The resulting self-assembled multivalent pRNA nanoparticles are thermodynamically and chemically stable, and they remain intact at ultra-low concentrations. Gene silencing effects are progressively enhanced with increasing number of siRNA in each pRNA nanoparticle. Systemic injection of the pRNA nanoparticles into xenograft-bearing mice has revealed strong binding to tumors without accumulation in vital organs or tissues. The pRNA-based nano-delivery scaffold paves a new way towards nanotechnological application of pRNA-based nanoparticles for disease detection and treatment. The time required for completing one round of this protocol is 3–4 weeks, including in vitro functional assays, or 2–3 months including in vivo studies. PMID:23928498

  3. The structure of tryptophan 7-halogenase (PrnA) suggests a mechanism for regioselective chlorination

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Changjiang; Flecks, Silvana; Unversucht, Susanne; Haupt, Caroline; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Naismith, James H

    2012-01-01

    Chlorinated natural products include vancomycin and cryptophycin A. Their biosyntheses involves regioselective chlorination by flavin-dependent halogenases. We report the structural characterization of tryptophan 7-halogenase (PrnA), which regioselectively chlorinates tryptophan. Tryptophan and FAD are separated by a 10Å-long tunnel and bound by distinct enzyme modules. The FAD module is conserved in halogenases and is related to flavin-dependent monooxygenases. Based on biochemical studies, crystal structures and by analogy with monooxygenases, we predict FADH2 reacts with O2 making peroxy-flavin which is decomposed by Cl−. The resulting HOCl is guided through the tunnel, to tryptophan, where it is activated to participate in electrophilic aromatic substitution. PMID:16195462

  4. Ultrastable pRNA hexameric ring gearing hexameric phi29 DNA-packaging motor by revolving without rotating and coiling.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Chad; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-08-01

    Biomotors have previously been classified into two categories: linear and rotational motors. It has long been popularly believed that viral DNA packaging motors are rotation motors. We have recently found that the DNA-packaging motor of bacteriophage phi29 uses a third mechanism: revolution without rotation. phi29 motor consists of three-coaxial rings of hexameric RNA, a hexameric ATPase, and a dodecameric channel. The motor uses six ATP to revolve one helical turn of dsDNA around the hexameric ring of ATPase gp16. Each dodecameric segment tilts at a 30°-angle and runs anti-parallel to the dsDNA helix to facilitate translation in one direction. The negatively charged phosphate backbone interacts with four positively charged lysine rings, resulting in four steps of transition. This review will discuss how the novel pRNA meets motor requirements for translocation concerning structure, stoichiometry, and thermostability; how pRNA studies have led to the generation of the concept of RNA nanotechnology; and how pRNA is fabricated into nanoparticles to deliver siRNA, miRNA, and ribozymes to cancer and virus-infected cells.

  5. RNA Nanoparticles Derived from Three-Way Junction of Phi29 Motor pRNA Are Resistant to I-125 and Cs-131 Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Rychahou, Piotr G.; Cui, Zheng; Pi, Fengmei; Evers, B. Mark; Shu, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Radiation reagents that specifically target tumors are in high demand for the treatment of cancer. The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology might provide new opportunities for targeted radiation therapy. This study investigates whether chemically modified RNA nanoparticles derived from the packaging RNA (pRNA) three-way junction (3WJ) of phi29 DNA-packaging motor are resistant to potent I-125 and Cs-131 radiation, which is a prerequisite for utilizing these RNA nanoparticles as carriers for targeted radiation therapy. pRNA 3WJ nanoparticles were constructed and characterized, and the stability of these nanoparticles under I-125 and Cs-131 irradiation with clinically relevant doses was examined. RNA nanoparticles derived from the pRNA 3WJ targeted tumors specifically and they were stable under irradiation of I-125 and Cs-131 with clinically relevant doses ranging from 1 to 90 Gy over a significantly long time up to 20 days, while control plasmid DNA was damaged at 20 Gy or higher. PMID:26017686

  6. Entropy-Driven One-Step Formation of Phi29 pRNA 3WJ from Three RNA Fragments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology necessitates creation of functional RNA nanoparticles but has been limited by particle instability. It has been shown that the three-way junction of bacteriophage phi29 motor pRNA has unusual stability and can self-assemble from three fragments with high efficiency. It is generally believed that RNA and DNA folding is energy landscape-dependent, and the folding of RNA is driven by enthalpy. Here we examine the thermodynamic characteristics of the 3WJ components as 2′-fluoro RNA, DNA, and RNA. It was seen that the three fragments existed either in 3WJ complex or as monomers, with the intermediate of dimers almost undetectable. It seems that the three fragments can lead to the formation of the 3WJ complex efficiently within a rapid time. A low dissociation constant (apparent KD) of 11.4 nM was determined for RNA, inclusion of 2′-F pyrimidines strengthened the KD to 4.5 nM, and substitution of DNA weakened it to 47.7 nM. The ΔG°37, were −36, −28, and −15 kcal/mol for 3WJ2′-F, 3WJRNA, and 3WJDNA, respectively. It is found that the formation of the three-component complex was governed by entropy, instead of enthalpy, as usually found in RNA complexes. PMID:24694349

  7. Assembly of Multifunctional Phi29 pRNA Nanoparticles for Specific Delivery of SiRNA and other Therapeutics to Targeted Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yi; Cinier, Mathieu; Shu, Dan; Guo, Peixuan

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in RNA nanotechnology have led to the emergence of a new field and brought vitality to the area of therapeutics (Guo P, The Emerging Field of RNA Nanotechnology, Nature Nanotechnology, 2010). Due to the complementary nature of the four nucleotides and its special catalytic activity, RNA can be manipulated with simplicity characteristic of DNA, while possessing versatile structure and diverse function similar to proteins. Loops and tertiary architecture serve as mounting dovetails or wedges to eliminate external linking dowels. Unique features in transcription, termination, self-assembly, self-processing, and acid-resistance enable in vivo production of nanoparticles harboring aptamer, siRNA, ribozyme, riboswitch, or other regulators for therapy, detection, regulation, and intracellular computation. The unique property of noncanonical base-pairing and stacking enables RNA to fold into well-defined structures for constructing nanoparticles with special functionalities. Bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor is geared by a ring consisting of six packaging RNA (pRNA) molecules. pRNA is able to form a multimeric complex via the interaction of two reengineered interlocking loops. This unique feature makes it an ideal polyvalent vehicle for nanomachine fabrication, pathogen detection, and delivery of siRNA or other therapeutics. This review describes methods in using pRNA as a building block for the construction of RNA dimers, trimers and hexamers as nanoparticles in medical applications. Methods for industrial-scale production of large and stable RNA nanoparticles will be introduced. The unique favorable PK (pharmokinetics) profile with a half life (T1/2) of 5–10 hours comparing to 0.25 of conventional 2′-F siRNA, and advantageous in vivo features such as non-toxicity, non-induction of interferons or non-stimulating of cytokine response in animals will also be reviewed. PMID:21320601

  8. Assembly of multifunctional phi29 pRNA nanoparticles for specific delivery of siRNA and other therapeutics to targeted cells.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yi; Cinier, Mathieu; Shu, Dan; Guo, Peixuan

    2011-06-01

    Recent advances in RNA nanotechnology have led to the emergence of a new field and brought vitality to the area of therapeutics [P. Guo, The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology, Nat. Nanotechnol., 2010]. Due to the complementary nature of the four nucleotides and its special catalytic activity, RNA can be manipulated with simplicity characteristic of DNA, while possessing versatile structure and diverse function similar to proteins. Loops and tertiary architecture serve as mounting dovetails or wedges to eliminate external linking dowels. Unique features in transcription, termination, self-assembly, self-processing, and acid-resistance enable in vivo production of nanoparticles harboring aptamer, siRNA, ribozyme, riboswitch, or other regulators for therapy, detection, regulation, and intracellular computation. The unique property of noncanonical base-pairing and stacking enables RNA to fold into well-defined structures for constructing nanoparticles with special functionalities. Bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor is geared by a ring consisting of six packaging RNA (pRNA) molecules. pRNA is able to form a multimeric complex via the interaction of two reengineered interlocking loops. This unique feature makes it an ideal polyvalent vehicle for nanomachine fabrication, pathogen detection, and delivery of siRNA or other therapeutics. This review describes methods in using pRNA as a building block for the construction of RNA dimers, trimers, and hexamers as nanoparticles in medical applications. Methods for industrial-scale production of large and stable RNA nanoparticles will be introduced. The unique favorable PK (pharmacokinetics) profile with a half life (T(1/2)) of 5-10h comparing to 0.25 of conventional 2'-F siRNA, and advantageous in vivo features such as non-toxicity, non-induction of interferons or non-stimulating of cytokine response in animals will also be reviewed.

  9. SU-E-T-338: Ultrastable PRNA 3WJ Nanoparticles as Potential I-125 and C-131 Carriers for Targeted Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W; Li, H; Guo, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of using the pRNA 3WJ nanoparticles to carry I-125 or Cs-131 to target and treat cancer. As the first step, we investigated the stabilities of pRNA 3WJ nanoparticles that are essential for cancer targeting and treatment in this study. Methods: The thermodynamic stability of assembled RNA 3WJ nanoparticles was studied using the TGGE system. The nanoparticles were irradiated with I-125 or Cs-131 radioactive sources that were immersed in the RNA nanoparticle/DNA structure sample liquid contained in a small vial. The irradiation of the RNA samples was performed for different time periods and doses. The purpose was to distinguish the effects of radiation on DNA and RNA structures. Unradiated samples were used as control. Results: RNA nanoparticles were formed by mixing three pieces of oligos, 3WJa, 3WJb, and 3WJc at 1:1:1 molar ratio. Figure 4 demonstrates that 2′-F modified 3WJ nanoparticles remained stable at temperatures as high as 66.8 ± 2°C, and exhibited melting temperatures of 71 ± 2°C. The radiation stability test was performed with I- 125 and Cs-131 irradiation. Several DNA structures including plasmids were included as control. The first test introduced I-125 and a low dose of 1 Gy to both RNA and DNA samples, but no change was observed. When the dose was increased to 30 Gy, DNA was damaged while RNA remained unchanged. Three tests were also conducted with Cs-131 with 7 Gy, 21 Gy, 30 Gy, and 89 Gy, and the results were similar to those with I-125. Conclusion: pRNA 3WJ nanoparticles are able to form efficiently by onepot self-assembly. They remained stable at high temperatures and high therapeutic doses over a long time. These unique features suggest that RNA 3WJ nanoparticles have the potential to be used for targeted radiation therapy for cancer treatment.

  10. Targeted Delivery of Mutant Tolerant Anti-Coxsackievirus Artificial MicroRNAs Using Folate Conjugated Bacteriophage Phi29 pRNA

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin; Liu, Zhen; Hemida, Maged Gomaa; Yang, Decheng

    2011-01-01

    Background Myocarditis is the major heart disease in infants and young adults. It is very commonly caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection; however, no specific treatment or vaccine is available at present. RNA interference (RNAi)-based anti-viral therapy has shown potential to inhibit viral replication, but this strategy faces two major challenges; viral mutational escape from drug suppression and targeted delivery of the reagents to specific cell populations. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we designed artificial microRNAs (AmiRs) targeting the 3′untranslated region (3′UTR) of CVB3 genome with mismatches to the central region of their targeting sites. Antiviral evaluation showed that AmiR-1 and AmiR-2 reduced CVB3 (Kandolf and CG strains) replication approximately 100-fold in both HeLa cells and HL-1 cardiomyoctes. To achieve specific delivery, we linked AmiRs to the folate-conjugated bacterial phage packaging RNA (pRNA) and delivered the complexes into HeLa cells, a folate receptor positive cancer cells widely used as an in vitro model for CVB3 infection, via folate-mediated specific internalization. We found that our designed pRNA-AmiRs conjugates were tolerable to target mutations and have great potential to suppress viral mutational escape with little effect on triggering interferon induction. Conclusion/Significance This study provides important clues for designing AmiRs targeting the 3′UTR of viral genome. It also proves the feasibility of specific deliver of AmiRs using conjugated pRNA vehicles. These small AmiRs combined with pRNA-folate conjugates could form a promising system for antiviral drug development. PMID:21698212

  11. Prohead RNA: a noncoding viral RNA of novel structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Alyssa C.; Bartley, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component of the powerful Φ29‐like bacteriophage DNA packaging motor. However, the specific role of this unique RNA in the Φ29 packaging motor remains unknown. This review examines pRNA as a noncoding RNA of novel structure and function. In order to highlight the reasons for exploring the structure and function of pRNA, we (1) provide an overview of Φ29‐like bacteriophage and the Φ29 DNA packaging motor, including putative motor mechanisms and structures of its component parts; (2) discuss pRNA structure and possible roles for pRNA in the Φ29 packaging motor; (3) summarize pRNA self‐assembly; and (4) describe the prospective therapeutic applications of pRNA. Many questions remain to be answered in order to connect what is currently known about pRNA structure to its novel function in the Φ29 packaging motor. The knowledge gained from studying the structure, function, and sequence variation in pRNA will help develop tools to better navigate the conformational landscapes of RNA. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:428–437. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1330 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26810250

  12. Role of the CCA bulge of prohead RNA of bacteriophage ø29 in DNA packaging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Morais, Marc C; Anderson, Dwight L; Jardine, Paul J; Grimes, Shelley

    2008-11-14

    The oligomeric ring of prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component of the ATP-driven DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ø29. The A-helix of pRNA binds the DNA translocating ATPase gp16 (gene product 16) and the CCA bulge in this helix is essential for DNA packaging in vitro. Mutation of the bulge by base substitution or deletion showed that the size of the bulge, rather than its sequence, is primary in DNA packaging activity. Proheads reconstituted with CCA bulge mutant pRNAs bound the packaging ATPase gp16 and the packaging substrate DNA-gp3, although DNA translocation was not detected with several mutants. Prohead/bulge-mutant pRNA complexes with low packaging activity had a higher rate of ATP hydrolysis per base pair of DNA packaged than proheads with wild-type pRNA. Cryoelectron microscopy three-dimensional reconstruction of proheads reconstituted with a CCA deletion pRNA showed that the protruding pRNA spokes of the motor occupy a different position relative to the head when compared to particles with wild-type pRNA. Therefore, the CCA bulge seems to dictate the orientation of the pRNA spokes. The conformational changes observed for this mutant pRNA may affect gp16 conformation and/or subsequent ATPase-DNA interaction and, consequently, explain the decreased packaging activity observed for CCA mutants.

  13. Structure and assembly of the essential RNA ring component of a viral DNA packaging motor

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fang; Lu, Changrui; Zhao, Wei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Jardine, Paul J.; Grimes, Shelley; Ke, Ailong

    2011-07-25

    Prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component in the assembly and operation of the powerful bacteriophage {psi}29 DNA packaging motor. The pRNA forms a multimeric ring via intermolecular base-pairing interactions between protomers that serves to guide the assembly of the ring ATPase that drives DNA packaging. Here we report the quaternary structure of this rare multimeric RNA at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, crystallized as tetrameric rings. Strong quaternary interactions and the inherent flexibility helped rationalize how free pRNA is able to adopt multiple oligomerization states in solution. These characteristics also allowed excellent fitting of the crystallographic pRNA protomers into previous prohead/pRNA cryo-EM reconstructions, supporting the presence of a pentameric, but not hexameric, pRNA ring in the context of the DNA packaging motor. The pentameric pRNA ring anchors itself directly to the phage prohead by interacting specifically with the fivefold symmetric capsid structures that surround the head-tail connector portal. From these contacts, five RNA superhelices project from the pRNA ring, where they serve as scaffolds for binding and assembly of the ring ATPase, and possibly mediate communication between motor components. Construction of structure-based designer pRNAs with little sequence similarity to the wild-type pRNA were shown to fully support the packaging of {psi}29 DNA.

  14. Thermodynamic stabilities of three-way junction nanomotifs in prohead RNA.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alyssa C; Schroeder, Susan J

    2017-04-01

    The thermodynamic stabilities of four natural prohead or packaging RNA (pRNA) three-way junction (3WJ) nanomotifs and seven phi29 pRNA 3WJ deletion mutant nanomotifs were investigated using UV optical melting on a three-component RNA system. Our data reveal that some pRNA 3WJs are more stable than the phi29 pRNA 3WJ. The stability of the 3WJ contributes to the unique self-assembly properties of pRNA. Thus, ultrastable pRNA 3WJ motifs suggest new scaffolds for pRNA-based nanotechnology. We present data demonstrating that pRNA 3WJs differentially respond to the presence of metal ions. A comparison of our data with free energies predicted by currently available RNA secondary structure prediction programs shows that these programs do not accurately predict multibranch loop stabilities. These results will expand the existing parameters used for RNA secondary structure prediction from sequence in order to better inform RNA structure-function hypotheses and guide the rational design of functional RNA supramolecular assemblies.

  15. Thermodynamic stabilities of three-way junction nanomotifs in prohead RNA

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Alyssa C.; Schroeder, Susan J.

    2017-01-01

    The thermodynamic stabilities of four natural prohead or packaging RNA (pRNA) three-way junction (3WJ) nanomotifs and seven phi29 pRNA 3WJ deletion mutant nanomotifs were investigated using UV optical melting on a three-component RNA system. Our data reveal that some pRNA 3WJs are more stable than the phi29 pRNA 3WJ. The stability of the 3WJ contributes to the unique self-assembly properties of pRNA. Thus, ultrastable pRNA 3WJ motifs suggest new scaffolds for pRNA-based nanotechnology. We present data demonstrating that pRNA 3WJs differentially respond to the presence of metal ions. A comparison of our data with free energies predicted by currently available RNA secondary structure prediction programs shows that these programs do not accurately predict multibranch loop stabilities. These results will expand the existing parameters used for RNA secondary structure prediction from sequence in order to better inform RNA structure–function hypotheses and guide the rational design of functional RNA supramolecular assemblies. PMID:28069889

  16. Global Structure of a Three-Way Junction in a Phi29 Packaging RNA Dimer Determined Using Site-Directed Spin Labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Tung, Chang-Shung; Sowa, Glenna; Hatmal, Ma'mon M.; Haworth, Ian S.; Qin, Peter Z.

    2012-02-08

    The condensation of bacteriophage phi29 genomic DNA into its preformed procapsid requires the DNA packaging motor, which is the strongest known biological motor. The packaging motor is an intricate ring-shaped protein/RNA complex, and its function requires an RNA component called packaging RNA (pRNA). Current structural information on pRNA is limited, which hinders studies of motor function. Here, we used site-directed spin labeling to map the conformation of a pRNA three-way junction that bridges binding sites for the motor ATPase and the procapsid. The studies were carried out on a pRNA dimer, which is the simplest ring-shaped pRNA complex and serves as a functional intermediate during motor assembly. Using a nucleotide-independent labeling scheme, stable nitroxide radicals were attached to eight specific pRNA sites without perturbing RNA folding and dimer formation, and a total of 17 internitroxide distances spanning the three-way junction were measured using Double Electron-Electron Resonance spectroscopy. The measured distances, together with steric chemical constraints, were used to select 3662 viable three-way junction models from a pool of 65 billion. The results reveal a similar conformation among the viable models, with two of the helices (HT and HL) adopting an acute bend. This is in contrast to a recently reported pRNA tetramer crystal structure, in which HT and HL stack onto each other linearly. The studies establish a new method for mapping global structures of complex RNA molecules, and provide information on pRNA conformation that aids investigations of phi29 packaging motor and developments of pRNA-based nanomedicine and nanomaterial.

  17. Targeting MED1 LxxLL Motifs for Tissue-Selective Treatment of Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    the treatment of many human dis- eases. The therapeutic potential of RNAs, including ribozymes , short hairpin RNA, small interfering RNA (siRNA...Gewirth and Sullenger 2007; Yan and Levy 2009). A major challenge that remains is the systemic delivery of these moieties (siRNA, ribozyme , etc.) to...pieces of pRNA in pRNA hexamer nanoparticles could provide six positions to conjugate therapeutic molecules such as siRNAs, ribozymes , therapeutic RNA

  18. Global Structure of a Three-Way Junction in a Phi29 Packaging RNA Dimer Determined Using Site-Directed Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Tung, Chang-Shung; Sowa, Glenna Z.; Hatmal, Ma’mon M.; Haworth, Ian S.; Qin, Peter Z.

    2012-01-01

    The condensation of bacteriophage phi29 genomic DNA into its preformed procapsid requires the DNA packaging motor, which is the strongest known biological motor. The packaging motor is an intricate ring-shaped protein/ RNA complex, and its function requires an RNA component called packaging RNA (pRNA). Current structural information on pRNA is limited, which hinders studies of motor function. Here, we used site-directed spin labeling to map the conformation of a pRNA three-way junction that bridges binding sites for the motor ATPase and the procapsid. The studies were carried out on a pRNA dimer, which is the simplest ring-shaped pRNA complex and serves as a functional intermediate during motor assembly. Using a nucleotide-independent labeling scheme, stable nitroxide radicals were attached to eight specific pRNA sites without perturbing RNA folding and dimer formation, and a total of 17 internitroxide distances spanning the three-way junction were measured using Double Electron–Electron Resonance spectroscopy. The measured distances, together with steric chemical constraints, were used to select 3662 viable three-way junction models from a pool of 65 billion. The results reveal a similar conformation among the viable models, with two of the helices (HT and HL) adopting an acute bend. This is in contrast to a recently reported pRNA tetramer crystal structure, in which HT and HL stack onto each other linearly. The studies establish a new method for mapping global structures of complex RNA molecules, and provide information on pRNA conformation that aids investigations of phi29 packaging motor and developments of pRNA-based nanomedicine and nanomaterial. PMID:22229766

  19. Sequential action of six virus-encoded DNA-packaging RNAs during phage phi29 genomic DNA translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C; Guo, P

    1997-01-01

    A 120-base pRNA encoded by bacteriophage b29 has a novel and essential role in genomic DNA packaging. Six DNA-packaging RNAs (pRNAs) were bound to the sixfold symmetrical portal vertex of procapsids during the DNA translocation process and left the procapsid after the DNA-packaging reaction was completed, suggesting that the pRNA participated in the translocation of genomic DNA into procapsids. To further investigate the mechanism of DNA packaging, it is crucial to determine whether these six pRNA molecules work as an integrated entity or each pRNA acts as a functional individual. If pRNAs work individually, then do they work in sequence with communication or in random order without interaction? Results from compensation and complementation analysis did not support the integrated model. Computation of the probability of combination between wild-type and mutant pRNAs and experimental data of competitive inhibition excluded the random model while favoring the proposal that the six pRNAs functioned sequentially. Sequential action of the pRNA also explains why the pRNA is so sensitive to mutation, since the effect of a pRNA mutation will be amplified by 6 orders of magnitude after six consecutive steps, resulting in the observed complete loss of DNA-packaging activity caused by small alterations. When any one of the six pRNAs was replaced with an inactive one, complete blockage of DNA packaging resulted, strongly supporting the speculation that individual pRNAs, presumably together with other components such as the packaging ATPase gp16, take turns mediating successive steps of packaging. Although the data provided here could not exclude the integrated model completely, there is no evidence so far to argue against the model of sequential action. PMID:9094662

  20. 5'-Phospho-RNA Acceptor Specificity of GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in mRNA Capping.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Minako; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2017-03-15

    The GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) domain of the multifunctional L protein of rhabdoviruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus, catalyzes the transfer of 5'-phospho-RNA (pRNA) from 5'-triphospho-RNA (pppRNA) to GDP via a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate to generate a 5'-cap structure (GpppA). Here, using an improved oligo-RNA capping assay with the VSV L protein, we showed that the Michaelis constants for GDP and pppAACAG (VSV mRNA-start sequence) are 0.03 and 0.4 μM, respectively. A competition assay between GDP and GDP analogues in the GpppA formation and pRNA transfer assay using GDP analogues as pRNA acceptors indicated that the PRNTase domain recognizes the C-2-amino group, but not the C-6-oxo group, N-1-hydrogen, or N-7-nitrogen, of GDP for the cap formation. 2,6-Diaminopurine-riboside (DAP), 7-deazaguanosine (7-deaza-G), and 7-methylguanosine (m(7)G) diphosphates efficiently accepted pRNA, resulting in the formation of DAPpppA, 7-deaza-GpppA, and m(7)GpppA (cap 0), respectively. Furthermore, either the 2'- or 3'-hydroxyl group of GDP was found to be required for efficient pRNA transfer. A 5'-diphosphate form of antiviral ribavirin weakly inhibited the GpppA formation but did not act as a pRNA acceptor. These results indicate that the PRNTase domain has a unique guanosine-binding mode different from that of eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. IMPORTANCE mRNAs of nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses, such as VSV, possess a fully methylated cap structure, which is required for mRNA stability, efficient translation, and evasion of antiviral innate immunity in host cells. GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) is an unconventional mRNA capping enzyme of NNS RNA viruses that is distinct from the eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. In this study, we studied the pRNA acceptor specificity of VSV PRNTase using various GDP analogues and identified chemical groups of GDP as

  1. Governing in a Post-Conflict Society: Social Fit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Shia minority in Afghanistan, backed the Shia- dominated Northern Alliance. Iran’s support for the Northern Alliance stemmed from its...Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 5. Dr. Kalev Sepp Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 6. Dr. Doug Borer Naval Postgraduate School

  2. Creative Movement and Physical Development. Books for Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagens, Helen E.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews three books on creative movement and physical development appropriate for early childhood teachers: (1) "Hello Toes! Movement Games for Children" (A. F. Barlin and N. Kalev); (2) "Movement Activities for Early Childhood" (C. T. Hammett); and (3) "Designing Preschool Movement Programs" (S. W. Sanders). (MDM)

  3. Structural and mechanistic characterization of 6S RNA from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Karen; Duchardt-Ferner, Elke; Lechner, Marcus; Damm, Katrin; Hoch, Philipp G; Salas, Margarita; Hartmann, Roland K

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial 6S RNAs competitively inhibit binding of RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzymes to DNA promoters, thereby globally regulating transcription. RNAP uses 6S RNA itself as a template to synthesize short transcripts, termed pRNAs (product RNAs). Longer pRNAs (approx. ≥ 10 nt) rearrange the 6S RNA structure and thereby disrupt the 6S RNA:RNAP complex, which enables the enzyme to resume transcription at DNA promoters. We studied 6S RNA of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus, representing the thermodynamically most stable 6S RNA known so far. Applying structure probing and NMR, we show that the RNA adopts the canonical rod-shaped 6S RNA architecture with little structure formation in the central bulge (CB) even at moderate temperatures (≤37 °C). 6S RNA:pRNA complex formation triggers an internal structure rearrangement of 6S RNA, i.e. formation of a so-called central bulge collapse (CBC) helix. The persistence of several characteristic NMR imino proton resonances upon pRNA annealing demonstrates that defined helical segments on both sides of the CB are retained in the pRNA-bound state, thus representing a basic framework of the RNA's architecture. RNA-seq analyses revealed pRNA synthesis from 6S RNA in A. aeolicus, identifying 9 to ∼17-mers as the major length species. A. aeolicus 6S RNA can also serve as a template for in vitro pRNA synthesis by RNAP from the mesophile Bacillus subtilis. Binding of a synthetic pRNA to A. aeolicus 6S RNA blocks formation of 6S RNA:RNAP complexes. Our findings indicate that A. aeolicus 6S RNA function in its hyperthermophilic host is mechanistically identical to that of other bacterial 6S RNAs. The use of artificial pRNA variants, designed to disrupt helix P2 from the 3'-CB instead of the 5'-CB but preventing formation of the CBC helix, indicated that the mechanism of pRNA-induced RNAP release has been evolutionarily optimized for transcriptional pRNA initiation in the 5'-CB.

  4. Fabrication of Polyvalent Therapeutic RNA Nanoparticles for Specific Delivery of siRNA, Ribozyme and Drugs to Targeted Cells for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yi; Shu, Dan; Diao, Zhijuan; Shen, Guanxin; Guo, Peixuan

    2010-01-01

    Bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor is geared by a six-pRNA ring. pRNA is able to form a multimeric complex and patterned superstructures via the interaction of two reengineered interlocking loops. This unique feature makes it an ideal polyvalent vehicle for nanomachine fabrication, pathogen detection, and the delivery of therapeutics. This report describes novel approaches for the fabrication of polyvalent therapeutic pRNA nanoparticles, especially tetramers for specific siRNA delivery to cancer cells and for the silencing of targeted genes. RNA 3-D design, circular permutation, folding energy alteration, and nucleotide modification were applied to generate stable RNA nanoparticles with low toxicity. Animal trials demonstrated the high efficiency of the polyvalent RNA nanoparticles in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Using such protein-free nanoparticles as therapeutic reagents would allow for long-term administration to avoid the induction of antibody due to repeated treatment for chronic diseases. PMID:21243099

  5. Targeting MED1 LxxLL Motifs for Tissue-Selective Treatment of Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    pRNA nanoparticle delivery system has been used to conjugate CD4 aptamers and anti-GP120 aptamers, and was tested in anti- cancer and viral infection... nanoparticles for specific delivery of multiple therapeutic molecules to cancer cells using RNA nanotechnology . Nano Lett 5, 1797-1808. Khvorova, A...estrogen receptor interacting NR boxes/LxxLL motifs of the MED1 protein and test their efficacy on breast cancer cell growth both in vitro and in

  6. Characterization of the archaeal ribonuclease P proteins from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    PubMed

    Terada, Atsushi; Honda, Takashi; Fukuhara, Hideo; Hada, Kazumasa; Kimura, Makoto

    2006-08-01

    Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is a ribonucleoprotein complex involved in the processing of the 5'-leader sequence of precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA). Our earlier study revealed that RNase P RNA (pRNA) and five proteins (PhoPop5, PhoRpp38, PhoRpp21, PhoRpp29, and PhoRpp30) in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 reconstituted RNase P activity that exhibits enzymatic properties like those of the authentic enzyme. In present study, we investigated involvement of the individual proteins in RNase P activity. Two particles (R-3Ps), in which pRNA was mixed with three proteins, PhoPop5, PhoRpp30, and PhoRpp38 or PhoPop5, PhoRpp30, and PhoRpp21 showed a detectable RNase P activity, and five reconstituted particles (R-4Ps) composed of pRNA and four proteins exhibited RNase P activity, albeit at reduced level compared to that of the reconstituted particle (R-5P) composed of pRNA and five proteins. Time-course analysis of the RNase P activities of R-4Ps indicated that the R-4Ps lacking PhoPop5, PhoRpp21, or PhoRpp30 had virtually reduced activity, while omission of PhoRpp29 or PhoRpp38 had a slight effect on the activity. The results indicate that the proteins contribute to RNase P activity in order of PhoPop5 > PhoRpp30 > PhoRpp21 > PhoRpp29 > PhoRpp38. It was further found that R-4Ps showed a characteristic Mg2+ ion dependency approximately identical to that of R-5P. However, R-4Ps had optimum temperature of around at 55 degrees C which is lower than 70 degrees C for R-5P. Together, it is suggested that the P. horikoshii RNase P proteins are predominantly involved in optimization of the pRNA conformation, though they are individually dispensable for RNase P activity in vitro.

  7. The Organizational Imperative: Theory and History on Unity of Effort in Counterinsurgency Campaigns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-10

    Military Review (July-August 2005): 4-17. Cloake, John . Templer: Tiger of Malaya: The Life of Field Marshall Sir Gerald Templer. London: Harrap, 1985...Robert Thompson, Frank Kitson, and John McCuen. Other more contemporary writers on the topic of counterinsurgency including, Daniel Marston, Kalev Sepp... John Nagl, Mark Moyar, David Kilcullen and John MacKinlay, are also used in this chapter to define some key concepts and illuminate some key points

  8. In vitro capping and transcription of rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Tomoaki

    2013-02-01

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototypic nonsegmented negative strand (NNS) RNA virus classified into the Rhabdoviridae family, has been used to investigate the fundamental molecular mechanisms of NNS RNA viral mRNA synthesis and processing. In vitro studies on mRNA cap formation with the VSV L protein eventually led to the discovery of the unconventional mRNA capping pathway catalyzed by the guanosine 5'-triphosphatase and RNA:GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) activities. The PRNTase activity is a novel enzymatic activity, which transfers 5'-monophosphorylated (p-) RNA from 5'-triphosphorylated (ppp-) RNA to GDP to form 5'-capped RNA (GpppRNA) in a viral mRNA-start sequence-dependent manner. This unconventional capping (pRNA transfer) reaction with PRNTase can be experimentally distinguished from the conventional capping (GMP transfer) reaction with eukaryotic GTP:RNA guanylyltransferase (GTase) on the basis of the following differences in their substrate specificity for the cap formation: PRNTase uses GDP and pppRNA, but not ppRNA, whereas GTase employs GTP, but not GDP, and ppRNA. The pRNA transfer reaction with PRNTase proceeds through a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate with a phosphoamide bond. Hence, to prove the PRNTase activity, it is necessary to demonstrate the following consecutive steps separately: (1) the enzyme forms a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate, and (2) the intermediate transfers pRNA to GDP. This article describes the methods for in vitro transcription and capping with the recombinant VSV L protein, which permit detailed characterization of its enzymatic reactions and mapping of active sites of its enzymatic domains. It is expected that these systems are adaptable to rhabdoviruses and, by extension, other NNS RNA viruses belonging to different families.

  9. Harnessing RNA sequencing for global, unbiased evaluation of two new adjuvants for dendritic-cell immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mathan, Till S M; Textor, Johannes; Sköld, Annette E; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; van Oorschot, Tom; Brüning, Mareke; Figdor, Carl G; Buschow, Sonja I; Bakdash, Ghaith; de Vries, I Jolanda M

    2017-02-08

    Effective stimulation of immune cells is crucial for the success of cancer immunotherapies. Current approaches to evaluate the efficiency of stimuli are mainly defined by known flow cytometry-based cell activation or cell maturation markers. This method however does not give a complete overview of the achieved activation state and may leave important side effects unnoticed. Here, we used an unbiased RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)-based approach to compare the capacity of four clinical-grade dendritic cell (DC) activation stimuli used to prepare DC-vaccines composed of various types of DC subsets; the already clinically applied GM-CSF and Frühsommer meningoencephalitis (FSME) prophylactic vaccine and the novel clinical grade adjuvants protamine-RNA complexes (pRNA) and CpG-P. We found that GM-CSF and pRNA had similar effects on their target cells, whereas pRNA and CpG-P induced stronger type I interferon (IFN) expression than FSME. In general, the pathways most affected by all stimuli were related to immune activity and cell migration. GM-CSF stimulation, however, also induced a significant increase of genes related to nonsense-mediated decay, indicating a possible deleterious effect of this stimulus. Taken together, the two novel stimuli appear to be promising alternatives. Our study demonstrates how RNA-seq based investigation of changes in a large number of genes and gene groups can be exploited for fast and unbiased, global evaluation of clinical-grade stimuli, as opposed to the general limited evaluation of a pre-specified set of genes, by which one might miss important biological effects that are detrimental for vaccine efficacy.

  10. A divalent cation stabilizes the active conformation of the B. subtilis RNase P x pre-tRNA complex: a role for an inner-sphere metal ion in RNase P.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, John; Koutmou, Kristin S; Rueda, David; Koutmos, Markos; Walter, Nils G; Fierke, Carol A

    2010-07-02

    Metal ions interact with RNA to enhance folding, stabilize structure, and, in some cases, facilitate catalysis. Assigning functional roles to specifically bound metal ions presents a major challenge in analyzing the catalytic mechanisms of ribozymes. Bacillus subtilis ribonuclease P (RNase P), composed of a catalytically active RNA subunit (PRNA) and a small protein subunit (P protein), catalyzes the 5'-end maturation of precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs). Inner-sphere coordination of divalent metal ions to PRNA is essential for catalytic activity but not for the formation of the RNase P x pre-tRNA (enzyme-substrate, ES) complex. Previous studies have demonstrated that this ES complex undergoes an essential conformational change (to the ES* conformer) before the cleavage step. Here, we show that the ES* conformer is stabilized by a high-affinity divalent cation capable of inner-sphere coordination, such as Ca(II) or Mg(II). Additionally, a second, lower-affinity Mg(II) activates cleavage catalyzed by RNase P. Structural changes that occur upon binding Ca(II) to the ES complex were determined by time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer measurements of the distances between donor-acceptor fluorophores introduced at specific locations on the P protein and pre-tRNA 5' leader. These data demonstrate that the 5' leader of pre-tRNA moves 4 to 6 A closer to the PRNA x P protein interface during the ES-to-ES* transition and suggest that the metal-dependent conformational change reorganizes the bound substrate in the active site to form a catalytically competent ES* complex.

  11. RNA nanoparticle as a vector for targeted siRNA delivery into glioblastoma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Jin; Haque, Farzin; Shu, Dan; Yoo, Ji Young; Li, Hui; Yokel, Robert A; Horbinski, Craig; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kim, Sung-Hak; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk; Nakano, Ichiro; Kaur, Balveen; Guo, Peixuan; Croce, Carlo M

    2015-06-20

    Systemic siRNA administration to target and treat glioblastoma, one of the most deadly cancers, requires robust and efficient delivery platform without immunogenicity. Here we report newly emerged multivalent naked RNA nanoparticle (RNP) based on pRNA 3-way-junction (3WJ) from bacteriophage phi29 to target glioblastoma cells with folate (FA) ligand and deliver siRNA for gene silencing. Systemically injected FA-pRNA-3WJ RNPs successfully targeted and delivered siRNA into brain tumor cells in mice, and efficiently reduced luciferase reporter gene expression (4-fold lower than control). The FA-pRNA-3WJ RNP also can target human patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells, thought to be responsible for tumor initiation and deadly recurrence, without accumulation in adjacent normal brain cells, nor other major internal organs. This study provides possible application of pRNA-3WJ RNP for specific delivery of therapeutics such as siRNA, microRNA and/or chemotherapeutic drugs into glioblastoma cells without inflicting collateral damage to healthy tissues.

  12. [THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TECHNIQUES OF IDENTIFICATION OF CORYNEBACTERIUM NON DIPHTHERIAE].

    PubMed

    Kharseeva, G G; Voronina, N A; Mironov, A Yu; Alutina, E L

    2015-12-01

    The comparative analysis was carried out concerning effectiveness of three techniques of identification of Corynebacterium non diphtheriae: bacteriological, molecular genetic (sequenation on 16SpRNA) andmass-spectrometric (MALDI-ToFMS). The analysis covered 49 strains of Corynebacterium non diphtheriae (C.pseudodiphheriticum, C.amycolatum, C.propinquum, C.falsenii) and 2 strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolated under various pathology form urogenital tract and upper respiratory ways. The corinbacteria were identified using bacteriologic technique, sequenation on 16SpRNA and mass-spectrometric technique (MALDIToF MS). The full concordance of results of species' identification was marked in 26 (51%) of strains of Corynebacterium non diphtheriae at using three analysis techniques; in 43 (84.3%) strains--at comparison of bacteriologic technique with sequenation on 16S pRNA and in 29 (57%)--at mass-spectrometric analysis and sequenation on 16S pRNA. The bacteriologic technique is effective for identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The precise establishment of species belonging of corynebacteria with variable biochemical characteristics the molecular genetic technique of analysis is to be applied. The mass-spectrometric technique (MALDI-ToF MS) requires further renewal of data bases for identifying larger spectrum of representatives of genus Corynebacterium.

  13. Stimulation of StAR expression by cAMP is controlled by inhibition of highly inducible SIK1 via CRTC2, a co-activator of CREB.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Takemori, Hiroshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2015-06-15

    In mouse steroidogenic cells the activation of cholesterol metabolism is mediated by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Here, we visualized a coordinated regulation of StAR transcription, splicing and post-transcriptional processing, which are synchronized by salt inducible kinase (SIK1) and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC2). To detect primary RNA (pRNA), spliced primary RNA (Sp-RNA) and mRNA in single cells, we generated probe sets by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These methods allowed us to address the nature of StAR gene expression and to visualize protein-nucleic acid interactions through direct detection. We show that SIK1 represses StAR expression in Y1 adrenal and MA10 testis cells through inhibition of processing mediated by CRTC2. Digital image analysis matches qPCR analyses of the total cell culture. Evidence is presented for spatially separate accumulation of StAR pRNA and Sp-RNA at the gene loci in the nucleus. These findings establish that cAMP, SIK and CRTC mediate StAR expression through activation of individual StAR gene loci.

  14. Construction of Bacteriophage Phi29 DNA Packaging Motor and its Applications in Nanotechnology and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Jin; Schwartz, Chad; Guo, Peixuan

    2010-01-01

    Nanobiotechnology involves the creation, characterization, and modification of organized nanomaterials to serve as building blocks for constructing nanoscale devices in technology and medicine. Living systems contain a wide variety of nanomachines and highly ordered structures of macromolecules. The novelty and ingenious design of the bacterial virus phi29 DNA packaging motor and its parts inspired the synthesis of this motor and its components as biomimetics. This 30-nm nanomotor uses six copies of an ATP-binding pRNA to gear the motor. The structural versatility of pRNA has been utilized to construct dimers, trimers, hexamers, and patterned superstructures via the interaction of two interlocking loops. The approach, based on bottom-up assembly, has also been applied to nanomachine fabrication, pathogen detection and the delivery of drugs, siRNA, ribozymes, and genes to specific cells in vitro and in vivo. Another essential component of the motor is the connector, which contains 12 copies of a protein gp10 to form a 3.6-nm central channel as a path for DNA. This article will review current studies of the structure and function of the phi29 DNA packaging motor, as well as the mechanism of motion, the principle of in vitro construction, and its potential nanotechnological and medical applications. PMID:19495981

  15. Construction of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor and its applications in nanotechnology and therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Jin; Schwartz, Chad; Guo, Peixuan

    2009-10-01

    Nanobiotechnology involves the creation, characterization, and modification of organized nanomaterials to serve as building blocks for constructing nanoscale devices in technology and medicine. Living systems contain a wide variety of nanomachines and highly ordered structures of macromolecules. The novelty and ingenious design of the bacterial virus phi29 DNA packaging motor and its parts inspired the synthesis of this motor and its components as biomimetics. This 30-nm nanomotor uses six copies of an ATP-binding pRNA to gear the motor. The structural versatility of pRNA has been utilized to construct dimers, trimers, hexamers, and patterned superstructures via the interaction of two interlocking loops. The approach, based on bottom-up assembly, has also been applied to nanomachine fabrication, pathogen detection and the delivery of drugs, siRNA, ribozymes, and genes to specific cells in vitro and in vivo. Another essential component of the motor is the connector, which contains 12 copies of a protein gp10 to form a 3.6-nm central channel as a path for DNA. This article will review current studies of the structure and function of the phi29 DNA packaging motor, as well as the mechanism of motion, the principle of in vitro construction, and its potential nanotechnological and medical applications.

  16. RNA nanoparticle as a vector for targeted siRNA delivery into glioblastoma mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Jin; Haque, Farzin; Shu, Dan; Yoo, Ji Young; Li, Hui; Yokel, Robert A.; Horbinski, Craig; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kim, Sung-Hak; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk; Nakano, Ichiro; Kaur, Balveen; Guo, Peixuan; Croce, Carlo M.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic siRNA administration to target and treat glioblastoma, one of the most deadly cancers, requires robust and efficient delivery platform without immunogenicity. Here we report newly emerged multivalent naked RNA nanoparticle (RNP) based on pRNA 3-way-junction (3WJ) from bacteriophage phi29 to target glioblastoma cells with folate (FA) ligand and deliver siRNA for gene silencing. Systemically injected FA-pRNA-3WJ RNPs successfully targeted and delivered siRNA into brain tumor cells in mice, and efficiently reduced luciferase reporter gene expression (4-fold lower than control). The FA-pRNA-3WJ RNP also can target human patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells, thought to be responsible for tumor initiation and deadly recurrence, without accumulation in adjacent normal brain cells, nor other major internal organs. This study provides possible application of pRNA-3WJ RNP for specific delivery of therapeutics such as siRNA, microRNA and/or chemotherapeutic drugs into glioblastoma cells without inflicting collateral damage to healthy tissues. PMID:25885522

  17. The structure of flavin-dependent tryptophan 7-halogenase RebH

    SciTech Connect

    Bitto, Eduard; Huang, Yu; Bingman, Craig A.; Singh, Shanteri; Thorson, Jon S.; Phillips, Jr., George N.

    2010-02-19

    Enzyme catalyzed regio- and stereo-specific halogenations influence the biological activity of a diverse array of therapeutically important natural products, including the antibiotics vancomycin and chloramphenicol as well as the anticancer agents calicheamicin and rebeccamycin. The major class of enzymes responsible for this challenging synthetic reaction, the flavin-dependent halogenases, catalyzes the formation of carbon-halogen bonds using flavin, a halide ion (Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -} or I{sup -}), and O{sub 2}. Recent mechanistic and structural advances achieved with the model flavin-dependent tryptophan 7-halogenases PrnA and RebH have greatly enhanced the level of understanding of this unique reaction. According to these studies, the mechanism for tryptophan halogenation proceeds via FAD(C4a)-OOH activation of a chloride ion into the transient chlorinating species HOCl. The key evidence for the requirement of a transient chlorinating species is the discovery that a {approx}10-{angstrom}-long tunnel separates FAD and tryptophan in the ligand-bound form of PrnA. In a recent compelling study to elucidate the strategy by which RebH controls this highly reactive and indiscriminant oxidant, a Lys79-{var_epsilon}NH-Cl chloramine intermediate was implicated as the actual chlorinating species within RebH and a structural investigation of RebH was reported. Here we report our independent structural analysis of Lechevalieria aerocolonigenes RebH (Uni-Prot accession number Q8KHZ8, 530 amino acids) in its apo-form as well as in a complex with both tryptophan and FAD.

  18. Bacillus subtilis 6S-2 RNA serves as a template for short transcripts in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Philipp G; Schlereth, Julia; Lechner, Marcus; Hartmann, Roland K

    2016-04-01

    The global transcriptional regulator 6S RNA is abundant in a broad range of bacteria. The RNA competes with DNA promoters for binding to the housekeeping RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme. When bound to RNAP, 6S RNA serves as a transcription template for RNAP in an RNA-dependent RNA polymerization reaction. The resulting short RNA transcripts (so-called product RNAs = pRNAs) can induce a stable structural rearrangement of 6S RNA when reaching a certain length. This rearrangement leads to the release of RNAP and thus the recovery of transcription at DNA promoters. While most bacteria express a single 6S RNA, some harbor a second 6S RNA homolog (termed 6S-2 RNA in Bacillus subtilis). Bacillus subtilis 6S-2 RNA was recently shown to exhibit essentially all hallmark features of a bona fide 6S RNA in vitro, but evidence for the synthesis of 6S-2 RNA-derived pRNAs in vivo has been lacking so far. This raised the question of whether the block of RNAP by 6S-2 RNA might be lifted by a mechanism other than pRNA synthesis. However, here we demonstrate that 6S-2 RNA is able to serve as a template for pRNA synthesis in vivo. We verify this finding by using three independent approaches including a novel primer extension assay. Thus, we demonstrate the first example of an organism that expresses two distinct 6S RNAs that both exhibit all mechanistic features defined for this type of regulatory RNA.

  19. The global regulator ANR is essential for Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 biocontrol.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Munmun; Selin, Carrie; Brawerman, Gabriel; Fernando, W G Dilantha; de Kievit, Teresa R

    2016-12-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is a biocontrol agent capable of protecting canola from stem rot disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The focus of the current study was to elucidate the role of the transcriptional regulator ANR in the biocontrol capabilities of this bacterium. An anr mutant was created, PA23anr, that was devoid antifungal activity. In other pseudomonads, ANR is essential for regulating HCN production. Characterization of PA23anr revealed that, in addition to HCN, ANR controls phenazine (PHZ), pyrrolnitrin (PRN), protease and autoinducer (AHL) signal molecule production. In gene expression studies, hcnA, phzA, prnA and phzI were found to be downregulated, consistent with our endproduct analysis. Because the phenotype of PA23anr closely resembles that of quorum sensing (QS)-deficient strains, we explored whether there is a connection between ANR and the PhzRI QS system. Both phzI and phzR are positively regulated by ANR, whereas PhzR represses anr transcription. Complementation of PA23anr with pUCP-phzR, C6-HSL or both yielded no change in phenotype. Conversely, PA23phzR harbouring pUCP23-anr exhibited partial-to-full restoration of antifungal activity, HCN, PRN and AHL production together with hcnA, prnA, phzI and rpoS expression. PHZ and protease production remained unchanged indicating that ANR can complement the QS-deficient phenotype with respect to some but not all traits. Our experiments were conducted at atmospheric O2 levels underscoring the fact that ANR has a profound effect on PA23 physiology under aerobic conditions.

  20. Endothelial RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function

    SciTech Connect

    Asdonk, Tobias; Nickenig, Georg; Zimmer, Sebastian

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation alters HCAEC biology in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPC function is affected by RIG-I stimulation in vitro. -- Abstract: Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a crucial part of the chronic inflammatory atherosclerotic process and is mediated by innate and acquired immune mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that pattern recognition receptors (PRR) specialized in immunorecognition of nucleic acids may play an important role in endothelial biology in a proatherogenic manner. Here, we analyzed the impact of endothelial retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) activation upon vascular endothelial biology. Methods and results: Wild type mice were injected intravenously with 32.5 {mu}g of the RIG-ligand 3pRNA (RNA with triphosphate at the 5 Prime end) or polyA control every other day for 7 days. In 3pRNA-treated mice, endothelium-depended vasodilation was significantly impaired, vascular oxidative stress significantly increased and circulating endothelial microparticle (EMP) numbers significantly elevated compared to controls. To gain further insight in RIG-I dependent endothelial biology, cultured human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were stimulated in vitro with 3pRNA. Both cells types express RIG-I and react with receptor upregulation upon stimulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is enhanced in both cell types, whereas apoptosis and proliferation is not significantly affected in HCAEC. Importantly, HCAEC release significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines in response to RIG-I stimulation. Conclusion: This study shows that activation of the cytoplasmatic nucleic acid receptor RIG-I leads to endothelial dysfunction. RIG-I induced endothelial damage could therefore be an important pathway in atherogenesis.

  1. Signature motifs of GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, a non-segmented negative strand RNA viral mRNA capping enzyme, domain in the L protein are required for covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate formation.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Julie; Ogino, Minako; Green, Todd J; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-01-08

    The unconventional mRNA capping enzyme (GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, PRNTase; block V) domain in RNA polymerase L proteins of non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses (e.g. rabies, measles, Ebola) contains five collinear sequence elements, Rx(3)Wx(3-8)ΦxGxζx(P/A) (motif A; Φ, hydrophobic; ζ, hydrophilic), (Y/W)ΦGSxT (motif B), W (motif C), HR (motif D) and ζxxΦx(F/Y)QxxΦ (motif E). We performed site-directed mutagenesis of the L protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a prototypic NNS RNA virus) to examine participation of these motifs in mRNA capping. Similar to the catalytic residues in motif D, G1100 in motif A, T1157 in motif B, W1188 in motif C, and F1269 and Q1270 in motif E were found to be essential or important for the PRNTase activity in the step of the covalent L-pRNA intermediate formation, but not for the GTPase activity that generates GDP (pRNA acceptor). Cap defective mutations in these residues induced termination of mRNA synthesis at position +40 followed by aberrant stop-start transcription, and abolished virus gene expression in host cells. These results suggest that the conserved motifs constitute the active site of the PRNTase domain and the L-pRNA intermediate formation followed by the cap formation is essential for successful synthesis of full-length mRNAs.

  2. The Rabies Virus L Protein Catalyzes mRNA Capping with GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase Activity.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Minako; Ito, Naoto; Sugiyama, Makoto; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-05-21

    The large (L) protein of rabies virus (RABV) plays multiple enzymatic roles in viral RNA synthesis and processing. However, none of its putative enzymatic activities have been directly demonstrated in vitro. In this study, we expressed and purified a recombinant form of the RABV L protein and verified its guanosine 5'-triphosphatase and GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) activities, which are essential for viral mRNA cap formation by the unconventional mechanism. The RABV L protein capped 5'-triphosphorylated but not 5'-diphosphorylated RABV mRNA-start sequences, 5'-AACA(C/U), with GDP to generate the 5'-terminal cap structure G(5')ppp(5')A. The 5'-AAC sequence in the substrate RNAs was found to be strictly essential for RNA capping with the RABV L protein. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis showed that some conserved amino acid residues (G1112, T1170, W1201, H1241, R1242, F1285, and Q1286) in the PRNTase motifs A to E of the RABV L protein are required for cap formation. These findings suggest that the putative PRNTase domain in the RABV L protein catalyzes the rhabdovirus-specific capping reaction involving covalent catalysis of the pRNA transfer to GDP, thus offering this domain as a target for developing anti-viral agents.

  3. The Rabies Virus L Protein Catalyzes mRNA Capping with GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Minako; Ito, Naoto; Sugiyama, Makoto; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    The large (L) protein of rabies virus (RABV) plays multiple enzymatic roles in viral RNA synthesis and processing. However, none of its putative enzymatic activities have been directly demonstrated in vitro. In this study, we expressed and purified a recombinant form of the RABV L protein and verified its guanosine 5′-triphosphatase and GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) activities, which are essential for viral mRNA cap formation by the unconventional mechanism. The RABV L protein capped 5′-triphosphorylated but not 5′-diphosphorylated RABV mRNA-start sequences, 5′-AACA(C/U), with GDP to generate the 5′-terminal cap structure G(5′)ppp(5′)A. The 5′-AAC sequence in the substrate RNAs was found to be strictly essential for RNA capping with the RABV L protein. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis showed that some conserved amino acid residues (G1112, T1170, W1201, H1241, R1242, F1285, and Q1286) in the PRNTase motifs A to E of the RABV L protein are required for cap formation. These findings suggest that the putative PRNTase domain in the RABV L protein catalyzes the rhabdovirus-specific capping reaction involving covalent catalysis of the pRNA transfer to GDP, thus offering this domain as a target for developing anti-viral agents. PMID:27213429

  4. Functional Assays for Specific Targeting and Delivery of RNA Nanoparticles to Brain Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Jin; Haque, Farzin; Vieweger, Mario; Yoo, Ji Young; Kaur, Balveen; Guo, Peixuan; Croce, Carlo M.

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative progress in nanoparticle development has opened a new era of targeted delivery of therapeutics to cancer cells and tissue. However, developing proper detection methods has lagged behind resulting in the lack of precise evaluation and monitoring of the systemically administered nanoparticles. RNA nanoparticles derived from the bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor pRNA have emerged as a new generation of drugs for cancer therapy. Multifunctional RNA nanoparticles can be fabricated by bottom-up self-assembly of engineered RNA fragments harboring targeting (RNA aptamer or chemical ligand), therapeutic (siRNA, miRNA, ribozymes, and small molecule drugs), and imaging (fluorophore, radiolabels) modules. We have recently demonstrated that RNA nanoparticles can reach and target intracranial brain tumors in mice upon systemic injection with little or no accumulation in adjacent healthy brain tissues or in major healthy internal organs. Herein, we describe various functional imaging methods (fluorescence confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, fluorescence whole body imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging) to evaluate and monitor RNA nanoparticle targeting to intracranial brain tumors in mice. Such imaging techniques will allow in-depth evaluation of specifically delivered RNA therapeutics to brain tumors. PMID:25896001

  5. Polyadenylic acid at the 3'-terminus of poliovirus RNA.

    PubMed

    Yogo, Y; Wimmer, E

    1972-07-01

    Poliovirus RNA that has been derivatized at the 3'-end with NaIO(4)-NaB(3)H(4) yields, after hydrolysis with alkali or RNase T2, predominantly labeled residues of modified adenosine; no labeled nucleoside derivative is produced by digestion with RNase A or RNase T1. The 3'-terminal bases of the RNA are, therefore,...ApA(OH). Hydrolyzates of poliovirus [(32)P]RNA, after exhaustive digestion with RNase T1 or RNase A, contain, besides internal oligonucleotides, polynucleotides resistant to further action of ribonucleases T1 and A, respectively; these polynucleotides were isolated by membrane-filter binding or ion-exchange chromatography. The sequence of the T1-resistant polynucleotide was determined to be (Ap)(n)A(OH), that of the RNase A-resistant polynucleotide was GpGp(Ap)(n)A(OH). The chain length (n) of the polyadenylic acid, as analyzed by different methods, averages 89 nucleotides. Gel electrophoresis revealed heterogeneity of the size of poly(A). Poliovirus RNA, when labeled in vitro at the 3'-end, contains [3'-(3)H]poly(A); when labeled in vivo with [(3)H]A, it contains [(3)H](Ap)(n)A(OH). The data establish that... YpGpGp(Ap)([unk])A(OH) is the 3'-terminal sequence of poliovirus RNA, Type 1 (Mahoney). Since this mammalian virus reproduces in the cell cytoplasm, these observations may modify prior interpretations of the function of polyadenylate ends on messenger RNAs.

  6. Initiation of poliovirus plus-strand RNA synthesis in a membrane complex of infected HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, N.; Kuhn, R.J.; Yang, C.F.; Takegami, T.; Wimmer, E.

    1986-10-01

    An in vitro poliovirus RNA-synthesizing system derived from a crude membrance fraction of infected HeLa cells was used to analyze the mechanism of initiation of poliovirus plus-strand RNA synthesis. This system contains an activity that synthesizes the nucleotidyl proteins VPg-pU and VPg-pUpU. These molecules represent the 5'-terminal structure of nascent RNA molecules and of virion RNA. The membranous replication complex is also capable of synthesizing mucleotidyl proteins containing nine or more of the poliovirus 5'-proximal nucleotides as assayed by the formation of the RNase T/sub 1/-resistant oligonucleotide VPg-pUUAAAACAGp or by fingerprint analysis of the in vitro-synthesized /sup 32/P-RNA. Incubation of preformed VPg-pUpU with unlabeled nucleoside triphosphates resulted in the formation of VPg-pUUAAAACAGp. This reaction, which appeared to be an elongation of VPg-pUpU, was stimulated by the addition of a soluble fraction (S-10) obtained from uninfected HeLa cells. Preformed VPg-pU could be chased into VPg-pUpU in the presence of UTP. The data are consistent with a model that VPg-pU can function as a primer for poliovirus plus-strand RNA synthesis in the membranous replication complex and that the elongation reaction may be stimulated by a host cellular factor.

  7. State of hepatitis B viral DNA in a human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Marion, P L; Salazar, F H; Alexander, J J; Robinson, W S

    1980-01-01

    PLC/PRF/5, a tissue culture cell line isolated from a human hepatocellular carcinoma and producing hepatitis B surface antigen, was studied for the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific DNA and RNA. PLC/PRF/5 cell DNA accelerated the rate of reassociation of HBV [32P]DNA, and quantitative experiments indicated that the cells contained approximately four copies of viral DNA per haploid, mammalian cell DNA equivalent. PLC/PRF/5 DNA accelerated the rate of reassociation of all individual restriction endonucleases HincII and HaeIII fragments of HBV [32P]DNA, indicating that DNA from all regions of the viral genome is present in the cells. This suggests that these cells contain at least most, and possibly all, of the viral genome. Digestion of PLC/PRF/5 cell DNA with restriction endonuclease HindIII (an enzyme found not to cleave the DNA of any HBV isolate so far examined) yielded only three fragments, all larger than virion DNA, which contained HBV DNA base sequences, suggesting that HBV DNA is integrated in high-molecular-weight DNA at three different sites in these cells and that there is no viral DNA in an episomal form. PLC/PRF/5 cell [32P]RNA was found to hybridize with all restriction fragments of HBV DNA adequately tested, indicating that at least most, and possibly all, of the viral DNA in these cells is transcribed. Images PMID:6251250

  8. RIG-I activation induces the release of extracellular vesicles with antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Daßler-Plenker, Juliane; Reiners, Katrin S.; van den Boorn, Jasper G.; Hansen, Hinrich P.; Putschli, Bastian; Barnert, Sabine; Schuberth-Wagner, Christine; Schubert, Rolf; Tüting, Thomas; Hallek, Michael; Schlee, Martin; Hartmann, Gunther; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke; Coch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Activation of the innate immune receptor retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) by its specific ligand 5′-triphosphate-RNA (3pRNA) triggers antitumor immunity predominantly via NK cell activation and direct apoptosis induction in tumor cells. However, how NK cells are mobilized to attack the tumor cells remains elusive. Here, we show that RIG-I activation induced the secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from melanoma cells, which by themselves revealed antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. RIG-I-induced EVs from melanoma cells exhibited an increased expression of the NKp30-ligand (BAG6, BAT3) on their surface triggering NK cell-mediated lysis of melanoma cells via activation of the cytotoxicity NK cell-receptor NKp30. Moreover, systemic administration of RIG-I-induced melanoma-EVs showed a potent antitumor activity in a melanoma mouse model in vivo. In conclusion, our data establish a new RIG-I-dependent pathway leading to NK cell-mediated tumor cell killing. PMID:27853642

  9. Signature motifs of GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, a non-segmented negative strand RNA viral mRNA capping enzyme, domain in the L protein are required for covalent enzyme–pRNA intermediate formation

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Julie; Ogino, Minako; Green, Todd J.; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    The unconventional mRNA capping enzyme (GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, PRNTase; block V) domain in RNA polymerase L proteins of non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses (e.g. rabies, measles, Ebola) contains five collinear sequence elements, Rx(3)Wx(3–8)ΦxGxζx(P/A) (motif A; Φ, hydrophobic; ζ, hydrophilic), (Y/W)ΦGSxT (motif B), W (motif C), HR (motif D) and ζxxΦx(F/Y)QxxΦ (motif E). We performed site-directed mutagenesis of the L protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a prototypic NNS RNA virus) to examine participation of these motifs in mRNA capping. Similar to the catalytic residues in motif D, G1100 in motif A, T1157 in motif B, W1188 in motif C, and F1269 and Q1270 in motif E were found to be essential or important for the PRNTase activity in the step of the covalent L-pRNA intermediate formation, but not for the GTPase activity that generates GDP (pRNA acceptor). Cap defective mutations in these residues induced termination of mRNA synthesis at position +40 followed by aberrant stop–start transcription, and abolished virus gene expression in host cells. These results suggest that the conserved motifs constitute the active site of the PRNTase domain and the L-pRNA intermediate formation followed by the cap formation is essential for successful synthesis of full-length mRNAs. PMID:26602696

  10. Analysis of specific RNA in cultured cells through quantitative integration of q-PCR and N-SIM single cell FISH images: Application to hormonal stimulation of StAR transcription.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwoo; Foong, Yee Hoon; Musaitif, Ibrahim; Tong, Tiegang; Jefcoate, Colin

    2016-07-05

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) has been proposed to serve as the switch that can turn on/off steroidogenesis. We investigated the events that facilitate dynamic StAR transcription in response to cAMP stimulation in MA-10 Leydig cells, focusing on splicing anomalies at StAR gene loci. We used 3' reverse primers in a single reaction to respectively quantify StAR primary (p-RNA), spliced (sp-RNA/mRNA), and extended 3' untranslated region (UTR) transcripts, which were quantitatively imaged by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This approach delivers spatio-temporal resolution of initiation and splicing at single StAR loci, and transfers individual mRNA molecules to cytoplasmic sites. Gene expression was biphasic, initially showing slow splicing, transitioning to concerted splicing. The alternative 3.5-kb mRNAs were distinguished through the use of extended 3'UTR probes, which exhibited distinctive mitochondrial distribution. Combining quantitative PCR and FISH enables imaging of localization of RNA expression and analysis of RNA processing rates.

  11. Specific Delivery of MiRNA for High Efficient Inhibition of Prostate Cancer by RNA Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Binzel, Daniel W; Shu, Yi; Li, Hui; Sun, Meiyan; Zhang, Qunshu; Shu, Dan; Guo, Bin; Guo, Peixuan

    2016-08-01

    Both siRNA and miRNA can serve as powerful gene-silencing reagents but their specific delivery to cancer cells in vivo without collateral damage to healthy cells remains challenging. We report here the application of RNA nanotechnology for specific and efficient delivery of anti-miRNA seed-targeting sequence to block the growth of prostate cancer in mouse models. Utilizing the thermodynamically ultra-stable three-way junction of the pRNA of phi29 DNA packaging motor, RNA nanoparticles were constructed by bottom-up self-assembly containing the anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) RNA aptamer as a targeting ligand and anti-miR17 or anti-miR21 as therapeutic modules. The 16 nm RNase-resistant and thermodynamically stable RNA nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection in mice and strongly bound to tumors with little or no accumulation in healthy organs 8 hours postinjection, and subsequently repressed tumor growth at low doses with high efficiency.

  12. Thermodynamically stable RNA three-way junction for constructing multifunctional nanoparticles for delivery of therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Dan; Shu, Yi; Haque, Farzin; Abdelmawla, Sherine; Guo, Peixuan

    2011-10-01

    RNA nanoparticles have applications in the treatment of cancers and viral infection; however, the instability of RNA nanoparticles has hindered their development for therapeutic applications. The lack of covalent linkage or crosslinking in nanoparticles causes dissociation in vivo. Here we show that the packaging RNA of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor can be assembled from 3-6 pieces of RNA oligomers without the use of metal salts. Each RNA oligomer contains a functional module that can be a receptor-binding ligand, aptamer, short interfering RNA or ribozyme. When mixed together, they self-assemble into thermodynamically stable tri-star nanoparticles with a three-way junction core. These nanoparticles are resistant to 8 M urea denaturation, are stable in serum and remain intact at extremely low concentrations. The modules remain functional in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the three-way junction core can be used as a platform for building a variety of multifunctional nanoparticles. We studied 25 different three-way junction motifs in biological RNA and found only one other motif that shares characteristics similar to the three-way junction of phi29 pRNA.

  13. Genomic analysis of oceanic cyanobacterial myoviruses compared with T4-like myoviruses from diverse hosts and environments

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Matthew B; Huang, Katherine H; Ignacio-Espinoza, Julio C; Berlin, Aaron M; Kelly, Libusha; Weigele, Peter R; DeFrancesco, Alicia S; Kern, Suzanne E; Thompson, Luke R; Young, Sarah; Yandava, Chandri; Fu, Ross; Krastins, Bryan; Chase, Michael; Sarracino, David; Osburne, Marcia S; Henn, Matthew R; Chisholm, Sallie W

    2010-01-01

    T4-like myoviruses are ubiquitous, and their genes are among the most abundant documented in ocean systems. Here we compare 26 T4-like genomes, including 10 from non-cyanobacterial myoviruses, and 16 from marine cyanobacterial myoviruses (cyanophages) isolated on diverse Prochlorococcus or Synechococcus hosts. A core genome of 38 virion construction and DNA replication genes was observed in all 26 genomes, with 32 and 25 additional genes shared among the non-cyanophage and cyanophage subsets, respectively. These hierarchical cores are highly syntenic across the genomes, and sampled to saturation. The 25 cyanophage core genes include six previously described genes with putative functions (psbA, mazG, phoH, hsp20, hli03, cobS), a hypothetical protein with a potential phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase domain, two virion structural genes, and 16 hypothetical genes. Beyond previously described cyanophage-encoded photosynthesis and phosphate stress genes, we observed core genes that may play a role in nitrogen metabolism during infection through modulation of 2-oxoglutarate. Patterns among non-core genes that may drive niche diversification revealed that phosphorus-related gene content reflects source waters rather than host strain used for isolation, and that carbon metabolism genes appear associated with putative mobile elements. As well, phages isolated on Synechococcus had higher genome-wide %G+C and often contained different gene subsets (e.g. petE, zwf, gnd, prnA, cpeT) than those isolated on Prochlorococcus. However, no clear diagnostic genes emerged to distinguish these phage groups, suggesting blurred boundaries possibly due to cross-infection. Finally, genome-wide comparisons of both diverse and closely related, co-isolated genomes provide a locus-to-locus variability metric that will prove valuable for interpreting metagenomic data sets. PMID:20662890

  14. Fabrication of 14 different RNA nanoparticles for specific tumor targeting without accumulation in normal organs.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yi; Haque, Farzin; Shu, Dan; Li, Wei; Zhu, Zhenqi; Kotb, Malak; Lyubchenko, Yuri; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-06-01

    Due to structural flexibility, RNase sensitivity, and serum instability, RNA nanoparticles with concrete shapes for in vivo application remain challenging to construct. Here we report the construction of 14 RNA nanoparticles with solid shapes for targeting cancers specifically. These RNA nanoparticles were resistant to RNase degradation, stable in serum for >36 h, and stable in vivo after systemic injection. By applying RNA nanotechnology and exemplifying with these 14 RNA nanoparticles, we have established the technology and developed "toolkits" utilizing a variety of principles to construct RNA architectures with diverse shapes and angles. The structure elements of phi29 motor pRNA were utilized for fabrication of dimers, twins, trimers, triplets, tetramers, quadruplets, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, and other higher-order oligomers, as well as branched diverse architectures via hand-in-hand, foot-to-foot, and arm-on-arm interactions. These novel RNA nanostructures harbor resourceful functionalities for numerous applications in nanotechnology and medicine. It was found that all incorporated functional modules, such as siRNA, ribozymes, aptamers, and other functionalities, folded correctly and functioned independently within the nanoparticles. The incorporation of all functionalities was achieved prior, but not subsequent, to the assembly of the RNA nanoparticles, thus ensuring the production of homogeneous therapeutic nanoparticles. More importantly, upon systemic injection, these RNA nanoparticles targeted cancer exclusively in vivo without accumulation in normal organs and tissues. These findings open a new territory for cancer targeting and treatment. The versatility and diversity in structure and function derived from one biological RNA molecule implies immense potential concealed within the RNA nanotechnology field.

  15. The Ternary Complex of PrnB (the Second Enzyme in the Pyrrolnitrin Biosynthesis Pathway), Tryptophan, and Cyanide Yields New Mechanistic Insights into the Indolamine Dioxygenase Superfamily*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Naismith, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Pyrrolnitrin (3-chloro-4-(2′-nitro-3′-chlorophenyl)pyrrole) is a broad-spectrum antifungal compound isolated from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia. Four enzymes (PrnA, PrnB, PrnC, and PrnD) are required for pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis from tryptophan. PrnB rearranges the indole ring of 7-Cl-l-tryptophan and eliminates the carboxylate group. PrnB shows robust activity in vivo, but in vitro activity for PrnB under defined conditions remains undetected. The structure of PrnB establishes that the enzyme belongs to the heme b-dependent indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) family. We report the cyanide complex of PrnB and two ternary complexes with both l-tryptophan or 7-Cl-l-tryptophan and cyanide. The latter two complexes are essentially identical and mimic the likely catalytic ternary complex that occurs during turnover. In the cyanide ternary complexes, a loop previously disordered becomes ordered, contributing to the binding of substrates. The conformations of the bound tryptophan substrates are changed from that seen previously in the binary complexes. In l-tryptophan ternary complex, the indole ring now adopts the same orientation as seen in the PrnB binary complexes with other tryptophan substrates. The amide and carboxylate group of the substrate are orientated in a new conformation. Tyr321 and Ser332 play a key role in binding these groups. The structures suggest that catalysis requires an l-configured substrate. Isothermal titration calorimetry data suggest d-tryptophan does not bind after cyanide (or oxygen) coordinates with the distal (or sixth) site of heme. This is the first ternary complex with a tryptophan substrate of a member of the tryptophan dioxygenase superfamily and has mechanistic implications. PMID:20421301

  16. Systemic Delivery of Anti-miRNA for Suppression of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Utilizing RNA Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Shu, Dan; Li, Hui; Shu, Yi; Xiong, Gaofeng; Carson, William E; Haque, Farzin; Xu, Ren; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-10-27

    MicroRNAs play important roles in regulating the gene expression and life cycle of cancer cells. In particular, miR-21, an oncogenic miRNA is a major player involved in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in several cancers, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, delivery of therapeutic miRNA or anti-miRNA specifically into cancer cells in vivo without collateral damage to healthy cells remains challenging. We report here the application of RNA nanotechnology for specific and efficient delivery of anti-miR-21 to block the growth of TNBC in orthotopic mouse models. The 15 nm therapeutic RNA nanoparticles contains the 58-nucleotide (nt) phi29 pRNA-3WJ as a core, a 8-nt sequence complementary to the seed region of miR-21, and a 39-nt epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting aptamer for internalizing RNA nanoparticles into cancer cells via receptor mediated endocytosis. The RNase resistant and thermodynamically stable RNA nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection into mice and strongly bound to tumors with little or no accumulation in healthy organs 8 h postinjection, and subsequently repressed tumor growth at low doses. The observed specific cancer targeting and tumor regression is a result of several key attributes of RNA nanoparticles: anionic charge which disallows nonspecific passage across negatively charged cell membrane; "active" targeting using RNA aptamers which increases the homing of RNA nanoparticles to cancer cells; nanoscale size and shape which avoids rapid renal clearance and engulfment by lung macrophages and liver Kupffer cells; favorable biodistribution profiles with little accumulation in healthy organs, which minimizes nonspecific side effects; and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles with extended in vivo half-life. The results demonstrate the clinical potentials of RNA nanotechnology based platform to deliver miRNA based therapeutics for cancer treatment.

  17. Multi-stage impregnation of the lithospheric mantle at the Andrew Bain FZ (SWIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganelli, E.; Brunelli, D.; Bonatti, E.; Cipriani, A.; Ligi, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Southern ridge-transform intersection of Andrew Bain Fracture Zone (ABFZ) is interpreted as a "cold spot" in the mid-ocean ridge system being characterized by a negative thermal anomaly in the oceanic upper mantle. The negative thermal anomaly is associated to the cold-edge effect due to the great age contrast of the active ridge segments. During the oceanic expedition AB06-S23, in 2006, (organized by ISMAR-CNR, Bologna, Italy, and co-financed by PRNA, Italy) with the russian R/V N. Strakhov, several samples of abyssal peridotites have been collected. Textures and modal distribution of the samples have been investigated revealing a multistage impregnation history. Deep spinel-field impregnation assemblages (sp+cpx-ol) are followed by plagioclase-field patches and mineral trails (pl+cpx-ol) and late shallow gabbroic pockets and veins. The major elements mineral chemistry reveals compositional trends of low-P/T subsolidus partial- to-complete re-equilibration undergone by the upper mantle during the upwelling beneath the ridge. These samples have experienced variable degrees of melting and reacted with percolating melts of possible different composition. In particular, samples showing the lowest degrees of melting have interacted with MORB-like melts and pyroxenitic-derived melts in the spinel and plagioclase stability fields. The presence of these two kinds of melts might prove the presence of enriched portions scattered in a normal depleted mantle beneath ocean ridges. MELTS-based runs provide constraints to variable extents of pyroxenitic-derived melt interaction with the mantle source and crystallization at variable depth of the products of such an interaction. Supported by MIUR-PRIN Cofin project 2007

  18. PtrA Is Functionally Intertwined with GacS in Regulating the Biocontrol Activity of Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nidhi; Klaponski, Natasha; Selin, Carrie; Rudney, Rachel; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha; Belmonte, Mark F.; de Kievit, Teresa R.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro inhibition of the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is reliant upon a LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) called PtrA. In the current study, we show that Sclerotinia stem rot and leaf infection are significantly increased in canola plants inoculated with the ptrA-mutant compared to the wild type, establishing PtrA as an essential regulator of PA23 biocontrol. LTTRs typically regulate targets that are upstream of and divergently transcribed from the LTTR locus. We identified a short chain dehydrogenase (scd) gene immediately upstream of ptrA. Characterization of a scd mutant revealed that it is phenotypically identical to the wild type. Moreover, scd transcript abundance was unchanged in the ptrA mutant. These findings indicate that PtrA regulation does not involve scd, rather this LTTR controls genes located elsewhere on the chromosome. Employing a combination of complementation and transcriptional analysis we investigated whether connections exist between PtrA and other regulators of biocontrol. Besides ptrA, gacS was the only gene able to partially rescue the wild-type phenotype, establishing a connection between PtrA and the sensor kinase GacS. Transcriptomic analysis revealed decreased expression of biosynthetic (phzA, prnA) and regulatory genes (phzI, phzR, rpoS, gacA, rsmX, rsmZ, retS) in the ptrA mutant; conversely, rsmE, and rsmY were markedly upregulated. The transcript abundance of ptrA was nine-fold higher in the mutant background indicating that this LTTR negatively autoregulates itself. In summary, PtrA is an essential regulator of genes required for PA23 biocontrol that is functionally intertwined with GacS. PMID:27713742

  19. Systemic Delivery of Anti-miRNA for Suppression of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Utilizing RNA Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs play important roles in regulating the gene expression and life cycle of cancer cells. In particular, miR-21, an oncogenic miRNA is a major player involved in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in several cancers, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, delivery of therapeutic miRNA or anti-miRNA specifically into cancer cells in vivo without collateral damage to healthy cells remains challenging. We report here the application of RNA nanotechnology for specific and efficient delivery of anti-miR-21 to block the growth of TNBC in orthotopic mouse models. The 15 nm therapeutic RNA nanoparticles contains the 58-nucleotide (nt) phi29 pRNA-3WJ as a core, a 8-nt sequence complementary to the seed region of miR-21, and a 39-nt epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting aptamer for internalizing RNA nanoparticles into cancer cells via receptor mediated endocytosis. The RNase resistant and thermodynamically stable RNA nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection into mice and strongly bound to tumors with little or no accumulation in healthy organs 8 h postinjection, and subsequently repressed tumor growth at low doses. The observed specific cancer targeting and tumor regression is a result of several key attributes of RNA nanoparticles: anionic charge which disallows nonspecific passage across negatively charged cell membrane; “active” targeting using RNA aptamers which increases the homing of RNA nanoparticles to cancer cells; nanoscale size and shape which avoids rapid renal clearance and engulfment by lung macrophages and liver Kupffer cells; favorable biodistribution profiles with little accumulation in healthy organs, which minimizes nonspecific side effects; and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles with extended in vivo half-life. The results demonstrate the clinical potentials of RNA nanotechnology based platform to deliver miRNA based therapeutics for cancer treatment. PMID:26387848

  20. Imaging Evaluation of the Safe Region for Distal Locking Screw of Proximal Femoral Nail Anti-Rotation in Patients with Proximal Femoral Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jinpeng; Liu, Pengcheng; Cai, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background Proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) is a standard femoral intertrochanteric fracture operation. Iatrogenic vascular injury, although uncommon, is a reported complication of PFNA surgery as well as a complication of hip fracture surgery. This study aimed to compare the safety and best use of the distal locking screw in 170 mm PFNA and 240 mm PFNA devices, and to determine the safe region for placement of the distal locking screw in PFNA surgery. Material/Methods A retrospective analysis of 100 patients with 170 mm PFNA and 80 patients with 240 mm PFNA were retrospectively analyzed. Two levels of PFNA distal locking screws were equally divided into three planes: I, II, III, for 170 mm PFNA devices and i, ii, iii for the 240 mm PRNA devices. The medial half of the femur was equally divided into eight regions: A to H. The distance between the outer femur and the superficial, the deep and the perforating femoral arteries (SFAs, DFAs, and PFAs), and angles between the reference line and the connection line between the femur center to each artery were measured. Results SFAs and DFAs but not PFAs were found in risky or hazardous regions, and DFAs were obviously closer to the femur than SFAs and PFAs at the same level. In the region within 10 mm of the femur, no SFAs were found. The short nails (170 mm PFNA-II devices) were the closest to the DFAs region, indicating that the 170 mm PFNA-II nails are most likely to cause special vessel injury. The short nails were relatively more distant from the SFAs, which were located posteriorly to the long nails (240 mm PFNA-II). Conclusions The distal locking screw of the 170 mm PFNA device was more prone to damage the femoral deep artery when the two types of PFNA devices are compared in patients who were candidates for both types of devices. PMID:28178228

  1. Genetics and polymorphism of the mouse prion gene complex: control of scrapie incubation time.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, G A; Goodman, P A; Lovett, M; Taylor, B A; Marshall, S T; Peterson-Torchia, M; Westaway, D; Prusiner, S B

    1988-01-01

    The mouse prion protein (PrP) gene (Prn-p), which encodes the only macromolecule that has been identified in scrapie prions, is tightly linked or identical to a gene (Prn-i) that controls the duration of the scrapie incubation period in mice. Constellations of restriction fragment length polymorphisms distinguish haplotypes a to f of Prn-p. The Prn-pb allele encodes a PrP that differs in sequence from those encoded by the other haplotypes and, in inbred mouse strains, correlates with long scrapie incubation time (Westaway et al., Cell 51: 651-662, 1987). In segregating crosses of mice, we identified rare individuals with a divergent scrapie incubation time phenotype and Prn-p genotype, but progeny testing to demonstrate meiotic recombination was not possible because scrapie is a lethal disease. Crosses involving the a, d, and e haplotypes demonstrated that genes unlinked to Prn-p could modulate scrapie incubation time and that there were only two alleles of Prn-i among the mouse strains tested. All inbred strains of mice that had the Prnb haplotype were probably direct descendants of the I/LnJ progenitors. We established the linkage relationship between the prion gene complex (Prn) and other chromosome 2 genes; the gene order, proximal to distal, is B2m-II-1a-Prn-Itp-A. Recombination suppression in the B2m-Prn-p interval occurred during the crosses involved in transferring the I/LnJ Prnb complex into a C57BL/6J background. Transmission ratio distortion by Prna/Prnb heterozygous males was also observed in the same crosses. These phenomena, together with the founder effect, would favor apparent linkage disequilibrium between Prn-p and Prn-i. Therefore, transmission genetics may underestimate the number of genes in Prn. Images PMID:3149717

  2. The ZbYME2 gene from the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii confers not only YME2 functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but also the capacity for catabolism of sorbate and benzoate, two major weak organic acid preservatives.

    PubMed

    Mollapour, M; Piper, P W

    2001-11-01

    A factor influencing resistances of food spoilage microbes to sorbate and benzoate is whether these organisms are able to catalyse the degradation of these preservative compounds. Several fungi metabolize benzoic acid by the beta-ketoadipate pathway, involving the hydroxylation of benzoate to 4-hydroxybenzoate. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to use benzoate as a sole carbon source, apparently through the lack of benzoate-4-hydroxylase activity. However a single gene from the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii, heterologously expressed in S. cerevisiae cells, can enable growth of the latter on benzoate, sorbate and phenylalanine. Although this ZbYME2 gene is essential for benzoate utilization by Z. bailii, its ZbYme2p product has little homology to other fungal benzoate-4-hydroxylases studied to date, all of which appear to be microsomal cytochrome P450s. Instead, ZbYme2p has strong similarity to the matrix domain of the S. cerevisiae mitochondrial protein Yme2p/Rna12p/Prp12p and, when expressed as a functional fusion to green fluorescent protein in S. cerevisiae growing on benzoate, is largely localized to mitochondria. The phenotypes associated with loss of the native Yme2p from S. cerevisiae, mostly apparent in yme1,yme2 cells, may relate to increased detrimental effects of endogenous oxidative stress. Heterologous expression of ZbYME2 complements these phenotypes, yet it also confers a potential for weak acid preservative catabolism that the native S. cerevisiae Yme2p is unable to provide. Benzoate utilization by S. cerevisiae expressing ZbYME2 requires a functional mitochondrial respiratory chain, but not the native Yme1p and Yme2p of the mitochondrion.

  3. Cdc73p and Paf1p are found in a novel RNA polymerase II-containing complex distinct from the Srbp-containing holoenzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, X; Chang, M; Wolf, A J; Chang, C H; Frazer-Abel, A A; Wade, P A; Burton, Z F; Jaehning, J A

    1997-01-01

    The products of the yeast CDC73 and PAF1 genes were originally identified as RNA polymerase II-associated proteins. Paf1p is a nuclear protein important for cell growth and transcriptional regulation of a subset of yeast genes. In this study we demonstrate that the product of CDC73 is a nuclear protein that interacts directly with purified RNA polymerase II in vitro. Deletion of CDC73 confers a temperature-sensitive phenotype. Combination of the cdc73 mutation with the more severe paf1 mutation does not result in an enhanced phenotype, indicating that the two proteins may function in the same cellular processes. To determine the relationship between Cdc73p and Paf1p and the recently described holoenzyme form of RNA polymerase II, we created yeast strains containing glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged forms of CDC73, PAF1, and TFG2 functionally replacing the chromosomal copies of the genes. Isolation of GST-tagged Cdc73p and Paf1p complexes has revealed a unique form of RNA polymerase II that contains both Cdc73p and Paf1p but lacks the Srbps found in the holoenzyme. The Cdc73p-Paf1p-RNA polymerase II-containing complex also includes Gal11p, and the general initiation factors TFIIB and TFIIF, but lacks TBP, TFIIH, and transcription elongation factor TFIIS as well as the Srbps. The Srbp-containing holoenzyme does not include either Paf1p or Cdc73p, demonstrating that these two forms of RNA polymerase II are distinct. In confirmation of the hypothesis that the two forms coexist in yeast cells, we found that a TFIIF-containing complex isolated via the GST-tagged Tfg2p construct contains both (i) the Srbps and (ii) Cdc73p and Paf1p. The Srbps and Cdc73p-Paf1p therefore appear to define two complexes with partially redundant, essential functions in the yeast cell. Using the technique of differential display, we have identified several genes whose transcripts require Cdc73p and/or Paf1p for normal levels of expression. Our analysis suggests that there are multiple RNA

  4. Skeletal muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp involves differential expression of rRNA and molecules that epigenetically regulate its synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Nardocci, Gino; Fernandez de la Reguera, Catalina; Simonet, Nicolas; Fumeron, Robinson; Valdes, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Alvarez, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal biogenesis controls cellular growth in living organisms, with the rate-limiting step of this process being the transcription of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Considering that epigenetic mechanisms allow an organism to respond to environmental changes, the expression in muscle of several molecules that regulate epigenetic rRNA synthesis, as well as rDNA transcription, were evaluated during the seasonal acclimatization of the carp. First, the nucleotide sequences encoding the components forming the NoRC (ttf-I, tip5) and eNoSC (sirt1, nml, suv39h1), two chromatin remodeling complexes that silence rRNA synthesis, as well as the sequence of ubf1, a key regulator of rDNA transcription, were obtained. Subsequently the transcriptional regulation of the aforementioned molecules, and other key molecules involved in rRNA synthesis (mh2a1, mh2a2, h2a.z, h2a.z.7, nuc, p80), was assessed. The carp sequences for TTF-I, TIP5, SIRT1, NML, SUV39H1, and UBF1 showed a high conservation of domains and key amino acids in comparison with other fish and higher vertebrates. The mRNA contents in muscle for ttf-I, tip5, sirt1, nml, suv39h1, mh2a1, mh2a.z, and nuc were up-regulated during winter in comparison with summer, whereas the mRNA levels of mh2a2, ubf1, and p80 were down-regulated. Also, the contents of molecules involved in processing the rRNA (snoRNAs) and pRNA, a stabilizer of NoRC complex, were analyzed, finding that these non-coding RNAs were not affected by seasonal acclimatization. These results suggest that variations in the expression of rRNA and the molecules that epigenetically regulate its synthesis are contributing to the muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp.

  5. RNA Nanotechnology: Engineering, Assembly and Applications in Detection, Gene Delivery and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Peixuan

    2010-01-01

    Biological macromolecules including DNA, RNA, and proteins, have intrinsic features that make them potential building blocks for the bottom-up fabrication of nanodevices. RNA is unique in nanoscale fabrication due to its amazing diversity of function and structure. RNA molecules can be designed and manipulated with a level of simplicity characteristic of DNA while possessing versatility in structure and function similar to that of proteins. RNA molecules typically contain a large variety of single stranded loops suitable for inter- and intra-molecular interaction. These loops can serve as mounting dovetails obviating the need for external linking dowels in fabrication and assembly. The self-assembly of nanoparticles from RNA involves cooperative interaction of individual RNA molecules that spontaneously assemble in a predefined manner to form a larger two- or three-dimensional structure. Within the realm of self-assembly there are two main categories, namely template and non-template. Template assembly involves interaction of RNA molecules under the influence of specific external sequence, forces, or spatial constraints such as RNA transcription, hybridization, replication, annealing, molding, or replicas. In contrast, non-template assembly involves formation of a larger structure by individual components without the influence of external forces. Examples of non-template assembly are ligation, chemical conjugation, covalent linkage, and loop/loop interaction of RNA, especially the formation of RNA multimeric complexes. The best characterized RNA multiplier and the first to be described in RNA nanotechnological application is the motor pRNA of bacteriophage phi29 which form dimers, trimers, and hexamers, via hand-in-hand interaction. phi29 pRNA can be redesigned to form a variety of structures and shapes including twins, tetramers, rods, triangles, and 3D arrays several microns in size via interaction of programmed helical regions and loops. 3D RNA array formation