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Sample records for krik kalev prna

  1. Boundary of pRNA functional domains and minimum pRNA sequence requirement for specific connector binding and DNA packaging of phage phi29.

    PubMed Central

    Garver, K; Guo, P

    1997-01-01

    Bacteriophage phi29 utilizes a viral-encoded 120-base RNA (pRNA) to accomplish dsDNA packaging into a preformed procapsid. Six pRNAs bind to the procapsid and work sequentially. The pRNA contains two functional domains, one for binding to the DNA translocating connector, and the other for interacting with another component of the DNA packaging machinery during DNA translocation. By UV crosslinking, the pRNA was found to bind to the connector specifically and not to the capsid or scaffolding proteins. When purified connectors were incubated with pRNA, rosette-like connector oligomers were observed. These oligomers were found to contain pRNA. A series of deletion mutants of the pRNA were constructed and their ability to perform various tasks involved in phi29 assembly were assayed. The minimum sizes of the pRNA needed for the following activities have been determined: (1) specific binding to procapsid or to connectors; (2) connector or procapsid binding with full efficiency compared with wild-type pRNA; and (3) genomic DNA packaging. In summary, bases 37-91 (55 nt) comprised the minimum sequence required for specific connector binding, although with lower efficiency; bases 6-113 (105 nt with the additional deletion of two nonessential bases, C109 and A106) comprised the minimum sequence required for full connector binding activity; and bases 1-117 comprised the minimum sequence needed for full DNA packaging activity. These data indicate clearly that the helical region composed of bases 1-6 and 113-117 plays a crucial role in DNA translocation, but is dispensable for connector binding. A model for the role of the pRNA in DNA packaging was also presented. PMID:9292504

  2. [The structure, function and recent reseach of pRNA].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Tian, Yun; Huang, Cheng-Jiang

    2006-09-01

    In the bacteriophage phi29, a virus-encoded RNA(pRNA) is required for the packaging of its genomic DNA. Six pRNAs form a hexamer through pRNA/pRNA interaction to drive the DNA translocation motor, and ATP as the energy resource. Chimeric pRNAs can steadily combine with siRNA, ribozymes and anti-sense RNA, and then be transferred into the cancer cells and viral-infected cells by RNA nanotechnology. The continued study of pRNA will help us to understand the origin of the life and explore its possible applications.

  3. Fabrication of pRNA nanoparticles to deliver therapeutic RNAs and bioactive compounds into tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yi; Shu, Dan; Haque, Farzin; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-01-01

    RNA nanotechnology is a term that refers to the design, fabrication, and utilization of nanoparticles mainly composed of ribonucleic acids via bottom-up self-assembly. The packaging RNA (pRNA) of the bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor has been developed into a nano-delivery platform. This protocol describes the synthesis, assembly, and functionalization of pRNA nanoparticles based on three ‘toolkits’ derived from pRNA structural features: interlocking loops for hand-in-hand interactions, palindrome sequences for foot-to-foot interactions, and an RNA three-way junction for branch-extension. siRNAs, ribozymes, aptamers, chemical ligands, fluorophores, and other functionalities can also be fused to the pRNA prior to the assembly of the nanoparticles, so as to ensure the production of homogeneous nanoparticles and the retention of appropriate folding and function of the incorporated modules. The resulting self-assembled multivalent pRNA nanoparticles are thermodynamically and chemically stable, and they remain intact at ultra-low concentrations. Gene silencing effects are progressively enhanced with increasing number of siRNA in each pRNA nanoparticle. Systemic injection of the pRNA nanoparticles into xenograft-bearing mice has revealed strong binding to tumors without accumulation in vital organs or tissues. The pRNA-based nano-delivery scaffold paves a new way towards nanotechnological application of pRNA-based nanoparticles for disease detection and treatment. The time required for completing one round of this protocol is 3–4 weeks, including in vitro functional assays, or 2–3 months including in vivo studies. PMID:23928498

  4. Pharmacological Characterization of Chemically Synthesized Monomeric phi29 pRNA Nanoparticles for Systemic Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmawla, Sherine; Guo, Songchuan; Zhang, Limin; Pulukuri, Sai M; Patankar, Prithviraj; Conley, Patrick; Trebley, Joseph; Guo, Peixuan; Li, Qi-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the packaging RNA (pRNA) of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor folds into a compact structure, constituting a RNA nanoparticle that can be modularized with functional groups as a nanodelivery system. pRNA nanoparticles can also be self-assembled by the bipartite approach without altering folding property. The present study demonstrated that 2′-F-modified pRNA nanoparticles were readily manufactured through this scalable bipartite strategy, featuring total chemical synthesis and permitting diverse functional modularizations. The RNA nanoparticles were chemically and metabolically stable and demonstrated a favorable pharmacokinetic (PK) profile in mice (half-life (T1/2): 5–10 hours, clearance (Cl): <0.13 l/kg/hour, volume of distribution (Vd): 1.2 l/kg). It did not induce an interferon (IFN) response nor did it induce cytokine production in mice. Repeat intravenous administrations in mice up to 30 mg/kg did not result in any toxicity. Fluorescent folate-pRNA nanoparticles efficiently and specifically bound and internalized to folate receptor (FR)-bearing cancer cells in vitro. It also specifically and dose-dependently targeted to FR+ xenograft tumor in mice with minimal accumulation in normal tissues. This first comprehensive pharmacological study suggests that the pRNA nanoparticle had all the preferred pharmacological features to serve as an efficient nanodelivery platform for broad medical applications. PMID:21468004

  5. Dual Tumor-Targeting Nanocarrier System for siRNA Delivery Based on pRNA and Modified Chitosan.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Hu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Min; Ma, Siyu; Yu, Fanglin; Zhao, Shiqing; Liu, Nan; Wang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yu; Guan, Hua; Pan, Xiujie; Gao, Yue; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yang; Tang, Xuemei; Li, Mingyuan; Liu, Cheng; Li, Zhiping; Mei, Xingguo

    2017-09-15

    Highly specific and efficient delivery of siRNA is still unsatisfactory. Herein, a dual tumor-targeting siRNA delivery system combining pRNA dimers with chitosan nanoparticles (CNPPs) was designed to improve the specificity and efficiency of siRNA delivery. In this dual delivery system, folate-conjugated and PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles encapsulating pRNA dimers were used as the first class of delivery system and would selectively deliver intact pRNA dimers near or into target cells. pRNA dimers simultaneously carrying siRNA and targeting aptamer, the second class of delivery system, would specifically deliver siRNA into the target cells via aptamer-mediated endocytosis or proper particle size. To certify the delivering efficiency of this dual system, CNPPs, pRNA dimers alone, chitosan nanoparticles containing siRNA with folate conjugation and PEGylation (CNPS), and chitosan nanoparticles containing pRNA dimers alone (CN) were first prepared. Then, we observed that treatment with CNPPs resulted in increased cellular uptake, higher cell apoptosis, stronger cell cytotoxicity, and more efficacious gene silencing compared to the other three formulations. Higher accumulation of siRNA in the tumor site, stronger tumor inhibition, and longer circulating time were also observed with CNPPs compared to other formulations. In conclusion, this dual nanocarrier system showed high targeting and favorable therapeutic efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. Thereby, a new approach is provided in this study for specific and efficient delivery of siRNA, which lays a foundation for the development of pRNA hexamers, which can simultaneously carry six different substances. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The structure of tryptophan 7-halogenase (PrnA) suggests a mechanism for regioselective chlorination

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Changjiang; Flecks, Silvana; Unversucht, Susanne; Haupt, Caroline; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Naismith, James H

    2012-01-01

    Chlorinated natural products include vancomycin and cryptophycin A. Their biosyntheses involves regioselective chlorination by flavin-dependent halogenases. We report the structural characterization of tryptophan 7-halogenase (PrnA), which regioselectively chlorinates tryptophan. Tryptophan and FAD are separated by a 10Å-long tunnel and bound by distinct enzyme modules. The FAD module is conserved in halogenases and is related to flavin-dependent monooxygenases. Based on biochemical studies, crystal structures and by analogy with monooxygenases, we predict FADH2 reacts with O2 making peroxy-flavin which is decomposed by Cl−. The resulting HOCl is guided through the tunnel, to tryptophan, where it is activated to participate in electrophilic aromatic substitution. PMID:16195462

  7. Ultrastable pRNA hexameric ring gearing hexameric phi29 DNA-packaging motor by revolving without rotating and coiling

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Chad; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-01-01

    Biomotors have previously been classified into two categories: linear and rotational motors. It has long been popularly believed that viral DNA packaging motors are rotation motors. We have recently found that the DNA-packaging motor of bacteriophage phi29 uses a third mechanism: revolution without rotation. phi29 motor consists of three-coaxial rings of hexameric RNA, a hexameric ATPase, and a dodecameric channel. The motor uses six ATP to revolve one helical turn of dsDNA around the hexameric ring of ATPase gp16. Each dodecameric segment tilts at a 30°-angle and runs anti-parallel to the dsDNA helix to facilitate translation in one direction. The negatively charged phosphate backbone interacts with four positively charged lysine rings, resulting in four steps of transition. This review will discuss how the novel pRNA meets motor requirements for translocation concerning structure, stoichiometry, and thermostability; how pRNA studies have led to the generation of the concept of RNA nanotechnology; and how pRNA is fabricated into nanoparticles to deliver siRNA, miRNA, and ribozymes to cancer and virus-infected cells. PMID:23683853

  8. Ultrastable pRNA hexameric ring gearing hexameric phi29 DNA-packaging motor by revolving without rotating and coiling.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Chad; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-08-01

    Biomotors have previously been classified into two categories: linear and rotational motors. It has long been popularly believed that viral DNA packaging motors are rotation motors. We have recently found that the DNA-packaging motor of bacteriophage phi29 uses a third mechanism: revolution without rotation. phi29 motor consists of three-coaxial rings of hexameric RNA, a hexameric ATPase, and a dodecameric channel. The motor uses six ATP to revolve one helical turn of dsDNA around the hexameric ring of ATPase gp16. Each dodecameric segment tilts at a 30°-angle and runs anti-parallel to the dsDNA helix to facilitate translation in one direction. The negatively charged phosphate backbone interacts with four positively charged lysine rings, resulting in four steps of transition. This review will discuss how the novel pRNA meets motor requirements for translocation concerning structure, stoichiometry, and thermostability; how pRNA studies have led to the generation of the concept of RNA nanotechnology; and how pRNA is fabricated into nanoparticles to deliver siRNA, miRNA, and ribozymes to cancer and virus-infected cells.

  9. Confirmation of the helical structure of the 5'/3' termini of the essential DNA packaging pRNA of phage phi 29.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, C; Tellinghuisen, T; Guo, P

    1995-01-01

    Bacteriophage phi 29 is typical of double-stranded DNA viruses in that its genome is packaged into a preformed procapsid during viral assembly. An intriguing feature of phi 29 is the presence of a 120-base virus-encoded RNA (pRNA) that is indispensable for DNA packaging. Phylogenetic comparison of similar RNAs in numerous phages has revealed that the secondary structure of the pRNA is well conserved. Computer analysis predicts the presence of an extensive segment of helix with three single-base bulges generated by the pairing of the 5' and 3' ends. The desire to understand the role played by the pRNA in DNA packaging has led to a mutational analysis of the 5'-/3'-terminal region, which is believed to be important in DNA translocation. Deletion of 3 bases from the 3' end of the RNA, shortening the pRNA from 120 to 117 bases, was tolerated without loss of activity, but additional deletion of the base 117 resulted in 100-fold less activity, and a 115-base pRNA was virtually nonfunctional. Additionally, the three unpaired one-base bulges within the helical stretches of the paired proximate ends were nonessential for pRNA activity, as demonstrated by deletion of the bulge individually. An extensive series of helix disruptions by single- and multiple-base substitution almost invariably led to the loss of DNA packaging activity. Additional mutations that restored predicted base pairings rescued pRNA activity. This second site suppression confirmed that the 5'- and 3'-end region was paired and was indeed a helical stretch. The secondary structure was of greater importance than the primary sequence, with the exception of the requirement of an adenine at either the third or fourth position. The specific requirement of an adenine in phi 29 pRNA at this position, as well as conservation of this position in other phage pRNAs, implicates that this base may play a special role in either the DNA-packaging reaction or the maintenance of the pRNA tertiary structure. PMID:8595559

  10. Construction of folate-conjugated pRNA of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor for delivery of chimeric siRNA to nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, S; Huang, F; Guo, P

    2010-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a poorly differentiated upper respiratory tract cancer that highly expresses human folate receptors (hFR). Binding of folate to hFR triggers endocytosis. The folate was conjugated into adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) by 1,6-hexanediamine linkages. After reverse HPLC to reach 93% purity, the folate–AMP, which can only be used for transcription initiation but not for chain extension, was incorporated into the 5′-end of bacteriophage phi29 motor pRNA. A 16:1 ratio of folate–AMP to ATP in transcription resulted in more than 60% of the pRNA containing folate. A pRNA with a 5′-overhang is needed to enhance the accessibility of the 5′ folate for specific receptor binding. Utilizing the engineered left/right interlocking loops, polyvalent dimeric pRNA nanoparticles were constructed using RNA nanotechnology to carry folate, a detection marker, and siRNA targeting at an antiapoptosis factor. The chimeric pRNAs were processed into ds-siRNA by Dicer. Incubation of nasopharyngeal epidermal carcinoma (KB) cells with the dimer resulted in its entry into cancer cells, and the subsequent silencing of the target gene. Such a protein-free RNA nanoparticle with undetectable antigenicity has a potential for repeated long-term administration for nasopharyngeal carcinoma as the effectiveness and specificity were confirmed by ex vivo delivery in the animal trial. PMID:16482206

  11. RNA Nanoparticles Derived from Three-Way Junction of Phi29 Motor pRNA Are Resistant to I-125 and Cs-131 Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Rychahou, Piotr G.; Cui, Zheng; Pi, Fengmei; Evers, B. Mark; Shu, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Radiation reagents that specifically target tumors are in high demand for the treatment of cancer. The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology might provide new opportunities for targeted radiation therapy. This study investigates whether chemically modified RNA nanoparticles derived from the packaging RNA (pRNA) three-way junction (3WJ) of phi29 DNA-packaging motor are resistant to potent I-125 and Cs-131 radiation, which is a prerequisite for utilizing these RNA nanoparticles as carriers for targeted radiation therapy. pRNA 3WJ nanoparticles were constructed and characterized, and the stability of these nanoparticles under I-125 and Cs-131 irradiation with clinically relevant doses was examined. RNA nanoparticles derived from the pRNA 3WJ targeted tumors specifically and they were stable under irradiation of I-125 and Cs-131 with clinically relevant doses ranging from 1 to 90 Gy over a significantly long time up to 20 days, while control plasmid DNA was damaged at 20 Gy or higher. PMID:26017686

  12. Regulation of 6S RNA by pRNA synthesis is required for efficient recovery from stationary phase in E. coli and B. subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Amy T.; Sperger, Jamie M.; Wassarman, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    6S RNAs function through interaction with housekeeping forms of RNA polymerase holoenzyme (Eσ70 in Escherichia coli, EσA in Bacillus subtilis). Escherichia coli 6S RNA accumulates to high levels during stationary phase, and has been shown to be released from Eσ70 during exit from stationary phase by a process in which 6S RNA serves as a template for Eσ70 to generate product RNAs (pRNAs). Here, we demonstrate that not only does pRNA synthesis occur, but it is an important mechanism for regulation of 6S RNA function that is required for cells to exit stationary phase efficiently in both E. coli and B. subtilis. Bacillus subtilis has two 6S RNAs, 6S-1 and 6S-2. Intriguingly, 6S-2 RNA does not direct pRNA synthesis under physiological conditions and its non-release from EσA prevents efficient outgrowth in cells lacking 6S-1 RNA. The behavioral differences in the two B. subtilis RNAs clearly demonstrate that they act independently, revealing a higher than anticipated diversity in 6S RNA function globally. Overexpression of a pRNA-synthesis-defective 6S RNA in E. coli leads to decreased cell viability, suggesting pRNA synthesis-mediated regulation of 6S RNA function is important at other times of growth as well. PMID:22102588

  13. Use of circular permutation to assess six bulges and four loops of DNA-packaging pRNA of bacteriophage phi29.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, C; Tellinghuisen, T; Guo, P

    1997-01-01

    A 120-base phage phi29 encoded RNA (pRNA) has a novel role in DNA packaging. This pRNA possesses five single-base bulges, one three-base bulge, one bifurcation bulge, one bulge loop, and two stem loops. Circularly permuted pRNAs (cpRNA) were constructed to examine the function of these bulges and loops as well as their adjacent sequences. Each of the five single-base bulges was nonessential. The bifurcation bulge could be deleted and replaced with a new opening to provide flexibility for maintaining an overall correct folding in three-way junction. All of these nonessential bulges or their adjacent bases could be used as new termini for cpRNAs. The three-base (C18C19A20) bulge was dispensable for procapsid binding, but was indispensable for DNA packaging. The secondary structure around this CCA bulge and the phylogenetically conserved bases within or around it were investigated. Bases A14C15U16 were confirmed, by compensatory modification, to pair with U103G102A101. A99 was needed only to allow the proper folding of CCA bulge in the appropriate sequence order and distance constraints. Beyond these, the seemingly phylogenetic conservation of other bases has little role in pRNA activity. Each of the three stem loops was essential for procapsid binding, DNA packaging, and phage assembly. Disruption of the middle of any one of the loops resulted in dramatic reductions in procapsid binding, subsequent DNA packaging, and phage assembly activities. However, disruption of the loops at sequences that were close to double-stranded regions of the RNA did not interfere with pRNA activity significantly. Our results suggest that double-stranded helical regions near these loops were most likely not involved in interactions with components of the DNA-packaging machinery. Instead, these regions appear to be merely present to serve as a scaffolding to display the single-stranded loops that are important for pRNA tertiary structure or for interaction with the procapsid or other

  14. Entropy-Driven One-Step Formation of Phi29 pRNA 3WJ from Three RNA Fragments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology necessitates creation of functional RNA nanoparticles but has been limited by particle instability. It has been shown that the three-way junction of bacteriophage phi29 motor pRNA has unusual stability and can self-assemble from three fragments with high efficiency. It is generally believed that RNA and DNA folding is energy landscape-dependent, and the folding of RNA is driven by enthalpy. Here we examine the thermodynamic characteristics of the 3WJ components as 2′-fluoro RNA, DNA, and RNA. It was seen that the three fragments existed either in 3WJ complex or as monomers, with the intermediate of dimers almost undetectable. It seems that the three fragments can lead to the formation of the 3WJ complex efficiently within a rapid time. A low dissociation constant (apparent KD) of 11.4 nM was determined for RNA, inclusion of 2′-F pyrimidines strengthened the KD to 4.5 nM, and substitution of DNA weakened it to 47.7 nM. The ΔG°37, were −36, −28, and −15 kcal/mol for 3WJ2′-F, 3WJRNA, and 3WJDNA, respectively. It is found that the formation of the three-component complex was governed by entropy, instead of enthalpy, as usually found in RNA complexes. PMID:24694349

  15. Assembly of Multifunctional Phi29 pRNA Nanoparticles for Specific Delivery of SiRNA and other Therapeutics to Targeted Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yi; Cinier, Mathieu; Shu, Dan; Guo, Peixuan

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in RNA nanotechnology have led to the emergence of a new field and brought vitality to the area of therapeutics (Guo P, The Emerging Field of RNA Nanotechnology, Nature Nanotechnology, 2010). Due to the complementary nature of the four nucleotides and its special catalytic activity, RNA can be manipulated with simplicity characteristic of DNA, while possessing versatile structure and diverse function similar to proteins. Loops and tertiary architecture serve as mounting dovetails or wedges to eliminate external linking dowels. Unique features in transcription, termination, self-assembly, self-processing, and acid-resistance enable in vivo production of nanoparticles harboring aptamer, siRNA, ribozyme, riboswitch, or other regulators for therapy, detection, regulation, and intracellular computation. The unique property of noncanonical base-pairing and stacking enables RNA to fold into well-defined structures for constructing nanoparticles with special functionalities. Bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor is geared by a ring consisting of six packaging RNA (pRNA) molecules. pRNA is able to form a multimeric complex via the interaction of two reengineered interlocking loops. This unique feature makes it an ideal polyvalent vehicle for nanomachine fabrication, pathogen detection, and delivery of siRNA or other therapeutics. This review describes methods in using pRNA as a building block for the construction of RNA dimers, trimers and hexamers as nanoparticles in medical applications. Methods for industrial-scale production of large and stable RNA nanoparticles will be introduced. The unique favorable PK (pharmokinetics) profile with a half life (T1/2) of 5–10 hours comparing to 0.25 of conventional 2′-F siRNA, and advantageous in vivo features such as non-toxicity, non-induction of interferons or non-stimulating of cytokine response in animals will also be reviewed. PMID:21320601

  16. Assembly of multifunctional phi29 pRNA nanoparticles for specific delivery of siRNA and other therapeutics to targeted cells.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yi; Cinier, Mathieu; Shu, Dan; Guo, Peixuan

    2011-06-01

    Recent advances in RNA nanotechnology have led to the emergence of a new field and brought vitality to the area of therapeutics [P. Guo, The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology, Nat. Nanotechnol., 2010]. Due to the complementary nature of the four nucleotides and its special catalytic activity, RNA can be manipulated with simplicity characteristic of DNA, while possessing versatile structure and diverse function similar to proteins. Loops and tertiary architecture serve as mounting dovetails or wedges to eliminate external linking dowels. Unique features in transcription, termination, self-assembly, self-processing, and acid-resistance enable in vivo production of nanoparticles harboring aptamer, siRNA, ribozyme, riboswitch, or other regulators for therapy, detection, regulation, and intracellular computation. The unique property of noncanonical base-pairing and stacking enables RNA to fold into well-defined structures for constructing nanoparticles with special functionalities. Bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor is geared by a ring consisting of six packaging RNA (pRNA) molecules. pRNA is able to form a multimeric complex via the interaction of two reengineered interlocking loops. This unique feature makes it an ideal polyvalent vehicle for nanomachine fabrication, pathogen detection, and delivery of siRNA or other therapeutics. This review describes methods in using pRNA as a building block for the construction of RNA dimers, trimers, and hexamers as nanoparticles in medical applications. Methods for industrial-scale production of large and stable RNA nanoparticles will be introduced. The unique favorable PK (pharmacokinetics) profile with a half life (T(1/2)) of 5-10h comparing to 0.25 of conventional 2'-F siRNA, and advantageous in vivo features such as non-toxicity, non-induction of interferons or non-stimulating of cytokine response in animals will also be reviewed.

  17. SU-E-T-338: Ultrastable PRNA 3WJ Nanoparticles as Potential I-125 and C-131 Carriers for Targeted Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W; Li, H; Guo, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of using the pRNA 3WJ nanoparticles to carry I-125 or Cs-131 to target and treat cancer. As the first step, we investigated the stabilities of pRNA 3WJ nanoparticles that are essential for cancer targeting and treatment in this study. Methods: The thermodynamic stability of assembled RNA 3WJ nanoparticles was studied using the TGGE system. The nanoparticles were irradiated with I-125 or Cs-131 radioactive sources that were immersed in the RNA nanoparticle/DNA structure sample liquid contained in a small vial. The irradiation of the RNA samples was performed for different time periods and doses. The purpose was to distinguish the effects of radiation on DNA and RNA structures. Unradiated samples were used as control. Results: RNA nanoparticles were formed by mixing three pieces of oligos, 3WJa, 3WJb, and 3WJc at 1:1:1 molar ratio. Figure 4 demonstrates that 2′-F modified 3WJ nanoparticles remained stable at temperatures as high as 66.8 ± 2°C, and exhibited melting temperatures of 71 ± 2°C. The radiation stability test was performed with I- 125 and Cs-131 irradiation. Several DNA structures including plasmids were included as control. The first test introduced I-125 and a low dose of 1 Gy to both RNA and DNA samples, but no change was observed. When the dose was increased to 30 Gy, DNA was damaged while RNA remained unchanged. Three tests were also conducted with Cs-131 with 7 Gy, 21 Gy, 30 Gy, and 89 Gy, and the results were similar to those with I-125. Conclusion: pRNA 3WJ nanoparticles are able to form efficiently by onepot self-assembly. They remained stable at high temperatures and high therapeutic doses over a long time. These unique features suggest that RNA 3WJ nanoparticles have the potential to be used for targeted radiation therapy for cancer treatment.

  18. Targeted Delivery of Mutant Tolerant Anti-Coxsackievirus Artificial MicroRNAs Using Folate Conjugated Bacteriophage Phi29 pRNA

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin; Liu, Zhen; Hemida, Maged Gomaa; Yang, Decheng

    2011-01-01

    Background Myocarditis is the major heart disease in infants and young adults. It is very commonly caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection; however, no specific treatment or vaccine is available at present. RNA interference (RNAi)-based anti-viral therapy has shown potential to inhibit viral replication, but this strategy faces two major challenges; viral mutational escape from drug suppression and targeted delivery of the reagents to specific cell populations. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we designed artificial microRNAs (AmiRs) targeting the 3′untranslated region (3′UTR) of CVB3 genome with mismatches to the central region of their targeting sites. Antiviral evaluation showed that AmiR-1 and AmiR-2 reduced CVB3 (Kandolf and CG strains) replication approximately 100-fold in both HeLa cells and HL-1 cardiomyoctes. To achieve specific delivery, we linked AmiRs to the folate-conjugated bacterial phage packaging RNA (pRNA) and delivered the complexes into HeLa cells, a folate receptor positive cancer cells widely used as an in vitro model for CVB3 infection, via folate-mediated specific internalization. We found that our designed pRNA-AmiRs conjugates were tolerable to target mutations and have great potential to suppress viral mutational escape with little effect on triggering interferon induction. Conclusion/Significance This study provides important clues for designing AmiRs targeting the 3′UTR of viral genome. It also proves the feasibility of specific deliver of AmiRs using conjugated pRNA vehicles. These small AmiRs combined with pRNA-folate conjugates could form a promising system for antiviral drug development. PMID:21698212

  19. Mg(2+) -Dependent High Mechanical Anisotropy of Three-Way-Junction pRNA as Revealed by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Di, Weishuai; Li, Yiran; Huang, Wenmao; Wang, Xin; Qin, Meng; Wang, Wei; Cao, Yi

    2017-08-01

    Mechanical anisotropy is ubiquitous in biological tissues but is hard to reproduce in synthetic biomaterials. Developing molecular building blocks with anisotropic mechanical response is the key towards engineering anisotropic biomaterials. The three-way-junction (3WJ) pRNA, derived from ϕ29 DNA packaging motor, shows strong mechanical anisotropy upon Mg(2+) binding. In the absence of Mg(2+) , 3WJ-pRNA is mechanically weak without noticeable mechanical anisotropy. In the presence of Mg(2+) , the unfolding forces can differ by more than 4-fold along different pulling directions, ranging from about 47 pN to about 219 pN. Mechanical anisotropy of 3WJ-pRNA stems from pulling direction dependent cooperativity for the rupture of two Mg(2+) binding sites, which is a novel mechanism for the mechanical anisotropy of biomacromolecules. It is anticipated that 3WJ-pRNA can be used as a key element for the construction of biomaterials with controllable mechanical anisotropy. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Programmable folding of fusion RNA in vivo and in vitro driven by pRNA 3WJ motif of phi29 DNA packaging motor.

    PubMed

    Shu, Dan; Khisamutdinov, Emil F; Zhang, Le; Guo, Peixuan

    2014-01-01

    Misfolding and associated loss of function are common problems in constructing fusion RNA complexes due to changes in energy landscape and the nearest-neighbor principle. Here we report the incorporation and application of the pRNA-3WJ motif of the phi29 DNA packaging motor into fusion RNA with controllable and predictable folding. The motif included three discontinuous ∼18 nucleotide (nt) fragments, displayed a distinct low folding energy (Shu D et al., Nature Nanotechnology, 2011, 6:658-667), and folded spontaneously into a leading core that enabled the correct folding of other functionalities fused to the RNA complex. Three individual fragments dispersed at any location within the sequence allowed the other RNA functional modules to fold into their original structures with authentic functions, as tested by Hepatitis B virus ribozyme, siRNA, and aptamers for malachite green (MG), spinach, and streptavidin (STV). Only nine complementary nucleotides were present for any two of the three ∼18-nt fragments, but the three 9 bp branches were so powerful that they disrupted other double strands with more than 15 bp within the fusion RNA. This system enabled the production of fusion complexes harboring multiple RNA functionalities with correct folding for potential applications in biotechnology, nanomedicine and nanotechnology. We also applied this system to investigate the principles governing the folding of RNA in vivo and in vitro. Temporal production of RNA sequences during in vivo transcription caused RNA to fold into different conformations that could not be predicted with routine principles derived from in vitro studies.

  1. Mechanism of three-component collision to produce ultrastable pRNA three-way junction of Phi29 DNA-packaging motor by kinetic assessment.

    PubMed

    Binzel, Daniel W; Khisamutdinov, Emil; Vieweger, Mario; Ortega, Janice; Li, Jingyuan; Guo, Peixuan

    2016-11-01

    RNA nanotechnology is rapidly emerging. Due to advantageous pharmacokinetics and favorable in vivo biodistribution, RNA nanoparticles have shown promise in targeted delivery of therapeutics. RNA nanotechnology applies bottom-up assembly, thus elucidation of the mechanism of interaction between multiple components is of fundamental importance. The tendency of diminishing concern about RNA instability has accelerated by the finding of the novel thermostable three-way junction (3WJ) motif of the phi29 DNA-packaging motor. The kinetics of these three components, each averaging 18 nucleotides (nt), was investigated to elucidate the mechanism for producing the stable 3WJ. The three fragments coassembled into the 3WJ with extraordinary speed and affinity via a two-step reaction mechanism, 3WJb + 3WJc ↔ 3WJbc + 3WJa ↔ 3WJabc The first step of reaction between 3WJb and 3WJc is highly dynamic since these two fragments only contain 8 nt for complementation. In the second step, the 3WJa, which contains 17 nt complementary to the 3WJbc complex, locks the unstable 3WJbc complex into a highly stable 3WJ. The resulting pRNA-3WJ is more stable than any of the dimer species as shown in the much more rapid association rates and slowest dissociation rate constant. The second step occurs at a very high association rate that is difficult to quantify, resulting in a rapid formation of a stable 3WJ. Elucidation of the mechanism of three-component collision in producing the ultrastable 3WJ proves a promising platform for bottom-up assembly of RNA nanoparticles as a new class of anion polymers for material science, electronic elements, or therapeutic reagents. © 2016 Binzel et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  2. The effect of N- or C-terminal alterations of the connector of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor on procapsid assembly, pRNA binding, and DNA packaging

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ying; Xiao, Feng; Guo, Peixuan

    2010-01-01

    Double-stranded DNA viruses package their genomes into procapsids via an ATP-driven nanomotor. This ingenious motor configuration has inspired the development of biomimetics in nanotechnology. Bacteriophage ϕ29 DNA-packaging motor has been a popular tool in nanomedicine. To provide information for further motor modification, conjugation, labeling, and manufacturing, the connector protein gp10 of the ϕ29 DNA packaging motor was truncated, mutated, and extended. A 25-residue deletion or a 14-residue extension at the C terminus of gp10 did not affect procapsid assembly. A 42–amino acid extension at the N terminus did not interfere with the procapsid assembly but significantly decreased the DNA-packaging efficiency. DNA-packaging activity was restored upon protease cleavage of the extended region. Replacing the N-terminal peptide containing arginine and lysine with a histidine-rich peptide did not affect procapsid assembly but completely inhibited the packaging RNA (pRNA) binding to the connector and hindered subsequent DNA packaging. These results indicate that (1) the N-terminal arginine-lysine residues play a critical role in pRNA binding but are not essential for procapsid assembly; (2) the connector core, but not the flexible N- or C-terminal domains, is responsible for signaling the procapsid assembly; (3) pRNA binds to the connector as a result of electrostatic interactions between the polyanionic nature of nucleic acids and the cationic side groups of the amino acids, similar to RNA binding to Tat or polyArg. PMID:18201942

  3. Overcoming Tamoxifen Resistance of Human Breast Cancer by Targeted Gene Silencing Using Multifunctional pRNA Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yijuan; Leonard, Marissa; Shu, Yi; Yang, Yongguang; Shu, Dan; Guo, Peixuan; Zhang, Xiaoting

    2017-01-24

    Most breast cancers express estrogen receptor (ER) α, and the antiestrogen drug tamoxifen has been widely used for their treatment. Unfortunately, up to half of all ERα-positive tumors have intrinsic or acquired endocrine therapy resistance. Our recent studies revealed that the ER coactivator Mediator Subunit 1 (MED1) plays a critical role in tamoxifen resistance through cross-talk with HER2. Herein, we assembled a three-way junction (3-WJ) pRNA-HER2apt-siMED1 nanoparticle to target HER2-overexpressing human breast cancer via an HER2 RNA aptamer to silence MED1 expression. We found that these ultracompact RNA nanoparticles are very stable under RNase A, serum, and 8 M urea conditions. These nanoparticles specifically bound to HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells, efficiently depleted MED1 expression, and significantly decreased ERα-mediated gene transcription, whereas point mutations of the HER2 RNA aptamer on these nanoparticles abolished such functions. The RNA nanoparticles not only reduced the growth, metastasis, and mammosphere formation of the HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells but also sensitized them to tamoxifen treatment. These biosafe nanoparticles efficiently targeted and penetrated into HER2-overexpressing tumors after systemic administration in orthotopic xenograft mouse models. In addition to their ability to greatly inhibit tumor growth and metastasis, these nanoparticles also led to a dramatic reduction in the stem cell content of breast tumors when combined with tamoxifen treatment in vivo. Overall, we have generated multifunctional RNA nanoparticles that specifically targeted HER2-overexpressing human breast cancer, silenced MED1, and overcame tamoxifen resistance.

  4. Modular assembly of chimeric phi29 packaging RNAs that support DNA packaging

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yun; Shu, Dan; Xiao, Feng; Guo, Peixuan; Qin, Peter Z.

    2008-01-01

    The bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor is a protein/RNA complex that can produce strong force to condense the linear-double stranded DNA genome into a pre-formed protein capsid. The RNA component, called the packaging RNA (pRNA), utilizes magnesium-dependent intermolecular base-pairing interactions to form ring-shaped complexes. The pRNA is a class of non-coding RNA, interacting with phi29 motor proteins to enable DNA packaging. Here, we report a 2-piece chimeric pRNA construct that is fully competent in interacting with partner pRNA to form ring-shaped complexes, in packaging DNA via the motor, and in assembling infectious phi29 virions in vitro. This is the first example of a fully functional pRNA assembled using two non-covalently interacting fragments. The results support the notion of modular pRNA architecture in the phi29 packaging motor. PMID:18514064

  5. Role of the CCA bulge of prohead RNA of bacteriophage ø29 in DNA packaging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Morais, Marc C; Anderson, Dwight L; Jardine, Paul J; Grimes, Shelley

    2008-11-14

    The oligomeric ring of prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component of the ATP-driven DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ø29. The A-helix of pRNA binds the DNA translocating ATPase gp16 (gene product 16) and the CCA bulge in this helix is essential for DNA packaging in vitro. Mutation of the bulge by base substitution or deletion showed that the size of the bulge, rather than its sequence, is primary in DNA packaging activity. Proheads reconstituted with CCA bulge mutant pRNAs bound the packaging ATPase gp16 and the packaging substrate DNA-gp3, although DNA translocation was not detected with several mutants. Prohead/bulge-mutant pRNA complexes with low packaging activity had a higher rate of ATP hydrolysis per base pair of DNA packaged than proheads with wild-type pRNA. Cryoelectron microscopy three-dimensional reconstruction of proheads reconstituted with a CCA deletion pRNA showed that the protruding pRNA spokes of the motor occupy a different position relative to the head when compared to particles with wild-type pRNA. Therefore, the CCA bulge seems to dictate the orientation of the pRNA spokes. The conformational changes observed for this mutant pRNA may affect gp16 conformation and/or subsequent ATPase-DNA interaction and, consequently, explain the decreased packaging activity observed for CCA mutants.

  6. Prohead RNA: a noncoding viral RNA of novel structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Alyssa C.; Bartley, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component of the powerful Φ29‐like bacteriophage DNA packaging motor. However, the specific role of this unique RNA in the Φ29 packaging motor remains unknown. This review examines pRNA as a noncoding RNA of novel structure and function. In order to highlight the reasons for exploring the structure and function of pRNA, we (1) provide an overview of Φ29‐like bacteriophage and the Φ29 DNA packaging motor, including putative motor mechanisms and structures of its component parts; (2) discuss pRNA structure and possible roles for pRNA in the Φ29 packaging motor; (3) summarize pRNA self‐assembly; and (4) describe the prospective therapeutic applications of pRNA. Many questions remain to be answered in order to connect what is currently known about pRNA structure to its novel function in the Φ29 packaging motor. The knowledge gained from studying the structure, function, and sequence variation in pRNA will help develop tools to better navigate the conformational landscapes of RNA. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:428–437. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1330 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26810250

  7. Structure and assembly of the essential RNA ring component of a viral DNA packaging motor

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fang; Lu, Changrui; Zhao, Wei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Jardine, Paul J.; Grimes, Shelley; Ke, Ailong

    2011-07-25

    Prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component in the assembly and operation of the powerful bacteriophage {psi}29 DNA packaging motor. The pRNA forms a multimeric ring via intermolecular base-pairing interactions between protomers that serves to guide the assembly of the ring ATPase that drives DNA packaging. Here we report the quaternary structure of this rare multimeric RNA at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, crystallized as tetrameric rings. Strong quaternary interactions and the inherent flexibility helped rationalize how free pRNA is able to adopt multiple oligomerization states in solution. These characteristics also allowed excellent fitting of the crystallographic pRNA protomers into previous prohead/pRNA cryo-EM reconstructions, supporting the presence of a pentameric, but not hexameric, pRNA ring in the context of the DNA packaging motor. The pentameric pRNA ring anchors itself directly to the phage prohead by interacting specifically with the fivefold symmetric capsid structures that surround the head-tail connector portal. From these contacts, five RNA superhelices project from the pRNA ring, where they serve as scaffolds for binding and assembly of the ring ATPase, and possibly mediate communication between motor components. Construction of structure-based designer pRNAs with little sequence similarity to the wild-type pRNA were shown to fully support the packaging of {psi}29 DNA.

  8. Thermodynamic stabilities of three-way junction nanomotifs in prohead RNA.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alyssa C; Schroeder, Susan J

    2017-04-01

    The thermodynamic stabilities of four natural prohead or packaging RNA (pRNA) three-way junction (3WJ) nanomotifs and seven phi29 pRNA 3WJ deletion mutant nanomotifs were investigated using UV optical melting on a three-component RNA system. Our data reveal that some pRNA 3WJs are more stable than the phi29 pRNA 3WJ. The stability of the 3WJ contributes to the unique self-assembly properties of pRNA. Thus, ultrastable pRNA 3WJ motifs suggest new scaffolds for pRNA-based nanotechnology. We present data demonstrating that pRNA 3WJs differentially respond to the presence of metal ions. A comparison of our data with free energies predicted by currently available RNA secondary structure prediction programs shows that these programs do not accurately predict multibranch loop stabilities. These results will expand the existing parameters used for RNA secondary structure prediction from sequence in order to better inform RNA structure-function hypotheses and guide the rational design of functional RNA supramolecular assemblies. © 2017 Hill and Schroeder; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  9. Thermodynamic stabilities of three-way junction nanomotifs in prohead RNA

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Alyssa C.; Schroeder, Susan J.

    2017-01-01

    The thermodynamic stabilities of four natural prohead or packaging RNA (pRNA) three-way junction (3WJ) nanomotifs and seven phi29 pRNA 3WJ deletion mutant nanomotifs were investigated using UV optical melting on a three-component RNA system. Our data reveal that some pRNA 3WJs are more stable than the phi29 pRNA 3WJ. The stability of the 3WJ contributes to the unique self-assembly properties of pRNA. Thus, ultrastable pRNA 3WJ motifs suggest new scaffolds for pRNA-based nanotechnology. We present data demonstrating that pRNA 3WJs differentially respond to the presence of metal ions. A comparison of our data with free energies predicted by currently available RNA secondary structure prediction programs shows that these programs do not accurately predict multibranch loop stabilities. These results will expand the existing parameters used for RNA secondary structure prediction from sequence in order to better inform RNA structure–function hypotheses and guide the rational design of functional RNA supramolecular assemblies. PMID:28069889

  10. Diverse self-association properties within a family of phage packaging RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yumeng

    2014-01-01

    The packaging RNA (pRNA) found in phi29 bacteriophage is an essential component of a molecular motor that packages the phage's DNA genome. The pRNA forms higher-order multimers by intermolecular “kissing” interactions between identical molecules. The phi29 pRNA is a proven building block for nanotechnology and a model to explore the rare phenomenon of naturally occurring RNA self-association. Although the self-association properties of the phi29 pRNA have been extensively studied and this pRNA is used in nanotechnology, the characteristics of phylogenetically related pRNAs with divergent sequences are comparatively underexplored. These diverse pRNAs may lend new insight into both the rules governing RNA self-association and for RNA engineering. Therefore, we used a combination of biochemical and biophysical methods to resolve ambiguities in the proposed secondary structures of pRNAs from M2, GA1, SF5, and B103 phage, and to discover that different naturally occurring pRNAs form multimers of different stoichiometry and thermostability. Indeed, the M2 pRNA formed multimers that were particularly thermostable and may be more useful than phi29 pRNA for many applications. To determine if diverse pRNA behaviors are conferred by different kissing loop sequences, we designed and tested chimeric RNAs based on our revised secondary structural models. We found that although the kissing loops are essential for self-association, the critical determinant of multimer stability and stoichiometry is likely the diverse three-way junctions found in these RNAs. Using known features of RNA three-way junctions and solved structures of phi29 pRNA's junction, we propose a model for how different junctions affect self-association. PMID:25246655

  11. Global Structure of a Three-Way Junction in a Phi29 Packaging RNA Dimer Determined Using Site-Directed Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Tung, Chang-Shung; Sowa, Glenna Z.; Hatmal, Ma’mon M.; Haworth, Ian S.; Qin, Peter Z.

    2012-01-01

    The condensation of bacteriophage phi29 genomic DNA into its preformed procapsid requires the DNA packaging motor, which is the strongest known biological motor. The packaging motor is an intricate ring-shaped protein/ RNA complex, and its function requires an RNA component called packaging RNA (pRNA). Current structural information on pRNA is limited, which hinders studies of motor function. Here, we used site-directed spin labeling to map the conformation of a pRNA three-way junction that bridges binding sites for the motor ATPase and the procapsid. The studies were carried out on a pRNA dimer, which is the simplest ring-shaped pRNA complex and serves as a functional intermediate during motor assembly. Using a nucleotide-independent labeling scheme, stable nitroxide radicals were attached to eight specific pRNA sites without perturbing RNA folding and dimer formation, and a total of 17 internitroxide distances spanning the three-way junction were measured using Double Electron–Electron Resonance spectroscopy. The measured distances, together with steric chemical constraints, were used to select 3662 viable three-way junction models from a pool of 65 billion. The results reveal a similar conformation among the viable models, with two of the helices (HT and HL) adopting an acute bend. This is in contrast to a recently reported pRNA tetramer crystal structure, in which HT and HL stack onto each other linearly. The studies establish a new method for mapping global structures of complex RNA molecules, and provide information on pRNA conformation that aids investigations of phi29 packaging motor and developments of pRNA-based nanomedicine and nanomaterial. PMID:22229766

  12. Global Structure of a Three-Way Junction in a Phi29 Packaging RNA Dimer Determined Using Site-Directed Spin Labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Tung, Chang-Shung; Sowa, Glenna; Hatmal, Ma'mon M.; Haworth, Ian S.; Qin, Peter Z.

    2012-02-08

    The condensation of bacteriophage phi29 genomic DNA into its preformed procapsid requires the DNA packaging motor, which is the strongest known biological motor. The packaging motor is an intricate ring-shaped protein/RNA complex, and its function requires an RNA component called packaging RNA (pRNA). Current structural information on pRNA is limited, which hinders studies of motor function. Here, we used site-directed spin labeling to map the conformation of a pRNA three-way junction that bridges binding sites for the motor ATPase and the procapsid. The studies were carried out on a pRNA dimer, which is the simplest ring-shaped pRNA complex and serves as a functional intermediate during motor assembly. Using a nucleotide-independent labeling scheme, stable nitroxide radicals were attached to eight specific pRNA sites without perturbing RNA folding and dimer formation, and a total of 17 internitroxide distances spanning the three-way junction were measured using Double Electron-Electron Resonance spectroscopy. The measured distances, together with steric chemical constraints, were used to select 3662 viable three-way junction models from a pool of 65 billion. The results reveal a similar conformation among the viable models, with two of the helices (HT and HL) adopting an acute bend. This is in contrast to a recently reported pRNA tetramer crystal structure, in which HT and HL stack onto each other linearly. The studies establish a new method for mapping global structures of complex RNA molecules, and provide information on pRNA conformation that aids investigations of phi29 packaging motor and developments of pRNA-based nanomedicine and nanomaterial.

  13. Targeting MED1 LxxLL Motifs for Tissue-Selective Treatment of Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    the treatment of many human dis- eases. The therapeutic potential of RNAs, including ribozymes , short hairpin RNA, small interfering RNA (siRNA...Gewirth and Sullenger 2007; Yan and Levy 2009). A major challenge that remains is the systemic delivery of these moieties (siRNA, ribozyme , etc.) to...pieces of pRNA in pRNA hexamer nanoparticles could provide six positions to conjugate therapeutic molecules such as siRNAs, ribozymes , therapeutic RNA

  14. Sequential action of six virus-encoded DNA-packaging RNAs during phage phi29 genomic DNA translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C; Guo, P

    1997-01-01

    A 120-base pRNA encoded by bacteriophage b29 has a novel and essential role in genomic DNA packaging. Six DNA-packaging RNAs (pRNAs) were bound to the sixfold symmetrical portal vertex of procapsids during the DNA translocation process and left the procapsid after the DNA-packaging reaction was completed, suggesting that the pRNA participated in the translocation of genomic DNA into procapsids. To further investigate the mechanism of DNA packaging, it is crucial to determine whether these six pRNA molecules work as an integrated entity or each pRNA acts as a functional individual. If pRNAs work individually, then do they work in sequence with communication or in random order without interaction? Results from compensation and complementation analysis did not support the integrated model. Computation of the probability of combination between wild-type and mutant pRNAs and experimental data of competitive inhibition excluded the random model while favoring the proposal that the six pRNAs functioned sequentially. Sequential action of the pRNA also explains why the pRNA is so sensitive to mutation, since the effect of a pRNA mutation will be amplified by 6 orders of magnitude after six consecutive steps, resulting in the observed complete loss of DNA-packaging activity caused by small alterations. When any one of the six pRNAs was replaced with an inactive one, complete blockage of DNA packaging resulted, strongly supporting the speculation that individual pRNAs, presumably together with other components such as the packaging ATPase gp16, take turns mediating successive steps of packaging. Although the data provided here could not exclude the integrated model completely, there is no evidence so far to argue against the model of sequential action. PMID:9094662

  15. Affinity of molecular interactions in the bacteriophage φ29 DNA packaging motor

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark A.; Wood, Jonathan P.A.; Capaldi, Stephanie A.; Baron, Andrew J.; Gell, Christopher; Smith, D. Alastair; Stonehouse, Nicola J.

    2006-01-01

    DNA packaging in the bacteriophage φ29 involves a molecular motor with protein and RNA components, including interactions between the viral connector protein and molecules of pRNA, both of which form multimeric complexes. Data are presented to demonstrate the higher order assembly of pRNA together with the affinity of pRNA:pRNA and pRNA:connector interactions, which are used to propose a model for motor function. In solution, pRNA can form dimeric and trimeric multimers in a magnesium-dependent manner, with dissociation constants for multimerization in the micromolar range. pRNA:connector binding is also facilitated by the presence of magnesium ions, with a nanomolar apparent dissociation constant for the interaction. From studies with a mutant pRNA, it appears that multimerization of pRNA is not essential for connector binding and it is likely that connector protein is involved in the stabilization of higher order RNA multimers. It is proposed that magnesium ions may promote conformational change that facilitate pRNA:connector interactions, essential for motor function. PMID:16714447

  16. Targeted Delivery of Anti-coxsackievirus siRNAs Using Ligand-conjugated Packaging RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huifang M.; Su, Yue; Guo, Songchuan; Yuan, Ji; Lim, Travis; Liu, Jing; Guo, Peixuan; Yang, Decheng

    2013-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a common pathogen of myocarditis. We previously synthesized a siRNA targeting the CVB3 protease 2A (siRNA/2A) gene and achieved reduction of CVB3 replication by 92% in vitro. However, like other drugs under development, CVB3 siRNA faces a major challenge of targeted delivery. In this study, we investigated a novel approach to deliver CVB3 siRNAs to a specific cell population (e.g. HeLa cells containing folate receptor) using receptor ligand (folate)-linked packaging RNA (pRNA) from bacterial phage phi29. pRNA monomers can spontaneously form dimers and multimers under optimal conditions by base-pairing between their stem loops. By covalently linking a fluorescence-tag to folate, we delivered the conjugate specifically to HeLa cells without the need of transfection. We further demonstrated that pRNA covalently conjugated to siRNA/2A achieved an equivalent antiviral effect to that of the siRNA/2A alone. Finally, the drug targeted delivery was further evaluated by using pRNA monomers or dimers, which carried both the siRNA/2A and folate ligand and demonstrated that both of them strongly inhibited CVB3 replication. These data indicate that pRNA as a siRNA carrier can specifically deliver the drug to target cells via its ligand and specific receptor interaction and inhibit virus replication effectively. PMID:19616030

  17. Conservation of the pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic gene cluster among six pyrrolnitrin-producing strains.

    PubMed

    Hammer, P E; Burd, W; Hill, D S; Ligon, J M; van Pée, K

    1999-11-01

    The prnABCD gene cluster from Pseudomonas fluorescens encodes the biosynthetic pathway for pyrrolnitrin, a secondary metabolite derived from tryptophan which has strong anti-fungal activity. We used the prn genes from P. fluorescens strain BL915 as a probe to clone and sequence homologous genes from three other Pseudomonas strains, Burkholderia cepacia and Myxococcus fulvus. With the exception of the prnA gene from M. fulvus59% similar among the strains, indicating that the biochemical pathway for pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis is highly conserved. The prnA gene from M. fulvus is about 45% similar to prnA from the other strains and contains regions which are highly conserved among all six strains.

  18. Prokaryotic RNA Associated to Bacterial Viability Induces Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Activation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Nahuel; Castillo, Luis A; Landoni, Verónica I; Martire-Greco, Daiana; Milillo, M Ayelén; Barrionuevo, Paula; Fernández, Gabriela C

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first cellular line of antibacterial host defense. They sense pathogens through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by innate pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PMN sense bacterial viability and explore which viability factor could be involved in this phenomenon. For this purpose, different functions were evaluated in isolated human PMN using live Escherichia coli (Ec) and heat-killed Ec (HK-Ec). We found that bacterial viability was indispensable to induce PMN activation, as measured by forward-scatter (FSC) increase, CD11b surface expression, chemotaxis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. As uncapped non-polyadenylated prokaryotic mRNA has been recognized as a PAMP associated to bacterial viability by macrophages and dendritic cells, total prokaryotic RNA (pRNA) from live Ec was purified and used as a stimulus for PMN. pRNA triggered similar responses to those observed with live bacteria. No RNA could be isolated from HK-Ec, explaining the lack of effect of dead bacteria. Moreover, the supernatant of dead bacteria was able to induce PMN activation, and this was associated with the presence of pRNA in this supernatant, which is released in the killing process. The induction of bactericidal functions (ROS and NETosis) by pRNA were abolished when the supernatant of dead bacteria or isolated pRNA were treated with RNAse. Moreover, endocytosis was necessary for pRNA-induced ROS generation and NETosis, and priming was required for the induction of pRNA-induced ROS in whole blood. However, responses related to movement and degranulation (FSC increase, CD11b up-regulation, and chemotaxis) were still triggered when pRNA was digested with RNase, and were not dependent on pRNA endocytosis or PMN priming. In conclusion, our results indicate that PMN sense live bacteria

  19. Prokaryotic RNA Associated to Bacterial Viability Induces Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Nahuel; Castillo, Luis A.; Landoni, Verónica I.; Martire-Greco, Daiana; Milillo, M. Ayelén; Barrionuevo, Paula; Fernández, Gabriela C.

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first cellular line of antibacterial host defense. They sense pathogens through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by innate pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PMN sense bacterial viability and explore which viability factor could be involved in this phenomenon. For this purpose, different functions were evaluated in isolated human PMN using live Escherichia coli (Ec) and heat-killed Ec (HK-Ec). We found that bacterial viability was indispensable to induce PMN activation, as measured by forward-scatter (FSC) increase, CD11b surface expression, chemotaxis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. As uncapped non-polyadenylated prokaryotic mRNA has been recognized as a PAMP associated to bacterial viability by macrophages and dendritic cells, total prokaryotic RNA (pRNA) from live Ec was purified and used as a stimulus for PMN. pRNA triggered similar responses to those observed with live bacteria. No RNA could be isolated from HK-Ec, explaining the lack of effect of dead bacteria. Moreover, the supernatant of dead bacteria was able to induce PMN activation, and this was associated with the presence of pRNA in this supernatant, which is released in the killing process. The induction of bactericidal functions (ROS and NETosis) by pRNA were abolished when the supernatant of dead bacteria or isolated pRNA were treated with RNAse. Moreover, endocytosis was necessary for pRNA-induced ROS generation and NETosis, and priming was required for the induction of pRNA-induced ROS in whole blood. However, responses related to movement and degranulation (FSC increase, CD11b up-regulation, and chemotaxis) were still triggered when pRNA was digested with RNase, and were not dependent on pRNA endocytosis or PMN priming. In conclusion, our results indicate that PMN sense live bacteria

  20. Initiating nucleotide identity determines efficiency of RNA synthesis from 6S RNA templates in Bacillus subtilis but not Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Ostertag, Ignacio J.; Cavanagh, Amy T.; Wassarman, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    The 6S RNA is a non-coding small RNA that binds within the active site of housekeeping forms of RNA polymerases (e.g. Eσ70 in Escherichia coli, EσA in Bacillus subtilis) and regulates transcription. Efficient release of RNA polymerase from 6S RNA regulation during outgrowth from stationary phase is dependent on use of 6S RNA as a template to generate a product RNA (pRNA). Interestingly, B. subtilis has two 6S RNAs, 6S-1 and 6S-2, but only 6S-1 RNA appears to be used efficiently as a template for pRNA synthesis during outgrowth. Here, we demonstrate that the identity of the initiating nucleotide is particularly important for the B. subtilis RNA polymerase to use RNA templates. Specifically, initiation with guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is required for efficient pRNA synthesis, providing mechanistic insight into why 6S-2 RNA does not support robust pRNA synthesis as it initiates with adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Intriguingly, E. coli RNA polymerase does not have a strong preference for initiating nucleotide identity. These observations highlight an important difference in biochemical properties of B. subtilis and E. coli RNA polymerases, specifically in their ability to use RNA templates efficiently, which also may reflect the differences in GTP and ATP metabolism in these two organisms. PMID:23761441

  1. Nasolabial angle at rest and upon smiling.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Daniel Salvatore; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; Janson, Guilherme; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Cardoso, Camila Lopes

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the mean and SD of the nasolabial angle (NLA) and the linear measure pronasale (Prn)-A' at rest and upon smiling and 2) to determine the difference between smile and rest in participants with normal occlusion and facial harmony. The sample consisted of 40 white Brazilian participants (20 of each gender) aged 20 to 30 years and with normal occlusion, a pleasant profile, and facial harmony. The measures NLA and Prn-A' were analyzed in profile photographs at rest and during smile, with a millimeter ruler in front of the profile during use of the Dolphin software. The statistical analysis included dependent t tests to compare the rest and smiling variables. The mean of the NLA at rest was 104.93°; it was 110.67° during smile; and the difference between them was statistically significant, with a mean of 5.74°. The mean of the linear variable Prn-A' at rest was 23.25 mm, whereas during smile it was 24.04 mm, and the difference between them was statistically significant, with a mean of 0.79 mm. The variability in the NLA and Prn-A' at rest and upon smiling was found to be significant in a normal sample, and it should be considered as a diagnostic tool in the treatment planning for sagittal dentoskeletal deformities. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Antigenic variability of Bordetella pertussis strains isolated in 1967-2010 in the Czech Republic--possible explanation for the rise in cases of pertussis?].

    PubMed

    Zavadilová, J; Lžičařová, D; Musílek, M; Křížová, P; Fabiánová, K

    2015-09-01

    Comparison of antigenic structures of Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) strains isolated from 1967 to 2010 in the Czech Republic. Seventy strains of B. pertussis were referred to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Pertussis and Diphtheria within the surveillance of pertussis from all over the Czech Republic (CR) between 1967 and 2010. To study the strains, the analysis was performed of the genome sequences encoding the surface immunogenic structures--the pertussis toxin S1 subunit gene (ptxA), pertactin gene region 1 (prnA), type 3 fimbriae gene (fim3)--and pertussis toxin promoter (ptxP) responsible for the regulation of the production of pertussis toxin. For the study set of B. pertussis strains, the sequencing analysis revealed changes in all genomic regions studied. The isolates from three periods differ in the allelic profile. In period I (19671978) with the use of whole cell pertussis vaccine (wP), the following two profiles were the most common: ptxP(1), ptxA(2), prnA(1), fim3(1) and ptxP(1), ptxA(1), prnA(3), fim3(1). In period 2 (19902007) with the switch to acellular pertussis vaccine (aP), the most common profile was: ptxP(3), ptxA(1), prnA(2), fim3(2). Period 3 (20082010) with the use of aP was characterized by the predominance of the following two profiles which had never been found in period 1: ptxP(3), ptxA(1), prnA(2), fim3(2) and ptxP(3) ptxA(1), prnA(2), fim3(1). Sequencing of the genomic regions ptxP, ptxA, prnA, and fim3 of B. pertussis strains isolated in the CR between 1967 and 2010 confirmed changes in the allelic variants of these regions. The incidence of strains carrying the new allelic variants was increasing after 1995 at the expense of those carrying the original variants. The study results can be interpreted as a partial genetic escape of pathogenic strains of B. pertussis beyond the reach of the pertussis vaccines.

  3. 5′-Phospho-RNA Acceptor Specificity of GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in mRNA Capping

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Minako

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) domain of the multifunctional L protein of rhabdoviruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus, catalyzes the transfer of 5′-phospho-RNA (pRNA) from 5′-triphospho-RNA (pppRNA) to GDP via a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate to generate a 5′-cap structure (GpppA). Here, using an improved oligo-RNA capping assay with the VSV L protein, we showed that the Michaelis constants for GDP and pppAACAG (VSV mRNA-start sequence) are 0.03 and 0.4 μM, respectively. A competition assay between GDP and GDP analogues in the GpppA formation and pRNA transfer assay using GDP analogues as pRNA acceptors indicated that the PRNTase domain recognizes the C-2-amino group, but not the C-6-oxo group, N-1-hydrogen, or N-7-nitrogen, of GDP for the cap formation. 2,6-Diaminopurine-riboside (DAP), 7-deazaguanosine (7-deaza-G), and 7-methylguanosine (m7G) diphosphates efficiently accepted pRNA, resulting in the formation of DAPpppA, 7-deaza-GpppA, and m7GpppA (cap 0), respectively. Furthermore, either the 2′- or 3′-hydroxyl group of GDP was found to be required for efficient pRNA transfer. A 5′-diphosphate form of antiviral ribavirin weakly inhibited the GpppA formation but did not act as a pRNA acceptor. These results indicate that the PRNTase domain has a unique guanosine-binding mode different from that of eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. IMPORTANCE mRNAs of nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses, such as VSV, possess a fully methylated cap structure, which is required for mRNA stability, efficient translation, and evasion of antiviral innate immunity in host cells. GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) is an unconventional mRNA capping enzyme of NNS RNA viruses that is distinct from the eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. In this study, we studied the pRNA acceptor specificity of VSV PRNTase using various GDP analogues and identified chemical groups

  4. 5'-Phospho-RNA Acceptor Specificity of GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in mRNA Capping.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Minako; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2017-03-15

    The GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) domain of the multifunctional L protein of rhabdoviruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus, catalyzes the transfer of 5'-phospho-RNA (pRNA) from 5'-triphospho-RNA (pppRNA) to GDP via a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate to generate a 5'-cap structure (GpppA). Here, using an improved oligo-RNA capping assay with the VSV L protein, we showed that the Michaelis constants for GDP and pppAACAG (VSV mRNA-start sequence) are 0.03 and 0.4 μM, respectively. A competition assay between GDP and GDP analogues in the GpppA formation and pRNA transfer assay using GDP analogues as pRNA acceptors indicated that the PRNTase domain recognizes the C-2-amino group, but not the C-6-oxo group, N-1-hydrogen, or N-7-nitrogen, of GDP for the cap formation. 2,6-Diaminopurine-riboside (DAP), 7-deazaguanosine (7-deaza-G), and 7-methylguanosine (m(7)G) diphosphates efficiently accepted pRNA, resulting in the formation of DAPpppA, 7-deaza-GpppA, and m(7)GpppA (cap 0), respectively. Furthermore, either the 2'- or 3'-hydroxyl group of GDP was found to be required for efficient pRNA transfer. A 5'-diphosphate form of antiviral ribavirin weakly inhibited the GpppA formation but did not act as a pRNA acceptor. These results indicate that the PRNTase domain has a unique guanosine-binding mode different from that of eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. IMPORTANCE mRNAs of nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses, such as VSV, possess a fully methylated cap structure, which is required for mRNA stability, efficient translation, and evasion of antiviral innate immunity in host cells. GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) is an unconventional mRNA capping enzyme of NNS RNA viruses that is distinct from the eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. In this study, we studied the pRNA acceptor specificity of VSV PRNTase using various GDP analogues and identified chemical groups of GDP as

  5. Insights into the Structure and Assembly of the Bacteriophage ϕ29 Double-Stranded DNA Packaging Motor

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Sheng; Saha, Mitul; Zhao, Wei; Jardine, Paul J.; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The tailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophage ϕ29 packages its 19.3-kbp genome into a preassembled procapsid structure by using a transiently assembled phage-encoded molecular motor. This process is remarkable considering that compaction of DNA to near-crystalline densities within the confined space of the capsid requires that the packaging motor work against significant entropic, enthalpic, and DNA-bending energies. The motor consists of three phage-encoded components: the dodecameric connector protein gp10, an oligomeric RNA molecule known as the prohead RNA (pRNA), and the homomeric ring ATPase gp16. Although atomic resolution structures of the connector and different pRNA subdomains have been determined, the mechanism of self-assembly and the resulting stoichiometry of the various motor components on the phage capsid have been the subject of considerable controversy. Here a subnanometer asymmetric cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstruction of a connector-pRNA complex at a unique vertex of the procapsid conclusively demonstrates the pentameric symmetry of the pRNA and illuminates the relative arrangement of the connector and the pRNA. Additionally, a combination of biochemical and cryo-EM analyses of motor assembly intermediates suggests a sequence of molecular events that constitute the pathway by which the motor assembles on the head, thereby reconciling conflicting data regarding pRNA assembly and stoichiometry. Taken together, these data provide new insight into the assembly, structure, and mechanism of a complex molecular machine. IMPORTANCE Viruses consist of a protein shell, or capsid, that protects and surrounds their genetic material. Thus, genome encapsidation is a fundamental and essential step in the life cycle of any virus. In dsDNA viruses, powerful molecular motors essentially pump the viral DNA into a preformed protein shell. This article describes how a viral dsDNA packaging motor self-assembles on the viral capsid and

  6. An RNA Domain Imparts Specificity and Selectivity to a Viral DNA Packaging Motor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Jardine, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During assembly, double-stranded DNA viruses, including bacteriophages and herpesviruses, utilize a powerful molecular motor to package their genomic DNA into a preformed viral capsid. An integral component of the packaging motor in the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage ϕ29 is a viral genome-encoded pentameric ring of RNA (prohead RNA [pRNA]). pRNA is a 174-base transcript comprised of two domains, domains I and II. Early studies initially isolated a 120-base form (domain I only) that retains high biological activity in vitro; hence, no function could be assigned to domain II. Here we define a role for this domain in the packaging process. DNA packaging using restriction digests of ϕ29 DNA showed that motors with the 174-base pRNA supported the correct polarity of DNA packaging, selectively packaging the DNA left end. In contrast, motors containing the 120-base pRNA had compromised specificity, packaging both left- and right-end fragments. The presence of domain II also provides selectivity in competition assays with genomes from related phages. Furthermore, motors with the 174-base pRNA were restrictive, in that they packaged only one DNA fragment into the head, whereas motors with the 120-base pRNA packaged several fragments into the head, indicating multiple initiation events. These results show that domain II imparts specificity and stringency to the motor during the packaging initiation events that precede DNA translocation. Heteromeric rings of pRNA demonstrated that one or two copies of domain II were sufficient to impart this selectivity/stringency. Although ϕ29 differs from other double-stranded DNA phages in having an RNA motor component, the function provided by pRNA is carried on the motor protein components in other phages. IMPORTANCE During virus assembly, genome packaging involves the delivery of newly synthesized viral nucleic acid into a protein shell. In the double-stranded DNA phages and herpesviruses, this is accomplished by a powerful

  7. Creative Movement and Physical Development. Books for Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagens, Helen E.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews three books on creative movement and physical development appropriate for early childhood teachers: (1) "Hello Toes! Movement Games for Children" (A. F. Barlin and N. Kalev); (2) "Movement Activities for Early Childhood" (C. T. Hammett); and (3) "Designing Preschool Movement Programs" (S. W. Sanders). (MDM)

  8. Creative Movement and Physical Development. Books for Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagens, Helen E.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews three books on creative movement and physical development appropriate for early childhood teachers: (1) "Hello Toes! Movement Games for Children" (A. F. Barlin and N. Kalev); (2) "Movement Activities for Early Childhood" (C. T. Hammett); and (3) "Designing Preschool Movement Programs" (S. W. Sanders). (MDM)

  9. Structural and mechanistic characterization of 6S RNA from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Karen; Duchardt-Ferner, Elke; Lechner, Marcus; Damm, Katrin; Hoch, Philipp G; Salas, Margarita; Hartmann, Roland K

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial 6S RNAs competitively inhibit binding of RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzymes to DNA promoters, thereby globally regulating transcription. RNAP uses 6S RNA itself as a template to synthesize short transcripts, termed pRNAs (product RNAs). Longer pRNAs (approx. ≥ 10 nt) rearrange the 6S RNA structure and thereby disrupt the 6S RNA:RNAP complex, which enables the enzyme to resume transcription at DNA promoters. We studied 6S RNA of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus, representing the thermodynamically most stable 6S RNA known so far. Applying structure probing and NMR, we show that the RNA adopts the canonical rod-shaped 6S RNA architecture with little structure formation in the central bulge (CB) even at moderate temperatures (≤37 °C). 6S RNA:pRNA complex formation triggers an internal structure rearrangement of 6S RNA, i.e. formation of a so-called central bulge collapse (CBC) helix. The persistence of several characteristic NMR imino proton resonances upon pRNA annealing demonstrates that defined helical segments on both sides of the CB are retained in the pRNA-bound state, thus representing a basic framework of the RNA's architecture. RNA-seq analyses revealed pRNA synthesis from 6S RNA in A. aeolicus, identifying 9 to ∼17-mers as the major length species. A. aeolicus 6S RNA can also serve as a template for in vitro pRNA synthesis by RNAP from the mesophile Bacillus subtilis. Binding of a synthetic pRNA to A. aeolicus 6S RNA blocks formation of 6S RNA:RNAP complexes. Our findings indicate that A. aeolicus 6S RNA function in its hyperthermophilic host is mechanistically identical to that of other bacterial 6S RNAs. The use of artificial pRNA variants, designed to disrupt helix P2 from the 3'-CB instead of the 5'-CB but preventing formation of the CBC helix, indicated that the mechanism of pRNA-induced RNAP release has been evolutionarily optimized for transcriptional pRNA initiation in the 5'-CB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  10. Fabrication of Polyvalent Therapeutic RNA Nanoparticles for Specific Delivery of siRNA, Ribozyme and Drugs to Targeted Cells for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yi; Shu, Dan; Diao, Zhijuan; Shen, Guanxin; Guo, Peixuan

    2010-01-01

    Bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor is geared by a six-pRNA ring. pRNA is able to form a multimeric complex and patterned superstructures via the interaction of two reengineered interlocking loops. This unique feature makes it an ideal polyvalent vehicle for nanomachine fabrication, pathogen detection, and the delivery of therapeutics. This report describes novel approaches for the fabrication of polyvalent therapeutic pRNA nanoparticles, especially tetramers for specific siRNA delivery to cancer cells and for the silencing of targeted genes. RNA 3-D design, circular permutation, folding energy alteration, and nucleotide modification were applied to generate stable RNA nanoparticles with low toxicity. Animal trials demonstrated the high efficiency of the polyvalent RNA nanoparticles in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Using such protein-free nanoparticles as therapeutic reagents would allow for long-term administration to avoid the induction of antibody due to repeated treatment for chronic diseases. PMID:21243099

  11. The influence of salt intake on the metabolic acidosis of chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Espinel, G H

    1975-01-01

    The influence of dietary salt on the levels of plasma bicarbonate and on the characteristics of bicarbonate reabsorption was studied in experimental chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure was produced in rats by sequential partial nephrectomies. The control group received a diet constant in salt content throughout the progression of renal failure; the other group (PRNa), at each stage of renal failure, received salt intake reduced in direct proportion to the fall in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In the steady state, the quantities of urinary sodium closely approximated intake in obth groups of animals. The adaptive increased natriuresis per nephron exhibited by the control animals was prevented in the PRNa animals. The PRNa group had (a) higher plasma bicarbonate levels, (b) increased bicarbonate thresholds, and (c) increased maximal tubular reabsorptive capacity for bicarbonate. As renal failure progresses, dietary salt can become a determining factor of the levels at which plasma bicarbonate is maintained. Proportional reduction of dietary salt results in bicarbonate conservation in rats with experimental progressive renal failure. PMID:1150871

  12. Characterization of the archaeal ribonuclease P proteins from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    PubMed

    Terada, Atsushi; Honda, Takashi; Fukuhara, Hideo; Hada, Kazumasa; Kimura, Makoto

    2006-08-01

    Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is a ribonucleoprotein complex involved in the processing of the 5'-leader sequence of precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA). Our earlier study revealed that RNase P RNA (pRNA) and five proteins (PhoPop5, PhoRpp38, PhoRpp21, PhoRpp29, and PhoRpp30) in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 reconstituted RNase P activity that exhibits enzymatic properties like those of the authentic enzyme. In present study, we investigated involvement of the individual proteins in RNase P activity. Two particles (R-3Ps), in which pRNA was mixed with three proteins, PhoPop5, PhoRpp30, and PhoRpp38 or PhoPop5, PhoRpp30, and PhoRpp21 showed a detectable RNase P activity, and five reconstituted particles (R-4Ps) composed of pRNA and four proteins exhibited RNase P activity, albeit at reduced level compared to that of the reconstituted particle (R-5P) composed of pRNA and five proteins. Time-course analysis of the RNase P activities of R-4Ps indicated that the R-4Ps lacking PhoPop5, PhoRpp21, or PhoRpp30 had virtually reduced activity, while omission of PhoRpp29 or PhoRpp38 had a slight effect on the activity. The results indicate that the proteins contribute to RNase P activity in order of PhoPop5 > PhoRpp30 > PhoRpp21 > PhoRpp29 > PhoRpp38. It was further found that R-4Ps showed a characteristic Mg2+ ion dependency approximately identical to that of R-5P. However, R-4Ps had optimum temperature of around at 55 degrees C which is lower than 70 degrees C for R-5P. Together, it is suggested that the P. horikoshii RNase P proteins are predominantly involved in optimization of the pRNA conformation, though they are individually dispensable for RNase P activity in vitro.

  13. How to Train an Army of Intelligence Analysts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    El Salvador (1979-1992), “90 percent of counterinsurgency is political, social , economic and ideological and only 10 percent military.”24 To date...hostilities. The proactive development by intelligence professionals of the cultural, social , political, and military baselines determined critical in El...conflict and the need for long-term cultural, social , and religious immersion. According to Professor Kalev Sepp, a visit to Iraq in November of

  14. The Perfect Sturm: Innovation and the Origins of Blitzkrieg in World War I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    early in the war. Helmets, boots, even the uniforms have been modified for the new style of warfare.................. 21 Figure 6. Flammenwerfer or...thank my thesis advisor, Professor Robert O’Connell, and my second reader, Professor Kalev Sepp, for their time and patience in helping me write ...order to support the researching and writing of this thesis. To Anna and Vasja Kovačič who served as my personal guides, provided me a base of

  15. Harnessing RNA sequencing for global, unbiased evaluation of two new adjuvants for dendritic-cell immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mathan, Till S M; Textor, Johannes; Sköld, Annette E; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; van Oorschot, Tom; Brüning, Mareke; Figdor, Carl G; Buschow, Sonja I; Bakdash, Ghaith; de Vries, I Jolanda M

    2017-02-08

    Effective stimulation of immune cells is crucial for the success of cancer immunotherapies. Current approaches to evaluate the efficiency of stimuli are mainly defined by known flow cytometry-based cell activation or cell maturation markers. This method however does not give a complete overview of the achieved activation state and may leave important side effects unnoticed. Here, we used an unbiased RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)-based approach to compare the capacity of four clinical-grade dendritic cell (DC) activation stimuli used to prepare DC-vaccines composed of various types of DC subsets; the already clinically applied GM-CSF and Frühsommer meningoencephalitis (FSME) prophylactic vaccine and the novel clinical grade adjuvants protamine-RNA complexes (pRNA) and CpG-P. We found that GM-CSF and pRNA had similar effects on their target cells, whereas pRNA and CpG-P induced stronger type I interferon (IFN) expression than FSME. In general, the pathways most affected by all stimuli were related to immune activity and cell migration. GM-CSF stimulation, however, also induced a significant increase of genes related to nonsense-mediated decay, indicating a possible deleterious effect of this stimulus. Taken together, the two novel stimuli appear to be promising alternatives. Our study demonstrates how RNA-seq based investigation of changes in a large number of genes and gene groups can be exploited for fast and unbiased, global evaluation of clinical-grade stimuli, as opposed to the general limited evaluation of a pre-specified set of genes, by which one might miss important biological effects that are detrimental for vaccine efficacy.

  16. Intracellular delivery of poly(I:C) induces apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes via an unknown dsRNA sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Karpus, Olga N.; Hsiao, Cheng-Chih; Kort, Hanneke de; Tak, Paul P.; Hamann, Jörg

    2016-08-26

    Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) express functional membranous and cytoplasmic sensors for double-stranded (ds)RNA. Notably, FLS undergo apoptosis upon transfection with the synthetic dsRNA analog poly(I:C). We here studied the mechanism of intracellular poly(I:C) recognition and subsequent cell death in FLS. FLS responded similarly to poly(I:C) or 3pRNA transfection; however, only intracellular delivery of poly(I:C) induced significant cell death, accompanied by upregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins Puma and Noxa, caspase 3 cleavage, and nuclear segregation. Knockdown of the DExD/H-box helicase MDA5 did not affect the response to intracellular poly(I:C); in contrast, knockdown of RIG-I abrogated the response to 3pRNA. Knockdown of the downstream adaptor proteins IPS, STING, and TRIF or inhibition of TBK1 did not affect the response to intracellular poly(I:C), while knockdown of IFNAR blocked intracellular poly(I:C)-mediated signaling and cell death. We conclude that a so far unknown intracellular sensor recognizes linear dsRNA and induces apoptosis in FLS. - Highlights: • Intracellular poly(I:C) and 3pRNA evoke immune responses in FLS. • Only intracellular delivery of poly(I:C) induces FLS apoptosis. • FLS do not require MDA5 for their response to intracellular poly(I:C). • FLS respond to intracellular poly(I:C) independent of IPS and STING. • An unknown intracellular sensor recognizes linear dsRNA in FLS.

  17. A divalent cation stabilizes the active conformation of the B. subtilis RNase P x pre-tRNA complex: a role for an inner-sphere metal ion in RNase P.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, John; Koutmou, Kristin S; Rueda, David; Koutmos, Markos; Walter, Nils G; Fierke, Carol A

    2010-07-02

    Metal ions interact with RNA to enhance folding, stabilize structure, and, in some cases, facilitate catalysis. Assigning functional roles to specifically bound metal ions presents a major challenge in analyzing the catalytic mechanisms of ribozymes. Bacillus subtilis ribonuclease P (RNase P), composed of a catalytically active RNA subunit (PRNA) and a small protein subunit (P protein), catalyzes the 5'-end maturation of precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs). Inner-sphere coordination of divalent metal ions to PRNA is essential for catalytic activity but not for the formation of the RNase P x pre-tRNA (enzyme-substrate, ES) complex. Previous studies have demonstrated that this ES complex undergoes an essential conformational change (to the ES* conformer) before the cleavage step. Here, we show that the ES* conformer is stabilized by a high-affinity divalent cation capable of inner-sphere coordination, such as Ca(II) or Mg(II). Additionally, a second, lower-affinity Mg(II) activates cleavage catalyzed by RNase P. Structural changes that occur upon binding Ca(II) to the ES complex were determined by time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer measurements of the distances between donor-acceptor fluorophores introduced at specific locations on the P protein and pre-tRNA 5' leader. These data demonstrate that the 5' leader of pre-tRNA moves 4 to 6 A closer to the PRNA x P protein interface during the ES-to-ES* transition and suggest that the metal-dependent conformational change reorganizes the bound substrate in the active site to form a catalytically competent ES* complex.

  18. In vitro capping and transcription of rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Tomoaki

    2013-02-01

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototypic nonsegmented negative strand (NNS) RNA virus classified into the Rhabdoviridae family, has been used to investigate the fundamental molecular mechanisms of NNS RNA viral mRNA synthesis and processing. In vitro studies on mRNA cap formation with the VSV L protein eventually led to the discovery of the unconventional mRNA capping pathway catalyzed by the guanosine 5'-triphosphatase and RNA:GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) activities. The PRNTase activity is a novel enzymatic activity, which transfers 5'-monophosphorylated (p-) RNA from 5'-triphosphorylated (ppp-) RNA to GDP to form 5'-capped RNA (GpppRNA) in a viral mRNA-start sequence-dependent manner. This unconventional capping (pRNA transfer) reaction with PRNTase can be experimentally distinguished from the conventional capping (GMP transfer) reaction with eukaryotic GTP:RNA guanylyltransferase (GTase) on the basis of the following differences in their substrate specificity for the cap formation: PRNTase uses GDP and pppRNA, but not ppRNA, whereas GTase employs GTP, but not GDP, and ppRNA. The pRNA transfer reaction with PRNTase proceeds through a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate with a phosphoamide bond. Hence, to prove the PRNTase activity, it is necessary to demonstrate the following consecutive steps separately: (1) the enzyme forms a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate, and (2) the intermediate transfers pRNA to GDP. This article describes the methods for in vitro transcription and capping with the recombinant VSV L protein, which permit detailed characterization of its enzymatic reactions and mapping of active sites of its enzymatic domains. It is expected that these systems are adaptable to rhabdoviruses and, by extension, other NNS RNA viruses belonging to different families.

  19. Stimulation of StAR expression by cAMP is controlled by inhibition of highly inducible SIK1 via CRTC2, a co-activator of CREB.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Takemori, Hiroshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2015-06-15

    In mouse steroidogenic cells the activation of cholesterol metabolism is mediated by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Here, we visualized a coordinated regulation of StAR transcription, splicing and post-transcriptional processing, which are synchronized by salt inducible kinase (SIK1) and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC2). To detect primary RNA (pRNA), spliced primary RNA (Sp-RNA) and mRNA in single cells, we generated probe sets by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These methods allowed us to address the nature of StAR gene expression and to visualize protein-nucleic acid interactions through direct detection. We show that SIK1 represses StAR expression in Y1 adrenal and MA10 testis cells through inhibition of processing mediated by CRTC2. Digital image analysis matches qPCR analyses of the total cell culture. Evidence is presented for spatially separate accumulation of StAR pRNA and Sp-RNA at the gene loci in the nucleus. These findings establish that cAMP, SIK and CRTC mediate StAR expression through activation of individual StAR gene loci. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stimulation of StAR expression by cAMP is controlled by inhibition of highly inducible SIK1 via CRTC2, a co-activator of CREB

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Takemori, Hiroshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2015-01-01

    In mouse steroidogenic cells the activation of cholesterol metabolism is mediated by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Here, we visualized a coordinated regulation of StAR transcription, splicing and post-transcriptional processing, which are synchronized by salt inducible kinase (SIK1) and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC2). To detect primary RNA (pRNA), spliced primary RNA (Sp-RNA) and mRNA in single cells, we generated probe sets by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These methods allowed us to address the nature of StAR gene expression and to visualize protein–nucleic acid interactions through direct detection. We show that SIK1 represses StAR expression in Y1 adrenal and MA10 testis cells through inhibition of processing mediated by CRTC2. Digital image analysis matches qPCR analyses of the total cell culture. Evidence is presented for spatially separate accumulation of StAR pRNA and Sp-RNA at the gene loci in the nucleus. These findings establish that cAMP, SIK and CRTC mediate StAR expression through activation of individual StAR gene loci. PMID:25662274

  1. Production of the antifungal compounds phenazine and pyrrolnitrin from Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 is differentially regulated by glucose.

    PubMed

    Park, J Y; Oh, S A; Anderson, A J; Neiswender, J; Kim, J-C; Kim, Y C

    2011-05-01

    To determine whether glucose in growth medium affects secondary metabolite production and biocontrol efficacy of Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6. The secondary metabolites pyrrolnitrin and phenazines antagonize phytopathogenic fungi. The expression of the prnA gene encoding tryptophan halogenase, the first step in pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis, required the stationary-phase sigma factor, RpoS. Mutations in rpoS and prnA in Ps. chlororaphis O6 eliminated antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium graminearum. Pyrrolnitrin production was reduced by glucose in growth media, whereas phenazine levels were increased. The efficacy of Ps. chlororaphis O6 in the biocontrol of tomato late blight was reduced by addition of glucose to the growth medium. Regulation by glucose of pyrrolnitrin production influenced the efficacy of the biocontrol of tomato leaf blight. The nutritional regulation of secondary metabolite production from a soil pseudomonad may account, at least in part, for the variability of biocontrol under field conditions. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of a Global Regulator GacS Sensor Kinase in the Rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul Hong; Kim, Yong Hwan; Anderson, Anne J.; Kim, Young Cheol

    2014-01-01

    The GacS/GacA system in the root colonizer Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 is a key regulator of many traits relevant to the biocontrol function of this bacterium. Proteomic analysis revealed 12 proteins were down-regulated in a gacS mutant of P. chlororaphis O6. These GacS-regulated proteins functioned in combating oxidative stress, cell signaling, biosynthesis of secondary metabolism, and secretion. The extent of regulation was shown by real-time RT-PCR to vary between the genes. Mutants of P. chlororaphis O6 were generated in two GacS-regulated genes, trpE, encoding a protein involved in tryptophan synthesis, and prnA, required for conversion of tryptophan to the antimicrobial compound, pyrrolitrin. Failure of the trpE mutant to induce systemic resistance in tobacco against a foliar pathogen causing soft rot, Pectobacterium carotovorum SCCI, correlated with reduced colonization of root surfaces implying an inadequate supply of tryptophan to support growth. Although colonization was not affected by mutation in the prnA gene, induction of systemic resistance was reduced, suggesting that pyrrolnitrin was an activator of plant resistance as well as an antifungal agent. Study of mutants in the other GacS-regulated proteins will indicate further the features required for biocontrol-activity in this rhizobacterium. PMID:25289007

  3. Construction of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor and its applications in nanotechnology and therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Jin; Schwartz, Chad; Guo, Peixuan

    2009-10-01

    Nanobiotechnology involves the creation, characterization, and modification of organized nanomaterials to serve as building blocks for constructing nanoscale devices in technology and medicine. Living systems contain a wide variety of nanomachines and highly ordered structures of macromolecules. The novelty and ingenious design of the bacterial virus phi29 DNA packaging motor and its parts inspired the synthesis of this motor and its components as biomimetics. This 30-nm nanomotor uses six copies of an ATP-binding pRNA to gear the motor. The structural versatility of pRNA has been utilized to construct dimers, trimers, hexamers, and patterned superstructures via the interaction of two interlocking loops. The approach, based on bottom-up assembly, has also been applied to nanomachine fabrication, pathogen detection and the delivery of drugs, siRNA, ribozymes, and genes to specific cells in vitro and in vivo. Another essential component of the motor is the connector, which contains 12 copies of a protein gp10 to form a 3.6-nm central channel as a path for DNA. This article will review current studies of the structure and function of the phi29 DNA packaging motor, as well as the mechanism of motion, the principle of in vitro construction, and its potential nanotechnological and medical applications.

  4. RNA nanoparticle as a vector for targeted siRNA delivery into glioblastoma mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Jin; Haque, Farzin; Shu, Dan; Yoo, Ji Young; Li, Hui; Yokel, Robert A.; Horbinski, Craig; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kim, Sung-Hak; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk; Nakano, Ichiro; Kaur, Balveen; Guo, Peixuan; Croce, Carlo M.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic siRNA administration to target and treat glioblastoma, one of the most deadly cancers, requires robust and efficient delivery platform without immunogenicity. Here we report newly emerged multivalent naked RNA nanoparticle (RNP) based on pRNA 3-way-junction (3WJ) from bacteriophage phi29 to target glioblastoma cells with folate (FA) ligand and deliver siRNA for gene silencing. Systemically injected FA-pRNA-3WJ RNPs successfully targeted and delivered siRNA into brain tumor cells in mice, and efficiently reduced luciferase reporter gene expression (4-fold lower than control). The FA-pRNA-3WJ RNP also can target human patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells, thought to be responsible for tumor initiation and deadly recurrence, without accumulation in adjacent normal brain cells, nor other major internal organs. This study provides possible application of pRNA-3WJ RNP for specific delivery of therapeutics such as siRNA, microRNA and/or chemotherapeutic drugs into glioblastoma cells without inflicting collateral damage to healthy tissues. PMID:25885522

  5. RNA nanoparticle as a vector for targeted siRNA delivery into glioblastoma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Jin; Haque, Farzin; Shu, Dan; Yoo, Ji Young; Li, Hui; Yokel, Robert A; Horbinski, Craig; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kim, Sung-Hak; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk; Nakano, Ichiro; Kaur, Balveen; Guo, Peixuan; Croce, Carlo M

    2015-06-20

    Systemic siRNA administration to target and treat glioblastoma, one of the most deadly cancers, requires robust and efficient delivery platform without immunogenicity. Here we report newly emerged multivalent naked RNA nanoparticle (RNP) based on pRNA 3-way-junction (3WJ) from bacteriophage phi29 to target glioblastoma cells with folate (FA) ligand and deliver siRNA for gene silencing. Systemically injected FA-pRNA-3WJ RNPs successfully targeted and delivered siRNA into brain tumor cells in mice, and efficiently reduced luciferase reporter gene expression (4-fold lower than control). The FA-pRNA-3WJ RNP also can target human patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells, thought to be responsible for tumor initiation and deadly recurrence, without accumulation in adjacent normal brain cells, nor other major internal organs. This study provides possible application of pRNA-3WJ RNP for specific delivery of therapeutics such as siRNA, microRNA and/or chemotherapeutic drugs into glioblastoma cells without inflicting collateral damage to healthy tissues.

  6. [THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TECHNIQUES OF IDENTIFICATION OF CORYNEBACTERIUM NON DIPHTHERIAE].

    PubMed

    Kharseeva, G G; Voronina, N A; Mironov, A Yu; Alutina, E L

    2015-12-01

    The comparative analysis was carried out concerning effectiveness of three techniques of identification of Corynebacterium non diphtheriae: bacteriological, molecular genetic (sequenation on 16SpRNA) andmass-spectrometric (MALDI-ToFMS). The analysis covered 49 strains of Corynebacterium non diphtheriae (C.pseudodiphheriticum, C.amycolatum, C.propinquum, C.falsenii) and 2 strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolated under various pathology form urogenital tract and upper respiratory ways. The corinbacteria were identified using bacteriologic technique, sequenation on 16SpRNA and mass-spectrometric technique (MALDIToF MS). The full concordance of results of species' identification was marked in 26 (51%) of strains of Corynebacterium non diphtheriae at using three analysis techniques; in 43 (84.3%) strains--at comparison of bacteriologic technique with sequenation on 16S pRNA and in 29 (57%)--at mass-spectrometric analysis and sequenation on 16S pRNA. The bacteriologic technique is effective for identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The precise establishment of species belonging of corynebacteria with variable biochemical characteristics the molecular genetic technique of analysis is to be applied. The mass-spectrometric technique (MALDI-ToF MS) requires further renewal of data bases for identifying larger spectrum of representatives of genus Corynebacterium.

  7. Construction of Bacteriophage Phi29 DNA Packaging Motor and its Applications in Nanotechnology and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Jin; Schwartz, Chad; Guo, Peixuan

    2010-01-01

    Nanobiotechnology involves the creation, characterization, and modification of organized nanomaterials to serve as building blocks for constructing nanoscale devices in technology and medicine. Living systems contain a wide variety of nanomachines and highly ordered structures of macromolecules. The novelty and ingenious design of the bacterial virus phi29 DNA packaging motor and its parts inspired the synthesis of this motor and its components as biomimetics. This 30-nm nanomotor uses six copies of an ATP-binding pRNA to gear the motor. The structural versatility of pRNA has been utilized to construct dimers, trimers, hexamers, and patterned superstructures via the interaction of two interlocking loops. The approach, based on bottom-up assembly, has also been applied to nanomachine fabrication, pathogen detection and the delivery of drugs, siRNA, ribozymes, and genes to specific cells in vitro and in vivo. Another essential component of the motor is the connector, which contains 12 copies of a protein gp10 to form a 3.6-nm central channel as a path for DNA. This article will review current studies of the structure and function of the phi29 DNA packaging motor, as well as the mechanism of motion, the principle of in vitro construction, and its potential nanotechnological and medical applications. PMID:19495981

  8. CSB: a Python framework for structural bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Kalev, Ivan; Mechelke, Martin; Kopec, Klaus O; Holder, Thomas; Carstens, Simeon; Habeck, Michael

    2012-11-15

    Computational Structural Biology Toolbox (CSB) is a cross-platform Python class library for reading, storing and analyzing biomolecular structures with rich support for statistical analyses. CSB is designed for reusability and extensibility and comes with a clean, well-documented API following good object-oriented engineering practice. Stable release packages are available for download from the Python Package Index (PyPI) as well as from the project's website http://csb.codeplex.com. ivan.kalev@gmail.com or michael.habeck@tuebingen.mpg.de

  9. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction of a halogenating enzyme, tryptophan 7-halogenase, from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Dong, Changjiang; Kotzsch, Alexander; Dorward, Mark; van Pée, Karl Heinz; Naismith, James H

    2004-08-01

    Chlorination of natural products is often required for their biological activity; notable examples include vancomycin, the last-ditch antibiotic. It is now known that many chlorinated natural products are made not by haloperoxidases, but by FADH2-dependent halogenases. The mechanism of the flavin-containing enzymes is obscure and there are no structural data. Here, crystals of PrnA (tryptophan 7-halogenase), an enzyme that regioselectively chlorinates tryptophan, cocrystallized with tryptophan and FAD are reported. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4(3)2(1)2 or P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 67.8, c = 276.9 A. A data set to 1.8 A with 93% completeness and an Rmerge of 7.1% has been collected from a single flash-cooled crystal. A method for incorporating selenomethionine in a Pseudomonas fluorescens expression system also is reported.

  10. Simple Method for Constructing RNA Triangle, Square, Pentagon by Tuning Interior RNA 3WJ Angle from 60° to 90° or 108°.

    PubMed

    Khisamutdinov, Emil F; Bui, My Nguyen Hoan; Jasinski, Daniel; Zhao, Zhengyi; Cui, Zheng; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-01-01

    Precise shape control of architectures at the nanometer scale is an intriguing but extremely challenging facet. RNA has recently emerged as a unique material and thermostable building block for use in nanoparticle construction. Here, we describe a simple method from design to synthesis of RNA triangle, square, and pentagon by stretching RNA 3WJ native angle from 60° to 90° and 108°, using the three-way junction (3WJ) of the pRNA from bacteriophage phi29 dsDNA packaging motor. These methods for the construction of elegant polygons can be applied to other RNA building blocks including the utilization and application of RNA 4-way, 5-way, and other multi-way junctions.

  11. The structure of flavin-dependent tryptophan 7-halogenase RebH

    SciTech Connect

    Bitto, Eduard; Huang, Yu; Bingman, Craig A.; Singh, Shanteri; Thorson, Jon S.; Phillips, Jr., George N.

    2010-02-19

    Enzyme catalyzed regio- and stereo-specific halogenations influence the biological activity of a diverse array of therapeutically important natural products, including the antibiotics vancomycin and chloramphenicol as well as the anticancer agents calicheamicin and rebeccamycin. The major class of enzymes responsible for this challenging synthetic reaction, the flavin-dependent halogenases, catalyzes the formation of carbon-halogen bonds using flavin, a halide ion (Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -} or I{sup -}), and O{sub 2}. Recent mechanistic and structural advances achieved with the model flavin-dependent tryptophan 7-halogenases PrnA and RebH have greatly enhanced the level of understanding of this unique reaction. According to these studies, the mechanism for tryptophan halogenation proceeds via FAD(C4a)-OOH activation of a chloride ion into the transient chlorinating species HOCl. The key evidence for the requirement of a transient chlorinating species is the discovery that a {approx}10-{angstrom}-long tunnel separates FAD and tryptophan in the ligand-bound form of PrnA. In a recent compelling study to elucidate the strategy by which RebH controls this highly reactive and indiscriminant oxidant, a Lys79-{var_epsilon}NH-Cl chloramine intermediate was implicated as the actual chlorinating species within RebH and a structural investigation of RebH was reported. Here we report our independent structural analysis of Lechevalieria aerocolonigenes RebH (Uni-Prot accession number Q8KHZ8, 530 amino acids) in its apo-form as well as in a complex with both tryptophan and FAD.

  12. Structural Insights into Regioselectivity in the Enzymatic Chlorination of Tryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; De Laurentis, Walter; Leang, Khim; Herrmann, Julia; Ihlefeld, Katja; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Naismith, James H.

    2009-01-01

    The regioselectively controlled introduction of chlorine into organic molecules is an important biological and chemical process. This importance derives from the observation that many pharmaceutically active natural products contain a chlorine atom. Flavin-dependent halogenases are one of the principal enzyme families responsible for regioselective halogenation of natural products. Structural studies of two flavin-dependent tryptophan 7-halogenases (PrnA and RebH) have generated important insights into the chemical mechanism of halogenation by this enzyme family. These proteins comprise two modules: a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding module and a tryptophan-binding module. Although the 7-halogenase studies advance a hypothesis for regioselectivity, this has never been experimentally demonstrated. PyrH is a tryptophan 5-halogenase that catalyzes halogenation on tryptophan C5 position. We report the crystal structure of a tryptophan 5-halogenase (PyrH) bound to tryptophan and FAD. The FAD-binding module is essentially unchanged relative to PrnA (and RebH), and PyrH would appear to generate the same reactive species from Cl-, O2, and 1,5-dihydroflavin adenine dinucleotide. We report additional mutagenesis data that extend our mechanistic understanding of this process, in particular highlighting a strap region that regulates FAD binding, and may allow communication between the two modules. PyrH has a significantly different tryptophan-binding module. The data show that PyrH binds tryptophan and presents the C5 atom to the reactive chlorinating species, shielding other potential reactive sites. We have mutated residues identified by structural analysis as recognizing the tryptophan in order to confirm their role. This work establishes the method by which flavin-dependent tryptophan halogenases regioselectively control chlorine addition to tryptophan. This method would seem to be general across the superfamily. PMID:19501593

  13. Endothelial RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function

    SciTech Connect

    Asdonk, Tobias; Nickenig, Georg; Zimmer, Sebastian

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation alters HCAEC biology in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPC function is affected by RIG-I stimulation in vitro. -- Abstract: Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a crucial part of the chronic inflammatory atherosclerotic process and is mediated by innate and acquired immune mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that pattern recognition receptors (PRR) specialized in immunorecognition of nucleic acids may play an important role in endothelial biology in a proatherogenic manner. Here, we analyzed the impact of endothelial retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) activation upon vascular endothelial biology. Methods and results: Wild type mice were injected intravenously with 32.5 {mu}g of the RIG-ligand 3pRNA (RNA with triphosphate at the 5 Prime end) or polyA control every other day for 7 days. In 3pRNA-treated mice, endothelium-depended vasodilation was significantly impaired, vascular oxidative stress significantly increased and circulating endothelial microparticle (EMP) numbers significantly elevated compared to controls. To gain further insight in RIG-I dependent endothelial biology, cultured human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were stimulated in vitro with 3pRNA. Both cells types express RIG-I and react with receptor upregulation upon stimulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is enhanced in both cell types, whereas apoptosis and proliferation is not significantly affected in HCAEC. Importantly, HCAEC release significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines in response to RIG-I stimulation. Conclusion: This study shows that activation of the cytoplasmatic nucleic acid receptor RIG-I leads to endothelial dysfunction. RIG-I induced endothelial damage could therefore be an important pathway in atherogenesis.

  14. Bacillus subtilis 6S-2 RNA serves as a template for short transcripts in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Philipp G.; Schlereth, Julia; Lechner, Marcus; Hartmann, Roland K.

    2016-01-01

    The global transcriptional regulator 6S RNA is abundant in a broad range of bacteria. The RNA competes with DNA promoters for binding to the housekeeping RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme. When bound to RNAP, 6S RNA serves as a transcription template for RNAP in an RNA-dependent RNA polymerization reaction. The resulting short RNA transcripts (so-called product RNAs = pRNAs) can induce a stable structural rearrangement of 6S RNA when reaching a certain length. This rearrangement leads to the release of RNAP and thus the recovery of transcription at DNA promoters. While most bacteria express a single 6S RNA, some harbor a second 6S RNA homolog (termed 6S-2 RNA in Bacillus subtilis). Bacillus subtilis 6S-2 RNA was recently shown to exhibit essentially all hallmark features of a bona fide 6S RNA in vitro, but evidence for the synthesis of 6S-2 RNA-derived pRNAs in vivo has been lacking so far. This raised the question of whether the block of RNAP by 6S-2 RNA might be lifted by a mechanism other than pRNA synthesis. However, here we demonstrate that 6S-2 RNA is able to serve as a template for pRNA synthesis in vivo. We verify this finding by using three independent approaches including a novel primer extension assay. Thus, we demonstrate the first example of an organism that expresses two distinct 6S RNAs that both exhibit all mechanistic features defined for this type of regulatory RNA. PMID:26873600

  15. Detection of plant-modulated alterations in antifungal gene expression in Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 on roots by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    de Werra, Patrice; Baehler, Eric; Huser, Aurélie; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika

    2008-03-01

    The biocontrol activity of the root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 is largely determined by the production of antifungal metabolites, especially 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. The expression of these metabolites depends on abiotic and biotic environmental factors, in particular, elements present in the rhizosphere. In this study, we have developed a new method for the in situ analysis of antifungal gene expression using flow cytometry combined with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based reporter fusions to the phlA and prnA genes essential for the production of the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyrrolnitrin, respectively, in strain CHA0. Expression of phlA-gfp and prnA-gfp in CHA0 cells harvested from the rhizosphere of a set of plant species as well as from the roots of healthy, leaf pathogen-attacked, and physically stressed plants were analyzed using a FACSCalibur. After subtraction of background fluorescence emitted by plant-derived particles and CHA0 cells not carrying the gfp reporters, the average gene expression per bacterial cell could be calculated. Levels of phlA and prnA expression varied significantly in the rhizospheres of different plant species. Physical stress and leaf pathogen infection lowered phlA expression levels in the rhizosphere of cucumber. Our results demonstrate that the newly developed approach is suitable to monitor differences in levels of antifungal gene expression in response to various plant-derived factors. An advantage of the method is that it allows quantification of bacterial gene expression in rhizosphere populations at a single-cell level. To our best knowledge, this is the first study using flow cytometry for the in situ analysis of biocontrol gene expression in a plant-beneficial bacterium in the rhizosphere.

  16. Detection of Plant-Modulated Alterations in Antifungal Gene Expression in Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 on Roots by Flow Cytometry▿

    PubMed Central

    de Werra, Patrice; Baehler, Eric; Huser, Aurélie; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika

    2008-01-01

    The biocontrol activity of the root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 is largely determined by the production of antifungal metabolites, especially 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. The expression of these metabolites depends on abiotic and biotic environmental factors, in particular, elements present in the rhizosphere. In this study, we have developed a new method for the in situ analysis of antifungal gene expression using flow cytometry combined with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based reporter fusions to the phlA and prnA genes essential for the production of the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyrrolnitrin, respectively, in strain CHA0. Expression of phlA-gfp and prnA-gfp in CHA0 cells harvested from the rhizosphere of a set of plant species as well as from the roots of healthy, leaf pathogen-attacked, and physically stressed plants were analyzed using a FACSCalibur. After subtraction of background fluorescence emitted by plant-derived particles and CHA0 cells not carrying the gfp reporters, the average gene expression per bacterial cell could be calculated. Levels of phlA and prnA expression varied significantly in the rhizospheres of different plant species. Physical stress and leaf pathogen infection lowered phlA expression levels in the rhizosphere of cucumber. Our results demonstrate that the newly developed approach is suitable to monitor differences in levels of antifungal gene expression in response to various plant-derived factors. An advantage of the method is that it allows quantification of bacterial gene expression in rhizosphere populations at a single-cell level. To our best knowledge, this is the first study using flow cytometry for the in situ analysis of biocontrol gene expression in a plant-beneficial bacterium in the rhizosphere. PMID:18165366

  17. Bacillus subtilis 6S-2 RNA serves as a template for short transcripts in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Philipp G; Schlereth, Julia; Lechner, Marcus; Hartmann, Roland K

    2016-04-01

    The global transcriptional regulator 6S RNA is abundant in a broad range of bacteria. The RNA competes with DNA promoters for binding to the housekeeping RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme. When bound to RNAP, 6S RNA serves as a transcription template for RNAP in an RNA-dependent RNA polymerization reaction. The resulting short RNA transcripts (so-called product RNAs = pRNAs) can induce a stable structural rearrangement of 6S RNA when reaching a certain length. This rearrangement leads to the release of RNAP and thus the recovery of transcription at DNA promoters. While most bacteria express a single 6S RNA, some harbor a second 6S RNA homolog (termed 6S-2 RNA in Bacillus subtilis). Bacillus subtilis 6S-2 RNA was recently shown to exhibit essentially all hallmark features of a bona fide 6S RNA in vitro, but evidence for the synthesis of 6S-2 RNA-derived pRNAs in vivo has been lacking so far. This raised the question of whether the block of RNAP by 6S-2 RNA might be lifted by a mechanism other than pRNA synthesis. However, here we demonstrate that 6S-2 RNA is able to serve as a template for pRNA synthesis in vivo. We verify this finding by using three independent approaches including a novel primer extension assay. Thus, we demonstrate the first example of an organism that expresses two distinct 6S RNAs that both exhibit all mechanistic features defined for this type of regulatory RNA.

  18. The global regulator ANR is essential for Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 biocontrol.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Munmun; Selin, Carrie; Brawerman, Gabriel; Fernando, W G Dilantha; de Kievit, Teresa R

    2016-12-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is a biocontrol agent capable of protecting canola from stem rot disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The focus of the current study was to elucidate the role of the transcriptional regulator ANR in the biocontrol capabilities of this bacterium. An anr mutant was created, PA23anr, that was devoid antifungal activity. In other pseudomonads, ANR is essential for regulating HCN production. Characterization of PA23anr revealed that, in addition to HCN, ANR controls phenazine (PHZ), pyrrolnitrin (PRN), protease and autoinducer (AHL) signal molecule production. In gene expression studies, hcnA, phzA, prnA and phzI were found to be downregulated, consistent with our endproduct analysis. Because the phenotype of PA23anr closely resembles that of quorum sensing (QS)-deficient strains, we explored whether there is a connection between ANR and the PhzRI QS system. Both phzI and phzR are positively regulated by ANR, whereas PhzR represses anr transcription. Complementation of PA23anr with pUCP-phzR, C6-HSL or both yielded no change in phenotype. Conversely, PA23phzR harbouring pUCP23-anr exhibited partial-to-full restoration of antifungal activity, HCN, PRN and AHL production together with hcnA, prnA, phzI and rpoS expression. PHZ and protease production remained unchanged indicating that ANR can complement the QS-deficient phenotype with respect to some but not all traits. Our experiments were conducted at atmospheric O2 levels underscoring the fact that ANR has a profound effect on PA23 physiology under aerobic conditions.

  19. RNA nanoparticles harboring annexin A2 aptamer can target ovarian cancer for tumor-specific doxorubicin delivery.

    PubMed

    Pi, Fengmei; Zhang, Hui; Li, Hui; Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Gorenstein, David G; Sood, Anil K; Guo, Peixuan

    2017-04-01

    A novel modified nucleic acid nanoparticle harboring an annexin A2 aptamer for ovarian cancer cell targeting and a GC rich sequence for doxorubicin loading is designed and constructed. The system utilizes a highly stable three-way junction (3WJ) motif from phi29 packaging RNA as a core structure. A phosphorothioate-modified DNA aptamer targeting annexin A2, Endo28, was conjugated to one arm of the 3WJ. The pRNA-3WJ motif retains correct folding of attached aptamer, keeping its functions intact. It is of significant utility for aptamer-mediated targeted delivery. The DNA/RNA hybrid nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection in mice and strongly bound to tumors with little accumulation in healthy organs 6 h post-injection. The Endo28-3WJ-Sph1/Dox intercalates selectively enhanced toxicity to annexin A2 positive ovarian cancer cells in vitro. The constructed RNA/DNA hybrid nanoparticles can potentially enhance the therapeutic efficiency of doxorubicin at low doses for ovarian cancer treatment through annexin A2 targeted drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of specific RNA in cultured cells through quantitative integration of q-PCR and N-SIM single cell FISH images: Application to hormonal stimulation of StAR transcription.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwoo; Foong, Yee Hoon; Musaitif, Ibrahim; Tong, Tiegang; Jefcoate, Colin

    2016-07-05

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) has been proposed to serve as the switch that can turn on/off steroidogenesis. We investigated the events that facilitate dynamic StAR transcription in response to cAMP stimulation in MA-10 Leydig cells, focusing on splicing anomalies at StAR gene loci. We used 3' reverse primers in a single reaction to respectively quantify StAR primary (p-RNA), spliced (sp-RNA/mRNA), and extended 3' untranslated region (UTR) transcripts, which were quantitatively imaged by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This approach delivers spatio-temporal resolution of initiation and splicing at single StAR loci, and transfers individual mRNA molecules to cytoplasmic sites. Gene expression was biphasic, initially showing slow splicing, transitioning to concerted splicing. The alternative 3.5-kb mRNAs were distinguished through the use of extended 3'UTR probes, which exhibited distinctive mitochondrial distribution. Combining quantitative PCR and FISH enables imaging of localization of RNA expression and analysis of RNA processing rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using RNA nanoparticles with thermostable motifs and fluorogenic modules for real-time detection of RNA folding and turnover in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Pi, Fengmei; Shu, Dan; Vieweger, Mario; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-01-01

    RNA nanotechnology is an emerging field at the interface of biochemistry and nanomaterials that shows immense promise for applications in nanomedicines, therapeutics and nanotechnology. Noncoding RNAs, such as siRNA, miRNA, ribozymes, and riboswitches, play important roles in the regulation of cellular processes. They carry out highly specific functions on a compact and efficient footprint. The properties of specificity and small size make them excellent modules in the construction of multifaceted RNA nanoparticles for targeted delivery and therapy. Biological activity of RNA molecules, however, relies on their proper folding. Therefore their thermodynamic and biochemical stability in the cellular environment is critical. Consequently, it is essential to assess global fold and intracellular lifetime of multifaceted RNA nanoparticles to optimize their therapeutic effectiveness. Here, we describe a method to express and assemble stable RNA nanoparticles in cells, and to assess the folding and turnover rate of RNA nanoparticles in vitro as well as in vivo in real time using a thermostable core motif derived from pRNA of bacteriophage Phi29 DNA packaging motor and fluorogenic RNA modules.

  2. Thermodynamically stable RNA three-way junction for constructing multifunctional nanoparticles for delivery of therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Dan; Shu, Yi; Haque, Farzin; Abdelmawla, Sherine; Guo, Peixuan

    2011-10-01

    RNA nanoparticles have applications in the treatment of cancers and viral infection; however, the instability of RNA nanoparticles has hindered their development for therapeutic applications. The lack of covalent linkage or crosslinking in nanoparticles causes dissociation in vivo. Here we show that the packaging RNA of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor can be assembled from 3-6 pieces of RNA oligomers without the use of metal salts. Each RNA oligomer contains a functional module that can be a receptor-binding ligand, aptamer, short interfering RNA or ribozyme. When mixed together, they self-assemble into thermodynamically stable tri-star nanoparticles with a three-way junction core. These nanoparticles are resistant to 8 M urea denaturation, are stable in serum and remain intact at extremely low concentrations. The modules remain functional in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the three-way junction core can be used as a platform for building a variety of multifunctional nanoparticles. We studied 25 different three-way junction motifs in biological RNA and found only one other motif that shares characteristics similar to the three-way junction of phi29 pRNA.

  3. Initiation of poliovirus plus-strand RNA synthesis in a membrane complex of infected HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, N.; Kuhn, R.J.; Yang, C.F.; Takegami, T.; Wimmer, E.

    1986-10-01

    An in vitro poliovirus RNA-synthesizing system derived from a crude membrance fraction of infected HeLa cells was used to analyze the mechanism of initiation of poliovirus plus-strand RNA synthesis. This system contains an activity that synthesizes the nucleotidyl proteins VPg-pU and VPg-pUpU. These molecules represent the 5'-terminal structure of nascent RNA molecules and of virion RNA. The membranous replication complex is also capable of synthesizing mucleotidyl proteins containing nine or more of the poliovirus 5'-proximal nucleotides as assayed by the formation of the RNase T/sub 1/-resistant oligonucleotide VPg-pUUAAAACAGp or by fingerprint analysis of the in vitro-synthesized /sup 32/P-RNA. Incubation of preformed VPg-pUpU with unlabeled nucleoside triphosphates resulted in the formation of VPg-pUUAAAACAGp. This reaction, which appeared to be an elongation of VPg-pUpU, was stimulated by the addition of a soluble fraction (S-10) obtained from uninfected HeLa cells. Preformed VPg-pU could be chased into VPg-pUpU in the presence of UTP. The data are consistent with a model that VPg-pU can function as a primer for poliovirus plus-strand RNA synthesis in the membranous replication complex and that the elongation reaction may be stimulated by a host cellular factor.

  4. Functions Encoded by Pyrrolnitrin Biosynthetic Genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Kirner, Sabine; Hammer, Philip E.; Hill, D. Steven; Altmann, Annett; Fischer, Ilona; Weislo, Laura J.; Lanahan, Mike; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Ligon, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrrolnitrin is a secondary metabolite derived from tryptophan and has strong antifungal activity. Recently we described four genes, prnABCD, from Pseudomonas fluorescens that encode the biosynthesis of pyrrolnitrin. In the work presented here, we describe the function of each prn gene product. The four genes encode proteins identical in size and serology to proteins present in wild-type Pseudomonas fluorescens, but absent from a mutant from which the entire prn gene region had been deleted. The prnA gene product catalyzes the chlorination of l-tryptophan to form 7-chloro-l-tryptophan. The prnB gene product catalyzes a ring rearrangement and decarboxylation to convert 7-chloro-l-tryptophan to monodechloroaminopyrrolnitrin. The prnC gene product chlorinates monodechloroaminopyrrolnitrin at the 3 position to form aminopyrrolnitrin. The prnD gene product catalyzes the oxidation of the amino group of aminopyrrolnitrin to a nitro group to form pyrrolnitrin. The organization of the prn genes in the operon is identical to the order of the reactions in the biosynthetic pathway. PMID:9537395

  5. Signature motifs of GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, a non-segmented negative strand RNA viral mRNA capping enzyme, domain in the L protein are required for covalent enzyme–pRNA intermediate formation

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Julie; Ogino, Minako; Green, Todd J.; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    The unconventional mRNA capping enzyme (GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, PRNTase; block V) domain in RNA polymerase L proteins of non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses (e.g. rabies, measles, Ebola) contains five collinear sequence elements, Rx(3)Wx(3–8)ΦxGxζx(P/A) (motif A; Φ, hydrophobic; ζ, hydrophilic), (Y/W)ΦGSxT (motif B), W (motif C), HR (motif D) and ζxxΦx(F/Y)QxxΦ (motif E). We performed site-directed mutagenesis of the L protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a prototypic NNS RNA virus) to examine participation of these motifs in mRNA capping. Similar to the catalytic residues in motif D, G1100 in motif A, T1157 in motif B, W1188 in motif C, and F1269 and Q1270 in motif E were found to be essential or important for the PRNTase activity in the step of the covalent L-pRNA intermediate formation, but not for the GTPase activity that generates GDP (pRNA acceptor). Cap defective mutations in these residues induced termination of mRNA synthesis at position +40 followed by aberrant stop–start transcription, and abolished virus gene expression in host cells. These results suggest that the conserved motifs constitute the active site of the PRNTase domain and the L-pRNA intermediate formation followed by the cap formation is essential for successful synthesis of full-length mRNAs. PMID:26602696

  6. Regression of Gastric Cancer by Systemic Injection of RNA Nanoparticles Carrying both Ligand and siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Daxiang; Zhang, Chunlei; Liu, Bing; Shu, Yi; Du, Tong; Shu, Dan; Wang, Kan; Dai, Fangping; Liu, Yanlei; Li, Chao; Pan, Fei; Yang, Yuming; Ni, Jian; Li, Hui; Brand-Saberi, Beate; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. RNA nanotechnology has recently emerged as an important field due to recent finding of its high thermodynamic stability, favorable and distinctive in vivo attributes. Here we reported the use of the thermostable three-way junction (3WJ) of bacteriophage phi29 motor pRNA to escort folic acid, a fluorescent image marker and BRCAA1 siRNA for targeting, imaging, delivery, gene silencing and regression of gastric cancer in animal models. In vitro assay revealed that the RNA nanoparticles specifically bind to gastric cancer cells, and knock-down the BRCAA1 gene. Apoptosis of gastric cancer cells was observed. Animal trials confirmed that these RNA nanoparticles could be used to image gastric cancer in vivo, while showing little accumulation in crucial organs and tissues. The volume of gastric tumors noticeably decreased during the course of treatment. No damage to important organs by RNA nanoparticles was detectible. All the results indicated that this novel RNA nanotechnology can overcome conventional cancer therapeutic limitations and opens new opportunities for specific delivery of therapeutics to stomach cancer without damaging normal cells and tissues, reduce the toxicity and side effect, improve the therapeutic effect, and exhibit great potential in clinical tumor therapy. PMID:26137913

  7. State of hepatitis B viral DNA in a human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Marion, P L; Salazar, F H; Alexander, J J; Robinson, W S

    1980-01-01

    PLC/PRF/5, a tissue culture cell line isolated from a human hepatocellular carcinoma and producing hepatitis B surface antigen, was studied for the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific DNA and RNA. PLC/PRF/5 cell DNA accelerated the rate of reassociation of HBV [32P]DNA, and quantitative experiments indicated that the cells contained approximately four copies of viral DNA per haploid, mammalian cell DNA equivalent. PLC/PRF/5 DNA accelerated the rate of reassociation of all individual restriction endonucleases HincII and HaeIII fragments of HBV [32P]DNA, indicating that DNA from all regions of the viral genome is present in the cells. This suggests that these cells contain at least most, and possibly all, of the viral genome. Digestion of PLC/PRF/5 cell DNA with restriction endonuclease HindIII (an enzyme found not to cleave the DNA of any HBV isolate so far examined) yielded only three fragments, all larger than virion DNA, which contained HBV DNA base sequences, suggesting that HBV DNA is integrated in high-molecular-weight DNA at three different sites in these cells and that there is no viral DNA in an episomal form. PLC/PRF/5 cell [32P]RNA was found to hybridize with all restriction fragments of HBV DNA adequately tested, indicating that at least most, and possibly all, of the viral DNA in these cells is transcribed. Images PMID:6251250

  8. RIG-I activation induces the release of extracellular vesicles with antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Daßler-Plenker, Juliane; Reiners, Katrin S.; van den Boorn, Jasper G.; Hansen, Hinrich P.; Putschli, Bastian; Barnert, Sabine; Schuberth-Wagner, Christine; Schubert, Rolf; Tüting, Thomas; Hallek, Michael; Schlee, Martin; Hartmann, Gunther; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke; Coch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Activation of the innate immune receptor retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) by its specific ligand 5′-triphosphate-RNA (3pRNA) triggers antitumor immunity predominantly via NK cell activation and direct apoptosis induction in tumor cells. However, how NK cells are mobilized to attack the tumor cells remains elusive. Here, we show that RIG-I activation induced the secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from melanoma cells, which by themselves revealed antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. RIG-I-induced EVs from melanoma cells exhibited an increased expression of the NKp30-ligand (BAG6, BAT3) on their surface triggering NK cell-mediated lysis of melanoma cells via activation of the cytotoxicity NK cell-receptor NKp30. Moreover, systemic administration of RIG-I-induced melanoma-EVs showed a potent antitumor activity in a melanoma mouse model in vivo. In conclusion, our data establish a new RIG-I-dependent pathway leading to NK cell-mediated tumor cell killing. PMID:27853642

  9. Thermodynamically Stable RNA three-way junctions as platform for constructing multi-functional nanoparticles for delivery of therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Dan; Shu, Yi; Haque, Farzin; Abdelmawla, Sherine; Guo, Peixuan

    2011-01-01

    RNA nanoparticles can potentially be used to treat cancers and viral infection but their instability has hindered their therapeutic applications. The lack of covalent linkage or cross-linking in the nanoparticles causes dissociation in vivo. Here we show the assembly of thermodynamically stable three-way junction (3WJ) of the motor pRNA of bacteriophage phi29 from 3–6 pieces of RNA oligomers without the use of metal salts to form stable multifunctional nanoparticles. Each RNA oligomer contains either a receptor-binding ligand, aptamer, siRNA or ribozyme functional module. When mixed together, they self-assemble into tri-stars nanoparticles with a 3WJ core. The nanoparticles are resistant to 8M urea denaturation, stable in serum and remain intact at extremely low concentrations. The modules remain functional in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the 3WJ core can be used as a platform for building a variety of multifunctional nanoparticles. Of the 25 different 3WJ motifs evaluated, only one other motif in biological RNA shares similar characteristics as the phi29 3WJ. PMID:21909084

  10. Molecular Basis of Histone Tail Recognition by Human TIP5 PHD Finger and Bromodomain of the Chromatin Remodeling Complex NoRC

    PubMed Central

    Tallant, Cynthia; Valentini, Erica; Fedorov, Oleg; Overvoorde, Lois; Ferguson, Fleur M.; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Knapp, Stefan; Ciulli, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Binding of the chromatin remodeling complex NoRC to RNA complementary to the rDNA promoter mediates transcriptional repression. TIP5, the largest subunit of NoRC, is involved in recruitment to rDNA by interactions with promoter-bound TTF-I, pRNA, and acetylation of H4K16. TIP5 domains that recognize posttranslational modifications on histones are essential for recruitment of NoRC to chromatin, but how these reader modules recognize site-specific histone tails has remained elusive. Here, we report crystal structures of PHD zinc finger and bromodomains from human TIP5 and BAZ2B in free form and bound to H3 and/or H4 histones. PHD finger functions as an independent structural module in recognizing unmodified H3 histone tails, and the bromodomain prefers H3 and H4 acetylation marks followed by a key basic residue, KacXXR. Further low-resolution analyses of PHD-bromodomain modules provide molecular insights into their trans histone tail recognition, required for nucleosome recruitment and transcriptional repression of the NoRC complex. PMID:25533489

  11. Functions encoded by pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Kirner, S; Hammer, P E; Hill, D S; Altmann, A; Fischer, I; Weislo, L J; Lanahan, M; van Pée, K H; Ligon, J M

    1998-04-01

    Pyrrolnitrin is a secondary metabolite derived from tryptophan and has strong antifungal activity. Recently we described four genes, prnABCD, from Pseudomonas fluorescens that encode the biosynthesis of pyrrolnitrin. In the work presented here, we describe the function of each prn gene product. The four genes encode proteins identical in size and serology to proteins present in wild-type Pseudomonas fluorescens, but absent from a mutant from which the entire prn gene region had been deleted. The prnA gene product catalyzes the chlorination of L-tryptophan to form 7-chloro-L-tryptophan. The prnB gene product catalyzes a ring rearrangement and decarboxylation to convert 7-chloro-L-tryptophan to monodechloroaminopyrrolnitrin. The prnC gene product chlorinates monodechloroaminopyrrolnitrin at the 3 position to form aminopyrrolnitrin. The prnD gene product catalyzes the oxidation of the amino group of aminopyrrolnitrin to a nitro group to form pyrrolnitrin. The organization of the prn genes in the operon is identical to the order of the reactions in the biosynthetic pathway.

  12. Double-stranded RNA under force and torque: similarities to and striking differences from double-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Lipfert, Jan; Skinner, Gary M; Keegstra, Johannes M; Hensgens, Toivo; Jager, Tessa; Dulin, David; Köber, Mariana; Yu, Zhongbo; Donkers, Serge P; Chou, Fang-Chieh; Das, Rhiju; Dekker, Nynke H

    2014-10-28

    RNA plays myriad roles in the transmission and regulation of genetic information that are fundamentally constrained by its mechanical properties, including the elasticity and conformational transitions of the double-stranded (dsRNA) form. Although double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) mechanics have been dissected with exquisite precision, much less is known about dsRNA. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of dsRNA under external forces and torques using magnetic tweezers. We find that dsRNA has a force-torque phase diagram similar to that of dsDNA, including plectoneme formation, melting of the double helix induced by torque, a highly overwound state termed "P-RNA," and a highly underwound, left-handed state denoted "L-RNA." Beyond these similarities, our experiments reveal two unexpected behaviors of dsRNA: Unlike dsDNA, dsRNA shortens upon overwinding, and its characteristic transition rate at the plectonemic buckling transition is two orders of magnitude slower than for dsDNA. Our results challenge current models of nucleic acid mechanics, provide a baseline for modeling RNAs in biological contexts, and pave the way for new classes of magnetic tweezers experiments to dissect the role of twist and torque for RNA-protein interactions at the single-molecule level.

  13. Specific Delivery of MiRNA for High Efficient Inhibition of Prostate Cancer by RNA Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Binzel, Daniel W; Shu, Yi; Li, Hui; Sun, Meiyan; Zhang, Qunshu; Shu, Dan; Guo, Bin; Guo, Peixuan

    2016-08-01

    Both siRNA and miRNA can serve as powerful gene-silencing reagents but their specific delivery to cancer cells in vivo without collateral damage to healthy cells remains challenging. We report here the application of RNA nanotechnology for specific and efficient delivery of anti-miRNA seed-targeting sequence to block the growth of prostate cancer in mouse models. Utilizing the thermodynamically ultra-stable three-way junction of the pRNA of phi29 DNA packaging motor, RNA nanoparticles were constructed by bottom-up self-assembly containing the anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) RNA aptamer as a targeting ligand and anti-miR17 or anti-miR21 as therapeutic modules. The 16 nm RNase-resistant and thermodynamically stable RNA nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection in mice and strongly bound to tumors with little or no accumulation in healthy organs 8 hours postinjection, and subsequently repressed tumor growth at low doses with high efficiency.

  14. Construction of Asymmetrical Hexameric Biomimetic Motors with Continuous Single-Directional Motion by Sequential Coordination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhengyi; Zhang, Hui; Shu, Dan; Montemagno, Carlo; Ding, Baoquan; Li, Jingyuan; Guo, Peixuan

    2017-01-01

    The significance of bionanomotors in nanotechnology is analogous to mechanical motors in daily life. Here the principle and approach for designing and constructing biomimetic nanomotors with continuous single-directional motion are reported. This bionanomotor is composed of a dodecameric protein channel, a six-pRNA ring, and an ATPase hexamer. Based on recent elucidations of the one-way revolving mechanisms of the phi29 double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) motor, various RNA and protein elements are designed and tested by single-molecule imaging and biochemical assays, with which the motor with active components has been constructed. The motor motion direction is controlled by three operation elements: (1) Asymmetrical ATPase with ATP-interacting domains for alternative DNA binding/pushing regulated by an arginine finger in a sequential action manner. The arginine finger bridges two adjacent ATPase subunits into a non-covalent dimer, resulting in an asymmetrical hexameric complex containing one dimer and four monomers. (2) The dsDNA translocation channel as a one-way valve. (3) The hexameric pRNA ring geared with left-/right-handed loops. Assessments of these constructs reveal that one inactive subunit of pRNA/ATPase is sufficient to completely block motor function (defined as K = 1), implying that these components work sequentially based on the principle of binomial distribution and Yang Hui's triangle.

  15. Polyadenylic acid at the 3'-terminus of poliovirus RNA.

    PubMed

    Yogo, Y; Wimmer, E

    1972-07-01

    Poliovirus RNA that has been derivatized at the 3'-end with NaIO(4)-NaB(3)H(4) yields, after hydrolysis with alkali or RNase T2, predominantly labeled residues of modified adenosine; no labeled nucleoside derivative is produced by digestion with RNase A or RNase T1. The 3'-terminal bases of the RNA are, therefore,...ApA(OH). Hydrolyzates of poliovirus [(32)P]RNA, after exhaustive digestion with RNase T1 or RNase A, contain, besides internal oligonucleotides, polynucleotides resistant to further action of ribonucleases T1 and A, respectively; these polynucleotides were isolated by membrane-filter binding or ion-exchange chromatography. The sequence of the T1-resistant polynucleotide was determined to be (Ap)(n)A(OH), that of the RNase A-resistant polynucleotide was GpGp(Ap)(n)A(OH). The chain length (n) of the polyadenylic acid, as analyzed by different methods, averages 89 nucleotides. Gel electrophoresis revealed heterogeneity of the size of poly(A). Poliovirus RNA, when labeled in vitro at the 3'-end, contains [3'-(3)H]poly(A); when labeled in vivo with [(3)H]A, it contains [(3)H](Ap)(n)A(OH). The data establish that... YpGpGp(Ap)([unk])A(OH) is the 3'-terminal sequence of poliovirus RNA, Type 1 (Mahoney). Since this mammalian virus reproduces in the cell cytoplasm, these observations may modify prior interpretations of the function of polyadenylate ends on messenger RNAs.

  16. Functional Assays for Specific Targeting and Delivery of RNA Nanoparticles to Brain Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Jin; Haque, Farzin; Vieweger, Mario; Yoo, Ji Young; Kaur, Balveen; Guo, Peixuan; Croce, Carlo M.

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative progress in nanoparticle development has opened a new era of targeted delivery of therapeutics to cancer cells and tissue. However, developing proper detection methods has lagged behind resulting in the lack of precise evaluation and monitoring of the systemically administered nanoparticles. RNA nanoparticles derived from the bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor pRNA have emerged as a new generation of drugs for cancer therapy. Multifunctional RNA nanoparticles can be fabricated by bottom-up self-assembly of engineered RNA fragments harboring targeting (RNA aptamer or chemical ligand), therapeutic (siRNA, miRNA, ribozymes, and small molecule drugs), and imaging (fluorophore, radiolabels) modules. We have recently demonstrated that RNA nanoparticles can reach and target intracranial brain tumors in mice upon systemic injection with little or no accumulation in adjacent healthy brain tissues or in major healthy internal organs. Herein, we describe various functional imaging methods (fluorescence confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, fluorescence whole body imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging) to evaluate and monitor RNA nanoparticle targeting to intracranial brain tumors in mice. Such imaging techniques will allow in-depth evaluation of specifically delivered RNA therapeutics to brain tumors. PMID:25896001

  17. Hormonal Regulation of alpha-Amylase Gene Transcription in Wild Oat (Avena fatua L.) Aleurone Protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Zwar, J A; Hooley, R

    1986-02-01

    The time of appearance and relative amounts of alpha-amylase mRNA in wild oat (Avena fatua L.) aleurone protoplasts incubated with 1 micromolar gibberellin A(4) (GA(4)) were closely correlated with the amounts of alpha-amylase enzyme secreted by the protoplasts. In the absence of GA(4), or when protoplasts were incubated with 25 micromolar abscisic acid (ABA) together with 1 micromolar GA(4) no alpha-amylase mRNA was detected and only very low levels of alpha-amylase were secreted. Nuclei were isolated in high yields (65-71%) from aleurone protoplasts and in an in vitro transcription system displayed characteristics of a faithful DNA-dependent RNA synthesizing system. The time course of incorporation of [(3)H]-UTP suggested that the RNA synthesized was mainly ;run off' transcription and therefore that the transcripts produced in vitro were those being synthesized in the protoplasts at the times when the nuclei were isolated. By hybridizing in vitro synthesized [(32)P]RNA to barley alpha-amylase cDNA and control filters we have estimated that 90 +/- 10 ppm of the transcripts synthesized by nuclei isolated from GA(4) treated protoplasts can be attributed to alpha-amylase sequences and that statistically insignificant amounts of these transcripts are obtained from control and GA(4) plus ABA treatments. The results suggest that GA(4) and ABA influence the transcription of alpha-amylase genes in aleurone protoplasts of wild oat.

  18. Signature motifs of GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, a non-segmented negative strand RNA viral mRNA capping enzyme, domain in the L protein are required for covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate formation.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Julie; Ogino, Minako; Green, Todd J; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-01-08

    The unconventional mRNA capping enzyme (GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, PRNTase; block V) domain in RNA polymerase L proteins of non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses (e.g. rabies, measles, Ebola) contains five collinear sequence elements, Rx(3)Wx(3-8)ΦxGxζx(P/A) (motif A; Φ, hydrophobic; ζ, hydrophilic), (Y/W)ΦGSxT (motif B), W (motif C), HR (motif D) and ζxxΦx(F/Y)QxxΦ (motif E). We performed site-directed mutagenesis of the L protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a prototypic NNS RNA virus) to examine participation of these motifs in mRNA capping. Similar to the catalytic residues in motif D, G1100 in motif A, T1157 in motif B, W1188 in motif C, and F1269 and Q1270 in motif E were found to be essential or important for the PRNTase activity in the step of the covalent L-pRNA intermediate formation, but not for the GTPase activity that generates GDP (pRNA acceptor). Cap defective mutations in these residues induced termination of mRNA synthesis at position +40 followed by aberrant stop-start transcription, and abolished virus gene expression in host cells. These results suggest that the conserved motifs constitute the active site of the PRNTase domain and the L-pRNA intermediate formation followed by the cap formation is essential for successful synthesis of full-length mRNAs.

  19. The Rabies Virus L Protein Catalyzes mRNA Capping with GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase Activity.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Minako; Ito, Naoto; Sugiyama, Makoto; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-05-21

    The large (L) protein of rabies virus (RABV) plays multiple enzymatic roles in viral RNA synthesis and processing. However, none of its putative enzymatic activities have been directly demonstrated in vitro. In this study, we expressed and purified a recombinant form of the RABV L protein and verified its guanosine 5'-triphosphatase and GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) activities, which are essential for viral mRNA cap formation by the unconventional mechanism. The RABV L protein capped 5'-triphosphorylated but not 5'-diphosphorylated RABV mRNA-start sequences, 5'-AACA(C/U), with GDP to generate the 5'-terminal cap structure G(5')ppp(5')A. The 5'-AAC sequence in the substrate RNAs was found to be strictly essential for RNA capping with the RABV L protein. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis showed that some conserved amino acid residues (G1112, T1170, W1201, H1241, R1242, F1285, and Q1286) in the PRNTase motifs A to E of the RABV L protein are required for cap formation. These findings suggest that the putative PRNTase domain in the RABV L protein catalyzes the rhabdovirus-specific capping reaction involving covalent catalysis of the pRNA transfer to GDP, thus offering this domain as a target for developing anti-viral agents.

  20. The Rabies Virus L Protein Catalyzes mRNA Capping with GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Minako; Ito, Naoto; Sugiyama, Makoto; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    The large (L) protein of rabies virus (RABV) plays multiple enzymatic roles in viral RNA synthesis and processing. However, none of its putative enzymatic activities have been directly demonstrated in vitro. In this study, we expressed and purified a recombinant form of the RABV L protein and verified its guanosine 5′-triphosphatase and GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) activities, which are essential for viral mRNA cap formation by the unconventional mechanism. The RABV L protein capped 5′-triphosphorylated but not 5′-diphosphorylated RABV mRNA-start sequences, 5′-AACA(C/U), with GDP to generate the 5′-terminal cap structure G(5′)ppp(5′)A. The 5′-AAC sequence in the substrate RNAs was found to be strictly essential for RNA capping with the RABV L protein. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis showed that some conserved amino acid residues (G1112, T1170, W1201, H1241, R1242, F1285, and Q1286) in the PRNTase motifs A to E of the RABV L protein are required for cap formation. These findings suggest that the putative PRNTase domain in the RABV L protein catalyzes the rhabdovirus-specific capping reaction involving covalent catalysis of the pRNA transfer to GDP, thus offering this domain as a target for developing anti-viral agents. PMID:27213429

  1. Systemic Delivery of Anti-miRNA for Suppression of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Utilizing RNA Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Shu, Dan; Li, Hui; Shu, Yi; Xiong, Gaofeng; Carson, William E; Haque, Farzin; Xu, Ren; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-10-27

    MicroRNAs play important roles in regulating the gene expression and life cycle of cancer cells. In particular, miR-21, an oncogenic miRNA is a major player involved in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in several cancers, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, delivery of therapeutic miRNA or anti-miRNA specifically into cancer cells in vivo without collateral damage to healthy cells remains challenging. We report here the application of RNA nanotechnology for specific and efficient delivery of anti-miR-21 to block the growth of TNBC in orthotopic mouse models. The 15 nm therapeutic RNA nanoparticles contains the 58-nucleotide (nt) phi29 pRNA-3WJ as a core, a 8-nt sequence complementary to the seed region of miR-21, and a 39-nt epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting aptamer for internalizing RNA nanoparticles into cancer cells via receptor mediated endocytosis. The RNase resistant and thermodynamically stable RNA nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection into mice and strongly bound to tumors with little or no accumulation in healthy organs 8 h postinjection, and subsequently repressed tumor growth at low doses. The observed specific cancer targeting and tumor regression is a result of several key attributes of RNA nanoparticles: anionic charge which disallows nonspecific passage across negatively charged cell membrane; "active" targeting using RNA aptamers which increases the homing of RNA nanoparticles to cancer cells; nanoscale size and shape which avoids rapid renal clearance and engulfment by lung macrophages and liver Kupffer cells; favorable biodistribution profiles with little accumulation in healthy organs, which minimizes nonspecific side effects; and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles with extended in vivo half-life. The results demonstrate the clinical potentials of RNA nanotechnology based platform to deliver miRNA based therapeutics for cancer treatment.

  2. PtrA Is Functionally Intertwined with GacS in Regulating the Biocontrol Activity of Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nidhi; Klaponski, Natasha; Selin, Carrie; Rudney, Rachel; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha; Belmonte, Mark F.; de Kievit, Teresa R.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro inhibition of the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is reliant upon a LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) called PtrA. In the current study, we show that Sclerotinia stem rot and leaf infection are significantly increased in canola plants inoculated with the ptrA-mutant compared to the wild type, establishing PtrA as an essential regulator of PA23 biocontrol. LTTRs typically regulate targets that are upstream of and divergently transcribed from the LTTR locus. We identified a short chain dehydrogenase (scd) gene immediately upstream of ptrA. Characterization of a scd mutant revealed that it is phenotypically identical to the wild type. Moreover, scd transcript abundance was unchanged in the ptrA mutant. These findings indicate that PtrA regulation does not involve scd, rather this LTTR controls genes located elsewhere on the chromosome. Employing a combination of complementation and transcriptional analysis we investigated whether connections exist between PtrA and other regulators of biocontrol. Besides ptrA, gacS was the only gene able to partially rescue the wild-type phenotype, establishing a connection between PtrA and the sensor kinase GacS. Transcriptomic analysis revealed decreased expression of biosynthetic (phzA, prnA) and regulatory genes (phzI, phzR, rpoS, gacA, rsmX, rsmZ, retS) in the ptrA mutant; conversely, rsmE, and rsmY were markedly upregulated. The transcript abundance of ptrA was nine-fold higher in the mutant background indicating that this LTTR negatively autoregulates itself. In summary, PtrA is an essential regulator of genes required for PA23 biocontrol that is functionally intertwined with GacS. PMID:27713742

  3. Genetics and polymorphism of the mouse prion gene complex: control of scrapie incubation time.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, G A; Goodman, P A; Lovett, M; Taylor, B A; Marshall, S T; Peterson-Torchia, M; Westaway, D; Prusiner, S B

    1988-01-01

    The mouse prion protein (PrP) gene (Prn-p), which encodes the only macromolecule that has been identified in scrapie prions, is tightly linked or identical to a gene (Prn-i) that controls the duration of the scrapie incubation period in mice. Constellations of restriction fragment length polymorphisms distinguish haplotypes a to f of Prn-p. The Prn-pb allele encodes a PrP that differs in sequence from those encoded by the other haplotypes and, in inbred mouse strains, correlates with long scrapie incubation time (Westaway et al., Cell 51: 651-662, 1987). In segregating crosses of mice, we identified rare individuals with a divergent scrapie incubation time phenotype and Prn-p genotype, but progeny testing to demonstrate meiotic recombination was not possible because scrapie is a lethal disease. Crosses involving the a, d, and e haplotypes demonstrated that genes unlinked to Prn-p could modulate scrapie incubation time and that there were only two alleles of Prn-i among the mouse strains tested. All inbred strains of mice that had the Prnb haplotype were probably direct descendants of the I/LnJ progenitors. We established the linkage relationship between the prion gene complex (Prn) and other chromosome 2 genes; the gene order, proximal to distal, is B2m-II-1a-Prn-Itp-A. Recombination suppression in the B2m-Prn-p interval occurred during the crosses involved in transferring the I/LnJ Prnb complex into a C57BL/6J background. Transmission ratio distortion by Prna/Prnb heterozygous males was also observed in the same crosses. These phenomena, together with the founder effect, would favor apparent linkage disequilibrium between Prn-p and Prn-i. Therefore, transmission genetics may underestimate the number of genes in Prn. Images PMID:3149717

  4. The Ternary Complex of PrnB (the Second Enzyme in the Pyrrolnitrin Biosynthesis Pathway), Tryptophan, and Cyanide Yields New Mechanistic Insights into the Indolamine Dioxygenase Superfamily*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Naismith, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Pyrrolnitrin (3-chloro-4-(2′-nitro-3′-chlorophenyl)pyrrole) is a broad-spectrum antifungal compound isolated from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia. Four enzymes (PrnA, PrnB, PrnC, and PrnD) are required for pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis from tryptophan. PrnB rearranges the indole ring of 7-Cl-l-tryptophan and eliminates the carboxylate group. PrnB shows robust activity in vivo, but in vitro activity for PrnB under defined conditions remains undetected. The structure of PrnB establishes that the enzyme belongs to the heme b-dependent indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) family. We report the cyanide complex of PrnB and two ternary complexes with both l-tryptophan or 7-Cl-l-tryptophan and cyanide. The latter two complexes are essentially identical and mimic the likely catalytic ternary complex that occurs during turnover. In the cyanide ternary complexes, a loop previously disordered becomes ordered, contributing to the binding of substrates. The conformations of the bound tryptophan substrates are changed from that seen previously in the binary complexes. In l-tryptophan ternary complex, the indole ring now adopts the same orientation as seen in the PrnB binary complexes with other tryptophan substrates. The amide and carboxylate group of the substrate are orientated in a new conformation. Tyr321 and Ser332 play a key role in binding these groups. The structures suggest that catalysis requires an l-configured substrate. Isothermal titration calorimetry data suggest d-tryptophan does not bind after cyanide (or oxygen) coordinates with the distal (or sixth) site of heme. This is the first ternary complex with a tryptophan substrate of a member of the tryptophan dioxygenase superfamily and has mechanistic implications. PMID:20421301

  5. Physicochemically Tunable Polyfunctionalized RNA Square Architecture with Fluorogenic and Ribozymatic Properties

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in RNA nanotechnology allow the rational design of various nanoarchitectures. Previous methods utilized conserved angles from natural RNA motifs to form geometries with specific sizes. However, the feasibility of producing RNA architecture with variable sizes using native motifs featuring fixed sizes and angles is limited. It would be advantageous to display RNA nanoparticles of diverse shape and size derived from a given primary sequence. Here, we report an approach to construct RNA nanoparticles with tunable size and stability. Multifunctional RNA squares with a 90° angle were constructed by tuning the 60° angle of the three-way junction (3WJ) motif from the packaging RNA (pRNA) of the bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor. The physicochemical properties and size of the RNA square were also easily tuned by modulating the “core” strand and adjusting the length of the sides of the square via predictable design. Squares of 5, 10, and 20 nm were constructed, each showing diverse thermodynamic and chemical stabilities. Four “arms” extending from the corners of the square were used to incorporate siRNA, ribozyme, and fluorogenic RNA motifs. Unique intramolecular contact using the pre-existing intricacy of the 3WJ avoids relatively weaker intermolecular interactions via kissing loops or sticky ends. Utilizing the 3WJ motif, we have employed a modular design technique to construct variable-size RNA squares with controllable properties and functionalities for diverse and versatile applications with engineering, pharmaceutical, and medical potential. This technique for simple design to finely tune physicochemical properties adds a new angle to RNA nanotechnology. PMID:24971772

  6. The ZbYME2 gene from the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii confers not only YME2 functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but also the capacity for catabolism of sorbate and benzoate, two major weak organic acid preservatives.

    PubMed

    Mollapour, M; Piper, P W

    2001-11-01

    A factor influencing resistances of food spoilage microbes to sorbate and benzoate is whether these organisms are able to catalyse the degradation of these preservative compounds. Several fungi metabolize benzoic acid by the beta-ketoadipate pathway, involving the hydroxylation of benzoate to 4-hydroxybenzoate. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to use benzoate as a sole carbon source, apparently through the lack of benzoate-4-hydroxylase activity. However a single gene from the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii, heterologously expressed in S. cerevisiae cells, can enable growth of the latter on benzoate, sorbate and phenylalanine. Although this ZbYME2 gene is essential for benzoate utilization by Z. bailii, its ZbYme2p product has little homology to other fungal benzoate-4-hydroxylases studied to date, all of which appear to be microsomal cytochrome P450s. Instead, ZbYme2p has strong similarity to the matrix domain of the S. cerevisiae mitochondrial protein Yme2p/Rna12p/Prp12p and, when expressed as a functional fusion to green fluorescent protein in S. cerevisiae growing on benzoate, is largely localized to mitochondria. The phenotypes associated with loss of the native Yme2p from S. cerevisiae, mostly apparent in yme1,yme2 cells, may relate to increased detrimental effects of endogenous oxidative stress. Heterologous expression of ZbYME2 complements these phenotypes, yet it also confers a potential for weak acid preservative catabolism that the native S. cerevisiae Yme2p is unable to provide. Benzoate utilization by S. cerevisiae expressing ZbYME2 requires a functional mitochondrial respiratory chain, but not the native Yme1p and Yme2p of the mitochondrion.

  7. Multi-stage impregnation of the lithospheric mantle at the Andrew Bain FZ (SWIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganelli, E.; Brunelli, D.; Bonatti, E.; Cipriani, A.; Ligi, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Southern ridge-transform intersection of Andrew Bain Fracture Zone (ABFZ) is interpreted as a "cold spot" in the mid-ocean ridge system being characterized by a negative thermal anomaly in the oceanic upper mantle. The negative thermal anomaly is associated to the cold-edge effect due to the great age contrast of the active ridge segments. During the oceanic expedition AB06-S23, in 2006, (organized by ISMAR-CNR, Bologna, Italy, and co-financed by PRNA, Italy) with the russian R/V N. Strakhov, several samples of abyssal peridotites have been collected. Textures and modal distribution of the samples have been investigated revealing a multistage impregnation history. Deep spinel-field impregnation assemblages (sp+cpx-ol) are followed by plagioclase-field patches and mineral trails (pl+cpx-ol) and late shallow gabbroic pockets and veins. The major elements mineral chemistry reveals compositional trends of low-P/T subsolidus partial- to-complete re-equilibration undergone by the upper mantle during the upwelling beneath the ridge. These samples have experienced variable degrees of melting and reacted with percolating melts of possible different composition. In particular, samples showing the lowest degrees of melting have interacted with MORB-like melts and pyroxenitic-derived melts in the spinel and plagioclase stability fields. The presence of these two kinds of melts might prove the presence of enriched portions scattered in a normal depleted mantle beneath ocean ridges. MELTS-based runs provide constraints to variable extents of pyroxenitic-derived melt interaction with the mantle source and crystallization at variable depth of the products of such an interaction. Supported by MIUR-PRIN Cofin project 2007

  8. Fabrication of 14 different RNA nanoparticles for specific tumor targeting without accumulation in normal organs

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yi; Haque, Farzin; Shu, Dan; Li, Wei; Zhu, Zhenqi; Kotb, Malak; Lyubchenko, Yuri; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-01-01

    Due to structural flexibility, RNase sensitivity, and serum instability, RNA nanoparticles with concrete shapes for in vivo application remain challenging to construct. Here we report the construction of 14 RNA nanoparticles with solid shapes for targeting cancers specifically. These RNA nanoparticles were resistant to RNase degradation, stable in serum for >36 h, and stable in vivo after systemic injection. By applying RNA nanotechnology and exemplifying with these 14 RNA nanoparticles, we have established the technology and developed “toolkits” utilizing a variety of principles to construct RNA architectures with diverse shapes and angles. The structure elements of phi29 motor pRNA were utilized for fabrication of dimers, twins, trimers, triplets, tetramers, quadruplets, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, and other higher-order oligomers, as well as branched diverse architectures via hand-in-hand, foot-to-foot, and arm-on-arm interactions. These novel RNA nanostructures harbor resourceful functionalities for numerous applications in nanotechnology and medicine. It was found that all incorporated functional modules, such as siRNA, ribozymes, aptamers, and other functionalities, folded correctly and functioned independently within the nanoparticles. The incorporation of all functionalities was achieved prior, but not subsequent, to the assembly of the RNA nanoparticles, thus ensuring the production of homogeneous therapeutic nanoparticles. More importantly, upon systemic injection, these RNA nanoparticles targeted cancer exclusively in vivo without accumulation in normal organs and tissues. These findings open a new territory for cancer targeting and treatment. The versatility and diversity in structure and function derived from one biological RNA molecule implies immense potential concealed within the RNA nanotechnology field. PMID:23604636

  9. Fabrication of 14 different RNA nanoparticles for specific tumor targeting without accumulation in normal organs.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yi; Haque, Farzin; Shu, Dan; Li, Wei; Zhu, Zhenqi; Kotb, Malak; Lyubchenko, Yuri; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-06-01

    Due to structural flexibility, RNase sensitivity, and serum instability, RNA nanoparticles with concrete shapes for in vivo application remain challenging to construct. Here we report the construction of 14 RNA nanoparticles with solid shapes for targeting cancers specifically. These RNA nanoparticles were resistant to RNase degradation, stable in serum for >36 h, and stable in vivo after systemic injection. By applying RNA nanotechnology and exemplifying with these 14 RNA nanoparticles, we have established the technology and developed "toolkits" utilizing a variety of principles to construct RNA architectures with diverse shapes and angles. The structure elements of phi29 motor pRNA were utilized for fabrication of dimers, twins, trimers, triplets, tetramers, quadruplets, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, and other higher-order oligomers, as well as branched diverse architectures via hand-in-hand, foot-to-foot, and arm-on-arm interactions. These novel RNA nanostructures harbor resourceful functionalities for numerous applications in nanotechnology and medicine. It was found that all incorporated functional modules, such as siRNA, ribozymes, aptamers, and other functionalities, folded correctly and functioned independently within the nanoparticles. The incorporation of all functionalities was achieved prior, but not subsequent, to the assembly of the RNA nanoparticles, thus ensuring the production of homogeneous therapeutic nanoparticles. More importantly, upon systemic injection, these RNA nanoparticles targeted cancer exclusively in vivo without accumulation in normal organs and tissues. These findings open a new territory for cancer targeting and treatment. The versatility and diversity in structure and function derived from one biological RNA molecule implies immense potential concealed within the RNA nanotechnology field.

  10. Glomerular hyperfiltration in type 1 diabetes mellitus results from primary changes in proximal tubular sodium handling without changes in volume expansion.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, G; Veldman, B; Berden, J H M; Smits, P; Wetzels, J F M

    2005-05-01

    Glomerular hyperfiltration plays a role in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. An increase in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) could result from primary actions at the glomerular/vascular level or could be the consequence of a primary increase in proximal tubular sodium reabsorption resulting in systemic volume expansion. Recently it was hypothesized that an increase in sodium reabsorption may lead to glomerular hyperfiltration through the tubulo-glomerular feedback mechanism (tubular-hypothesis) without volume expansion. We have studied 54 normoalbuminuric patients with type 1 diabetes. The GFR was measured by inulin clearance. Proximal and distal sodium reabsorption were calculated according to standard formulas using the free water clearance technique. Plasma volume, measured by the (125)I-albumin method, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the second messenger cyclic guanosine-3,5-monophosphate (c-GMP) were used as markers of extracellular volume expansion. Glomerular hyperfiltration (GFR >or= 130 mL min(-1) 1.73 m(-2)) was present in 14 out of 55 patients with diabetes (25%). There were no differences in plasma volume between normo-(NF) and hyper-filtrating (HF) patients (2933 +/- 423 in NF vs. 3026 +/- 562 mL in HF, NS). Also plasma ANP and c-GMP levels were not significantly different between the groups. The fractional proximal reabsorption of sodium was significantly increased in HF [fPRNa(+) (%) 90.1 +/- 2.0 vs. 91.5 +/- 1.6, P = 0.02]. There were no differences in distal sodium reabsorption or distal sodium load (approximately macula densa concentration of NaCl) in both groups. Our data suggest that the primary event in diabetic glomerular hyperfiltration is an increase in proximal tubular sodium reabsorption. They do not support the hypothesis that systemic volume expansion or ANP mediate glomerular hyperfiltration in patients with normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetes. As such, changes in tubular sodium handling most probably influence tubulo

  11. Mechanism of one-way traffic of hexameric phi29 DNA packaging motor with four electropositive relaying layers facilitating antiparallel revolution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhengyi; Khisamutdinov, Emil; Schwartz, Chad; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-05-28

    The importance of nanomotors in nanotechnology is akin to that of mechanical engines to daily life. The AAA+ superfamily is a class of nanomotors performing various functions. Their hexagonal arrangement facilitates bottom-up assembly for stable structures. The bacteriophage phi29 DNA translocation motor contains three coaxial rings: a dodecamer channel, a hexameric ATPase ring, and a hexameric pRNA ring. The viral DNA packaging motor has been believed to be a rotational machine. However, we discovered a revolution mechanism without rotation. By analogy, the earth revolves around the sun while rotating on its own axis. One-way traffic of dsDNA translocation is facilitated by five factors: (1) ATPase changes its conformation to revolve dsDNA within a hexameric channel in one direction; (2) the 30° tilt of the channel subunits causes an antiparallel arrangement between two helices of dsDNA and channel wall to advance one-way translocation; (3) unidirectional flow property of the internal channel loops serves as a ratchet valve to prevent reversal; (4) 5'-3' single-direction movement of one DNA strand along the channel wall ensures single direction; and (5) four electropositive layers interact with one strand of the electronegative dsDNA phosphate backbone, resulting in four relaying transitional pauses during translocation. The discovery of a riding system along one strand provides a motion nanosystem for cargo transportation and a tool for studying force generation without coiling, friction, and torque. The revolution of dsDNA among 12 subunits offers a series of recognition sites on the DNA backbone to provide additional spatial variables for nucleotide discrimination for sensing applications.

  12. In vitro characterization of 6S RNA release-defective mutants uncovers features of pRNA-dependent release from RNA polymerase in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo Ovando, Mariana; Shephard, Lindsay; Unrau, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    6S RNA is a noncoding RNA that inhibits bacterial transcription by sequestering RNA polymerase holoenzyme (Eσ70) in low-nutrient conditions. This transcriptional block can be relieved by the synthesis of a short product RNA (pRNA) using the 6S RNA as a template. Here, we selected a range of 6S RNA release-defective mutants from a high diversity in vitro pool. Studying the release-defective variant R9-33 uncovered complex interactions between three regions of the 6S RNA. As expected, mutating the transcriptional start site (TSS) slowed and partially inhibited release. Surprisingly, additional mutations near the TSS were found that rescued this effect. Likewise, three mutations in the top strand of the large open bubble (LOB) could considerably slow release but were rescued by the addition of upstream mutations found between a highly conserved “-35” motif and the LOB. Combining the three top strand LOB mutations with mutations near the TSS, however, was particularly effective at preventing release, and this effect could be further enhanced by inclusion of the upstream mutations. Overexpressing R9-33 and a series of milder release-defective mutants in Escherichia coli resulted in a delayed entry into exponential phase together with a decrease in cell survival that correlated well with the severity of the in vitro phenotypes. The complex crosstalk observed between distinct regions of the 6S RNA supports a scrunching type model of 6S RNA release, where at least three regions of the 6S RNA must interact with Eσ70 in a cooperative manner so as to ensure effective pRNA-dependent release. PMID:24681966

  13. Genomics of pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic loci: evidence for conservation and whole-operon mobility within gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rodrigo; van Aarle, Ingrid M; Mendes, Rodrigo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Pyrrolnitrin (PRN) is a tryptophan-derived secondary metabolite produced by a narrow range of gram-negative bacteria. The PRN biosynthesis by rhizobacteria presumably has a key role in their life strategies and in the biocontrol of plant diseases. The biosynthetic operon that encodes the pathway that converts tryptophan to PRN is composed of four genes, prnA through D, whose diversity, genomic context and spread over bacterial genomes are poorly understood. Therefore, we launched an endeavour aimed at retrieving, by in vitro and in silico means, diverse bacteria carrying the prnABCD biosynthetic loci in their genomes. Analysis of polymorphisms of the prnD gene sequences revealed a high level of conservation between Burkholderia, Pseudomonas and Serratia spp. derived sequences. Whole-operon- and prnD-based phylogeny resulted in tree topologies that are incongruent with the taxonomic status of the evaluated strains as predicted by 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. The genomic composition of c. 20 kb DNA fragments containing the PRN operon varied in different strains. Highly conserved and distinct transposase-encoding genes surrounding the PRN biosynthetic operons of Burkholderia pseudomallei strains were found. A prnABCD-deprived genomic region in B. pseudomallei strain K96243 contained the same gene composition as, and shared high homology with, the flanking regions of the PRN operon in B. pseudomallei strains 668, 1106a and 1710b. Our results strongly suggest that the PRN biosynthetic operon is mobile. The extent, frequency and promiscuity of this mobility remain to be understood.

  14. The ternary complex of PrnB (the second enzyme in the pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis pathway), tryptophan, and cyanide yields new mechanistic insights into the indolamine dioxygenase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Naismith, James H

    2010-07-02

    Pyrrolnitrin (3-chloro-4-(2'-nitro-3'-chlorophenyl)pyrrole) is a broad-spectrum antifungal compound isolated from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia. Four enzymes (PrnA, PrnB, PrnC, and PrnD) are required for pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis from tryptophan. PrnB rearranges the indole ring of 7-Cl-l-tryptophan and eliminates the carboxylate group. PrnB shows robust activity in vivo, but in vitro activity for PrnB under defined conditions remains undetected. The structure of PrnB establishes that the enzyme belongs to the heme b-dependent indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) family. We report the cyanide complex of PrnB and two ternary complexes with both l-tryptophan or 7-Cl-l-tryptophan and cyanide. The latter two complexes are essentially identical and mimic the likely catalytic ternary complex that occurs during turnover. In the cyanide ternary complexes, a loop previously disordered becomes ordered, contributing to the binding of substrates. The conformations of the bound tryptophan substrates are changed from that seen previously in the binary complexes. In l-tryptophan ternary complex, the indole ring now adopts the same orientation as seen in the PrnB binary complexes with other tryptophan substrates. The amide and carboxylate group of the substrate are orientated in a new conformation. Tyr(321) and Ser(332) play a key role in binding these groups. The structures suggest that catalysis requires an l-configured substrate. Isothermal titration calorimetry data suggest d-tryptophan does not bind after cyanide (or oxygen) coordinates with the distal (or sixth) site of heme. This is the first ternary complex with a tryptophan substrate of a member of the tryptophan dioxygenase superfamily and has mechanistic implications.

  15. Insights into the RNA binding mechanism of human L1-ORF1p: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Muthukumaran; Balasubramanian, Sangeetha; Ramaswamy, Amutha

    2017-08-22

    The recognition and binding of nucleic acids by ORF1p, an L1 retrotransposon protein, have not yet been clearly understood due to the lack of structural knowledge. The present study attempts to identify the probable single-stranded RNA binding pathway of trimeric ORF1p using computational methods like ligand mapping methodology combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Using the ligand mapping methodology, the possible RNA interacting sites on the surface of the trimeric ORF1p were identified. The crystal structure of the ORF1p timer and an RNA molecule of 29 nucleotide bases in length were used to generate the structure of the ORF1p complex based on information on predicted binding sites as well as the functional states of the CTD. The various complexes of ORF1p-RNA were generated using polyU, polyA and L1RNA sequences and were simulated for a period of 75 ns. The observed stable interaction pattern was used to propose the possible binding pathway. Based on the binding free energy for complex formation, both polyU and L1RNA complexes were identified as stable complexes, while the complex formed with polyA was the least stable one. Furthermore, the importance of the residues in the CC domain (Lys137 and Arg141), the RRM loop (Arg206, Arg210 and Arg211) and the CTD (Arg 261 and Arg262) of all three chains in stabilizing the wrapped RNA has been highlighted in this study. The presence of several electrostatic interactions including H-bond interactions increases the affinity towards RNA and hence plays a vital role in retaining the wrapped position of RNA around ORF1p. Altogether, this study presents one of the possible RNA binding pathways of ORF1p and clearly highlights the functional state of ORF1p visited during RNA binding.

  16. Imaging Evaluation of the Safe Region for Distal Locking Screw of Proximal Femoral Nail Anti-Rotation in Patients with Proximal Femoral Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jinpeng; Liu, Pengcheng; Cai, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background Proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) is a standard femoral intertrochanteric fracture operation. Iatrogenic vascular injury, although uncommon, is a reported complication of PFNA surgery as well as a complication of hip fracture surgery. This study aimed to compare the safety and best use of the distal locking screw in 170 mm PFNA and 240 mm PFNA devices, and to determine the safe region for placement of the distal locking screw in PFNA surgery. Material/Methods A retrospective analysis of 100 patients with 170 mm PFNA and 80 patients with 240 mm PFNA were retrospectively analyzed. Two levels of PFNA distal locking screws were equally divided into three planes: I, II, III, for 170 mm PFNA devices and i, ii, iii for the 240 mm PRNA devices. The medial half of the femur was equally divided into eight regions: A to H. The distance between the outer femur and the superficial, the deep and the perforating femoral arteries (SFAs, DFAs, and PFAs), and angles between the reference line and the connection line between the femur center to each artery were measured. Results SFAs and DFAs but not PFAs were found in risky or hazardous regions, and DFAs were obviously closer to the femur than SFAs and PFAs at the same level. In the region within 10 mm of the femur, no SFAs were found. The short nails (170 mm PFNA-II devices) were the closest to the DFAs region, indicating that the 170 mm PFNA-II nails are most likely to cause special vessel injury. The short nails were relatively more distant from the SFAs, which were located posteriorly to the long nails (240 mm PFNA-II). Conclusions The distal locking screw of the 170 mm PFNA device was more prone to damage the femoral deep artery when the two types of PFNA devices are compared in patients who were candidates for both types of devices. PMID:28178228

  17. Systemic Delivery of Anti-miRNA for Suppression of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Utilizing RNA Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs play important roles in regulating the gene expression and life cycle of cancer cells. In particular, miR-21, an oncogenic miRNA is a major player involved in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in several cancers, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, delivery of therapeutic miRNA or anti-miRNA specifically into cancer cells in vivo without collateral damage to healthy cells remains challenging. We report here the application of RNA nanotechnology for specific and efficient delivery of anti-miR-21 to block the growth of TNBC in orthotopic mouse models. The 15 nm therapeutic RNA nanoparticles contains the 58-nucleotide (nt) phi29 pRNA-3WJ as a core, a 8-nt sequence complementary to the seed region of miR-21, and a 39-nt epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting aptamer for internalizing RNA nanoparticles into cancer cells via receptor mediated endocytosis. The RNase resistant and thermodynamically stable RNA nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection into mice and strongly bound to tumors with little or no accumulation in healthy organs 8 h postinjection, and subsequently repressed tumor growth at low doses. The observed specific cancer targeting and tumor regression is a result of several key attributes of RNA nanoparticles: anionic charge which disallows nonspecific passage across negatively charged cell membrane; “active” targeting using RNA aptamers which increases the homing of RNA nanoparticles to cancer cells; nanoscale size and shape which avoids rapid renal clearance and engulfment by lung macrophages and liver Kupffer cells; favorable biodistribution profiles with little accumulation in healthy organs, which minimizes nonspecific side effects; and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles with extended in vivo half-life. The results demonstrate the clinical potentials of RNA nanotechnology based platform to deliver miRNA based therapeutics for cancer treatment. PMID:26387848

  18. Genomic analysis of oceanic cyanobacterial myoviruses compared with T4-like myoviruses from diverse hosts and environments

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Matthew B; Huang, Katherine H; Ignacio-Espinoza, Julio C; Berlin, Aaron M; Kelly, Libusha; Weigele, Peter R; DeFrancesco, Alicia S; Kern, Suzanne E; Thompson, Luke R; Young, Sarah; Yandava, Chandri; Fu, Ross; Krastins, Bryan; Chase, Michael; Sarracino, David; Osburne, Marcia S; Henn, Matthew R; Chisholm, Sallie W

    2010-01-01

    T4-like myoviruses are ubiquitous, and their genes are among the most abundant documented in ocean systems. Here we compare 26 T4-like genomes, including 10 from non-cyanobacterial myoviruses, and 16 from marine cyanobacterial myoviruses (cyanophages) isolated on diverse Prochlorococcus or Synechococcus hosts. A core genome of 38 virion construction and DNA replication genes was observed in all 26 genomes, with 32 and 25 additional genes shared among the non-cyanophage and cyanophage subsets, respectively. These hierarchical cores are highly syntenic across the genomes, and sampled to saturation. The 25 cyanophage core genes include six previously described genes with putative functions (psbA, mazG, phoH, hsp20, hli03, cobS), a hypothetical protein with a potential phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase domain, two virion structural genes, and 16 hypothetical genes. Beyond previously described cyanophage-encoded photosynthesis and phosphate stress genes, we observed core genes that may play a role in nitrogen metabolism during infection through modulation of 2-oxoglutarate. Patterns among non-core genes that may drive niche diversification revealed that phosphorus-related gene content reflects source waters rather than host strain used for isolation, and that carbon metabolism genes appear associated with putative mobile elements. As well, phages isolated on Synechococcus had higher genome-wide %G+C and often contained different gene subsets (e.g. petE, zwf, gnd, prnA, cpeT) than those isolated on Prochlorococcus. However, no clear diagnostic genes emerged to distinguish these phage groups, suggesting blurred boundaries possibly due to cross-infection. Finally, genome-wide comparisons of both diverse and closely related, co-isolated genomes provide a locus-to-locus variability metric that will prove valuable for interpreting metagenomic data sets. PMID:20662890

  19. Mechanism of One-Way Traffic of Hexameric Phi29 DNA Packaging Motor with Four Electropositive Relaying Layers Facilitating Antiparallel Revolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The importance of nanomotors in nanotechnology is akin to that of mechanical engines to daily life. The AAA+ superfamily is a class of nanomotors performing various functions. Their hexagonal arrangement facilitates bottom-up assembly for stable structures. The bacteriophage phi29 DNA translocation motor contains three coaxial rings: a dodecamer channel, a hexameric ATPase ring, and a hexameric pRNA ring. The viral DNA packaging motor has been believed to be a rotational machine. However, we discovered a revolution mechanism without rotation. By analogy, the earth revolves around the sun while rotating on its own axis. One-way traffic of dsDNA translocation is facilitated by five factors: (1) ATPase changes its conformation to revolve dsDNA within a hexameric channel in one direction; (2) the 30° tilt of the channel subunits causes an antiparallel arrangement between two helices of dsDNA and channel wall to advance one-way translocation; (3) unidirectional flow property of the internal channel loops serves as a ratchet valve to prevent reversal; (4) 5′–3′ single-direction movement of one DNA strand along the channel wall ensures single direction; and (5) four electropositive layers interact with one strand of the electronegative dsDNA phosphate backbone, resulting in four relaying transitional pauses during translocation. The discovery of a riding system along one strand provides a motion nanosystem for cargo transportation and a tool for studying force generation without coiling, friction, and torque. The revolution of dsDNA among 12 subunits offers a series of recognition sites on the DNA backbone to provide additional spatial variables for nucleotide discrimination for sensing applications. PMID:23510192

  20. Covalent crosslinking of tRNA1Val to 16S RNA at the ribosomal P site: identification of crosslinked residues.

    PubMed

    Prince, J B; Taylor, B H; Thurlow, D L; Ofengand, J; Zimmermann, R A

    1982-09-01

    N-Acetylvalyl-tRNA1Val (AcVal-tRNA1Val) was bound to the P site of uniformly 32P-labeled 70S ribosomes from Escherichia coli and crosslinked to 16S RNA in the 30S ribosomal subunit by irradiation with light of 300-400 nm. To identify the crosslinked nucleotide in 16S RNA. AcVal-tRNA1Val-16S [32P]RNA was digested completely with RNase T1 and the band containing the covalently attached oligonucleotides from tRNA and rRNA was isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The crosslinked oligonucleotide, and the 32P-labeled rRNA moiety released from it by photoreversal of the crosslink at 254 nm, were then analyzed by secondary hydrolysis with pancreatic RNase A and RNase U2. The oligonucleotide derived from 16S RNA was found to be the evolutionarily conserved sequence, U-A-C-A-C-A-C-C-G1401, and the nucleotide crosslinked to tRNA1Val, C1400. The identity of the covalently attached residue in the tRNA was established by using AcVal-tRNA1Val-16S RNA prepared from unlabeled ribosomes. This complex was digested to completion with RNase T1 and the resulting RNA fragments were labeled at the 3' end with [5'-32P]pCp. The crosslinked T1 oligonucleotide isolated from the mixture yielded one major end-labeled component upon photoreversal. Chemical sequence analysis demonstrated that this product was derived from the anticodon-containing pentadecanucleotide of tRNA1Val, C-A-C-C-U-C-C-C-U-cmo5U-A-C-m6A-A-G39(cmo5U, 5-carboxymethoxyuridine). A similar study of the crosslinked oligonucleotide revealed that the residue covalently bound to 16S was cmo5U34, the 5' or wobble base of the anticodon. The adduct is believed to result from formation of a cyclobutane dimer between cmo5U34 of tRNA1Val and C1400 of the 16S RNA.

  1. Cdc73p and Paf1p are found in a novel RNA polymerase II-containing complex distinct from the Srbp-containing holoenzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, X; Chang, M; Wolf, A J; Chang, C H; Frazer-Abel, A A; Wade, P A; Burton, Z F; Jaehning, J A

    1997-01-01

    The products of the yeast CDC73 and PAF1 genes were originally identified as RNA polymerase II-associated proteins. Paf1p is a nuclear protein important for cell growth and transcriptional regulation of a subset of yeast genes. In this study we demonstrate that the product of CDC73 is a nuclear protein that interacts directly with purified RNA polymerase II in vitro. Deletion of CDC73 confers a temperature-sensitive phenotype. Combination of the cdc73 mutation with the more severe paf1 mutation does not result in an enhanced phenotype, indicating that the two proteins may function in the same cellular processes. To determine the relationship between Cdc73p and Paf1p and the recently described holoenzyme form of RNA polymerase II, we created yeast strains containing glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged forms of CDC73, PAF1, and TFG2 functionally replacing the chromosomal copies of the genes. Isolation of GST-tagged Cdc73p and Paf1p complexes has revealed a unique form of RNA polymerase II that contains both Cdc73p and Paf1p but lacks the Srbps found in the holoenzyme. The Cdc73p-Paf1p-RNA polymerase II-containing complex also includes Gal11p, and the general initiation factors TFIIB and TFIIF, but lacks TBP, TFIIH, and transcription elongation factor TFIIS as well as the Srbps. The Srbp-containing holoenzyme does not include either Paf1p or Cdc73p, demonstrating that these two forms of RNA polymerase II are distinct. In confirmation of the hypothesis that the two forms coexist in yeast cells, we found that a TFIIF-containing complex isolated via the GST-tagged Tfg2p construct contains both (i) the Srbps and (ii) Cdc73p and Paf1p. The Srbps and Cdc73p-Paf1p therefore appear to define two complexes with partially redundant, essential functions in the yeast cell. Using the technique of differential display, we have identified several genes whose transcripts require Cdc73p and/or Paf1p for normal levels of expression. Our analysis suggests that there are multiple RNA

  2. Skeletal muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp involves differential expression of rRNA and molecules that epigenetically regulate its synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Nardocci, Gino; Fernandez de la Reguera, Catalina; Simonet, Nicolas; Fumeron, Robinson; Valdes, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Alvarez, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal biogenesis controls cellular growth in living organisms, with the rate-limiting step of this process being the transcription of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Considering that epigenetic mechanisms allow an organism to respond to environmental changes, the expression in muscle of several molecules that regulate epigenetic rRNA synthesis, as well as rDNA transcription, were evaluated during the seasonal acclimatization of the carp. First, the nucleotide sequences encoding the components forming the NoRC (ttf-I, tip5) and eNoSC (sirt1, nml, suv39h1), two chromatin remodeling complexes that silence rRNA synthesis, as well as the sequence of ubf1, a key regulator of rDNA transcription, were obtained. Subsequently the transcriptional regulation of the aforementioned molecules, and other key molecules involved in rRNA synthesis (mh2a1, mh2a2, h2a.z, h2a.z.7, nuc, p80), was assessed. The carp sequences for TTF-I, TIP5, SIRT1, NML, SUV39H1, and UBF1 showed a high conservation of domains and key amino acids in comparison with other fish and higher vertebrates. The mRNA contents in muscle for ttf-I, tip5, sirt1, nml, suv39h1, mh2a1, mh2a.z, and nuc were up-regulated during winter in comparison with summer, whereas the mRNA levels of mh2a2, ubf1, and p80 were down-regulated. Also, the contents of molecules involved in processing the rRNA (snoRNAs) and pRNA, a stabilizer of NoRC complex, were analyzed, finding that these non-coding RNAs were not affected by seasonal acclimatization. These results suggest that variations in the expression of rRNA and the molecules that epigenetically regulate its synthesis are contributing to the muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. RNA Nanotechnology: Engineering, Assembly and Applications in Detection, Gene Delivery and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Peixuan

    2010-01-01

    Biological macromolecules including DNA, RNA, and proteins, have intrinsic features that make them potential building blocks for the bottom-up fabrication of nanodevices. RNA is unique in nanoscale fabrication due to its amazing diversity of function and structure. RNA molecules can be designed and manipulated with a level of simplicity characteristic of DNA while possessing versatility in structure and function similar to that of proteins. RNA molecules typically contain a large variety of single stranded loops suitable for inter- and intra-molecular interaction. These loops can serve as mounting dovetails obviating the need for external linking dowels in fabrication and assembly. The self-assembly of nanoparticles from RNA involves cooperative interaction of individual RNA molecules that spontaneously assemble in a predefined manner to form a larger two- or three-dimensional structure. Within the realm of self-assembly there are two main categories, namely template and non-template. Template assembly involves interaction of RNA molecules under the influence of specific external sequence, forces, or spatial constraints such as RNA transcription, hybridization, replication, annealing, molding, or replicas. In contrast, non-template assembly involves formation of a larger structure by individual components without the influence of external forces. Examples of non-template assembly are ligation, chemical conjugation, covalent linkage, and loop/loop interaction of RNA, especially the formation of RNA multimeric complexes. The best characterized RNA multiplier and the first to be described in RNA nanotechnological application is the motor pRNA of bacteriophage phi29 which form dimers, trimers, and hexamers, via hand-in-hand interaction. phi29 pRNA can be redesigned to form a variety of structures and shapes including twins, tetramers, rods, triangles, and 3D arrays several microns in size via interaction of programmed helical regions and loops. 3D RNA array formation

  4. Structure and Function Study of Phi29 DNA packaging motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Huaming

    A powerful nanomotor is employed by the tailed dsDNA virus to package the genome into a preformed protein shell during the process of replication. The bacteriophage phi29 is an excellent model for investigating the viral DNA packaging mechanism. The phi29 DNA packaging motor is composed of three ring structures: the dodecameric connector ring, the hexameric pRNA ring and the hexameric ATPase gp16 ring. The connector is the central hub for the DNA to enter and to exit. There are four positively charged lysine rings scattered inside the highly negatively charged connector channel. It is speculated that these positive charged lysine rings may play active roles during DNA packaging in many models. To test this prevalent view, the basic lysine residues were mutated to neutral alanines and the pH environment was altered. Amazingly, the results were beyond expectation. Neither the DNA translocation nor the one-way traffic property of the channel were measurably influenced by the alteration of the charge of lysine residues when the basic lysine residues mutated to neutral alanines or the pH environment changed to acid or basic. The ATPase or the terminase is the central part of the viral DNA packaging motor. The phi29 ATPase is highly hydrophobic and tends to aggregate in solution. A green fluorescent protein tag (eGFP) fused to the N-terminus of gp16 enhanced its solubility and stability. The eGFP-gp16 showed similar activity to wild type gp16 and was easily detected by fluorescent instruments. The interaction between eGFP-gp16 and DNA in the various conditions were investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, FRET and sucrose gradient. gamma-S-ATP dramatically increased gp16 binding affinity to DNA and ATP, ADP, phosphate could release gp16 from gp16-DNA-gamma-S-ATP complex. The sliding of gp16 out of the gp16-DNA-gamma-S-ATP complex could be blocked by addition of Steptavidin to ends of dsDNA which is conjugated with biotins. Also, we found that six eGFP-gp16