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Sample records for krimise kvaliteedile ja

  1. Design Documentation for JaWE2Openflow Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, N; Barter, R H

    2004-07-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has chosen CIGNEX Technologies, Inc. (CIGNEX) to design and develop the JaWE2Openflow conversion software. This document was created by CIGNEX as a project deliverable.

  2. RuBPCase activase mediates growth-defense tradeoffs: Silencing RCA redirects JA flux from JA-Ile to MeJA to attenuate induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sirsha; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary RuBPCase activase (RCA), an abundant photosynthetic protein is strongly down-regulated in response to Manduca sexta’s oral secretion (OS) in Nicotiana attenuata. RCA-silenced plants are impaired not only in photosynthetic capacity and growth, but also in jasmonic acid (JA)-isoleucine (Ile) signaling, and herbivore resistance mediated by JA-Ile dependent defense traits. These responses are consistent with a resource-based growth-defense trade-off. Since JA+Ile-supplementation of OS restored WT levels of JA-Ile, defenses and resistance to M. sexta, but OS supplemented individually with JA- or Ile did not, the JA-Ile deficiency of RCA-silenced plants could not be attributed to lower JA or Ile pools or JAR4/6 conjugating activity. Similar levels of JA-Ile derivatives after OS elicitation indicated unaltered JA-Ile turnover and lower levels of other JA-conjugates ruled out competition from other conjugation reactions. RCA-silenced plants accumulated more methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after OS elicitation, which corresponded with increased jasmonate methyltransferase (JMT) activity. RCA-silencing phenocopies JMT over-expression, wherein elevated JMT activity redirects OS-elicited JA flux towards inactive MeJA, creating a JA sink which depletes JA-Ile and its associated defense responses. Hence RCA plays an additional non-photosynthetic role in attenuating JA-mediated defenses and their associated costs potentially allowing plants to anticipate resource-based constraints on growth before they actually occur. PMID:24491116

  3. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its ro...

  4. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-03-20

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses.

  5. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  6. Maize MeJA-responsive proteins identified by high-resolution 2-DE PAGE.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuliang; Pennerman, Kayla K; Yang, Fengshan; Yin, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    Exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is well-known to induce plant defense mechanisms effective against a wide variety of insect and microbial pests. High-resolution 2-DE gel electrophoresis was used to discover changes in the leaf proteome of maize exposed to MeJA. We sequenced 62 MeJA-responsive proteins by tandem mass spectroscopy, and deposited the mass spectra and identities in the EMBL-EBI PRIDE repository under reference number PXD001793. An analysis and discussion of the identified proteins in relation to maize defense against Asian corn borer is published by Zhang et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:26509185

  7. Continuous Dust Formation in SNe 2010jl and 2011ja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafton, Kelsie; Clayton, Geoffrey; Andrews, Jennifer; Barlow, Michael; De Looze, Ilse

    2016-08-01

    Studies in the last 10 years of dust formation in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) have found only small amounts, ~0.001 solar masses. This is far less than the amount needed to account for the large masses of dust seen in some high redshift galaxies. However, the recent discovery of ~1 solar mass of cold dust in the ejecta of SN 1987A has has caused a complete re-evaluation of dust formation in CCSNe. It has been suggested that the CCSNe are continuously forming dust so that by the time they are about 25 years old they will have dust masses similar to SN 1987A. However, there is a wide time gap between the CCSNe that have been studied recently and SN 1987A. We plan to use the sensitivity of Spitzer to detect dust emission from CCSNe 5 or more years after explosion. Radiative transfer models will be used to estimate the dust masses. This proposal is to continue our study of two interesting SNe 2010jl and 2011ja. These observations are part of a long term study requiring multiple epochs of Spitzer observations to look for evidence of continuous dust formation. These observations will help shed light on the mystery of dust in SN 1987A.

  8. Another JA/COI1-independent role of OPDA detected in tomato embryo development.

    PubMed

    Wasternack, Claus; Goetz, Stephan; Hellwege, Anja; Forner, Susanne; Strnad, Miroslav; Hause, Bettina

    2012-10-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are ubiquitously occurring signaling compounds in plants formed in response to biotic and abiotic stress as well as in development. (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl isoleucine, the bioactive JA, is involved in most JA-dependent processes mediated by the F-box protein COI1 in a proteasome-dependent manner. However, there is an increasing number of examples, where the precursor of JA biosynthesis, cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) is active in a JA/COI1-independent manner. Here, we discuss those OPDA-dependent processes, thereby giving emphasis on tomato embryo development. Recent data on seed coat-generated OPDA and its role in embryo development is discussed based on biochemical and genetic evidences. PMID:22895103

  9. Update from the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM).

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) was established in 2005 to promote the use of alternatives to animal testing in regulatory studies, thereby replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, according to the Three Rs principles. JaCVAM assesses the utility, limitations and suitability for use in regulatory studies, of test methods needed to determine the safety of chemicals and other materials. JaCVAM also organises and performs validation studies of new test methods, when necessary. In addition, JaCVAM co-operates and collaborates with similar organisations in related fields, both in Japan and internationally, which also enables JaCVAM to provide input during the establishment of guidelines for new alternative experimental methods. These activities help facilitate application and approval processes for the manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, pesticides, and other products, as well as for revisions to standards for cosmetic products. In this manner, JaCVAM plays a leadership role in the introduction of new alternative experimental methods for regulatory acceptance in Japan. PMID:24512226

  10. Influence factors and gene expression patterns during MeJa-induced gummosis in peach.

    PubMed

    Li, Minji; Liu, Meiyan; Peng, Futian; Fang, Long

    2015-06-15

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in gummosis in peach. Mechanical damage, methyl jasmonate (MeJa), and ethylene can induce gummosis on peach shoots in the field. In this study, we used MeJa (2%, w/w) to induce gummosis on current-year shoots in peach on high temperature (35°C). Based on the experimental model, we studied the influence of factors on the development of peach gummosis. Our experimental results showed that high temperature could promote gummosis development induced by MeJa. Exogenous CaCl2 treatment reduced the degree of gummosis by increasing the calcium content in shoots, which is conducive to the synthesis and maintenance of the cell wall. Using digital gene expression (DGE), 3831 differentially expressed genes were identified in the MeJa treatment versus the control. By analyzing changes in gene expression associated with cell wall degradation, genes encoding pectin methylesterase (PME) and endo-polygalacturonase (PG) were found to be significantly induced, suggesting that they are key enzymes in cell wall degradation that occurs during MeJa-induced gummosis. Genes for glycosyltransferase (GT) and cellulose synthase (CS) were also significantly upregulated by MeJa. This result suggests that MeJa treatment not only promotes the degradation of polysaccharides to destroy the cell wall, but also promotes the synthesis of new polysaccharides. We also analyzed changes in gene expression associated with sugar metabolism, senescence, and defense. MeJa treatment affected the expression of genes related to sugar metabolism and promoted plant senescence. Among the defense genes, the expression pattern of phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL) suggested that PAL may play an important role in protecting against the effects of MeJa treatment. Our experimental results showed that MeJa treatment can promote the biosynthesis and signal transduction of ethylene in peach shoots; they can induce gummosis on peach shoots respectively, and there are overlaps between

  11. A balanced JA/ABA status may correlate with adaptation to osmotic stress in Vitis cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed; Seo, Mitsunori; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Water-related stress is considered a major type of plant stress. Osmotic stress, in particular, represents the common part of all water-related stresses. Therefore, plants have evolved different adaptive mechanisms to cope with osmotic-related disturbances. In the current work, two grapevine cell lines that differ in their osmotic adaptability, Vitis rupestris and Vitis riparia, were investigated under mannitol-induced osmotic stress. To dissect signals that lead to adaptability from those related to sensitivity, osmotic-triggered responses with respect to jasmonic acid (JA) and its active form JA-Ile, abscisic acid (ABA), and stilbene compounds, as well as the expression of their related genes were observed. In addition, the transcript levels of the cellular homeostasis gene NHX1 were examined. The data are discussed with a hypothesis suggesting that a balance of JA and ABA status might correlate with cellular responses, either guiding cells to sensitivity or to progress toward adaptation. PMID:26277753

  12. Dermal sensitization potential of ja-2 solid propellant in guinea pigs. Report for 4 April-9 May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.M.; Brown, L.D.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-11-01

    JA-2 Solid Propellant was evaluated for its potential to produce dermal sensitization in male guinea pigs. The Buehler test, which utilizes repeated closed patch inductions with the test compound, was used for this evaluation. No evidence that JA-2 Solid Propellant induced sensitization was obtained in the study.

  13. Integrated metabolomic and proteomic analysis reveals systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Prasuna, M Lakshmi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch Venkata

    2015-02-01

    Aromatic amines are widely distributed in the environment and are major environmental pollutants. Although degradation of aromatic amines is well studied in bacteria, physiological adaptations and stress response to these toxic compounds is not yet fully understood. In the present study, systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress were deciphered using metabolite and iTRAQ-labeled protein profiling. Strain JA2 tolerated high concentrations of aniline (30 mM) with trace amounts of aniline being transformed to acetanilide. GC-MS metabolite profiling revealed aniline stress phenotype wherein amino acid, carbohydrate, fatty acid, nitrogen metabolisms, and TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) were modulated. Strain JA2 responded to aniline by remodeling the proteome, and cellular functions, such as signaling, transcription, translation, stress tolerance, transport and carbohydrate metabolism, were highly modulated. Key adaptive responses, such as transcription/translational changes, molecular chaperones to control protein folding, and efflux pumps implicated in solvent extrusion, were induced in response to aniline stress. Proteo-metabolomics indicated extensive rewiring of metabolism to aniline. TCA cycle and amino acid catabolism were down-regulated while gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated, leading to the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances. Furthermore, increased saturated fatty acid ratios in membranes due to aniline stress suggest membrane adaptation. The present study thus indicates that strain JA2 employs multilayered responses: stress response, toxic compound tolerance, energy conservation, and metabolic rearrangements to aniline.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. PMID:26484871

  15. Integrated metabolomic and proteomic analysis reveals systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Prasuna, M Lakshmi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch Venkata

    2015-02-01

    Aromatic amines are widely distributed in the environment and are major environmental pollutants. Although degradation of aromatic amines is well studied in bacteria, physiological adaptations and stress response to these toxic compounds is not yet fully understood. In the present study, systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress were deciphered using metabolite and iTRAQ-labeled protein profiling. Strain JA2 tolerated high concentrations of aniline (30 mM) with trace amounts of aniline being transformed to acetanilide. GC-MS metabolite profiling revealed aniline stress phenotype wherein amino acid, carbohydrate, fatty acid, nitrogen metabolisms, and TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) were modulated. Strain JA2 responded to aniline by remodeling the proteome, and cellular functions, such as signaling, transcription, translation, stress tolerance, transport and carbohydrate metabolism, were highly modulated. Key adaptive responses, such as transcription/translational changes, molecular chaperones to control protein folding, and efflux pumps implicated in solvent extrusion, were induced in response to aniline stress. Proteo-metabolomics indicated extensive rewiring of metabolism to aniline. TCA cycle and amino acid catabolism were down-regulated while gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated, leading to the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances. Furthermore, increased saturated fatty acid ratios in membranes due to aniline stress suggest membrane adaptation. The present study thus indicates that strain JA2 employs multilayered responses: stress response, toxic compound tolerance, energy conservation, and metabolic rearrangements to aniline. PMID:25388363

  16. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  17. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  18. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  19. New enhanced artificial bee colony (JA-ABC5) algorithm with application for reactive power optimization.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Noorazliza; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita; Abro, Abdul Ghani

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement.

  20. Physiological impacts of ABA-JA interactions under water-limitation.

    PubMed

    de Ollas, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Plant responses to drought stress depend on highly regulated signal transduction pathways with multiple interactions. This complex crosstalk can lead to a physiological outcome of drought avoidance or tolerance/resistance. ABA is the principal mediator of these responses due to the regulation of stomatal closure that determines plant growth and survival, but also other strategies of drought resistance such as osmotic adjustment. However, other hormones such as JA seem responsible for regulating a subset of plant responses to drought by regulating ABA biosynthesis and accumulation and ABA-dependent signalling, but also by ABA independent pathways. Here, we review recent reports of ABA-JA hormonal and molecular interactions within a physiological framework of drought tolerance. Understanding the physiological significance of this complex regulation offers opportunities to find strategies of drought tolerance that avoid unwanted side effects that limit growth and yield, and may allow biotechnological crop improvement. PMID:27299601

  1. A self-adaptive genetic algorithm to estimate JA model parameters considering minor loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hai-liang; Wen, Xi-shan; Lan, Lei; An, Yun-zhu; Li, Xiao-ping

    2015-01-01

    A self-adaptive genetic algorithm for estimating Jiles-Atherton (JA) magnetic hysteresis model parameters is presented. The fitness function is established based on the distances between equidistant key points of normalized hysteresis loops. Linearity function and logarithm function are both adopted to code the five parameters of JA model. Roulette wheel selection is used and the selection pressure is adjusted adaptively by deducting a proportional which depends on current generation common value. The Crossover operator is established by combining arithmetic crossover and multipoint crossover. Nonuniform mutation is improved by adjusting the mutation ratio adaptively. The algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of one kind of silicon-steel sheet's hysteresis loops, and the results are in good agreement with published data.

  2. Physiological impacts of ABA-JA interactions under water-limitation.

    PubMed

    de Ollas, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Plant responses to drought stress depend on highly regulated signal transduction pathways with multiple interactions. This complex crosstalk can lead to a physiological outcome of drought avoidance or tolerance/resistance. ABA is the principal mediator of these responses due to the regulation of stomatal closure that determines plant growth and survival, but also other strategies of drought resistance such as osmotic adjustment. However, other hormones such as JA seem responsible for regulating a subset of plant responses to drought by regulating ABA biosynthesis and accumulation and ABA-dependent signalling, but also by ABA independent pathways. Here, we review recent reports of ABA-JA hormonal and molecular interactions within a physiological framework of drought tolerance. Understanding the physiological significance of this complex regulation offers opportunities to find strategies of drought tolerance that avoid unwanted side effects that limit growth and yield, and may allow biotechnological crop improvement.

  3. New Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony (JA-ABC5) Algorithm with Application for Reactive Power Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement. PMID:25879054

  4. Aniline is an inducer, and not a precursor, for indole derivatives in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Mohammed; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-01-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 and other anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria produce indole derivatives when exposed to aniline, a xenobiotic compound. Though this phenomenon has been reported previously, the role of aniline in the production of indoles is still a biochemical riddle. The present study aims at understanding the specific role of aniline (as precursor or stimulator) in the production of indoles and elucidating the biochemical pathway of indoles in aniline-exposed cells by using stable isotope approaches. Metabolic profiling revealed tryptophan accumulation only in aniline exposed cells along with indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole 3-aldehyde (IAld), the two major catabolites of tryptophan. Deuterium labelled aniline feeding studies revealed that aniline is not a precursor of indoles in strain JA2. Further, production of indoles only in aniline-exposed cells suggests that aniline is an indoles stimulator. In addition, production of indoles depended on the presence of a carbon source, and production enhanced when carbon sources were added to the culture. Isotope labelled fumarate feeding identified, fumarate as the precursor of indole, indicating de novo synthesis of indoles. Glyphosate (shikimate pathway inhibitor) inhibited the indoles production, accumulation of tryptophan, IAA and IAld indicating that indoles synthesis in strain JA2 occurs via the de novo shikimate pathway. The up-regulation of anthranilate synthase gene and induction of anthranilate synthase activity correlated well with tryptophan production in strain JA2. Induction of tryptophan aminotransferase and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase activities corroborated well with IAA levels, suggesting that tryptophan catabolism occurs simultaneously in aniline exposed cells. Our study demonstrates that aniline (stress) stimulates tryptophan/indoles synthesis via the shikimate pathway by possibly modulating the metabolic pathway.

  5. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  6. Priming for JA-dependent defenses using hexanoic acid is an effective mechanism to protect Arabidopsis against B. cinerea.

    PubMed

    Kravchuk, Zhana; Vicedo, Begonya; Flors, Víctor; Camañes, Gemma; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2011-03-01

    Soil drench treatments with hexanoic acid can effectively protect Arabidopsis plants against Botrytis cinerea through a mechanism based on a stronger and faster accumulation of JA-dependent defenses. Plants impaired in ethylene, salicylic acid, abscisic acid or glutathion pathways showed intact protection by hexanoic acid upon B. cinerea infection. Accordingly, no significant changes in the SA marker gene PR-1 in either the SA or ABA hormone balance were observed in the infected and treated plants. In contrast, the JA signaling pathway showed dramatic changes after hexanoic acid treatment, mainly when the pathogen was present. The impaired JA mutants, jin1-2 and jar1, were unable to display hexanoic acid priming against the necrotroph. In addition, hexanoic acid-treated plants infected with B. cinerea showed priming in the expression of the PDF1.2, PR-4 and VSP1 genes implicated in the JA pathways. Moreover, JA and OPDA levels were primed at early stages by hexanoic acid. Treatments also stimulated increased callose accumulation in response to the pathogen. Although callose accumulation has proved an effective IR mechanism against B. cinerea, it is apparently not essential to express hexanoic acid-induced resistance (HxAc-IR) because the mutant pmr4.1 (callose synthesis defective mutant) is protected by treatment. We recently described how hexanoic acid treatments can protect tomato plants against B. cinerea by stimulating ABA-dependent callose deposition and by priming OPDA and JA-Ile production. We clearly demonstrate here that Hx-IR is a dependent plant species, since this acid protects Arabidopsis plants against the same necrotroph by priming JA-dependent defenses without enhancing callose accumulation.

  7. Elevated CO2 influences nematode-induced defense responses of tomato genotypes differing in the JA pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yucheng; Yin, Jin; Cao, Haifeng; Li, Chuanyou; Kang, Le; Ge, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO(2) concentrations can affect the induced defense of plants against chewing herbivores but little is known about whether elevated CO(2) can change the induced defense of plants against parasitic nematodes. This study examined the interactions between the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and three isogenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) genotypes grown under ambient (390 ppm) and elevated (750 ppm) CO(2) in growth chambers. In a previous study with open-top chambers in the field, we reported that elevated CO(2) increased the number of nematode-induced root galls in a JA-defense-dominated genotype but not in a wild-type or JA-defense-recessive genotype. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that elevated CO(2) will favor the salicylic acid (SA)-pathway defense but repress the jasmonic acid (JA)-pathway defense of plants against plant-parasitic nematodes. Our data showed that elevated CO(2) reduced the JA-pathway defense against M. incognita in the wild-type and in a genotype in which defense is dominated by the JA pathway (a JA-defense-dominated genotype) but up-regulated the SA-pathway defense in the wild type and in a JA-defense-recessive genotype (jasmonate-deficient mutant). Our results suggest that, in terms of defense genes, secondary metabolites, and volatile organic compounds, induced defense of nematode-infected plants could be affected by elevated CO(2), and that CO(2)-induced changes of plant resistance may lead to genotype-specific responses of plants to nematodes under elevated CO(2). The changes in resistance against nematodes, however, were small relative to those reported for chewing insects. PMID:21629688

  8. Elevated CO2 Influences Nematode-Induced Defense Responses of Tomato Genotypes Differing in the JA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yucheng; Yin, Jin; Cao, Haifeng; Li, Chuanyou; Kang, Le; Ge, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations can affect the induced defense of plants against chewing herbivores but little is known about whether elevated CO2 can change the induced defense of plants against parasitic nematodes. This study examined the interactions between the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and three isogenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) genotypes grown under ambient (390 ppm) and elevated (750 ppm) CO2 in growth chambers. In a previous study with open-top chambers in the field, we reported that elevated CO2 increased the number of nematode-induced root galls in a JA-defense-dominated genotype but not in a wild-type or JA-defense-recessive genotype. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 will favor the salicylic acid (SA)-pathway defense but repress the jasmonic acid (JA)-pathway defense of plants against plant-parasitic nematodes. Our data showed that elevated CO2 reduced the JA-pathway defense against M. incognita in the wild-type and in a genotype in which defense is dominated by the JA pathway (a JA-defense-dominated genotype) but up-regulated the SA-pathway defense in the wild type and in a JA-defense-recessive genotype (jasmonate-deficient mutant). Our results suggest that, in terms of defense genes, secondary metabolites, and volatile organic compounds, induced defense of nematode-infected plants could be affected by elevated CO2, and that CO2-induced changes of plant resistance may lead to genotype-specific responses of plants to nematodes under elevated CO2. The changes in resistance against nematodes, however, were small relative to those reported for chewing insects. PMID:21629688

  9. Rice Rab11 is required for JA-mediated defense signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Min Ji; Lee, Yun mi; Son, Young Sim; Im, Chak Han; Yi, Young Byung; Rim, Yeong Gil; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Heo, Jae Bok

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •OsRab11 interacts with OsOPR8. •OsOPR8 is localized in the cytosol and peroxisome. •OsRab11 enhances the NADPH consumption by OsOPR8. •Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing OsRab11 represents a pathogen-resistant phenotype. -- Abstract: Rab proteins play an essential role in regulating vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Previously, we characterized OsRab11, which in concert with OsGAP1 and OsGDI3 regulates vesicular trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane or vacuole. To further elucidate the physiological function of OsRab11 in plants, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using OsRab11 as bait. OsOPR8 was isolated and shown to interact with OsRab11. A co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed this interaction. The green fluorescent protein-OsOPR8 fusion product was targeted to the cytoplasm and peroxisomes of protoplasts from Arabidopsis thaliana. OsOPR8 exhibited NADPH-dependent reduction activity when 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CyHE) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) were supplied as possible substrates. Interestingly, NADPH oxidation by OsOPR8 was increased when wild-type OsRab11 or the constitutively active form of OsRab11 (Q78L) were included in the reaction mix, but not when the dominant negative form of OsRab11 (S28N) was included. OsRab11 was expressed broadly in plants and both OsRab11 and OsOPR8 were induced by jasmonic acid (JA) and elicitor treatments. Overexpressed OsRab11 transgenic plants showed resistance to pathogens through induced expression of JA-responsive genes. In conclusion, OsRab11 may be required for JA-mediated defense signaling by activating the reducing activity of OsOPR8.

  10. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress.

  11. Novel JAZ co-operativity and unexpected JA dynamics underpin Arabidopsis defence responses to Pseudomonas syringae infection.

    PubMed

    de Torres Zabala, Marta; Zhai, Bing; Jayaraman, Siddharth; Eleftheriadou, Garoufalia; Winsbury, Rebecca; Yang, Ron; Truman, William; Tang, Saijung; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Grant, Murray

    2016-02-01

    Pathogens target phytohormone signalling pathways to promote disease. Plants deploy salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defences against biotrophs. Pathogens antagonize SA immunity by activating jasmonate signalling, for example Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 produces coronatine (COR), a jasmonic acid (JA) mimic. This study found unexpected dynamics between SA, JA and COR and co-operation between JAZ jasmonate repressor proteins during DC3000 infection. We used a systems-based approach involving targeted hormone profiling, high-temporal-resolution micro-array analysis, reverse genetics and mRNA-seq. Unexpectedly, foliar JA did not accumulate until late in the infection process and was higher in leaves challenged with COR-deficient P. syringae or in the more resistant JA receptor mutant coi1. JAZ regulation was complex and COR alone was insufficient to sustainably induce JAZs. JAZs contribute to early basal and subsequent secondary plant defence responses. We showed that JAZ5 and JAZ10 specifically co-operate to restrict COR cytotoxicity and pathogen growth through a complex transcriptional reprogramming that does not involve the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MYC2 and related MYC3 and MYC4 previously shown to restrict pathogen growth. mRNA-seq predicts compromised SA signalling in a jaz5/10 mutant and rapid suppression of JA-related components on bacterial infection. PMID:26428397

  12. L-Tryptophan catabolism by Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 occurs through indole 3-pyruvic acid pathway.

    PubMed

    Kumavath, Ranjith N; Ramana, Ch V; Sasikala, Ch

    2010-09-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 utilizes L: -tryptophan as the sole source of nitrogen for growth, and it has a doubling time of approximately 11 h (compared to 8 h with ammonium chloride). With cell free extracts in the presence of 2-oxoglutarate, indole-3-pyruvic acid, indole-3-acetaldehyde, indole-3-acetic acid, isatin, benzaldehyde, gallic acid and pyrogallol were identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) analysis. The conversion of L: -tryptophan into indole 3-pyruvic acid and glutamate by an enzyme aminotransferase was confirmed and the catabolism of indole-3-pyruvic acid via side chain oxidation followed by ring oxidation, gallic acid and pyrogallol were confirmed as metabolites. In addition, the proposed pathway sequential conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid to the end product of pyrogallol was identified, including an enzymatic step that would convert isatin to benzaldehyde by an enzyme yet to be identified. At this stage of the study, the enzyme tryptophan aminotransferase in R. benzoatilyticus JA2 was demonstrated.

  13. Early dust formation and a massive progenitor for SN 2011ja?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. E.; Krafton, Kelsie M.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Montiel, E.; Wesson, R.; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M.; Drass, H.

    2016-04-01

    SN 2011ja was a bright (I = -18.3) Type II supernova occurring in the nearby edge on spiral galaxy NGC 4945. Flat-topped and multipeaked H α and H β spectral emission lines appear between 64 and 84 d post-explosion, indicating interaction with a disc-like circumstellar medium inclined ˜45° from edge-on. After day 84, an increase in the H- and K-band flux along with heavy attenuation of the red wing of the emission lines are strong indications of early dust formation, likely located in the cool dense shell created between the forward shock of the SN ejecta and the reverse shock created as the ejecta plows into the existing circumstellar material. Radiative transfer modelling reveals both ≈1 × 10-5 M⊙ of pre-existing dust located ˜1016.7 cm away and up to ≈6 × 10-4 M⊙ of newly formed dust. Spectral observations after 1.5 yr reveal the possibility that the fading SN is located within a young (3-6 Myr) massive stellar cluster, which when combined with tentative 56Ni mass estimates of 0.2 M⊙ may indicate a massive (≥25 M⊙) progenitor for SN 2011ja.

  14. Draft genome sequence of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643T with special reference to hopanoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tushar, L; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-12-01

    Hopanoids are present in vast amounts as integral components of bacteria and plants with their primary function to strengthen rigidity of the plasma membrane. To establish their roles more precisely, we conducted sequencing of the whole genome of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643(T) isolated from a fresh water stream of Udaipur in Himachal Pradesh, India, by using the Illumina HiSeq pair end chemistry of 2 × 100 bp platform. Determined genome showed a high degree of similarity to the genome of R. vannielii ATCC17100(T) and the 13.7 million reads generated a sequence of 3,649,277 bp possessing 3,611 putative genes. The genomic data were subsequently investigated with respect to genes involved in various features. The machinery required for the degradation of aromatic compounds and resistance to solvents as well as all that required for photosynthesis are present in this organism. Also, through extensive functional annotation, 18 genes involved in the biosynthesis of hopanoids are predicted, namely those responsible for the synthesis of diploptene, diplopterol, adenosylhopane, ribosylhopane, aminobacteriohopanetriol, glycosyl group containing hopanoids and unsaturated hopanoids. The hopanoid biosynthetic pathway was then inferred based on the genes identified and through experimental validation of individual hopanoid molecules. The genome data of R. udaipurense JA643(T) will be useful in understanding the functional features of hopanoids in this bacterium.

  15. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility and maintenance in JA-CMS cotton.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Han, Jinfeng; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is the failure to produce functional pollen, which is inherited maternally. And it is known that anther development is modulated through complicated interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. However, an unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis of CMS in cotton is currently lacking in the literature. This study compared differentially expressed (DE) genes of floral buds at the sporogenous cells stage (SS) and microsporocyte stage (MS) (the two most important stages for pollen abortion in JA-CMS) between JA-CMS and its fertile maintainer line JB cotton plants, using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 709 (1.8%) DE genes including 293 up-regulated and 416 down-regulated genes were identified in JA-CMS line comparing with its maintainer line at the SS stage, and 644 (1.6%) DE genes with 263 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes were detected at the MS stage. By comparing the two stages in the same material, there were 8 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JA-CMS line and 29 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JB maintainer line at the MS stage. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate 7 randomly selected DE genes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes involved in reduction-oxidation reactions and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism were down-regulated, while genes pertaining to photosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated in JA-CMS floral buds compared with their JB counterparts at the SS and/or MS stages. All these four biological processes play important roles in reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, which may be an important factor contributing to the sterile trait of JA-CMS. Further experiments are warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms of these genes that lead to CMS.

  16. Banana fruit VQ motif-containing protein5 represses cold-responsive transcription factor MaWRKY26 involved in the regulation of JA biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Han, Yan-Chao; Shan, Wei; Fan, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Qun-Gang; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Most harvested fruits and vegetables are stored at low temperature but many of them are highly sensitive to chilling injury. Jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone associated with various stress responses, is known to reduce chilling injury in fruits. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in relation to cold response of fruits. Here, we show the involvement of a Group I WRKY transcription factor (TF) from banana fruit, MaWRKY26, in regulating JA biosynthesis. MaWRKY26 was found to be nuclear-localized with transcriptional activation property. MaWRKY26 was induced by cold stress or by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which enhances cold tolerance in banana fruit. More importantly, MaWRKY26 transactivated JA biosynthetic genes MaLOX2, MaAOS3 and MaOPR3 via binding to their promoters. Further, MaWRKY26 physically interacted with a VQ motif-containing protein MaVQ5, and the interaction attenuated MaWRKY26-induced transactivation of JA biosynthetic genes. These results strongly suggest that MaVQ5 might act as a repressor of MaWRKY26 in activating JA biosynthesis. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in response to cold stress and a better understanding of the molecular aspects of chilling injury in banana fruit. PMID:27004441

  17. HiJaK: the high-resolution J, H and K spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, Philip S.; Hall, Zachary J.; Veyette, Mark J.

    2014-08-01

    We present the science drivers, design requirements and a preliminary design for a high-resolution, broad- bandwidth, slit-fed cross-dispersed near-infrared spectrometer for 5-meter-class telescopes. Our concept, called the High-Resolution J, H and K Spectrometer, or HiJaK, utilizes an R6 echelle in a white-pupil design to achieve high resolution in a compact configuration with a 2048 x 2048 pixel infrared detector. We present a preliminary ray-traced optical design matched to the new 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope in Happy Jack, Arizona. We also discuss mechanical and cryogenic options to house our optical design.

  18. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are new targets of JAZ repressors negatively regulating JA responses.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Sandra; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Fernández, Guillermo M; Díez-Díaz, Monica; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; López-Vidriero, Irene; Godoy, Marta; Fernández-Barbero, Gemma; Van Leene, Jelle; De Jaeger, Geert; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Solano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Cell reprogramming in response to jasmonates requires a tight control of transcription that is achieved by the activity of JA-related transcription factors (TFs). Among them, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 have been described as activators of JA responses. Here we characterized the function of bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 that conform a phylogenetic clade closely related to MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4. We found that these bHLHs form homo- and heterodimers and also interact with JAZ repressors in vitro and in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated processes, including root and rosette growth, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae, on mutants and overexpression lines, suggested that these bHLHs are repressors of JA responses. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are mainly nuclear proteins and bind DNA with similar specificity to that of MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4, but lack a conserved activation domain, suggesting that repression is achieved by competition for the same cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, expression of bHLH017 is induced by JA and depends on MYC2, suggesting a negative feed-back regulation of the activity of positive JA-related TFs. Our results suggest that the competition between positive and negative TFs determines the output of JA-dependent transcriptional activation. PMID:24465948

  19. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 Are New Targets of JAZ Repressors Negatively Regulating JA Responses

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Sandra; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Fernández, Guillermo M.; Díez-Díaz, Monica; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; López-Vidriero, Irene; Godoy, Marta; Fernández-Barbero, Gemma; Van Leene, Jelle; De Jaeger, Geert; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Solano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Cell reprogramming in response to jasmonates requires a tight control of transcription that is achieved by the activity of JA-related transcription factors (TFs). Among them, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 have been described as activators of JA responses. Here we characterized the function of bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 that conform a phylogenetic clade closely related to MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4. We found that these bHLHs form homo- and heterodimers and also interact with JAZ repressors in vitro and in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated processes, including root and rosette growth, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae, on mutants and overexpression lines, suggested that these bHLHs are repressors of JA responses. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are mainly nuclear proteins and bind DNA with similar specificity to that of MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4, but lack a conserved activation domain, suggesting that repression is achieved by competition for the same cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, expression of bHLH017 is induced by JA and depends on MYC2, suggesting a negative feed-back regulation of the activity of positive JA-related TFs. Our results suggest that the competition between positive and negative TFs determines the output of JA-dependent transcriptional activation. PMID:24465948

  20. JA, a new type of polyunsaturated fatty acid isolated from Juglans mandshurica Maxim, limits the survival and induces apoptosis of heptocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiu-Li; Lin, Hua; Zhao, Wei; Hou, Ya-Qin; Bao, Yong-Li; Song, Zhen-Bo; Sun, Lu-Guo; Tian, Shang-Yi; Liu, Biao; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-03-01

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim (Juglandaceae) is a famous folk medicine for cancer treatment and some natural compounds isolated from it have been studied extensively. Previously we isolated a type of ω-9 polyunsaturated fatty acid (JA) from the bark of J. mandshurica, however little is known about its activity and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we studied anti-tumor activity of JA on several human cancer cell lines. Results showed that JA is cytotoxic to HepG2, MDA-MB-231, SGC-7901, A549 and Huh7 cells at a concentration exerting minimal toxic effects on L02 cells. The selective toxicity of JA was better than other classical anti-cancer drugs. Further investigation indicated that JA could induce cell apoptosis, characterized by chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and activation of the apoptosis-associated proteins such as Caspase-3 and PARP-1. Moreover, we investigated the cellular apoptosis pathway involved in the apoptosis process in HepG2 cells. We found that proteins involved in mitochondrion (cleaved-Caspase-9, Apaf-1, HtrA2/Omi, Bax, and Mitochondrial Bax) and endocytoplasmic reticulum (XBP-1s, GRP78, cleaved-Caspase-7 and cleaved-Caspase-12) apoptotic pathways were up-regulated when cells were treated by JA. In addition, a morphological change in the mitochondrion was detected. Furthermore, we found that JA could inhibit DNA synthesis and induce G2/M cell cycle arrest. The expression of G2-to-M transition related proteins, such as CyclinB1 and phosphorylated-CDK1, were reduced. In contrast, the G2-to-M inhibitor p21 was increased in JA-treated cells. Overall, our results suggest that JA can induce mitochondrion- and endocytoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis, and G2/M phase arrest in HepG2 cells, making it a promising therapeutic agent against hepatoma.

  1. Seed germination ecology of feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes].

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha(-1) was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies.

  2. SA-inducible Arabidopsis glutaredoxin interacts with TGA factors and suppresses JA-responsive PDF1.2 transcription.

    PubMed

    Ndamukong, Ivan; Abdallat, Ayed Al; Thurow, Corinna; Fode, Benjamin; Zander, Mark; Weigel, Ralf; Gatz, Christiane

    2007-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant signaling molecule that mediates the induction of defense responses upon attack by a variety of pathogens. Moreover, it antagonizes gene induction by the stress signaling molecule jasmonic acid (JA). Several SA-responsive genes are regulated by basic/leucine zipper-type transcription factors of the TGA family. TGA factors interact with NPR1, a central regulator of many SA-induced defense responses including SA/JA antagonism. In order to identify further regulatory proteins of SA-dependent signaling pathways, a yeast protein interaction screen with tobacco TGA2.2 as bait and an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA prey library was performed and led to the identification of a member of the glutaredoxin family (GRX480, encoded by At1g28480). Glutaredoxins are candidates for mediating redox regulation of proteins because of their capacity to catalyze disulfide transitions. This agrees with previous findings that the redox state of both TGA1 and NPR1 changes under inducing conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically expressing GRX480 show near wild-type expression of standard marker genes for SA- and xenobiotic-inducible responses. In contrast, transcription of the JA-dependent defensin gene PDF1.2 was antagonized by transgenic GRX480. This, together with the observation that GRX480 transcription is SA-inducible and requires NPR1, suggests a role of GRX480 in SA/JA cross-talk. Suppression of PDF1.2 by GRX480 depends on the presence of TGA factors, indicating that the GRX480/TGA interaction is effective in planta.

  3. Elevated CO2 Reduces the Resistance and Tolerance of Tomato Plants to Helicoverpa armigera by Suppressing the JA Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Qin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Kang, Le; Wang, Chenzhu; Li, Chuanyou; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Both resistance and tolerance, which are two strategies that plants use to limit biotic stress, are affected by the abiotic environment including atmospheric CO2 levels. We tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 would reduce resistance (i.e., the ability to prevent damage) but enhance tolerance (i.e., the ability to regrow and compensate for damage after the damage has occurred) of tomato plants to the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The results showed that elevated CO2 reduced resistance by decreasing the jasmonic acid (JA) level and activities of lipoxygenase, proteinase inhibitors, and polyphenol oxidase in wild-type (WT) plants infested with H. armigera. Consequently, the activities of total protease, trypsin-like enzymes, and weak and active alkaline trypsin-like enzymes increased in the midgut of H. armigera when fed on WT plants grown under elevated CO2. Unexpectedly, the tolerance of the WT to H. armigera (in terms of photosynthetic rate, activity of sucrose phosphate synthases, flower number, and plant biomass and height) was also reduced by elevated CO2. Under ambient CO2, the expression of resistance and tolerance to H. armigera was much greater in wild type than in spr2 (a JA-deficient genotype) plants, but elevated CO2 reduced these differences of the resistance and tolerance between WT and spr2 plants. The results suggest that the JA signaling pathway contributes to both plant resistance and tolerance to herbivorous insects and that by suppressing the JA signaling pathway, elevated CO2 will simultaneously reduce the resistance and tolerance of tomato plants. PMID:22829948

  4. A bHLH-Type Transcription Factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1, Acts as a Repressor to Negatively Regulate Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Herde, Marco; Koo, Abraham J.K.; Moreno, Javier E.; Suzuki, Kaoru; Howe, Gregg A.; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that regulate the balance between plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanisms for JA-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms by which plants attenuate the JA-induced responses remain elusive. Here, we report that a basic helix-loop-helix–type transcription factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), acts as a transcriptional repressor and negatively regulates JA signaling. Gain-of-function transgenic plants expressing the chimeric repressor for JAM1 exhibited substantial reduction of JA responses, including JA-induced inhibition of root growth, accumulation of anthocyanin, and male fertility. These plants were also compromised in resistance to attack by the insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua. Conversely, jam1 loss-of-function mutants showed enhanced JA responsiveness, including increased resistance to insect attack. JAM1 and MYC2 competitively bind to the target sequence of MYC2, which likely provides the mechanism for negative regulation of JA signaling and suppression of MYC2 functions by JAM1. These results indicate that JAM1 negatively regulates JA signaling, thereby playing a pivotal role in fine-tuning of JA-mediated stress responses and plant growth. PMID:23673982

  5. Effector MiSSP7 of the mutualistic fungus Laccaria bicolor stabilizes the Populus JAZ6 protein and represses jasmonic acid (JA) responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Plett, Jonathan M; Daguerre, Yohann; Wittulsky, Sebastian; Vayssières, Alice; Deveau, Aurelie; Melton, Sarah J; Kohler, Annegret; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Brun, Annick; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Martin, Francis

    2014-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Laccaria bicolor, support forest growth and sustainability by providing growth-limiting nutrients to their plant host through a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with host roots. We have previously shown that the effector protein MiSSP7 (Mycorrhiza-induced Small Secreted Protein 7) encoded by L. bicolor is necessary for the establishment of symbiosis with host trees, although the mechanistic reasoning behind this role was unknown. We demonstrate here that MiSSP7 interacts with the host protein PtJAZ6, a negative regulator of jasmonic acid (JA)-induced gene regulation in Populus. As with other characterized JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, PtJAZ6 interacts with PtCOI1 in the presence of the JA mimic coronatine, and PtJAZ6 is degraded in plant tissues after JA treatment. The association between MiSSP7 and PtJAZ6 is able to protect PtJAZ6 from this JA-induced degradation. Furthermore, MiSSP7 is able to block--or mitigate--the impact of JA on L. bicolor colonization of host roots. We show that the loss of MiSSP7 production by L. bicolor can be complemented by transgenically varying the transcription of PtJAZ6 or through inhibition of JA-induced gene regulation. We conclude that L. bicolor, in contrast to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biotrophic pathogens, promotes mutualism by blocking JA action through the interaction of MiSSP7 with PtJAZ6. PMID:24847068

  6. Effector MiSSP7 of the mutualistic fungus Laccaria bicolor stabilizes the Populus JAZ6 protein and represses jasmonic acid (JA) responsive genes

    PubMed Central

    Plett, Jonathan M.; Daguerre, Yohann; Wittulsky, Sebastian; Vayssières, Alice; Deveau, Aurelie; Melton, Sarah J.; Kohler, Annegret; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Brun, Annick; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Martin, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Laccaria bicolor, support forest growth and sustainability by providing growth-limiting nutrients to their plant host through a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with host roots. We have previously shown that the effector protein MiSSP7 (Mycorrhiza-induced Small Secreted Protein 7) encoded by L. bicolor is necessary for the establishment of symbiosis with host trees, although the mechanistic reasoning behind this role was unknown. We demonstrate here that MiSSP7 interacts with the host protein PtJAZ6, a negative regulator of jasmonic acid (JA)-induced gene regulation in Populus. As with other characterized JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, PtJAZ6 interacts with PtCOI1 in the presence of the JA mimic coronatine, and PtJAZ6 is degraded in plant tissues after JA treatment. The association between MiSSP7 and PtJAZ6 is able to protect PtJAZ6 from this JA-induced degradation. Furthermore, MiSSP7 is able to block—or mitigate—the impact of JA on L. bicolor colonization of host roots. We show that the loss of MiSSP7 production by L. bicolor can be complemented by transgenically varying the transcription of PtJAZ6 or through inhibition of JA-induced gene regulation. We conclude that L. bicolor, in contrast to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biotrophic pathogens, promotes mutualism by blocking JA action through the interaction of MiSSP7 with PtJAZ6. PMID:24847068

  7. An Arabidopsis Plasma Membrane Proton ATPase Modulates JA Signaling and Is Exploited by the Pseudomonas syringae Effector Protein AvrB for Stomatal Invasion[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhaoyang; Wu, Yujiao; Yang, Yongqing; Du, Minmin; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Guo, Yan; Li, Chuanyou; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2015-01-01

    Stomata are natural openings through which many pathogenic bacteria enter plants. Successful bacterial pathogens have evolved various virulence factors to promote stomatal opening. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector protein AvrB induces stomatal opening and enhances bacterial virulence in a manner dependent on RPM1-INTERACTING4 (RIN4), which promotes stomatal opening by positively regulating the Arabidopsis plasma membrane H+-ATPase (AHA1), which is presumed to directly regulate guard cell turgor pressure. In support of a role of AHA1 in AvrB-induced stomatal opening, AvrB enhances ATPase activity in plants. Unexpectedly, AHA1 promotes the interaction between the jasmonate (JA) receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and enhances JA signaling. JA signaling is required for optimum stomatal infection in AHA1-active plants. Similarly, AvrB also induces the COI1-JAZ9 interaction and the degradation of multiple JAZ proteins. AvrB-induced stomatal opening and virulence require the canonical JA signaling pathway, which involves the COI1 and NAC transcription factors. The findings thus point to a previously unknown pathway exploited by P. syringae that acts upstream of COI1 to regulate JA signaling and stomatal opening. PMID:26198069

  8. A Maize Jasmonate Zim-Domain Protein, ZmJAZ14, Associates with the JA, ABA, and GA Signaling Pathways in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suzhen; Li, Jie; Xu, Miaoyun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhao, Qianqian; Li, Ye; Fan, Yunliu; Chen, Rumei; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) is an important signaling molecule involved in the regulation of many physiological and stress-related processes in plants. Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins have been implicated in regulating JA signaling pathways and the cross talk between various phytohormones. Maize is not only an important cereal crop, but also a model plant for monocotyledon studies. Although many JAZ proteins have been characterized in Arabidopsis and rice, few reports have examined the function of JAZ proteins in maize. In this report, we examined the phylogenetic relationship and expression pattern of JAZ family genes in maize. In addition, a tassel and endosperm-specific JAZ gene, ZmJAZ14, was identified using microarray data analysis and real-time RT-PCR, and its expression was induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), jasmonate (JA), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellins (GAs). ZmJAZ14 was shown to be localized in the nucleus and possessed no transcriptional activating activity, suggesting that it functions as a transcriptional regulator. We found that overexpression of ZmJAZ14 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to JA and ABA treatment, as well as PEG stress, while it promoted growth under GA stimulus. Moreover, ZmJAZ14 interacted with a subset of transcription factors in Arabidopsis, and the accumulation of several marker genes involved in JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways were altered in the overexpression lines. These results suggest that ZmJAZ14 may serve as a hub for the cross talk among the JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways. Our results can be used to further characterize the function of JAZ family proteins in maize, and the gene cloned in this study may serve as a candidate for drought tolerance and growth promotion regulation in maize. PMID:25807368

  9. MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 are involved in the regulation of the JA-induced biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in apples.

    PubMed

    An, Xiu-Hong; Tian, Yi; Chen, Ke-Qin; Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Dan-Dan; Xie, Xing-Bin; Cheng, Cun-Gang; Cong, Pei-Hua; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) are important secondary metabolites and beneficial to human health. Their biosynthesis is induced by jasmonate (JA) treatment and regulated by MYB transcription factors (TFs). However, which and how MYB TFs regulate this process is largely unknown in apple. In this study, MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 which were induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were functionally characterized. Overexpression of MdMYB9 or MdMYB11 promoted not only anthocyanin but also PA accumulation in apple calluses, and the accumulation was further enhanced by MeJA. Subsequently, yeast two-hybrid, pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that both MYB proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Moreover, Jasmonate ZIM-domain (MdJAZ) proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR and yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrated that both MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 bind to the promoters of ANS, ANR and LAR, whereas MdbHLH3 is recruited to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 and regulates their transcription. In addition, transient expression assays indicated that overexpression of MdJAZ2 inhibits the recruitment of MdbHLH3 to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of how MeJA regulates anthocyanin and PA accumulation in apple. PMID:25527830

  10. MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 are involved in the regulation of the JA-induced biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in apples.

    PubMed

    An, Xiu-Hong; Tian, Yi; Chen, Ke-Qin; Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Dan-Dan; Xie, Xing-Bin; Cheng, Cun-Gang; Cong, Pei-Hua; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) are important secondary metabolites and beneficial to human health. Their biosynthesis is induced by jasmonate (JA) treatment and regulated by MYB transcription factors (TFs). However, which and how MYB TFs regulate this process is largely unknown in apple. In this study, MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 which were induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were functionally characterized. Overexpression of MdMYB9 or MdMYB11 promoted not only anthocyanin but also PA accumulation in apple calluses, and the accumulation was further enhanced by MeJA. Subsequently, yeast two-hybrid, pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that both MYB proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Moreover, Jasmonate ZIM-domain (MdJAZ) proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR and yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrated that both MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 bind to the promoters of ANS, ANR and LAR, whereas MdbHLH3 is recruited to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 and regulates their transcription. In addition, transient expression assays indicated that overexpression of MdJAZ2 inhibits the recruitment of MdbHLH3 to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of how MeJA regulates anthocyanin and PA accumulation in apple.

  11. An ABA-increased interaction of the PYL6 ABA receptor with MYC2 Transcription Factor: A putative link of ABA and JA signaling

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Fernando; Yazaki, Junshi; Lee, Melissa; Takahashi, Yohei; Kim, Alice Y.; Li, Zixing; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ecker, Joseph R.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that mediates abiotic stress tolerance and regulates growth and development. ABA binds to members of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family that initiate signal transduction inhibiting type 2C protein phosphatases. Although crosstalk between ABA and the hormone Jasmonic Acid (JA) has been shown, the molecular entities that mediate this interaction have yet to be fully elucidated. We report a link between ABA and JA signaling through a direct interaction of the ABA receptor PYL6 (RCAR9) with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in yeast two hybrid assays and the interaction is enhanced in the presence of ABA. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in planta based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation of the proteins. Furthermore, PYL6 was able to modify transcription driven by MYC2 using JAZ6 and JAZ8 DNA promoter elements in yeast one hybrid assays. Finally, pyl6 T-DNA mutant plants show an increased sensitivity to the addition of JA along with ABA in cotyledon expansion experiments. Overall, the present study identifies a direct mechanism for transcriptional modulation mediated by an ABA receptor different from the core ABA signaling pathway, and a putative mechanistic link connecting ABA and JA signaling pathways. PMID:27357749

  12. The MeJA-inducible copper amine oxidase AtAO1 is expressed in xylem tissue and guard cells.

    PubMed

    Ghuge, Sandip A; Carucci, Andrea; Rodrigues-Pousada, Renato A; Tisi, Alessandra; Franchi, Stefano; Tavladoraki, Paraskevi; Angelini, Riccardo; Cona, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases oxidize the polyamine putrescine to 4-aminobutanal with the production of the plant signal molecule hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ammonia. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene At4g14940 (AtAO1, previously referred to as ATAO1) encodes an apoplastic copper amine oxidase expressed in lateral root cap cells and developing xylem, especially in root protoxylem and metaxylem precursors. In our recent study, we demonstrated that AtAO1 expression is strongly induced in the root vascular tissues by the wound-signal hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Furthermore, we also demonstrated that the H2O2 derived by the AtAO1-driven oxidation of putrescine, mediates the MeJA-induced early protoxylem differentiation in Arabidopsis roots. H2O2 may contribute to protoxylem differentiation by signaling developmental cell death and by acting as co-substrate in peroxidase-mediated cell wall stiffening and lignin polymerization. Here, by the means of AtAO1 promoter::green fluorescent protein-β-glucuronidase (AtAO1::GFP-GUS) fusion analysis, we show that a strong AtAO1 gene expression occurs also in guard cells of leaves and flowers. The high expression levels of AtAO1 in tissues or cell types regulating water supply and water loss may suggest a role of the encoded protein in water balance homeostasis, by modulating coordinated adjustments in anatomical and functional features of xylem tissue and guard cells during acclimation to adverse environmental conditions.

  13. Integrated Performance of Next Generation High Data Rate Receiver and AR4JA LDPC Codec for Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Lyubarev, Mark; Nakashima, Michael A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Lee, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are the state-of-the-art in forward error correction (FEC) technology that exhibits capacity approaching performance. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has designed a family of LDPC codes that are similar in structure and therefore, leads to a single decoder implementation. The Accumulate-Repeat-by-4-Jagged- Accumulate (AR4JA) code design offers a family of codes with rates 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 and lengths 1024, 4096, 16384 information bits. Performance is less than one dB from capacity for all combinations.Integrating a stand-alone LDPC decoder with a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) receiver faces additional challenges than building a single receiver-decoder unit from scratch. In this work, we outline the issues and show that these additional challenges can be over-come by simple solutions. To demonstrate that an LDPC decoder can be made to work seamlessly with a COTS receiver, we interface an AR4JA LDPC decoder developed on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with a modern high data rate receiver and mea- sure the combined receiver-decoder performance. Through optimizations that include an improved frame synchronizer and different soft-symbol scaling algorithms, we show that a combined implementation loss of less than one dB is possible and therefore, most of the coding gain evidence in theory can also be obtained in practice. Our techniques can benefit any modem that utilizes an advanced FEC code.

  14. ERF5 and ERF6 play redundant roles as positive regulators of JA/Et-mediated defense against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Caroline S; Ingle, Robert A; Wathugala, Deepthi L; Saunders, Nigel J; Knight, Heather; Knight, Marc R

    2012-01-01

    The ethylene response factor (ERF) family in Arabidopsis thaliana comprises 122 members in 12 groups, yet the biological functions of the majority remain unknown. Of the group IX ERFs, the IXc subgroup has been studied the most, and includes ERF1, ERF14 and ORA59, which play roles in plant innate immunity. Here we investigate the biological functions of two members of the less studied IXb subgroup: ERF5 and ERF6. In order to identify potential targets of these transcription factors, microarray analyses were performed on plants constitutively expressing either ERF5 or ERF6. Expression of defense genes, JA/Et-responsive genes and genes containing the GCC box promoter motif were significantly upregulated in both ERF5 and ERF6 transgenic plants, suggesting that ERF5 and ERF6 may act as positive regulators of JA-mediated defense and potentially overlap in their function. Since defense against necrotrophic pathogens is generally mediated through JA/Et-signalling, resistance against the fungal necrotroph Botrytis cinerea was examined. Constitutive expression of ERF5 or ERF6 resulted in significantly increased resistance. Although no significant difference in susceptibility to B. cinerea was observed in either erf5 or erf6 mutants, the erf5 erf6 double mutant showed a significant increase in susceptibility, which was likely due to compromised JA-mediated gene expression, since JA-induced gene expression was reduced in the double mutant. Taken together these data suggest that ERF5 and ERF6 play positive but redundant roles in defense against B. cinerea. Since mutual antagonism between JA/Et and salicylic acid (SA) signalling is well known, the UV-C inducibility of an SA-inducible gene, PR-1, was examined. Reduced inducibilty in both ERF5 and ERF6 constitutive overexepressors was consistent with suppression of SA-mediated signalling, as was an increased susceptibility to avirulent Pseudomonas syringae. These data suggest that ERF5 and ERF6 may also play a role in the

  15. Genome Analysis of the Biotechnologically Relevant Acidophilic Iron Oxidising Strain JA12 Indicates Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity within the Novel Genus “Ferrovum”

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Sophie R.; Poehlein, Anja; Tischler, Judith S.; González, Carolina; Ossandon, Francisco J.; Daniel, Rolf; Holmes, David S.; Schlömann, Michael; Mühling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Members of the genus “Ferrovum” are ubiquitously distributed in acid mine drainage (AMD) waters which are characterised by their high metal and sulfate loads. So far isolation and microbiological characterisation have only been successful for the designated type strain “Ferrovum myxofaciens” P3G. Thus, knowledge about physiological characteristics and the phylogeny of the genus “Ferrovum” is extremely scarce. Objective In order to access the wider genetic pool of the genus “Ferrovum” we sequenced the genome of a “Ferrovum”-containing mixed culture and successfully assembled the almost complete genome sequence of the novel “Ferrovum” strain JA12. Phylogeny and Lifestyle The genome-based phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain JA12 and the type strain represent two distinct “Ferrovum” species. “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is characterised by an unusually small genome in comparison to the type strain and other iron oxidising bacteria. The prediction of nutrient assimilation pathways suggests that “Ferrovum” strain JA12 maintains a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle utilising carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, ammonium and urea, sulfate, phosphate and ferrous iron as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and energy sources, respectively. Unique Metabolic Features The potential utilisation of urea by “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is moreover remarkable since it may furthermore represent a strategy among extreme acidophiles to cope with the acidic environment. Unlike other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs “Ferrovum” strain JA12 exhibits a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, a metabolic feature shared with the closer related neutrophilic iron oxidisers among the Betaproteobacteria including Sideroxydans lithotrophicus and Thiobacillus denitrificans. Furthermore, the absence of characteristic redox proteins involved in iron oxidation in the well-studied acidophiles Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (rusticyanin) and Acidithiobacillus

  16. Gene-to-metabolite network for biosynthesis of lignans in MeJA-elicited Isatis indigotica hairy root cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruibing; Li, Qing; Tan, Hexin; Chen, Junfeng; Xiao, Ying; Ma, Ruifang; Gao, Shouhong; Zerbe, Philipp; Chen, Wansheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Root and leaf tissue of Isatis indigotica shows notable anti-viral efficacy, and are widely used as “Banlangen” and “Daqingye” in traditional Chinese medicine. The plants' pharmacological activity is attributed to phenylpropanoids, especially a group of lignan metabolites. However, the biosynthesis of lignans in I. indigotica remains opaque. This study describes the discovery and analysis of biosynthetic genes and AP2/ERF-type transcription factors involved in lignan biosynthesis in I. indigotica. MeJA treatment revealed differential expression of three genes involved in phenylpropanoid backbone biosynthesis (IiPAL, IiC4H, Ii4CL), five genes involved in lignan biosynthesis (IiCAD, IiC3H, IiCCR, IiDIR, and IiPLR), and 112 putative AP2/ERF transcription factors. In addition, four intermediates of lariciresinol biosynthesis were found to be induced. Based on these results, a canonical correlation analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient was performed to construct gene-to-metabolite networks and identify putative key genes and rate-limiting reactions in lignan biosynthesis. Over-expression of IiC3H, identified as a key pathway gene, was used for metabolic engineering of I. indigotica hairy roots, and resulted in an increase in lariciresinol production. These findings illustrate the utility of canonical correlation analysis for the discovery and metabolic engineering of key metabolic genes in plants. PMID:26579184

  17. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments.

    PubMed

    Rincon, J A; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Julian, V; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Carrascosa, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system.

  18. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments.

    PubMed

    Rincon, J A; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Julian, V; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Carrascosa, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  19. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  20. The JaCVAM international validation study on the in vivo comet assay: Selection of test chemicals.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takeshi; Uno, Yoshifumi; Honma, Masamitsu; Kojima, Hajime; Hayashi, Makoto; Tice, Raymond R; Corvi, Raffaella; Schechtman, Leonard

    2015-07-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) sponsored an international prevalidation and validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline pH comet assay. The main objective of the study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for correctly identifying genotoxic carcinogens, as compared with the traditional rat liver unscheduled DNA synthesis assay. Based on existing carcinogenicity and genotoxicity data and chemical class information, 90 chemicals were identified as primary candidates for use in the validation study. From these 90 chemicals, 46 secondary candidates and then 40 final chemicals were selected based on a sufficiency of carcinogenic and genotoxic data, differences in chemical class or genotoxic or carcinogenic mode of action (MOA), availability, price, and ease of handling. These 40 chemicals included 19 genotoxic carcinogens, 6 genotoxic non-carcinogens, 7 non-genotoxic carcinogens and 8 non-genotoxic non-carcinogens. "Genotoxicity" was defined as positive in the Ames mutagenicity test or in one of the standard in vivo genotoxicity tests (primarily the erythrocyte micronucleus assay). These chemicals covered various chemicals classes, MOAs, and genotoxicity profiles and were considered to be suitable for the purpose of the validation study. General principles of chemical selection for validation studies are discussed.

  1. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves. PMID:27375495

  2. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves. PMID:27375495

  3. Combination comet/micronucleus assay validation performed by BioReliance under the JaCVAM initiative.

    PubMed

    Pant, Kamala; Krsmanovic, Ljubica; Bruce, Shannon Wilson; Kelley, Tawney; Arevalo, Mirna; Atta-Safoh, Samuel; Debelie, Fekadu; La Force, Michelle L Klug; Springer, Sandra; Sly, Jamie; Paranjpe, Madhav; Lawlor, Timothy; Aardema, Marilyn

    2015-07-01

    In the international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) provided three coded chemicals to BioReliance, 1,3-dichloropropene, ethionamide and busulfan, to be tested in a combined in vivo comet/micronucleus assay. Induction of DNA damage (comet) in liver, stomach and jejunum (1,3-dichloropropene only) cells, and induction of MNPCEs in bone marrow, were examined in male Sprague-Dawley (Hsd:SD) rats following oral administration of the test chemical for three consecutive days. A dose range finding (DRF) test was performed with each chemical to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Based on the results of the DRF test; 1,3-dichloropropene was tested at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day; ethionamide was tested at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day, and busulfan was tested at 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day. The results indicated that 1,3-dichloropropene induced DNA damage only in liver cells at all three test article doses, while no effects were observed in the stomach and jejunum cells. Additionally, it did not increase MNPCEs in the bone marrow. 1,3-Dichloropropene was concluded to be negative in the MN assay but positive in the comet assay. Ethionamide did not induce DNA damage in liver. However, in stomach, statistically significant decreases (although still within historical range) in % tail DNA at all test article doses compared to the vehicle control were observed. There was no increase in MNPCEs in the bone marrow. Thus, ethionamide was concluded to be negative in the comet/MN combined assay. Busulfan did not induce DNA damage in any of the organs tested (liver and stomach) but it did induce a significant increase in MNPCEs in the bone marrow. Busulfan was concluded to be negative in the comet assay but positive in the MN assay.

  4. Mineralogical characterization of tailing dams: incidence of abandoned mining works on soil pollution (Linares, Jaén)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, M. J.; Hidalgo, C.; Rey, J.; Martínez, J.

    2012-04-01

    The metallogenic district of Linares-La Carolina (Jaén, Spain) consists of dyke mineralizations mainly of galena, accompanied by blende, chalcopyrite and barite. Associated to these abandoned mines, relatively extensive areas occupied by spoil heaps and tailing impoundments exist and constitute potential sources of soil pollution by metals and semimetals. In order to analyze the pollution potential of these mining wastes, we have carried out a mineralogical and geochemical study of seven tailing dams and surrounding soils in the area. The mineralogy of the samples was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the total metal content of samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Samples were taken from the first 30 cm of the waste piles and soil deposits and white efflorescences were also obtained from the surface of the tailings. In all analyzed heaps, high to very high total contents in Pb (1220-22890 mg/kg), Zn (150-51280 mg/kg), Mn (2658-4160 mg/kg), Ba (1026-19610 mg/kg) and Fe (19400-138000 mg/kg) were observed. The concentrations for these same elements in the studied soils range from 527-9900 mg/kg for Pb, 27-1700 mg/kg for Zn, 506-2464 mg/kg for Mn, 2832-4306 for Ba and 8642-29753 mg/kg for Fe, and these figures indicate a contamination of the soils, according to the guidelines established by the Spanish law. The XRD and SEM results indicate that the tailings are primarily constituted by gangue of the exploited mineralization: quartz, calcite, ankerite, feldspars and phyllosilicates. They are inherited, primary mineral phases. Galena, also primary, appears in low proportion, as well as lepidocrocite, melanterite and cerussite, being these three last secondary minerals and indicating a certain remobilization of metal cations, especially lead and iron. On the other hand, quartz and phyllosilicates predominate in the soils, in which, in addition, is identified a

  5. Investigation of sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine in the alkaline comet assay: Part of the JaCVAM comet validation exercise.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Carol; Henderson, Debbie; Lillford, Lucinda

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine. Using the JaCVAM approved study protocol version 14.2, each chemical was tested in male rats up to maximum tolerated dose levels and DNA damage in the liver and stomach was assessed approximately 3h after the final administration by gavage. Histopathology assessments of liver and stomach sections from the same animals were also examined for evidence of cytotoxicity or necrosis. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach of animals treated with sodium arsenite at 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg/day. However, equivocal findings were found in the liver, where increases in DNA migration were observed in two independent experiments, but not in all treated animals and not at the same dose levels. Thioacetamide caused an increase in DNA migration in the stomach of rats treated at 19, 38, and 75 mg/kg/day, but not in the liver, despite evidence of marked hepatotoxicity following histopathology assessments. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach or liver of animals treated with diethanolamine at 175, 350, or 700 mg/kg/day. PMID:26212308

  6. GA3 and other signal regulators (MeJA and IAA) improve xanthumin biosynthesis in different manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Li, Changfu; Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound) biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and gibberrellin A3 (GA3) at appropriate concentrations were all found to improve xanthumin biosynthesis, but in different ways. It was suggested that a higher gland density stimulated by MeJA (400 µM) or IAA (200 µM) treatment caused at least in part an improvement in xanthumin production, whereas GA3 (10 µM) led to an improvement by up-regulating xanthumin biosynthetic genes within gland cells, not by forming more glandular trichomes. Compared to the plants before the flowering stage, plants that had initiated flowering showed enhanced xanthumin biosynthesis, but no higher gland density, an effect was similar to that caused by exogenous GA3 treatment. PMID:25157461

  7. Investigation of sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine in the alkaline comet assay: Part of the JaCVAM comet validation exercise.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Carol; Henderson, Debbie; Lillford, Lucinda

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine. Using the JaCVAM approved study protocol version 14.2, each chemical was tested in male rats up to maximum tolerated dose levels and DNA damage in the liver and stomach was assessed approximately 3h after the final administration by gavage. Histopathology assessments of liver and stomach sections from the same animals were also examined for evidence of cytotoxicity or necrosis. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach of animals treated with sodium arsenite at 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg/day. However, equivocal findings were found in the liver, where increases in DNA migration were observed in two independent experiments, but not in all treated animals and not at the same dose levels. Thioacetamide caused an increase in DNA migration in the stomach of rats treated at 19, 38, and 75 mg/kg/day, but not in the liver, despite evidence of marked hepatotoxicity following histopathology assessments. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach or liver of animals treated with diethanolamine at 175, 350, or 700 mg/kg/day.

  8. PP2C-like Promoter and Its Deletion Variants Are Induced by ABA but Not by MeJA and SA in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bhalothia, Purva; Sangwan, Chetna; Alok, Anshu; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Mehrotra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is mediated through interaction between cis regulatory elements and its cognate transcription factors. Cis regulatory elements are defined as non-coding DNA sequences that provide the binding sites for transcription factors and are clustered in the upstream region of genes. ACGT cis regulatory element is one of the important cis regulatory elements found to be involved in diverse biological processes like auxin response, salicylic acid (SA) response, UV light response, ABA response and jasmonic acid (JA) response. We identified through in silico analysis that the upstream region of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene has a distinct genetic architecture of ACGT elements. In the present study, the activation of the full length promoter and its deletion constructs like 900 base pair, 500 base pair, 400 base pair and NRM (Nathji Rajesh Mehrotra) were examined by stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Evaluation of deletion constructs of PP2C-like promoter was carried out in the presence of phytohormones like abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA. Our result indicated that the full length and 900 base pair promoter-reporter constructs of PP2C-like promoter was induced in response to ABA but not to methyl jasmonate and SA. PMID:27200023

  9. Variability of phenotype, anthocyanin indexes, and flavonoids in accessions from a close relative of soybean, Neontonia wightii (Wright & Arn. J.A. Lackey) in the U.S. germplasm collection for potential use as a health forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A close relative of soybean, Neonotonia wightii (Wright & Arn. J.A. Lackey), is used as a ruminant feed and restores soil productivity in Brazil and Zimbabwe, respectively. Neonotonia wightii accessions were grown in a greenhouse at Griffin, Georgia, characterized for various phenotypic traits, and...

  10. Molecular characterisation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and plasmid AmpC-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers in Béjaïa, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Belmahdi, Mohamed; Bakour, Sofiane; Al Bayssari, Charbel; Touati, Abdelaziz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise the molecular support of antibiotic resistance in expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy broilers in Béjaïa, northeast Algeria. A total of 61 intestinal swabs from slaughtered broilers from four regions in Béjaïa locality, Algeria, were collected between February and April 2014, from which 20 ESC-resistant E. coli strains were isolated. Escherichia coli isolates were identified by classical biochemical and MALDI-TOF methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Screening for β-lactamases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME)-encoding genes and qnr determinants was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was determined using molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that the isolates showed high rates of resistance (>90%) to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, aztreonam, ceftazidime, streptomycin, tobramycin, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Low rates of resistance were observed for kanamycin (35%), amikacin (30%), cefoxitin (20%) and cefotaxime (15%). Molecular characterisation revealed that all of the isolates expressed the blaTEM-1 gene. Fourteen of them harboured the blaSHV-12 gene, two harboured the blaCTX-M-1 gene and four isolates harboured blaCMY-2. Screening for AME-encoding genes demonstrated that all isolates contained the aadA gene. In addition, qnrA was detected as the quinolone resistance determinant in 13 isolates. MLST revealed four known sequence types (STs), including ST744, ST38, ST1011 and ST2179, as well as one new sequence type (ST5086). Here we report the first study describing the clonal diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid AmpC-producing E. coli isolated from healthy broilers in Algeria. PMID:27530851

  11. Time to face the challenge of multimorbidity. A European perspective from the joint action on chronic diseases and promoting healthy ageing across the life cycle (JA-CHRODIS).

    PubMed

    Onder, Graziano; Palmer, Katie; Navickas, Rokas; Jurevičienė, Elena; Mammarella, Federica; Strandzheva, Mirela; Mannucci, Piermannuccio; Pecorelli, Sergio; Marengoni, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    Research on multimorbidity has rapidly increased in the last decade, but evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to improve outcomes in patients with multimorbidity is limited. The European Commission is co-funding a large collaborative project named Joint Action on Chronic Diseases and Promoting Healthy Ageing across the Life Cycle (JA-CHRODIS) in the context of the 2nd EU Health Programme 2008-2013. The present manuscript summarizes first results of the JA-CHRODIS, focuses on the identification of a population with multimorbidity who has a high or very high care demand. Identification of characteristics of multimorbid patients associated with a high rate of resource consumption and negative health outcomes is necessary to define a target population who can benefit from interventions. Indeed, multimorbidity alone cannot explain the complexity of care needs and further, stratification of the general population based on care needs is necessary for allocating resources and developing personalized, cost-efficient, and patient-centered care plans. Based on analyses of large databases from European countries a profile of the most care-demanding patients with multimorbidity is defined. Several factors associated with adverse health outcomes and resource consumption among patients with multimorbidity were identified in these analyses, including disease patterns, physical function, mental health, and socioeconomic status. These results underline that a global assessment is needed to identify patients with multimorbidity who are at risk of negative health outcomes and that a comprehensive approach, targeting not only diseases, but also social, cognitive, and functional problems should be adopted for these patients.

  12. Re-analysis results using medians of the data from the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Omori, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    The data from the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay were reported and analyzed statistically using the simple means of % tail DNA. However, OECD test guideline TG 489 recommends use of the median for data analysis due to the hierarchical nature of the data. Comparison between the simple mean approach and the median based approach for positive/negative/equivocal chemical calls was conducted using the % tail DNA data for the 40 chemicals tested in the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, using liver and stomach as target organs. In the liver, two genotoxic chemicals, o-anisidine and 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate, were positive using the median based approach but negative using the simple mean approach, and two genotoxic chemicals, 2-acetylaminofluorene and busulfan were equivocal using the median based approach but negative using the simple mean approach. In contrast, cadmium chloride (genotoxic carcinogen) was equivocal in both organs using the median based approach, while positive and equivocal in liver and stomach, respectively, using the simple mean approach. Two data sets of sodium arsenite showed equivocal and negative results for liver using the median based approach, although both data sets were equivocal using the simple mean approach. Overall, there are no large differences in terms of the genotoxic call between both approaches. However, the median based approach recommended in OECD TG 489 has an advantage toward higher precision within the groups treated with a test chemical, whereas the approach might show the lower values for the effect.

  13. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  14. Hydrogeological research on intensively exploited deep aquifers in the `Loma de Úbeda' area (Jaén, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Ramón, Antonio; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Javier; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Gollonet, Javier

    2013-06-01

    The intensive use of groundwater for irrigation in the area of Úbeda (`Loma de Úbeda', Jaén, southern Spain) has transformed an area of traditionally rain-fed dry farmland into fields with some of the highest olive oil productivity in the world. Early hydrogeological research studies, initiated just after the beginning of the groundwater exploitation, revealed that the water was collected from three different overlapping aquifers occupying an area of over 1,100 km2, with the lower aquifers located at depths from 300 to over 700 m in an area of 440 km2. Multidisciplinary research, based on geological characterization, and piezometric, hydrochemical and isotopic data, has led to a conceptual model of functioning in this complex hydrogeological system. The proposed model allows for the identification of the recharge areas, and the discharge, which is at present mainly associated with the groundwater pumping. Areas of mixing of waters from the different aquifers and the main hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater quality are described.

  15. LOW-TEMPERATURE ION TRAP STUDIES OF N{sup +}({sup 3} P{sub ja} ) + H{sub 2}(j) {yields} NH{sup +} + H

    SciTech Connect

    Zymak, I.; Hejduk, M.; Mulin, D.; Plasil, R.; Glosik, J.; Gerlich, D.

    2013-05-01

    Using a low-temperature 22-pole ion trap apparatus, detailed measurements for the title reaction have been performed between 10 K and 100 K in order to get some state specific information about this fundamental hydrogen abstraction process. The relative population of the two lowest H{sub 2} rotational states, j = 0 and 1, has been varied systematically. NH{sup +} formation is nearly thermo-neutral; however, to date, the energetics are not known with the accuracy required for low-temperature astrochemistry. Additional complications arise from the fact that, so far, there is no reliable theoretical or experimental information on how the reactivity of the N{sup +} ion depends on its fine-structure (FS) state {sup 3} P{sub ja} . Since in the present trapping experiment, thermalization of the initially hot FS population competes with hydrogen abstraction, the evaluation of the decay of N{sup +} ions over long storage times and at various He and H{sub 2} gas densities provides information on these processes. First assuming strict adiabatic behavior, a set of state specific rate coefficients is derived from the measured thermal rate coefficients. In addition, by recording the disappearance of the N{sup +} ions over several orders of magnitude, information on nonadiabatic transitions is extracted including FS-changing collisions.

  16. Physical and Metabolic Interactions of Pseudomonas sp. Strain JA5-B45 and Rhodococcus sp. Strain F9-D79 during Growth on Crude Oil and Effect of a Chemical Surfactant on Them

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Ward, Owen P.

    2001-01-01

    Methods to enhance crude oil biodegradation by mixed bacterial cultures, for example, (bio)surfactant addition, are complicated by the diversity of microbial populations within a given culture. The physical and metabolic interactions between Rhodococcus sp. strain F9-D79 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JA5-B45 were examined during growth on Bow River crude oil. The effects of a nonionic chemical surfactant, Igepal CO-630 (nonylphenol ethoxylate), also were evaluated. Strain F9-D79 grew attached to the oil-water interface and produced a mycolic acid-containing capsule. Crude oil emulsification and surface activity were associated with the cellular fraction. Strain JA5-B45 grew in the aqueous phase and was unable to emulsify oil, but cell-free supernatants mediated kerosene-water emulsion formation. In coculture, stable emulsions were formed and strain JA5-B45 had an affinity for the capsule produced by strain F9-D79. Igepal CO-630 inhibited F9-D79 cells from adhering to the interface, and cells grew dispersed in the aqueous phase as 0.5-μm cocci rather than 2.5-μm rods. The surfactant increased total petroleum hydrocarbon removal by strain JA5-B45 from 4 to 22% and included both saturated compounds and aromatics. In coculture, TPH removal increased from 13 to 40% following surfactant addition. The culture pH normally increased from 7.0 to between 7.5 and 8.5, although addition of Igepal CO-630 to F9-D79 cultures resulted in a drop to pH 5.5. We suggest a dual role for the nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in the coculture: (i) to improve hydrocarbon uptake by strain JA5-B45 through emulsification and (ii) to prevent strain F9-D79 from adhering to the oil-water interface, indirectly increasing hydrocarbon availability. These varied effects on hydrocarbon biodegradation could explain some of the known diversity of surfactant effects. PMID:11571196

  17. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for detection of genotoxic carcinogens: II. Summary of definitive validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Beevers, Carol; De Boeck, Marlies; Burlinson, Brian; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Kitamoto, Sachiko; Kraynak, Andrew R; McNamee, James; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Pant, Kamala; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Priestley, Catherine; Takasawa, Hironao; Wada, Kunio; Wirnitzer, Uta; Asano, Norihide; Escobar, Patricia A; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Nakajima, Madoka; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this exercise was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The study protocol was optimized in the pre-validation studies, and then the definitive (4th phase) validation study was conducted in two steps. In the 1st step, assay reproducibility was confirmed among laboratories using four coded reference chemicals and the positive control ethyl methanesulfonate. In the 2nd step, the predictive capability was investigated using 40 coded chemicals with known genotoxic and carcinogenic activity (i.e., genotoxic carcinogens, genotoxic non-carcinogens, non-genotoxic carcinogens, and non-genotoxic non-carcinogens). Based on the results obtained, the in vivo comet assay is concluded to be highly capable of identifying genotoxic chemicals and therefore can serve as a reliable predictor of rodent carcinogenicity.

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of single-molecule sequencing and hybrid approaches for finishing the Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1 strain DSM 10061 genome

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Nagaraju, Shilpa; Utturkar, Sagar M; De Tissera, Sashini; Segovia, Simón; Mitchell, Wayne; Land, Miriam L; Dassanayake, Asela; Köpke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium autoethanogenum strain JA1-1 (DSM 10061) is an acetogen capable of fermenting CO, CO2 and H2 (e.g. from syngas or waste gases) into biofuel ethanol and commodity chemicals such as 2,3-butanediol. A draft genome sequence consisting of 100 contigs has been published. Results A closed, high-quality genome sequence for C. autoethanogenum DSM10061 was generated using only the latest single-molecule DNA sequencing technology and without the need for manual finishing. It is assigned to the most complex genome classification based upon genome features such as repeats, prophage, nine copies of the rRNA gene operons. It has a low G + C content of 31.1%. Illumina, 454, Illumina/454 hybrid assemblies were generated and then compared to the draft and PacBio assemblies using summary statistics, CGAL, QUAST and REAPR bioinformatics tools and comparative genomic approaches. Assemblies based upon shorter read DNA technologies were confounded by the large number repeats and their size, which in the case of the rRNA gene operons were ~5 kb. CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Paloindromic Repeats) systems among biotechnologically relevant Clostridia were classified and related to plasmid content and prophages. Potential associations between plasmid content and CRISPR systems may have implications for historical industrial scale Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation failures and future large scale bacterial fermentations. While C. autoethanogenum contains an active CRISPR system, no such system is present in the closely related Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528. A common prophage inserted into the Arg-tRNA shared between the strains suggests a common ancestor. However, C. ljungdahlii contains several additional putative prophages and it has more than double the amount of prophage DNA compared to C. autoethanogenum. Other differences include important metabolic genes for central metabolism (as an additional hydrogenase and the absence of a

  19. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) improved anti-adipogenic activity associated with the oxidative stress system in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Yoon, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-01-11

    Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties.

  20. Evaluation of methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene and 5-fluorouracil: Part of the Japanese center for the validation of alternative methods (JaCVAM) international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Junker-Walker, Ursula; Martus, Hans-Joerg

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene, and 5-fluorouracil under coded test conditions. Rats were treated orally with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and two additional descending doses of the respective compounds. In the MMS treated groups liver and stomach showed significantly elevated DNA damage at each dose level and a significant dose-response relationship. 2,6-diaminotoluene induced significantly elevated DNA damage in the liver at each dose and a statistically significant dose-response relationship whereas no DNA damage was obtained in the stomach. 5-fluorouracil did not induce DNA damage in either liver or stomach.

  1. Use of a standardized JaCVAM in vivo rat comet assay protocol to assess the genotoxicity of three coded test compounds; ampicillin trihydrate, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, and N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), our laboratory examined ampicillin trihydrate (AMP), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDA) using a standard comet assay validation protocol (v14.2) developed by the JaCVAM validation management team (VMT). Coded samples were received by our laboratory along with basic MSDS information. Solubility analysis and range-finding experiments of the coded test compounds were conducted for dose selection. Animal dosing schedules, the comet assay processing and analysis, and statistical analysis were conducted in accordance with the standard protocol. Based upon our blinded evaluation, AMP was not found to exhibit evidence of genotoxicity in either the rat liver or stomach. However, both NDA and DMH were observed to cause a significant increase in % tail DNA in the rat liver at all dose levels tested. While acute hepatoxicity was observed for these compounds in the high dose group, in the investigators opinion there were a sufficient number of consistently damaged/measurable cells at the medium and low dose groups to judge these compounds as genotoxic. There was no evidence of genotoxicity from either NDA or DMH in the rat stomach. In conclusion, our laboratory observed increased DNA damage from two blinded test compounds in rat liver (later identified as genotoxic carcinogens), while no evidence of genotoxicity was observed for the third blinded test compound (later identified as a non-genotoxic, non-carcinogen). This data supports the use of a standardized protocol of the in vivo comet assay as a cost-effective alternative genotoxicity assay for regulatory testing purposes. PMID:26212307

  2. Use of a standardized JaCVAM in vivo rat comet assay protocol to assess the genotoxicity of three coded test compounds; ampicillin trihydrate, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, and N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), our laboratory examined ampicillin trihydrate (AMP), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDA) using a standard comet assay validation protocol (v14.2) developed by the JaCVAM validation management team (VMT). Coded samples were received by our laboratory along with basic MSDS information. Solubility analysis and range-finding experiments of the coded test compounds were conducted for dose selection. Animal dosing schedules, the comet assay processing and analysis, and statistical analysis were conducted in accordance with the standard protocol. Based upon our blinded evaluation, AMP was not found to exhibit evidence of genotoxicity in either the rat liver or stomach. However, both NDA and DMH were observed to cause a significant increase in % tail DNA in the rat liver at all dose levels tested. While acute hepatoxicity was observed for these compounds in the high dose group, in the investigators opinion there were a sufficient number of consistently damaged/measurable cells at the medium and low dose groups to judge these compounds as genotoxic. There was no evidence of genotoxicity from either NDA or DMH in the rat stomach. In conclusion, our laboratory observed increased DNA damage from two blinded test compounds in rat liver (later identified as genotoxic carcinogens), while no evidence of genotoxicity was observed for the third blinded test compound (later identified as a non-genotoxic, non-carcinogen). This data supports the use of a standardized protocol of the in vivo comet assay as a cost-effective alternative genotoxicity assay for regulatory testing purposes.

  3. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy of the Ediacaran Jaíba Formation, Upper Bambuí Group, Brazil: Insights into Paleogeography and Sedimentary Environments after a Neoproterozoic Glaciation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caxito, F.; Uhlein, G. J.; Sial, A. N.; Uhlein, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Neoproterozoic Era was a time of extreme climatic variation as recorded in sedimentary rocks of this age across the globe, leading to a number of controversial hypotheses (e.g. the Snowball Earth glaciations). In eastern Brazil, the Bambuí Gr. is a thick carbonatic-siliciclastic unit that covers the São Francisco Craton and preserves remnants of a Neoproterozoic glaciation and their respective cap carbonate (1). Recent findings of Cloudina in the Januária region (2) suggest that at least part of the sequence might be upper Ediacaran or even Cambrian. Here we present the first carbon-oxygen isotope data for the Jaíba Fm., a ca. 50 m thick carbonate unit that occurs in the topmost portion of the Bambuí Gr. in this same region. The Jaíba Fm. post-dates the cap carbonate sequence and the fossil-bearing layers, and thus was probably deposited in the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. Three stratigraphic columns were analyzed, and yielded similar ratios. Values of δ13CVPDB are between 0.8 and 3.4 ‰, while δ18OVPDB values are mostly around -8 ‰. These values contrasts with the negative δ13C values found for the base of the Bambuí Gr., followed by highly positive δ13C (up to +14‰) on its middle portion. The unusually high δ13C values are commonly interpreted as evidence for deposition on a restricted basin, such as in a foreland setting. The return to values which are close to the PDB standard in the uppermost Bambuí Gr. might thus indicate a change in the paleogeography and tectonic environment of the basin, suggesting an open, ventilated environment along with a recovery of the biological and hydrological cycle after a Late Neoproterozoic glaciation. Ongoing detailed sedimentological, geochemical and isotopic work might help to further clarify these issues and to provide new clues for unraveling Late Neoproterozoic paleoclimate, paleogeography and ocean chemistry. We thank FAPEMIG (Brazil) for finnacial support through grants n. APQ-00914-14 and PPM

  4. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study. PMID:26212293

  5. Evaluation of 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether in the rat comet assay: Part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Priestley, Catherine C; Walker, Joanne S; O'Donovan, Michael R; Doherty, Ann T

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (DPE), a known rodent genotoxic carcinogen, was tested in this laboratory. Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of DPE, 24 and 21 h apart and liver or stomach sampled 3h after the final dose. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage in liver and stomach were observed with DPE (up to 200 mg/kg/day). A dose-dependent decrease in DNA migration, compared to vehicle controls, was noted for DPE in rat stomach. Further analysis is required to elucidate fully whether this decrease is a consequence of the mode of action or due to the toxicity of DPE. What is perhaps surprising is the inability of the comet assay to detect a known rat genotoxic carcinogen in liver. Further investigation is needed to clarify whether this apparent lack of response results from limited tissue exposure or metabolic differences between species. This finding highlights a need for careful consideration of study design when evaluating assay performance as a measure of in vivo genotoxicity.

  6. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study.

  7. Regulative influence of o-aminobenzoic acid on the biosynthesis of nourseothricin in cultures of Streptomyces noursei JA 3890b. IV. Bistability of metabolism and the mechanism of action of aminobenzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Gräfe, U; Bocker, H; Thrum, H

    1979-01-01

    Using the semi-continuous cultivation technique we could establish that specifically in Streptomyces noursei JA 3890b during growth on a medium supplied with D,L-alanine, NH4+, and maize starch there are two different phenotypes of the organism and stationary states of metabolism, respectively. The expression of either the metabolic state I with an enhanced capacity to oxidative deamination of alanine via the NAD+-dependent alanaine dehydrogenase or the metabolic state 2 which may be characterized by the preferred use of ammonium ions via the NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase was shown to depend strongly on the conditions of inoculum cultivation. When the amino acid permeases were derepressed by cultivating the inoculum cells on amino acid media, probably due to the defective mechanism of negative feedback control of amino acid influx in this strain an abnormously high uptake of alanine was observed that, consequently, was correlated to the enhanced oxidation of this amino acid as well as to the intensive production of ammonia within the cell. This overproduction of cellular NH4+ seems to bring about the subsequent repression of biosynthetic glutamate dehydrogenase and so on the accumulation of ammonia autocatalytically may rise up (metabolic state I). On the other hand, if the influx of alanine was kept low and the NADH oxidation was less efficient, respectively, or when there was high cellular activity of glutamate dehydrogenase the level of ammonia never did exceed the respressory limit and, accordingly, the expression of the metabolic state 2 was observed. Switching-over of metabolic flux from the state 2 towards the state 1 can be brought about either by increasing the level of nitrogen sources in the medium or by adding buffers pH greater than 7.5. In contrast, decrease of cellular level of NH4+ was shown to induce the transition of metabolic state 1 into the state 2. This can be achieved not only by limitation of nitrogen source but also by adding

  8. Personnel Management: A J/A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasca, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Recently, personnel executives and their staffs are being asked to help management solve an increasing number of human resource and business problems. Personnel management must undergo some changes if it is to achieve its full potential. (Author/AJ)

  9. Design of Current Source Dc/Dc Converter for Interfacing a 5 Kw Pem Fuel Cell / Paaugstinošā Strāvas Avota Līdzsprieguma Pārveidotāja Izstrāde 5 Kw Ūdeņraža Degvielas Elementam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreičiks, A.; Steiks, I.; Krievs, O.

    2013-08-01

    In domestic applications the low DC output voltage of a hydrogen fuel cell used as the main power supply or a backup power source has to be matched to the level and frequency of the AC voltage of utility grid. The interfacing power converter system usually consists of a DC/DC converter and an inverter. In this work, a DC/DC step-up converter stage is designed for interfacing a 5kW proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The losses of DC/DC conversion are estimated and, basing on the relevant analysis, the most appropriate configuration of converter modules is selected for a DC/DC converter stage of increased efficiency. The authors present the results of experimental analysis and simulation for the selected configuration of four double inductor step-up push-pull converter modules Ūdeņraža degvielas elementa invertoru sistēmas mājsaimniecības pielietojumiem parasti sastāv no līdzsprieguma paaugstināšanas un invertēšanas mezgliem. Šis raksts ir veltīts paaugstinošā līdzsprieguma pārveidotāja izstrādei 5 kW protonu apmaiņas membrānas degvielas elementam. Rakstā izpētīts divu induktoru divtaktu strāvas avota paaugstinošais līdzsprieguma pārveidotājs, aplūkojot gan datormodelēšanas, gan eksperimentālos rezultātus. Lai palielinātu DC/DC pārveidotāja efektivitāti var izmantot vairākus pārveidotāja moduļus, kam ieejas savienotas paralēli un izejās - virkne. Analīze Šajā raksta ir veikta analīze, balstoties uz kuras var izvēlieties skaitu pārveidotāj moduļu skaitu, kuri nodrošina vislabāko efektivitāti DC/DC pārveidotāja posmā. Kopējais eksperimentāli noteiktais izstrādātās degvielas elementa pārveidotāju sistēmas fizikālā modeļa lietderības koeficients ir 93%

  10. Evaluation of p-phenylenediamine, o-phenylphenol sodium salt, and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the rat comet assay as part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Marlies; van der Leede, Bas-jan; De Vlieger, Kathleen; Geys, Helena; Vynckier, An; Van Gompel, Jacky

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (PPD), o-phenylphenol sodium salt (OPP), and 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), were analyzed in this laboratory as coded test chemicals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of the test compounds, 24 and 21 h apart and liver and stomach were sampled 3h after the final dose administration. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage were observed in liver and stomach with PPD and OPP up to 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively. 2,4-DAT, a known genotoxic carcinogen, induced a weak but reproducible, dose-related and statistically significant increase in DNA damage in liver cells while no increases were observed in stomach cells.

  11. Results of the International Validation of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: Individual data for 1,2-dibromoethane, p-anisidine, and o-anthranilic acid in the 2nd step of the 4th phase Validation Study under the JaCVAM initiative.

    PubMed

    Takasawa, Hironao; Takashima, Rie; Narumi, Kazunori; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hattori, Akiko; Kawabata, Masayoshi; Hamada, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative International Validation Study of an in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), p-anisidine (ASD), and o-anthranilic acid (ANT) to investigate the effectiveness of the comet assay in detecting genotoxic carcinogens. Each of the three test chemicals was administered to 5 male Sprague-Dawley rats per group by oral gavage at 48, 24, and 3h before specimen preparation. Single cells were collected from the liver and glandular stomach at 3h after the final dosing, and the specimens prepared from these two organs were subjected to electrophoresis under alkaline conditions (pH>13). The percentage of DNA intensity in the comet tail was then assessed using an image analysis system. A micronucleus (MN) assay was also conducted using these three test chemicals with the bone marrow (BM) cells collected from the same animals simultaneously used in the comet assay, i.e., combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay. A genotoxic (Ames positive) rodent carcinogen, DBE gave a positive result in the comet assay in the present study, while a genotoxic (Ames positive) non-carcinogen, ASD and a non-genotoxic (Ames negative) non-carcinogen, ANT showed negative results in the comet assay. All three chemicals produced negative results in the BM MN assay. While the comet assay findings in the present study were consistent with those obtained from the rodent carcinogenicity studies for the three test chemicals, we consider the positive result in the comet assay for DBE to be particularly meaningful, given that this chemical produced a negative result in the BM MN assay. Therefore, the combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay is a useful method to detect genotoxic carcinogens that are undetectable with the BM MN assay alone.

  12. Treatment Plan Adherence for Your Child With JA

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the medication which controls the inflammation,” says Carol Lindsley, MD, chief of pediatric rheumatology at the ... with the medication which controls the inflammation,” says Carol Lindsley, MD, chief of pediatric rheumatology at the ...

  13. Personality, punishment, and procedural learning: a test of J.A. Gray's anxiety theory.

    PubMed

    Corr, P J; Pickering, A D; Gray, J A

    1997-08-01

    Effects of punishment and personality on a phylogenetically old form of knowledge acquisition, procedural learning, were studied to test J. A. Gray's 1970, 1987, 1991) theory of anxiety. Broad measures of personality (extraversion, E.; neuroticism, N; and psychoticism, P) and specific measures of trait anxiety (Anx) and impulsivity (Imp) were taken. Punishment led to response invigoration, reducing reaction time latency, but this was not related to personality. A negative correlation of P and learning was observed in both punishment and control conditions. In support of Gray's theory, high Anx improved learning under punishment (and impaired learning under control), and low Anx improved learning under control (and impaired learning under punishment). These data are contrasted with H.J. Eysenck's (1967) arousal theory of personality. Results point to a new behavioral tool with which researchers can explore further the interaction of reinforcement, arousal, and personality.

  14. JaMBES: A "New" Way of Calculating Plate Tectonic Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambord, A. I.; Smith, E. G. C.; Sutherland, R.

    2014-12-01

    Calculating the paleoposition of tectonic plates using marine geophysical data has been usually done by using the Hellinger criterion [Hellinger, 1981]. However, for the Hellinger software [Kirkwood et al., 1999] to produce stable results, we find that the input data must be abundant and spatially well distributed. Although magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data have been increasingly abundant since the 1960s, some parts of the globe remain too sparsely explored to provide enough data for the Hellinger code to provide satisfactory rotations. In this poster, we present new software to calculate the paleopositions of tectonic plates using magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data. Our method is based on the theory of plate tectonics as introduced by [Bullard et al., 1965] and [Morgan, 1968], which states that ridge segments (ie. magnetic lineations) and fracture zones are at right angles to each other. In order to test our software, we apply it to a region of the world where climatic conditions hinder the acquisition of magnetic data: the Southwest Pacific, between New Zealand and Antarctica from breakup time to chron 20 (c43Ma). Bullard, E., J. E. Everett, and A. G. Smith (1965), The fit of continents around the atlantic, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 258(1088), 41-51. Hellinger, S. J. (1981), The uncertainties of finite rotations in plate tectonics, Journal of Geophysical Research, 86(B10), 9312-9318. Kirkwood, B. H., J. Y. Royer, T. C. Chang, and R. G. Gordon (1999), Statistical tools for estimating and combining finite rotations and their uncertainties, Geophysical Journal International, 137(2), 408-428. Morgan, W. J. (1968), Rises, trenches, great faults, and crustal blocks, Journal of Geophysical Research, 73(6), 1959-1982.

  15. Vahemmistokansat Ja Muunkielinen Sivistys: Montako Kielistrategiaa Virolle (Language Policy and Planning in the Republic of Estonia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oispuu, Jaan

    The composition of the Estonian population has changed considerably since the second World War. The number of immigrants to Estonia has been remarkable in the second half of the century. The population in Estonia is divided into two parts: Estonian (66%) and non-Estonians (34%). The composition of the population and the language situation in…

  16. The Flintlock Site (8JA1763): An Unusual Underwater Deposit in the Apalachicola River, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrell, Christopher E.; Scott-Ireton, Della A.; Smith, Roger C.; Levy, James; Knetsch, Joe

    2009-06-01

    In the fall of 2001, staff of the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research were led by river divers to an underwater site in the Apalachicola River containing a large concentration of prehistoric and historic artifacts lying on the riverbed. Subsequent inspection of the submerged river bank and scoured limestone river channel revealed a myriad of objects, which included iron fasteners, metal tools and implements, broken glass bottles, stone projectile points, scattered bricks and stone blocks, and other materials. Discovery of two large fragments of a wooden watercraft, a bayonet, a copper arrowhead, and flintlock gun barrels initially prompted researchers to hypothesize that the site might represent the remains of a U.S. Army boat that was attacked in 1817 by Seminole Indians while en route upriver. The episode, which caused the deaths of more than 30 soldiers and several women who were aboard the boat, led to the First Seminole War and the U.S. Army invasion of Florida. To investigate this hypothesis, a systematic survey of the riverbed was undertaken in the spring of 2002 to record underwater features and recover additional diagnostic artifacts. These activities employed side-scan sonar as well as diver visual investigations. This paper presents a case study of the value and broader significance of aggregate data where interpretation was underpinned by artefactual, historical and environmental analysis.

  17. Greener routes to organics and nanomaterials: Sustainable applications of nano-catalysts (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable synthetic activity involving alternate energy input and greener reaction medium in aqueous or under solvent-free conditions is summarized. This includes the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a variety of reactions catalyzed by basic water o...

  18. Japan Link Center (JaLC): link management and DOI assignment for Japanese electronic scholarly contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takafumi; Tsuchiya, Eri; Kubota, Soichi; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    JST, cooperated with several national institutes, is currently developing “Japan Link Center”, which manages Japanese electronic scholarly contents (journal articles, books, dissertations etc.) in an integrated fashion using Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Japan Link Center will manage metadata and whereabouts information of the contents in the digital environment and provide domestic and international linking information, cite/cited information to activate dissemination of S&T information, furthermore, to strengthen transmission of S&T information from Japan. Japan Link Center is expected to be appointed as the 9th DOI registration agency (RA) in the world by the International DOI Foundation (IDF) this spring.

  19. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... standard conditions of 68 °F and 1 atmosphere. b MHC = molar heat content (higher heating value basis),...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... standard conditions of 68 °F and 1 atmosphere. b MHC = molar heat content (higher heating value basis),...

  2. Electrical resistivity imaging survey to detect uncharted mine galleries in the mining district of Linares, Jaén, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-López, J.; Rey, J.; Dueñas, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Benavente, J.

    2012-02-01

    The scarcity of information about the existence of old mining shafts and galleries in urban areas is an important issue for future urban development. Electrical resistivity tomography is a non-destructive geophysical technique that can detect and characterize such subsurface cavities based on differences in the behaviour of electrical current in the void and in the embedding rock. Here we present a study in which this technique was used to determine the location of old engineered structures around the city of Linares, southern Spain, and to relate these structures to the abandoned deep mines present in the area. Eight electrical resistivity imaging profiles were performed, with a total of 22 808 measurements. Correlations between geoelectrical anomalies allow detection of the depth and the direction of several galleries, as well as the voids that result from mining extraction. Given the depth at which these structures are located (in some cases less than 5 m), they pose an important risk for future construction projects in areas of urban expansion. This technique is shown to be a useful tool for locating areas that pose important urban risks and, by extension, for the decision-making process in territorial planning, especially in areas with a history of deep mining.

  3. Alcohol use as a behavioural sign of disinhibition: evidence from J.A. Gray's model of personality.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Yolanda; Aguilar, Raúl; Molinuevo, Beatriz; Torrubia, Rafael

    2007-10-01

    Based on Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, the influence of behavioural disinhibition upon alcohol consumption was studied. A sample of undergraduates answered different questionnaires related to the Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural Activation System. In relation to alcohol use, three aspects of alcohol consumption were assessed: frequency, quantity of alcohol intake and the age at first drink. From a series of correlation and regression analyses, we found that both high scores on BAS-related scales and low scores on those scales related to the BIS were jointly associated with current alcohol-taking habits. Additionally, the Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scale (BAS) was negatively correlated with, and a predictor of, the onset age of alcohol use. We conclude by proposing that research on alcohol use can benefit from this well-grounded theory of the neuropsychology of the individual differences.

  4. 42 CFR 488.105 - Long term care survey forms, Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part B. 488.105 Section 488.105 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... EC01JA91.082 EC01JA91.083 EC01JA91.084 EC01JA91.085 EC01JA91.086 EC01JA91.087 EC01JA91.088...

  5. Expression Patterns of Three UGT Genes in Different Chemotype Safflower Lines and under MeJA Stimulus Revealed Their Potential Role in Flavonoid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dan-Dan; Liu, Fei; Tu, Yan-Hua; He, Bei-Xuan; Gao, Yue; Guo, Mei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has received a significant amount of attention as a medicinal plant in China. Flavonoids are the dominant active medical compounds. UDP-glycosyltransferase plays an essential role in the biosynthesis and storage of flavonoids in safflower. In this study, 45 UGT unigenes were screened from our transcriptomic database of safflower. Among them, 27 UGT unigenes were predicted to own a complete open reading frame with various pI and Mw. The phylogenetic tree showed that CtUGT3 and CtUGT16 were classified under the UGT71 subfamily involved in metabolite process, whereas CtUGT25 has high identities with PoUGT both catalyzing the glycosylation of flavonoids and belonging to the UGT90 subfamily. cDNA microarray exhibited that the three UGT genes displayed temporal difference in two chemotype safflower lines. To functionally characterize UGT in safflower, CtUGT3, CtUGT16 and CtUGT25 were cloned and analyzed. Subcellular localization suggested that the three UGTs might be located in the cell cytoplasm and chloroplast. The expression pattern showed that the three UGTs were all suppressed in two lines responsive to methyl jasmonate induction. The co-expression relation of expression pattern and metabolite accumulation demonstrated that CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and CtUGT16 was positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in yellow line, whereas CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in white line. This study indicates that the three CtUGTs play a significant and multiple role in flavonoids biosynthesis with presenting different functional characterization in two safflower lines.

  6. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures using screening-level life cycle assessment to support sustainable consumer electronics (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use...

  7. Puolin ja toisin: Suomalais-virolaista kielentutkimusta. AFinLAn vuosikirja 1998 (On Both Sides: Finnish-Estonian Research on Language. AFinLA Yearbook 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luukka, Minna-Riitta, Ed.; Salla, Sigrid, Ed.; Dufva, Hannele, Ed.

    The papers included in this yearbook of the Finnish Society of Applied Linguistics (AFinLA) were presented at the 1998 AFinLA conference "Linguistics and Finland: Crossing the Gulf." Papers are in Finnish, Estonian, or English, but all have accompanying English abstracts. The topics discussed in the papers include the following: speed and accuracy…

  8. On the Specification of the Domain of Writing = Kohti Kirjoittamisen Kuvailua ja Erittelya. Reports from the Institute for Educational Research, 333/1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Sauli; Vahapassi, Anneli

    Twenty countries are participating in the IEA International Study of Written Composition, for which this is a background report. school-based writing in particular, this report discusses the functions of writing from the point of view of culture, cognition, and child development. It also presents a usable model for constructing and evaluating…

  9. The Arabidopsis Pep-PEPR system is induced by herbivore feeding and contributes to JA-mediated plant defence against herbivory.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Dominik; Desurmont, Gaylord A; Glauser, Gaétan; Vallat, Armelle; Flury, Pascale; Boller, Thomas; Turlings, Ted C J; Bartels, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    A number of plant endogenous elicitors have been identified that induce pattern-triggered immunity upon perception. In Arabidopsis thaliana eight small precursor proteins, called PROPEPs, are thought to be cleaved upon danger to release eight peptides known as the plant elicitor peptides Peps. As the expression of some PROPEPs is induced upon biotic stress and perception of any of the eight Peps triggers a defence response, they are regarded as amplifiers of immunity. Besides the induction of defences directed against microbial colonization Peps have also been connected with herbivore deterrence as they share certain similarities to systemins, known mediators of defence signalling against herbivores in solanaceous plants, and they positively interact with the phytohormone jasmonic acid. A recent study using maize indicated that the application of ZmPep3, a maize AtPep-orthologue, elicits anti-herbivore responses. However, as this study only assessed the responses triggered by the exogenous application of Peps, the biological significance of these findings remained open. By using Arabidopsis GUS-reporter lines, it is now shown that the promoters of both Pep-receptors, PEPR1 and PEPR2, as well as PROPEP3 are strongly activated upon herbivore attack. Moreover, pepr1 pepr2 double mutant plants, which are insensitive to Peps, display a reduced resistance to feeding Spodoptera littoralis larvae and a reduced accumulation of jasmonic acid upon exposure to herbivore oral secretions. Taken together, these lines of evidence extend the role of the AtPep-PEPR system as a danger detection mechanism from microbial pathogens to herbivores and further underline its strong interaction with jasmonic acid signalling.

  10. Expression Patterns of Three UGT Genes in Different Chemotype Safflower Lines and under MeJA Stimulus Revealed Their Potential Role in Flavonoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dan-Dan; Liu, Fei; Tu, Yan-Hua; He, Bei-Xuan; Gao, Yue; Guo, Mei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has received a significant amount of attention as a medicinal plant in China. Flavonoids are the dominant active medical compounds. UDP-glycosyltransferase plays an essential role in the biosynthesis and storage of flavonoids in safflower. In this study, 45 UGT unigenes were screened from our transcriptomic database of safflower. Among them, 27 UGT unigenes were predicted to own a complete open reading frame with various pI and Mw. The phylogenetic tree showed that CtUGT3 and CtUGT16 were classified under the UGT71 subfamily involved in metabolite process, whereas CtUGT25 has high identities with PoUGT both catalyzing the glycosylation of flavonoids and belonging to the UGT90 subfamily. cDNA microarray exhibited that the three UGT genes displayed temporal difference in two chemotype safflower lines. To functionally characterize UGT in safflower, CtUGT3, CtUGT16 and CtUGT25 were cloned and analyzed. Subcellular localization suggested that the three UGTs might be located in the cell cytoplasm and chloroplast. The expression pattern showed that the three UGTs were all suppressed in two lines responsive to methyl jasmonate induction. The co-expression relation of expression pattern and metabolite accumulation demonstrated that CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and CtUGT16 was positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in yellow line, whereas CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in white line. This study indicates that the three CtUGTs play a significant and multiple role in flavonoids biosynthesis with presenting different functional characterization in two safflower lines. PMID:27391785

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Analyses between a Spontaneous Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type Suggest the Functions of ABA, Sucrose and JA during Citrus Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Jian; Wang, Xing-Jian; Wu, Ju-Xun; Chen, Shan-Yan; Chen, Hong; Chai, Li-Jun; Yi, Hua-Lin

    2014-01-01

    A spontaneous late-ripening mutant of ‘Jincheng’ (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange exhibited a delay of fruit pigmentation and harvesting. In this work, we studied the processes of orange fruit ripening through the comparative analysis between the Jincheng mutant and its wild type. This study revealed that the fruit quality began to differ on 166th days after anthesis. At this stage, fruits were subjected to transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing. 13,412 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were found. Of these unigenes, 75.8% were down-regulated in the wild type, suggesting that the transcription level of wild type was lower than that of the mutant during this stage. These DEGs were mainly clustered into five pathways: metabolic pathways, plant-pathogen interaction, spliceosome, biosynthesis of plant hormones and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes that are involved in abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid metabolism and signal transduction pathways were analyzed during the six fruit ripening stages. The results revealed the regulation mechanism of sweet orange fruit ripening metabolism in the following four aspects: First, the more mature orange fruits were, the lower the transcription levels were. Second, the expression level of PME boosted with the maturity of the citrus fruit. Therefore, the expression level of PME might represent the degree of the orange fruit ripeness. Third, the interaction of PP2C, PYR/PYL, and SnRK2 was peculiar to the orange fruit ripening process. Fourth, abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid all took part in orange fruit ripening process and might interact with each other. These findings provide an insight into the intricate process of sweet orange fruit ripening. PMID:25551568

  12. ABA is an essential signal for plant resistance to pathogens affecting JA biosynthesis and the activation of plant defenses in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant defense responses have been studied through a limited number of models that may have constrained our view of plant-pathogen interactions. Discovery of new defense mechanisms should be favored by broadening the range of pathogens under study. With this aim, Arabidopsis defense response to the ‘...

  13. Kommunikation ja, aber auf welcher Basis? ZE-Diskussion. Pattern Drill (Communication, Yes, but on What Basis? ZE Discussion. Pattern Drill)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Albert

    1976-01-01

    Argues for pattern drill as an indispensable link in the learning process: presentation, explanation, practice, performance. Opponents of pattern practice are suspected of confusing goal (communication) with means (drill phase). (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  14. Expression Patterns of Three UGT Genes in Different Chemotype Safflower Lines and under MeJA Stimulus Revealed Their Potential Role in Flavonoid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dan-Dan; Liu, Fei; Tu, Yan-Hua; He, Bei-Xuan; Gao, Yue; Guo, Mei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has received a significant amount of attention as a medicinal plant in China. Flavonoids are the dominant active medical compounds. UDP-glycosyltransferase plays an essential role in the biosynthesis and storage of flavonoids in safflower. In this study, 45 UGT unigenes were screened from our transcriptomic database of safflower. Among them, 27 UGT unigenes were predicted to own a complete open reading frame with various pI and Mw. The phylogenetic tree showed that CtUGT3 and CtUGT16 were classified under the UGT71 subfamily involved in metabolite process, whereas CtUGT25 has high identities with PoUGT both catalyzing the glycosylation of flavonoids and belonging to the UGT90 subfamily. cDNA microarray exhibited that the three UGT genes displayed temporal difference in two chemotype safflower lines. To functionally characterize UGT in safflower, CtUGT3, CtUGT16 and CtUGT25 were cloned and analyzed. Subcellular localization suggested that the three UGTs might be located in the cell cytoplasm and chloroplast. The expression pattern showed that the three UGTs were all suppressed in two lines responsive to methyl jasmonate induction. The co-expression relation of expression pattern and metabolite accumulation demonstrated that CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and CtUGT16 was positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in yellow line, whereas CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in white line. This study indicates that the three CtUGTs play a significant and multiple role in flavonoids biosynthesis with presenting different functional characterization in two safflower lines. PMID:27391785

  15. Computer program documentation modified version of the JA70 aerodynamic heating computer program H800 (MINIVER with a DISSPLA plot package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olmedo, L.

    1980-01-01

    The changes, modifications, and inclusions which were adapted to the current version of the MINIVER program are discussed. Extensive modifications were made to various subroutines, and a new plot package added. This plot package is the Johnson Space Center DISSPLA Graphics System currently driven under an 1110 EXEC 8 configuration. User instructions on executing the MINIVER program are provided and the plot package is described.

  16. State-Level Mandates for Financial Literacy Education, JA Finance Park, and the Impact on Eighth-Grade Students in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the Colorado General Assembly passed legislation requiring the adoption of personal financial literacy (PFL) education standards for kindergarten through 12th-grade students. Beginning in 2014, the state plans to conduct standardized testing to determine financial literacy of 3rd- through 12th-grade students. The state did not allocate…

  17. Hg soil pollution around a decommissioned and unrestored Chlor-alkali plant: Jodar, Jaén province, SE Spain. Incidence in other environmental compartments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Higueras, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil pollution and its consequences around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The plant was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hidrargirism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, together with the analysis of olive-tree leaves from the same area. 75 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm. and 15-30 cm), together with 75 olive tree samples, 5 water samples. Besides, two monitoring surveys for total gaseous mercury in the atmosphere were performed. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device, with GPS georreferenciation of the analysis points. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. A local reference level was calculated as GM + 2SD (where GM is the geometric mean and SD the standard deviation). With this reference level it was possible to delimitate a contaminated soil area centered on the decommissioned chlor-alkali plant. A high affinity of local olive trees to accumulate mercury from the contaminated soil was also found, with a calculated maximum mercury content of 243.5 ng g-1. This maximum level is slightly higher than tolerable level for agronomic crops. Total mercury content in the analyzed waters was slightly higher than the chronic exposure level for aquatic life. Atmospheric mercury levels registered on the study area were much lower than most restrictive levels for chronic exposure. The area of influence of the facility (in terms of mercury content in air) was restricted to distances between 100 and 200 meters, depending on meteorological conditions. Main conclusions of this research work are the following: i) The Jódar decommissioned chlor-alkali plant is still a mercury source 20 years after its cease of activities without any reclamation measures; ii) The activity of the plant has produced an important dissemination of mercury in the surrounding environment; and iii) The corresponding pollution levels, in particular in soils, may suppose a risk to the main crops of the area (olive trees).

  18. STS 127 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-127) and International Space Station (2J/A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 grab sample canisters (GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported. The toxicological assessment of 9 GSCs and 6 pairs of formaldehyde badges from the ISS is also reported. Other than a problem with traces of acrolein in the samples, the air quality was acceptable for respiration.

  19. 78 FR 649 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... ] TD03JA13.085 ] TD03JA13.086 ] TD03JA13.087 ] TD03JA13.088 [FR Doc. 2013-00002 Filed 1-2-13; 11:15 a.m... PROPOSED RULES Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Smoking-Cessation Products: Report to Congress...

  20. 42 CFR 488.115 - Care guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Care guidelines. 488.115 Section 488.115 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 488.115 Care guidelines. EC01JA91.110 EC01JA91.111 EC01JA91.112 EC01JA91.113 EC01JA91.114...

  1. Hydroxylated jasmonates are commonly occurring metabolites of jasmonic acid and contribute to a partial switch-off in jasmonate signaling.

    PubMed

    Miersch, Otto; Neumerkel, Jana; Dippe, Martin; Stenzel, Irene; Wasternack, Claus

    2008-01-01

    In potato 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid (12-OH-JA) is a tuber-inducing compound. Here, it is demonstrated that 12-OH-JA, as well as its sulfated and glucosylated derivatives, are constituents of various organs of many plant species. All accumulate differentially and usually to much higher concentrations than jasmonic acid (JA). In wounded tomato leaves, 12-OH-JA and its sulfated, as well as glucosylated, derivative accumulate after JA, and their diminished accumulation in wounded leaves of the JA-deficient mutants spr2 and acx1 and also a JA-deficient 35S::AOCantisense line suggest their JA-dependent formation. To elucidate how signaling properties of JA/JAME (jasmonic acid methyl ester) are affected by hydroxylation and sulfation, germination and root growth were recorded in the presence of the different jasmonates, indicating that 12-OH-JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid sulfate (12-HSO(4)-JA) were not bioactive. Expression analyses for 29 genes showed that expression of wound-inducible genes such as those coding for PROTEINASE INHIBITOR2, POLYPHENOL OXIDASE, THREONINE DEAMINASE or ARGINASE was induced by JAME and less induced or even down-regulated by 12-OH-JA and 12-HSO(4)-JA. Almost all genes coding for enzymes in JA biosynthesis were up-regulated by JAME but down-regulated by 12-OH-JA and 12-HSO(4)-JA. The data suggest that wound-induced metabolic conversion of JA/JAME into 12-OH-JA alters expression pattern of genes including a switch off in JA signaling for a subset of genes. PMID:17995915

  2. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice

    PubMed Central

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice. PMID:23518581

  3. Jasmonic Acid and Its Precursor 12-Oxophytodienoic Acid Control Different Aspects of Constitutive and Induced Herbivore Defenses in Tomato1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Marko; Wright, Louwrance P.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettina; Schaller, Andreas; Stintzi, Annick

    2014-01-01

    The jasmonate family of growth regulators includes the isoleucine (Ile) conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA-Ile) and its biosynthetic precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) as signaling molecules. To assess the relative contribution of JA/JA-Ile and OPDA to insect resistance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we silenced the expression of OPDA reductase3 (OPR3) by RNA interference (RNAi). Consistent with a block in the biosynthetic pathway downstream of OPDA, OPR3-RNAi plants contained wild-type levels of OPDA but failed to accumulate JA or JA-Ile after wounding. JA/JA-Ile deficiency in OPR3-RNAi plants resulted in reduced trichome formation and impaired monoterpene and sesquiterpene production. The loss of these JA/JA-Ile -dependent defense traits rendered them more attractive to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta with respect to feeding and oviposition. Oviposition preference resulted from reduced levels of repellant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Feeding preference, on the other hand, was caused by increased production of cis-3-hexenal acting as a feeding stimulant for M. sexta larvae in OPR3-RNAi plants. Despite impaired constitutive defenses and increased palatability of OPR3-RNAi leaves, larval development was indistinguishable on OPR3-RNAi and wild-type plants, and was much delayed compared with development on the jasmonic acid-insensitive1 (jai1) mutant. Apparently, signaling through JAI1, the tomato ortholog of the ubiquitin ligase CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is required for defense, whereas the conversion of OPDA to JA/JA-Ile is not. Comparing the signaling activities of OPDA and JA/JA-Ile, we found that OPDA can substitute for JA/JA-Ile in the local induction of defense gene expression, but the production of JA/JA-Ile is required for a systemic response. PMID:25073705

  4. Disentangling the initiation from the response in joint attention: an eye-tracking study in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Billeci, L; Narzisi, A; Campatelli, G; Crifaci, G; Calderoni, S; Gagliano, A; Calzone, C; Colombi, C; Pioggia, G; Muratori, F

    2016-01-01

    Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2). Gaze accuracy, transitions and fixations were analyzed. No differences were found in the responding JA task between children with ASD and those with TD, whereas, in the initiating JA tasks, different patterns of fixation and transitions were shown between the groups. These results suggest that children with ASD and those with TD show different visual patterns when they are expected to initiate joint attention but not when they respond to joint attention. We hypothesized that differences in transitions and fixations are linked to ASD impairments in visual disengagement from face, in global scanning of the scene and in the ability to anticipate object's action.

  5. Disentangling the initiation from the response in joint attention: an eye-tracking study in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Billeci, L; Narzisi, A; Campatelli, G; Crifaci, G; Calderoni, S; Gagliano, A; Calzone, C; Colombi, C; Pioggia, G; Muratori, F

    2016-01-01

    Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2). Gaze accuracy, transitions and fixations were analyzed. No differences were found in the responding JA task between children with ASD and those with TD, whereas, in the initiating JA tasks, different patterns of fixation and transitions were shown between the groups. These results suggest that children with ASD and those with TD show different visual patterns when they are expected to initiate joint attention but not when they respond to joint attention. We hypothesized that differences in transitions and fixations are linked to ASD impairments in visual disengagement from face, in global scanning of the scene and in the ability to anticipate object's action. PMID:27187230

  6. Disentangling the initiation from the response in joint attention: an eye-tracking study in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Billeci, L; Narzisi, A; Campatelli, G; Crifaci, G; Calderoni, S; Gagliano, A; Calzone, C; Colombi, C; Pioggia, G; Muratori, F; Raso, Rossella; Ruta, Liliana; Rossi, Ilaria; Ballarani, Agnese; Fulceri, Francesca; Darini, Alessandra; Maroscia, Emilia; Lattarulo, Caterina; Tortorella, Gaetano; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Comminiello, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2). Gaze accuracy, transitions and fixations were analyzed. No differences were found in the responding JA task between children with ASD and those with TD, whereas, in the initiating JA tasks, different patterns of fixation and transitions were shown between the groups. These results suggest that children with ASD and those with TD show different visual patterns when they are expected to initiate joint attention but not when they respond to joint attention. We hypothesized that differences in transitions and fixations are linked to ASD impairments in visual disengagement from face, in global scanning of the scene and in the ability to anticipate object's action. PMID:27187230

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Inactivation of the Hormone Jasmonoyl-l-Isoleucine by Multiple Members of the Cytochrome P450 94 Family in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J.; Thireault, Caitlin; Zemelis, Starla; Poudel, Arati N.; Zhang, Tong; Kitaoka, Naoki; Brandizzi, Federica; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) controls diverse aspects of plant immunity, growth, and development. The amplitude and duration of JA responses are controlled in large part by the intracellular level of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile). In contrast to detailed knowledge of the JA-Ile biosynthetic pathway, little is known about enzymes involved in JA-Ile metabolism and turnover. Cytochromes P450 (CYP) 94B3 and 94C1 were recently shown to sequentially oxidize JA-Ile to hydroxy (12OH-JA-Ile) and dicarboxy (12COOH-JA-Ile) derivatives. Here, we report that a third member (CYP94B1) of the CYP94 family also participates in oxidative turnover of JA-Ile in Arabidopsis. In vitro studies showed that recombinant CYP94B1 converts JA-Ile to 12OH-JA-Ile and lesser amounts of 12COOH-JA-Ile. Consistent with this finding, metabolic and physiological characterization of CYP94B1 loss-of-function and overexpressing plants demonstrated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 coordinately govern the majority (>95%) of 12-hydroxylation of JA-Ile in wounded leaves. Analysis of CYP94-promoter-GUS reporter lines indicated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 serve unique and overlapping spatio-temporal roles in JA-Ile homeostasis. Subcellular localization studies showed that CYP94s involved in conversion of JA-Ile to 12COOH-JA-Ile reside on endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In vitro studies further showed that 12COOH-JA-Ile, unlike JA-Ile, fails to promote assembly of COI1-JAZ co-receptor complexes. The double loss-of-function mutant of CYP94B3 and ILL6, a JA-Ile amidohydrolase, displayed a JA profile consistent with the collaborative action of the oxidative and the hydrolytic pathways in JA-Ile turnover. Collectively, our results provide an integrated view of how multiple ER-localized CYP94 and JA amidohydrolase enzymes attenuate JA signaling during stress responses. PMID:25210037

  8. Phlegmasia cerulea dolens

    MedlinePlus

    Deep vein thrombosis - Phlegmasia cerulea dolens; DVT - Phlegmasia cerulea dolens; Phlegmasia alba dolens ... 81. Kline JA. Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  9. Natal teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:chap 12. Dean JA, Turner EG. Eruption of the teeth: local, systemic, and congenital factors that influence the process. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child ...

  10. Identification of jasmonic acid and its methyl ester as gum-inducing factors in tulips.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Edyta; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify endogenous factors that induce gummosis and to show their role in gummosis in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) stems. Using procedures to detect endogenous factors that induce gum in the stem of tulips, jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) were successfully identified using gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total amounts of JA and JA-Me designated as jasmonates in tulip stems were also estimated at about 70-80 ng/g fresh weight, using deuterium-labeled jasmonates as internal standards. The application of JA and JA-Me as lanolin pastes substantially induced gums in tulip stems with ethylene production. The application of ethephon, an ethylene-generating compound, however, induced no gummosis although it slightly affected jasmonate content in tulip stems. These results strongly suggest that JA and JA-Me are endogenous factors that induce gummosis in tulip stems.

  11. Juvenile Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss ... common type of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of ...

  12. 17 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 45 - Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 45—Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data ER13JA12.003 ER13JA12.004 ER13JA12.005 ER13JA12.006... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data 1 Appendix 1 to Part 45 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES...

  13. Hormone crosstalk in wound stress response: wound-inducible amidohydrolases can simultaneously regulate jasmonate and auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Poudel, Arati N; Jewell, Jeremy B; Kitaoka, Naoki; Staswick, Paul; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Koo, Abraham J

    2016-03-01

    Jasmonate (JA) and auxin are essential hormones in plant development and stress responses. While the two govern distinct physiological processes, their signaling pathways interact at various levels. Recently, members of the Arabidopsis indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) amidohydrolase (IAH) family were reported to metabolize jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), a bioactive form of JA. Here, we characterized three IAH members, ILR1, ILL6, and IAR3, for their function in JA and IAA metabolism and signaling. Expression of all three genes in leaves was up-regulated by wounding or JA, but not by IAA. Purified recombinant proteins showed overlapping but distinct substrate specificities for diverse amino acid conjugates of JA and IAA. Perturbed patterns of the endogenous JA profile in plants overexpressing or knocked-out for the three genes were consistent with ILL6 and IAR3, but not ILR1, being the JA amidohydrolases. Increased turnover of JA-Ile in the ILL6- and IAR3-overexpressing plants created symptoms of JA deficiency whereas increased free IAA by overexpression of ILR1 and IAR3 made plants hypersensitive to exogenous IAA conjugates. Surprisingly, ILL6 overexpression rendered plants highly resistant to exogenous IAA conjugates, indicating its interference with IAA conjugate hydrolysis. Fluorescent protein-tagged IAR3 and ILL6 co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum-localized JA-Ile 12-hydroxylase, CYP94B3. Together, these results demonstrate that in wounded leaves JA-inducible amidohydrolases contribute to regulate active IAA and JA-Ile levels, promoting auxin signaling while attenuating JA signaling. This mechanism represents an example of a metabolic-level crosstalk between the auxin and JA signaling pathways.

  14. Hormone crosstalk in wound stress response: wound-inducible amidohydrolases can simultaneously regulate jasmonate and auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Poudel, Arati N.; Jewell, Jeremy B.; Kitaoka, Naoki; Staswick, Paul; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Koo, Abraham J.

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) and auxin are essential hormones in plant development and stress responses. While the two govern distinct physiological processes, their signaling pathways interact at various levels. Recently, members of the Arabidopsis indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) amidohydrolase (IAH) family were reported to metabolize jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), a bioactive form of JA. Here, we characterized three IAH members, ILR1, ILL6, and IAR3, for their function in JA and IAA metabolism and signaling. Expression of all three genes in leaves was up-regulated by wounding or JA, but not by IAA. Purified recombinant proteins showed overlapping but distinct substrate specificities for diverse amino acid conjugates of JA and IAA. Perturbed patterns of the endogenous JA profile in plants overexpressing or knocked-out for the three genes were consistent with ILL6 and IAR3, but not ILR1, being the JA amidohydrolases. Increased turnover of JA-Ile in the ILL6- and IAR3-overexpressing plants created symptoms of JA deficiency whereas increased free IAA by overexpression of ILR1 and IAR3 made plants hypersensitive to exogenous IAA conjugates. Surprisingly, ILL6 overexpression rendered plants highly resistant to exogenous IAA conjugates, indicating its interference with IAA conjugate hydrolysis. Fluorescent protein-tagged IAR3 and ILL6 co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum-localized JA-Ile 12-hydroxylase, CYP94B3. Together, these results demonstrate that in wounded leaves JA-inducible amidohydrolases contribute to regulate active IAA and JA-Ile levels, promoting auxin signaling while attenuating JA signaling. This mechanism represents an example of a metabolic-level crosstalk between the auxin and JA signaling pathways. PMID:26672615

  15. Cytochromes P450 CYP94C1 and CYP94B3 Catalyze Two Successive Oxidation Steps of Plant Hormone Jasmonoyl-isoleucine for Catabolic Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Heitz, Thierry; Widemann, Emilie; Lugan, Raphaël; Miesch, Laurence; Ullmann, Pascaline; Désaubry, Laurent; Holder, Emilie; Grausem, Bernard; Kandel, Sylvie; Miesch, Michel; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Pinot, Franck

    2012-01-01

    The jasmonate hormonal pathway regulates important defensive and developmental processes in plants. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) has been identified as a specific ligand binding the COI1-JAZ co-receptor to relieve repression of jasmonate responses. Two JA-Ile derivatives, 12OH-JA-Ile and 12COOH-JA-Ile, accumulate in wounded Arabidopsis leaves in a COI1- and JAR1-dependent manner and reflect catabolic turnover of the hormone. Here we report the biochemical and genetic characterization of two wound-inducible cytochromes P450, CYP94C1 and CYP94B3, that are involved in JA-Ile oxidation. Both enzymes expressed in yeast catalyze two successive oxidation steps of JA-Ile with distinct characteristics. CYP94B3 performed efficiently the initial hydroxylation of JA-Ile to 12OH-JA-Ile, with little conversion to 12COOH-JA-Ile, whereas CYP94C1 catalyzed preferentially carboxy-derivative formation. Metabolic analysis of loss- and gain-of-function plant lines were consistent with in vitro enzymatic properties. cyp94b3 mutants were largely impaired in 12OH-JA-Ile levels upon wounding and to a lesser extent in 12COOH-JA-Ile levels. In contrast, cyp94c1 plants showed wild-type 12OH-JA-Ile accumulation but lost about 60% 12COOH-JA-Ile. cyp94b3cyp94c1 double mutants hyperaccumulated JA-Ile with near abolition of 12COOH-JA-Ile. Distinct JA-Ile oxidation patterns in different plant genotypes were correlated with specific JA-responsive transcript profiles, indicating that JA-Ile oxidation status affects signaling. Interestingly, exaggerated JA-Ile levels were associated with JAZ repressor hyperinduction but did not enhance durably defense gene induction, revealing a novel negative feedback signaling loop. Finally, interfering with CYP94 gene expression affected root growth sensitivity to exogenous jasmonic acid. These results identify CYP94B3/C1-mediated oxidation as a major catabolic route for turning over the JA-Ile hormone. PMID:22215670

  16. Triacontanol negatively modulates the jasmonic acid-stimulated proteinase inhibitors in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Ramanarayan, Krishnamurthy; Swamy, Gangadharamurthy Sivakumar

    2004-04-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA), a long chain aliphatic alcohol (C30H61OH) reverses the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) in inducing proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in tomato leaves. Porcine pancreas trypsin and Spodoptera litura gut proteinases were inhibited in the presence of leaf proteins treated with JA, and TRIA partially reverses this effect. Spodoptera litura larvae fed with tomato leaves treated with JA were reduced in body weight and TRIA is able to partially reverse this JA-induced effect. These results reflect the partial reversal effect of TRIA in down regulating the JA-induced production of proteinase inhibitors.

  17. A previously undescribed jasmonate compound in flowering Arabidopsis thaliana - The identification of cis-(+)-OPDA-Ile.

    PubMed

    Floková, Kristýna; Feussner, Kirstin; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Miersch, Otto; Mik, Václav; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Feussner, Ivo; Wasternack, Claus; Novák, Ondřej

    2016-02-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that integrate external stress stimuli with physiological responses. (+)-7-iso-JA-L-Ile is the natural JA ligand of COI1, a component of a known JA receptor. The upstream JA biosynthetic precursor cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-(+)-OPDA) has been reported to act independently of COI1 as an essential signal in several stress-induced and developmental processes. Wound-induced increases in the endogenous levels of JA/JA-Ile are accompanied by two to tenfold increases in the concentration of OPDA, but its means of perception and metabolism are unknown. To screen for putative OPDA metabolites, vegetative tissues of flowering Arabidopsis thaliana were extracted with 25% aqueous methanol (v/v), purified by single-step reversed-phase polymer-based solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by high throughput mass spectrometry. This enabled the detection and quantitation of a low abundant OPDA analog of the biologically active (+)-7-iso-JA-L-Ile in plant tissue samples. Levels of the newly identified compound and the related phytohormones JA, JA-Ile and cis-(+)-OPDA were monitored in wounded leaves of flowering Arabidopsis lines (Col-0 and Ws) and compared to the levels observed in Arabidopsis mutants deficient in the biosynthesis of JA (dde2-2, opr3) and JA-Ile (jar1). The observed cis-(+)-OPDA-Ile levels varied widely, raising questions concerning its role in Arabidopsis stress responses.

  18. Generating and maintaining jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Youbong; Lee, Ilha

    2008-10-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a lipid-derived plant hormone that mediates diverse biological phenomena. It is one of major goals in JA research field to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of JA level. Recently we have demonstrated cooperative and differentiated roles of two chloroplast localized galactolipases, DGL (DONGLE) and DAD1 (DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCENCE 1), for the regulation of JA content. The DGL maintains a basal level of JA in unwounded vegetative tissues, while the DAD1 is involved in JA production in floral tissues. The JA in vegetative tissues regulates cell expansion while the JA produced in flowers regulates pollen maturation. After wounding, the cooperative function of DGL and DAD1 causes drastic increase of JA. The analysis of induction kinetics showed that the two enzymes have temporally separated roles in wound response; DGL in early phase and DAD1 in late phase of JA production. In this addendum, we discuss the implications of our recent findings and extend our working model for JA homeostasis in plants.

  19. A fluorescent hormone biosensor reveals the dynamics of jasmonate signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Antoine; Champion, Antony; Legrand, Jonathan; Lavenus, Julien; Mast, David; Brunoud, Géraldine; Oh, Jaesung; Guyomarc'h, Soazig; Pizot, Maxime; Farmer, Edward E; Turnbull, Colin; Vernoux, Teva; Bennett, Malcolm J; Laplaze, Laurent

    2015-01-16

    Activated forms of jasmonic acid (JA) are central signals coordinating plant responses to stresses, yet tools to analyse their spatial and temporal distribution are lacking. Here we describe a JA perception biosensor termed Jas9-VENUS that allows the quantification of dynamic changes in JA distribution in response to stress with high spatiotemporal sensitivity. We show that Jas9-VENUS abundance is dependent on bioactive JA isoforms, the COI1 co-receptor, a functional Jas motif and proteasome activity. We demonstrate the utility of Jas9-VENUS to analyse responses to JA in planta at a cellular scale, both quantitatively and dynamically. This included using Jas9-VENUS to determine the cotyledon-to-root JA signal velocities on wounding, revealing two distinct phases of JA activity in the root. Our results demonstrate the value of developing quantitative sensors such as Jas9-VENUS to provide high-resolution spatiotemporal data about hormone distribution in response to plant abiotic and biotic stresses.

  20. OsJAR1 and OsJAR2 are jasmonyl-L-isoleucine synthases involved in wound- and pathogen-induced jasmonic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Wakuta, Shinji; Suzuki, Erika; Saburi, Wataru; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Imai, Ryozo; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2011-06-17

    The synthesis of JA-Ile was catalysed by JA-Ile synthase, which is a member of the group I GH3 family of proteins. Here, we showed evidence that OsGH3.5 (OsJAR1) and OsGH3.3 (OsJAR2) are the functional JA-Ile synthases in rice, using recombinant proteins. The expression levels of OsJAR1 and OsJAR2 were induced in response to wounding with the concomitant accumulation of JA-Ile. In contrast, only the expression of OsJAR1 was associated with the accumulation of JA-Ile after blast infection. Our data suggest that these two JA-Ile synthases are differentially involved in the activation of JA signalling in response to wounding and pathogen challenge in rice. PMID:21619871

  1. OsJAR1 and OsJAR2 are jasmonyl-L-isoleucine synthases involved in wound- and pathogen-induced jasmonic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Wakuta, Shinji; Suzuki, Erika; Saburi, Wataru; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Imai, Ryozo; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2011-06-17

    The synthesis of JA-Ile was catalysed by JA-Ile synthase, which is a member of the group I GH3 family of proteins. Here, we showed evidence that OsGH3.5 (OsJAR1) and OsGH3.3 (OsJAR2) are the functional JA-Ile synthases in rice, using recombinant proteins. The expression levels of OsJAR1 and OsJAR2 were induced in response to wounding with the concomitant accumulation of JA-Ile. In contrast, only the expression of OsJAR1 was associated with the accumulation of JA-Ile after blast infection. Our data suggest that these two JA-Ile synthases are differentially involved in the activation of JA signalling in response to wounding and pathogen challenge in rice.

  2. Jasmonate induction of the monoterpene linalool confers resistance to rice bacterial blight and its biosynthesis is regulated by JAZ protein in rice.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Shiduku; Hosokawa-Shinonaga, Yumi; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Yamada, Shoko; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in the regulation of host immunity in plants. Recently, we demonstrated that JA signalling has an important role in resistance to rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in rice. Here, we report that many volatile compounds accumulate in response to exogenous application of JA, including the monoterpene linalool. Expression of linalool synthase was up-regulated by JA. Vapour treatment with linalool induced resistance to Xoo, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing linalool synthase were more resistance to Xoo, presumably due to the up-regulation of defence-related genes in the absence of any treatment. JA-induced accumulation of linalool was regulated by OsJAZ8, a rice jasmonate ZIM-domain protein involving the JA signalling pathway at the transcriptional level, suggesting that linalool plays an important role in JA-induced resistance to Xoo in rice.

  3. Wound-induced expression of DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCENCE1 and DAD1-like lipase genes is mediated by both CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1-dependent and independent pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ruduś, Izabela; Terai, Haruka; Shimizu, Takafumi; Kojima, Hisae; Hattori, Kazuki; Nishimori, Yuka; Tsukagoshi, Hironaka; Kamiya, Yuji; Seo, Mitsunori; Nakamura, Kenzo; Kępczyński, Jan; Ishiguro, Sumie

    2014-06-01

    Endogenous JA production is not necessary for wound-induced expression of JA-biosynthetic lipase genes such as DAD1 in Arabidopsis. However, the JA-Ile receptor COI1 is often required for their JA-independent induction. Wounding is a serious event in plants that may result from insect feeding and increase the risk of pathogen infection. Wounded plants produce high amounts of jasmonic acid (JA), which triggers the expression of insect and pathogen resistance genes. We focused on the transcriptional regulation of DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCENCE1 and six of its homologs including DONGLE (DGL) in Arabidopsis, which encode lipases involved in JA biosynthesis. Plants constitutively expressing DAD1 accumulated a higher amount of JA than control plants after wounding, indicating that the expression of these lipase genes contributes to determining JA levels. We found that the expression of DAD1, DGL, and other DAD1-LIKE LIPASE (DALL) genes is induced upon wounding. Some DALLs were also expressed in unwounded leaves. Further experiments using JA-biosynthetic and JA-response mutants revealed that the wound induction of these genes is regulated by several distinct pathways. DAD1 and most of its homologs other than DALL4 were fully induced without relying on endogenous JA-Ile production and were only partly affected by JA deficiency, indicating that positive feedback by JA is not necessary for induction of these genes. However, DAD1 and DGL required CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) for their expression, suggesting that a molecule other than JA might act as a regulator of COI1. Wound induction of DALL1, DALL2, and DALL3 did not require COI1. This differential regulation of DAD1 and its homologs might explain their functions at different time points after wounding.

  4. Jasmonoyl-l-Isoleucine Coordinates Metabolic Networks Required for Anthesis and Floral Attractant Emission in Wild Tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata)[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Stitz, Michael; Hartl, Markus; Baldwin, Ian T.; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates [JAs]) play central roles in floral development and maturation. The binding of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) to the F-box of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is required for many JA-dependent physiological responses, but its role in anthesis and pollinator attraction traits remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, which develops sympetalous flowers with complex pollination biology, to examine the coordinating function of JA homeostasis in the distinct metabolic processes that underlie flower maturation, opening, and advertisement to pollinators. From combined transcriptomic, targeted metabolic, and allometric analyses of transgenic N. attenuata plants for which signaling deficiencies were complemented with methyl jasmonate, JA-Ile, and its functional homolog, coronatine (COR), we demonstrate that (1) JA-Ile/COR-based signaling regulates corolla limb opening and a JA-negative feedback loop; (2) production of floral volatiles (night emissions of benzylacetone) and nectar requires JA-Ile/COR perception through COI1; and (3) limb expansion involves JA-Ile-induced changes in limb fresh mass and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings demonstrate a master regulatory function of the JA-Ile/COI1 duet for the main function of a sympetalous corolla, that of advertising for and rewarding pollinator services. Flower opening, by contrast, requires JA-Ile signaling-dependent changes in primary metabolism, which are not compromised in the COI1-silenced RNA interference line used in this study. PMID:25326292

  5. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment.

  6. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment. PMID:22744011

  7. Linking Jasmonic Acid to Grapevine Resistance against the Biotrophic Oomycete Plasmopara viticola

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro, Ana; Figueiredo, Joana; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens is classically believed to be mediated through salicylic acid (SA) signaling leading to hypersensitive response followed by the establishment of Systemic Acquired Resistance. Jasmonic acid (JA) signaling has extensively been associated to the defense against necrotrophic pathogens and insects inducing the accumulation of secondary metabolites and PR proteins. Moreover, it is believed that plants infected with biotrophic fungi suppress JA-mediated responses. However, recent evidences have shown that certain biotrophic fungal species also trigger the activation of JA-mediated responses, suggesting a new role for JA in the defense against fungal biotrophs. Plasmopara viticola is a biotrophic oomycete responsible for the grapevine downy mildew, one of the most important diseases in viticulture. In this perspective, we show recent evidences of JA participation in grapevine resistance against P. viticola, outlining the hypothesis of JA involvement in the establishment of an incompatible interaction with this biotroph. We also show that in the first hours after P. viticola inoculation the levels of OPDA, JA, JA-Ile, and SA increase together with an increase of expression of genes associated to JA and SA signaling pathways. Our data suggests that, on the first hours after P. viticola inoculation, JA signaling pathway is activated and the outcomes of JA–SA interactions may be tailored in the defense response against this biotrophic pathogen. PMID:27200038

  8. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine coordinates metabolic networks required for anthesis and floral attractant emission in wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata).

    PubMed

    Stitz, Michael; Hartl, Markus; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates [JAs]) play central roles in floral development and maturation. The binding of jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) to the F-box of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is required for many JA-dependent physiological responses, but its role in anthesis and pollinator attraction traits remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, which develops sympetalous flowers with complex pollination biology, to examine the coordinating function of JA homeostasis in the distinct metabolic processes that underlie flower maturation, opening, and advertisement to pollinators. From combined transcriptomic, targeted metabolic, and allometric analyses of transgenic N. attenuata plants for which signaling deficiencies were complemented with methyl jasmonate, JA-Ile, and its functional homolog, coronatine (COR), we demonstrate that (1) JA-Ile/COR-based signaling regulates corolla limb opening and a JA-negative feedback loop; (2) production of floral volatiles (night emissions of benzylacetone) and nectar requires JA-Ile/COR perception through COI1; and (3) limb expansion involves JA-Ile-induced changes in limb fresh mass and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings demonstrate a master regulatory function of the JA-Ile/COI1 duet for the main function of a sympetalous corolla, that of advertising for and rewarding pollinator services. Flower opening, by contrast, requires JA-Ile signaling-dependent changes in primary metabolism, which are not compromised in the COI1-silenced RNA interference line used in this study.

  9. Jasmonates in flower and seed development.

    PubMed

    Wasternack, Claus; Forner, Susanne; Strnad, Miroslav; Hause, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates are ubiquitously occurring lipid-derived signaling compounds active in plant development and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Upon environmental stimuli jasmonates are formed and accumulate transiently. During flower and seed development, jasmonic acid (JA) and a remarkable number of different metabolites accumulate organ- and tissue specifically. The accumulation is accompanied with expression of jasmonate-inducible genes. Among these genes there are defense genes and developmentally regulated genes. The profile of jasmonate compounds in flowers and seeds covers active signaling molecules such as JA, its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) and amino acid conjugates such as JA-Ile, but also inactive signaling molecules occur such as 12-hydroxy-JA and its sulfated derivative. These latter compounds can occur at several orders of magnitude higher level than JA. Metabolic conversion of JA and JA-Ile to hydroxylated compounds seems to inactivate JA signaling, but also specific functions of jasmonates in flower and seed development were detected. In tomato OPDA is involved in embryo development. Occurrence of jasmonates, expression of JA-inducible genes and JA-dependent processes in flower and seed development will be discussed. PMID:22705387

  10. Enhancement of root hydraulic conductivity by methyl jasmonate and the role of calcium and abscisic acid in this process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Romera, Beatriz; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Li, Guowei; Luu, Doan-Trung; Martínez-Ballesta, Maria del Carmen; Carvajal, Micaela; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Maurel, Christophe; Aroca, Ricardo

    2014-04-01

    The role of jasmonic acid in the induction of stomatal closure is well known. However, its role in regulating root hydraulic conductivity (L) has not yet been explored. The objectives of the present research were to evaluate how JA regulates L and how calcium and abscisic acid (ABA) could be involved in such regulation. We found that exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) increased L of Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum lycopersicum and Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Tomato plants defective in JA biosynthesis had lower values of L than wild-type plants, and that L was restored by addition of MeJA. The increase of L by MeJA was accompanied by an increase of the phosphorylation state of the aquaporin PIP2. We observed that MeJA addition increased the concentration of cytosolic calcium and that calcium channel blockers inhibited the rise of L caused by MeJA. Treatment with fluoridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, partially inhibited the increase of L caused by MeJA, and tomato plants defective in ABA biosynthesis increased their L after application of MeJA. It is concluded that JA enhances L and that this enhancement is linked to calcium and ABA dependent and independent signalling pathways. PMID:24131347

  11. Jasmonic acid is involved in the signaling pathway for fungal endophyte-induced volatile oil accumulation of Atractylodes lancea plantlets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized signaling molecule in plant defense responses. However, its relationships with other signal molecules in secondary metabolite production induced by endophytic fungus are largely unknown. Atractylodes lancea (Asteraceae) is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant that produces antimicrobial volatiles oils. We incubated plantlets of A. lancea with the fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12. to research how JA interacted with other signal molecules in volatile oil production. Results Fungal inoculation increased JA generation and volatile oil accumulation. To investigate whether JA is required for volatile oil production, plantlets were treated with JA inhibitors ibuprofen (IBU) and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. The inhibitors suppressed both JA and volatile oil production, but fungal inoculation could still induce volatile oils. Plantlets were further treated with the nitric oxide (NO)-specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO), the H2O2 inhibitors diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and catalase (CAT), and the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis inhibitors paclobutrazol and 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid. With fungal inoculation, IBU did not inhibit NO production, and JA generation was significantly suppressed by cPTIO, showing that JA may act as a downstream signal of the NO pathway. Exogenous H2O2 could reverse the inhibitory effects of cPTIO on JA generation, indicating that NO mediates JA induction by the fungus through H2O2-dependent pathways. With fungal inoculation, the H2O2 scavenger DPI/CAT could inhibit JA generation, but IBU could not inhibit H2O2 production, implying that H2O2 directly mediated JA generation. Finally, JA generation was enhanced when SA production was suppressed, and vice versa. Conclusions Jasmonic acid acts as a downstream signaling molecule in NO- and H2O2-mediated volatile oil accumulation induced by endophytic fungus and has a complementary

  12. Development of marker genes for jasmonic acid signaling in shoots and roots of wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongwei; Carvalhais, Lilia Costa; Kazan, Kemal; Schenk, Peer M

    2016-05-01

    The jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays key roles in a diverse array of plant development, reproduction, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of our understanding of the JA signaling pathway derives from the dicot model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, while corresponding knowledge in wheat is somewhat limited. In this study, the expression of 41 genes implicated in the JA signaling pathway has been assessed on 10 day-old bread wheat seedlings, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment using quantitative real-time PCR. The examined genes have been previously reported to be involved in JA biosynthesis and catabolism, JA perception and signaling, and pathogen defense in wheat shoots and roots. This study provides evidence to suggest that the effect of MeJA treatment is more prominent in shoots than roots of wheat seedlings, and substantial regulation of the JA pathway-dependent defense genes occurs at 72 h after MeJA treatment. Results show that the expression of 22 genes was significantly affected by MeJA treatment in wheat shoots. However, only PR1.1 and PR3 were significantly differentially expressed in wheat roots, both at 24 h post-MeJA treatment, with other genes showing large variation in their gene expression in roots. While providing marker genes on JA signaling in wheat, future work may focus on elucidating the regulatory function of JA-modulated transcription factors, some of which have well-studied potential orthologs in Arabidopsis. PMID:27115051

  13. Salicylate-mediated suppression of jasmonate-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis is targeted downstream of the jasmonate biosynthesis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Van der Does, Dieuwertje; De Lange, Elvira S.; Delker, Carolin; Wasternack, Claus; Van Wees, Saskia C. M.; Ritsema, Tita

    2010-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) and salicylic acid (SA) are plant hormones that play pivotal roles in the regulation of induced defenses against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores. Their signaling pathways cross-communicate providing the plant with a regulatory potential to finely tune its defense response to the attacker(s) encountered. In Arabidopsis thaliana, SA strongly antagonizes the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, resulting in the downregulation of a large set of JA-responsive genes, including the marker genes PDF1.2 and VSP2. Induction of JA-responsive marker gene expression by different JA derivatives was equally sensitive to SA-mediated suppression. Activation of genes encoding key enzymes in the JA biosynthesis pathway, such as LOX2, AOS, AOC2, and OPR3 was also repressed by SA, suggesting that the JA biosynthesis pathway may be a target for SA-mediated antagonism. To test this, we made use of the mutant aos/dde2, which is completely blocked in its ability to produce JAs because of a mutation in the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene. Mutant aos/dde2 plants did not express the JA-responsive marker genes PDF1.2 or VSP2 in response to infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola or the herbivorous insect Pieris rapae. Bypassing JA biosynthesis by exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) rescued this JA-responsive phenotype in aos/dde2. Application of SA suppressed MeJA-induced PDF1.2 expression to the same level in the aos/dde2 mutant as in wild-type Col-0 plants, indicating that SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression is targeted at a position downstream of the JA biosynthesis pathway. PMID:20839007

  14. Effect of jasmonic acid elicitation on the yield, chemical composition, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oil of lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Złotek, Urszula; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Szymanowska, Urszula

    2016-12-15

    The effect of elicitation with jasmonic acid (JA) on the plant yield, the production and composition of essential oils of lettuce leaf basil was evaluated. JA-elicitation slightly affected the yield of plants and significantly increased the amount of essential oils produced by basil - the highest oil yield (0.78±0.005mL/100gdw) was achieved in plants elicited with 100μM JA. The application of the tested elicitor also influenced the chemical composition of basil essential oils - 100μM JA increased the linalool, eugenol, and limonene levels, while 1μM JA caused the highest increase in the methyl eugenol content. Essential oils from JA-elicited basil (especially 1μM and 100μM) exhibited more effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential; therefore, this inducer may be a very useful biochemical tool for improving production and composition of herbal essential oils.

  15. Functional diversity of jasmonates in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Shumin; Sun, Ning; Liu, Hongyun; Zhao, Yanhong; Liang, Yuling; Zhang, Liping; Han, Yuanhuai

    2015-12-01

    Phytohormone jasmonates (JA) play essential roles in plants, such as regulating development and growth, responding to environmental changes, and resisting abiotic and biotic stresses. During signaling, JA interacts, either synergistically or antagonistically, with other hormones, such as salicylic acid (SA), gibberellin (GA), ethylene (ET), auxin, brassinosteroid (BR), and abscisic acid (ABA), to regulate gene expression in regulatory networks, conferring physiological and metabolic adjustments in plants. As an important staple crop, rice is a major nutritional source for human beings and feeds one third of the world's population. Recent years have seen significant progress in the understanding of the JA pathway in rice. In this review, we summarize the diverse functions of JA, and discuss the JA interplay with other hormones, as well as light, in this economically important crop. We believe that a better understanding of the JA pathway will lead to practical biotechnological applications in rice breeding and cultivation. PMID:26054241

  16. Effect of jasmonic acid elicitation on the yield, chemical composition, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oil of lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Złotek, Urszula; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Szymanowska, Urszula

    2016-12-15

    The effect of elicitation with jasmonic acid (JA) on the plant yield, the production and composition of essential oils of lettuce leaf basil was evaluated. JA-elicitation slightly affected the yield of plants and significantly increased the amount of essential oils produced by basil - the highest oil yield (0.78±0.005mL/100gdw) was achieved in plants elicited with 100μM JA. The application of the tested elicitor also influenced the chemical composition of basil essential oils - 100μM JA increased the linalool, eugenol, and limonene levels, while 1μM JA caused the highest increase in the methyl eugenol content. Essential oils from JA-elicited basil (especially 1μM and 100μM) exhibited more effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential; therefore, this inducer may be a very useful biochemical tool for improving production and composition of herbal essential oils. PMID:27451148

  17. Book review of Dragonfly Genera of the New World. An Illustrated and Annotated Key to the Anisoptera. Garrison, R.W., N. Von Ellenrieder and J.A. Louton, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, MD. xi+368 pp. Hardback, ISBN 0-8018-8446-2

    SciTech Connect

    Cannings, R.A.

    2007-03-15

    This superb book is the most important reference on the Order Odonata to appear since the 1999 publication of Philip Corbet's monumental work on the behavior and ecology of Odonata. In the context of specimen identification and faunistics, it is the most significant contribution in decades, for it opens a new door to the most diverse and least known dragonfly fauna on Earth, that of the Neotropical Region. The book treats the genera of all the New World dragonflies, but while the Nearctic Anisoptera (at least north of the Mexican border) is extensively summarized in many taxonomic and identification manuals (e.g., Needham et al. 2000), the Neotropical fauna remains rather poorly known. Much of it still is undescribed and taxonomic syntheses are few and far between. This is partly because of its huge diversity, the remoteness of much of the region, and the relative scarcity of specimens in collections. As T. W. Donnelly (2006) noted in a recent review of this book, the New World tropics have always been a challenge to biologists in many disciplines because the region was first colonized by the Spanish and Portuguese who largely lacked the tradition of natural history studies characteristic of the British, French, Dutch and Germans in Africa, India or Southeast Asia. In South America there simply was no F. C. Fraser to write an equivalent to his three volumes on the Odonata in The Fauna of British India. Borror (1945) was an early and wonderful resource for deciphering the genera of the large family Libellulidae in the Americas. Calvert's hard-to-find contributions on the Odonata (1902-1908) in the Biologia Centrali-Americana helped students of the Central American fauna; the updated equivalent by Foerster (2001) for Mesoamerican genera is also important. But as far as syntheses and overviews, that's about all there was - until now.

  18. IM-CRDS for the analysis of matrix-bound water isotopes: a streamlined (and updated) tool for ecohydrologists to probe small-scale variability in plants Yasuhara, S. (syasuhara@picarro.com)1,Carter, J.A. (jcarter@picarro.com)1, Dennis, K.J. (kdennis@picarro.com)1 1Picarro Inc., 3105 Patrick Henry Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to measure the isotopic composition of matrix-bound water is valuable to many facets of earth and environmental sciences. For example, ecohydrologists use stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in plant and soil water, in combination with measurements of atmospheric water vapor, surface water and precipitation, to estimate budgets of evapotranspiration. Likewise, water isotopes of oceanic water, brines and other waters with high total dissolved solids (TDS, e.g., juices) are relevant to studying large-scale oceanic circulation, small-scale mixing, groundwater contamination, the balance of evaporation to precipitation, and the provenance of food. Conventionally matrix-bound water has been extracted using cryogenic distillation, whereby water is distilled from the material in question (e.g., a leaf sample) by heating under vacuum and collecting the resultant water vapor using liquid nitrogen. The water can then be analyzed for its stable isotopic composition by a variety of methods, including isotope ratio mass spectrometry and laser techniques, such as Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). Here we present recent improvements in an alternative, and stream-lined, solution for integrated sample extraction and isotopic measurement using a Picarro Induction Module (IM) coupled to commercially-available CRDS analyzer from Picarro. This technique is also valuable for waters with high TDS, which can have detrimental effects on flash vaporization process, typically used for the introduction of water to Picarro CRDS water isotope analyzers. The IM works by inductively heating a sample held within a metal sample holder in a glass vial flushed with dry air. Tested samples include leaves, stems, twigs, calibration water, juices, and salt water. The heating process evolves water vapor which is then swept through the system at approximately 150 standard cubic centimeters per minute. The evolved water vapor passes through an activated charcoal cartridge for removal of large organics, and then through Picarro's Micro-Combustion Cartridge that acts to oxidize interfering organics to CO2 and H2O. Using an open-split, the IM is interfaced directly with a CRDS system (in this case, an L2130-i) for the measurement of δ18O and δD. Based on replicate measurements of water introduced to the system using glass filter paper, the precision of the system is better than 0.35 and 1.5 ‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. We will present improvements in system operation that have reduced systematic errors associated with (i) variable backgrounds, and (ii) exchange between the sample and the local atmosphere during sample introduction. In addition, we will present calibration data, and data demonstrating the effectiveness of the Micro-Combustion Cartridge at removing organics, which can result in spectroscopic interference. Finally, we will compare localized leaf water data against integrated whole leaf water data to demonstrate the added value of being able to sample small (approximately 5 mm diameter) areas of a leaf, and compare the results of measuring samples with high TDS on an IM and a Picarro High Precision Vaporizer.

  19. Improvements in Cd stable isotope analysis achieved through use of liquid–liquid extraction to remove organic residues from Cd separates obtained by extraction chromatography† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ja00115c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rehkämper, Mark; Kreissig, Katharina; Coles, Barry; van de Flierdt, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Organic compounds released from resins that are commonly employed for trace element separations are known to have a detrimental impact on the quality of isotopic analyses by MC-ICP-MS. A recent study highlighted that such effects can be particularly problematic for Cd stable isotope measurements (M. Gault-Ringold and C. H. Stirling, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2012, 27, 449–459). In this case, the final stage of sample purification commonly applies extraction chromatography with Eichrom TRU resin, which employs particles coated with octylphenyl-N,N-di-isobutyl carbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). During chromatography, it appears that some of these compounds are eluted alongside Cd and cannot be removed by evaporation due to their high boiling points. When aliquots of the zero-ε reference material were processed through the purification procedure, refluxed in concentrated HNO3 and analyzed at minimum dilution (in 1 ml 0.1 M HNO3), they yielded Cd isotopic compositions (ε114/110Cd = 4.6 ± 3.4, 2SD, n = 4) that differed significantly from the expected value, despite the use of a double spike technique to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. This result was accompanied by a 35% reduction in instrumental sensitivity for Cd. With increasing dilution of the organic resin residue, both of these effects are reduced and they are insignificant when the eluted Cd is dissolved in ≥3 ml 0.1 M HNO3. Our results, furthermore, indicate that the isotopic artefacts are most likely related to anomalous mass bias behavior. Previous studies have shown that perchloric acid can be effective at avoiding such effects (Gault-Ringold and Stirling, 2012; K. C. Crocket, M. Lambelet, T. van de Flierdt, M. Rehkämper and L. F. Robinson, Chem. Geol., 2014, 374–375, 128–140), presumably by oxidizing the resin-derived organics, but there are numerous disadvantages to its use. Here we show that liquid–liquid extraction with n-heptane removes the organic compounds, dramatically improving quality of the Cd isotope data for samples that are analyzed at or close to minimum dilution factors. This technique is quick, simple and may be of use prior to analysis of other isotope systems where similar resins are employed. PMID:27284213

  20. Xenobiotic- and Jasmonic Acid-Inducible Signal Transduction Pathways Have Become Interdependent at the Arabidopsis CYP81D11 Promoter1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Köster, Julia; Thurow, Corinna; Kruse, Kerstin; Meier, Alexander; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Gatz, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Plants modify harmful substances through an inducible detoxification system. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), chemical induction of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP81D11 and other genes linked to the detoxification program depends on class II TGA transcription factors. CYP81D11 expression is also induced by the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) through the established pathway requiring the JA receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and the JA-regulated transcription factor MYC2. Here, we report that the xenobiotic- and the JA-dependent signal cascades have become interdependent at the CYP81D11 promoter. On the one hand, MYC2 can only activate the expression of CYP81D11 when both the MYC2- and the TGA-binding sites are present in the promoter. On the other hand, the xenobiotic-regulated class II TGA transcription factors can only mediate maximal promoter activity if TGA and MYC2 binding motifs, MYC2, and the JA-isoleucine biosynthesis enzymes DDE2/AOS and JAR1 are functional. Since JA levels and degradation of JAZ1, a repressor of the JA response, are not affected by reactive chemicals, we hypothesize that basal JA signaling amplifies the response to chemical stress. Remarkably, stress-induced expression levels were 3-fold lower in coi1 than in the JA biosynthesis mutant dede2-2, revealing that COI1 can contribute to the activation of the promoter in the absence of JA. Moreover, we show that deletion of the MYC2 binding motifs abolishes the JA responsiveness of the promoter but not the responsiveness to COI1. These findings suggest that yet unknown cis-element(s) can mediate COI1-dependent transcriptional activation in the absence of JA. PMID:22452854

  1. Xenobiotic- and jasmonic acid-inducible signal transduction pathways have become interdependent at the Arabidopsis CYP81D11 promoter.

    PubMed

    Köster, Julia; Thurow, Corinna; Kruse, Kerstin; Meier, Alexander; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Gatz, Christiane

    2012-05-01

    Plants modify harmful substances through an inducible detoxification system. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), chemical induction of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP81D11 and other genes linked to the detoxification program depends on class II TGA transcription factors. CYP81D11 expression is also induced by the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) through the established pathway requiring the JA receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and the JA-regulated transcription factor MYC2. Here, we report that the xenobiotic- and the JA-dependent signal cascades have become interdependent at the CYP81D11 promoter. On the one hand, MYC2 can only activate the expression of CYP81D11 when both the MYC2- and the TGA-binding sites are present in the promoter. On the other hand, the xenobiotic-regulated class II TGA transcription factors can only mediate maximal promoter activity if TGA and MYC2 binding motifs, MYC2, and the JA-isoleucine biosynthesis enzymes DDE2/AOS and JAR1 are functional. Since JA levels and degradation of JAZ1, a repressor of the JA response, are not affected by reactive chemicals, we hypothesize that basal JA signaling amplifies the response to chemical stress. Remarkably, stress-induced expression levels were 3-fold lower in coi1 than in the JA biosynthesis mutant dde2-2, [corrected] revealing that COI1 can contribute to the activation of the promoter in the absence of JA. Moreover, we show that deletion of the MYC2 binding motifs abolishes the JA responsiveness of the promoter but not the responsiveness to COI1. These findings suggest that yet unknown cis-element(s) can mediate COI1-dependent transcriptional activation in the absence of JA.

  2. The tryptophan conjugates of jasmonic and indole-3-acetic acids are endogenous auxin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Staswick, Paul E

    2009-07-01

    Most conjugates of plant hormones are inactive, and some function to reduce the active hormone pool. This study characterized the activity of the tryptophan (Trp) conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA-Trp) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Unexpectedly, JA-Trp caused agravitropic root growth in seedlings, unlike JA or nine other JA-amino acid conjugates. The response was dose dependent from 1 to 100 microm, was independent of the COI1 jasmonate signaling locus, and unlike the jasmonate signal JA-isoleucine, JA-Trp minimally inhibited root growth. The Trp conjugate with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA-Trp) produced a similar response, while Trp alone and conjugates with benzoic and cinnamic acids did not. JA-Trp and IAA-Trp at 25 microm nearly eliminated seedling root inhibition caused by 2 microm IAA. The TIR1 auxin receptor is required for activity because roots of tir1-1 grew only approximately 60% of wild-type length on IAA plus JA-Trp, even though tir1-1 is auxin resistant. However, neither JA-Trp nor IAA-Trp interfered with IAA-dependent interaction between TIR1 and Aux/IAA7 in cell-free assays. Trp conjugates inhibited IAA-stimulated lateral root production and DR5-beta-glucuronidase gene expression. JA-deficient mutants were hypersensitive to IAA and a Trp-overaccumulating mutant was less sensitive, suggesting endogenous conjugates affect auxin sensitivity. Conjugates were present at 5.8 pmol g(-1) fresh weight or less in roots, seedlings, leaves, and flowers, and the values increased approximately 10-fold in roots incubated in 25 microm Trp and IAA or JA at 2 microm. These results show that JA-Trp and IAA-Trp constitute a previously unrecognized mechanism to regulate auxin action.

  3. Expression profiles of genes involved in jasmonic acid biosynthesis and signaling during growth and development of carrot.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanglong; Huang, Wei; Li, Mengyao; Xu, Zhisheng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Aisheng

    2016-09-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are recognized as essential regulators in response to environmental stimuli and plant development. Carrot is an Apiaceae vegetable with great value and undergoes significant size changes over the course of plant growth. However, JA accumulation and its potential roles in carrot growth remain unclear. Here, methyl JA (MeJA) levels and expression profiles of JA-related genes were analyzed in carrot roots and leaves at five developmental stages. MeJA levels in the roots and leaves were the highest at the first stage and decreased as carrot growth proceeded. Transcript levels of several JA-related genes (Dc13-LOX1, Dc13-LOX2, DcAOS, DcAOC, DcOPR2, DcOPR3, DcOPCL1, DcJAR1, DcJMT, DcCOI1, DcJAZ1, DcJAZ2, DcMYC2, DcCHIB/PR3, DcLEC, and DcVSP2) were not well correlated with MeJA accumulation during carrot root and leaf development. In addition, some JA-related genes (DcJAR1, DcJMT, DcCOI1, DcMYC2, and DcVSP2) showed differential expression between roots and leaves. These results suggest that JAs may regulate carrot plant growth in stage-dependent and organ-specific manners. Our work provides novel insights into JA accumulation and its potential roles during carrot growth and development. PMID:27325823

  4. Defense Priming and Jasmonates: A Role for Free Fatty Acids in Insect Elicitor-Induced Long Distance Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Cofer, Tristan; Engelberth, Marie; Engelberth, Jurgen

    2016-01-08

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV) prime plants against insect herbivore attack resulting in stronger and faster signaling by jasmonic acid (JA). In maize this response is specifically linked to insect elicitor (IE)-induced signaling processes, which cause JA accumulation not only around the damage site, but also in distant tissues, presumably through the activation of electrical signals. Here, we present additional data further characterizing these distal signaling events in maize. Also, we describe how exposure to GLV increases free fatty acid (fFA) levels in maize seedlings, but also in other plants, and how increased fFA levels affect IE-induced JA accumulation. Increased fFA, in particular α-linolenic acid (LnA), caused a significant increase in JA accumulation after IE treatment, while JA induced by mechanical wounding (MW) alone was not affected. We also identified treatments that significantly decreased certain fFA level including simulated wind and rain. In such treated plants, IE-induced JA accumulation was significantly reduced when compared to un-moved control plants, while MW-induced JA accumulation was not significantly affected. Since only IE-induced JA accumulation was altered by changes in the fFA composition, we conclude that changing levels of fFA affect primarily IE-induced signaling processes rather than serving as a substrate for JA.

  5. Novel players fine-tune plant trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Boter, Marta; Solano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are essential signalling molecules that co-ordinate the plant response to biotic and abiotic challenges, as well as co-ordinating several developmental processes. Huge progress has been made over the last decade in understanding the components and mechanisms that govern JA perception and signalling. The bioactive form of the hormone, (+)-7-iso-jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), is perceived by the COI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins also act as direct repressors of transcriptional activators such as MYC2. In the emerging picture of JA-Ile perception and signalling, COI1 operates as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that upon binding of JA-Ile targets JAZ repressors for degradation by the 26S proteasome, thereby derepressing transcription factors such as MYC2, which in turn activate JA-Ile-dependent transcriptional reprogramming. It is noteworthy that MYCs and different spliced variants of the JAZ proteins are involved in a negative regulatory feedback loop, which suggests a model that rapidly turns the transcriptional JA-Ile responses on and off and thereby avoids a detrimental overactivation of the pathway. This chapter highlights the most recent advances in our understanding of JA-Ile signalling, focusing on the latest repertoire of new targets of JAZ proteins to control different sets of JA-Ile-mediated responses, novel mechanisms of negative regulation of JA-Ile signalling, and hormonal cross-talk at the molecular level that ultimately determines plant adaptability and survival. PMID:26374889

  6. Arabidopsis CYP94B3 encodes jasmonyl-L-isoleucine 12-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Naoki; Matsubara, Takuya; Sato, Michio; Takahashi, Kosaku; Wakuta, Shinji; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Hirokazu; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2011-10-01

    The hormonal action of jasmonate in plants is controlled by the precise balance between its biosynthesis and catabolism. It has been shown that jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is the bioactive form involved in the jasmonate-mediated signaling pathway. However, the catabolism of JA-Ile is poorly understood. Although a metabolite, 12-hydroxyJA-Ile, has been characterized, detailed functional studies of the compound and the enzyme that produces it have not been conducted. In this report, the kinetics of wound-induced accumulation of 12-hydroxyJA-Ile in plants were examined, and its involvement in the plant wound response is described. Candidate genes for the catabolic enzyme were narrowed down from 272 Arabidopsis Cyt P450 genes using Arabidopsis mutants. The candidate gene was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris to reveal that CYP94B3 encodes JA-Ile 12-hydroxylase. Expression analyses demonstrate that expression of CYP94B3 is induced by wounding and shows specific activity toward JA-Ile. Plants grown in medium containing JA-Ile show higher sensitivity to JA-Ile in cyp94b3 mutants than in wild-type plants. These results demonstrate that CYP94B3 plays a major regulatory role in controlling the level of JA-Ile in plants. PMID:21849397

  7. Neomycin inhibition of (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine accumulation and signaling.

    PubMed

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Reichelt, Michael; Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Boland, Wilhelm; Mithöfer, Axel

    2014-07-01

    The majority of plant defenses against insect herbivores are coordinated by jasmonate (jasmonic acid, JA; (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine, JA-Ile)-dependent signaling cascades. Insect feeding and mimicking herbivory by application of oral secretions (OS) from the insect induced both cytosolic Ca(2+) and jasmonate-phytohormone elevation in plants. Here it is shown that in Arabidopsis thaliana upon treatment with OS from lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis larvae, the antibiotic neomycin selectively blocked the accumulation of OS-induced Ca(2+) elevation and level of the bioactive JA-Ile, in contrast to JA level. Furthermore, neomycin treatment affected the downstream expression of JA-Ile-responsive genes, VSP2 and LOX2, in Arabidopsis. The neomycin-dependent reduced JA-Ile level is partially due to increased CYP94B3 expression and subsequent JA-Ile turn-over to12-hydroxy-JA-Ile. It is neither due to the inhibition of the enzymatic conjugation process nor to substrate availability. Thus, blocking Ca(2+) elevation specifically controls JA-Ile accumulation and signaling, offering an insight into role of calcium in defense against insect herbivory.

  8. Involvement of nitric oxide in the jasmonate-dependent basal defense against root-knot nematode in tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Jia, Feifei; Shao, Shujun; Zhang, Huan; Li, Guiping; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and nitric oxide (NO) are well-characterized signaling molecules in plant defense responses. However, their roles in plant defense against root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) infection are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the transcript levels of the JA- and NO-related biosynthetic and signaling component genes were induced after RKN infection. Application of exogenous JA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) significantly decreased the number of egg masses in tomato roots after RKN infection and partially alleviated RKN-induced decreases in plant fresh weight and net photosynthetic rate. These molecules also alleviated RKN-induced increases in root electrolyte leakage and membrane peroxidation. Importantly, NO scavenger partially inhibited JA-induced RKN defense. The pharmacological inhibition of JA biosynthesis significantly increased the plants’ susceptibility to RKNs, which was effectively alleviated by SNP application, showing that NO may be involved in the JA-dependent RKN defense pathway. Furthermore, both JA and SNP induced increases in protease inhibitor 2 (PI2) gene expression after RKN infestation. Silencing of PI2 compromised both JA- and SNP-induced RKN defense responses, suggesting that the PI2 gene mediates JA- and NO-induced defense against RKNs. This work will be important for deepening the understanding of the mechanisms involved in basal defense against RKN attack in plants. PMID:25914698

  9. Defense Priming and Jasmonates: A Role for Free Fatty Acids in Insect Elicitor-Induced Long Distance Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Cofer, Tristan; Engelberth, Marie; Engelberth, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV) prime plants against insect herbivore attack resulting in stronger and faster signaling by jasmonic acid (JA). In maize this response is specifically linked to insect elicitor (IE)-induced signaling processes, which cause JA accumulation not only around the damage site, but also in distant tissues, presumably through the activation of electrical signals. Here, we present additional data further characterizing these distal signaling events in maize. Also, we describe how exposure to GLV increases free fatty acid (fFA) levels in maize seedlings, but also in other plants, and how increased fFA levels affect IE-induced JA accumulation. Increased fFA, in particular α-linolenic acid (LnA), caused a significant increase in JA accumulation after IE treatment, while JA induced by mechanical wounding (MW) alone was not affected. We also identified treatments that significantly decreased certain fFA level including simulated wind and rain. In such treated plants, IE-induced JA accumulation was significantly reduced when compared to un-moved control plants, while MW-induced JA accumulation was not significantly affected. Since only IE-induced JA accumulation was altered by changes in the fFA composition, we conclude that changing levels of fFA affect primarily IE-induced signaling processes rather than serving as a substrate for JA. PMID:27135225

  10. Involvement of nitric oxide in the jasmonate-dependent basal defense against root-knot nematode in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Jia, Feifei; Shao, Shujun; Zhang, Huan; Li, Guiping; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and nitric oxide (NO) are well-characterized signaling molecules in plant defense responses. However, their roles in plant defense against root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) infection are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the transcript levels of the JA- and NO-related biosynthetic and signaling component genes were induced after RKN infection. Application of exogenous JA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) significantly decreased the number of egg masses in tomato roots after RKN infection and partially alleviated RKN-induced decreases in plant fresh weight and net photosynthetic rate. These molecules also alleviated RKN-induced increases in root electrolyte leakage and membrane peroxidation. Importantly, NO scavenger partially inhibited JA-induced RKN defense. The pharmacological inhibition of JA biosynthesis significantly increased the plants' susceptibility to RKNs, which was effectively alleviated by SNP application, showing that NO may be involved in the JA-dependent RKN defense pathway. Furthermore, both JA and SNP induced increases in protease inhibitor 2 (PI2) gene expression after RKN infestation. Silencing of PI2 compromised both JA- and SNP-induced RKN defense responses, suggesting that the PI2 gene mediates JA- and NO-induced defense against RKNs. This work will be important for deepening the understanding of the mechanisms involved in basal defense against RKN attack in plants.

  11. The calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 regulates development by inducing growth phase-specific, spatially restricted alterations in jasmonic acid levels independent of defense responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Matschi, Susanne; Hake, Katharina; Herde, Marco; Hause, Bettina; Romeis, Tina

    2015-03-01

    Phytohormones play an important role in development and stress adaptations in plants, and several interacting hormonal pathways have been suggested to accomplish fine-tuning of stress responses at the expense of growth. This work describes the role played by the CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE CPK28 in balancing phytohormone-mediated development in Arabidopsis thaliana, specifically during generative growth. cpk28 mutants exhibit growth reduction solely as adult plants, coinciding with altered balance of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA). JA-dependent gene expression and the levels of several JA metabolites were elevated in a growth phase-dependent manner in cpk28, and accumulation of JA metabolites was confined locally to the central rosette tissue. No elevated resistance toward herbivores or necrotrophic pathogens was detected for cpk28 plants, either on the whole-plant level or specifically within the tissue displaying elevated JA levels. Abolishment of JA biosynthesis or JA signaling led to a full reversion of the cpk28 growth phenotype, while modification of GA signaling did not. Our data identify CPK28 as a growth phase-dependent key negative regulator of distinct processes: While in seedlings, CPK28 regulates reactive oxygen species-mediated defense signaling; in adult plants, CPK28 confers developmental processes by the tissue-specific balance of JA and GA without affecting JA-mediated defense responses.

  12. The Arabidopsis DELLA RGA-LIKE3 is a direct target of MYC2 and modulates jasmonate signaling responses.

    PubMed

    Wild, Michael; Davière, Jean-Michel; Cheminant, Soizic; Regnault, Thomas; Baumberger, Nicolas; Heintz, Dimitri; Baltz, Rachel; Genschik, Pascal; Achard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones involved in the regulation of plant growth in response to endogenous and environmental signals. GA promotes growth by stimulating the degradation of nuclear growth-repressing DELLA proteins. In Arabidopsis thaliana, DELLAs consist of a small family of five proteins that display distinct but also overlapping functions in repressing GA responses. This study reveals that DELLA RGA-LIKE3 (RGL3) protein is essential to fully enhance the jasmonate (JA)-mediated responses. We show that JA rapidly induces RGL3 expression in a CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)- and JASMONATE INSENSITIVE1 (JIN1/MYC2)-dependent manner. In addition, we demonstrate that MYC2 binds directly to RGL3 promoter. Furthermore, we show that RGL3 (like the other DELLAs) interacts with JA ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, key repressors of JA signaling. These findings suggest that JA/MYC2-dependent accumulation of RGL3 represses JAZ activity, which in turn enhances the expression of JA-responsive genes. Accordingly, we show that induction of primary JA-responsive genes is reduced in the rgl3-5 mutant and enhanced in transgenic lines overexpressing RGL3. Hence, RGL3 positively regulates JA-mediated resistance to the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea and susceptibility to the hemibiotroph Pseudomonas syringae. We propose that JA-mediated induction of RGL3 expression is of adaptive significance and might represent a recent functional diversification of the DELLAs.

  13. Characterization of a JAZ7 activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutant with increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Louise F; Cevik, Volkan; Grant, Murray; Zhai, Bing; Jones, Jonathan D G; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

    2016-04-01

    In Arabidopsis, jasmonate (JA)-signaling plays a key role in mediating Fusarium oxysporum disease outcome. However, the roles of JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins that repress JA-signaling have not been characterized in host resistance or susceptibility to this pathogen. Here, we found most JAZ genes are induced following F. oxysporum challenge, and screening T-DNA insertion lines in Arabidopsis JAZ family members identified a highly disease-susceptible JAZ7 mutant (jaz7-1D). This mutant exhibited constitutive JAZ7 expression and conferred increased JA-sensitivity, suggesting activation of JA-signaling. Unlike jaz7 loss-of-function alleles, jaz7-1D also had enhanced JA-responsive gene expression, altered development and increased susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen PstDC3000 that also disrupts host JA-responses. We also demonstrate that JAZ7 interacts with transcription factors functioning as activators (MYC3, MYC4) or repressors (JAM1) of JA-signaling and contains a functional EAR repressor motif mediating transcriptional repression via the co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL). We propose through direct TPL recruitment, in wild-type plants JAZ7 functions as a repressor within the JA-response network and that in jaz7-1D plants, misregulated ectopic JAZ7 expression hyper-activates JA-signaling in part by disturbing finely-tuned COI1-JAZ-TPL-TF complexes.

  14. Defense Priming and Jasmonates: A Role for Free Fatty Acids in Insect Elicitor-Induced Long Distance Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting; Cofer, Tristan; Engelberth, Marie; Engelberth, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV) prime plants against insect herbivore attack resulting in stronger and faster signaling by jasmonic acid (JA). In maize this response is specifically linked to insect elicitor (IE)-induced signaling processes, which cause JA accumulation not only around the damage site, but also in distant tissues, presumably through the activation of electrical signals. Here, we present additional data further characterizing these distal signaling events in maize. Also, we describe how exposure to GLV increases free fatty acid (fFA) levels in maize seedlings, but also in other plants, and how increased fFA levels affect IE-induced JA accumulation. Increased fFA, in particular α-linolenic acid (LnA), caused a significant increase in JA accumulation after IE treatment, while JA induced by mechanical wounding (MW) alone was not affected. We also identified treatments that significantly decreased certain fFA level including simulated wind and rain. In such treated plants, IE-induced JA accumulation was significantly reduced when compared to un-moved control plants, while MW-induced JA accumulation was not significantly affected. Since only IE-induced JA accumulation was altered by changes in the fFA composition, we conclude that changing levels of fFA affect primarily IE-induced signaling processes rather than serving as a substrate for JA. PMID:27135225

  15. Novel players fine-tune plant trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Boter, Marta; Solano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are essential signalling molecules that co-ordinate the plant response to biotic and abiotic challenges, as well as co-ordinating several developmental processes. Huge progress has been made over the last decade in understanding the components and mechanisms that govern JA perception and signalling. The bioactive form of the hormone, (+)-7-iso-jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), is perceived by the COI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins also act as direct repressors of transcriptional activators such as MYC2. In the emerging picture of JA-Ile perception and signalling, COI1 operates as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that upon binding of JA-Ile targets JAZ repressors for degradation by the 26S proteasome, thereby derepressing transcription factors such as MYC2, which in turn activate JA-Ile-dependent transcriptional reprogramming. It is noteworthy that MYCs and different spliced variants of the JAZ proteins are involved in a negative regulatory feedback loop, which suggests a model that rapidly turns the transcriptional JA-Ile responses on and off and thereby avoids a detrimental overactivation of the pathway. This chapter highlights the most recent advances in our understanding of JA-Ile signalling, focusing on the latest repertoire of new targets of JAZ proteins to control different sets of JA-Ile-mediated responses, novel mechanisms of negative regulation of JA-Ile signalling, and hormonal cross-talk at the molecular level that ultimately determines plant adaptability and survival.

  16. Arabidopsis CYP94B3 encodes jasmonyl-L-isoleucine 12-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Naoki; Matsubara, Takuya; Sato, Michio; Takahashi, Kosaku; Wakuta, Shinji; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Hirokazu; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2011-10-01

    The hormonal action of jasmonate in plants is controlled by the precise balance between its biosynthesis and catabolism. It has been shown that jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is the bioactive form involved in the jasmonate-mediated signaling pathway. However, the catabolism of JA-Ile is poorly understood. Although a metabolite, 12-hydroxyJA-Ile, has been characterized, detailed functional studies of the compound and the enzyme that produces it have not been conducted. In this report, the kinetics of wound-induced accumulation of 12-hydroxyJA-Ile in plants were examined, and its involvement in the plant wound response is described. Candidate genes for the catabolic enzyme were narrowed down from 272 Arabidopsis Cyt P450 genes using Arabidopsis mutants. The candidate gene was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris to reveal that CYP94B3 encodes JA-Ile 12-hydroxylase. Expression analyses demonstrate that expression of CYP94B3 is induced by wounding and shows specific activity toward JA-Ile. Plants grown in medium containing JA-Ile show higher sensitivity to JA-Ile in cyp94b3 mutants than in wild-type plants. These results demonstrate that CYP94B3 plays a major regulatory role in controlling the level of JA-Ile in plants.

  17. The Amidohydrolases IAR3 and ILL6 Contribute to Jasmonoyl-Isoleucine Hormone Turnover and Generate 12-Hydroxyjasmonic Acid Upon Wounding in Arabidopsis Leaves*

    PubMed Central

    Widemann, Emilie; Miesch, Laurence; Lugan, Raphaël; Holder, Emilie; Heinrich, Clément; Aubert, Yann; Miesch, Michel; Pinot, Franck; Heitz, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are a class of signaling compounds that mediate complex developmental and adaptative responses in plants. JAs derive from jasmonic acid (JA) through various enzymatic modifications, including conjugation to amino acids or oxidation, yielding an array of derivatives. The main hormonal signal, jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), has been found recently to undergo catabolic inactivation by cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation. We characterize here two amidohydrolases, IAR3 and ILL6, that define a second pathway for JA-Ile turnover during the wound response in Arabidopsis leaves. Biochemical and genetic evidence indicates that these two enzymes cleave the JA-Ile signal, but act also on the 12OH-JA-Ile conjugate. We also show that unexpectedly, the abundant accumulation of tuberonic acid (12OH-JA) after wounding originates partly through a sequential pathway involving (i) conjugation of JA to Ile, (ii) oxidation of the JA-Ile conjugate, and (iii) cleavage under the action of the amidohydrolases. The coordinated actions of oxidative and hydrolytic branches in the jasmonate pathway highlight novel mechanisms of JA-Ile hormone turnover and redefine the dynamic metabolic grid of jasmonate conversion in the wound response. PMID:24052260

  18. The Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase CPK28 Regulates Development by Inducing Growth Phase-Specific, Spatially Restricted Alterations in Jasmonic Acid Levels Independent of Defense Responses in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Matschi, Susanne; Hake, Katharina; Herde, Marco; Hause, Bettina; Romeis, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormones play an important role in development and stress adaptations in plants, and several interacting hormonal pathways have been suggested to accomplish fine-tuning of stress responses at the expense of growth. This work describes the role played by the CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE CPK28 in balancing phytohormone-mediated development in Arabidopsis thaliana, specifically during generative growth. cpk28 mutants exhibit growth reduction solely as adult plants, coinciding with altered balance of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA). JA-dependent gene expression and the levels of several JA metabolites were elevated in a growth phase-dependent manner in cpk28, and accumulation of JA metabolites was confined locally to the central rosette tissue. No elevated resistance toward herbivores or necrotrophic pathogens was detected for cpk28 plants, either on the whole-plant level or specifically within the tissue displaying elevated JA levels. Abolishment of JA biosynthesis or JA signaling led to a full reversion of the cpk28 growth phenotype, while modification of GA signaling did not. Our data identify CPK28 as a growth phase-dependent key negative regulator of distinct processes: While in seedlings, CPK28 regulates reactive oxygen species-mediated defense signaling; in adult plants, CPK28 confers developmental processes by the tissue-specific balance of JA and GA without affecting JA-mediated defense responses. PMID:25736059

  19. Action of jasmonates in plant stress responses and development--applied aspects.

    PubMed

    Wasternack, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived compounds acting as key signaling compounds in plant stress responses and development. The JA co-receptor complex and several enzymes of JA biosynthesis have been crystallized, and various JA signal transduction pathways including cross-talk to most of the plant hormones have been intensively studied. Defense to herbivores and necrotrophic pathogens are mediated by JA. Other environmental cues mediated by JA are light, seasonal and circadian rhythms, cold stress, desiccation stress, salt stress and UV stress. During development growth inhibition of roots, shoots and leaves occur by JA, whereas seed germination and flower development are partially affected by its precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA). Based on these numerous JA mediated signal transduction pathways active in plant stress responses and development, there is an increasing interest in horticultural and biotechnological applications. Intercropping, the mixed growth of two or more crops, mycorrhization of plants, establishment of induced resistance, priming of plants for enhanced insect resistance as well as pre- and post-harvest application of JA are few examples. Additional sources for horticultural improvement, where JAs might be involved, are defense against nematodes, biocontrol by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, altered composition of rhizosphere bacterial community, sustained balance between growth and defense, and improved plant immunity in intercropping systems. Finally, biotechnological application for JA-induced production of pharmaceuticals and application of JAs as anti-cancer agents were intensively studied.

  20. The Recently Identified Isoleucine Conjugate of cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Is Partially Active in cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid-Specific Gene Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Floková, Kristýna; Miersch, Otto; Strnad, Miroslav; Novák, Ondřej; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Oxylipins of the jasmonate family are active as signals in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Jasmonic acid (JA), its precursor cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and the isoleucine conjugate of JA (JA-Ile) are the most prominent members. OPDA and JA-Ile have individual signalling properties in several processes and differ in their pattern of gene expression. JA-Ile, but not OPDA, is perceived by the SCFCOI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. There are, however, numerous processes and genes specifically induced by OPDA. The recently identified OPDA-Ile suggests that OPDA specific responses might be mediated upon formation of OPDA-Ile. Here, we tested OPDA-Ile-induced gene expression in wild type and JA-deficient, JA-insensitive and JA-Ile-deficient mutant background. Tests on putative conversion of OPDA-Ile during treatments revealed only negligible conversion. Expression of two OPDA-inducible genes, GRX480 and ZAT10, by OPDA-Ile could be detected in a JA-independent manner in Arabidopsis seedlings but less in flowering plants. The data suggest a bioactivity in planta of OPDA-Ile. PMID:27611078

  1. Characterization of a JAZ7 activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutant with increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Louise F.; Cevik, Volkan; Grant, Murray; Zhai, Bing; Jones, Jonathan D.G.; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, jasmonate (JA)-signaling plays a key role in mediating Fusarium oxysporum disease outcome. However, the roles of JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins that repress JA-signaling have not been characterized in host resistance or susceptibility to this pathogen. Here, we found most JAZ genes are induced following F. oxysporum challenge, and screening T-DNA insertion lines in Arabidopsis JAZ family members identified a highly disease-susceptible JAZ7 mutant (jaz7-1D). This mutant exhibited constitutive JAZ7 expression and conferred increased JA-sensitivity, suggesting activation of JA-signaling. Unlike jaz7 loss-of-function alleles, jaz7-1D also had enhanced JA-responsive gene expression, altered development and increased susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pst DC3000 that also disrupts host JA-responses. We also demonstrate that JAZ7 interacts with transcription factors functioning as activators (MYC3, MYC4) or repressors (JAM1) of JA-signaling and contains a functional EAR repressor motif mediating transcriptional repression via the co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL). We propose through direct TPL recruitment, in wild-type plants JAZ7 functions as a repressor within the JA-response network and that in jaz7-1D plants, misregulated ectopic JAZ7 expression hyper-activates JA-signaling in part by disturbing finely-tuned COI1-JAZ-TPL-TF complexes. PMID:26896849

  2. The Recently Identified Isoleucine Conjugate of cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Is Partially Active in cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid-Specific Gene Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Monika D; Gruber, Cornelia; Floková, Kristýna; Miersch, Otto; Strnad, Miroslav; Novák, Ondřej; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Oxylipins of the jasmonate family are active as signals in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Jasmonic acid (JA), its precursor cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and the isoleucine conjugate of JA (JA-Ile) are the most prominent members. OPDA and JA-Ile have individual signalling properties in several processes and differ in their pattern of gene expression. JA-Ile, but not OPDA, is perceived by the SCFCOI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. There are, however, numerous processes and genes specifically induced by OPDA. The recently identified OPDA-Ile suggests that OPDA specific responses might be mediated upon formation of OPDA-Ile. Here, we tested OPDA-Ile-induced gene expression in wild type and JA-deficient, JA-insensitive and JA-Ile-deficient mutant background. Tests on putative conversion of OPDA-Ile during treatments revealed only negligible conversion. Expression of two OPDA-inducible genes, GRX480 and ZAT10, by OPDA-Ile could be detected in a JA-independent manner in Arabidopsis seedlings but less in flowering plants. The data suggest a bioactivity in planta of OPDA-Ile. PMID:27611078

  3. Salt stress response triggers activation of the jasmonate signaling pathway leading to inhibition of cell elongation in Arabidopsis primary root.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Camilo E; Acevedo-Acevedo, Orlando; Miranda, Giovanna S; Vergara-Barros, Pablo; Holuigue, Loreto; Figueroa, Carlos R; Figueroa, Pablo M

    2016-07-01

    Salinity is a severe abiotic stress that affects irrigated croplands. Jasmonate (JA) is an essential hormone involved in plant defense against herbivory and in responses to abiotic stress. However, the relationship between the salt stress response and the JA pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana is not well understood at molecular and cellular levels. In this work we investigated the activation of JA signaling by NaCl and its effect on primary root growth. We found that JA-responsive JAZ genes were up-regulated by salt stress in a COI1-dependent manner in the roots. Using a JA-Ile sensor we demonstrated that activation of JA signaling by salt stress occurs in the meristematic zone and stele of the differentiation zone and that this activation was dependent on JAR1 and proteasome functions. Another finding is that the elongation zone (EZ) and its cortical cells were significantly longer in JA-related mutants (AOS, COI1, JAZ3 and MYC2/3/4 genes) compared with wild-type plants under salt stress, revealing the participation of the canonical JA signaling pathway. Noteworthy, osmotic stress - a component of salt stress - inhibited cell elongation in the EZ in a COI1-dependent manner. We propose that salt stress triggers activation of the JA signaling pathway followed by inhibition of cell elongation in the EZ. We have shown that salt-inhibited root growth partially involves the jasmonate signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. PMID:27217545

  4. Methyl Jasmonate- and Light-Induced Glucosinolate and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Radish Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Sun Ju; RomijUddin, Md; Park, Woo Tae; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2015-07-01

    Radish sprouts and young seedlings are considered important dietary vegetables in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the levels of glucosinolate and anthocyanin accumulation in radish seedlings in response to light and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments. MeJA facilitated the accumulation of glucosinolate and anthocyanins under light conditions. The glucosinolate and anthocyanin contents in the radish seedlings that were exposed to light after MeJA treatment were higher than those of the seedlings that were grown in the dark without MeJA. At a concentration of 100 μM, MeJA led to the greatest accumulation of the most glucosinolates under both light and dark conditions. Under light conditions, the levels of glucoraphenin, glucoerucin, and glucotropaeolin accumulation were 1.53-, 1.60-, and 1.30-fold higher, respectively, than those of the control. Remarkable accumulations of glucobrassicin were observed under light conditions (4.4-, 6.7-, and 7.8-fold higher than that of the control following the application of 100, 300, and 500 μM MeJA, respectively). The level of cyanidin in the 300 μM MeJA-treated seedlings was double of that in the control without MeJA treatment. The highest level of pelargonidin was observed after treatment with 500 μM MeJA under light conditions; this level was 1.73 times higher than that in the control. A similar trend of anthocyaninaccumulation was observed in the radish seedlings following MeJA treatment under dark conditions, but the levels of anthocyanins were considerably lower in the seedlings that were grown in the dark. Our findings suggest that light and low concentrations of MeJA enhance the accumulations of glucosinolates and anthocyanins during the development of radish seedlings.

  5. Concurrent changes in methyl jasmonate emission and the expression of its biosynthesis-related genes in Cymbidium ensifolium flowers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingkun; Ma, Cuiping; Yu, Rangcai; Mu, Lanling; Hou, Jia; Yu, Yunyi; Fan, Yanping

    2015-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is one of most abundant scent compounds in Cymbidium ensifolium flowers. In this study, the emission of MeJA and its regulation mechanism were investigated. Our results showed that emission of MeJA in C. ensifolium flowers was controlled developmentally and rhythmically. It occurred in a tissue-specific manner, and high MeJA emission was found in sepals and petals. A group of vital genes involved in the MeJA biosynthesis via the octadecanoid pathway were isolated from C. ensifolium flowers, including CeLOX, CeAOS, CeAOC and CeJMT. MeJA emission was at very low levels in unopened or half-opened C. ensifolium flowers and reached its maximal level between day 4 and 6 and declined from day 7 to 10 postanthesis. The expression of CeLOX, CeAOS, CeAOC and CeJMT increased from day 1 to day 6, and then declined from day 7 to 10 postanthesis, corresponding to the change in MeJA emission. Moreover, the expression of CeLOX, CeAOS, CeAOC and CeJMT oscillated in a rhythmic manner could reach the maximum level between 8:00 h and 16:00 h, which coincided with the MeJA emission. The high level of MeJA emission in sepals and petals coincided with the high transcript levels. The results suggest that MeJA emission in C. ensifolium flower might be directly regulated at the transcription levels. Moreover, the recombinant protein of CeJMT could specifically catalyze the jasmonic acid to form the corresponding ester MeJA.

  6. Effects of Light and Wounding on Jasmonates in Rice phyAphyC Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Brendel, Rita; Svyatyna, Katharina; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel; Takano, Makoto; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter; Riemann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonates (JA) are lipid-derived plant hormones. They have been shown to be important regulators of photomorphogenesis, a developmental program in plants, which is activated by light through different red and blue light sensitive photoreceptors. In rice, inhibition of coleoptile growth by light is a central event in photomorphogenesis. This growth inhibition is impaired, when jasmonate biosynthesis is knocked out. Previously, we found that JASMONATE RESISTANT 1 (OsJAR1) transcripts were not induced in the phytochrome (phy) mutant phyAphyC. Therefore, in the current study we investigated the regulation of JA and its highly bioactive derivative (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), as well as the transcriptional regulation of several JA-dependent genes both in wild type and phyAphyC mutant. JA and JA-Ile levels increased in the mutant seedlings in response to blue light. However, in phyAphyC mutant leaves, which were continuously wounded, JA and JA-Ile levels were lower compared to those in the wild type. Hence, the mutation of phyA and phyC has differential effects on jasmonate levels depending on the tissue and developmental stage. Our results suggest that the contribution of JA-Ile to signaling during photomorphogenesis of rice is minor, as coleoptile phenotypes of phyAphyC mutants resemble those of jasmonate-deficient mutants despite the fact that induction by blue light leads to higher levels of JA-Ile compared to the wild type. We postulate that phyA and phyC could control the activity of specific enzymes metabolizing JA to active derivatives. PMID:27135497

  7. Involvement of OST1 Protein Kinase and PYR/PYL/RCAR Receptors in Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis Guard Cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ye; Adachi, Yuji; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Munemasa, Shintaro; Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induces stomatal closure. It has been shown that stomata of many ABA-insensitive mutants are also insensitive to MeJA, and a low amount of ABA is a prerequisite for the MeJA response. However, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between ABA and MeJA signaling remain to be elucidated. Here we studied the interplay of signaling of the two hormones in guard cells using the quadruple ABA receptor mutant pyr1 pyl1 pyl2 pyl4 and ABA-activated protein kinase mutants ost1-2 and srk2e. In the quadruple mutant, MeJA-induced stomatal closure, H2O2 production, nitric oxide (NO) production, cytosolic alkalization and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-permeable current (ICa) activation were not impaired. At the same time, the inactivation of the inward-rectifying K(+) current was impaired. In contrast to the quadruple mutant, MeJA-induced stomatal closure, H2O2 production, NO production and cytosolic alkalization were impaired in ost1-2 and srk2e as well as in aba2-2, the ABA-deficient mutant. The activation of ICa was also impaired in srk2e. Collectively, these results indicated that OST1 was essential for MeJA-induced stomatal closure, while PYR1, PYL1, PYL2 and PYL4 ABA receptors were not sufficient factors. MeJA did not appear to activate OST1 kinase activity. This implies that OST1 mediates MeJA signaling through an undetectable level of activity or a non-enzymatic action. MeJA induced the expression of an ABA synthesis gene, NCED3, and increased ABA contents only modestly. Taken together with previous reports, this study suggests that MeJA signaling in guard cells is primed by ABA and is not brought about through the pathway mediated by PYR1, PYL1 PYL2 and PYL4.

  8. Jasmonate-dependent plant defense restricts thrips performance and preference

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Jun; Kugimiya, Soichi; Narusaka, Mari; Seo, Shigemi; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Shinya; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2009-01-01

    Background The western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis [Pergande]) is one of the most important insect herbivores of cultivated plants. However, no pesticide provides complete control of this species, and insecticide resistance has emerged around the world. We previously reported the important role of jasmonate (JA) in the plant's immediate response to thrips feeding by using an Arabidopsis leaf disc system. In this study, as the first step toward practical use of JA in thrips control, we analyzed the effect of JA-regulated Arabidopsis defense at the whole plant level on thrips behavior and life cycle at the population level over an extended period. We also studied the effectiveness of JA-regulated plant defense on thrips damage in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis). Results Thrips oviposited more on Arabidopsis JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants than on WT plants, and the population density of the following thrips generation increased on coi1-1 mutants. Moreover, thrips preferred coi1-1 mutants more than WT plants. Application of JA to WT plants before thrips attack decreased the thrips population. To analyze these important functions of JA in a brassica crop plant, we analyzed the expression of marker genes for JA response in B. rapa. Thrips feeding induced expression of these marker genes and significantly increased the JA content in B. rapa. Application of JA to B. rapa enhanced plant resistance to thrips, restricted oviposition, and reduced the population density of the following generation. Conclusion Our results indicate that the JA-regulated plant defense restricts thrips performance and preference, and plays an important role in the resistance of Arabidopsis and B. rapa to thrips damage. PMID:19635132

  9. Both the Jasmonic Acid and the Salicylic Acid Pathways Contribute to Resistance to the Biotrophic Clubroot Agent Plasmodiophora brassicae in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lemarié, Séverine; Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Lariagon, Christine; Lemoine, Jocelyne; Marnet, Nathalie; Jubault, Mélanie; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J; Gravot, Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in resistance to root pathogens has been poorly documented. We assessed the contribution of SA and JA to basal and partial resistance of Arabidopsis to the biotrophic clubroot agent Plasmodiophora brassicae. SA and JA levels as well as the expression of the SA-responsive genes PR2 and PR5 and the JA-responsive genes ARGAH2 and THI2.1 were monitored in infected roots of the accessions Col-0 (susceptible) and Bur-0 (partially resistant). SA signaling was activated in Bur-0 but not in Col-0. The JA pathway was weakly activated in Bur-0 but was strongly induced in Col-0. The contribution of both pathways to clubroot resistance was then assessed using exogenous phytohormone application and mutants affected in SA or JA signaling. Exogenous SA treatment decreased clubroot symptoms in the two Arabidopsis accessions, whereas JA treatment reduced clubroot symptoms only in Col-0. The cpr5-2 mutant, in which SA responses are constitutively induced, was more resistant to clubroot than the corresponding wild type, and the JA signaling-deficient mutant jar1 was more susceptible. Finally, we showed that the JA-mediated induction of NATA1 drove N(δ)-acetylornithine biosynthesis in infected Col-0 roots. The 35S::NATA1 and nata1 lines displayed reduced or enhanced clubroot symptoms, respectively, thus suggesting that in Col-0 this pathway was involved in the JA-mediated basal clubroot resistance. Overall, our data support the idea that, depending on the Arabidopsis accession, both SA and JA signaling can play a role in partial inhibition of clubroot development in compatible interactions with P. brassicae.

  10. Involvement of OST1 Protein Kinase and PYR/PYL/RCAR Receptors in Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis Guard Cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ye; Adachi, Yuji; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Munemasa, Shintaro; Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induces stomatal closure. It has been shown that stomata of many ABA-insensitive mutants are also insensitive to MeJA, and a low amount of ABA is a prerequisite for the MeJA response. However, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between ABA and MeJA signaling remain to be elucidated. Here we studied the interplay of signaling of the two hormones in guard cells using the quadruple ABA receptor mutant pyr1 pyl1 pyl2 pyl4 and ABA-activated protein kinase mutants ost1-2 and srk2e. In the quadruple mutant, MeJA-induced stomatal closure, H2O2 production, nitric oxide (NO) production, cytosolic alkalization and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-permeable current (ICa) activation were not impaired. At the same time, the inactivation of the inward-rectifying K(+) current was impaired. In contrast to the quadruple mutant, MeJA-induced stomatal closure, H2O2 production, NO production and cytosolic alkalization were impaired in ost1-2 and srk2e as well as in aba2-2, the ABA-deficient mutant. The activation of ICa was also impaired in srk2e. Collectively, these results indicated that OST1 was essential for MeJA-induced stomatal closure, while PYR1, PYL1, PYL2 and PYL4 ABA receptors were not sufficient factors. MeJA did not appear to activate OST1 kinase activity. This implies that OST1 mediates MeJA signaling through an undetectable level of activity or a non-enzymatic action. MeJA induced the expression of an ABA synthesis gene, NCED3, and increased ABA contents only modestly. Taken together with previous reports, this study suggests that MeJA signaling in guard cells is primed by ABA and is not brought about through the pathway mediated by PYR1, PYL1 PYL2 and PYL4. PMID:27354421

  11. A role for jasmonates in the release of dormancy by cold stratification in wheat.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Truong, Thy T; Barrero, Jose M; Jacobsen, John V; Hocart, Charles H; Gubler, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Hydration at low temperatures, commonly referred to as cold stratification, is widely used for releasing dormancy and triggering germination in a wide range of species including wheat. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies its effect on germination has largely remained unknown. Our previous studies showed that methyl-jasmonate, a derivative of jasmonic acid (JA), promotes dormancy release in wheat. In this study, we found that cold-stimulated germination of dormant grains correlated with a transient increase in JA content and expression of JA biosynthesis genes in the dormant embryos after transfer to 20 (o)C. The induction of JA production was dependent on the extent of cold imbibition and precedes germination. Blocking JA biosynthesis with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) inhibited the cold-stimulated germination in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we have explored the relationship between JA and abscisic acid (ABA), a well-known dormancy promoter, in cold regulation of dormancy. We found an inverse relationship between JA and ABA content in dormant wheat embryos following stratification. ABA content decreased rapidly in response to stratification, and the decrease was reversed by addition of ASA. Our results indicate that the action of JA on cold-stratified grains is mediated by suppression of two key ABA biosynthesis genes, TaNCED1 and TaNCED2.

  12. Tense Use and Move Analysis in Journal Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shih-ping; Tu, Pin-ning

    2014-01-01

    There has long been a growing interest in journal article (JA) abstract writing, and this pervading interest has boosted the exigency for further research. This current study therefore aims to investigate both the various applications of verb tense and the rhetorical structure within JA abstracts. A corpus of 1,000 JAs was collected from four…

  13. A role for jasmonates in the release of dormancy by cold stratification in wheat.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Truong, Thy T; Barrero, Jose M; Jacobsen, John V; Hocart, Charles H; Gubler, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Hydration at low temperatures, commonly referred to as cold stratification, is widely used for releasing dormancy and triggering germination in a wide range of species including wheat. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies its effect on germination has largely remained unknown. Our previous studies showed that methyl-jasmonate, a derivative of jasmonic acid (JA), promotes dormancy release in wheat. In this study, we found that cold-stimulated germination of dormant grains correlated with a transient increase in JA content and expression of JA biosynthesis genes in the dormant embryos after transfer to 20 (o)C. The induction of JA production was dependent on the extent of cold imbibition and precedes germination. Blocking JA biosynthesis with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) inhibited the cold-stimulated germination in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we have explored the relationship between JA and abscisic acid (ABA), a well-known dormancy promoter, in cold regulation of dormancy. We found an inverse relationship between JA and ABA content in dormant wheat embryos following stratification. ABA content decreased rapidly in response to stratification, and the decrease was reversed by addition of ASA. Our results indicate that the action of JA on cold-stratified grains is mediated by suppression of two key ABA biosynthesis genes, TaNCED1 and TaNCED2. PMID:27140440

  14. Precursors to Social and Communication Difficulties in Infants At-Risk for Autism: Gaze Following and Attentional Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedford, Rachael; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Gliga, Teodora; Pickles, Andrew; Senju, Atsushi; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Whilst joint attention (JA) impairments in autism have been widely studied, little is known about the early development of gaze following, a precursor to establishing JA. We employed eye-tracking to record gaze following longitudinally in infants with and without a family history of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at 7 and 13 months. No group…

  15. Genetics Home Reference: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... alter the DNA in cells. The strongest risk factors for developing this form of cancer are tobacco use (including smoking or using ... SA, Weinstein JN, Treviño L, Drummond JA, Muzny DM, Wu Y, Wood LD, Hruban RH, Westra WH, Koch WM, Califano JA, Gibbs RA, ...

  16. A role for jasmonates in the release of dormancy by cold stratification in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Truong, Thy T.; Barrero, Jose M.; Jacobsen, John V.; Hocart, Charles H.; Gubler, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Hydration at low temperatures, commonly referred to as cold stratification, is widely used for releasing dormancy and triggering germination in a wide range of species including wheat. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies its effect on germination has largely remained unknown. Our previous studies showed that methyl-jasmonate, a derivative of jasmonic acid (JA), promotes dormancy release in wheat. In this study, we found that cold-stimulated germination of dormant grains correlated with a transient increase in JA content and expression of JA biosynthesis genes in the dormant embryos after transfer to 20 oC. The induction of JA production was dependent on the extent of cold imbibition and precedes germination. Blocking JA biosynthesis with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) inhibited the cold-stimulated germination in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we have explored the relationship between JA and abscisic acid (ABA), a well-known dormancy promoter, in cold regulation of dormancy. We found an inverse relationship between JA and ABA content in dormant wheat embryos following stratification. ABA content decreased rapidly in response to stratification, and the decrease was reversed by addition of ASA. Our results indicate that the action of JA on cold-stratified grains is mediated by suppression of two key ABA biosynthesis genes, TaNCED1 and TaNCED2. PMID:27140440

  17. The Licensing of Negative Sensitive Items in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsarayreh, Atef

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the licensing conditions on Negative Sensitive Items (NSIs) in Jordanian Arabic (JA). JA exhibits both types of NSIs that are discussed in the literature: Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) and Negative Concord Items (NCIs). Although these two sets of items seem to form a natural class in the sense that they show certain…

  18. Plants on constant alert: elevated levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonate-induced transcripts in caterpillar resistant maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant defense responses against insect herbivores frequently depend on the biosynthesis and action of jasmonic acid (JA) and its conjugates. To better understand JA signaling pathways in maize (Zea mays L.), we have examined two maize genotypes, Mp708 and Tx601. Mp708 is resistant to feeding by le...

  19. Effect of methyl jasmonate on secondary metabolites of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Feng; Wang, Xi; Rajapakse, Nihal C

    2006-03-22

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in terms of its induction of inherent bioactive chemicals in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) was evaluated after MeJA was sprayed on healthy basil plants. The total phenolic content of the sweet basil significantly increased after 0.1 and 0.5 mM MeJA treatments compared with the control not subjected to MeJA. Two phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA), were identified as strong antioxidant constituents of the sweet basil. Their amounts also significantly increased after the MeJA treatment. In addition, eugenol and linalool increased 56 and 43%, respectively, by the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment. Due to the accumulation of RA, CA, and eugenol, which possess strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) free radical scavenging activities, the antioxidant activity of the sweet basil extract was 2.3-fold greater than that of the control after the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment. In the DPPH* assay, the EC50 values of RA, CA, and eugenol were determined as 23, 46, and 59 microM, respectively, which indicated they were 6-, 3-, and 2.4-fold more efficient than BHT (140 microM). Besides, an unidentified HPLC peak in the methanolic extract of the sweet basil was 4.3-fold higher than that of the control after the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment.

  20. 48 CFR 53.301-1094A - SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. 53.301-1094A Section 53.301-1094A Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. ER02JA97.013 ER02JA97.014...

  1. 48 CFR 53.301-1094A - SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. 53.301-1094A Section 53.301-1094A Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. ER02JA97.013 ER02JA97.014...

  2. 48 CFR 53.301-1094A - SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. 53.301-1094A Section 53.301-1094A Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. ER02JA97.013 ER02JA97.014...

  3. 48 CFR 53.301-1094A - SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. 53.301-1094A Section 53.301-1094A Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. ER02JA97.013 ER02JA97.014...

  4. 48 CFR 53.301-1094A - SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. 53.301-1094A Section 53.301-1094A Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. ER02JA97.013 ER02JA97.014...

  5. Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...

  6. Root response of Jerusalem artichoke genotypes to different water regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine effects of drought on selected root growth parameters and develop relationships between root parameters and tuber yield for selected Jerusalem artichoke (JA) genotypes. Three water regimes (Field capacity, 50% available water (AW) and 25% AW) and five JA...

  7. Hijacking of the jasmonate pathway by the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) to initiate programmed cell death in Arabidopsis is modulated by RGLG3 and RGLG4

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Wu, Qian; Cui, Shao; Ren, Jiao; Qian, Wanqiang; Yang, Yang; He, Shanping; Chu, Jinfang; Sun, Xiaohong; Yan, Cunyu; Yu, Xiangchun; An, Chengcai

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a strong inducer of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we describe two ubiquitin ligases, RING DOMAIN LIGASE3 (RGLG3) and RGLG4, which control FB1-triggered PCD by modulating the jasmonate (JA) signalling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. RGLG3 and RGLG4 transcription was sensitive to FB1. Arabidopsis FB1 sensitivity was suppressed by loss of function of RGLG3 and RGLG4 and was increased by their overexpression. Thus RGLG3 and RGLG4 have coordinated and positive roles in FB1-elicited PCD. Mutated JA perception by coi1 disrupted the RGLG3- and RGLG4-related response to FB1 and interfered with their roles in cell death. Although FB1 induced JA-responsive defence genes, it repressed growth-related, as well as JA biosynthesis-related, genes. Consistently, FB1 application reduced JA content in wild-type plants. Furthermore, exogenously applied salicylic acid additively suppressed JA signalling with FB1 treatment, suggesting that FB1-induced salicylic acid inhibits the JA pathway during this process. All of these effects were attenuated in rglg3 rglg4 plants. Altogether, these data suggest that the JA pathway is hijacked by the toxin FB1 to elicit PCD, which is coordinated by Arabidopsis RGLG3 and RGLG4. PMID:25788731

  8. Disruption of OPR7 and OPR8 Reveals the Versatile Functions of Jasmonic Acid in Maize Development and Defense[W

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yuanxin; Christensen, Shawn; Isakeit, Tom; Engelberth, Jürgen; Meeley, Robert; Hayward, Allison; Emery, R.J. Neil; Kolomiets, Michael V.

    2012-01-01

    Here, multiple functions of jasmonic acid (JA) in maize (Zea mays) are revealed by comprehensive analyses of JA-deficient mutants of the two oxo-phytodienoate reductase genes, OPR7 and OPR8. Single mutants produce wild-type levels of JA in most tissues, but the double mutant opr7 opr8 has dramatically reduced JA in all organs tested. opr7 opr8 displayed strong developmental defects, including formation of a feminized tassel, initiation of female reproductive buds at each node, and extreme elongation of ear shanks; these defects were rescued by exogenous JA. These data provide evidence that JA is required for male sex determination and suppression of female reproductive organ biogenesis. Moreover, opr7 opr8 exhibited delayed leaf senescence accompanied by reduced ethylene and abscisic acid levels and lack of anthocyanin pigmentation of brace roots. Remarkably, opr7 opr8 is nonviable in nonsterile soil and under field conditions due to extreme susceptibility to a root-rotting oomycete (Pythium spp), demonstrating that these genes are necessary for maize survival in nature. Supporting the importance of JA in insect defense, opr7 opr8 is susceptible to beet armyworm. Overall, this study provides strong genetic evidence for the global roles of JA in maize development and immunity to pathogens and insects. PMID:22523204

  9. Peroxisome proliferation, wound-activated responses and expression of peroxisome-associated genes are cross-regulated but uncoupled in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Mari Cruz; Sandalio, Luisa María; Del Río, Luís Alfonso; León, José

    2008-04-01

    Plant peroxisomes are multifunctional organelles that show plasticity in number, size, morphology, cellular location and metabolic functions. Many of these changes occur in response to environmental factors and are decisive for the development and defence of the plant. Among them, peroxisomal beta-oxidation-mediated synthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) is a key process in regulating development as well as wound- or pathogen-triggered defence responses. This work seeks for the connection between wound, JA and the proliferation of peroxisomes in Arabidopsis thaliana. The hypolipidemic drug clofibrate (CFB) induced the proliferation of peroxisomes and the expression of the beta-oxidation 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase 2 (KAT2) gene, coding for a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of JA, among other wound- and JA-responsive gene transcripts in Arabidopsis leaves. The CFB-activated expression of wound-responsive genes was not dependent on JA synthesis or perception and those responsive to JA required the function of the F-box protein COI1. In turn, wounding neither triggered peroxisome proliferation nor required peroxisome integrity to activate gene expression. Interestingly, cells from JA-treated leaves contained fewer but larger peroxisomes than cells from untreated leaves. The proliferation of peroxisomes, the synthesis of JA and the activation of wound-responsive genes by CFB, although functionally connected, were uncoupled in Arabidopsis.

  10. Arabidopsis MYC Transcription Factors Are the Target of Hormonal Salicylic Acid/Jasmonic Acid Cross Talk in Response to Pieris brassicae Egg Extract.

    PubMed

    Schmiesing, André; Emonet, Aurélia; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline; Reymond, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants recognize insect eggs and activate the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. As a consequence, expression of defense genes regulated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is suppressed and larval performance is enhanced. Cross talk between defense signaling pathways is common in plant-pathogen interactions, but the molecular mechanism mediating this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that egg-induced SA/JA antagonism works independently of the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factor ORA59, which controls the ERF branch of the JA pathway. In addition, treatment with egg extract did not enhance expression or stability of JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors, and SA/JA cross talk did not involve JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKEs, which are negative regulators of the JA pathway. Investigating the stability of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, we found that egg extract treatment strongly diminished MYC protein levels in an SA-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified WRKY75 as a novel and essential factor controlling SA/JA cross talk. These data indicate that insect eggs target the MYC branch of the JA pathway and uncover an unexpected modulation of SA/JA antagonism depending on the biological context in which the SA pathway is activated. PMID:26884488

  11. Cooperation and functional diversification of two closely related galactolipase genes for jasmonate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Youbong; Choi, Sungwook; Hwang, Hyun-Ju; Yu, Jihyeon; Nam, Sang-Jip; Ko, Jaeyoung; Park, Ju-Young; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Eun Yu; Ryu, Stephen Beungtae; Kim, Woo Taek; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kang, Heonjoong; Lee, Ilha

    2008-02-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) plays pivotal roles in diverse plant biological processes, including wound response. Chloroplast lipid hydrolysis is a critical step for JA biosynthesis, but the mechanism of this process remains elusive. We report here that DONGLE (DGL), a homolog of DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCENCE1 (DAD1), encodes a chloroplast-targeted lipase with strong galactolipase and weak phospholipase A(1) activity. DGL is expressed in the leaves and has a specific role in maintaining basal JA content under normal conditions, and this expression regulates vegetative growth and is required for a rapid JA burst after wounding. During wounding, DGL and DAD1 have partially redundant functions for JA production, but they show different induction kinetics, indicating temporally separated roles: DGL plays a role in the early phase of JA production, and DAD1 plays a role in the late phase of JA production. Whereas DGL and DAD1 are necessary and sufficient for JA production, phospholipase D appears to modulate wound response by stimulating DGL and DAD1 expression.

  12. Disruption of OPR7 and OPR8 reveals the versatile functions of jasmonic acid in maize development and defense.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuanxin; Christensen, Shawn; Isakeit, Tom; Engelberth, Jürgen; Meeley, Robert; Hayward, Allison; Emery, R J Neil; Kolomiets, Michael V

    2012-04-01

    Here, multiple functions of jasmonic acid (JA) in maize (Zea mays) are revealed by comprehensive analyses of JA-deficient mutants of the two oxo-phytodienoate reductase genes, OPR7 and OPR8. Single mutants produce wild-type levels of JA in most tissues, but the double mutant opr7 opr8 has dramatically reduced JA in all organs tested. opr7 opr8 displayed strong developmental defects, including formation of a feminized tassel, initiation of female reproductive buds at each node, and extreme elongation of ear shanks; these defects were rescued by exogenous JA. These data provide evidence that JA is required for male sex determination and suppression of female reproductive organ biogenesis. Moreover, opr7 opr8 exhibited delayed leaf senescence accompanied by reduced ethylene and abscisic acid levels and lack of anthocyanin pigmentation of brace roots. Remarkably, opr7 opr8 is nonviable in nonsterile soil and under field conditions due to extreme susceptibility to a root-rotting oomycete (Pythium spp), demonstrating that these genes are necessary for maize survival in nature. Supporting the importance of JA in insect defense, opr7 opr8 is susceptible to beet armyworm. Overall, this study provides strong genetic evidence for the global roles of JA in maize development and immunity to pathogens and insects. PMID:22523204

  13. Miscellaneous non-inflammatory musculoskeletal conditions. Jaccoud's arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Mittermayer B

    2011-10-01

    Jaccoud's arthropathy (JA) is a condition characterised clinically by 'reversible' joint deformities such as swan neck, thumb subluxation, ulnar deviation, 'boutonniere' and hallux valgus, along with an absence of articular erosions on a plain radiograph. JA was initially described in patients with rheumatic fever (RF), but as this disorder has become rare the main clinical entity associated to JA at present is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). JA has also been described in other connective tissue diseases, infections and neoplasia. In general, its prevalence in either SLE or RF is around 5%. The etiopathogenic mechanisms of JA are not known, but some authors have suggested an association with hypermobility syndrome. Several studies have attempted to identify an association of different antibodies with JA in SLE patients, but their findings do not allow for the drawing of any definite conclusions. Newer imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance and high-performance ultrasonography have revealed the presence of small erosions in joints of a few patients with JA. Presently, the therapy for JA is conservative and based on the use of non-hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs, low doses of corticosteroids, methotrexate and antimalarials. The role of surgery through either the realignment of soft tissue around the joint--or more aggressive procedures such as arthrodesis, silastic implant and arthroplasty--needs to be proven. PMID:22142749

  14. Root and shoot gas exchange respond additively to moderate ozone and methyl jasmonate without induction of ethylene: ethylene is induced at higher O3 concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Grantz, D.A.; Vu, H.-B.

    2012-01-01

    The available literature is conflicting on the potential protection of plants against ozone (O3) injury by exogenous jasmonates, including methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Protective antagonistic interactions of O3 and MeJA have been observed in some systems and purely additive effects in others. Here it is shown that chronic exposure to low to moderate O3 concentrations (4–114 ppb; 12 h mean) and to MeJA induced additive reductions in carbon assimilation (A n) and root respiration (R r), and in calculated whole plant carbon balance. Neither this chronic O3 regime nor MeJA induced emission of ethylene (ET) from the youngest fully expanded leaves. ET emission was induced by acute 3 h pulse exposure to much higher O3 concentrations (685 ppb). ET emission was further enhanced in plants treated with MeJA. Responses of growth, allocation, photosynthesis, and respiration to moderate O3 concentrations and to MeJA appear to be independent and additive, and not associated with emission of ET. These results suggest that responses of Pima cotton to environmentally relevant O3 are not mediated by signalling pathways associated with ET and MeJA, though these pathways are inducible in this species and exhibit a synergistic O3×MeJA interaction at very high O3 concentrations. PMID:22563119

  15. 76 FR 14349 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1, dated... British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream Series...) of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1,...

  16. Full establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in rice occurs independently of enzymatic jasmonate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gutjahr, Caroline; Siegler, Heike; Haga, Ken; Iino, Moritoshi; Paszkowski, Uta

    2015-01-01

    Development of the mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis between most land plants and fungi of the Glomeromycota is regulated by phytohormones. The role of jasmonate (JA) in AM colonization has been investigated in the dicotyledons Medicago truncatula, tomato and Nicotiana attenuata and contradicting results have been obtained with respect to a neutral, promotive or inhibitory effect of JA on AM colonization. Furthermore, it is currently unknown whether JA plays a role in AM colonization of monocotyledonous roots. Therefore we examined whether JA biosynthesis is required for AM colonization of the monocot rice. To this end we employed the rice mutant constitutive photomorphogenesis 2 (cpm2), which is deficient in JA biosynthesis. Through a time course experiment the amount and morphology of fungal colonization did not differ between wild-type and cpm2 roots. Furthermore, no significant difference in the expression of AM marker genes was detected between wild type and cpm2. However, treatment of wild-type roots with 50 μM JA lead to a decrease of AM colonization and this was correlated with induction of the defense gene PR4. These results indicate that JA is not required for AM colonization of rice but high levels of JA in the roots suppress AM development likely through the induction of defense. PMID:25860838

  17. Cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (cADPR) cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate positively function in Ca(2+) elevation in methyl jasmonate-induced stomatal closure, cADPR is required for methyl jasmonate-induced ROS accumulation NO production in guard cells.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M A; Ye, W; Munemasa, S; Nakamura, Y; Mori, I C; Murata, Y

    2014-11-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) signalling shares several signal components with abscisic acid (ABA) signalling in guard cells. Cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (cADPR) and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) are second messengers in ABA-induced stomatal closure. In order to clarify involvement of cADPR and cGMP in MeJA-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0), we investigated effects of an inhibitor of cADPR synthesis, nicotinamide (NA), and an inhibitor of cGMP synthesis, LY83583 (LY, 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione), on MeJA-induced stomatal closure. Treatment with NA and LY inhibited MeJA-induced stomatal closure. NA inhibited MeJA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and nitric oxide (NO) production in guard cells. NA and LY suppressed transient elevations elicited by MeJA in cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) in guard cells. These results suggest that cADPR and cGMP positively function in [Ca(2+)]cyt elevation in MeJA-induced stomatal closure, are signalling components shared with ABA-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis, and that cADPR is required for MeJA-induced ROS accumulation and NO production in Arabidopsis guard cells.

  18. Endogenous abscisic acid is involved in methyl jasmonate-induced reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production but not in cytosolic alkalization in Arabidopsis guard cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenxiu; Hossain, Mohammad Anowar; Munemasa, Shintaro; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2013-09-01

    We recently demonstrated that endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we investigated whether endogenous ABA is involved in MeJA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production and cytosolic alkalization in guard cells using an ABA-deficient Arabidopsis mutant, aba2-2, and an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, fluridon (FLU). The aba2-2 mutation impaired MeJA-induced ROS and NO production. FLU inhibited MeJA-induced ROS production in wild-type guard cells. Pretreatment with 0.1 μM ABA, which does not induce stomatal closure in the wild type, complemented the insensitivity to MeJA of the aba2-2 mutant. However, MeJA induced cytosolic alkalization in both wild-type and aba2-2 guard cells. These results suggest that endogenous ABA is involved in MeJA-induced ROS and NO production but not in MeJA-induced cytosolic alkalization in Arabidopsis guard cells.

  19. 50 CFR Table 1b to Part 660... - 2013, Allocations by Species or Species Group (Weights in Metric Tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Group (Weights in Metric Tons) 1b Table 1b to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED..., Allocations by Species or Species Group (Weights in Metric Tons) ER03JA13.040 ER03JA13.041...

  20. Critical Role of COI1-Dependent Jasmonate Pathway in AAL toxin induced PCD in Tomato Revealed by Comparative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Koh, Jin; Liu, Lihong; Shao, Zhiyong; Liu, Haoran; Hu, Songshen; Zhu, Ning; Dufresne, Craig P.; Chen, Sixue; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata f.sp. Lycopersici (AAL) toxin induces programmed cell death (PCD) in susceptible tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. Jasmonate (JA) promotes AAL toxin induced PCD in a COI1 (coronatine insensitive 1, JA receptor)-dependent manner by enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this process, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis using tomato jasmonic acid insensitive1 ( jai1), the receptor mutant of JA, and its wild type (WT) after AAL toxin treatment with or without JA treatment. A total of 10367 proteins were identified in tomato leaves using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) quantitative proteomics approach. 2670 proteins were determined to be differentially expressed in response to AAL toxin and JA. Comparison between AAL toxin treated jai1 and its WT revealed the COI1-dependent JA pathway regulated proteins, including pathways related to redox response, ceramide synthesis, JA, ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Autophagy, PCD and DNA damage related proteins were also identified. Our data suggest that COI1-dependent JA pathway enhances AAL toxin induced PCD through regulating the redox status of the leaves, other phytohormone pathways and/or important PCD components. PMID:27324416

  1. Arabidopsis MYC Transcription Factors Are the Target of Hormonal Salicylic Acid/Jasmonic Acid Cross Talk in Response to Pieris brassicae Egg Extract1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schmiesing, André; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants recognize insect eggs and activate the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. As a consequence, expression of defense genes regulated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is suppressed and larval performance is enhanced. Cross talk between defense signaling pathways is common in plant-pathogen interactions, but the molecular mechanism mediating this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that egg-induced SA/JA antagonism works independently of the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factor ORA59, which controls the ERF branch of the JA pathway. In addition, treatment with egg extract did not enhance expression or stability of JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors, and SA/JA cross talk did not involve JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKEs, which are negative regulators of the JA pathway. Investigating the stability of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, we found that egg extract treatment strongly diminished MYC protein levels in an SA-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified WRKY75 as a novel and essential factor controlling SA/JA cross talk. These data indicate that insect eggs target the MYC branch of the JA pathway and uncover an unexpected modulation of SA/JA antagonism depending on the biological context in which the SA pathway is activated. PMID:26884488

  2. Education System of John Amos Comenius and Its Implications in Modern Didactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko; Munjiza, Emerik

    2014-01-01

    The authors were particularly interested in scientific conceptions shaped and systematized in subject-teaching school system proposed by J.A. Comenius, which are still actively applied in day-to-day school practice. Within the analysed ideas of J.A. Comenius the goal and the task of this paper is to present to the pedagogic public the originality…

  3. The regulation of methyl jasmonate on hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis in Ganoderma lucidum partly via ROS generated by NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Gong, Li; Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Ang; Gao, Tan; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-08-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the best known medicinal basidiomycetes because it produces many pharmacologically active compounds, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was previously reported to induce the biosynthesis of ganoderic acids (GA) in G. lucidum. In this study, we found that MeJA not only increased the amount of GA but also increased the distance between hyphal branches by approximately 1.2-fold. Further analysis showed that MeJA could increase the intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) content by approximately 2.2-2.7-fold. Furthermore, the hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis regulated by MeJA treatment could be abolished by ROS scavengers to a level similar to or lower than that of the control group. These results indicated that the regulation of hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis by MeJA might occur via a ROS signaling pathway. Further analysis revealed that NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays an important role in MeJA-regulated ROS generation. Importantly, our results highlight that NOX functions in signaling cross-talk between ROS and MeJA. In addition, these findings provide an excellent opportunity to identify potential pathways linking ROS networks to MeJA signaling in fungi and suggest that plants and fungi share a conserved signaling-crosstalk mechanism.

  4. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (P<0.01); however, the gene expression of β-glucosidase was downregulated to a half level. In general, the aroma quality of the MeJA-treated black tea was clearly improved.

  5. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 698 - Model Prescreen Opt-Out Notices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... comply with part 642 of this title, the following model notices may be used: (a) English language model notice—(1) Short notice. ER31JA05.028 (2) Long notice. ER31JA05.029 (b) Spanish language model...

  6. Integrative Pre-Service Elementary Teacher Training: The Role of Interdisciplinary Collaborative Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiatula, Victoria Oliaku

    2015-01-01

    This primer summarizes interdisciplinary collaborative mathematics as an integrative approach to train pre-service elementary teachers to teach math utilizing Junior Achievement USA (JA) educational programs within an elementary Math Methods course. The primer provides a JA historical background/program overview, summarizes the interdisciplinary…

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Preschool-Based Joint Attention Intervention for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaale, Anett; Smith, Lars; Sponheim, Eili

    2012-01-01

    Background: Deficits in joint attention (JA) and joint engagement (JE) represent a core problem in young children with autism as these affect language and social development. Studies of parent-mediated and specialist-mediated JA-intervention suggest that such intervention may be effective. However, there is little knowledge about the success of…

  8. CYP94-mediated jasmonoyl-isoleucine hormone oxidation shapes jasmonate profiles and attenuates defence responses to Botrytis cinerea infection

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Yann; Widemann, Emilie; Miesch, Laurence; Pinot, Franck; Heitz, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea depends on jasmonate metabolism and signalling in Arabidopsis. We have presented here extensive jasmonate profiling in this pathosystem and investigated the impact of the recently reported jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) catabolic pathway mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP94) enzymes. Using a series of mutant and overexpressing (OE) plant lines, we showed that CYP94B3 and CYP94C1 are integral components of the fungus-induced jasmonate metabolic pathway and control the abundance of oxidized conjugated but also some unconjugated derivatives, such as sulfated 12-HSO4-JA. Despite causing JA-Ile overaccumulation due to impaired oxidation, CYP94 deficiency had negligible impacts on resistance, associated with enhanced JAZ repressor transcript levels. In contrast, plants overexpressing (OE) CYP94B3 or CYP94C1 were enriched in 12-OH-JA-Ile or 12-COOH-JA-Ile respectively. This shift towards oxidized JA-Ile derivatives was concomitant with strongly impaired defence gene induction and reduced disease resistance. CYP94B3-OE, but unexpectedly not CYP94C1-OE, plants displayed reduced JA-Ile levels compared with the wild type, suggesting that increased susceptibility in CYP94C1-OE plants may result from changes in the hormone oxidation ratio rather than absolute changes in JA-Ile levels. Consistently, while feeding JA-Ile to seedlings triggered strong induction of JA pathway genes, induction was largely reduced or abolished after feeding with the CYP94 products 12-OH-JA-Ile and 12-COOH-JA-Ile, respectively. This trend paralleled in vitro pull-down assays where 12-COOH-JA-Ile was unable to promote COI1–JAZ9 co-receptor assembly. Our results highlight the dual function of CYP94B3/C1 in antimicrobial defence: by controlling hormone oxidation status for signal attenuation, these enzymes also define JA-Ile as a metabolic hub directing jasmonate profile complexity. PMID:25903915

  9. Jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine is required for the production of a flavonoid phytoalexin but not diterpenoid phytoalexins in ultraviolet-irradiated rice leaves.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Koji; Enda, Isami; Okada, Toshiki; Sato, Yumiko; Watanabe, Kohei; Sakazawa, Tomoko; Yumoto, Emi; Shibata, Kyomi; Asahina, Masashi; Iino, Moritoshi; Yokota, Takao; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2016-10-01

    Rice produces low-molecular-weight antimicrobial compounds known as phytoalexins, in response to not only pathogen attack but also abiotic stresses including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Rice phytoalexins are composed of diterpenoids and a flavonoid. Recent studies have indicated that endogenous jasmonyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is not necessarily required for the production of diterpenoid phytoalexins in blast-infected or CuCl2-treated rice leaves. However, JA-Ile is required for the accumulation of the flavonoid phytoalexin, sakuranetin. Here, we investigated the roles of JA-Ile in UV-induced phytoalexin production. We showed that UV-irradiation induces the biosynthesis of JA-Ile and its precursor jasmonic acid. We also showed that rice jasmonate biosynthesis mutants produced diterpenoid phytoalexins but not sakuranetin in response to UV, indicating that JA-Ile is required for the production of sakuranetin but not diterpenoid phytoalexins in UV-irradiated rice leaves. PMID:27240428

  10. Jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine is required for the production of a flavonoid phytoalexin but not diterpenoid phytoalexins in ultraviolet-irradiated rice leaves.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Koji; Enda, Isami; Okada, Toshiki; Sato, Yumiko; Watanabe, Kohei; Sakazawa, Tomoko; Yumoto, Emi; Shibata, Kyomi; Asahina, Masashi; Iino, Moritoshi; Yokota, Takao; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2016-10-01

    Rice produces low-molecular-weight antimicrobial compounds known as phytoalexins, in response to not only pathogen attack but also abiotic stresses including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Rice phytoalexins are composed of diterpenoids and a flavonoid. Recent studies have indicated that endogenous jasmonyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is not necessarily required for the production of diterpenoid phytoalexins in blast-infected or CuCl2-treated rice leaves. However, JA-Ile is required for the accumulation of the flavonoid phytoalexin, sakuranetin. Here, we investigated the roles of JA-Ile in UV-induced phytoalexin production. We showed that UV-irradiation induces the biosynthesis of JA-Ile and its precursor jasmonic acid. We also showed that rice jasmonate biosynthesis mutants produced diterpenoid phytoalexins but not sakuranetin in response to UV, indicating that JA-Ile is required for the production of sakuranetin but not diterpenoid phytoalexins in UV-irradiated rice leaves.

  11. The extraction of ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd">ΦN total cross section from ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd">d(γ,pK+K-)n

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, X.; Chen, W.; Gao, H.; Hicks, K.; Kramer, K.; Laget, J. M.; Mibe, T.; Stepanyan, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Xu, W.; Adhikari, K. P.; Amaryan, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bellis, M.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Careccia, S. L.; Carman, D. S.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dhamija, S.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hassall, N.; Heddle, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S. S.; Johnstone, J. R.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; Martinez, D.; Mayer, M.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moriya, K.; Morrison, B.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Nepali, C. S.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niroula, M. R.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Williams, M.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.

    2009-10-01

    We report on the first measurement of the differential cross section of $\\phi$-meson photoproduction for the $d(\\gamma,pK^{+}K^{-})n$ exclusive reaction channel. The experiment was performed using a \\textcolor{black}{tagged-photon} beam and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. A combined analysis using data from the $d(\\gamma,pK^{+}K^{-})n$ channel and those from a previous publication on coherent $\\phi$ production on the deuteron has been carried out to extract the $\\phi-N$ total cross section, $\\sigma_{\\phi N}$. The extracted $\\phi-N$ total cross section favors a value above 20 mb. This value is larger than the value extracted using vector-meson dominance models for $\\phi$ photoproduction on the proton.

  12. High-precision measurement of the proton elastic form factor ratio ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd">μpGE/GM at low ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd">Q2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, X.; Allada, K.; Armstrong, D. S.; Arrington, J.; Bertozzi, W.; Boeglin, W.; Chen, J. -P.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Choi, S.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Decowski, P.; Dutta, C.; Frullani, S.; Fuchey, E.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glister, J.; Hafidi, K.; Hahn, B.; Hansen, J. -O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Holt, R. J.; Huang, J.; Huber, G. M.; Itard, F.; de Jager, C. W.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, M.; Katich, J.; de Leo, R.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Long, E.; Margaziotis, D. J.; May-Tal Beck, S.; Meekins, D.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Norum, B. E.; Olson, M.; Piasetzky, E.; Pomerantz, I.; Protopopescu, D.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Ransome, R. D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reinhold, J.; Riordan, S.; Ron, G.; Saha, A.; Sarty, A. J.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E. C.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Shneor, R.; Širca, S.; Solvignon, P.; Sparveris, N. F.; Strauch, S.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, Y.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Ye, Z.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-10-06

    Here, we report a new high precision measurement of the proton elastic form factor ratio μpGE/GM for the four-momentum transfer squared Q2 = 0.3-0.7 (GeV/c)2. The measurement was performed at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in Hall A using recoil polarimetry. With the achieved ~1% total uncertainty, the new data clearly show that the deviation of the ratio μpGE/GM from unity observed in previous polarization measurements at high Q2 continues down to the lowest Q2 value of this measurement. The updated global fit that includes the new results yields in this Q2 range an electric (magnetic) form factor ~2% smaller (~1% larger) than the previous global fit. We obtain new extractions of the proton electric and magnetic radii, which are (rE2)1/2 = 0.875 ± 0.010 fm and (rM2)1/2 = 0.867 ± 0.020 fm. Moreover, the charge radius is consistent with other recent extractions based on the electron-proton interaction, including the atomic hydrogen Lamb shift measruements, which suggests a missing correction in the comparison of measurements of the proton charge radius using electron probes and the recent extraction from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift.

  13. Justicidin A-induced autophagy flux enhances apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells via class III PI3K and Atg5 pathway.

    PubMed

    Won, Shen-Jeu; Yen, Cheng-Hsin; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Wu, Shan-Ying; Lan, Sheng-Hui; Jiang-Shieh, Ya-Fen; Lin, Chun-Nan; Su, Chun-Li

    2015-04-01

    Our previous reports showed that justicidin A (JA), a novel and pure arylnaphthalide lignan isolated from Justicia procumbens, induces apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells and hepatocellular carcinoma cells, leading to the suppression of both tumor cell growth in NOD-SCID mice. Here, we reveal that JA induces autophagy in human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells by conversion of autophagic marker LC3-I to LC3-II. Furthermore, LC3 puncta and autophagic vesicle formation, and SQSTM1/p62 suppression were observed. Administration of autophagy inhibitor (bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine) and transfection of a tandem fluorescent-tagged LC3 (mRFP-GFP) reporter plasmid (ptfLC3) demonstrated that JA induces autophagy flux in HT-29 cells. Expression of LC3, SQSTM1, Beclin 1, and nuclear DNA double-strand breaks (representing apoptosis) were also detected in the tumor tissue of HT-29 cells transplanted into NOD-SCID mice orally administrated with JA. In addition, the expression of autophagy signaling pathway-related molecules p-PDK1, p-mTOR, p-p70S6k/p-RPS6KB2 was decreased, whereas that of class III PI3K, Beclin 1, Atg5-Atg12, and mitochondrial BNIP3 was increased in response to JA. Pre-treatment of the cells with class III PI3K inhibitor 3-methyladenine or Atg5 shRNA attenuated JA-induced LC3-II expression and LC3 puncta formation, indicating the involvement of class III PI3K and Atg5. A novel mechanism was demonstrated in the anticancer compound JA; pre-treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 shRNA blocked JA-induced suppression in cell growth and colony formation, respectively, via inhibition of apoptosis. In contrast, administration of apoptosis inhibitor Z-VAD did not affect JA-induced autophagy. Our data suggest the chemotherapeutic potential of JA for treatment of human colorectal cancer.

  14. Disarming the jasmonate-dependent plant defense makes nonhost Arabidopsis plants accessible to the American serpentine leafminer.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroshi; Tateishi, Ken; Seo, Shigemi; Kugimiya, Soichi; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Sawada, Yuji; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Yara, Kaori; Shimoda, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2013-11-01

    Here, we analyzed the interaction between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the American serpentine leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii), an important and intractable herbivore of many cultivated plants. We examined the role of the immunity-related plant hormone jasmonate (JA) in the plant response and resistance to leafminer feeding to determine whether JA affects host suitability for leafminers. The expression of marker genes for the JA-dependent plant defense was induced by leafminer feeding on Arabidopsis wild-type plants. Analyses of JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants suggested the importance of JA in the plant response to leafminer feeding. The JA content of wild-type plants significantly increased after leafminer feeding. Moreover, coi1-1 mutants showed lower feeding resistance against leafminer attack than did wild-type plants. The number of feeding scars caused by inoculated adult leafminers in JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants was higher than that in wild-type plants. In addition, adults of the following generation appeared only from coi1-1 mutants and not from wild-type plants, suggesting that the loss of the JA-dependent plant defense converted nonhost plants to accessible host plants. Interestingly, the glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system may play at most a minor role in this conversion, indicating that this major antiherbivore defense of Brassica species plants probably does not have a major function in plant resistance to leafminer. Application of JA to wild-type plants before leafminer feeding enhanced feeding resistance in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium). Our results indicate that JA plays an important role in the plant response and resistance to leafminers and, in so doing, affects host plant suitability for leafminers.

  15. Wound and insect-induced jasmonate accumulation in carnivorous Drosera capensis: two sides of the same coin.

    PubMed

    Mithöfer, A; Reichelt, M; Nakamura, Y

    2014-09-01

    Carnivorous sundew plants catch and digest insect prey for their own nutrition. The sundew species Drosera capensis shows a pronounced leaf bending reaction upon prey capture in order to form an 'outer stomach'. This formation is triggered by jasmonates, phytohormones typically involved in defence reactions against herbivory and wounding. Whether jasmonates still have this function in D. capensis in addition to mediating the leaf bending reaction was investigated here. Wounded, insect prey-fed and insect-derived oral secretion-treated leaves of D. capensis were analysed for jasmonates (jasmonic acid, JA; jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate, JA-Ile) using LC-MS/MS. Prey-induced jasmonate accumulation in D. capensis leaves was persistent, and showed high levels of JA and JA-Ile (575 and 55.7 pmol · g · FW(-1) , respectively), whereas wounding induced a transient increase of JA (maximum 500 pmol · g · FW(-1) ) and only low (3.1 pmol · g · FW(-1) ) accumulation of JA-Ile. Herbivory, mimicked with a combined treatment of wounding plus oral secretion (W+OS) obtained from Spodoptera littoralis larvae induced both JA (4000 pmol · g · FW(-1) ) and JA-Ile (25 pmol · g · FW(-1) ) accumulation, with kinetics similar to prey treatment. Only prey and W+OS, but not wounding alone or OS, induced leaf bending. The results indicate that both mechanical and chemical stimuli trigger JA and JA-Ile synthesis. Differences in kinetics and induced jasmonate levels suggest different sensing and signalling events upon injury and insect-dependent challenge. Thus, in Drosera, jasmonates are still part of the response to wounding. Jasmonates are also employed in insect-induced reactions, including responses to herbivory and carnivory.

  16. Far-Red Light-Mediated Seedling Development in Arabidopsis Involves FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 219/JASMONATE RESISTANT 1-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huai-Ju; Chen, Cheng-Ling; Hsieh, Hsu-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and development is often regulated by the interaction of environmental factors such as light and various phytohormones. Arabidopsis FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 219 (FIN219)/JASMONATE RESISTANT 1 (JAR1) participates in phytochrome A-mediated far-red (FR) light signaling and interacts with different light signaling regulators. FIN219/JAR1 is a jasmonic acid (JA)-conjugating enzyme responsible for the formation of JA-isoleucine. However, how FIN219/JAR1 integrates FR light and JA signaling remains largely unknown. We used a microarray approach to dissect the effect of fin219 mutation on the interaction of FR light and JA signaling. The fin219-2 mutant was less sensitive than the wild type to various concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) under low and high FR light. High FR light reduced the sensitivity of Arabidopsis seedlings to MeJA likely through FIN219. Intriguingly, in response to MeJA, FIN219 levels showed a negative feedback regulation. Further microarray assay revealed that FR light could regulate gene expression by FIN219-dependent or -independent pathways. The expression profiles affected in fin219-2 indicated that FIN219/JAR1 plays a critical role in the integration of multiple hormone-related signaling. In particular, FIN219 regulates a number of transcription factors (TFs), including 94 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) TFs, in response to FR light and MeJA. Loss-of-function mutants of some bHLH TFs affected by FIN219 showed altered responses to MeJA in the regulation of hypocotyl and root elongation. Thus, FIN219/JAR1 is tightly regulated in response to exogenous MeJA. It also interacts with multiple plant hormones to modulate hypocotyl and root elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings likely by regulating a group of TFs. PMID:26176841

  17. Far-Red Light-Mediated Seedling Development in Arabidopsis Involves FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 219/JASMONATE RESISTANT 1-Dependent and -Independent Pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huai-Ju; Chen, Cheng-Ling; Hsieh, Hsu-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and development is often regulated by the interaction of environmental factors such as light and various phytohormones. Arabidopsis FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 219 (FIN219)/JASMONATE RESISTANT 1 (JAR1) participates in phytochrome A-mediated far-red (FR) light signaling and interacts with different light signaling regulators. FIN219/JAR1 is a jasmonic acid (JA)-conjugating enzyme responsible for the formation of JA-isoleucine. However, how FIN219/JAR1 integrates FR light and JA signaling remains largely unknown. We used a microarray approach to dissect the effect of fin219 mutation on the interaction of FR light and JA signaling. The fin219-2 mutant was less sensitive than the wild type to various concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) under low and high FR light. High FR light reduced the sensitivity of Arabidopsis seedlings to MeJA likely through FIN219. Intriguingly, in response to MeJA, FIN219 levels showed a negative feedback regulation. Further microarray assay revealed that FR light could regulate gene expression by FIN219-dependent or -independent pathways. The expression profiles affected in fin219-2 indicated that FIN219/JAR1 plays a critical role in the integration of multiple hormone-related signaling. In particular, FIN219 regulates a number of transcription factors (TFs), including 94 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) TFs, in response to FR light and MeJA. Loss-of-function mutants of some bHLH TFs affected by FIN219 showed altered responses to MeJA in the regulation of hypocotyl and root elongation. Thus, FIN219/JAR1 is tightly regulated in response to exogenous MeJA. It also interacts with multiple plant hormones to modulate hypocotyl and root elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings likely by regulating a group of TFs. PMID:26176841

  18. Induced defenses change the chemical composition of pine seedlings and influence meal properties of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Lina; Fedderwitz, Frauke; Björklund, Niklas; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2016-10-01

    The defense of conifers against phytophagous insects relies to a large extent on induced chemical defenses. However, it is not clear how induced changes in chemical composition influence the meal properties of phytophagous insects (and thus damage rates). The defense can be induced experimentally with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which is a substance that is produced naturally when a plant is attacked. Here we used MeJA to investigate how the volatile contents of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tissues influence the meal properties of the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis (L.)). Phloem and needles (both weevil target tissues) from MeJA-treated and control seedlings were extracted by n-hexane and analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (2D GC-MS). The feeding of pine weevils on MeJA-treated and control seedlings were video-recorded to determine meal properties. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that phloem and needle contents of MeJA-treated seedlings had different volatile compositions compared to control seedlings. Levels of the pine weevil attractant (+)-α-pinene were particularly high in phloem of control seedlings with feeding damage. The antifeedant substance 2-phenylethanol occurred at higher levels in the phloem of MeJA-treated than in control seedlings. Accordingly, pine weevils fed slower and had shorter meals on MeJA-seedlings. The chemical compositions of phloem and needle tissues were clearly different in control seedlings but not in the MeJA-treated seedlings. Consequently, meal durations of mixed meals, i.e. both needles and phloem, were longer than phloem meals on control seedlings, while meal durations on MeJA seedlings did not differ between these meal contents. The meal duration influences the risk of girdling and plant death. Thus our results suggest a mechanism by which MeJA treatment may protect conifer seedlings against pine weevils. PMID:27417987

  19. Plants Know Where It Hurts: Root and Shoot Jasmonic Acid Induction Elicit Differential Responses in Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Tytgat, Tom O.G.; Verhoeven, Koen J. F.; Jansen, Jeroen J.; Raaijmakers, Ciska E.; Bakx-Schotman, Tanja; McIntyre, Lauren M.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Biere, Arjen; van Dam, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivore attack by rapidly inducing defenses that are mainly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA). Due to the systemic nature of induced defenses, attack by root herbivores can also result in a shoot response and vice versa, causing interactions between above- and belowground herbivores. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions. We investigated whether plants respond differently when roots or shoots are induced. We mimicked herbivore attack by applying JA to the roots or shoots of Brassica oleracea and analyzed molecular and chemical responses in both organs. In shoots, an immediate and massive change in primary and secondary metabolism was observed. In roots, the JA-induced response was less extensive and qualitatively different from that in the shoots. Strikingly, in both roots and shoots we also observed differential responses in primary metabolism, development as well as defense specific traits depending on whether the JA induction had been below- or aboveground. We conclude that the JA response is not only tissue-specific but also dependent on the organ that was induced. Already very early in the JA signaling pathway the differential response was observed. This indicates that both organs have a different JA signaling cascade, and that the signal eliciting systemic responses contains information about the site of induction, thus providing plants with a mechanism to tailor their responses specifically to the organ that is damaged. PMID:23776489

  20. The ratio of extracellular Ca2+ to K+ ions affects the photoresponses in Stentor coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, K; Song, P S

    1989-01-01

    1. Stentor coeruleus exhibits negative phototaxis (due to phototactic orientation response) and step-up photophobic response (avoiding reaction) to visible light. 2. The effect of Ja-value ([K+]/[Ca2+]1/2) and calcium ion concentration of the surrounding medium on the photoresponses in Stentor were studied. 3. The both types of photoresponses in Stentor are greatly affected by the Ja-value. A higher Ja-value medium suppressed the step-up photophobic response of Stentor, whereas the organism showed a higher degree of phototactic orientation response in higher Ja-value solutions. 4. The effect of the Ja-value on the step-up photophobic response was opposite to that on the phototactic orientation response. 5. With increasing calcium concentration but at a constant Ja-value, the number of Stentor showing the step-up photophobic response increased, whereas the phototactic orientation response of Stentor was suppressed at higher Ca2+ concentrations. 6. The effect of the calcium concentration on the photophobic response was also opposite to that on the phototactic orientation response, as in the case of Ja-value effect. PMID:2567650

  1. Water Stress Responses of Tomato Mutants Impaired in Hormone Biosynthesis Reveal Abscisic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid Interactions.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Espinoza, Valeria A; López-Climent, María F; Casaretto, José A; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the putative crosstalk between JA and ABA in Solanum lycopersicum plants in response to drought, suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2, JA-deficient) and flacca (flc, ABA-deficient) mutants together with the naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) transgenic (SA-deficient) line were used. Hormone profiling and gene expression of key enzymes in ABA, JA and SA biosynthesis were analyzed during early stages of drought. ABA accumulation was comparable in spr2 and wild type (WT) plants whereas expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (NCED1) and NCED2 was different, implying a compensation mechanism between NCED genes and an organ-specific regulation of NCED1 expression. JA levels and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3 (OPR3) expression in flc plants suggest that ABA regulates the induction of the OPR3 gene in roots. By contrast, ABA treatment to flc plants leads to a reduction of JA and SA contents. Furthermore, different pattern of SA accumulation (and expression of isochorismate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1) was observed between WT seedlings and mutants, suggesting that SA plays an important role on the early response of tomato plants to drought and also that JA and ABA modulate its biosynthesis. Finally, hormone profiling in spr2 and NahG plants indicate a crosstalk between JA and SA that could enhance tolerance of tomato to water stress. PMID:26635826

  2. Physicochemical and thermodynamic characterization of the encapsulation of methyl jasmonate by natural and modified cyclodextrins using reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    López-Nicolás, José Manuel; Escorial Camps, Marta; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2013-11-27

    Although the combinations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and cyclodextrins (CDs) have been used by different authors to stimulate the production of several metabolites, no study has been published about the possible formation of MeJA-CD complexes when these two molecules are added together to the reaction medium as elicitors. For this reason and because knowledge of the possible complexation process of MeJA with CD under different physicochemical conditions is essential if these two molecules are to be used in cell cultures, this paper looks at the complexation of MeJA with natural and modified CDs using a reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) system. The interaction of MeJA with β-CD was more efficient than with α- and γ-CDs. However, a modified CD, HP-β-CD, was the most effective of all of the CDs tested. Moreover, MeJA formed complexes with CD with a 1:1 stoichiometry, and the formation constants of these complexes were strongly dependent upon the temperature of the mobile phase used but not the pH. To obtain information about the mechanism of the affinity of MeJA for CD, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS° were calculated. Finally, molecular modeling studies were carried out to propose which molecular interactions are established in the complexation process.

  3. Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yong-Cui; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Pei-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    Agarwood, a highly valuable resinous and fragrant heartwood of Aquilaria plants, is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only when Aquilaria trees are wounded by external stimuli do they form agarwood sesquiterpene defensive compounds. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway of wound-induced agarwood formation is important. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized molecule that mediates a plant's defense response and secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the function of endogenous JA in agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Here, we report that heat shock can up-regulate the expression of genes in JA signaling pathway, induce JA production and the accumulation of agarwood sesquiterpene in A. sinensis cell suspension cultures. A specific inhibitor of JA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), could block the JA signaling pathway and reduce the accumulation of sesquiterpene compounds. Additionally, compared to SA and H2O2, exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate has the strongest stimulation effect on the production of sesquiterpene compounds. These results clearly demonstrate the central induction role of JA in heat-shock-induced sesquiterpene production in A. sinensis.

  4. The plastidial retrograde signal methyl erythritol cyclopyrophosphate is a regulator of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Mark; Xiao, Yanmei; Bjornson, Marta; Wang, Jin-zheng; Hicks, Derrick; de Souza, Amancio; Wang, Chang-Quan; Yang, Panyu; Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2016-01-01

    The exquisite harmony between hormones and their corresponding signaling pathways is central to prioritizing plant responses to simultaneous and/or successive environmental trepidations. The crosstalk between jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) is an established effective mechanism that optimizes and tailors plant adaptive responses. However, the underlying regulatory modules of this crosstalk are largely unknown. Global transcriptomic analyses of mutant plants (ceh1) with elevated levels of the stress-induced plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol cyclopyrophosphate (MEcPP) revealed robustly induced JA marker genes, expected to be suppressed by the presence of constitutively high SA levels in the mutant background. Analyses of a range of genotypes with varying SA and MEcPP levels established the selective role of MEcPP-mediated signal(s) in induction of JA-responsive genes in the presence of elevated SA. Metabolic profiling revealed the presence of high levels of the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), but near wild type levels of JA in the ceh1 mutant plants. Analyses of coronatine-insensitive 1 (coi1)/ceh1 double mutant plants confirmed that the MEcPP-mediated induction is JA receptor COI1 dependent, potentially through elevated OPDA. These findings identify MEcPP as a previously unrecognized central regulatory module that induces JA-responsive genes in the presence of high SA, thereby staging a multifaceted plant response within the environmental context. PMID:26733689

  5. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth–Defense Tradeoffs

    PubMed Central

    Havko, Nathan E.; Major, Ian T.; Jewell, Jeremy B.; Attaran, Elham; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA), which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span. PMID:27135227

  6. A novel matrix metalloproteinase-2 inhibitor triazolylmethyl aziridine reduces melanoma cell invasion, angiogenesis and targets ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Romanchikova, Nadezhda; Trapencieris, Pēteris; Zemītis, Jānis; Turks, Māris

    2014-12-01

    A novel matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) inhibitor JaZ-30, which belongs to the class of C(2)-monosubstituted aziridine - aryl-1,2,3-triazole conjugates, was developed. MTT and crystal violet assays were used to determine cytotoxicity- IC(50) values of compound JaZ-30 on melanoma cell line B16 4A5. Our study proves the anti-cancer properties of JaZ-30 with a wide spectrum of activities. JaZ-30 was revealed as selective inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2. JaZ-30-mediated decrease of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) secretion results in inhibition of angiogenesis, performed with the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC-2) on Matrigel. A novel inhibitor decreases invasive properties of melanoma cells measured in Matrigel chambers assay. JaZ-30 downregulates phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in melanoma cells stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Our findings propose a novel MMP-2 inhibitor JaZ-30 as an attractive potential agent for melanoma treatment.

  7. Feeding by whiteflies suppresses downstream jasmonic acid signaling by eliciting salicylic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Li, Wei-Di; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Xu, Fang-Cheng; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2013-05-01

    Phloem-feeding whiteflies in the species complex Bemisia tabaci cause extensive crop damage worldwide. One of the reasons for their "success" is their ability to suppress the effectual jasmonic acid (JA) defenses of the host plant. However, little is understood about the mechanisms underlying whitefly suppression of JA-regulated defenses. Here, we showed that the expression of salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes (EDS1 and PR1) in Arabidopsis thaliana was significantly enhanced during feeding by whitefly nymphs. Whereas upstream JA-responsive genes (LOX2 and OPR3) also were induced, the downstream JA-responsive gene (VSP1) was repressed, i.e., whiteflies only suppressed downstream JA signaling. Gene-expression analyses with various Arabidopsis mutants, including NahG, npr-1, ein2-1, and dde2-2, revealed that SA signaling plays a key role in the suppression of downstream JA defenses by whitefly feeding. Assays confirmed that SA activation enhanced whitefly performance by suppressing downstream JA defenses.

  8. Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 regulates salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent responses via EDS1 and PAD4.

    PubMed

    Brodersen, Peter; Petersen, Morten; Bjørn Nielsen, Henrik; Zhu, Shijiang; Newman, Mari-Anne; Shokat, Kevan M; Rietz, Steffen; Parker, Jane; Mundy, John

    2006-08-01

    Arabidopsis MPK4 has been implicated in plant defense regulation because mpk4 knockout plants exhibit constitutive activation of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defenses, but fail to induce jasmonic acid (JA) defense marker genes in response to JA. We show here that mpk4 mutants are also defective in defense gene induction in response to ethylene (ET), and that they are more susceptible than wild-type (WT) to Alternaria brassicicola that induces the ET/JA defense pathway(s). Both SA-repressing and ET/JA-(co)activating functions depend on MPK4 kinase activity and involve the defense regulators EDS1 and PAD4, as mutations in these genes suppress de-repression of the SA pathway and suppress the block of the ET/JA pathway in mpk4. EDS1/PAD4 thus affect SA-ET/JA signal antagonism as activators of SA but as repressors of ET/JA defenses, and MPK4 negatively regulates both of these functions. We also show that the MPK4-EDS1/PAD4 branch of ET defense signaling is independent of the ERF1 transcription factor, and use comparative microarray analysis of ctr1, ctr1/mpk4, mpk4 and WT to show that MPK4 is required for induction of a small subset of ET-regulated genes. The regulation of some, but not all, of these genes involves EDS1 and PAD4.

  9. Water Stress Responses of Tomato Mutants Impaired in Hormone Biosynthesis Reveal Abscisic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Espinoza, Valeria A.; López-Climent, María F.; Casaretto, José A.; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the putative crosstalk between JA and ABA in Solanum lycopersicum plants in response to drought, suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2, JA-deficient) and flacca (flc, ABA-deficient) mutants together with the naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) transgenic (SA-deficient) line were used. Hormone profiling and gene expression of key enzymes in ABA, JA and SA biosynthesis were analyzed during early stages of drought. ABA accumulation was comparable in spr2 and wild type (WT) plants whereas expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (NCED1) and NCED2 was different, implying a compensation mechanism between NCED genes and an organ-specific regulation of NCED1 expression. JA levels and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3 (OPR3) expression in flc plants suggest that ABA regulates the induction of the OPR3 gene in roots. By contrast, ABA treatment to flc plants leads to a reduction of JA and SA contents. Furthermore, different pattern of SA accumulation (and expression of isochorismate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1) was observed between WT seedlings and mutants, suggesting that SA plays an important role on the early response of tomato plants to drought and also that JA and ABA modulate its biosynthesis. Finally, hormone profiling in spr2 and NahG plants indicate a crosstalk between JA and SA that could enhance tolerance of tomato to water stress. PMID:26635826

  10. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth-Defense Tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Havko, Nathan E; Major, Ian T; Jewell, Jeremy B; Attaran, Elham; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA), which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span. PMID:27135227

  11. Low concentrations of salicylic acid delay methyl jasmonate-induced leaf senescence by up-regulating nitric oxide synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yingbin; Liu, Jian; Xing, Da

    2016-09-01

    In plants, extensive efforts have been devoted to understanding the crosstalk between salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in pathogen defenses, but this crosstalk has scarcely been addressed during senescence. In this study, the effect of SA application on methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced leaf senescence was assessed. We found that low concentrations of SA (1-50 μM) played a delayed role against the senescence promoted by MeJA. Furthermore, low concentrations of SA enhanced plant antioxidant defenses and restricted reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in MeJA-treated leaves. When applied simultaneously with MeJA, low concentrations of SA triggered a nitric oxide (NO) burst, and the elevated NO levels were linked to the nitric oxide associated 1 (NOA1)-dependent pathway via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. The ability of SA to up-regulate plant antioxidant defenses, reduce ROS accumulation, and suppress leaf senescence was lost in NO-deficient Atnoa1 plants. In a converse manner, exogenous addition of NO donors increased the plant antioxidant capacity and lowered the ROS levels in MeJA-treated leaves. Taken together, the results indicate that SA at low concentrations counteracts MeJA-induced leaf senescence through NOA1-dependent NO signaling and strengthening of the antioxidant defense. PMID:27440938

  12. Jasmonic acid-induced volatiles of Brassica oleracea attract parasitoids: effects of time and dose, and comparison with induction by herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Bruinsma, Maaike; Posthumus, Maarten A.; Mumm, Roland; Mueller, Martin J.; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Dicke, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Caterpillar feeding induces direct and indirect defences in brassicaceous plants. This study focused on the role of the octadecanoid pathway in induced indirect defence in Brassica oleracea. The effect of induction by exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA) on the responses of Brussels sprouts plants and on host-location behaviour of associated parasitoid wasps was studied. Feeding by the biting–chewing herbivores Pieris rapae and Plutella xylostella resulted in significantly increased endogenous levels of JA, a central component in the octadecanoid signalling pathway that mediates induced plant defence. The levels of the intermediate 12-oxophyto-dienoic acid (OPDA) were significantly induced only after P. rapae feeding. Three species of parasitoid wasps, Cotesia glomerata, C. rubecula, and Diadegma semiclausum, differing in host range and host specificity, were tested for their behavioural responses to volatiles from herbivore-induced, JA-induced, and non-induced plants. All three species were attracted to volatiles from JA-induced plants compared with control plants; however, they preferred volatiles from herbivore-induced plants over volatiles from JA-induced plants. Attraction of C. glomerata depended on both timing and dose of JA application. JA-induced plants produced larger quantities of volatiles than herbivore-induced and control plants, indicating that not only quantity, but also quality of the volatile blend is important in the host-location behaviour of the wasps. PMID:19451186

  13. An allele of Arabidopsis COI1 with hypo- and hypermorphic phenotypes in plant growth, defence and fertility.

    PubMed

    Dobón, Albor; Wulff, Brande B H; Canet, Juan Vicente; Fort, Patrocinio; Tornero, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to biotrophic pathogens is largely dependent on the hormone salicylic acid (SA) while jasmonic acid (JA) regulates resistance against necrotrophs. JA negatively regulates SA and is, in itself, negatively regulated by SA. A key component of the JA signal transduction pathway is its receptor, the COI1 gene. Mutations in this gene can affect all the JA phenotypes, whereas mutations in other genes, either in JA signal transduction or in JA biosynthesis, lack this general effect. To identify components of the part of the resistance against biotrophs independent of SA, a mutagenised population of NahG plants (severely depleted of SA) was screened for suppression of susceptibility. The screen resulted in the identification of intragenic and extragenic suppressors, and the results presented here correspond to the characterization of one extragenic suppressor, coi1-40. coi1-40 is quite different from previously described coi1 alleles, and it represents a strategy for enhancing resistance to biotrophs with low levels of SA, likely suppressing NahG by increasing the perception to the remaining SA. The phenotypes of coi1-40 lead us to speculate about a modular function for COI1, since we have recovered a mutation in COI1 which has a number of JA-related phenotypes reduced while others are equal to or above wild type levels.

  14. Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yong-Cui; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Pei-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    Agarwood, a highly valuable resinous and fragrant heartwood of Aquilaria plants, is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only when Aquilaria trees are wounded by external stimuli do they form agarwood sesquiterpene defensive compounds. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway of wound-induced agarwood formation is important. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized molecule that mediates a plant's defense response and secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the function of endogenous JA in agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Here, we report that heat shock can up-regulate the expression of genes in JA signaling pathway, induce JA production and the accumulation of agarwood sesquiterpene in A. sinensis cell suspension cultures. A specific inhibitor of JA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), could block the JA signaling pathway and reduce the accumulation of sesquiterpene compounds. Additionally, compared to SA and H2O2, exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate has the strongest stimulation effect on the production of sesquiterpene compounds. These results clearly demonstrate the central induction role of JA in heat-shock-induced sesquiterpene production in A. sinensis. PMID:26902148

  15. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth-Defense Tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Havko, Nathan E; Major, Ian T; Jewell, Jeremy B; Attaran, Elham; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA), which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span.

  16. FILAMENTOUS FLOWER Is a Direct Target of JAZ3 and Modulates Responses to Jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Boter, Marta; Golz, John F; Giménez-Ibañez, Selena; Fernandez-Barbero, Gemma; Franco-Zorrilla, José M; Solano, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) plays an important role in regulating growth, development, and immunity. Activation of the JA-signaling pathway is based on the hormone-triggered ubiquitination and removal of transcriptional repressors (JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN [JAZ] proteins) by an SCF receptor complex (SCF(COI1)/JAZ). This removal allows the rapid activation of transcription factors (TFs) triggering a multitude of downstream responses. Identification of TFs bound by the JAZ proteins is essential to better understand how the JA-signaling pathway modulates and integrates different responses. In this study, we found that the JAZ3 repressor physically interacts with the YABBY (YAB) family transcription factor FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL)/YAB1. In Arabidopsis thaliana, FIL regulates developmental processes such as axial patterning and growth of lateral organs, shoot apical meristem activity, and inflorescence phyllotaxy. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated responses in loss- and gain-of-function FIL lines suggested that YABs function as transcriptional activators of JA-triggered responses. Moreover, we show that MYB75, a component of the WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex regulating anthocyanin production, is a direct transcriptional target of FIL. We propose that JAZ3 interacts with YABs to attenuate their transcriptional function. Upon perception of JA signal, degradation of JAZ3 by the SCF(COI1) complex releases YABs to activate a subset of JA-regulated genes in leaves leading to anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss, and reduced bacterial defense. PMID:26530088

  17. Salicylic acid receptors activate jasmonic acid signalling through a non-canonical pathway to promote effector-triggered immunity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lijing; Sonbol, Fathi-Mohamed; Huot, Bethany; Gu, Yangnan; Withers, John; Mwimba, Musoki; Yao, Jian; He, Sheng Yang; Dong, Xinnian

    2016-01-01

    It is an apparent conundrum how plants evolved effector-triggered immunity (ETI), involving programmed cell death (PCD), as a major defence mechanism against biotrophic pathogens, because ETI-associated PCD could leave them vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens that thrive on dead host cells. Interestingly, during ETI, the normally antagonistic defence hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) associated with defence against biotrophs and necrotrophs respectively, both accumulate to high levels. In this study, we made the surprising finding that JA is a positive regulator of RPS2-mediated ETI. Early induction of JA-responsive genes and de novo JA synthesis following SA accumulation is activated through the SA receptors NPR3 and NPR4, instead of the JA receptor COI1. We provide evidence that NPR3 and NPR4 may mediate this effect by promoting degradation of the JA transcriptional repressor JAZs. This unique interplay between SA and JA offers a possible explanation of how plants can mount defence against a biotrophic pathogen without becoming vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:27725643

  18. Antagonistic effects of abscisic acid and jasmonates on salt stress-inducible transcripts in rice roots.

    PubMed Central

    Moons, A; Prinsen, E; Bauw, G; Van Montagu, M

    1997-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonates have been implicated in responses to water deficit and wounding. We compared the molecular and physiological effects of jasmonic acid (JA) (< or = 10 microM), ABA, and salt stress in roots of rice. JA markedly induced a cationic peroxidase, two novel 32- and 28-kD proteins, acidic PR-1 and PR-10 pathogenesis-related proteins, and the salt stress-responsive SalT protein in roots. Most JA-responsive proteins (JIPs) from roots also accumulated when plants were subjected to salt stress. None of the JIPs accumulated when plants were treated with ABA. JA did not induce an ABA-responsive group 3 late-embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein. Salt stress and ABA but not JA induced oslea3 transcript accumulation. By contrast, JA, ABA, and salt stress induced transcript accumulation of salT and osdrr, which encodes a rice PR-10 protein. However, ABA also negatively affected salT transcript accumulation, whereas JA negatively affected ABA-induced oslea3 transcript levels. Endogenous root ABA and methyl jasmonate levels showed a differential increase with the dose and the duration of salt stress. The results indicate that ABA and jasmonates antagonistically regulated the expression of salt stress-inducible proteins associated with water deficit or defense responses. PMID:9437865

  19. Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yong-Cui; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Pei-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    Agarwood, a highly valuable resinous and fragrant heartwood of Aquilaria plants, is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only when Aquilaria trees are wounded by external stimuli do they form agarwood sesquiterpene defensive compounds. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway of wound-induced agarwood formation is important. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized molecule that mediates a plant’s defense response and secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the function of endogenous JA in agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Here, we report that heat shock can up-regulate the expression of genes in JA signaling pathway, induce JA production and the accumulation of agarwood sesquiterpene in A. sinensis cell suspension cultures. A specific inhibitor of JA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), could block the JA signaling pathway and reduce the accumulation of sesquiterpene compounds. Additionally, compared to SA and H2O2, exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate has the strongest stimulation effect on the production of sesquiterpene compounds. These results clearly demonstrate the central induction role of JA in heat-shock-induced sesquiterpene production in A. sinensis. PMID:26902148

  20. Beneficial effects of soluble dietary Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) in the prevention of the onset of type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fructose diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wan-Ching; Jia, Huijuan; Aw, Wanping; Saito, Kenji; Hasegawa, Sumio; Kato, Hisanori

    2014-09-14

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) has the potential to attenuate lipid disturbances and insulin resistance (IR), but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we elucidated the physiological responses and mechanisms of JA intervention with a comprehensive transcriptome analysis. Wistar rats were fed a control diet, a 60 % fructose-enriched diet (FRU), or a FRU with 10 % JA (n 6-7) for 4 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test was carried out on day 21. Liver samples were collected for biochemical and global gene expression analyses (GeneChip® Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array, Affymetrix). Fructose feeding resulted in IR and hepatic TAG accumulation; dietary JA supplementation significantly improved these changes. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that the expression of malic enzyme 1 (Me1), associated with fatty acid synthesis; decorin (Dcn), related to fibrosis; and cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily a, polypeptide 2 (Cyp1a2) and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), associated with inflammation, was differentially altered by the FRU, whereas dietary JA supplementation significantly improved the expression of these genes. We established for the first time the molecular mechanisms driving the beneficial effects of JA in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We propose that 10 % JA supplementation may be beneficial for the prevention of the onset of these diseases.

  1. Enhanced hyphal growth of arbuscular mycorrhizae by root exudates derived from high R/FR treated Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Maki; Yamamoto, Naoya; Miyamoto, Taro; Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2016-06-01

    Red/Far Red (R/FR) sensing positively influences the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis of both legume and nonlegume plants through jasmonic acid (JA) and strigolactone signaling. We previously reported that root exudates obtained from high R/FR-grown plants contained more strigolactone than low R/FR-grown plants. To determine whether JA and JA derivatives were secreted from roots, we investigated the expression levels of JA-responsive genes in L. japonicus Miyakojima MG20 plants treated with root exudates prepared from either high or low R/FR light-treated plants. The root exudates from high R/FR light-treated plants were found to enhance the expression levels of JA-responsive genes significantly. Moreover, exogenous JA increased AM fungal hyphal elongation as did the root exudates derived from high R/FR-grown L. japonicus plants. We conclude that increased JA accumulation and secretion into root exudates from high R/FR light-grown plants is the best explanation for increased colonization and enhanced mycorrhization under these conditions. PMID:27191935

  2. Induced resistance in groundnut by jasmonic acid and salicylic acid through alteration of trichome density and oviposition by Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Hussain, Barkat; Sharma, Hari C.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are important phytohormones involved in plant resistance against insect herbivory and pathogen infection. Application of JA and SA induces several defensive traits in plants. Here we investigated the effect of JA and SA on trichome density in five groundnut genotypes [ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271, ICG 1697 (resistant) and JL 24 (susceptible)]. The effect of JA- and SA-induced resistance on the oviposition behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera on different groundnut genotypes was also studied. Pre-treatment with JA increased numbers of trichomes in the insect-resistant genotypes, ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271, and ICG 1697. The induction was greater at 10 days after treatment. Jasmonic acid- and SA-treated plants showed a substantial effect on the oviposition behaviour of H. armigera. Jasmonic acid application and herbivory reduced the number of eggs laid by H. armigera in all the groundnut genotypes tested. However, a greater reduction was recorded on plants pre-treated with JA. More egg laying was recorded in JL 24 in all the treatments as compared to the insect-resistant genotypes. These results suggested that pre-treatment with JA increased trichome density in groundnut plants, which conferred antixenosis for oviposition by H. armigera.

  3. Biosynthesis of jasmonic acid in a plant pathogenic fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Kohei; Takahashi, Kosaku; Nabeta, Kensuke

    2010-12-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant hormone that plays an important role in a wide variety of plant physiological processes. The plant pathogenic fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae also produces JA; however, its biosynthesis in this fungus has yet to be explored. Administration of [1-(13)C] and [2-(13)C] NaOAc into L. theobromae established that JA in this fungus originates from a fatty acid synthetic pathway. The methyl ester of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) was detected in the culture extracts of L. theobromae by GC-MS analysis. This finding indicates the presence of OPDA (a known intermediate of JA biosynthesis in plants) in L. theobromae. (2)H NMR spectroscopic data of JA produced by L. theobromae with the incorporation of [9,10,12,13,15,16-(2)H(6)] linolenic acid showed that five deuterium atoms remained intact. In plants, this is speculated to arise from JA being produced by the octadecanoid pathway. However, the observed stereoselectivity of the cyclopentenone olefin reduction in L. theobromae was opposite to that observed in plants. These data suggest that JA biosynthesis in L. theobromae is similar to that in plants, but differing in the facial selectivity of the enone reduction. PMID:20952041

  4. Simultaneous ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd">π/2 rotation of two spin species of different gyromagnetic ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Ping -Han; Peng, Jen -Chieh

    2015-06-05

    Here, we examine the characteristics of the π/2 pulse for simultaneously rotating two spin species of different gyromagnetic ratios with the same sign. For a π/2 pulse using a rotating magnetic field, we derive an equation relating the frequency and strength of the pulse to the gyromagnetic ratios of the two particles and the strength of the constant holding field. For a π/2 pulse using a linear oscillatory magnetic field, we obtain the solutions numerically, and compare them with the solutions for the rotating π/2 pulse. Application of this analysis to the specific case of rotating neutrons and 3He atoms simultaneously with a π/2 pulse, proposed for a neutron electric dipole moment experiment, is also presented.

  5. Efficient solution of the simplified ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd">PN equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Steven P.; Evans, Thomas M.

    2014-12-23

    We show new solver strategies for the multigroup SPN equations for nuclear reactor analysis. By forming the complete matrix over space, moments, and energy a robust set of solution strategies may be applied. Moreover, power iteration, shifted power iteration, Rayleigh quotient iteration, Arnoldi's method, and a generalized Davidson method, each using algebraic and physics-based multigrid preconditioners, have been compared on C5G7 MOX test problem as well as an operational PWR model. These results show that the most ecient approach is the generalized Davidson method, that is 30-40 times faster than traditional power iteration and 6-10 times faster than Arnoldi's method.

  6. Thermophysical properties of ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd">U3Si2 to 1773K

    SciTech Connect

    White, Joshua Taylor; Nelson, Andrew Thomas; Dunwoody, John Tyler; Byler, David Darrin; Safarik, Douglas Joseph; McClellan, Kenneth James

    2015-05-08

    Use of U3Si2 in nuclear reactors requires accurate thermophysical property data to capture heat transfer within the core. Compilation of the limited previous research efforts focused on the most critical property, thermal conductivity, reveals extensive disagreement. Assessment of this data is challenged by the fact that the critical structural and chemical details of the material used to provide historic data is either absent or confirms the presence of significant impurity phases. This study was initiated to fabricate high purity U3Si2 to quantify the coefficient of thermal expansion, heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity from room temperature to 1773 K. Here, the datasets provided in this manuscript will facilitate more detailed fuel performance modeling to assess both current and proposed reactor designs that incorporate U3Si2.

  7. Low-energy ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd">(<10keV) electron ionization and recombination model for a liquid argon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Foxe, M.; Hagmann, C.; Jovanovic, I.; Bernstein, A.; Kazkaz, K.; Mozin, V.; Pereverzev, S. V.; Sangiorgio, S.; Sorensen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Detailed understanding of the ionization process in dual-phase noble element detectors is important for their use in applications such as the search for Dark Matter and coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. The response of dual-phase noble element detectors to low-energy ionization events is poorly understood at this time. We describe a new simulation tool which predicts the ionization yield from electronic energy deposits (E < 10 keV) in liquid Ar, including the dependence of the yield on the applied electric drift eld. The ionization signal produced in a dual-phase argon detector from 37Ar beta decay and 55Fe X-rays has been calculated using the new model.

  8. Differential cross section of ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd">γnK+Σ- on bound neutrons with incident photons from 1.1 to 3.6 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, S. Anefalos; Mirazita, M.; Rossi, P.; De Sanctis, E.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Stepanyan, S.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Berman, B. L.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Careccia, S. L.; Carman, D. S.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dhamija, S.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; Eugenio, P.; Fegan, S.; Forest, T. A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gavalian, G.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hassall, N.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jawalkar, S. S.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Livingston, K.; Mayer, M.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mikhailov, K.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Moreno, B.; Moriya, K.; Morrison, B.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Perrin, Y.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salamanca, J.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Tkachenko, S.; Vernarsky, B.; Vineyard, M. F.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.

    2010-05-01

    Differential cross sections of the reaction γd → K+Σ(p) have been measured with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab using incident photons with energies between 1.1 and 3.6 GeV. This is the first complete set of strangeness photoproduction data on the neutron covering a broad angular range. At energies close to threshold and up to Eγ ~ 1.8 GeV, the shape of the angular distribution is suggestive of the presence of s -channel production mechanisms. For Eγ > 1.8 GeV, a clear forward peak appears and becomes more prominent as the photon energy increases, suggesting contributions from t-channel production mechanisms. Furthermore, these data can be used to constrain future analysis of this reaction.

  9. Systemic jasmonic acid modulation in mycorrhizal tomato plants and its role in induced resistance against Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Nair, A; Kolet, S P; Thulasiram, H V; Bhargava, S

    2015-05-01

    Tomato plants colonised with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum show systemic induced resistance to the foliar pathogen Alternaria alternata, as observed in interactions of other AM-colonised plants with a range of pathogens. The role of jasmonic (JA) and salicylic (SA) acid in expression of this mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR) against A. alternata was studied by measuring: (i) activity of enzymes reported to be involved in their biosynthesis, namely lipoxygenase (LOX) and phenylammonia lyase (PAL); and (ii) levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and SA. Transcript abundance of some defence genes associated with JA and SA response pathways were also studied. Both LOX and PAL activity increased twofold in response to pathogen application to control plants. AM-colonised plants had three-fold higher LOX activity compared to control plants, but unlike controls, this did not increase further in response to pathogen application. Higher LOX activity in AM-colonised plants correlated with four-fold higher MeJA in leaves of AM-colonised plants compared to controls. Treatment of plants with the JA biosynthesis inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) led to 50% lower MeJA in both control and AM-colonised plants and correlated with increased susceptibility to A. alternata, suggesting a causal role for JA in expression of MIR against the pathogen. Genes involved in JA biosynthesis (OPR3) and response (COI1) showed six- and 42-fold higher expression, respectively, in leaves of AM-colonised plants compared to controls. AM-colonised plants also showed increased expression of the SA response gene PR1 and that of the wound-inducible polypeptide prosystemin. Our results suggest that the systemic increase in JA in response to AM colonisation plays a key role in expression of MIR against A. alternata.

  10. Effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis) growth and functional quality.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Selena; Orians, Colin M; Griffin, Timothy S; Buckley, Sarabeth; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Stratton, Anne Elise; Stepp, John Richard; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Kennelly, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    Extreme shifts in water availability linked to global climate change are impacting crops worldwide. The present study examines the direct and interactive effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae) growth and functional quality. Manipulative greenhouse experiments were used to measure the effects of variable water availability and pest pressures simulated by jasmonic acid (JA) on tea leaf growth and secondary metabolites that determine tea quality. Water treatments were simulated to replicate ideal tea growing conditions and extreme precipitation events in tropical southwestern China, a major centre of tea production. Results show that higher water availability and JA significantly increased the growth of new leaves while their interactive effect was not significant. The effect of water availability and JA on tea quality varied with individual secondary metabolites. Higher water availability significantly increased total methylxanthine concentrations of tea leaves but there was no significant effect of JA treatments or the interaction of water and JA. Water availability, JA treatments or their interactive effects had no effect on the concentrations of epigallocatechin 3-gallate. In contrast, increased water availability resulted in significantly lower concentrations of epicatechin 3-gallate but the effect of JA and the interactive effects of water and JA were not significant. Lastly, higher water availability resulted in significantly higher total phenolic concentrations but there was no significant impact of JA and their interaction. These findings point to the fascinating dynamics of climate change effects on tea plants with offsetting interactions between precipitation and pest pressures within agro-ecosystems, and the need for future climate studies to examine interactive biotic and abiotic effects.

  11. Phenotype-dependent alteration of pathways and networks reveals a pure synergistic mechanism for compounds treating mouse cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng-qian; Li, Bing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ying-ying; Yu, Ya-nan; Zhang, Xiao-xu; Yuan, Ye; Guo, Zhi-li; Wu, Hong-li; Li, Hai-xia; Dang, Hai-xia; Guo, Shan-shan; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Our previous studies have showed that ursodeoxycholic acid (UA) and jasminoidin (JA) effectively reduce cerebral infarct volume in mice. In this study we explored the pure synergistic mechanism of these compounds in treatment of mouse cerebral ischemia, which was defined as synergistic actions specific for phenotype variations after excluding interference from ineffective compounds. Methods: Mice with focal cerebral ischemia were treated with UA, JA or a combination JA and UA (JU). Concha margaritifera (CM) was taken as ineffective compound. Cerebral infarct volume of the mice was determined, and the hippocampi were taken for microarray analysis. Particular signaling pathways and biological functions were enriched based on differentially expressed genes, and corresponding networks were constructed through Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results: In phenotype analysis, UA, JA, and JU significantly reduced the ischemic infarct volume with JU being superior to UA or JA alone, while CM was ineffective. As a result, 4 pathways enriched in CM were excluded. Core pathways in the phenotype-positive groups (UA or JA) were involved in neuronal homeostasis and neuropathology. JU-contributing pathways included all UA-contributing and the majority (71.7%) of JA-contributing pathways, and 10 new core pathways whose effects included inflammatory immunity, apoptosis and nervous system development. The functions of JU group included all functions of JA group, the majority (93.1%) of UA-contributing functions, and 3 new core functions, which focused on physiological system development and function. Conclusion: The pure synergism between UA and JA underlies 10 new core pathways and 3 new core functions, which are involved in inflammation, immune responses, apoptosis and nervous system development. PMID:25960134

  12. Chemotype-dependent metabolic response to methyl jasmonate elicitation in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Yuan, Man; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Yanming; Yong, Li; Wang, Wei; Qi, Yan; Guo, Dianjing

    2011-07-01

    Considerable difference in artemisinin and its direct precursors, artemisinic acid and dihydroartemisinic acid, was detected between two chemotypes within the species Artemisia annua (A. annua). These two chemotypes showed differential metabolic response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitation. Exogenous application of MeJA resulted in an accumulation of dihydroartemisinic acid and artemisinin in Type I plants. In Type II plants, however, artemisinic acid and artemisinin level decreased dramatically under MeJA elicitation. Squalene and other sesquiterpenes, (e.g., caryophyllene, germacrene D), were stimulated by MeJA in both chemotypes. The effect of MeJA elicitation was also studied at the transcription level. Real time RT-PCR analysis showed a coordinated activation of most artemisinin pathway genes by MeJA in Type I plants. The lack of change in cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) transcript in Type I plants indicates that the rate-limiting enzymes in artemisinin biosynthesis have yet to be identified. Other chemotype-specific electron donor proteins likely exist in A. annua to meet the demand for P450-mediated reactions in MeJA-mediated cellular processes. In Type II plants, mRNA expression patterns of most pathway genes were consistent with the reduced artemisinin level. Intriguingly, the mRNA transcript of aldehyde dehydrogenase1 (ADHL1), an enzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of artemisinic and dihydroartemisinic aldehydes, was upregulated by MeJA. The differential metabolic response to MeJA suggests a chemotype-dependent metabolic flux control towards artemisinin and sterol production in the species A. annua.

  13. Priming of jasmonate-mediated antiherbivore defense responses in rice by silicon

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Mao; Song, Yuanyuan; Long, Jun; Wang, Ruilong; Baerson, Scott R.; Pan, Zhiqiang; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Xie, Jiefen; Cai, Kunzheng; Luo, Shiming; Zeng, Rensen

    2013-01-01

    Although the function of silicon (Si) in plant physiology has long been debated, its beneficial effects on plant resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses, including insect herbivory, have been well documented. In addition, the jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in mediating antiherbivore defense responses in plants. However, potential interactions between JA and Si in response to insect attack have not been examined directly. To explore the role JA may play in Si-enhanced resistance, we silenced the expression of allene oxide synthase (OsAOS; active in JA biosynthesis) and CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (OsCOI1; active in JA perception) genes in transgenic rice plants via RNAi and examined resulting changes in Si accumulation and defense responses against caterpillar Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (rice leaffolder, LF) infestation. Si pretreatment increased rice resistance against LF larvae in wild-type plants but not in OsAOS and OsCOI1 RNAi lines. Upon LF attack, wild-type plants subjected to Si pretreatment exhibited enhanced defense responses relative to untreated controls, including higher levels of JA accumulation; increased levels of transcripts encoding defense marker genes; and elevated activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and trypsin protease inhibitor. Additionally, reduced Si deposition and Si cell expansion were observed in leaves of OsAOS and OsCOI1 RNAi plants in comparison with wild-type plants, and reduced steady-state transcript levels of the Si transporters OsLsi1, OsLsi2, and OsLsi6 were observed in Si-pretreated plants after LF attack. These results suggest a strong interaction between Si and JA in defense against insect herbivores involving priming of JA-mediated defense responses by Si and the promotion of Si accumulation by JA. PMID:24003150

  14. Expression of a functional jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase is negatively correlated with strawberry fruit development.

    PubMed

    Preuß, Anja; Augustin, Christiane; Figueroa, Carlos R; Hoffmann, Thomas; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Sevilla, José F; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-09-15

    The volatile metabolite methyl jasmonate (MeJA) plays an important role in intra- and interplant communication and is involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a S-adenosyl-l-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) from Fragaria vesca and Fragaria×ananassa. Biochemical assays and comprehensive transcript analyses showed that JMT has been erroneously annotated as gene fusion with a carboxyl methyltransferase (CMT) (gene15184) in the first published genome sequence of F. vesca. Recombinant FvJMT catalyzed the formation of MeJA with KM value of 22.3μM while FvCMT and the fusion protein were almost inactive. Activity of JMT with benzoic acid and salicylic acid as substrates was less than 1.5% of that with JA. Leucine at position 245, an amino acid missing in other JMT sequences is essential for activity of FvJMT. In accordance with MeJA levels, JMT transcript levels decreased steadily during strawberry fruit ripening, as did the expression levels of JA biosynthesis and regulatory genes. It appears that CMT has originated by a recent duplication of JMT and lost its enzymatic activity toward JA. In the newest version of the strawberry genome sequence (June 2014) CMT and JMT are annotated as separate genes in accordance with differential temporal and spatial expression patterns of both genes in Fragaria sp. In conclusion, MeJA, the inactive derivative of JA, is probably involved in early steps of fruit development by modulating the levels of the active plant hormone JA.

  15. Phosphate Deficiency Induces the Jasmonate Pathway and Enhances Resistance to Insect Herbivory1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Gaétan

    2016-01-01

    During their life cycle, plants are typically confronted by simultaneous biotic and abiotic stresses. Low inorganic phosphate (Pi) is one of the most common nutrient deficiencies limiting plant growth in natural and agricultural ecosystems, while insect herbivory accounts for major losses in plant productivity and impacts ecological and evolutionary changes in plant populations. Here, we report that plants experiencing Pi deficiency induce the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway and enhance their defense against insect herbivory. Pi-deficient Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) showed enhanced synthesis of JA and the bioactive conjugate JA-isoleucine, as well as activation of the JA signaling pathway, in both shoots and roots of wild-type plants and in shoots of the Pi-deficient mutant pho1. The kinetics of the induction of the JA signaling pathway by Pi deficiency was influenced by PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE1, the main transcription factor regulating the expression of Pi starvation-induced genes. Phenotypes of the pho1 mutant typically associated with Pi deficiency, such as high shoot anthocyanin levels and poor shoot growth, were significantly attenuated by blocking the JA biosynthesis or signaling pathway. Wounded pho1 leaves hyperaccumulated JA/JA-isoleucine in comparison with the wild type. The pho1 mutant also showed an increased resistance against the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis that was attenuated in JA biosynthesis and signaling mutants. Pi deficiency also triggered increased resistance to S. littoralis in wild-type Arabidopsis as well as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Nicotiana benthamiana, revealing that the link between Pi deficiency and enhanced herbivory resistance is conserved in a diversity of plants, including crops. PMID:27016448

  16. Effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis) growth and functional quality

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Selena; Orians, Colin M.; Griffin, Timothy S.; Buckley, Sarabeth; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Stratton, Anne Elise; Stepp, John Richard; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    Extreme shifts in water availability linked to global climate change are impacting crops worldwide. The present study examines the direct and interactive effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae) growth and functional quality. Manipulative greenhouse experiments were used to measure the effects of variable water availability and pest pressures simulated by jasmonic acid (JA) on tea leaf growth and secondary metabolites that determine tea quality. Water treatments were simulated to replicate ideal tea growing conditions and extreme precipitation events in tropical southwestern China, a major centre of tea production. Results show that higher water availability and JA significantly increased the growth of new leaves while their interactive effect was not significant. The effect of water availability and JA on tea quality varied with individual secondary metabolites. Higher water availability significantly increased total methylxanthine concentrations of tea leaves but there was no significant effect of JA treatments or the interaction of water and JA. Water availability, JA treatments or their interactive effects had no effect on the concentrations of epigallocatechin 3-gallate. In contrast, increased water availability resulted in significantly lower concentrations of epicatechin 3-gallate but the effect of JA and the interactive effects of water and JA were not significant. Lastly, higher water availability resulted in significantly higher total phenolic concentrations but there was no significant impact of JA and their interaction. These findings point to the fascinating dynamics of climate change effects on tea plants with offsetting interactions between precipitation and pest pressures within agro-ecosystems, and the need for future climate studies to examine interactive biotic and abiotic effects. PMID:24790117

  17. Allantoin, a stress-related purine metabolite, can activate jasmonate signaling in a MYC2-regulated and abscisic acid-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Konishi, Tomokazu; Egusa, Mayumi; Akiyoshi, Nobuhiro; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C.; Hirayama, Takashi; Kaminaka, Hironori; Shimada, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Allantoin is a metabolic intermediate of purine catabolism that often accumulates in stressed plants. Recently, we used Arabidopsis knockout mutants (aln) of ALLANTOINASE to show that this purine metabolite activates abscisic acid (ABA) production, thereby stimulating stress-related gene expression and enhancing seedling tolerance to abiotic stress. A detailed re-examination of the microarray data of an aln mutant (aln-1) confirmed the increased expression of ABA-related genes and also revealed altered expression of genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) responses, probably under the control of MYC2, a master switch in the JA signaling pathway. Consistent with the transcriptome profiles, the aln-1 mutant displayed increased JA levels and enhanced responses to mechanical wounding and exogenous JA. Moreover, aln mutants demonstrated modestly increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae and Pectobacterium carotovorum, probably reflecting the antagonistic action of MYC2 on the defense against these bacterial phytopathogens. Exogenously administered allantoin elicited the expression of JA-responsive genes, including MYC2, in wild-type plants, supporting the idea that allantoin might be responsible for the observed JA-related phenotypes of aln mutants. However, mutants deficient in bioactive JA (jar1-1), insensitive to JA (myc2-3), or deficient in ABA (aba2-1 and bglu18) suppressed the effect of exogenous allantoin. The suppression was further confirmed in aln-1 jar1-1 and aln-1 bglu18 double mutants. These results indicate that allantoin can activate the MYC2-regulated JA signaling pathway through ABA production. Overall, this study suggests a possible connection of purine catabolism with stress hormone homeostasis and signaling, and highlights the potential importance of allantoin in these interactions. PMID:26931169

  18. Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation*

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Yun-xiang; Ge, Jia-li; Huang, Ling-hui; Gao, Fei; Lv, Xi-shan; Zheng, Wei-wei; Hong, Seung-beom; Zhu, Zhu-jun

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Regardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. All three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that accumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elicitation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA- and MeJA-mediated systemic response systems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on the MeJA-induced root GSs irrespective of the site of elicitation. However, SA showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on the MeJA-induced leaf GSs when roots and leaves are elicitated for 3 d, respectively. PMID:26238545

  19. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses.

  20. Phytochrome A and B Function Antagonistically to Regulate Cold Tolerance via Abscisic Acid-Dependent Jasmonate Signaling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhixin; Li, Huizi; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Jie; Xia, Xiaojian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan

    2016-01-01

    Light signaling and phytohormones both influence plant growth, development, and stress responses; however, cross talk between these two signaling pathways in response to cold remains underexplored. Here, we report that far-red light (FR) and red light (R) perceived by phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB positively and negatively regulated cold tolerance, respectively, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which were associated with the regulation of levels of phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and transcript levels of ABA- and JA-related genes and the C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) stress signaling pathway genes. A reduction in the R/FR ratio did not alter cold tolerance, ABA and JA accumulation, and transcript levels of ABA- and JA-related genes and the CBF pathway genes in phyA mutant plants; however, those were significantly increased in wild-type and phyB plants with the reduction in the R/FR ratio. Even though low R/FR treatments did not confer cold tolerance in ABA-deficient (notabilis [not]) and JA-deficient (prosystemin-mediated responses2 [spr2]) mutants, it up-regulated ABA accumulation and signaling in the spr2 mutant, with no effect on JA levels and signaling in the not mutant. Foliar application of ABA and JA further confirmed that JA functioned downstream of ABA to activate the CBF pathway in light quality-mediated cold tolerance. It is concluded that phyA and phyB function antagonistically to regulate cold tolerance that essentially involves FR light-induced activation of phyA to induce ABA signaling and, subsequently, JA signaling, leading to an activation of the CBF pathway and a cold response in tomato plants. PMID:26527654

  1. Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yun-xiang; Ge, Jia-li; Huang, Ling-hui; Gao, Fei; Lv, Xi-shan; Zheng, Wei-wei; Hong, Seung-beom; Zhu, Zhu-jun

    2015-08-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Regardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. All three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that accumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elicitation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA- and MeJA-mediated systemic response systems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on the MeJA-induced root GSs irrespective of the site of elicitation. However, SA showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on the MeJA-induced leaf GSs when roots and leaves are elicitated for 3 d, respectively.

  2. Velocity Estimates for Signal Propagation Leading to Systemic Jasmonic Acid Accumulation in Wounded Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Gaetan; Dubugnon, Lucie; Mousavi, Seyed A. R.; Rudaz, Serge; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Farmer, Edward E.

    2009-01-01

    The wound response prohormone jasmonic acid (JA) accumulates rapidly in tissues both proximal and distal to injury sites in plants. Using quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after flash freezing of tissues, we found that JA accumulated within 30 s of injury in wounded Arabidopsis leaves (p = 3.5 e−7). JA augmentation distal to wounds was strongest in unwounded leaves with direct vascular connections to wounded leaves wherein JA levels increased significantly within 120 s of wounding (p = 0.00027). This gave conservative and statistically robust temporal boundaries for the average velocity of the long distance signal leading to distal JA accumulation in unwounded leaves of 3.4–4.5 cm min−1. Like JA, transcripts of the JA synthesis gene LIPOXYGENASE2 (LOX2) and the jasmonate response gene JAZ10.3 also accumulated to higher levels in directly interconnected leaves than in indirectly connected leaves. JA accumulation in a lox2-1 mutant plant was initiated rapidly after wounding then slowed progressively compared with the wild type (WT). Despite this, JAZ10.3 expression in the two genotypes was similar. Free cyclopentenone jasmonate levels were similar in both resting WT and lox2-1. In contrast, bound cyclopentenone jasmonates (arabidopsides) were far lower in lox2-1 than in the WT. The major roles of LOX2 are to generate arabidopsides and the large levels of JA that accumulate proximal to the wound. LOX2 is not essential for some of the most rapid events elicited by wounding. PMID:19846562

  3. Expression of a functional jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase is negatively correlated with strawberry fruit development.

    PubMed

    Preuß, Anja; Augustin, Christiane; Figueroa, Carlos R; Hoffmann, Thomas; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Sevilla, José F; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-09-15

    The volatile metabolite methyl jasmonate (MeJA) plays an important role in intra- and interplant communication and is involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a S-adenosyl-l-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) from Fragaria vesca and Fragaria×ananassa. Biochemical assays and comprehensive transcript analyses showed that JMT has been erroneously annotated as gene fusion with a carboxyl methyltransferase (CMT) (gene15184) in the first published genome sequence of F. vesca. Recombinant FvJMT catalyzed the formation of MeJA with KM value of 22.3μM while FvCMT and the fusion protein were almost inactive. Activity of JMT with benzoic acid and salicylic acid as substrates was less than 1.5% of that with JA. Leucine at position 245, an amino acid missing in other JMT sequences is essential for activity of FvJMT. In accordance with MeJA levels, JMT transcript levels decreased steadily during strawberry fruit ripening, as did the expression levels of JA biosynthesis and regulatory genes. It appears that CMT has originated by a recent duplication of JMT and lost its enzymatic activity toward JA. In the newest version of the strawberry genome sequence (June 2014) CMT and JMT are annotated as separate genes in accordance with differential temporal and spatial expression patterns of both genes in Fragaria sp. In conclusion, MeJA, the inactive derivative of JA, is probably involved in early steps of fruit development by modulating the levels of the active plant hormone JA. PMID:25046752

  4. Two guard cell mitogen-activated protein kinases, MPK9 and MPK12, function in methyl jasmonate-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Khokon, Md A R; Salam, M A; Jammes, F; Ye, W; Hossain, M A; Uraji, M; Nakamura, Y; Mori, I C; Kwak, J M; Murata, Y

    2015-09-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signalling cascades share several signalling components in guard cells. We previously showed that two guard cell-preferential mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), MPK9 and MPK12, positively regulate ABA signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we examined whether these two MAP kinases function in MeJA signalling using genetic mutants for MPK9 and MPK12 combined with a pharmacological approach. MeJA induced stomatal closure in mpk9-1 and mpk12-1 single mutants as well as wild-type plants, but not in mpk9-1 mpk12-1 double mutants. Consistently, the MAPKK inhibitor PD98059 inhibited the MeJA-induced stomatal closure in wild-type plants. MeJA elicited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cytosolic alkalisation in guard cells of the mpk9-1, mpk12-1 and mpk9-1 mpk12-1 mutants, as well in wild-type plants. Furthermore, MeJA triggered elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt ) in the mpk9-1 mpk12-1 double mutant as well as wild-type plants. Activation of S-type anion channels by MeJA was impaired in mpk9-1 mpk12-1. Together, these results indicate that MPK9 and MPK12 function upstream of S-type anion channel activation and downstream of ROS production, cytosolic alkalisation and [Ca(2+)]cyt elevation in guard cell MeJA signalling, suggesting that MPK9 and MPK12 are key regulators mediating both ABA and MeJA signalling in guard cells.

  5. Jungermannenone A and B induce ROS- and cell cycle-dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan-xia; Lin, Zhao-min; Wang, Mei-juan; Dong, Yi-wen; Niu, Huan-min; Young, Charles YF; Lou, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Hui-qing

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Jungermannenone A and B (JA, JB) are new ent-kaurane diterpenoids isolated from Chinese liverwort Jungermannia fauriana, which show anti-proliferation activities in cancer cells. In this study we investigated the mechanisms underlying the anticancer action of JA and JB in PC3 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Methods: A panel of 9 human cancer cell lines was tested. Cell proliferation was assessed with a real-time cell analyzer and MTT assay. Cell apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and ROS levels were measured using cytometry. Mitochondrial damage was examined by transmission electron microscopy. DNA damage was detected with comet assay. Apoptotic, DNA damage- and cell cycle-related proteins were analyzed using Western blotting. The expression of DNA repair genes was measured with qRT-PCR. Results: Both JA and JB exerted potent anti-proliferative action against the 9 cancer cell lines, and PC3 cells were more sensitive with IC50 values of 1.34±0.09 and 4.93±0.20 μmol/L, respectively. JA (1.5 μmol/L) and JB (5 μmol/L) induced PC3 cell apoptosis, which was attenuated by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD. Furthermore, both JA and JB caused mitochondrial damage and ROS accumulation in PC3 cells, whereas vitamin C blocked the ROS accumulation and attenuated the cytotoxicity of JA and JB. Moreover, both JA and JB induced DNA damage, accompanied by downregulated DNA repair proteins Ku70/Ku80 and RDA51. JA induced marked cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, which was related to c-Myc suppression, whereas JB enforced the cell cycle blockade in the G2/M phase, which associated with activation of the JNK signaling. Conclusion: Both JA and JB induce prostate cancer apoptosis via ROS accumulation and induction of cell cycle arrest. PMID:27133304

  6. Deep sequencing reveals transcriptome re-programming of Polygonum multiflorum thunb. roots to the elicitation with methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongchang; Wu, Wei; Hou, Kai; Chen, Junwen; Zhao, Zhi

    2016-02-01

    The phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) has been successfully used as an effective elicitor to enhance production of stilbenoid which is induced in plants as a secondary metabolite possibly in defense against herbivores and pathogens. However, the mechanism of MeJA-mediated stilbenoid biosynthesis remains unclear. Genomic information for Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (P. multiflorum) is currently unavailable. To obtain insight into the global regulation mechanism of MeJA in the steady state of stilbene glucoside production (26 h after MeJA elicitation), especially on stilbene glucoside biosynthesis, we sequenced the transcriptomes of MeJA-treated and untreated P. multiflorum roots and obtained more than 51 million clean reads, from which 79,565 unigenes were obtained by de novo assembly. 56,972 unigenes were annotated against databases including Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG. 18,677 genes expressed differentially between untreated and treated roots. Expression level analysis indicated that a large number of genes were associated with plant-pathogen interaction, plant hormone signal transduction, stilbenoid backbone biosynthesis, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. 15 known genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbenoid backbone were found with 7 genes showing increased transcript abundance following elicitation of MeJA. The significantly up (down)-regulated changes of 70 genes in stilbenoid biosynthesis were validated by qRT-PCR assays and PCR product sequencing. According to the expression changes and the previously proposed enzyme functions, multiple candidates for the unknown steps in stilbene glucoside biosynthesis were identified. We also found some genes putatively involved in the transcription factors. This comprehensive description of gene expression information could greatly facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of MeJA-mediated stilbenoid biosynthesis in P. multiflorum roots. Our results shed new light on the global regulation

  7. Salicylic Acid Suppresses Jasmonic Acid Signaling Downstream of SCFCOI1-JAZ by Targeting GCC Promoter Motifs via Transcription Factor ORA59[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Koornneef, Annemart; Van Verk, Marcel C.; Rodenburg, Nicole; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Körbes, Ana P.; Memelink, Johan; Ritsema, Tita; Van Wees, Saskia C.M.; Pieterse, Corné M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Antagonism between the defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in the modulation of the plant immune signaling network, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that suppression of the JA pathway by SA functions downstream of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase Skip-Cullin-F-box complex SCFCOI1, which targets JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressor proteins (JAZs) for proteasome-mediated degradation. In addition, neither the stability nor the JA-induced degradation of JAZs was affected by SA. In silico promoter analysis of the SA/JA crosstalk transcriptome revealed that the 1-kb promoter regions of JA-responsive genes that are suppressed by SA are significantly enriched in the JA-responsive GCC-box motifs. Using GCC:GUS lines carrying four copies of the GCC-box fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene, we showed that the GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Using plants overexpressing the GCC-box binding APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors ERF1 or ORA59, we found that SA strongly reduces the accumulation of ORA59 but not that of ERF1. Collectively, these data indicate that the SA pathway inhibits JA signaling downstream of the SCFCOI1-JAZ complex by targeting GCC-box motifs in JA-responsive promoters via a negative effect on the transcriptional activator ORA59. PMID:23435661

  8. The classic: Epiphyseal coxa vara or displacement of the capital epiphysis of the femur in adolescence. 1926.

    PubMed

    Key, John Albert

    2013-07-01

    This Classic Article is a redacted reprint of the original work by J.A. Key, "Epiphyseal coxa vara or displacement of the capital epiphysis of the femur in adolescence." (Note the case reports and associated figures were deleted but are available in the supplemental reprint of the original article available online.) An accompanying biographical sketch of J.A. Key is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-2907-9. The classic article is reprinted courtesy of The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery from Key JA. J Bone Joint Surg. 1926;8:53-117.

  9. Developing mirror self awareness in students with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Duff, Christine K; Flattery, J J

    2014-05-01

    A teaching methodology and curriculum was designed to develop and increase positive self-awareness in students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Joint attention (JA) strategies were first utilized to directly teach students about reflected mirror images, and then subsequently, to indirectly teach students about their reflected image. Not only were Mirror Self Awareness Development (MSAD) JA activities initiated and preferred by students over non MSAD JA activities, they yielded a four step framework with which to measure increases in student selfawareness. While the focus of this study was to increase positive self-awareness in students with ASD, it may contribute to understanding the developmental stages of ‘Self’.

  10. Safety and quality parameters of ready-to-cook minced pork meat products supplemented with Helianthus tuberosus L. tubers fermented by BLIS producing lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stimbirys, Arturas; Bartkiene, Elena; Siugzdaite, Jurate; Augeniene, Dovile; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Maruska, Audrius; Stankevicius, Mantas; Cizeikiene, Dalia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of additives of Jerusalem artichoke (JA), fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9, L. sakei KTU05-6, on the quality and safety parameters of ready - to cook - minced pork (RCMP). Fermented JA additives reduced pH of the meat products and decreased water holding capacity (WHC) from 2.01 till 2.93 %. Concentrations of biogenic amines in RCMP with additives of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) - fermented JA were significantly lower comparing with control sample. The number of pathogenic bacteria in artificially contaminated meat samples was significantly reduced in case of LAB-fermented JA additives. The highest antimicrobial activity was obtained using P. acidilactici fermented JA additives. The amounts of microbial pathogens E. coli and Ent. faecalis, S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. were determined 3.41, 3.38, 3,96 and 4.74 log CFU/g correspondingly, whereas without LAB-fermented JA additives were 8.94, 7.75, 8.82 and 8.58 log CFU/g, correspondingly. A possibility to improve sensory properties (flavor) of RCMP using LAB fermented JA additives was investigated. The composition of volatile compounds of RCMP without additive and with LAB-fermented JA additives was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of sensory evaluation of meat products supplemented with fermented JA additives revealed specific odor, which is pleasant and acceptable for consumers might be explainable that LAB-fermented JA additives have shown considerable differences mainly due to the accumulation of volatiles such as toluene, ethylbenzene, decane, undecane, 2 methyl undecane. N-morpholinomethyl-isopropyl-sulfide, 6-undecilamine and N,N-dimethyl-1-pentadecanamine were not determined in RCMP with LAB-fermented JA additives. The results obtained show, that P. acidilactici fermented JA 5 % additive is most suitable for the RCMP processing in order to prevent microbiological spoilage, increase

  11. Delayed cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea four years after gamma knife surgery for juvenile angiofibroma.

    PubMed

    Min, Hyun Jin; Chung, Hyo Jin; Kim, Chang-Hoon

    2014-11-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma (JA) is a highly vascularized tumor that often recurs or regrows. Recently, gamma knife surgery (GKS) was attempted on unresectable or remnant JA. We experienced a JA case that developed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea 4 years after GKS. Two surgical excisions using midfacial degloving approach were performed before GKS. After radiosurgery, the tumor was controlled, and no early complications were observed. However, 4 years after, intractable CSF leakage developed as a late complication, and we thus performed 4 subsequent endoscopic surgical repairs. The CSF leakage is very rare but can occur as a late complication of GKS and should be treated aggressively.

  12. Diesel oil

    MedlinePlus

    Various hydrocarbons ... Empyema Many of the most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 75. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  13. The C2 Protein from the Geminivirus Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus Decreases Sensitivity to Jasmonates and Suppresses Jasmonate-Mediated Defences

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Díaz, Tábata; Macho, Alberto P.; Beuzón, Carmen R.; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Bejarano, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence points at a role of the plant hormones jasmonates (JAs) in determining the outcome of plant-virus interactions. Geminiviruses, small DNA viruses infecting a wide range of plant species worldwide, encode a multifunctional protein, C2, which is essential for full pathogenicity. The C2 protein has been shown to suppress the JA response, although the current view on the extent of this effect and the underlying molecular mechanisms is incomplete. In this work, we use a combination of exogenous hormone treatments, microarray analysis, and pathogen infections to analyze, in detail, the suppression of the JA response exerted by C2. Our results indicate that C2 specifically affects certain JA-induced responses, namely defence and secondary metabolism, and show that plants expressing C2 are more susceptible to pathogen attack. We propose a model in which C2 might interfere with the JA response at several levels. PMID:27135228

  14. Intussusception - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastrointestinal disorders. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 172. Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF. Ileus, ...

  15. Facial trauma

    MedlinePlus

    Kellman RM. Maxillofacial trauma. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . ... Facial trauma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and ...

  16. Contac overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 8. Velez LI, Feng S-Y. Anticholinergics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  17. VIPoma

    MedlinePlus

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing tumor; VIPoma syndrome; Pancreatic endocrine tumor ... Jensen RT, Norton JA. Endocrine tumors of the pancreas and ... Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and ...

  18. Did DWGS Fail? Two Points of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Sandra; And Others

    1974-01-01

    One article, critical of DGWS (Division for Girls and Women's Sports) for its handling of certain aspects of women's athletics, particularly the training of educators, is answered by one from the current DGWS chairman. (JA)

  19. 40 CFR 86.884-14 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the opacity values according to the following equations: ER15JA04.001 Lm and Ls must use consistent...=Measuring smokemeter optical path length, meters Ls=Standard optical path length corresponding with...

  20. 76 FR 52322 - Notice of Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing of an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Medical Research and Materiel Command, Attn: Command Judge Advocate, MCMR-JA, 504 Scott Street, Fort... Arwine, Patent Attorney, (301) 619-7808. For licensing issues, Dr. Paul Mele, Office of Research...

  1. Role of Ability and Extroversion in Concept Attainment of Individuals Trained in Heterogeneous or Homogeneous Personality Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, E. A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Subjects stratified by ability and extroversion initially achieved concept attainment in homogeneous (all introverts or all extroverts) or heterogeneous (one-half of the members extroverts) personality groups. Concepts were attained individually in a subsequent transfer stage. (Authors/JA)

  2. A Memorial to a President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Nash

    1974-01-01

    This document describes the plan for a living memorial to commemorate Lyndon Baines Johnson, 36th President of the United States: a 15-acre grove with hike and bike paths, white pine trees, rhododendrons, and other flowering shrubs. (JA)

  3. Journey to Elsewhere and Elsewhen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, Carl

    1973-01-01

    A Cornell University astronomer discusses teaching astronomy in schools and provides details on concepts such as the theorized black holes that may be apertures to distant galaxies and remote epochs. (Author/JA)

  4. The non-JAZ TIFY protein TIFY8 from Arabidopsis thaliana is a transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar Pérez, Amparo; Nagels Durand, Astrid; Vanden Bossche, Robin; De Clercq, Rebecca; Persiau, Geert; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Pieterse, Corné M J; Gevaert, Kris; De Jaeger, Geert; Goossens, Alain; Pauwels, Laurens

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) signalling is mediated by the JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) repressor proteins, which are degraded upon JA perception to release downstream responses. The ZIM protein domain is characteristic of the larger TIFY protein family. It is currently unknown if the atypical member TIFY8 is involved in JA signalling. Here we show that the TIFY8 ZIM domain is functional and mediated interaction with PEAPOD proteins and NINJA. TIFY8 interacted with TOPLESS through NINJA and accordingly acted as a transcriptional repressor. TIFY8 expression was inversely correlated with JAZ expression during development and after infection with Pseudomonas syringae. Nevertheless, transgenic lines with altered TIFY8 expression did not show changes in JA sensitivity. Despite the functional ZIM domain, no interaction with JAZ proteins could be found. In contrast, TIFY8 was found in protein complexes involved in regulation of dephosphorylation, deubiquitination and O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification suggesting an important role in nuclear signal transduction.

  5. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... in each. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks BEVERAGE SERVING SIZE CALORIES Soda 7 Up 12 oz. ... SN, PhD, Wolfson JA, Vine S, Wang YC. Diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake among US: adults, overall ...

  6. Some Recent Data on Community College Health Service Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Donald Dean

    1973-01-01

    This article discusses the conclusions drawn from descriptive and tabular data collected from 482 public community colleges in an attempt to analyze the content and extent of student health services. (JA)

  7. Teaching in War-Torn Belfast: Reading, Writing, Rioting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Arturo F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    This article describes the educational situation in Belfast--the divided sympathies on the part of the students, the segregation, the possible hardening of the students. Also considered are the difficulties of teachers in this war situation. (JA)

  8. Congenital protein C or S deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    Anderson JA, Weitz JI. Hypercoagulable states. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstin LE, Heslop HE, Weitz JI, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 142.

  9. Congenital antithrombin III deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    Anderson JA, Weitz JI. Hypercoagulable states. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, Weitz JI, Anastasi J, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  10. Chronobiology--A New Concept in Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eburne, Norman

    1972-01-01

    Autorhytmometry (self-measurement of biorhythms) could serve as a data base in preventive and curative measures in medicine. This article proposes self-measurement programs in public schools as a part of health education. (JA)

  11. The Megamachine and the Future of the Schoolhouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sine, Tom, Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The course of American education today has become subjected to advancing Technology which has developed into a Megamachine of gargantuan power, of creeping globalism, or uncontrollable growth, while man is, in the Lockean assumption, a malleable organism. (JA)

  12. The Non-JAZ TIFY Protein TIFY8 from Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Transcriptional Repressor

    PubMed Central

    Cuéllar Pérez, Amparo; Nagels Durand, Astrid; Vanden Bossche, Robin; De Clercq, Rebecca; Persiau, Geert; Van Wees, Saskia C. M.; Pieterse, Corné M. J.; Gevaert, Kris; De Jaeger, Geert; Goossens, Alain; Pauwels, Laurens

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) signalling is mediated by the JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) repressor proteins, which are degraded upon JA perception to release downstream responses. The ZIM protein domain is characteristic of the larger TIFY protein family. It is currently unknown if the atypical member TIFY8 is involved in JA signalling. Here we show that the TIFY8 ZIM domain is functional and mediated interaction with PEAPOD proteins and NINJA. TIFY8 interacted with TOPLESS through NINJA and accordingly acted as a transcriptional repressor. TIFY8 expression was inversely correlated with JAZ expression during development and after infection with Pseudomonas syringae. Nevertheless, transgenic lines with altered TIFY8 expression did not show changes in JA sensitivity. Despite the functional ZIM domain, no interaction with JAZ proteins could be found. In contrast, TIFY8 was found in protein complexes involved in regulation of dephosphorylation, deubiquitination and O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification suggesting an important role in nuclear signal transduction. PMID:24416306

  13. The Teacher and Sex Role Stereotyping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    1974-01-01

    In this article, selected research findings are presented on sex role learning, sex role stereotyping, in general and in the school setting, the effect of such stereotyping on the student, and some suggestions for the teacher. (Author/JA)

  14. Preventing falls

    MedlinePlus

    Dalbaere K, Sherrington C, Lord SR. Falls prevention interventions. In: Marchus R, Feldman D, Depmster DW, Luckey M, Cauley JA, eds. Osteoporosis . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 70. Rubenstein ...

  15. Synanon: Life Style/Learning Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitlin, David I.

    1974-01-01

    Synanon uses many of the same methods used in its drug rehabilitation program in its educational program which includes 230 children in its membership. The Synanon "indictment game" is one of the methods used. (JA)

  16. Methamphetamine overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... stay active can be much longer than for cocaine and other stimulants. Some paranoid delusions can last ... Saunders; 2013:chap 150. Rao RB, Hoffman RS. Cocaine and Other Sympathomimetics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, ...

  17. Drug use first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... addiction is gradual. And some drugs (such as cocaine ) can cause addiction after only a few doses. ... Saunders; 2013:chap 150. Rao RB, Hoffman RS. Cocaine and other sympathomimetics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, ...

  18. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  19. Benzene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Atlanta, GA. Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 94. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  20. Lacquer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  1. 21 CFR 573.760 - Poloxalene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-ionic block polymer meeting the following specifications: (1) Molecular weight range: 2,850-3,150. (2...: ER01JA93.414 (b) In feed as a surfactant for the flaking of feed grains when added to liquid...

  2. Doomsday Prophets, Humanists, and Responsible Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James D.; Stone, Donald B.

    1972-01-01

    Rather than many mistakes made in panic, decisions based upon sound scientific principles, and health education that is both topical and aware are the best bets in this time of environmental concern. (JA)

  3. 75 FR 19949 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Federal Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. F051 AF JA B System name: Confidential Financial Disclosure Report. (December 15, 2008; 73 FR 76013). Change: Delete the system ID number entry and replace...

  4. Chlorpromazine overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... other reasons. This medicine may also change the metabolism and the effect of other drugs. Chlorpromazine overdose ... Anticholinergics. In: Marx JA, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  5. Titles--Who Needs Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAteer, John F.

    1974-01-01

    This article examines the question of student over-familiarity with student teachers, especially in the practice of addressing student teachers by a proper name without benefit of the prefix "Mr.,""Mrs.,""Miss," or even "Ms." (Author/JA)

  6. Jasmonate signalling in plants shapes plant-insect interaction ecology.

    PubMed

    Lortzing, Tobias; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) regulates the induction of direct and indirect defences against herbivores. By now, the biochemical pathway of JA-signalling has been well resolved, allowing the use of an interdisciplinary toolbox and spurring the mechanistic investigation of plant-insect interactions. Recent advances show that JA-mediated plant responses are involved in the competitive and trophic interactions between various organisms throughout at least four trophic levels and therefore likely shape natural communities. Moreover, JA-mediated responses can be primed or suppressed by various environmental factors that are related to herbivory or not. Yet, to integrate the complex interactions at the physiological and ecological levels into community ecology, an examination of the often onetime discoveries for general rules and new bioinformatic approaches are required. PMID:27436644

  7. 26 CFR 20.2031-2 - Valuation of stocks and bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate § 20.2031-2... valuation date ER13JA06.003 Example (3). Assume the decedent died on Sunday, October 7, and that...

  8. 26 CFR 20.2031-2 - Valuation of stocks and bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate § 20.2031-2... valuation date ER13JA06.003 Example (3). Assume the decedent died on Sunday, October 7, and that...

  9. Intestinal leiomyoma

    MedlinePlus

    Leiomyoma - intestine ... McLaughlin P, Maher MM. The duodenum and small intestine. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ... Roline CE, Reardon RF. Disorders of the small intestine. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  10. 10. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Chiricahua National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Chiricahua National Monument), photographer unknown, c.1910 JA HU STAFFORD AND YOUNGEST DAUGHTER IN FRONT OF WEST SIDE OF CABIN - Faraway Ranch, Stafford-Riggs Cabin, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  11. Innovative Ideas in College Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Max

    1973-01-01

    Seven examples of adaptation and new developments are described: Graceland College, Manchester College, Plymouth State College, U.S. Coast Guard Academy, Colorado State College, North Carolina State University, and Brookdale Community College. (Editors/JA)

  12. Iron overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 72. Velez LI, O'Connell EJ. Heavy metals. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  13. On Submitting a Proposal to a Publisher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard

    1973-01-01

    Over-the-transom'' proposals for college textbooks continue to flood editors' desks, but very few are properly prepared. This article suggests both guidelines for a good proposal, as well as some additional hints for textbook publication. (Author/JA)

  14. Plantar fasciitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... women. It is one of the most common orthopedic foot complaints. Plantar fasciitis was commonly thought to ... JA, Moeller JL, Hutchinson MR. Common issues in orthopedics. In: Rakel RE, ed. Textbook of Family Medicine . ...

  15. Sickle Cell Screening: Emphasis on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Carmine; Frank, William

    1972-01-01

    This article relates the sickle cell education program, the personnel training and the screening procedures of a pilot sickle cell screening program by the Prince George's County Health Department. (JA)

  16. Photographic Technology and the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Jerome

    1974-01-01

    Description of photogrammetric analyses which, combined with the current emergence of biomechanics, is utilized to explain and measure photographs of human movement. Oriented towards the use of photogrammetric analysis in physical education research. (JA)

  17. Burns and Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... common among older children. 5 6 7 8 • Tap water burns most often occur in the bathroom and ... Feldman KW, Schaller RT, Feldman JA, McMillon M. Tap water scald burns in children. Pediatrics. 1978; 62(1): ...

  18. The Traditional Role of a Psychiatric Consultant in a Nontraditional College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetzl, Ugo

    1974-01-01

    This article describes the establishment and operation of psychiatric consultation services at a small nontraditional college in New England. The prototype for this program was the satellite setup described by Curtis. (JA)

  19. Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology 2013 . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:chap 48. Giaconi JA, Law SK, ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology 2013 . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:chap 53. Gross RL. Current medical ...

  20. Ulvan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide from Green Algae, Activates Plant Immunity through the Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jaulneau, Valérie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Dumas, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

  1. Septicemia

    MedlinePlus

    Blood poisoning; Bacteremia with sepsis ... Shapiro NI, Zimmer GD, Barkin AZ. Sepsis syndromes. In: Marx, JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  2. Kerosene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocarbons, substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  3. Collateral ligament (CL) injury - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 66. Miller III RH, Azar, ... Beaty: Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 45. Niska JA, Petrigliano FA, ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: 18q deletion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Veltman JA, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CM. Genotype-phenotype mapping of chromosome 18q deletions by high-resolution array ... L, Pihko H. 18q deletions: clinical, molecular, and brain MRI findings of 14 individuals. Am J Med ...

  5. Effect of jasmonic acid-methyl ester on the composition of carbohydrates and germination of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Kazimierz; Nitkiewicz, Bartosz; Lahuta, Lesław B; Głowacka, Katarzyna; Socha, Aleksander; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2010-08-15

    Mature seeds of yellow lupine contained sucrose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), and galactosyl cyclitols as major soluble carbohydrates. The study showed that RFOs dominated in lupine seeds (16% DW). The disappearance of both types of alpha-d-galactosides in germinating lupine seeds was strongly inhibited by the presence of jasmonic acid-methyl ester (JA-Me) at a concentration of 10(-3)M in the incubation medium. JA-Me inhibited the activity of alpha-D-galactosidase (fraction I) during seed germination. Anatomical studies of lupine roots have shown certain cell structure differences between control and JA-Me-treated seedlings. The cross-sections of plant roots treated with JA-Me showed a characteristic folding of the cell walls in all root tissues, starting from the rhyzodermis, cortex and vascular cylinder. In water-treated (control) plants, the cell walls were rounded with no folding.

  6. [Regulation of peroxidase activity under the influence of signaling molecules and Bacillus subtilis 26D in potato plants infected with Phytophthora infestans].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, I V; Abizgil'dina, R R; Sorokan', A V; Burkhanova, G F

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sequential exposure of 5 x 10(-5) M salicylic acid (SA) or 1 x 10(-7) M jasmonic acid (JA) and endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis strain 26D on peroxidase activity, transcription of the M21334 isoperoxidase gene from potato (Solarium tuberosum L.), and the formation of resistance to the infective agent of potato blight Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary was studied. It was found that individual application of JA or Bacillus subtilis 26D and sequential application of SA and B. subtilis 26D were the most effective in protecting plants against pathogens, while sequential application of JA and B. subtilis 26D drastically suppressed plant resistance. The results suggest the need for strict compliance with regulations when using SA and JA, as well as biological products based on living bacteria as modern plant protection products with immunomodulatory properties that trigger specific signaling pathways, which often interfere with each other. PMID:25272739

  7. Colds and flus - antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    Fashner J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012; ... gov/pubmed/22962927 . Melio FR, Berge LR. Upper respiratory tract infections. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  8. Aftershave poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... D, Hovda KE. Methanol, ethylene glycol, and other toxic alcohols. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. White SR. Toxic alcohols. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  9. Shellac poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... D, Hovda KE. Methanol, ethylene glycol, and other toxic alcohols. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. White SR. Toxic alcohols. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  10. 32 CFR 516.48 - Official information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Release of Information and Appearance of Witnesses Scope Da Personnel As... and 516.50. (See, for example, figure G-2, appendix G, to this part). A JA or DA civilian...

  11. Prospects for the use of biological control agents against Anoplophora in Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review summarises the literature on the biological control of Anoplophora spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and discusses its potential for use in Europe. Entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria brongniartii Petch (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) has already been developed into a commercial product in Ja...

  12. Canadian Contemporary Issues on Tape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapter, Jean

    1974-01-01

    Four tapes with interviews with experts in the designated fields comprise the series: a) Canada's Foreign Relations, 1867-1919; b) Canada's Foreign Relations, 1919-1945; c) Canada and China, and d) Canadian Diplomacy and Foreign Policy. (JA)

  13. The Use and Abuse of Anabolic Steroids: A Discussion for Health and Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This article reviews research on anabolic steroids, indicating that athletes are mistaken in believing that taking them will improve their physical performance. Dangerous side-effects are also discussed. (JA)

  14. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 98. Wax PM, Young A. Caustics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  15. Respondent Learning and Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roden, Aubrey H.; Hapkiewicz, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    This discussion is based on the premise that a significant proportion of school learning is emotional or affective and that much of this learning is in the form of classical conditioning or respondent learning. (Authors/JA)

  16. Of Mice and Men: Journeying Toward the Year 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Fred

    1974-01-01

    The author's recommendations for educators in facing the future call for radical changes in perception and behavior rather than for vast programs with vaster budgets. Chief of these is a change in the approach to "objectivity." (JA)

  17. Eucalyptus oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 102. Shih RD. Plants, mushrooms, and herbal medications. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 164.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marsh RA, Satake N, Biroschak J, Jacobs T, Johnson J, Jordan MB, Bleesing JJ, Filipovich AH, Zhang ... on PubMed Zhang K, Jordan MB, Marsh RA, Johnson JA, Kissell D, Meller J, Villanueva J, Risma ...

  19. Methylmercury poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rusyniak DE, Arroyo A, Froberg B, Furbee B. Heavy metals. In: Vincent J-L, Abraham E, Moore FA, ... 2011:chap 178. Velez LI, O'Connell EJ. Heavy metals. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  20. Dynamics of Jasmonate Metabolism upon Flowering and across Leaf Stress Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Widemann, Emilie; Smirnova, Ekaterina; Aubert, Yann; Miesch, Laurence; Heitz, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays important roles in adaptation of plants to environmental cues and in specific steps of their development, particularly in reproduction. Recent advances in metabolic studies have highlighted intricate mechanisms that govern enzymatic conversions within the jasmonate family. Here we analyzed jasmonate profile changes upon Arabidopsis thaliana flower development and investigated the contribution of catabolic pathways that were known to turnover the active hormonal compound jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) upon leaf stress. We report a rapid decline of JA-Ile upon flower opening, concomitant with the massive accumulation of its most oxidized catabolite, 12COOH-JA-Ile. Detailed genetic analysis identified CYP94C1 as the major player in this process. CYP94C1 is one out of three characterized cytochrome P450 enzymes that define an oxidative JA-Ile turnover pathway, besides a second, hydrolytic pathway represented by the amido-hydrolases IAR3 and ILL6. Expression studies combined with reporter gene analysis revealed the dominant expression of CYP94C1 in mature anthers, consistent with the established role of JA signaling in male fertility. Significant CYP94B1 expression was also evidenced in stamen filaments, but surprisingly, CYP94B1 deficiency was not associated with significant changes in JA profiles. Finally, we compared global flower JA profiles with those previously reported in leaves reacting to mechanical wounding or submitted to infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. These comparisons revealed distinct dynamics of JA accumulation and conversions in these three biological systems. Leaf injury boosts a strong and transient JA and JA-Ile accumulation that evolves rapidly into a profile dominated by ω-oxidized and/or Ile-conjugated derivatives. In contrast, B. cinerea-infected leaves contain mostly unconjugated jasmonates, about half of this content being ω-oxidized. Finally, developing flowers present an

  1. De novo characterization of Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. transcriptome and analysis of its gene expression induced by jasmonates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Larix gmelinii is a dominant tree species in China’s boreal forests and plays an important role in the coniferous ecosystem. It is also one of the most economically important tree species in the Chinese timber industry due to excellent water resistance and anti-corrosion of its wood products. Unfortunately, in Northeast China, L. gmelinii often suffers from serious attacks by diseases and insects. The application of exogenous volatile semiochemicals may induce and enhance its resistance against insect or disease attacks; however, little is known regarding the genes and molecular mechanisms related to induced resistance. Results We performed de novo sequencing and assembly of the L. gmelinii transcriptome using a short read sequencing technology (Illumina). Chemical defenses of L. gmelinii seedlings were induced with jasmonic acid (JA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) for 6 hours. Transcriptomes were compared between seedlings induced by JA, MeJA and untreated controls using a tag-based digital gene expression profiling system. In a single run, 25,977,782 short reads were produced and 51,157 unigenes were obtained with a mean length of 517 nt. We sequenced 3 digital gene expression libraries and generated between 3.5 and 5.9 million raw tags, and obtained 52,040 reliable reference genes after removing redundancy. The expression of disease/insect-resistance genes (e.g., phenylalanine ammonialyase, coumarate 3-hydroxylase, lipoxygenase, allene oxide synthase and allene oxide cyclase) was up-regulated. The expression profiles of some abundant genes under different elicitor treatment were studied by using real-time qRT-PCR. The results showed that the expression levels of disease/insect-resistance genes in the seedling samples induced by JA and MeJA were higher than those in the control group. The seedlings induced with MeJA elicited the strongest increases in disease/insect-resistance genes. Conclusions Both JA and MeJA induced seedlings of L. gmelinii showed

  2. Jasmonic acid enhancement of anthocyanin accumulation is dependent on phytochrome A signaling pathway under far-red light in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Jia, Kun-Peng; Lian, Hong-Li; Yang, Xu; Li, Ling; Yang, Hong-Quan

    2014-11-01

    Anthocyanins are critical for plants. It is shown that the expression of genes encoding the key enzymes such as dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), UDP-Glc: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UF3GT), and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX) in anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway is regulated by MYB75, a R2R3 MYB transcription factor. The production of anthocyanin is known to be promoted by jasmonic acid (JA) in light but not in darkness. The photoreceptors cryptochrome 1 (CRY1), phytochrome B (phyB), and phytochrome A (phyA) are also shown to mediate light promotion of anthocyanin accumulation, respectively, whereas their downstream factor COP1, a master negative regulator of photomorphogensis, represses anthocyanin accumulation. However, whether JA coordinates with photoreceptors in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation is unknown. Here, we show that under far-red light, JA promotes anthocyanin accumulation in a phyA signaling pathway-dependent manner. The phyA mutant is hyposensitive to jasmonic acid analog methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) under far-red light. The dominant mutant of MYB75, pap1-D, accumulates significantly higher levels of anthocyanin than wild type under far-red light, whereas knockdown of MYBs (MYB75, MYB90, MYB113, and MYB114) through RNAi significantly reduces MeJA promotion of anthocyanin accumulation. The phyA pap1-D double mutant shows reduced responsiveness to MeJA, similar to phyA mutant under far-red light. In darkness, a mutant allele of cop1, cop1-4, shows enhanced responsiveness to MeJA, but pap1-D mutant is barely responsive to MeJA. Upon MeJA application, the cop1-4 pap1-D double mutant accumulates considerably higher levels of anthocyanin than cop1-4 in darkness. Protein studies indicate that MYB75 protein is stabilized by white light and far-red light. Further gene expression studies suggest that MeJA promotes the expression of DFR, UF3GT, and LDOX genes in a phyA- and MYB75-dependent manner under far-red light. Our findings suggest

  3. Dynamics of Jasmonate Metabolism upon Flowering and across Leaf Stress Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Widemann, Emilie; Smirnova, Ekaterina; Aubert, Yann; Miesch, Laurence; Heitz, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays important roles in adaptation of plants to environmental cues and in specific steps of their development, particularly in reproduction. Recent advances in metabolic studies have highlighted intricate mechanisms that govern enzymatic conversions within the jasmonate family. Here we analyzed jasmonate profile changes upon Arabidopsis thaliana flower development and investigated the contribution of catabolic pathways that were known to turnover the active hormonal compound jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) upon leaf stress. We report a rapid decline of JA-Ile upon flower opening, concomitant with the massive accumulation of its most oxidized catabolite, 12COOH-JA-Ile. Detailed genetic analysis identified CYP94C1 as the major player in this process. CYP94C1 is one out of three characterized cytochrome P450 enzymes that define an oxidative JA-Ile turnover pathway, besides a second, hydrolytic pathway represented by the amido-hydrolases IAR3 and ILL6. Expression studies combined with reporter gene analysis revealed the dominant expression of CYP94C1 in mature anthers, consistent with the established role of JA signaling in male fertility. Significant CYP94B1 expression was also evidenced in stamen filaments, but surprisingly, CYP94B1 deficiency was not associated with significant changes in JA profiles. Finally, we compared global flower JA profiles with those previously reported in leaves reacting to mechanical wounding or submitted to infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. These comparisons revealed distinct dynamics of JA accumulation and conversions in these three biological systems. Leaf injury boosts a strong and transient JA and JA-Ile accumulation that evolves rapidly into a profile dominated by ω-oxidized and/or Ile-conjugated derivatives. In contrast, B. cinerea-infected leaves contain mostly unconjugated jasmonates, about half of this content being ω-oxidized. Finally, developing flowers present an

  4. Metabolomics Analysis and Biosynthesis of Rosmarinic Acid in Agastache rugosa Kuntze Treated with Methyl Jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Romij; Xu, Hui; Park, Woo Tae; Tuan, Pham Anh; Li, Xiaohua; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Jai-Heon; Park, Sang Un

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on metabolic profiles and rosmarinic acid (RA) biosynthesis in cell cultures of Agastache rugosa Kuntze. Transcript levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes, i.e., ArPAL, Ar4CL, and ArC4H, maximally increased 4.5-fold, 3.4-fold, and 3.5-fold, respectively, compared with the untreated controls, and the culture contained relatively high amounts of RA after exposure of cells to 50 µM MeJA. RA levels were 2.1-, 4.7-, and 3.9-fold higher after exposure to 10, 50, and 100 µM MeJA, respectively, than those in untreated controls. In addition, the transcript levels of genes attained maximum levels at different time points after the initial exposure. The transcript levels of ArC4H and Ar4CL were transiently induced by MeJA, and reached a maximum of up to 8-fold at 3 hr and 6 hr, respectively. The relationships between primary metabolites and phenolic acids in cell cultures of A. rugosa treated with MeJA were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 45 metabolites, including 41 primary metabolites and 4 phenolic acids, were identified from A. rugosa. Metabolite profiles were subjected to partial least square-discriminate analysis to evaluate the effects of MeJA. The results indicate that both phenolic acids and precursors for the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, such as aromatic amino acids and shikimate, were induced as a response to MeJA treatment. Therefore, MeJA appears to have an important impact on RA accumulation, and the increased RA accumulation in the treated cells might be due to activation of the phenylpropanoid genes ArPAL, ArC4H, and Ar4CL. PMID:23724034

  5. Plant hormone jasmonate prioritizes defense over growth by interfering with gibberellin signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Lei; Yao, Jian; Mei, Chuan-Sheng; Tong, Xiao-Hong; Zeng, Long-Jun; Li, Qun; Xiao, Lang-Tao; Sun, Tai-ping; Li, Jigang; Deng, Xing-Wang; Lee, Chin Mei; Thomashow, Michael F; Yang, Yinong; He, Zuhua; He, Sheng Yang

    2012-05-01

    Plants must effectively defend against biotic and abiotic stresses to survive in nature. However, this defense is costly and is often accompanied by significant growth inhibition. How plants coordinate the fluctuating growth-defense dynamics is not well understood and remains a fundamental question. Jasmonate (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA) are important plant hormones that mediate defense and growth, respectively. Binding of bioactive JA or GA ligands to cognate receptors leads to proteasome-dependent degradation of specific transcriptional repressors (the JAZ or DELLA family of proteins), which, at the resting state, represses cognate transcription factors involved in defense (e.g., MYCs) or growth [e.g. phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs)]. In this study, we found that the coi1 JA receptor mutants of rice (a domesticated monocot crop) and Arabidopsis (a model dicot plant) both exhibit hallmark phenotypes of GA-hypersensitive mutants. JA delays GA-mediated DELLA protein degradation, and the della mutant is less sensitive to JA for growth inhibition. Overexpression of a selected group of JAZ repressors in Arabidopsis plants partially phenocopies GA-associated phenotypes of the coi1 mutant, and JAZ9 inhibits RGA (a DELLA protein) interaction with transcription factor PIF3. Importantly, the pif quadruple (pifq) mutant no longer responds to JA-induced growth inhibition, and overexpression of PIF3 could partially overcome JA-induced growth inhibition. Thus, a molecular cascade involving the COI1-JAZ-DELLA-PIF signaling module, by which angiosperm plants prioritize JA-mediated defense over growth, has been elucidated.

  6. Jasmonic Acid Modulates the Physio-Biochemical Attributes, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Gene Expression in Glycine max under Nickel Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sirhindi, Geetika; Mir, Mudaser Ahmad; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    In present study, we evaluated the effects of Jasmonic acid (JA) on physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and gene expression in soybean (Glycine max L.) plants subjected to nickel (Ni) stress. Ni stress decreases the shoot and root length and chlorophyll content by 37.23, 38.31, and 39.21%, respectively, over the control. However, application of JA was found to improve the chlorophyll content and length of shoot and root of Ni-fed seedlings. Plants supplemented with JA restores the chlorophyll fluorescence, which was disturbed by Ni stress. The present study demonstrated increase in proline, glycinebetaine, total protein, and total soluble sugar (TSS) by 33.09, 51.26, 22.58, and 49.15%, respectively, under Ni toxicity over the control. Addition of JA to Ni stressed plants further enhanced the above parameters. Ni stress increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by 68.49%, lipid peroxidation (MDA) by 50.57% and NADPH oxidase by 50.92% over the control. Supplementation of JA minimizes the accumulation of H2O2, MDA, and NADPH oxidase, which helps in stabilization of biomolecules. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increases by 40.04, 28.22, 48.53, and 56.79%, respectively, over the control in Ni treated seedlings and further enhancement in the antioxidant activity was observed by the application of JA. Ni treated soybean seedlings showed increase in expression of Fe-SOD by 77.62, CAT by 15.25, POD by 58.33, and APX by 80.58% over the control. Nevertheless, application of JA further enhanced the expression of the above genes in the present study. Our results signified that Ni stress caused negative impacts on soybean seedlings, but, co-application of JA facilitate the seedlings to combat the detrimental effects of Ni through enhanced osmolytes, activity of antioxidant enzymes and gene expression.

  7. Profiling of structurally labile oxylipins in plants by in situ derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Birgit; Lauchli, Ryan; Sonwa, Mesmin Mekem; Schmidt, Annika; Boland, Wilhelm

    2006-01-15

    A GC-MS-based method for the simultaneous quantification of common oxylipins along with labile and highly reactive compounds based on in situ derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine to the corresponding O-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl oximes (PFB oximes) is presented. The approach covers oxo derivatives such as jasmonic acid (JA), 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), certain phytoprostanes, unsaturated oxo-acids, oxo-hydroxy acids, and aldehyde fragments from the polar head of fatty acids. In the positive electron impact-MS mode, the PFB oximes display characteristic fragment ions that greatly facilitate the identification of oxylipins in complex matrices. In addition, the fluorinated derivatives allow a highly selective and low-background analysis by negative chemical ionization. Besides showing the general value of the method for the identification of a broad range of oxylipins (18 examples), we also demonstrate sensitivity, linearity, and reproducibility for the quantification of JA, OPDA, 11-oxo-9-undecenoic acid, and 13-oxo-9,11-tridecadienoic acid. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by differential profiling of these four oxylipins in lima bean leaves after mechanical wounding and feeding by the herbivore Spodoptera littoralis. Caterpillar feeding induced several oxylipins, whereas after wounding only the level of JA increased. The rapid in situ derivatization prevents the isomerization of cis-JA to trans-JA. The resting level of JA in lima beans showed an isomer ratio of 80:20 for trans/cis-JA. After wounding, de novo synthesis of JA alters the ratio to 20:80 in favor of the cis isomer.

  8. Methyl jasmonate treatment induces changes in fruit ripening by modifying the expression of several ripening genes in Fragaria chiloensis fruit.

    PubMed

    Concha, Cristóbal M; Figueroa, Nicolás E; Poblete, Leticia A; Oñate, Felipe A; Schwab, Wilfried; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the role of jasmonates (JAs) in the ripening of Fragaria chiloensis fruit, two concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 10 and 100 μM) were evaluated at 2, 5 and 9 d using an in vitro ripening system. Fruit quality parameters; the contents of anthocyanin, lignin and cell wall polymers; and the transcriptional profiles of several ripening-related genes were analyzed. MeJA accelerated fruit ripening by means of a transitory increase in the soluble solid content/titratable acidity ratio, anthocyanin accumulation and an increase in softening at day 5. The expression of several phenylpropanoid-related genes, primarily those associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis, was increased under MeJA treatment, which correlated with an increased accumulation of anthocyanin. MeJA also altered the expression profiles of some cell wall-modifying genes, namely, EG1 and XTH1, and these changes correlated with a transient reduction in the firmness of MeJA-treated fruits. MeJA-responsive elements were observed in the promoter region of the EG1 gene. MeJA also increased the expression of LOX, AOS and OPR3, genes involved in the biosynthesis of JAs, and these changes correlated with the transient activation of fruit ripening observed. Conversely, the expression of ethylene and lignin biosynthesis genes (ACS, ACO, CAD and POD27) increased in MeJA-treated fruits at day 9. The present findings suggest that JAs promote the ripening of non-climacteric fruits through their involvement in anthocyanin accumulation, cell wall modification and the biosynthesis of ethylene and JAs.

  9. The Arabidopsis KH-Domain RNA-Binding Protein ESR1 Functions in Components of Jasmonate Signalling, Unlinking Growth Restraint and Resistance to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Louise F.; Kamphuis, Lars G.; Hane, James K.; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis; Singh, Karam B.

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play important roles in the protection of cells against toxins and oxidative damage where one Arabidopsis member, GSTF8, has become a commonly used marker gene for early stress and defense responses. A GSTF8 promoter fragment fused to the luciferase reporter gene was used in a forward genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants with up-regulated GSTF8 promoter activity. This identified the esr1-1 (enhanced stress response 1) mutant which also conferred increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Through positional cloning, the ESR1 gene was found to encode a KH-domain containing RNA-binding protein (At5g53060). Whole transcriptome sequencing of esr1-1 identified altered expression of genes involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli, hormone signaling pathways and developmental processes. In particular was an overall significant enrichment for jasmonic acid (JA) mediated processes in the esr1-1 down-regulated dataset. A subset of these genes were tested for MeJA inducibility and we found the expression of some but not all were reduced in esr1-1. The esr1-1 mutant was not impaired in other aspects of JA-signalling such as JA- sensitivity or development, suggesting ESR1 functions in specific components of the JA-signaling pathway. Examination of salicylic acid (SA) regulated marker genes in esr1-1 showed no increase in basal or SA induced expression suggesting repression of JA-regulated genes is not due to antagonistic SA-JA crosstalk. These results define new roles for KH-domain containing proteins with ESR1 unlinking JA-mediated growth and defense responses. PMID:25985302

  10. Chestnut Species and Jasmonic Acid Treatment Influence Development and Community Interactions of Galls Produced by the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, William R.; Rieske, Lynne K.

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant—signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA– inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses. PMID:22233098

  11. A new species and new records of Pseudocephennium Reitter in Venezuela, with notes on movable endophallic structures (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2016-03-11

    Pseudocephennium auriculatum sp. n. is described, based on a male specimen collected in north-western Venezuela. New findings of Pseudocephennium maximum Jałoszyński and P. araguanum Jałoszyński, so far known only from holotypes, are reported. The aedeagi of newly found specimens have the endophallic structures extruded to various extent which makes it possible to identify movable components of the internal aedeagal armature.

  12. The Arabidopsis KH-Domain RNA-Binding Protein ESR1 Functions in Components of Jasmonate Signalling, Unlinking Growth Restraint and Resistance to Stress.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Louise F; Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play important roles in the protection of cells against toxins and oxidative damage where one Arabidopsis member, GSTF8, has become a commonly used marker gene for early stress and defense responses. A GSTF8 promoter fragment fused to the luciferase reporter gene was used in a forward genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants with up-regulated GSTF8 promoter activity. This identified the esr1-1 (enhanced stress response 1) mutant which also conferred increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Through positional cloning, the ESR1 gene was found to encode a KH-domain containing RNA-binding protein (At5g53060). Whole transcriptome sequencing of esr1-1 identified altered expression of genes involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli, hormone signaling pathways and developmental processes. In particular was an overall significant enrichment for jasmonic acid (JA) mediated processes in the esr1-1 down-regulated dataset. A subset of these genes were tested for MeJA inducibility and we found the expression of some but not all were reduced in esr1-1. The esr1-1 mutant was not impaired in other aspects of JA-signalling such as JA- sensitivity or development, suggesting ESR1 functions in specific components of the JA-signaling pathway. Examination of salicylic acid (SA) regulated marker genes in esr1-1 showed no increase in basal or SA induced expression suggesting repression of JA-regulated genes is not due to antagonistic SA-JA crosstalk. These results define new roles for KH-domain containing proteins with ESR1 unlinking JA-mediated growth and defense responses.

  13. JASMONATE-TRIGGERED PLANT IMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcelo L.; Kang, Jin-Ho; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) exerts direct control over the production of chemical defense compounds that confer resistance to a remarkable spectrum of plant-associated organisms, ranging from microbial pathogens to vertebrate herbivores. The underlying mechanism of JA-triggered immunity (JATI) can be conceptualized as a multi-stage signal transduction cascade involving: i) pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that couple the perception of danger signals to rapid synthesis of bioactive JA; ii) an evolutionarily conserved JA signaling module that links fluctuating JA levels to changes in the abundance of transcriptional repressor proteins; and iii) activation (de-repression) of transcription factors that orchestrate the expression of myriad chemical and morphological defense traits. Multiple negative feedback loops act in concert to restrain the duration and amplitude of defense responses, presumably to mitigate potential fitness costs of JATI. The convergence of diverse plant- and non-plant-derived signals on the core JA module indicates that JATI is a general response to perceived danger. However, the modular structure of JATI may accommodate attacker-specific defense responses through evolutionary innovation of PRRs (inputs) and defense traits (outputs). The efficacy of JATI as a defense strategy is highlighted by its capacity to shape natural populations of plant attackers, as well as the propensity of plant-associated organisms to subvert or otherwise manipulate JA signaling. As both a cellular hub for integrating informational cues from the environment and a common target of pathogen effectors, the core JA module provides a focal point for understanding immune system networks and the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom. PMID:24973116

  14. Negative Feedback Control of Jasmonate Signaling by an Alternative Splice Variant of JAZ101[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Javier E.; Shyu, Christine; Campos, Marcelo L.; Patel, Lalita C.; Chung, Hoo Sun; Yao, Jian; He, Sheng Yang; Howe, Gregg A.

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) activates gene expression by promoting ubiquitin-dependent degradation of jasmonate ZIM domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressor proteins. A key feature of all JAZ proteins is the highly conserved Jas motif, which mediates both JAZ degradation and JAZ binding to the transcription factor MYC2. Rapid expression of JAZ genes in response to JA is thought to attenuate JA responses, but little is known about the mechanisms by which newly synthesized JAZ proteins exert repression in the presence of the hormone. Here, we show in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that desensitization to JA is mediated by an alternative splice variant (JAZ10.4) of JAZ10 that lacks the Jas motif. Unbiased protein-protein interaction screens identified three related basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4) and the corepressor NINJA as JAZ10.4-binding partners. We show that the amino-terminal region of JAZ10.4 contains a cryptic MYC2-binding site that resembles the Jas motif and that the ZIM motif of JAZ10.4 functions as a transferable repressor domain whose activity is associated with the recruitment of NINJA. Functional studies showed that the expression of JAZ10.4 from the native JAZ10 promoter complemented the JA-hypersensitive phenotype of a jaz10 mutant. Moreover, treatment of these complemented lines with JA resulted in the rapid accumulation of JAZ10.4 protein. Our results provide an explanation for how the unique domain architecture of JAZ10.4 links transcription factors to a corepressor complex and suggest how JA-induced transcription and alternative splicing of JAZ10 premessenger RNA creates a regulatory circuit to attenuate JA responses. PMID:23632853

  15. Jasmonates: Multifunctional Roles in Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Rasool, Saiema; Gul, Alvina; Sheikh, Subzar A.; Akram, Nudrat A.; Ashraf, Muhammad; Kazi, A. M.; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) [Jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonates (MeJAs)] are known to take part in various physiological processes. Exogenous application of JAs so far tested on different plants under abiotic stresses particularly salinity, drought, and temperature (low/high) conditions have proved effective in improving plant stress tolerance. However, its extent of effectiveness entirely depends on the type of plant species tested or its concentration. The effects of introgression or silencing of different JA- and Me-JA-related genes have been summarized in this review, which have shown a substantial role in improving crop yield and quality in different plants under stress or non-stress conditions. Regulation of JAs synthesis is impaired in stressed as well as unstressed plant cells/tissues, which is believed to be associated with a variety of metabolic events including signal transduction. Although, mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important components of JA signaling and biosynthesis pathways, nitric oxide, ROS, calcium, ABA, ethylene, and salicylic acid are also important mediators of plant growth and development during JA signal transduction and synthesis. The exploration of other signaling molecules can be beneficial to examine the details of underlying molecular mechanisms of JA signal transduction. Much work is to be done in near future to find the proper answers of the questions like action of JA related metabolites, and identification of universal JA receptors etc. Complete signaling pathways involving MAPKs, CDPK, TGA, SIPK, WIPK, and WRKY transcription factors are yet to be investigated to understand the complete mechanism of action of JAs. PMID:27379115

  16. Jasmonic acid transient accumulation is needed for abscisic acid increase in citrus roots under drought stress conditions.

    PubMed

    de Ollas, Carlos; Hernando, Bárbara; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2013-03-01

    Phytohormones are central players in sensing and signaling numerous environmental conditions like drought stress. In this work, an experimental system based on severe drought was established and hormone profiling together with gene expression of key enzymes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis was studied in roots of citrumelo CPB 4475 (a commercial citrus rootstock) plants. JA concentration transiently increased after a few hours of stress, returning to control levels 30 h after the onset of the condition. A more progressive ABA accumulation was observed, with the onset of this increase at the same time or right after the JA transient accumulation. Molecular data suggested that, at least, part of the hormonal regulation takes place at the biosynthetic level. These observations also pointed to a possible involvement of JA on ABA biosynthesis under stress. To test this hypothesis, JA and ABA biosynthesis were chemically inhibited and subsequently phenotypes rescued by the addition of exogenous hormones. Results showed that the early JA accumulation was necessary for the subsequent ABA increase in roots under stress whereas the opposite could not be stated. The model includes a burst of JA in roots of citrus under severe drought stress conditions that leads to a more progressive ABA accumulation that will induce later plant responses. The present work adds a new level of interaction between JA and ABA at the biosynthetic level that together with the previously described interaction between signal transduction cascades of the two hormones would allow plants to fine-tune specific responses to different stimuli.

  17. Methyl jasmonate treatment induces changes in fruit ripening by modifying the expression of several ripening genes in Fragaria chiloensis fruit.

    PubMed

    Concha, Cristóbal M; Figueroa, Nicolás E; Poblete, Leticia A; Oñate, Felipe A; Schwab, Wilfried; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the role of jasmonates (JAs) in the ripening of Fragaria chiloensis fruit, two concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 10 and 100 μM) were evaluated at 2, 5 and 9 d using an in vitro ripening system. Fruit quality parameters; the contents of anthocyanin, lignin and cell wall polymers; and the transcriptional profiles of several ripening-related genes were analyzed. MeJA accelerated fruit ripening by means of a transitory increase in the soluble solid content/titratable acidity ratio, anthocyanin accumulation and an increase in softening at day 5. The expression of several phenylpropanoid-related genes, primarily those associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis, was increased under MeJA treatment, which correlated with an increased accumulation of anthocyanin. MeJA also altered the expression profiles of some cell wall-modifying genes, namely, EG1 and XTH1, and these changes correlated with a transient reduction in the firmness of MeJA-treated fruits. MeJA-responsive elements were observed in the promoter region of the EG1 gene. MeJA also increased the expression of LOX, AOS and OPR3, genes involved in the biosynthesis of JAs, and these changes correlated with the transient activation of fruit ripening observed. Conversely, the expression of ethylene and lignin biosynthesis genes (ACS, ACO, CAD and POD27) increased in MeJA-treated fruits at day 9. The present findings suggest that JAs promote the ripening of non-climacteric fruits through their involvement in anthocyanin accumulation, cell wall modification and the biosynthesis of ethylene and JAs. PMID:23835361

  18. Jasmonates: Multifunctional Roles in Stress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Rasool, Saiema; Gul, Alvina; Sheikh, Subzar A; Akram, Nudrat A; Ashraf, Muhammad; Kazi, A M; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) [Jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonates (MeJAs)] are known to take part in various physiological processes. Exogenous application of JAs so far tested on different plants under abiotic stresses particularly salinity, drought, and temperature (low/high) conditions have proved effective in improving plant stress tolerance. However, its extent of effectiveness entirely depends on the type of plant species tested or its concentration. The effects of introgression or silencing of different JA- and Me-JA-related genes have been summarized in this review, which have shown a substantial role in improving crop yield and quality in different plants under stress or non-stress conditions. Regulation of JAs synthesis is impaired in stressed as well as unstressed plant cells/tissues, which is believed to be associated with a variety of metabolic events including signal transduction. Although, mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important components of JA signaling and biosynthesis pathways, nitric oxide, ROS, calcium, ABA, ethylene, and salicylic acid are also important mediators of plant growth and development during JA signal transduction and synthesis. The exploration of other signaling molecules can be beneficial to examine the details of underlying molecular mechanisms of JA signal transduction. Much work is to be done in near future to find the proper answers of the questions like action of JA related metabolites, and identification of universal JA receptors etc. Complete signaling pathways involving MAPKs, CDPK, TGA, SIPK, WIPK, and WRKY transcription factors are yet to be investigated to understand the complete mechanism of action of JAs. PMID:27379115

  19. 42 CFR 488.100 - Long term care survey forms, Part A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part A. 488.100 Section 488.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... FORMS AND PROCEDURES § 488.100 Long term care survey forms, Part A. EC01JA91.016 EC01JA91.017...

  20. 42 CFR 488.100 - Long term care survey forms, Part A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part A. 488.100 Section 488.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Forms and Procedures § 488.100 Long term care survey forms, Part A. EC01JA91.016 EC01JA91.017...

  1. 42 CFR 488.105 - Long term care survey forms, Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  2. 42 CFR 488.100 - Long term care survey forms, Part A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part A. 488.100 Section 488.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Forms and Procedures § 488.100 Long term care survey forms, Part A. EC01JA91.016 EC01JA91.017...

  3. 42 CFR 488.105 - Long term care survey forms, Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part B. 488.105 Section 488.105 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Forms and Procedures § 488.105 Long term care survey forms, Part B. EC01JA91.064 EC01JA91.065...

  4. 42 CFR 488.105 - Long term care survey forms, Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part B. 488.105 Section 488.105 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... FORMS AND PROCEDURES § 488.105 Long term care survey forms, Part B. EC01JA91.064 EC01JA91.065...

  5. 42 CFR 488.105 - Long term care survey forms, Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part B. 488.105 Section 488.105 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... FORMS AND PROCEDURES § 488.105 Long term care survey forms, Part B. EC01JA91.064 EC01JA91.065...

  6. 42 CFR 488.100 - Long term care survey forms, Part A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part A. 488.100 Section 488.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... FORMS AND PROCEDURES § 488.100 Long term care survey forms, Part A. EC01JA91.016 EC01JA91.017...

  7. 42 CFR 488.100 - Long term care survey forms, Part A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part A. 488.100 Section 488.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... FORMS AND PROCEDURES § 488.100 Long term care survey forms, Part A. EC01JA91.016 EC01JA91.017...

  8. Jasmonate-Mediated Induced Volatiles in the American Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon: From Gene Expression to Organismal Interactions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R; Polashock, James; Malo, Edi A

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates, i.e., jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are signaling hormones that regulate a large number of defense responses in plants which in turn affect the plants' interactions with herbivores and their natural enemies. Here, we investigated the effect of jasmonates on the emission of volatiles in the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, at different levels of biological organization from gene expression to organismal interactions. At the molecular level, four genes (BCS, LLS, NER1, and TPS21) responded significantly to gypsy moth larval feeding, MeJA, and mechanical wounding, but to different degrees. The most dramatic changes in expression of BCS and TPS21 (genes in the sesquiterpenoid pathway) were when treated with MeJA. Gypsy moth-damaged and MeJA-treated plants also had significantly elevated expression of LLS and NER1 (genes in the monoterpene and homoterpene biosynthesis pathways, respectively). At the biochemical level, MeJA induced a complex blend of monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds that differed from gypsy moth and mechanical damage, and followed a diurnal pattern of emission. At the organismal level, numbers of Sparganothis sulfureana moths were lower while numbers of parasitic wasps were higher on sticky traps near MeJA-treated cranberry plants than those near untreated plants. Out of 11 leaf volatiles tested, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, and linalool oxide elicited strong antennal (EAG) responses from S. sulfureana, whereas sesquiterpenes elicited weak EAG responses. In addition, mortality of S. sulfureana larvae increased by about 43% in JA treated cranberry plants as compared with untreated plants, indicating a relationship among adult preference, antennal sensitivity to plant odors, and offspring performance. This study highlights the role of the jasmonate-dependent defensive pathway in the emissions of herbivore-induced volatiles in cranberries and its importance in multi-trophic level interactions. PMID:23641249

  9. Methyl Jasmonate Reduces Grain Yield by Mediating Stress Signals to Alter Spikelet Development in Rice1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Hye; Kim, Youn Shic; Park, Su-Hyun; Koo, Yeon Jong; Choi, Yang Do; Chung, Yong-Yoon; Lee, In-Jung; Kim, Ju-Kon

    2009-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in plant development and the defense response. Transgenic overexpression of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase gene (AtJMT) linked to the Ubi1 promoter increased levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) by 6-fold in young panicles. Grain yield was greatly reduced in Ubi1:AtJMT plants due to a lower numbers of spikelets and lower filling rates than were observed for nontransgenic (NT) controls. Ubi1:AtJMT plants had altered numbers of spikelet organs, including the lemma/palea, lodicule, anther, and pistil. The loss of grain yield and alteration in spikelet organ numbers were reproduced by treating NT plants with exogenous MeJA, indicating that increased levels of MeJA in Ubi1:AtJMT panicles inhibited spikelet development. Interestingly, MeJA levels were increased by 19-fold in young NT panicles upon exposure to drought conditions, resulting in a loss of grain yield that was similar to that observed in Ubi1:AtJMT plants. Levels of abscisic acid (ABA) were increased by 1.9- and 1.4-fold in Ubi1:AtJMT and drought-treated NT panicles, respectively. The ABA increase in Ubi1:AtJMT panicles grown in nondrought conditions suggests that MeJA, rather than drought stress, induces ABA biosynthesis under drought conditions. Using microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses, we identified seven genes that were regulated in both Ubi1:AtJMT and drought-treated NT panicles. Two genes, OsJMT1 and OsSDR (for short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase), are involved in MeJA and ABA biosynthesis, respectively, in rice (Oryza sativa). Overall, our results suggest that plants produce MeJA during drought stress, which in turn stimulates the production of ABA, together leading to a loss of grain yield. PMID:19211695

  10. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona Attenuates Host Plant Defenses against Insect Herbivores1

    PubMed Central

    Runyon, Justin B.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has examined plant responses to concurrent attack by herbivores and pathogens, but the effects of attack by parasitic plants, another important class of plant-feeding organisms, on plant defenses against other enemies has not been explored. We investigated how attack by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona impacted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) defenses against the chewing insect beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua; BAW). In response to insect feeding, C. pentagona-infested (parasitized) tomato plants produced only one-third of the antiherbivore phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) produced by unparasitized plants. Similarly, parasitized tomato, in contrast to unparasitized plants, failed to emit herbivore-induced volatiles after 3 d of BAW feeding. Although parasitism impaired antiherbivore defenses, BAW growth was slower on parasitized tomato leaves. Vines of C. pentagona did not translocate JA from BAW-infested plants: amounts of JA in parasite vines grown on caterpillar-fed and control plants were similar. Parasitized plants generally contained more salicylic acid (SA), which can inhibit JA in some systems. Parasitized mutant (NahG) tomato plants deficient in SA produced more JA in response to insect feeding than parasitized wild-type plants, further suggesting cross talk between the SA and JA defense signaling pathways. However, JA induction by BAW was still reduced in parasitized compared to unparasitized NahG, implying that other factors must be involved. We found that parasitized plants were capable of producing induced volatiles when experimentally treated with JA, indicating that resource depletion by the parasite does not fully explain the observed attenuation of volatile response to herbivore feeding. Collectively, these findings show that parasitic plants can have important consequences for host plant defense against herbivores. PMID:18165323

  11. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the NS2A Protein of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Affects Virus Propagation In Vitro but Not In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Takamatsu, Yuki; Morita, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    We identified a unique amino acid of NS2A113, phenylalanine, that affects the efficient propagation of two Japanese encephalitis virus strains, JaTH160 and JaOArS982, in neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells but not in cell lines of extraneural origin. This amino acid did not affect viral loads in the brain or survival curves in mice. These findings suggest that virus propagation in vitro may not reflect the level of virus neuroinvasiveness in vivo. PMID:25787282

  12. Jasmonate-Mediated Induced Volatiles in the American Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon: From Gene Expression to Organismal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R.; Polashock, James; Malo, Edi A.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates, i.e., jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are signaling hormones that regulate a large number of defense responses in plants which in turn affect the plants’ interactions with herbivores and their natural enemies. Here, we investigated the effect of jasmonates on the emission of volatiles in the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, at different levels of biological organization from gene expression to organismal interactions. At the molecular level, four genes (BCS, LLS, NER1, and TPS21) responded significantly to gypsy moth larval feeding, MeJA, and mechanical wounding, but to different degrees. The most dramatic changes in expression of BCS and TPS21 (genes in the sesquiterpenoid pathway) were when treated with MeJA. Gypsy moth-damaged and MeJA-treated plants also had significantly elevated expression of LLS and NER1 (genes in the monoterpene and homoterpene biosynthesis pathways, respectively). At the biochemical level, MeJA induced a complex blend of monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds that differed from gypsy moth and mechanical damage, and followed a diurnal pattern of emission. At the organismal level, numbers of Sparganothis sulfureana moths were lower while numbers of parasitic wasps were higher on sticky traps near MeJA-treated cranberry plants than those near untreated plants. Out of 11 leaf volatiles tested, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, and linalool oxide elicited strong antennal (EAG) responses from S. sulfureana, whereas sesquiterpenes elicited weak EAG responses. In addition, mortality of S. sulfureana larvae increased by about 43% in JA treated cranberry plants as compared with untreated plants, indicating a relationship among adult preference, antennal sensitivity to plant odors, and offspring performance. This study highlights the role of the jasmonate-dependent defensive pathway in the emissions of herbivore-induced volatiles in cranberries and its importance in multi-trophic level interactions. PMID

  13. Jasmonate-Mediated Induced Volatiles in the American Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon: From Gene Expression to Organismal Interactions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R; Polashock, James; Malo, Edi A

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates, i.e., jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are signaling hormones that regulate a large number of defense responses in plants which in turn affect the plants' interactions with herbivores and their natural enemies. Here, we investigated the effect of jasmonates on the emission of volatiles in the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, at different levels of biological organization from gene expression to organismal interactions. At the molecular level, four genes (BCS, LLS, NER1, and TPS21) responded significantly to gypsy moth larval feeding, MeJA, and mechanical wounding, but to different degrees. The most dramatic changes in expression of BCS and TPS21 (genes in the sesquiterpenoid pathway) were when treated with MeJA. Gypsy moth-damaged and MeJA-treated plants also had significantly elevated expression of LLS and NER1 (genes in the monoterpene and homoterpene biosynthesis pathways, respectively). At the biochemical level, MeJA induced a complex blend of monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds that differed from gypsy moth and mechanical damage, and followed a diurnal pattern of emission. At the organismal level, numbers of Sparganothis sulfureana moths were lower while numbers of parasitic wasps were higher on sticky traps near MeJA-treated cranberry plants than those near untreated plants. Out of 11 leaf volatiles tested, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, and linalool oxide elicited strong antennal (EAG) responses from S. sulfureana, whereas sesquiterpenes elicited weak EAG responses. In addition, mortality of S. sulfureana larvae increased by about 43% in JA treated cranberry plants as compared with untreated plants, indicating a relationship among adult preference, antennal sensitivity to plant odors, and offspring performance. This study highlights the role of the jasmonate-dependent defensive pathway in the emissions of herbivore-induced volatiles in cranberries and its importance in multi-trophic level interactions.

  14. A new species and new records of Pseudocephennium Reitter in Venezuela, with notes on movable endophallic structures (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Pseudocephennium auriculatum sp. n. is described, based on a male specimen collected in north-western Venezuela. New findings of Pseudocephennium maximum Jałoszyński and P. araguanum Jałoszyński, so far known only from holotypes, are reported. The aedeagi of newly found specimens have the endophallic structures extruded to various extent which makes it possible to identify movable components of the internal aedeagal armature. PMID:27394359

  15. Host target modification as a strategy to counter pathogen hijacking of the jasmonate hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yao, Jian; Withers, John; Xin, Xiu-Fang; Banerjee, Rahul; Fariduddin, Qazi; Nakamura, Yoko; Nomura, Kinya; Howe, Gregg A; Boland, Wilhelm; Yan, Honggao; He, Sheng Yang

    2015-11-17

    In the past decade, characterization of the host targets of pathogen virulence factors took a center stage in the study of pathogenesis and disease susceptibility in plants and humans. However, the impressive knowledge of host targets has not been broadly exploited to inhibit pathogen infection. Here, we show that host target modification could be a promising new approach to "protect" the disease-vulnerable components of plants. In particular, recent studies have identified the plant hormone jasmonate (JA) receptor as one of the common targets of virulence factors from highly evolved biotrophic/hemibiotrophic pathogens. Strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, for example, produce proteinaceous effectors, as well as a JA-mimicking toxin, coronatine (COR), to activate JA signaling as a mechanism to promote disease susceptibility. Guided by the crystal structure of the JA receptor and evolutionary clues, we succeeded in modifying the JA receptor to allow for sufficient endogenous JA signaling but greatly reduced sensitivity to COR. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing this modified receptor not only are fertile and maintain a high level of insect defense, but also gain the ability to resist COR-producing pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and P. syringae pv. maculicola. Our results provide a proof-of-concept demonstration that host target modification can be a promising new approach to prevent the virulence action of highly evolved pathogens. PMID:26578782

  16. Synergism in the effect of prior jasmonic acid application on herbivore-induced volatile emission by Lima bean plants: transcription of a monoterpene synthase gene and volatile emission.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Tila R; Weldegergis, Berhane T; David, Anja; Boland, Wilhelm; Gols, Rieta; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2014-09-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in induced plant defence e.g. by regulating the biosynthesis of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that mediate the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. Moreover, exogenous application of JA can be used to elicit plant defence responses similar to those induced by biting-chewing herbivores and mites that pierce cells and consume their contents. In the present study, we used Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants to explore how application of a low dose of JA followed by minor herbivory by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) affects transcript levels of P. lunatus (E)-β-ocimene synthase (PlOS), emission of (E)-β-ocimene and nine other plant volatiles commonly associated with herbivory. Furthermore, we investigated the plant's phytohormonal response. Application of a low dose of JA increased PlOS transcript levels in a synergistic manner when followed by minor herbivory for both simultaneous and sequential infestation. Emission of (E)-β-ocimene was also increased, and only JA, but not SA, levels were affected by treatments. Projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of other volatiles showed overlap between treatments. Thus, a low-dose JA application results in a synergistic effect on gene transcription and an increased emission of a volatile compound involved in indirect defence after herbivore infestation.

  17. Jasmonic acid signalling mediates resistance of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata to its native Fusarium, but not Alternaria, fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Luu, Van Thi; Schuck, Stefan; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Weinhold, Arne; Baldwin, Ian T

    2015-03-01

    We recently characterized a highly dynamic fungal disease outbreak in native populations of Nicotiana attenuata in the southwestern United States. Here, we explore how phytohormone signalling contributes to the observed disease dynamics. Single inoculation with three native Fusarium and Alternaria fungal pathogens, isolated from diseased plants growing in native populations, resulted in disease symptoms characteristic for each pathogen species. While Alternaria sp.-infected plants displayed fewer symptoms and recovered, Fusarium spp.-infected plants became chlorotic and frequently spontaneously wilted. Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) levels were differentially induced after Fusarium or Alternaria infection. Transgenic N. attenuata lines silenced in JA production or JA conjugation to isoleucine (JA-Ile), but not in JA perception, were highly susceptible to infection by F. brachygibbosum Utah 4, indicating that products derived from the JA-Ile biosynthetic pathway, but not their perception, is associated with increased Fusarium resistance. Infection assays using ov-nahG plants which were silenced in pathogen-induced SA accumulations revealed that SA may increase N. attenuata's resistance to Fusarium infection but not to Alternaria. Taken together, we propose that the dynamics of fungal disease symptoms among plants in native populations may be explained by a complex interplay of phytohormone responses to attack by multiple pathogens.

  18. Overexpression of Poplar PtrWRKY89 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Leads to a Reduction of Disease Resistance by Regulating Defense-Related Genes in Salicylate- and Jasmonate-Dependent Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuanzhong; Guo, Li; Liu, Rui; Jiao, Bo; Zhao, Xin; Ling, Zhengyi; Luo, Keming

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play key roles in plant defenses against pathogens and several WRKY transcription factors have been shown to have a role in SA/JA crosstalk. In a previous study, overexpression of the poplar WRKY gene PtrWRKY89 enhanced resistance to pathogens in transgenic poplars. In this study, the promoter of PtrWRKY89 (ProPtrWRKY89) was isolated and used to drive GUS reporter gene. High GUS activity was observed in old leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis containing ProPtrWRKY89-GUS construct and GUS expression was extremely induced by SA solution and SA+MeJA mixture but not by MeJA treatment. Subcellular localization and transactivation assays showed that PtrWRKY89 acted as a transcription activator in the nucleus. Constitutive expression of PtrWRKY89 in Arabidopsis resulted in more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea compared to wild-type plants. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed that marker genes of SA and JA pathways were down-regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis after pathogen inoculations. Overall, our results indicated that PtrWRKY89 modulates a cross talk in resistance to P. syringe and B. cinerea by negatively regulating both SA and JA pathways in Arabidopsis. PMID:27019084

  19. The role of jasmonates in floral nectar secretion.

    PubMed

    Radhika, Venkatesan; Kost, Christian; Boland, Wilhelm; Heil, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Plants produce nectar in their flowers as a reward for their pollinators and most of our crops depend on insect pollination, but little is known on the physiological control of nectar secretion. Jasmonates are well-known for their effects on senescence, the development and opening of flowers and on plant defences such as extrafloral nectar. Their role in floral nectar secretion has, however, not been explored so far. We investigated whether jasmonates have an influence on floral nectar secretion in oil-seed rape, Brassica napus. The floral tissues of this plant produced jasmonic acid (JA) endogenously, and JA concentrations peaked shortly before nectar secretion was highest. Exogenous application of JA to flowers induced nectar secretion, which was suppressed by treatment with phenidone, an inhibitor of JA synthesis. This effect could be reversed by additional application of JA. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine and its structural mimic coronalon also increased nectar secretion. Herbivory or addition of JA to the leaves did not have an effect on floral nectar secretion, demonstrating a functional separation of systemic defence signalling from reproductive nectar secretion. Jasmonates, which have been intensively studied in the context of herbivore defences and flower development, have a profound effect on floral nectar secretion and, thus, pollination efficiency in B. napus. Our results link floral nectar secretion to jasmonate signalling and thereby integrate the floral nectar secretion into the complex network of oxylipid-mediated developmental processes of plants. PMID:20174464

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production.

  1. Jasmonate signaling in plant stress responses and development - active and inactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Wasternack, Claus; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-09-25

    Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived signals mediating plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses and in plant development. Following the elucidation of each step in their biosynthesis and the important components of perception and signaling, several activators, repressors and co-repressors have been identified which contribute to fine-tuning the regulation of JA-induced gene expression. Many of the metabolic reactions in which JA participates, such as conjugation with amino acids, glucosylation, hydroxylation, carboxylation, sulfation and methylation, lead to numerous compounds with different biological activities. These metabolites may be highly active, partially active in specific processes or inactive. Hydroxylation, carboxylation and sulfation inactivate JA signaling. The precursor of JA biosynthesis, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), has been identified as a JA-independent signaling compound. An increasing number of OPDA-specific processes is being identified. To conclude, the numerous JA compounds and their different modes of action allow plants to respond specifically and flexibly to alterations in the environment.

  2. Responses of herbivore and predatory mites to tomato plants exposed to jasmonic acid seed treatment.

    PubMed

    Smart, Lesley E; Martin, Janet L; Limpalaër, Marlène; Bruce, Toby J A; Pickett, John A

    2013-10-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) signalling can influence plant defense and the production of plant volatiles that mediate interactions with insects. Here, we tested whether a JA seed treatment could alter direct and indirect defenses. First, oviposition levels of herbivorous mites, Tetranychus urticae, on JA seed-treated and control tomato plants were compared. They were not significantly different on tomato cv. 'Moneymaker', however, there was a significant reduction in oviposition on treated plants in additional experiments with cv. 'Carousel'. Second, responses of predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, were assessed in a Y-tube olfactometer. Volatiles from JA seed-treated tomato cv. 'Moneymaker' plants were significantly more attractive than volatiles from control plants. Volatiles collected from plants were analysed by GC/MS, and samples from JA seed-treated plants contained more methyl salicylate and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMTT) than samples from control plants. Our results indicate that JA seed treatment can make tomato plants more attractive to predatory mites, but that direct effects on herbivorous mites are variable and cultivar dependent.

  3. Overexpression of Poplar PtrWRKY89 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Leads to a Reduction of Disease Resistance by Regulating Defense-Related Genes in Salicylate- and Jasmonate-Dependent Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Jiao, Bo; Zhao, Xin; Ling, Zhengyi; Luo, Keming

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play key roles in plant defenses against pathogens and several WRKY transcription factors have been shown to have a role in SA/JA crosstalk. In a previous study, overexpression of the poplar WRKY gene PtrWRKY89 enhanced resistance to pathogens in transgenic poplars. In this study, the promoter of PtrWRKY89 (ProPtrWRKY89) was isolated and used to drive GUS reporter gene. High GUS activity was observed in old leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis containing ProPtrWRKY89-GUS construct and GUS expression was extremely induced by SA solution and SA+MeJA mixture but not by MeJA treatment. Subcellular localization and transactivation assays showed that PtrWRKY89 acted as a transcription activator in the nucleus. Constitutive expression of PtrWRKY89 in Arabidopsis resulted in more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea compared to wild-type plants. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed that marker genes of SA and JA pathways were down-regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis after pathogen inoculations. Overall, our results indicated that PtrWRKY89 modulates a cross talk in resistance to P. syringe and B. cinerea by negatively regulating both SA and JA pathways in Arabidopsis. PMID:27019084

  4. [Salt Stress Response in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants with Defective Jasmonate Signaling].

    PubMed

    Yastreb, T O; Kolupayev, Yu E; Shvidenko, A A; Lugovaya, A A; Dmitriev, A P

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on antioxidant enzymes in four-week-old leaves of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Columbia-0) and jin1 (jasmonate insensitive 1) mutant plants with defective jasmonate signaling were investigated under normal conditions and under salt stress (200 mM NaCl, 24 h). The wild-type plants responded to JA by an increase in the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase, while there was no change in the case of the mutant plants. In response to the salt stress of both the wild-type and mutant genotypes, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase were unchanged, decreased, and increased, respectively. The JA-treated wild type plants showed the highest activity of all three enzymes as compared with the mutant plants. Salinity caused a decrease in chlorophyll content in the wild-type and jin 1 plants. Preliminary JA treatment of the Col-0 plants resulted in a normal content of photosynthetic pigments after the salt stress, while the positive JA effect was insignificant in the jin 1 mutants. It was concluded that the MYC2/JIN 1 protein is involved in the JA signal transduction and plant adaptation to salt stress.

  5. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors JASMONATE-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3 are negative regulators of jasmonate responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takeshi; Saito, Hikaru; Masuda, Shinji; Kamiya, Yuji; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2013-09-01

    Jasmonates regulate transcriptional reprogramming during growth, development, and defense responses. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine, an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA), is perceived by the protein complex composed of the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, leading to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins. This activates basic helix-loop-helix-type MYC transcription factors to regulate JA-responsive genes. Here, we show that the expression of genes encoding other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3, is positively regulated in a COI1- and MYC2-dependent manner in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, contrary to myc2, the jam1jam2jam3 triple mutant exhibited shorter roots when treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), indicating enhanced responsiveness to JA. Our genome-wide expression analyses revealed that key jasmonate metabolic genes as well as a set of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate the JA-responsive metabolic genes are negatively regulated by JAMs after MJ treatment. Consistently, loss of JAM genes resulted in higher accumulation of anthocyanin in MJ-treated plants as well as higher accumulation of JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid in wounded plants. These results show that JAMs negatively regulate the JA responses in a manner that is mostly antagonistic to MYC2.

  6. Transcriptome changes in Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. roots induced by methyl jasmonate* #

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-chang; Wu, Wei; Hou, Kai; Chen, Jun-wen; Zhao, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome profiling has been widely used to analyze transcriptomic variation in plants subjected to abiotic or biotic stresses. Although gene expression changes induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) have been profiled in several plant species, no information is available on the MeJA-triggered transcriptome response of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., a species with highly valuable medicinal properties. In this study, we used transcriptome profiling to investigate transcriptome changes in roots of P. multiflorum seedlings subjected to a 0.25 mmol/L-MeJA root irrigation treatment. A total of 18 677 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were induced by MeJA treatment, of which 4535 were up-regulated and 14 142 were down-regulated compared with controls. These DEGs were associated with 125 metabolic pathways. In addition to various common primary and secondary metabolic pathways, several secondary metabolic pathways related to components with significant pharmacological effects were enriched by MeJA, including arachidonic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, and stilbenoid biosynthesis. The MeJA-induced transcriptome changes uncovered in this study provide a solid foundation for future study of functional genes controlling effective components in secondary metabolic pathways of P. multiflorum. PMID:26642186

  7. UV-C-Induced alleviation of transcriptional gene silencing through plant-plant communication: Key roles of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Ting; Xu, Shaoxin; Li, Fanghua; Deng, Chenguang; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Bian, Po

    2016-08-01

    Plant stress responses at the epigenetic level are expected to allow more permanent changes of gene expression and potentially long-term adaptation. While it has been reported that plants subjected to adverse environments initiate various stress responses in their neighboring plants, little is known regarding epigenetic responses to external stresses mediated by plant-plant communication. In this study, we show that DNA repetitive elements of Arabidopsis thaliana, whose expression is inhibited epigenetically by transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) mechanism, are activated by UV-C irradiation through airborne plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications, accompanied by DNA demethylation at CHH sites. Moreover, the TGS is alleviated by direct treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Further, the plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications are blocked by mutations in the biosynthesis or signaling of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA), indicating that JA and SA pathways are involved in the interplant communication for epigenetic responses. For the plant-plant-plant communication, stress cues are relayed to the last set of receiver plants by promoting the production of JA and SA signals in relaying plants, which exhibit upregulated expression of genes for JA and SA biosynthesis and enhanced emanation of MeJA and MeSA. PMID:27131397

  8. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors JASMONATE-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3 Are Negative Regulators of Jasmonate Responses in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takeshi; Saito, Hikaru; Masuda, Shinji; Kamiya, Yuji; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates regulate transcriptional reprogramming during growth, development, and defense responses. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine, an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA), is perceived by the protein complex composed of the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, leading to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins. This activates basic helix-loop-helix-type MYC transcription factors to regulate JA-responsive genes. Here, we show that the expression of genes encoding other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3, is positively regulated in a COI1- and MYC2-dependent manner in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, contrary to myc2, the jam1jam2jam3 triple mutant exhibited shorter roots when treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), indicating enhanced responsiveness to JA. Our genome-wide expression analyses revealed that key jasmonate metabolic genes as well as a set of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate the JA-responsive metabolic genes are negatively regulated by JAMs after MJ treatment. Consistently, loss of JAM genes resulted in higher accumulation of anthocyanin in MJ-treated plants as well as higher accumulation of JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid in wounded plants. These results show that JAMs negatively regulate the JA responses in a manner that is mostly antagonistic to MYC2. PMID:23852442

  9. Catabolism and Deactivation of the Lipid-Derived Hormone Jasmonoyl-Isoleucine

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J. K.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2012-01-01

    The oxylipin hormone jasmonate controls myriad processes involved in plant growth, development, and immune function. The discovery of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) as the major bioactive form of the hormone highlights the need to understand biochemical and cell biological processes underlying JA-Ile homeostasis. Among the major metabolic control points governing the accumulation of JA-Ile in plant tissues are the availability of jasmonic acid, the immediate precursor of JA-Ile, and oxidative enzymes involved in catabolism and deactivation of the hormone. Recent studies indicate that JA-Ile turnover is mediated by a ω-oxidation pathway involving members of the CYP94 family of cytochromes P450. This discovery opens new opportunities to genetically manipulate JA-Ile levels for enhanced resistance to environmental stress, and further highlights ω-oxidation as a conserved pathway for catabolism of lipid-derived signals in plants and animals. Functional characterization of the full complement of CYP94 P450s promises to reveal new pathways for jasmonate metabolism and provide insight into the evolution of oxylipin signaling in land plants. PMID:22639640

  10. Synergism in the effect of prior jasmonic acid application on herbivore-induced volatile emission by Lima bean plants: transcription of a monoterpene synthase gene and volatile emission

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Tila R.; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; David, Anja; Boland, Wilhelm; Gols, Rieta; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Dicke, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in induced plant defence e.g. by regulating the biosynthesis of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that mediate the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. Moreover, exogenous application of JA can be used to elicit plant defence responses similar to those induced by biting-chewing herbivores and mites that pierce cells and consume their contents. In the present study, we used Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants to explore how application of a low dose of JA followed by minor herbivory by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) affects transcript levels of P. lunatus (E)-β-ocimene synthase (PlOS), emission of (E)-β-ocimene and nine other plant volatiles commonly associated with herbivory. Furthermore, we investigated the plant’s phytohormonal response. Application of a low dose of JA increased PlOS transcript levels in a synergistic manner when followed by minor herbivory for both simultaneous and sequential infestation. Emission of (E)-β-ocimene was also increased, and only JA, but not SA, levels were affected by treatments. Projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of other volatiles showed overlap between treatments. Thus, a low-dose JA application results in a synergistic effect on gene transcription and an increased emission of a volatile compound involved in indirect defence after herbivore infestation. PMID:25318119

  11. α-linolenic acid concentration and not wounding per se is the key regulator of octadecanoid (oxylipin) pathway activity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Christeller, John T; Galis, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Using an in vitro system composed of crushed leaf tissues to simulate the wounding response in rice leaves, we established that synthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) can only occur in unwounded tissue and, in wounded tissue, that only the chloroplast-located section of the octadecanoid pathway is active, resulting in the accumulation of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA). We further showed that OPDA accumulation in vitro was inhibited by 90% using the general lipase inhibitor, tetrahydrolipstatin, indicating that production of α-linolenic acid was the rate-limiting step in octadecanoid pathway activity in rice following wounding and the enzyme capacity for an active pathway was already present. We confirmed this result by showing that added α-linolenic acid stimulated OPDA synthesis in vitro and stimulated OPDA, JA and JA-Ile synthesis in vivo in unwounded tissue. Thus, the response to wounding can be mimicked by the provision of free α-linolenic acid. Our results draw attention to the key importance of lipase activity in initiation of JA and JA-Ile biosynthesis and our lack of knowledge of the cognate lipase(s), lipase substrate identity and mechanism(s) of activation in wounded and unwounded tissue.

  12. Transcriptome changes in Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. roots induced by methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-chang; Wu, Wei; Hou, Kai; Chen, Jun-wen; Zhao, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Transcriptome profiling has been widely used to analyze transcriptomic variation in plants subjected to abiotic or biotic stresses. Although gene expression changes induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) have been profiled in several plant species, no information is available on the MeJA-triggered transcriptome response of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., a species with highly valuable medicinal properties. In this study, we used transcriptome profiling to investigate transcriptome changes in roots of P. multiflorum seedlings subjected to a 0.25 mmol/L-MeJA root-irrigation treatment. A total of 18 677 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were induced by MeJA treatment, of which 4535 were up-regulated and 14 142 were down-regulated compared with controls. These DEGs were associated with 125 metabolic pathways. In addition to various common primary and secondary metabolic pathways, several secondary metabolic pathways related to components with significant pharmacological effects were enriched by MeJA, including arachidonic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, and stilbenoid biosynthesis. The MeJA-induced transcriptome changes uncovered in this study provide a solid foundation for future study of functional genes controlling effective components in secondary metabolic pathways of P. multiflorum. PMID:26642186

  13. [Content of Osmolytes and Flavonoids under Salt Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants Defective in Jasmonate Signaling].

    PubMed

    Yastreb, T O; Kolupaev, Yu E; Lugovaya, A A; Dmitriev, A P

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the salt stress (200 mM NaCl) and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on levels of osmolytes and flavonoids in leaves of four-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana L. plants of the wild-type (WT) Columbia-0 (Col-0) and the mutant jin1 (jasmonate insensitive 1) with impaired jasmonate signaling were studied. The increase in proline content caused by the salt stress was higher in the Col-0 plants than in the mutant jin1. This difference was especially marked if the plants had been pretreated with exogenous 0.1 µM JA. The sugar content increased in response to the salt stress in the JA-treated WT plants but decreased in the jin1 mutant. Leaf treatment with JA of the WT plants but not mutant defective in jasmonate signaling also enhanced the levels of anthocyanins and flavonoids absorbed in UV-B range. The presence of JA increased salinity resistance of the Col-0 plants, since the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and growth inhibition caused by NaCl were less pronounced. Under salt stress, JA almost did not render a positive effect on the jin1 plants. It is concluded that the protein JIN1/MYC2 is involved in control of protective systems under salt stress.

  14. Jasmonic acid affects plant morphology and calcium-dependent protein kinase expression and activity in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Rita M; Raíces, Marcela; MacIntosh, Gustavo C; Maldonado, Sara; Téllez-Iñón, María T

    2002-07-01

    The effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on plant growth and on calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) activity and expression was studied in non-photoperiodic potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L. var. Spunta, grown in vitro. Stem cuttings were grown for 45 days (long treatment, LT) in MS medium with increasing concentrations of JA. For short treatments (ST) adult plants grown in MS were transferred for 1, 4 and 20 h to JA containing media. During the LT, low concentrations of JA promoted cell expansion and shoot elongation while higher concentrations caused growth inhibition. Under these conditions, treated plants showed root shortening and tuber formation was not induced. Morphological and histochemical studies using light microscopy and TEM analysis of leaves from treated plants revealed that JA also affected subcellular organelles of mesophyll cells. Peroxisomes increased in size and number, and an autophagic process was triggered in response to high concentrations of the hormone. CDPK activity, determined in crude extracts of treated plants (LT), was inhibited (up to 80%). Plant growth and CDPK inhibition were reverted upon transfer of the plants to hormone-free medium. Soluble CDPK activity decreased in response to JA short treatment. Concomitantly, a decline in the steady state levels of StCDPK2 mRNA, a potato CDPK isoform that is expressed in leaves, was observed. These data suggest that the phytohormone down-regulated the expression and activity of the kinase.

  15. Host target modification as a strategy to counter pathogen hijacking of the jasmonate hormone receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Yao, Jian; Withers, John; Xin, Xiu-Fang; Banerjee, Rahul; Fariduddin, Qazi; Nakamura, Yoko; Nomura, Kinya; Howe, Gregg A.; Boland, Wilhelm; Yan, Honggao; He, Sheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, characterization of the host targets of pathogen virulence factors took a center stage in the study of pathogenesis and disease susceptibility in plants and humans. However, the impressive knowledge of host targets has not been broadly exploited to inhibit pathogen infection. Here, we show that host target modification could be a promising new approach to “protect” the disease-vulnerable components of plants. In particular, recent studies have identified the plant hormone jasmonate (JA) receptor as one of the common targets of virulence factors from highly evolved biotrophic/hemibiotrophic pathogens. Strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, for example, produce proteinaceous effectors, as well as a JA-mimicking toxin, coronatine (COR), to activate JA signaling as a mechanism to promote disease susceptibility. Guided by the crystal structure of the JA receptor and evolutionary clues, we succeeded in modifying the JA receptor to allow for sufficient endogenous JA signaling but greatly reduced sensitivity to COR. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing this modified receptor not only are fertile and maintain a high level of insect defense, but also gain the ability to resist COR-producing pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and P. syringae pv. maculicola. Our results provide a proof-of-concept demonstration that host target modification can be a promising new approach to prevent the virulence action of highly evolved pathogens. PMID:26578782

  16. Increased tolerance to salt stress in OPDA-deficient rice ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE mutants is linked to an increased ROS-scavenging activity

    PubMed Central

    Hazman, Mohamed; Hause, Bettina; Eiche, Elisabeth; Nick, Peter; Riemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress represents a global constraint for rice, the most important staple food worldwide. Therefore the role of the central stress signal jasmonate for the salt response was analysed in rice comparing the responses to salt stress for two jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis rice mutants (cpm2 and hebiba) impaired in the function of ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (AOC) and their wild type. The aoc mutants were less sensitive to salt stress. Interestingly, both mutants accumulated smaller amounts of Na+ ions in their leaves, and showed better scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under salt stress. Leaves of the wild type and JA mutants accumulated similar levels of abscisic acid (ABA) under stress conditions, and the levels of JA and its amino acid conjugate, JA–isoleucine (JA-Ile), showed only subtle alterations in the wild type. In contrast, the wild type responded to salt stress by strong induction of the JA precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), which was not observed in the mutants. Transcript levels of representative salinity-induced genes were induced less in the JA mutants. The absence of 12-OPDA in the mutants correlated not only with a generally increased ROS-scavenging activity, but also with the higher activity of specific enzymes in the antioxidative pathway, such as glutathione S-transferase, and fewer symptoms of damage as, for example, indicated by lower levels of malondialdehyde. The data are interpreted in a model where the absence of OPDA enhanced the antioxidative power in mutant leaves. PMID:25873666

  17. Manipulation of VOC emissions with methyl jasmonate and carrageenan in the evergreen conifer Pinus sylvestris and evergreen broadleaf Quercus ilex.

    PubMed

    Semiz, G; Blande, J D; Heijari, J; Işik, K; Niinemets, U; Holopainen, J K

    2012-03-01

    Plant defence can be induced by exposing plants to the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) or its volatile ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Carrageenans (Carr) - sulphated D-galactans extracted from red algae - can also induce plant defences. In this study, the effects of exogenous MeJA and Carr application (concentration 300 and 12.7 μmol, respectively) on volatile emissions from two widespread evergreen woody species, Pinus sylvestris (nine Turkish and one Finnish provenance) and Quercus ilex (Italian provenance) were investigated. We collected headspace samples from seedlings and analysed the quality and quantity of volatile compounds emitted by treated and control plants. In total, 19 monoterpenes, 10 sesquiterpenes, 10 green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and two aromatic compounds were emitted by P. sylvestris from all the provenances studied. Foliar MeJA application clearly affected the volatile profiles of trees from all the provenances. Effects of Carr were genotype specific. In Q. ilex, emissions of sesquiterpenes, GLVs and the homoterpene (E)-DMNT were all induced by MeJA application. However, emissions of most constitutively emitted monoterpenes were significantly reduced. Carr application also led to a significant reduction in monoterpene emissions, but without corresponding increases in other emissions. Our results indicate that exogenously applied MeJA and Carr can both significantly modify the volatile profiles of P. sylvestris and Q. ilex, but also that there are important provenance- and species-specific differences in the overall degree of elicitation and compositions of elicited compounds. PMID:21973325

  18. UV-C-Induced alleviation of transcriptional gene silencing through plant-plant communication: Key roles of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Ting; Xu, Shaoxin; Li, Fanghua; Deng, Chenguang; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Bian, Po

    2016-08-01

    Plant stress responses at the epigenetic level are expected to allow more permanent changes of gene expression and potentially long-term adaptation. While it has been reported that plants subjected to adverse environments initiate various stress responses in their neighboring plants, little is known regarding epigenetic responses to external stresses mediated by plant-plant communication. In this study, we show that DNA repetitive elements of Arabidopsis thaliana, whose expression is inhibited epigenetically by transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) mechanism, are activated by UV-C irradiation through airborne plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications, accompanied by DNA demethylation at CHH sites. Moreover, the TGS is alleviated by direct treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Further, the plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications are blocked by mutations in the biosynthesis or signaling of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA), indicating that JA and SA pathways are involved in the interplant communication for epigenetic responses. For the plant-plant-plant communication, stress cues are relayed to the last set of receiver plants by promoting the production of JA and SA signals in relaying plants, which exhibit upregulated expression of genes for JA and SA biosynthesis and enhanced emanation of MeJA and MeSA.

  19. [Content of Osmolytes and Flavonoids under Salt Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants Defective in Jasmonate Signaling].

    PubMed

    Yastreb, T O; Kolupaev, Yu E; Lugovaya, A A; Dmitriev, A P

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the salt stress (200 mM NaCl) and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on levels of osmolytes and flavonoids in leaves of four-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana L. plants of the wild-type (WT) Columbia-0 (Col-0) and the mutant jin1 (jasmonate insensitive 1) with impaired jasmonate signaling were studied. The increase in proline content caused by the salt stress was higher in the Col-0 plants than in the mutant jin1. This difference was especially marked if the plants had been pretreated with exogenous 0.1 µM JA. The sugar content increased in response to the salt stress in the JA-treated WT plants but decreased in the jin1 mutant. Leaf treatment with JA of the WT plants but not mutant defective in jasmonate signaling also enhanced the levels of anthocyanins and flavonoids absorbed in UV-B range. The presence of JA increased salinity resistance of the Col-0 plants, since the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and growth inhibition caused by NaCl were less pronounced. Under salt stress, JA almost did not render a positive effect on the jin1 plants. It is concluded that the protein JIN1/MYC2 is involved in control of protective systems under salt stress. PMID:27266252

  20. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate induces a defense response and resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in dry bean plants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marília Barros; Junior, Murillo Lobo; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima; Petrofeza, Silvana

    2015-06-15

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes a disease known as white mold, which is a major problem for dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other crops in many growing areas in Brazil. To investigate the role of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in defending dry bean plants against S. sclerotiorum, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) of cDNA and identified genes that are differentially expressed during plant-pathogen interactions after treatment. Exogenous MeJA application enhanced resistance to the pathogen, and SSH analyses led to the identification of 94 unigenes, presumably involved in a variety of functions, which were classified into several functional categories, including metabolism, signal transduction, protein biogenesis and degradation, and cell defense and rescue. Using RT-qPCR, some unigenes were found to be differentially expressed in a time-dependent manner in dry bean plants during the interaction with S. sclerotiorum after MeJA treatment, including the pathogenesis-related protein PR3 (chitinase), PvCallose (callose synthase), PvNBS-LRR (NBS-LRR resistance-like protein), PvF-box (F-box family protein-like), and a polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP). Based on these expression data, the putative roles of differentially expressed genes were discussed in relation to the disease and MeJA resistance induction. Changes in the activity of the pathogenesis-related proteins β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and peroxidase in plants after MeJA treatment and following inoculation of the pathogen were also investigated as molecular markers of induced resistance. Foliar application of MeJA induced partial resistance against S. sclerotiorum in plants as well as a consistent increase in pathogenesis-related protein activities. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of resistance induced by MeJA in the P. vulgaris-S. sclerotiorum pathosystem.

  1. Socio-cultural effects on children's initiation of joint attention.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, Yana; Rotem, Sarit; Ofek, Renana; Geva, Ronny

    2012-01-01

    Exchanging gazes with a social partner in response to an event in the environment is considered an effective means to direct attention, share affective experiences, and highlight a target in the environment. This behavior appears during infancy and plays an important role in children's learning and in shaping their socio-emotional development. It has been suggested that cultural values of the community affect socio-emotional development through attentional dynamics of social reference (Rogoff et al., 1993). Maturational processes of brain-circuits have been found to mediate socio-cultural learning and the behavioral manifestation of cultural norms starting at preschool age (Nelson and Guyer, 2011). The aim of the current study was to investigate the relations between cultural ecology levels and children's joint attention (JA). Initiation of JA bids was studied empirically as a function of the level of social load of the target toy (3 levels), the community level of adherence to traditional values (3 levels), parental education (2 levels), and gender. Sixty-two kindergarten aged children were enrolled in a structured toy-exploration task, during which they were presented with toys of various social loads, with social agents (i.e., mother and experimenter) present nearby, and non-social distracters presented intermittently. Measurements included the child's number of JA bids and the extent of positive affect. Analysis of variance indicated that the child's initiation of JA toward the social partner was affected by all levels of cultural ecology (i.e., toy's social load, adherence to tradition values, parental education, gender), thus supporting the study's hypotheses. The effects were such that overall, children, particularly girls' JA initiation was augmented in social toys and moderated by the socio-cultural variables. These results suggest that cultural ecology is related to children's JA, thereby scaffolding initiation of social sharing cues between children and

  2. An integrated proteomic approach to decipher the effect of methyl jasmonate elicitation on the proteome of Silybum marianum L. hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Gharechahi, Javad; Khalili, Masumeh; Hasanloo, Tahereh; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2013-09-01

    Jasmonate and its methyl derivative, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are naturally occurring compounds that mediate several plant physiological processes in response to pathogen attack, wounding, and ozone. Exogenous application of jasmonates triggers defense responses that resemble those initiated by pathogen infection and also modulates the production of certain secondary metabolites in a variety of plant species. In this study, we treated the hairy root cultures of Silybum marianum L. with 100 μM MeJA and then measured the content of Silymarin (SLM). We observed that the SLM content increased significantly after 48 h of MeJA treatment and remained constant for 120 h. However, MeJA treatment caused a significant growth reduction after 96 h incubation. The activity of lipoxygenase as a key enzyme in the jasmonate biosynthesis pathway and anti-oxidative enzymes; peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase was also significantly increased after MeJA treatment. To elucidate the global effect of jasmonate on gene expression of S. marianum, we employed high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Out of 670 reproducibly detected protein spots which were analyzed on each given gel, 32 spots were up- or down regulated upon MeJA treatment. Of them, ten proteins such as ER binding protein, glutamine synthetase, pathogenesis-related protein, caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase, and profilin-1 could be identified by mass spectrometry analysis. The possible implications of the identified proteins on physiological outcome of MeJA application in S. marianum hairy root culture will be discussed.

  3. Jasmonic acid is a downstream component in the modulation of somatic embryogenesis by Arabidopsis Class 2 phytoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Mira, Mohamed M.; Wally, Owen S. D.; Elhiti, Mohamed; El-Shanshory, Adel; Reddy, Dhadi S.; Hill, Robert D.; Stasolla, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the beneficial effect of suppression of the Arabidopsis phytoglobin 2 gene, PGB2, on somatic embryogenesis occurs through the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) within the embryogenic cells originating from the cultured explant. NO activates the expression of Allene oxide synthase (AOS) and Lipoxygenase 2 (LOX2), genes encoding two key enzymes of the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic pathway, elevating JA content within the embryogenic tissue. The number of embryos in the single aos1-1 mutant and pgb2-aos1-1 double mutant declined, and was not rescued by increasing levels of NO stimulating embryogenesis in wild-type tissue. NO also influenced JA responses by up-regulating PLANT DEFENSIN 1 (PDF1) and JASMONATE-ZIM-PROTEIN (JAZ1), as well as down-regulating MYC2. The NO and JA modulation of MYC2 and JAZ1 controlled embryogenesis. Ectopic expression of JAZ1 or suppression of MYC2 promoted the formation of somatic embryos, while repression of JAZ1 and up-regulation of MYC2 reduced the embryogenic performance. Sustained expression of JAZ1 induced the transcription of several indole acetic acid (IAA) biosynthetic genes, resulting in higher IAA levels in the embryogenic cells. Collectively these data fit a model integrating JA in the PGB2 regulation of Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Suppression of PGB2 increases JA through NO. Elevated levels of JA repress MYC2 and induce JAZ1, favoring the accumulation of IAA in the explants and the subsequent production of somatic embryos. PMID:26962208

  4. Analysis of Arabidopsis JAZ gene expression during Pseudomonas syringae pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Demianski, Agnes J; Chung, Kwi Mi; Kunkel, Barbara N

    2012-01-01

    The jasmonates (JAs) comprise a family of plant hormones that regulate several developmental processes and mediate responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses, including pathogens. JA signalling is manipulated by several strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, including P. syringae strain DC3000, using the virulence factor coronatine (COR) as a mimic of jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). To better understand the JA-Ile-mediated processes contributing to P. syringae disease susceptibility, it is important to investigate the regulation of JA signalling during infection. In Arabidopsis thaliana, JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins are negative regulators of JA signalling. The transcription factor JASMONATE INSENSITIVE1 (JIN1/ATMYC2) has been implicated in the regulation of JAZ gene expression. To investigate the regulation of JAZ genes during P. syringae pathogenesis, we examined JAZ gene expression during infection of Arabidopsis by DC3000. We found that eight of the 12 JAZ genes are induced during infection in a COR-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, the induction of the majority of JAZ genes during infection was not dependent on JIN1, indicating that JIN1 is not the only transcription factor regulating JAZ genes. A T-DNA insertion mutant and an RNA interference line disrupted for the expression of JAZ10, one of the few JAZ genes regulated by JIN1 during infection, exhibited enhanced JA sensitivity and increased susceptibility to DC3000, with the primary effect being increased disease symptom severity. Thus, JAZ10 is a negative regulator of both JA signalling and disease symptom development. PMID:21726394

  5. Silencing of hydroperoxide lyase and allene oxide synthase reveals substrate and defense signaling crosstalk in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Halitschke, Rayko; Ziegler, Jörg; Keinänen, Markku; Baldwin, Ian T

    2004-10-01

    The fatty acid hydroperoxide (HP) substrates required for the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are supplied by separate lipoxygenases (LOX). We silenced the expression of two genes downstream of the LOX: allene oxide synthase (AOS) and HP lyase (HPL) by antisense expression of endogenous genes (NaAOS, NaHPL) in Nicotiana attenuata, in which the biosynthesis of JA is amplified by herbivore-specific elicitors. We report that these elicitors also amplify wound-induced GLV releases, but suppress the wound-induced increase of NaHPL transcripts, suggesting that substrate flux controls GLV biosynthesis. As expected, silencing of NaHPL and NaAOS reduced GLV release and JA accumulation, respectively. Surprisingly, HPL- and AOS-silenced plants had enhanced JA and GLV responses, suggesting substrate 'crosstalk' between these two oxylipin cascades. Plants with depleted GLVs (as-hpl) were less attractive than wild type (WT) or empty vector control plants in choice-tests with native lepidopteran herbivores. In feeding trials, Manduca sexta larvae developed slower on as-hpl plants. The reduced larval consumption and performance, which was not caused by increases in defense responses in as-hpl plants, could be restored to WT levels by the addition of synthetic GLVs, demonstrating that GLVs function as feeding stimulants. Gene expression profiling by cDNA microarray analysis and characterization of several induced defenses in herbivore-elicited as-hpl and as-aos plants revealed differential involvement of JA and GLVs in defense signaling. Elicitation of volatile terpenoids (an indirect defense) requires JA signaling, where as trypsin protease inhibitor elicitation (a direct defense) requires both functional JA and GLV cascades.

  6. Analysis of Arabidopsis JAZ gene expression during Pseudomonas syringae pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Demianski, Agnes J; Chung, Kwi Mi; Kunkel, Barbara N

    2012-01-01

    The jasmonates (JAs) comprise a family of plant hormones that regulate several developmental processes and mediate responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses, including pathogens. JA signalling is manipulated by several strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, including P. syringae strain DC3000, using the virulence factor coronatine (COR) as a mimic of jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). To better understand the JA-Ile-mediated processes contributing to P. syringae disease susceptibility, it is important to investigate the regulation of JA signalling during infection. In Arabidopsis thaliana, JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins are negative regulators of JA signalling. The transcription factor JASMONATE INSENSITIVE1 (JIN1/ATMYC2) has been implicated in the regulation of JAZ gene expression. To investigate the regulation of JAZ genes during P. syringae pathogenesis, we examined JAZ gene expression during infection of Arabidopsis by DC3000. We found that eight of the 12 JAZ genes are induced during infection in a COR-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, the induction of the majority of JAZ genes during infection was not dependent on JIN1, indicating that JIN1 is not the only transcription factor regulating JAZ genes. A T-DNA insertion mutant and an RNA interference line disrupted for the expression of JAZ10, one of the few JAZ genes regulated by JIN1 during infection, exhibited enhanced JA sensitivity and increased susceptibility to DC3000, with the primary effect being increased disease symptom severity. Thus, JAZ10 is a negative regulator of both JA signalling and disease symptom development.

  7. Axial and Radial Oxylipin Transport1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Debora; Chauvin, Adeline; Acosta, Ivan F.; Kurenda, Andrzej; Stolz, Stéphanie; Chételat, Aurore; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Farmer, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonates are oxygenated lipids (oxylipins) that control defense gene expression in response to cell damage in plants. How mobile are these potent mediators within tissues? Exploiting a series of 13-lipoxygenase (13-lox) mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that displays impaired jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis in specific cell types and using JA-inducible reporters, we mapped the extent of the transport of endogenous jasmonates across the plant vegetative growth phase. In seedlings, we found that jasmonate (or JA precursors) could translocate axially from wounded shoots to unwounded roots in a LOX2-dependent manner. Grafting experiments with the wild type and JA-deficient mutants confirmed shoot-to-root oxylipin transport. Next, we used rosettes to investigate radial cell-to-cell transport of jasmonates. After finding that the LOX6 protein localized to xylem contact cells was not wound inducible, we used the lox234 triple mutant to genetically isolate LOX6 as the only JA precursor-producing LOX in the plant. When a leaf of this mutant was wounded, the JA reporter gene was expressed in distal leaves. Leaf sectioning showed that JA reporter expression extended from contact cells throughout the vascular bundle and into extravascular cells, revealing a radial movement of jasmonates. Our results add a crucial element to a growing picture of how the distal wound response is regulated in rosettes, showing that both axial (shoot-to-root) and radial (cell-to-cell) transport of oxylipins plays a major role in the wound response. The strategies developed herein provide unique tools with which to identify intercellular jasmonate transport routes. PMID:26338953

  8. Exogenous methyl jasmonate treatment increases glucosinolate biosynthesis and quinone reductase activity in kale leaf tissue.

    PubMed

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) spray treatments were applied to the kale varieties 'Dwarf Blue Curled Vates' and 'Red Winter' in replicated field plantings in 2010 and 2011 to investigate alteration of glucosinolate (GS) composition in harvested leaf tissue. Aqueous solutions of 250 µM MeJA were sprayed to saturation on aerial plant tissues four days prior to harvest at commercial maturity. The MeJA treatment significantly increased gluconasturtiin (56%), glucobrassicin (98%), and neoglucobrassicin (150%) concentrations in the apical leaf tissue of these genotypes over two seasons. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) activity, a biomarker for anti-carcinogenesis, was significantly increased by the extracts from the leaf tissue of these two cultivars. Extracts of apical leaf tissues had greater MeJA mediated increases in phenolics, glucosinolate concentrations, GS hydrolysis products, and QR activity than extracts from basal leaf tissue samples. The concentration of the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, sulforphane was significantly increased in apical leaf tissue of the cultivar 'Red Winter' in both 2010 and 2011. There was interaction between exogenous MeJA treatment and environmental conditions to induce endogenous JA. Correlation analysis revealed that indole-3-carbanol (I3C) generated from the hydrolysis of glucobrassicin significantly correlated with QR activity (r = 0.800, P<0.001). Concentrations required to double the specific QR activity (CD values) of I3C was calculated at 230 µM, which is considerably weaker at induction than other isothiocyanates like sulforphane. To confirm relationships between GS hydrolysis products and QR activity, a range of concentrations of MeJA sprays were applied to kale leaf tissues of both cultivars in 2011. Correlation analysis of these results indicated that sulforaphane, NI3C, neoascorbigen, I3C, and diindolylmethane were all significantly correlated with QR activity. Thus, increased QR activity may be due to combined

  9. Severe Jaccoud's arthropathy in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Mittermayer B; Galvão, Verena; Ribeiro, Daniel Sá; Santos, Willer D; da Hora, Priscila R; Mota, Anna Paula; Pimenta, Emanuela; Oliveira, Isabela; Atta, Ajax M; Reis, Mitermayer G; Reis, Eliana A G; Lins, Carolina

    2015-10-01

    Jaccoud's arthropathy (JA) is a clinical situation nowadays present mostly in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is characterized by the presence of joint deformities such as "swan neck," ulnar deviation and "Z-thumb" resembling rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but that are passively correctable and without bone erosion on plain radiographs. From our cohort of SLE patients with JA, we selected a subgroup with a more severe form of this arthropathy and looked at their clinical and laboratory profile as well as studied the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings or ultrasound (US) obtained from the hand with most evident deformities. Seven SLE patients with a severe form of JA were identified. All seven patients have "swan neck," ulnar deviation and "Z-thumb" deformities. Two out of seven had "mutilans-type JA" and four had fixed deformities in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints. The MRI of the hand with more evident deformity clinically performed in six cases and US performed in one case showed mild synovitis in five and moderate synovitis in two patients, mild flexor tenosynovitis in six and severe tenosynovitis in one. Only two small bone erosions were observed in the second and third MCP joints of one patient with moderate synovitis. Severe JA compromises the functional capacity of the joints and imposes the risk of misdiagnosis of RA. With the improvement of the survival rate of SLE and the lack of specific prophylactic or therapeutical measures for JA, it is reasonable to assume that more and more cases of severe JA are going to be identified. PMID:26310503

  10. Role of cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in tomato embryo development.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Stephan; Hellwege, Anja; Stenzel, Irene; Kutter, Claudia; Hauptmann, Valeska; Forner, Susanne; McCaig, Bonnie; Hause, Gerd; Miersch, Otto; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettina

    2012-04-01

    Oxylipins including jasmonates are signaling compounds in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) most mutants affected in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signaling are male sterile, whereas the JA-insensitive tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant jai1 is female sterile. The diminished seed formation in jai1 together with the ovule-specific accumulation of the JA biosynthesis enzyme allene oxide cyclase (AOC), which correlates with elevated levels of JAs, suggest a role of oxylipins in tomato flower/seed development. Here, we show that 35S::SlAOC-RNAi lines with strongly reduced AOC in ovules exhibited reduced seed set similarly to the jai1 plants. Investigation of embryo development of wild-type tomato plants showed preferential occurrence of AOC promoter activity and AOC protein accumulation in the developing seed coat and the embryo, whereas 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) was the dominant oxylipin occurring nearly exclusively in the seed coat tissues. The OPDA- and JA-deficient mutant spr2 was delayed in embryo development and showed an increased programmed cell death in the developing seed coat and endosperm. In contrast, the mutant acx1a, which accumulates preferentially OPDA and residual amount of JA, developed embryos similar to the wild type, suggesting a role of OPDA in embryo development. Activity of the residual amount of JA in the acx1a mutant is highly improbable since the known reproductive phenotype of the JA-insensitive mutant jai1 could be rescued by wound-induced formation of OPDA. These data suggest a role of OPDA or an OPDA-related compound for proper embryo development possibly by regulating carbohydrate supply and detoxification. PMID:22337921

  11. Unbiased Transcriptional Comparisons of Generalist and Specialist Herbivores Feeding on Progressively Defenseless Nicotiana attenuata Plants

    PubMed Central

    Govind, Geetha; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Griebel, Thasso; Allmann, Silke; Böcker, Sebastian; Baldwin, Ian Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background Herbivore feeding elicits dramatic increases in defenses, most of which require jasmonate (JA) signaling, and against which specialist herbivores are thought to be better adapted than generalist herbivores. Unbiased transcriptional analyses of how neonate larvae cope with these induced plant defenses are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We created cDNA microarrays for Manduca sexta and Heliothis virescens separately, by spotting normalized midgut-specific cDNA libraries created from larvae that fed for 24 hours on MeJA-elicited wild-type (WT) Nicotiana attenuata plants. These microarrays were hybridized with labeled probes from neonates that fed for 24 hours on WT and isogenic plants progressively silenced in JA-mediated defenses (N: nicotine; N/PI: N and trypsin protease inhibitors; JA: all JA-mediated defenses). H. virescens neonates regulated 16 times more genes than did M. sexta neonates when they fed on plants silenced in JA-mediated defenses, and for both species, the greater the number of defenses silenced in the host plant (JA > N/PI > N), the greater were the number of transcripts regulated in the larvae. M. sexta larvae tended to down-regulate while H. virescens larvae up- and down-regulated transcripts from the same functional categories of genes. M. sexta larvae regulated transcripts in a diet-specific manner, while H. virescens larvae regulated a similar suite of transcripts across all diet types. Conclusions/Significance The observations are consistent with the expectation that specialists are better adapted than generalist herbivores to the defense responses elicited in their host plants by their feeding. While M. sexta larvae appear to be better adapted to N. attenuata's defenses, some of the elicited responses remain effective defenses against both herbivore species. The regulated genes provide novel insights into larval adaptations to N. attenuata's induced defenses, and represent potential targets for plant-mediated RNAi to

  12. CML42-Mediated Calcium Signaling Coordinates Responses to Spodoptera Herbivory and Abiotic Stresses in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Reichelt, Michael; Hause, Bettina; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Boland, Wilhelm; Mithöfer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    In the interaction between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the generalist herbivorous insect Spodoptera littoralis, little is known about early events in defense signaling and their link to downstream phytohormone pathways. S. littoralis oral secretions induced both Ca2+ and phytohormone elevation in Arabidopsis. Plant gene expression induced by oral secretions revealed up-regulation of a gene encoding a calmodulin-like protein, CML42. Functional analysis of cml42 plants revealed more resistance to herbivory than in the wild type, because caterpillars gain less weight on the mutant, indicating that CML42 negatively regulates plant defense; cml42 also showed increased aliphatic glucosinolate content and hyperactivated transcript accumulation of the jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes VSP2 and Thi2.1 upon herbivory, which might contribute to increased resistance. CML42 up-regulation is negatively regulated by the jasmonate receptor Coronatine Insensitive1 (COI1), as loss of functional COI1 resulted in prolonged CML42 activation. CML42 thus acts as a negative regulator of plant defense by decreasing COI1-mediated JA sensitivity and the expression of JA-responsive genes and is independent of herbivory-induced JA biosynthesis. JA-induced Ca2+ elevation and root growth inhibition were more sensitive in cml42, also indicating higher JA perception. Our results indicate that CML42 acts as a crucial signaling component connecting Ca2+ and JA signaling. CML42 is localized to cytosol and nucleus. CML42 is also involved in abiotic stress responses, as kaempferol glycosides were down-regulated in cml42, and impaired in ultraviolet B resistance. Under drought stress, the level of abscisic acid accumulation was higher in cml42 plants. Thus, CML42 might serve as a Ca2+ sensor having multiple functions in insect herbivory defense and abiotic stress responses. PMID:22570470

  13. Socio-cultural effects on children's initiation of joint attention

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Yana; Rotem, Sarit; Ofek, Renana; Geva, Ronny

    2012-01-01

    Exchanging gazes with a social partner in response to an event in the environment is considered an effective means to direct attention, share affective experiences, and highlight a target in the environment. This behavior appears during infancy and plays an important role in children's learning and in shaping their socio-emotional development. It has been suggested that cultural values of the community affect socio-emotional development through attentional dynamics of social reference (Rogoff et al., 1993). Maturational processes of brain-circuits have been found to mediate socio-cultural learning and the behavioral manifestation of cultural norms starting at preschool age (Nelson and Guyer, 2011). The aim of the current study was to investigate the relations between cultural ecology levels and children's joint attention (JA). Initiation of JA bids was studied empirically as a function of the level of social load of the target toy (3 levels), the community level of adherence to traditional values (3 levels), parental education (2 levels), and gender. Sixty-two kindergarten aged children were enrolled in a structured toy-exploration task, during which they were presented with toys of various social loads, with social agents (i.e., mother and experimenter) present nearby, and non-social distracters presented intermittently. Measurements included the child's number of JA bids and the extent of positive affect. Analysis of variance indicated that the child's initiation of JA toward the social partner was affected by all levels of cultural ecology (i.e., toy's social load, adherence to tradition values, parental education, gender), thus supporting the study's hypotheses. The effects were such that overall, children, particularly girls' JA initiation was augmented in social toys and moderated by the socio-cultural variables. These results suggest that cultural ecology is related to children's JA, thereby scaffolding initiation of social sharing cues between children and

  14. Functional Characterization of CYP94-Genes and Identification of a Novel Jasmonate Catabolite in Flowers

    PubMed Central

    König, Stefanie; Brodhun, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades much research focused on the biosynthesis of the plant hormone jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). While many details about its biosynthetic pathway as well about its physiological function are established nowadays, knowledge about its catabolic fate is still scarce. Only recently, the hormonal inactivation mechanisms became a stronger research focus. Two major pathways have been proposed to inactivate JA-Ile: i) The cleavage of the jasmonyl-residue from the isoleucine moiety, a reaction that is catalyzed by specific amido-hydrolases, or ii), the sequential oxidation of the ω-end of the pentenyl side-chain. This reaction is catalyzed by specific members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) subfamily CYP94: CYP94B1, CYP94B3 and CYP94C1. In the present study, we further investigated the oxidative fate of JA-Ile by expanding the analysis on Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, lacking only one (cyp94b1, cyp94b2, cyp94b3, cyp94c1), two (cyp94b1xcyp94b2, cyp94b1xcyp94b3, cyp94b2xcyp94b3), three (cyp94b1xcyp94b2xcyp94b3) or even four (cyp94b1xcyp94b2xcyp94b3xcyp94c1) CYP94 functionalities. The results obtained in the present study show that CYP94B1, CYP94B2, CYP94B3 and CYP94C1 are responsible for catalyzing the sequential ω-oxidation of JA-Ile in a semi-redundant manner. While CYP94B-enzymes preferentially hydroxylate JA-Ile to 12-hydroxy-JA-Ile, CYP94C1 catalyzes primarily the subsequent oxidation, yielding 12-carboxy-JA-Ile. In addition, data obtained from investigating the triple and quadruple mutants let us hypothesize that a direct oxidation of unconjugated JA to 12-hydroxy-JA is possible in planta. Using a non-targeted metabolite fingerprinting analysis, we identified unconjugated 12-carboxy-JA as novel jasmonate derivative in floral tissues. Using the same approach, we could show that deletion of CYP94-genes might not only affect JA-homeostasis but also other signaling pathways. Deletion of CYP94B1, for example, led to accumulation of metabolites that may be

  15. Functional Characterization of CYP94-Genes and Identification of a Novel Jasmonate Catabolite in Flowers.

    PubMed

    Bruckhoff, Viktoria; Haroth, Sven; Feussner, Kirstin; König, Stefanie; Brodhun, Florian; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades much research focused on the biosynthesis of the plant hormone jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). While many details about its biosynthetic pathway as well about its physiological function are established nowadays, knowledge about its catabolic fate is still scarce. Only recently, the hormonal inactivation mechanisms became a stronger research focus. Two major pathways have been proposed to inactivate JA-Ile: i) The cleavage of the jasmonyl-residue from the isoleucine moiety, a reaction that is catalyzed by specific amido-hydrolases, or ii), the sequential oxidation of the ω-end of the pentenyl side-chain. This reaction is catalyzed by specific members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) subfamily CYP94: CYP94B1, CYP94B3 and CYP94C1. In the present study, we further investigated the oxidative fate of JA-Ile by expanding the analysis on Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, lacking only one (cyp94b1, cyp94b2, cyp94b3, cyp94c1), two (cyp94b1xcyp94b2, cyp94b1xcyp94b3, cyp94b2xcyp94b3), three (cyp94b1xcyp94b2xcyp94b3) or even four (cyp94b1xcyp94b2xcyp94b3xcyp94c1) CYP94 functionalities. The results obtained in the present study show that CYP94B1, CYP94B2, CYP94B3 and CYP94C1 are responsible for catalyzing the sequential ω-oxidation of JA-Ile in a semi-redundant manner. While CYP94B-enzymes preferentially hydroxylate JA-Ile to 12-hydroxy-JA-Ile, CYP94C1 catalyzes primarily the subsequent oxidation, yielding 12-carboxy-JA-Ile. In addition, data obtained from investigating the triple and quadruple mutants let us hypothesize that a direct oxidation of unconjugated JA to 12-hydroxy-JA is possible in planta. Using a non-targeted metabolite fingerprinting analysis, we identified unconjugated 12-carboxy-JA as novel jasmonate derivative in floral tissues. Using the same approach, we could show that deletion of CYP94-genes might not only affect JA-homeostasis but also other signaling pathways. Deletion of CYP94B1, for example, led to accumulation of metabolites that may be

  16. Modulatory role of jasmonic acid on photosynthetic pigments, antioxidants and stress markers of Glycine max L. under nickel stress.

    PubMed

    Sirhindi, Geetika; Mir, Mudaser Ahmad; Sharma, Poonam; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Kaur, Harpreet; Mushtaq, Ruquia

    2015-10-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a very young candidate of plant growth regulators which is being explored for various antistress properties. Present study deals with the hypothesis that JA can modulate antioxidant mechanism of higher plants with tight regulation of biomembrane peroxidation, making plants tolerant to toxic Ni(2+). 2 mM NiCl2 as a source of Ni(2+) appeared as sub lethal dose for the growth of 15 days old Glycine max seedlings. Exogenous application of 1 μM and 1 nM JA prior to NiCl2 exposure, made seedlings of Glycine max more tolerant to Ni(2+)stress as compared to control untreated seedlings. Regulatory inhibition of MDA and H2O2 production by JA with or without Ni(2+) treatment made plants more resistant to Ni(2+) stress which may be associated with ameliorative activity of antioxidant enzymes system composed of SOD, POD, CAT and APOX. Ascorbate, a secondary metabolite synthesized from D-glucose act as an antioxidant in plant cells. Many fold enhancements in AsA content of Ni(2+) treated seedlings supplemented with different concentrations of JA was observed. Significant improvement in AsA levels by JA with or without Ni(2+) stress may involve two aspects, either denovo synthesis level regulation of AsA or recycling of AsA from an oxidized form. Improvement in total protein content showed the uplift modulation of transcriptional machinery by JA which was also maintained under Ni(2+) stress. Photosynthetic pigments as total chl, chl a and b showed inhibition in presence of Ni(2+) stress which was not found much effective under JA supplementation as compared to control. Present findings revealed that although JA was not helpful for protection of photosynthetic pigments but it modulates the other machinery of plants significantly including various antioxidants positively, while tightly inhibiting stress related processes responsible for lipid peroxidation to make plants tolerant to Ni(2+) stress.

  17. Fertility, root reserves and the cost of inducible defenses in the perennial plant Solanum carolinense.

    PubMed

    Walls, Ramona; Appel, Heidi; Cipollini, Martin; Schultz, Jack

    2005-10-01

    We examined the relationship between internal resources (root reserves), external resources (soil fertility), and allocation to defense vs. growth in the clonal, perennial herb Solanum carolinense. In a short-term (9 d) greenhouse experiment, plants were treated once with jasmonic acid (JA) to determine if polyphenols and glycoalkaloids were inducible by simulated herbivory. In a longer-term (4 wk) greenhouse experiment, we measured the cost, in terms of growth, of treatment with JA every 3 d, to determine if the induced response was due more to carbon limitation or nitrogen limitation. We manipulated the resources available to the plants by varying soil fertility and the size of root cuttings from which plants were grown, and assessed how different resource levels affected the growth and production of polyphenols and alkaloids under JA treatment or control conditions. In the short term, JA increased the concentration of polyphenols in both above- and below-ground plant parts, as well as alkaloid concentrations in the roots. In the long term, the only significant secondary chemistry response to JA was an increased polyphenol concentration in above ground tissues. The total amount of polyphenols produced was the same for JA and control plants, indicating that the higher concentration was a result of the lower biomass of treated plants. In contrast, alkaloid concentrations in plants treated with JA for 4 wk did not differ from controls, but JA-treated plants contained lower total amounts of alkaloids in above ground tissues, as a result of decreased growth. Fertilizer level and root cutting size had effects on growth and the production of secondary compounds and influenced the cost of induction. Plants grown under high fertility had a greater reduction in growth in response to JA than plants grown under low fertility, indicating a greater trade-off between growth and defense for high fertility plants. Plants from larger root cuttings grew bigger without any reduction

  18. Modulatory role of jasmonic acid on photosynthetic pigments, antioxidants and stress markers of Glycine max L. under nickel stress.

    PubMed

    Sirhindi, Geetika; Mir, Mudaser Ahmad; Sharma, Poonam; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Kaur, Harpreet; Mushtaq, Ruquia

    2015-10-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a very young candidate of plant growth regulators which is being explored for various antistress properties. Present study deals with the hypothesis that JA can modulate antioxidant mechanism of higher plants with tight regulation of biomembrane peroxidation, making plants tolerant to toxic Ni(2+). 2 mM NiCl2 as a source of Ni(2+) appeared as sub lethal dose for the growth of 15 days old Glycine max seedlings. Exogenous application of 1 μM and 1 nM JA prior to NiCl2 exposure, made seedlings of Glycine max more tolerant to Ni(2+)stress as compared to control untreated seedlings. Regulatory inhibition of MDA and H2O2 production by JA with or without Ni(2+) treatment made plants more resistant to Ni(2+) stress which may be associated with ameliorative activity of antioxidant enzymes system composed of SOD, POD, CAT and APOX. Ascorbate, a secondary metabolite synthesized from D-glucose act as an antioxidant in plant cells. Many fold enhancements in AsA content of Ni(2+) treated seedlings supplemented with different concentrations of JA was observed. Significant improvement in AsA levels by JA with or without Ni(2+) stress may involve two aspects, either denovo synthesis level regulation of AsA or recycling of AsA from an oxidized form. Improvement in total protein content showed the uplift modulation of transcriptional machinery by JA which was also maintained under Ni(2+) stress. Photosynthetic pigments as total chl, chl a and b showed inhibition in presence of Ni(2+) stress which was not found much effective under JA supplementation as compared to control. Present findings revealed that although JA was not helpful for protection of photosynthetic pigments but it modulates the other machinery of plants significantly including various antioxidants positively, while tightly inhibiting stress related processes responsible for lipid peroxidation to make plants tolerant to Ni(2+) stress. PMID:26600682

  19. Analysis of key genes of jasmonic acid mediated signal pathway for defense against insect damages by comparative transcriptome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fengshan; Zhang, Yuliang; Huang, Qixing; Yin, Guohua; Pennerman, Kayla K.; Yu, Jiujiang; Liu, Zhixin; Li, Dafei; Guo, Anping

    2015-01-01

    Corn defense systems against insect herbivory involve activation of genes that lead to metabolic reconfigurations to produce toxic compounds, proteinase inhibitors, oxidative enzymes, and behavior-modifying volatiles. Similar responses occur when the plant is exposed to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). To compare the defense responses between stalk borer feeding and exogenous MeJA on a transcriptional level, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods following Ostrinia furnacalis leaf feeding and MeJA leaf treatment. 39,636 genes were found to be differentially expressed with O. furnacalis feeding, MeJA application, and O. furnacalis feeding and MeJA application. Following Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of the up- or down- regulated genes, many were implicated in metabolic processes, stimuli-responsive catalytic activity, and transfer activity. Fifteen genes that indicated significant changes in the O. furnacalis feeding group: LOX1, ASN1, eIF3, DXS, AOS, TIM, LOX5, BBTI2, BBTI11, BBTI12, BBTI13, Cl-1B, TPS10, DOX, and A20/AN1 were found to almost all be involved in jasmonate defense signaling pathways. All of the data demonstrate that the jasmonate defense signal pathway is a major defense signaling pathways of Asian corn borer’s defense against insect herbivory. The transcriptome data are publically available at NCBI SRA: SRS965087. PMID:26560755

  20. Live Single-Cell Plant Hormone Analysis by Video-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takafumi; Miyakawa, Shinya; Esaki, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Hajime; Masujima, Tsutomu; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Seo, Mitsunori

    2015-07-01

    Studies have indicated that endogenous concentrations of plant hormones are regulated very locally within plants. To understand the mechanisms underlying hormone-mediated physiological processes, it is indispensable to know the exact hormone concentrations at cellular levels. In the present study, we established a system to determine levels of ABA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) from single cells. Samples taken from a cell of Vicia faba leaves using nano-electrospray ionization (ESI) tips under a microscope were directly introduced into mass spectrometers by infusion and subjected to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis. Stable isotope-labeled [D(6)]ABA or [(13)C(6)]JA-Ile was used as an internal standard to compensate ionization efficiencies, which determine the amount of ions introduced into mass spectrometers. We detected ABA and JA-Ile from single cells of water- and wound-stressed leaves, whereas they were almost undetectable in non-stressed single cells. The levels of ABA and JA-Ile found in the single-cell analysis were compared with levels found by analysis of purified extracts with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These results demonstrated that stress-induced accumulation of ABA and JA-Ile could be monitored from living single cells.

  1. Elicitation of Diosgenin Production in Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Seedlings by Methyl Jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Spandan; Chikara, Surendra K; Sharma, Mahesh C; Chaudhary, Abhinav; Alam Syed, Bakhtiyar; Chaudhary, Pooja S; Mehta, Aditya; Patel, Maulik; Ghosh, Arpita; Iriti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), an elicitor of plant defense mechanisms, on the biosynthesis of diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, were investigated in six fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) varieties (Gujarat Methi-2, Kasuri-1, Kasuri-2, Pusa Early Branching, Rajasthan Methi and Maharashtra Methi-5). Treatment with 0.01% MeJA increased diosgenin levels, in 12 days old seedlings, from 0.5%-0.9% to 1.1%-1.8%. In addition, MeJA upregulated the expression of two pivotal genes of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic route leading to diosgenin: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG) and sterol-3-β-glucosyl transferase (STRL). In particular, MeJA increased the expression of HMG and STRL genes by 3.2- and 22.2-fold, respectively, in the Gujarat Methi-2 variety, and by 25.4- and 28.4-fold, respectively, in the Kasuri-2 variety. Therefore, MeJA may be considered a promising elicitor for diosgenin production by fenugreek plants. PMID:26694357

  2. Optimizing elicitation and seed priming to enrich broccoli and radish sprouts in glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Villaño, Debora; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    Elicitation is a cheaper and socially acceptable tool for improving plant food functionality. Our objective was to optimize the treatment doses of the elicitors: methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA) and DL-methionine (MET), in order to find a successful and feasible treatment to produce broccoli and radish sprouts with enhanced levels of health-promoting glucosinolates. Also a priming of seeds as a novel strategy to trigger the glucosinolates content was carried out with water (control), MeJA (250μM), JA (250μM) and MET (10mM) before the elicitor exogenous treatment. The results showed that almost all treatments could enhance effectively the total glucosinolates content in the sprouts, achieving the most significant increases from 34% to 100% of increase in broccoli and from 45% to 118% of increase in radish sprouts after MeJA priming and treatments. Consequently, our work demonstrates the feasibility of using elicitors, such as plant stress hormones, by priming and exogenously, as a way of increase the phytochemical profile of these sprouts to enhance their consumption in the diet. PMID:26988507

  3. Broccoli and turnip plants display contrasting responses to belowground induction by Delia radicum infestation and phytohormone applications.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Prisca S; Dugravot, Sébastien; Cortesero, Anne-Marie; Poinsot, Denis; Raaijmakers, Ciska E; Hassan, Hany M; van Dam, Nicole M

    2012-01-01

    Induced responses to insect herbivory are a common phenomenon in the plant kingdom. So far, induced responses have mostly investigated in aerial plant parts. Recently it was found that root herbivore may also elicit both local and systemic responses affecting aboveground herbivores and their natural enemies. Using broccoli (Brassica oleracea subsp. italica L.) and turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa L.), two cultivated brassicaceaous plants differing in their chemistry and morphology, we analysed the local and systemic induced responses triggered by Delia radicum L. damage, JA and SA application. We also assessed whether the root induction treatments affected D. radicum larval performance. Both D. radicum damage and JA induced changes in glucosinolate and sugar content as well as affected D. radicum performance, while SA application did not. Despite the uniform chemical responses, the effect on larval performance on broccoli and turnip plants was very different. On broccoli, JA root treatment reduced herbivore performance, whereas in turnips the same treatment enhanced it. JA- and D. radicum-induced responses followed similar patterns, which suggests that the JA signalling pathway is involved in root-induced responses to larval feeding. Glucosinolate induction cannot fully explain the differences found in the performance of D. radicum on the different species. Changes in other resistance factors might significantly contribute to the induced resistance in these brassicaceaeous species as well.

  4. Jasmonic acid protects etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana against herbivorous arthropods.

    PubMed

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; Von Wettstein, Diter; Pollmann, Stephan; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    Seed predators can cause mass ingestion of larger seed populations. As well, herbivorous arthropods attempt to attack etiolated seedlings and chose the apical hook for ingestion, aimed at dropping the cotyledons for later consumption. Etiolated seedlings, as we show here, have established an efficient mechanism of protecting their Achilles' heel against these predators, however. Evidence is provided for a role of jasmonic acid (JA) in this largely uncharacterized plant-herbivore interaction during skotomorphogenesis and that this comprises the temporally and spatially tightly controlled synthesis of a cysteine protease inhibitors of the Kunitz family. Interestingly, the same Kunitz protease inhibitor was found to be expressed in flowers of Arabidopsis where endogenous JA levels are high for fertility. Because both the apical hook and inflorescences were preferred isopod targets in JA-deficient plants that could be rescued by exogenously administered JA, our data identify a JA-dependent mechanism of plant arthropod deterrence that is recalled in different organs and at quite different times of plant development. PMID:27485473

  5. ORA47 (octadecanoid-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47) regulates jasmonic acid and abscisic acid biosynthesis and signaling through binding to a novel cis-element.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Hsieh, En-Jung; Cheng, Mei-Chun; Chen, Chien-Yu; Hwang, Shih-Ying; Lin, Tsan-Piao

    2016-07-01

    ORA47 (octadecanoid-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47) of Arabidopsis thaliana is an AP2/ERF domain transcription factor that regulates jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis and is induced by methyl JA treatment. The regulatory mechanism of ORA47 remains unclear. ORA47 is shown to bind to the cis-element (NC/GT)CGNCCA, which is referred to as the O-box, in the promoter of ABI2. We proposed that ORA47 acts as a connection between ABA INSENSITIVE1 (ABI1) and ABI2 and mediates an ABI1-ORA47-ABI2 positive feedback loop. PORA47:ORA47-GFP transgenic plants were used in a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay to show that ORA47 participates in the biosynthesis and/or signaling pathways of nine phytohormones. Specifically, many abscisic acid (ABA) and JA biosynthesis and signaling genes were direct targets of ORA47 under stress conditions. The JA content of the P35S:ORA47-GR lines was highly induced under wounding and moderately induced under water stress relative to that of the wild-type plants. The wounding treatment moderately increased ABA accumulation in the transgenic lines, whereas the water stress treatment repressed the ABA content. ORA47 is proposed to play a role in the biosynthesis of JA and ABA and in regulating the biosynthesis and/or signaling of a suite of phytohormone genes when plants are subjected to wounding and water stress. PMID:26974851

  6. Methyl jasmonate induces ATP biosynthesis deficiency and accumulation of proteins related to secondary metabolism in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-May, Eliel; De-la-Peña, Clelia; Galaz-Ávalos, Rosa M; Lei, Zhentian; Watson, Bonnie S; Sumner, Lloyd W; Loyola-Vargas, Víctor M

    2011-08-01

    Jasmonates are specific signal molecules in plants that are involved in a diverse set of physiological and developmental processes. However, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) has been shown to have a negative effect on root growth and, so far, the biochemical mechanism for this is unknown. Using Catharanthus roseus hairy roots, we were able to observe the effect of MeJA on growth inhibition, cell disorganization and cell death of the root cap. Hairy roots treated with MeJA induced the perturbation of mitochondrial membrane integrity and a diminution in ATP biosynthesis. Furthermore, several proteins were identified that were involved in energy and secondary metabolism; the changes in accumulation of these proteins were observed with 100 μM MeJA. In conclusion, our results suggest that a switch of the metabolic fate of hairy roots in response to MeJA could cause an increase in the accumulation of secondary metabolites. This is likely to have important consequences in the production of specific alkaloids important for the pharmaceutical industry.

  7. A special pair of phytohormones controls excitability, slow closure, and external stomach formation in the Venus flytrap.

    PubMed

    Escalante-Pérez, María; Krol, Elzbieta; Stange, Annette; Geiger, Dietmar; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Hause, Bettina; Neher, Erwin; Hedrich, Rainer

    2011-09-13

    Venus flytrap's leaves can catch an insect in a fraction of a second. Since the time of Charles Darwin, scientists have struggled to understand the sensory biology and biomechanics of this plant, Dionaea muscipula. Here we show that insect-capture of Dionaea traps is modulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonates. Water-stressed Dionaea, as well as those exposed to the drought-stress hormone ABA, are less sensitive to mechanical stimulation. In contrast, application of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), a precursor of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA), the methyl ester of JA (Me-JA), and coronatine (COR), the molecular mimic of the isoleucine conjugate of JA (JA-Ile), triggers secretion of digestive enzymes without any preceding mechanical stimulus. Such secretion is accompanied by slow trap closure. Under physiological conditions, insect-capture is associated with Ca(2+) signaling and a rise in OPDA, Apparently, jasmonates bypass hapto-electric processes associated with trap closure. However, ABA does not affect OPDA-dependent gland activity. Therefore, signals for trap movement and secretion seem to involve separate pathways. Jasmonates are systemically active because application to a single trap induces secretion and slow closure not only in the given trap but also in all others. Furthermore, formerly touch-insensitive trap sectors are converted into mechanosensitive ones. These findings demonstrate that prey-catching Dionaea combines plant-specific signaling pathways, involving OPDA and ABA with a rapidly acting trigger, which uses ion channels, action potentials, and Ca(2+) signals.

  8. The Arabidopsis bHLH Transcription Factors MYC3 and MYC4 Are Targets of JAZ Repressors and Act Additively with MYC2 in the Activation of Jasmonate Responses[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Chini, Andrea; Fernández-Barbero, Gemma; Chico, José-Manuel; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Geerinck, Jan; Eeckhout, Dominique; Schweizer, Fabian; Godoy, Marta; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Pauwels, Laurens; Witters, Erwin; Puga, María Isabel; Paz-Ares, Javier; Goossens, Alain; Reymond, Philippe; De Jaeger, Geert; Solano, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) trigger an important transcriptional reprogramming of plant cells to modulate both basal development and stress responses. In spite of the importance of transcriptional regulation, only one transcription factor (TF), the Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix MYC2, has been described so far as a direct target of JAZ repressors. By means of yeast two-hybrid screening and tandem affinity purification strategies, we identified two previously unknown targets of JAZ repressors, the TFs MYC3 and MYC4, phylogenetically closely related to MYC2. We show that MYC3 and MYC4 interact in vitro and in vivo with JAZ repressors and also form homo- and heterodimers with MYC2 and among themselves. They both are nuclear proteins that bind DNA with sequence specificity similar to that of MYC2. Loss-of-function mutations in any of these two TFs impair full responsiveness to JA and enhance the JA insensitivity of myc2 mutants. Moreover, the triple mutant myc2 myc3 myc4 is as impaired as coi1-1 in the activation of several, but not all, JA-mediated responses such as the defense against bacterial pathogens and insect herbivory. Our results show that MYC3 and MYC4 are activators of JA-regulated programs that act additively with MYC2 to regulate specifically different subsets of the JA-dependent transcriptional response. PMID:21335373

  9. A Phenolic Extract Obtained from Methyl Jasmonate-Treated Strawberries Enhances Apoptosis in a Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Carmela; Flores, Gema; Russo, Gian Luigi; Ruiz Del Castillo, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment on strawberry phenolic composition. Strawberry extracts contain a mixture of phenolic compounds possessing several biological properties. We demonstrated that these extracts were more effective in inducing apoptosis in HeLa cells compared to phenolic preparations derived from untreated strawberries. Treatment of strawberries with 0.5% MeJA resulted in increased polyphenols content (from 7.4 to 8.6 mM quercetin equivalents) and antioxidant properties (from 3.9 to 4.6 mM quercetin equivalents). The identification and quantification of phenolic compounds by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the strawberry extracts showed that cyanidin glucoside, pelargonidin glucoside, and ellagic glucoside acid were significantly higher in strawberries treated with MeJA. Phenolic extracts from MeJA-treated strawberries significantly decreased the cell viability in HeLa cells, compared to extracts derived from untreated fruits. We hypothesized that the enhanced apoptotic activity of MeJA-treated strawberries was due to a synergistic or additive effect of different phenolic compounds present in the extract, rather than the activity of a single molecule.

  10. Methyl Jasmonate: An Alternative for Improving the Quality and Health Properties of Fresh Fruits.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Lobos, Tomas; Cardemil, Liliana; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Retamales, Jorge; Jaakola, Laura; Alberdi, Miren; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra

    2016-05-31

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a plant growth regulator belonging to the jasmonate family. It plays an important role as a possible airborne signaling molecule mediating intra- and inter-plant communications and modulating plant defense responses, including antioxidant systems. Most assessments of this compound have dealt with post-harvest fruit applications, demonstrating induced plant resistance against the detrimental impacts of storage (chilling injuries and pathogen attacks), enhancing secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity. On the other hand, the interactions between MeJA and other compounds or technological tools for enhancing antioxidant capacity and quality of fruits were also reviewed. The pleiotropic effects of MeJA have raisen numerous as-yet unanswered questions about its mode of action. The aim of this review was endeavored to clarify the role of MeJA on improving pre- and post-harvest fresh fruit quality and health properties. Interestingly, the influence of MeJA on human health will be also discussed.

  11. The tolerance of the Arabidopsis defense hormone receptor mutant coi1 against the vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum is not due to increased levels of the active hormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine.

    PubMed

    Ralhan, Anjali; Thurow, Corinna; Gatz, Christiane

    2013-11-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a soil-borne vascular pathogen found primarily on oilseed rape in Northern Europe. Infection of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana can be achieved under laboratory conditions. In the article related to this addendum, we have shown that Arabidopsis dde2-2 mutants that are compromised in their ability to synthesize the defense hormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) are slightly more susceptible than wild-type. Contrary to the expectation that hormone biosynthesis mutants and their respective receptor mutants should have the same phenotype, we found that plants that lack the JA-Ile receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) are more tolerant to the disease. This addendum addressed the question whether the increased JA-Ile levels found in coi1 are responsible for its tolerance phenotype. Based on the evidence that the JA-Ile-deficient dde2-2 coi1-t double mutant is as tolerant as coi1-t, we conclude that increased JA-Ile levels do not protect Arabidopsis against the fungus in the absence of COI1.

  12. The glutaredoxin ATGRXS13 is required to facilitate Botrytis cinerea infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    PubMed

    La Camera, Sylvain; L'haridon, Floriane; Astier, Jérémy; Zander, Mark; Abou-Mansour, Eliane; Page, Gonzague; Thurow, Corinna; Wendehenne, David; Gatz, Christiane; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Lamotte, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a major pre- and post-harvest necrotrophic pathogen with a broad host range that causes substantial crop losses. The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in the basal resistance against this fungus. Despite basal resistance, virulent strains of B. cinerea can cause disease on Arabidopsis thaliana and virulent pathogens can interfere with the metabolism of the host in a way to facilitate infection of the plant. However, plant genes that are required by the pathogen for infection remain poorly described. To find such genes, we have compared the changes in gene expression induced in A. thaliana by JA with those induced after B. cinerea using genome-wide microarrays. We have identified genes that are repressed by JA but that are induced by B. cinerea. In this study, we describe one candidate gene, ATGRXS13, that encodes for a putative glutaredoxin and that exhibits such a crossed expression. In plants that are infected by this necrotrophic fungus, ATGRXS13 expression was negatively controlled by JA and TGA transcription factors but also through a JA-salicylic acid (SA) cross-talk mechanism as B. cinerea induced SA production that positively controlled ATGRXS13 expression. Furthermore, plants impaired in ATGRXS13 exhibited resistance to B. cinerea. Finally, we present a model whereby B. cinerea takes advantage of defence signalling pathways of the plant to help the colonization of its host.

  13. The tolerance of the Arabidopsis defense hormone receptor mutant coi1 against the vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum is not due to increased levels of the active hormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine

    PubMed Central

    Ralhan, Anjali; Thurow, Corinna; Gatz, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a soil-borne vascular pathogen found primarily on oilseed rape in Northern Europe. Infection of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana can be achieved under laboratory conditions. In the article related to this addendum, we have shown that Arabidopsis dde2–2 mutants that are compromised in their ability to synthesize the defense hormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) are slightly more susceptible than wild-type. Contrary to the expectation that hormone biosynthesis mutants and their respective receptor mutants should have the same phenotype, we found that plants that lack the JA-Ile receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) are more tolerant to the disease. This addendum addressed the question whether the increased JA-Ile levels found in coi1 are responsible for its tolerance phenotype. Based on the evidence that the JA-Ile-deficient dde2–2 coi1-t double mutant is as tolerant as coi1-t, we conclude that increased JA-Ile levels do not protect Arabidopsis against the fungus in the absence of COI1. PMID:24300304

  14. Enhancement of broccoli indole glucosinolates by methyl jasmonate treatment and effects on prostate carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ann G; Juvik, John A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Berman-Booty, Lisa D; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2014-11-01

    Broccoli is rich in bioactive components, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol, which may impact cancer risk. The glucosinolate profile of broccoli can be manipulated through treatment with the plant stress hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Our objective was to produce broccoli with enhanced levels of indole glucosinolates and determine its impact on prostate carcinogenesis. Brassica oleracea var. Green Magic was treated with a 250 μM MeJA solution 4 days prior to harvest. MeJA-treated broccoli had significantly increased levels of glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin (P < .05). Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice (n = 99) were randomized into three diet groups at 5-7 weeks of age: AIN-93G control, 10% standard broccoli powder, or 10% MeJA broccoli powder. Diets were fed throughout the study until termination at 20 weeks of age. Hepatic CYP1A was induced with MeJA broccoli powder feeding, indicating biological activity of the indole glucosinolates. Following ∼ 15 weeks on diets, neither of the broccoli treatments significantly altered genitourinary tract weight, pathologic score, or metastasis incidence, indicating that broccoli powder at 10% of the diet was ineffective at reducing prostate carcinogenesis in the TRAMP model. Whereas broccoli powder feeding had no effect in this model of prostate cancer, our work demonstrates the feasibility of employing plant stress hormones exogenously to stimulate changes in phytochemical profiles, an approach that may be useful for optimizing bioactive component patterns in foods for chronic-disease-prevention studies.

  15. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry is Modulated by Joint Attention and Autistic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Janina; Ioannou, Christina; Korb, Sebastian; Schilbach, Leonhard

    2015-01-01

    Joint attention (JA) and spontaneous facial mimicry (SFM) are fundamental processes in social interactions, and they are closely related to empathic abilities. When tested independently, both of these processes have been usually observed to be atypical in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). However, it is not known how these processes interact with each other in relation to autistic traits. This study addresses this question by testing the impact of JA on SFM of happy faces using a truly interactive paradigm. Sixty‐two neurotypical participants engaged in gaze‐based social interaction with an anthropomorphic, gaze‐contingent virtual agent. The agent either established JA by initiating eye contact or looked away, before looking at an object and expressing happiness or disgust. Eye tracking was used to make the agent's gaze behavior and facial actions contingent to the participants' gaze. SFM of happy expressions was measured by Electromyography (EMG) recording over the Zygomaticus Major muscle. Results showed that JA augments SFM in individuals with low compared with high autistic traits. These findings are in line with reports of reduced impact of JA on action imitation in individuals with ASC. Moreover, they suggest that investigating atypical interactions between empathic processes, instead of testing these processes individually, might be crucial to understanding the nature of social deficits in autism. Autism Res 2016, 9: 781–789. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research PMID:26442665

  16. An acoustic study of hiatus resolution in two Romance languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitoran, Ioana; Hualde, Jose Ignacio

    2002-05-01

    Spanish and Romanian contrast vowel sequences [CiV] in hiatus and corresponding diphthongs [CjV], with some interspeaker variation. Both languages contain surface diphthongs derived historically by gliding, /CiV/ > [CjV]. They both show a strong tendency for blocking gliding word-initially, supported by native speaker judgments: Sp. [miope], Rom. [miopu] short-sighted Sp. [italjana], Rom. [italjana] Italianf. Data from six speakers of each language confirmed this variation. The duration and F2 transition rate of the vocalic sequence were compared, in words containing [i.a] and [ja]. [ia] was significantly longer in hiatus, and had a significantly slower transition rate than in [ja]. However, the ranges of the hiatus and [ja] sets showed some overlap, suggesting that hiatus resolution is not a categorical phonological process. Instead, lexical items fall on a hiatus-to-[ja] continuum. Further comparison of ranges and standard deviations confirmed the correlation between this variation and word position. In both languages more word-initial sequences resist gliding. Significantly less variation was found in the range for hiatus word-initially than for [ja] word-medially. This suggests that the combination of lingual gestures between high and nonhigh vowels is more tightly controlled word-initially than word-medially, a result previously reported for stop sequences [Byrd (1996); Chitoran, Goldstein, and Byrd (unpublished)].

  17. Analysis of key genes of jasmonic acid mediated signal pathway for defense against insect damages by comparative transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fengshan; Zhang, Yuliang; Huang, Qixing; Yin, Guohua; Pennerman, Kayla K; Yu, Jiujiang; Liu, Zhixin; Li, Dafei; Guo, Anping

    2015-01-01

    Corn defense systems against insect herbivory involve activation of genes that lead to metabolic reconfigurations to produce toxic compounds, proteinase inhibitors, oxidative enzymes, and behavior-modifying volatiles. Similar responses occur when the plant is exposed to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). To compare the defense responses between stalk borer feeding and exogenous MeJA on a transcriptional level, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods following Ostrinia furnacalis leaf feeding and MeJA leaf treatment. 39,636 genes were found to be differentially expressed with O. furnacalis feeding, MeJA application, and O. furnacalis feeding and MeJA application. Following Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of the up- or down- regulated genes, many were implicated in metabolic processes, stimuli-responsive catalytic activity, and transfer activity. Fifteen genes that indicated significant changes in the O. furnacalis feeding group: LOX1, ASN1, eIF3, DXS, AOS, TIM, LOX5, BBTI2, BBTI11, BBTI12, BBTI13, Cl-1B, TPS10, DOX, and A20/AN1 were found to almost all be involved in jasmonate defense signaling pathways. All of the data demonstrate that the jasmonate defense signal pathway is a major defense signaling pathways of Asian corn borer's defense against insect herbivory. The transcriptome data are publically available at NCBI SRA: SRS965087.

  18. Chemical changes and overexpressed genes in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) upon methyl jasmonate treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Wang, Xi; Chen, Feng; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2007-02-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the production of bioactive chemicals and gene expression in sweet basil were investigated. The total amount of phenolic compounds significantly increased in sweet basil after 0.5 mM MeJA treatment. Among the phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA) were identified, and their amounts increased by 55 and 300%, respectively. The total amount of terpenoids also significantly increased after the same treatment. Particularly, eugenol and linalool increased by 56 and 43%, respectively. To better understand the signaling effect of MeJA on sweet basil, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to identify the MeJA up-regulated genes. Among the 576 cDNA clones screened from the forward SSH cDNA library, 28 were found to be up-regulated by the MeJA treatment. Sequencing of these cDNA clones followed by BLAST searching revealed six unique transcripts displaying high similarities to the known enzymes and peptide, that is, lipoxygenase (LOX), cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H), prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), acid phosphatase (APase), and pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR), which play significant roles in the formation of secondary metabolites in sweet basil. Northern blot further confirmed the increased production at transcriptional level of LOX, C4H, PDH, PPO, PPR, and APase.

  19. Social Interaction in Young Children with Inflicted and Accidental Traumatic Brain Injury: Relations with Family Resources and Social Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Prasad, Mary R.; Mendez, Donna; Barnes, Marcia A.; Swank, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Core social interaction behaviors were examined in young children 0–36 months of age who were hospitalized for accidental (n = 61) or inflicted (n = 64) traumatic brain injury (TBI) in comparison to typically developing children (n = 60). Responding to and initiating gaze and joint attention (JA) were evaluated during a semi-structured sequence of social interactions between the child and an examiner at 2 and 12 months after injury. The accidental TBI group established gaze less often and had an initial deficit initiating JA that resolved by the follow-up. Contrary to expectation, children with inflicted TBI did not have lower rates of social engagement than other groups. Responding to JA was more strongly related than initiating JA to measures of injury severity and to later cognitive and social outcomes. Compared to complicated-mild/moderate TBI, severe TBI in young children was associated with less responsiveness in social interactions and less favorable caregiver ratings of communication and social behavior. JA response, family resources, and group interacted to predict outcomes. Children with inflicted TBI who were less socially responsive and had lower levels of family resources had the least favorable outcomes. Low social responsiveness after TBI may be an early marker for later cognitive and adaptive behavior difficulties. PMID:23507345

  20. Increased endogenous methyl jasmonate altered leaf and root development in transgenic soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Xue, Rengao; Zhang, Biao

    2007-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a plant-signaling molecule that regulates plant morphogenesis and expression of plant defense genes. To determine the role of the endogenous MeJA levels in the development of plants, transgenic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] plants harboring NTR1 gene encoding for jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) were produced. The activation of NTR1 gene expression resulted in the production of MeJA. Overexpression of the NTR1 cDNA under the regulation of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in the transgenic soybean plants was confirmed using Northern blot analysis. The significant differences in leaf and root growth patterns were observed between the transgenic plants and the wild-type plants. The leaves of the transgenic plants were slightly elongated in length but dramatically narrowed in width compared with the nontransformed wild-type plants. In addition, elongation of primary root was inhibited in the overexpressed transgenic soybean plantlets, whereas the development of lateral root was stimulated relative to the nontransformed plants. The leaves of the transgenic plants showed 2-2.5-fold higher levels of MeJA than the control plants. These results indicated that the increased endogenous levels of MeJA is involved in regulation of morphogenesis in soybean plants.

  1. Triacontanol and jasmonic acid differentially modulate the lipid organization as evidenced by the fluorescent probe behavior and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance shifts in model membranes.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar Swamy, G; Swamy, Sivakumar G; Ramanarayan, K; Inamdar, Laxmi S; Inamdar, Sanjeev R

    2009-04-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), time-resolved fluorescence and anisotropy decays were determined in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of egg phosphatidylcholine with the FRET pair N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine as donor and lissamine rhodamine B 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine as acceptor, using 2-ps pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser on LUVs with incorporated plant growth regulators: triacontanol (TRIA) and jasmonic acid (JA). FRET efficiency, energy transfer rate, rotation correlation time, microviscosity, and diffusion coefficient of lateral diffusion of lipids were calculated from these results. It was observed that TRIA and JA differentially modulated all parameters studied. The effect of JA in such modulations was always partially reversed by TRIA. Also, the generalized polarization of laurdan fluorescence indicated that JA enhances the degree of hydration in lipid bilayers to a larger extent than does TRIA. Solid-state (31)P magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of LUVs showed two chemical shifts, at 0.009 and -11.988 ppm, at low temperatures (20 degrees C), while at increasing temperatures (20-60 degrees C) only one (at -11.988 ppm) was prominent and the other (0.009 ppm) gradually became obscure. However, LUVs with TRIA exhibited only one of the shifts at 0.353 ppm even at lower temperatures and JA did not affect the chemical shifts.

  2. Pre-harvest methyl jasmonate treatment enhances cauliflower chemoprotective attributes without a loss in postharvest quality.

    PubMed

    Ku, Kang Mo; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kushad, Mosbah M; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

    2013-06-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment can significantly increase glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in Brassica vegetables and potentially enhance anticancer bioactivity. Although MeJA treatment may promote ethylene biosynthesis, which can be detrimental to postharvest quality, there are no previous reports of its effect on cauliflower postharvest quality. To address this, cauliflower curds in field plots were sprayed with either 0.1 % Triton X-100 (control) or 500 μM MeJA solutions four days prior to harvest, then stored at 4 °C. Tissue subsamples were collected after 0, 10, 20, and 30 days of postharvest storage and assayed for visual color change, ethylene production, GS concentrations, and extract quinone reductase inductive activity. MeJA treatment increased curd GS concentrations of glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, and neoglucobrassicin by 1.5, 2.4, and 4.6-fold over controls, respectively. MeJA treated cauliflower showed significantly higher quinone reductase activity, a biomarker for anticancer bioactivity, without reducing visual color and postharvest quality for 10 days at 4 °C storage.

  3. Exogenous methyl jasmonate regulates cytokinin content by modulating cytokinin oxidase activity in wheat seedlings under salinity.

    PubMed

    Avalbaev, Azamat; Yuldashev, Ruslan; Fedorova, Kristina; Somov, Kirill; Vysotskaya, Lidiya; Allagulova, Chulpan; Shakirova, Farida

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of 4-days-old wheat seedlings with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in concentration optimal for their growth (0.1 μM) resulted in a rapid transient almost two-fold increase in the level of cytokinins (CKs). MeJA-induced accumulation of CKs was due to inhibition of both cytokinin oxidase (CKX) (cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase, EC 1.5.99.12) gene expression and activity of this enzyme. Pretreatment of wheat seedlings with MeJA decreased the growth-retarding effect of sodium chloride salinity and accelerated growth recovery after withdrawal of NaCl from the incubation medium. We speculate that this protective effect of the hormone might be due to MeJA's ability to prevent the salinity-induced decline in CK concentration that was caused by inhibition of gene expression and activity of CKX in wheat seedlings. The data might indicate an important role for endogenous cytokinins in the implementation of growth-promoting and protective effects of exogenous MeJA application on wheat plants. PMID:26748373

  4. Reduced Biosynthesis of Digalactosyldiacylglycerol, a Major Chloroplast Membrane Lipid, Leads to Oxylipin Overproduction and Phloem Cap Lignification in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lih-Jen; Herrfurth, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    DIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL SYNTHASE1 (DGD1) is a chloroplast outer membrane protein responsible for the biosynthesis of the lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) from monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG). The Arabidopsis thaliana dgd1 mutants have a greater than 90% reduction in DGDG content, reduced photosynthesis, and altered chloroplast morphology. However, the most pronounced visible phenotype is the extremely short inflorescence stem, but how deficient DGDG biosynthesis causes this phenotype is unclear. We found that, in dgd1 mutants, phloem cap cells were lignified and jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes were highly upregulated under normal growth conditions. The coronative insensitive1 dgd1 and allene oxide synthase dgd1 double mutants no longer exhibited the short inflorescence stem and lignification phenotypes but still had the same lipid profile and reduced photosynthesis as dgd1 single mutants. Hormone and lipidomics analyses showed higher levels of JA, JA-isoleucine, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and arabidopsides in dgd1 mutants. Transcript and protein level analyses further suggest that JA biosynthesis in dgd1 is initially activated through the increased expression of genes encoding 13-lipoxygenases (LOXs) and phospholipase A-Iγ3 (At1g51440), a plastid lipase with a high substrate preference for MGDG, and is sustained by further increases in LOX and allene oxide cyclase mRNA and protein levels. Our results demonstrate a link between the biosynthesis of DGDG and JA. PMID:26721860

  5. Plants on constant alert: elevated levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonate-induced transcripts in caterpillar-resistant maize.

    PubMed

    Shivaji, Renuka; Camas, Alberto; Ankala, Arunkanth; Engelberth, Jurgen; Tumlinson, James H; Williams, W Paul; Wilkinson, Jeff R; Luthe, Dawn Sywassink

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine if constitutive levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and other octadecanoid compounds were elevated prior to herbivory in a maize genotype with documented resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and other lepidopteran pests. The resistant inbred Mp708 had approximately 3-fold higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA) prior to herbivore feeding than the susceptible inbred Tx601. Constitutive levels of cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) also were higher in Mp708 than Tx601. In addition, the constitutive expression of JA-inducible genes, including those in the JA biosynthetic pathway, was higher in Mp708 than Tx601. In response to herbivory, Mp708 generated comparatively higher levels of hydrogen peroxide, and had a greater abundance of NADPH oxidase transcripts before and after caterpillar feeding. Before herbivore feeding, low levels of transcripts encoding the maize insect resistance cysteine protease (Mir1-CP) and the Mir1-CP protein were detected consistently. Thus, Mp708 appears to have a portion of its defense pathway primed, which results in constitutive defenses and the ability to mount a stronger defense when caterpillars attack. Although the molecular mechanisms that regulate the constitutive accumulation of JA in Mp708 are unknown, it might account for its enhanced resistance to lepidopteran pests. This genotype could be valuable in studying the signaling pathways that maize uses to response to insect herbivores.

  6. Jasmonic acid protects etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana against herbivorous arthropods.

    PubMed

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; Von Wettstein, Diter; Pollmann, Stephan; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    Seed predators can cause mass ingestion of larger seed populations. As well, herbivorous arthropods attempt to attack etiolated seedlings and chose the apical hook for ingestion, aimed at dropping the cotyledons for later consumption. Etiolated seedlings, as we show here, have established an efficient mechanism of protecting their Achilles' heel against these predators, however. Evidence is provided for a role of jasmonic acid (JA) in this largely uncharacterized plant-herbivore interaction during skotomorphogenesis and that this comprises the temporally and spatially tightly controlled synthesis of a cysteine protease inhibitors of the Kunitz family. Interestingly, the same Kunitz protease inhibitor was found to be expressed in flowers of Arabidopsis where endogenous JA levels are high for fertility. Because both the apical hook and inflorescences were preferred isopod targets in JA-deficient plants that could be rescued by exogenously administered JA, our data identify a JA-dependent mechanism of plant arthropod deterrence that is recalled in different organs and at quite different times of plant development.

  7. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry is Modulated by Joint Attention and Autistic Traits.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Janina; Ioannou, Christina; Korb, Sebastian; Schilbach, Leonhard; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev

    2016-07-01

    Joint attention (JA) and spontaneous facial mimicry (SFM) are fundamental processes in social interactions, and they are closely related to empathic abilities. When tested independently, both of these processes have been usually observed to be atypical in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). However, it is not known how these processes interact with each other in relation to autistic traits. This study addresses this question by testing the impact of JA on SFM of happy faces using a truly interactive paradigm. Sixty-two neurotypical participants engaged in gaze-based social interaction with an anthropomorphic, gaze-contingent virtual agent. The agent either established JA by initiating eye contact or looked away, before looking at an object and expressing happiness or disgust. Eye tracking was used to make the agent's gaze behavior and facial actions contingent to the participants' gaze. SFM of happy expressions was measured by Electromyography (EMG) recording over the Zygomaticus Major muscle. Results showed that JA augments SFM in individuals with low compared with high autistic traits. These findings are in line with reports of reduced impact of JA on action imitation in individuals with ASC. Moreover, they suggest that investigating atypical interactions between empathic processes, instead of testing these processes individually, might be crucial to understanding the nature of social deficits in autism. Autism Res 2016, 9: 781-789. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.

  8. Tomato Whole Genome Transcriptional Response to Tetranychus urticae Identifies Divergence of Spider Mite-Induced Responses Between Tomato and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Martel, Catherine; Zhurov, Vladimir; Navarro, Marie; Martinez, Manuel; Cazaux, Marc; Auger, Philippe; Migeon, Alain; Santamaria, M Estrella; Wybouw, Nicky; Diaz, Isabel; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Navajas, Maria; Grbic, Miodrag; Grbic, Vojislava

    2015-03-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most significant mite pests in agriculture, feeding on more than 1,100 plant hosts, including model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Here, we describe timecourse tomato transcriptional responses to spider mite feeding and compare them with Arabidopsis in order to determine conserved and divergent defense responses to this pest. To refine the involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in mite-induced responses and to improve tomato Gene Ontology annotations, we analyzed transcriptional changes in the tomato JA-signaling mutant defenseless1 (def-1) upon JA treatment and spider mite herbivory. Overlay of differentially expressed genes (DEG) identified in def-1 onto those from the timecourse experiment established that JA controls expression of the majority of genes differentially regulated by herbivory. Comparison of defense responses between tomato and Arabidopsis highlighted 96 orthologous genes (of 2,133 DEG) that were recruited for defense against spider mites in both species. These genes, involved in biosynthesis of JA, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, and terpenoids, represent the conserved core of induced defenses. The remaining tomato DEG support the establishment of tomato-specific defenses, indicating profound divergence of spider mite-induced responses between tomato and Arabidopsis.

  9. Analysis of key genes of jasmonic acid mediated signal pathway for defense against insect damages by comparative transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fengshan; Zhang, Yuliang; Huang, Qixing; Yin, Guohua; Pennerman, Kayla K; Yu, Jiujiang; Liu, Zhixin; Li, Dafei; Guo, Anping

    2015-01-01

    Corn defense systems against insect herbivory involve activation of genes that lead to metabolic reconfigurations to produce toxic compounds, proteinase inhibitors, oxidative enzymes, and behavior-modifying volatiles. Similar responses occur when the plant is exposed to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). To compare the defense responses between stalk borer feeding and exogenous MeJA on a transcriptional level, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods following Ostrinia furnacalis leaf feeding and MeJA leaf treatment. 39,636 genes were found to be differentially expressed with O. furnacalis feeding, MeJA application, and O. furnacalis feeding and MeJA application. Following Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of the up- or down- regulated genes, many were implicated in metabolic processes, stimuli-responsive catalytic activity, and transfer activity. Fifteen genes that indicated significant changes in the O. furnacalis feeding group: LOX1, ASN1, eIF3, DXS, AOS, TIM, LOX5, BBTI2, BBTI11, BBTI12, BBTI13, Cl-1B, TPS10, DOX, and A20/AN1 were found to almost all be involved in jasmonate defense signaling pathways. All of the data demonstrate that the jasmonate defense signal pathway is a major defense signaling pathways of Asian corn borer's defense against insect herbivory. The transcriptome data are publically available at NCBI SRA: SRS965087. PMID:26560755

  10. Methyl Jasmonate: An Alternative for Improving the Quality and Health Properties of Fresh Fruits.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Lobos, Tomas; Cardemil, Liliana; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Retamales, Jorge; Jaakola, Laura; Alberdi, Miren; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a plant growth regulator belonging to the jasmonate family. It plays an important role as a possible airborne signaling molecule mediating intra- and inter-plant communications and modulating plant defense responses, including antioxidant systems. Most assessments of this compound have dealt with post-harvest fruit applications, demonstrating induced plant resistance against the detrimental impacts of storage (chilling injuries and pathogen attacks), enhancing secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity. On the other hand, the interactions between MeJA and other compounds or technological tools for enhancing antioxidant capacity and quality of fruits were also reviewed. The pleiotropic effects of MeJA have raisen numerous as-yet unanswered questions about its mode of action. The aim of this review was endeavored to clarify the role of MeJA on improving pre- and post-harvest fresh fruit quality and health properties. Interestingly, the influence of MeJA on human health will be also discussed. PMID:27258240

  11. Optimizing elicitation and seed priming to enrich broccoli and radish sprouts in glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Villaño, Debora; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    Elicitation is a cheaper and socially acceptable tool for improving plant food functionality. Our objective was to optimize the treatment doses of the elicitors: methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA) and DL-methionine (MET), in order to find a successful and feasible treatment to produce broccoli and radish sprouts with enhanced levels of health-promoting glucosinolates. Also a priming of seeds as a novel strategy to trigger the glucosinolates content was carried out with water (control), MeJA (250μM), JA (250μM) and MET (10mM) before the elicitor exogenous treatment. The results showed that almost all treatments could enhance effectively the total glucosinolates content in the sprouts, achieving the most significant increases from 34% to 100% of increase in broccoli and from 45% to 118% of increase in radish sprouts after MeJA priming and treatments. Consequently, our work demonstrates the feasibility of using elicitors, such as plant stress hormones, by priming and exogenously, as a way of increase the phytochemical profile of these sprouts to enhance their consumption in the diet.

  12. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding jacalin isolectins.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Czapla, T H

    1993-03-15

    Four jacalin cDNA clones (pSKcJA1, pSKcJA3, pSKcJA15, and pSKcJA17) have been obtained from an Artocarpus integrifolia (jackfruit) seed cDNA library. These clones share over 94% sequence homology, and their deduced polypeptide sequences confirm the existence of multiple jacalin isolectins in jackfruit seeds. The deduced amino acid sequences show that jacalin appears to be initially synthesized as a prepropeptide with the following structure: N-signal (21 residues)-->propeptide (39 residues)-->beta-peptide (20 residues)-->linker region (4 residues)-->alpha-peptide (133 residues). These observations are supported by Western blot analysis of jackfruit seed extract and by immunoprecipitation of in vitro translated products of both pSKcJA3 transcript and jackfruit seed poly(A)+ RNA. Sequence analysis of the 39-residue propeptide reveals that it has the potential to facilitate proper folding of jacalin protein. The unusual primary structure of jacalin prepropeptide suggests a quite interesting processing of this lectin precursor into mature alpha- and beta-subunits.

  13. A Phenolic Extract Obtained from Methyl Jasmonate-Treated Strawberries Enhances Apoptosis in a Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Carmela; Flores, Gema; Russo, Gian Luigi; Ruiz Del Castillo, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment on strawberry phenolic composition. Strawberry extracts contain a mixture of phenolic compounds possessing several biological properties. We demonstrated that these extracts were more effective in inducing apoptosis in HeLa cells compared to phenolic preparations derived from untreated strawberries. Treatment of strawberries with 0.5% MeJA resulted in increased polyphenols content (from 7.4 to 8.6 mM quercetin equivalents) and antioxidant properties (from 3.9 to 4.6 mM quercetin equivalents). The identification and quantification of phenolic compounds by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the strawberry extracts showed that cyanidin glucoside, pelargonidin glucoside, and ellagic glucoside acid were significantly higher in strawberries treated with MeJA. Phenolic extracts from MeJA-treated strawberries significantly decreased the cell viability in HeLa cells, compared to extracts derived from untreated fruits. We hypothesized that the enhanced apoptotic activity of MeJA-treated strawberries was due to a synergistic or additive effect of different phenolic compounds present in the extract, rather than the activity of a single molecule. PMID:27618150

  14. MaJAZ1 Attenuates the MaLBD5-Mediated Transcriptional Activation of Jasmonate Biosynthesis Gene MaAOC2 in Regulating Cold Tolerance of Banana Fruit.

    PubMed

    Ba, Liang-jie; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies indicated that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment could effectively reduce the chilling injury of many fruits, including banana, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, one lateral organ boundaries (LOB) domain (LBD) gene, designated as MaLBD5, was isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Expression analysis revealed that accumulation of MaLBD5 was induced by cold temperature and MeJA treatment. Subcellular localization and transactivation assays showed that MaLBD5 was localized to the nucleus and possessed transcriptional activation activity. Protein-protein interaction analysis demonstrated that MaLBD5 physically interacted with MaJAZ1, a potential repressor of jasmonate signaling. Furthermore, transient expression assays indicated that MaLBD5 transactivated a jasmonate biosynthesis gene, termed MaAOC2, which was also induced by cold and MeJA. More interestingly, MaJAZ1 attenuated the MaLBD5-mediated transactivation of MaAOC2. These results suggest that MaLBD5 and MaJAZ1 might act antagonistically in relation to MeJA-induced cold tolerance of banana fruit, at least partially via affecting jasmonate biosynthesis. Collectively, our findings expand the knowledge of the transcriptional regulatory network of MeJA-mediated cold tolerance of banana fruit.

  15. The effects of host defence elicitors on betacyanin accumulation in Amaranthus mangostanus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Liu, Ting; Jiang, Yueming; He, Shenggen; Harrison, Dion K; Joyce, Daryl C

    2012-10-15

    The effect of elicitors associated with host defence on betacyanin accumulation in Amaranthus mangostanus seedlings was investigated. Under the conditions of the experiments, betacyanin accumulation was generally enhanced by light. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment increased betacyanin synthesis in a concentration-dependent response. Seedlings treated with ethylene as 5mM Ethephon also had elevated levels of betacyanin. In contrast, salicylic acid (SA) and H(2)O(2) treatments had no influence on betacyanin contents in light or dark. Combined MeJA with Ethephon or H(2)O(2) had an additive effect on betacyanin accumulation in dark-grown seedlings. However, a decline was recorded in light-grown seedlings. Moreover, an antagonistic effect on betacyanin synthesis was found when MeJA and SA were added simultaneously. Our results indicate that betacyanin content in A. mangostanus seedlings can be upregulated by MeJA and ethylene. Both additive and antagonistic effects in regulating betacyanin synthesis in A. mangostanus seedlings were observed between MeJA and other elicitors.

  16. Dynamics of the enhanced emissions of monoterpenes and methyl salicylate, and decreased uptake of formaldehyde, by Quercus ilex leaves after application of jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Filella, Iolanda; Peñuelas, Josep; Llusià, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a signalling compound with a key role in both stress and development in plants, and is reported to elicit the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here we studied the dynamics of such emissions and the linkage with photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance. We sprayed JA on leaves of the Mediterranean tree species Quercus ilex and measured the photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductances, and emissions and uptake of VOCs using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and gas chromatography after a dark-light transition. Jasmonic acid treatment delayed the induction of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance by approx. 20 min, and decreased them 24 h after spraying. Indications were found of both stomatal and nonstomatal limitations of photosynthesis. Monoterpene emissions were enhanced (20-30%) after JA spraying. Jasmonic acid also increased methyl salicylate (MeSa) emissions (more than twofold) 1 h after treatment, although after 24 h this effect had disappeared. Formaldehyde foliar uptake decreased significantly 24 h after JA treatment. Both biotic and abiotic stresses can thus affect plant VOC emissions through their strong impact on JA levels. Jasmonic acid-mediated increases in monoterpene and MeSa emissions might have a protective role when confronting biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:16390425

  17. Reduced Biosynthesis of Digalactosyldiacylglycerol, a Major Chloroplast Membrane Lipid, Leads to Oxylipin Overproduction and Phloem Cap Lignification in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang-Tsung; Chen, Lih-Jen; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Li, Hsou-Min

    2016-01-01

    DIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL SYNTHASE1 (DGD1) is a chloroplast outer membrane protein responsible for the biosynthesis of the lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) from monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG). The Arabidopsis thaliana dgd1 mutants have a greater than 90% reduction in DGDG content, reduced photosynthesis, and altered chloroplast morphology. However, the most pronounced visible phenotype is the extremely short inflorescence stem, but how deficient DGDG biosynthesis causes this phenotype is unclear. We found that, in dgd1 mutants, phloem cap cells were lignified and jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes were highly upregulated under normal growth conditions. The coronative insensitive1 dgd1 and allene oxide synthase dgd1 double mutants no longer exhibited the short inflorescence stem and lignification phenotypes but still had the same lipid profile and reduced photosynthesis as dgd1 single mutants. Hormone and lipidomics analyses showed higher levels of JA, JA-isoleucine, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and arabidopsides in dgd1 mutants. Transcript and protein level analyses further suggest that JA biosynthesis in dgd1 is initially activated through the increased expression of genes encoding 13-lipoxygenases (LOXs) and phospholipase A-Iγ3 (At1g51440), a plastid lipase with a high substrate preference for MGDG, and is sustained by further increases in LOX and allene oxide cyclase mRNA and protein levels. Our results demonstrate a link between the biosynthesis of DGDG and JA. PMID:26721860

  18. Brassinosteroids suppress rice defense against root-knot nematodes through antagonism with the jasmonate pathway.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Kyndt, Tina; Hause, Bettina; Höfte, Monica; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2013-01-01

    The importance of phytohormone balance is increasingly recognized as central to the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. Next to their well-known developmental role, brassinosteroids (BR) were recently found to be involved in plant innate immunity. In this study, we examined the role of BR in rice (Oryza sativa) innate immunity during infection with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola, and we studied the inter-relationship with the jasmonate (JA) pathway. Exogenous epibrassinolide (BL) supply at low concentrations induced susceptibility in the roots whereas high concentrations of BL enforced systemic defense against this nematode. Upon high exogenous BL supply on the shoot, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) confirmed a strong feedback inhibitory effect, leading to reduced BR biosynthesis in the root. Moreover, we demonstrate that the immune suppressive effect of BR is at least partly due to negative cross-talk with the JA pathway. Mutants in the BR biosynthesis or signaling pathway accumulate slightly higher levels of the immediate JA-precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and qRT-PCR data showed that the BR and JA pathway are mutually antagonistic in rice roots. Collectively, these results suggest that the balance between the BR and JA pathway is an effective regulator of the outcome of the rice-M. graminicola interaction.

  19. The F-box protein COI1 functions upstream of MYB305 to regulate primary carbohydrate metabolism in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. TN90)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) plays an important role in regulating plant male fertility and secondary metabolism, but its role in regulating primary metabolism remains unclear. The F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) is a critical component of the JA receptor, and mediates JA-signalling by targeting JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins for proteasomal degradation in response to JA perception. Here, we found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of NtCOI1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. TN90) recapitulated many previously observed phenotypes in coi1 mutants, including male sterility, JA insensitivity, and loss of floral anthocyanin production. It also affected starch metabolism in the pollen, anther wall, and floral nectary, leading to pollen abortion and loss of floral nectar. Transcript levels of genes encoding starch metabolism enzymes were significantly altered in the pollen, anther wall, and floral nectary of NtCOI1-silenced tobacco. Changes in leaf primary metabolism were also observed in the NtCOI1-silenced tobacco. The expression of NtMYB305, an orthologue of MYB305 previously identified as a flavonoid metabolic regulator in Antirrhinum majus flowers and as a floral-nectar regulator mediating starch synthesis in ornamental tobacco, was extremely downregulated in NtCOI1-silenced tobacco. These findings suggest that NtCOI1 functions upstream of NtMYB305 and plays a fundamental role in coordinating plant primary carbohydrate metabolism and correlative physiological processes. PMID:24604735

  20. Effect of abiotic elicitation on main health-promoting compounds, antioxidant activity and commercial quality of butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Złotek, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Jakubczyk, Anna

    2014-04-01

    The study presents changes in the phytochemical levels, antiradical activity and quality of lettuce caused by different chemical elicitors: arachidonic acid (AA), jasmonic acid (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA). The application of 1 μM and 100 μM JA induced an increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds, including flavonoids and phenolic acids. Flavonoid levels were also increased after treatment with 100 μM AA and ABA. Some of the elicitor concentrations used also caused an increase in the levels of other phytochemicals, such as chlorophyll a (1 μM and 100 μM AA, 50 μM ABA); chlorophyll b (100 μM AA); carotenoids (100 μM AA, 1 μM JA and 100 μM ABA) and vitamin C (100 μM AA, 100 μM JA). The highest antiradical activity was noted after treatment with 100 μM AA, 100 μM JA. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability was positively and significantly correlated with flavonoid, chlorophyll and carotenoid levels. These results may suggest that the antiradical activity of lettuce was determined not only by phenolics, but also by other bioactive compounds. Elicitation did not change the sensory quality of lettuce. Therefore, treatment with elicitors could be a useful tool for improving the health-promoting qualities of lettuce without the loss of sensory quality.

  1. Elicitation of Diosgenin Production in Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Seedlings by Methyl Jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Spandan; Chikara, Surendra K.; Sharma, Mahesh C.; Chaudhary, Abhinav; Alam Syed, Bakhtiyar; Chaudhary, Pooja S.; Mehta, Aditya; Patel, Maulik; Ghosh, Arpita; Iriti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), an elicitor of plant defense mechanisms, on the biosynthesis of diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, were investigated in six fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) varieties (Gujarat Methi-2, Kasuri-1, Kasuri-2, Pusa Early Branching, Rajasthan Methi and Maharashtra Methi-5). Treatment with 0.01% MeJA increased diosgenin levels, in 12 days old seedlings, from 0.5%–0.9% to 1.1%–1.8%. In addition, MeJA upregulated the expression of two pivotal genes of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic route leading to diosgenin: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG) and sterol-3-β-glucosyl transferase (STRL). In particular, MeJA increased the expression of HMG and STRL genes by 3.2- and 22.2-fold, respectively, in the Gujarat Methi-2 variety, and by 25.4- and 28.4-fold, respectively, in the Kasuri-2 variety. Therefore, MeJA may be considered a promising elicitor for diosgenin production by fenugreek plants. PMID:26694357

  2. Nonenzymatic oxidation of trienoic fatty acids contributes to reactive oxygen species management in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mène-Saffrané, Laurent; Dubugnon, Lucie; Chételat, Aurore; Stolz, Stéphanie; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline; Farmer, Edward E

    2009-01-16

    In higher plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, omega-3 trienoic fatty acids (TFAs), represented mainly by alpha-linolenic acid, serve as precursors of jasmonic acid (JA), a potent lipid signal molecule essential for defense. The JA-independent roles of TFAs were investigated by comparing the TFA- and JA-deficient fatty acid desaturase triple mutant (fad3-2 fad7-2 fad8 (fad3 fad7 fad8)) with the aos (allene oxide synthase) mutant that contains TFAs but is JA-deficient. When challenged with the fungus Botrytis, resistance of the fad3 fad7 fad8 mutant was reduced when compared with the aos mutant, suggesting that TFAs play a role in cell survival independently of being the precursors of JA. An independent genetic approach using the lesion mimic mutant accelerated cell death2 (acd2-2) confirmed the importance of TFAs in containing lesion spread, which was increased in the lines in which the fad3 fad7 fad8 and acd2-2 mutations were combined when compared with the aos acd2-2 lines. Malondialdehyde, found to result from oxidative TFA fragmentation during lesion formation, was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Its levels correlated with the survival of the tissue. Furthermore, plants lacking TFAs overproduced salicylic acid (SA), hydrogen peroxide, and transcripts encoding several SA-regulated and SA biosynthetic proteins. The data suggest a physiological role for TFAs as sinks for reactive oxygen species.

  3. Role of phytohormones in insect-specific plant reactions

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Matthias; Meldau, Stefan; Howe, Gregg A.

    2012-01-01

    The capacity to perceive and respond is integral to biological immune systems, but to what extent can plants specifically recognize and respond to insects? Recent findings suggest that plants possess surveillance systems that are able to detect general patterns of cellular damage as well as highly specific herbivore-associated cues. The jasmonate (JA) pathway has emerged as the major signaling cassette that integrates information perceived at the plant–insect interface into broad-spectrum defense responses. Specificity can be achieved via JA-independent processes and spatio-temporal changes of JA-modulating hormones, including ethylene, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinins, brassinosteroids and gibberellins. The identification of receptors and ligands and an integrative view of hormone-mediated response systems are crucial to understand specificity in plant immunity to herbivores. PMID:22305233

  4. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity of anthocyanins from purple basil leaves induced by selected abiotic elicitors.

    PubMed

    Szymanowska, Urszula; Złotek, Urszula; Karaś, Monika; Baraniak, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates changes in the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity of anthocyanins from purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves induced by arachidonic acid (AA), jasmonic acid (JA) and β-aminobutyric acid (BABA). The anthocyanins content was significantly increased by all elicitors used in this study; however, no increase was observed in the antioxidant activity of the analyzed extracts. Additionally, a significant decrease by about 50% in the ability to chelate Fe(II) was noted. Further, an increase in the potential anti-inflammatory activity of basil anthocyanins was observed after treatment with each the abiotic elicitor. The IC50 value for lipoxygenase inhibition was almost twice as low after elicitation as that of the control. Also, cyclooxygenase inhibition by anthocyanins was stimulated by abiotic elicitors, except for JA-sample. Additionally, HPLC-analysis indicated that elicitation with AA, JA and BABA caused increases in content most of all anthocyanin compounds.

  5. Cellulosic bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) using hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Song, Younho; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Ho Myeong; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is recognized as a suitable candidate biomass crop for bioethanol production because it has a rapid growth rate and high biomass productivity. In this study, hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment was used to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and to effectively remove the lignin of JA. With optimized enzyme doses, synergy was observed from the combination of three different enzymes (RUT-C30, pectinase, and xylanase) which provided a conversion rate was approximately 30% higher than the rate with from treatment with RUT-C30 alone. Fermentation of the JA hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced a fermentation yield of approximately 84%. Therefore, Jerusalem artichoke has potential as a bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. PMID:27115748

  6. Identification of Arabidopsis thaliana NRT1/PTR FAMILY (NPF) proteins capable of transporting plant hormones.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yasutaka; Shimizu, Takafumi; Miyakawa, Shinya; Kanno, Yuri; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Kamiya, Yuji; Seo, Mitsunori

    2015-07-01

    NRT1/PTR FAMILY (NPF) proteins were originally identified as nitrate or di/tri-peptide transporters. Recent studies revealed that this transporter family also transports the plant hormones auxin (indole-3-acetic acid), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellin (GA), as well as secondary metabolites (glucosinolates). We developed modified yeast two-hybrid systems with receptor complexes for GA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), to detect GA and JA-Ile transport activities of proteins expressed in the yeast cells. Using these GA and JA-Ile systems as well as the ABA system that we had introduced previously, we determined the capacities of Arabidopsis NPFs to transport these hormones. Several NPFs induced the formation of receptor complexes under relatively low hormone concentrations. Hormone transport activities were confirmed for some NPFs by direct analysis of hormone uptake of yeast cells by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Our results suggest that at least some NPFs could function as hormone transporters.

  7. Roles of jasmonate signalling in plant inflorescence and flower development.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zheng; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-10-01

    Development of inflorescences and flowers in plants is controlled by the combined action of environmental and genetic signals. Investigations reveal that the phytohormone jasmonate (JA) plays a critical function in plant reproduction such as male fertility, sex determination and seed maturation. Here, we review recent progress on JA synthesis, signalling, the interplay between JAs and other hormones, and regulatory network of JA in controlling the development of inflorescence, flower and the male organ. The conserved and diversified roles of JAs in meristem transition and specification of flower organ identity and number, and multiple regulatory networks of JAs in stamen development are highlighted. Further, this review provides perspectives on future research endeavors to elucidate mechanisms underlying JAs homeostasis and transport during plant reproductive development.

  8. Overexpression of a CYP94 family gene CYP94C2b increases internode length and plant height in rice

    PubMed Central

    Kurotani, Ken-Ich; Hattori, Tsukaho; Takeda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth is controlled by intrinsic developmental programmes and environmental cues. Jasmonate (JA) has important roles in both processes, by regulating cell division and differentiation, as well as in defense responses and senescence. We report an increase in rice plant height caused by overexpression of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP94C2b, which promoted deactivation of JA-Ile. The height increase occurred through enhanced elongation of internodes in the absence of concomitant cell elongation, unlike previous findings with coi1 knock-down plants. Thus, modulating JA metabolism can increase the number of elongated cells in an internode. Based on these and previous findings, we discuss the difference in the effects of CYP94C2b overexpression vs. coi1 knock-down. PMID:26251886

  9. Functional interconnection of MYC2 and SPA1 in the photomorphogenic seedling development of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gangappa, Sreeramaiah N; Prasad, V Babu Rajendra; Chattopadhyay, Sudip

    2010-11-01

    MYC2 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that cross talks with light, abscisic acid (ABA), and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. Here, we have shown that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MYC2 directly binds to the G-box present in the SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A1 (SPA1) promoter and that it controls the expression of SPA1 in a COP1-dependent manner. Analyses of atmyc2 spa1 double mutants suggest that whereas MYC2 and SPA1 act redundantly to suppress photomorphogenic growth in the dark, they function synergistically for the suppression of photomorphogenic growth in the light. Our studies have also revealed that MYC2-mediated ABA and JA responses are further modulated by SPA1. Taken together, this study demonstrates the molecular and physiological interrelations of MYC2 and SPA1 in light, ABA, and JA signaling pathways.

  10. Effects of preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate and chitosan on postharvest decay, quality and chemical attributes of Fragaria chiloensis fruit.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Gabriela M; Figueroa, Nicolás E; Poblete, Leticia A; Cherian, Sam; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-01-01

    Fragaria chiloensis fruit has a short postharvest life mainly due to its rapid softening. In order to improve its postharvest life, preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and chitosan were evaluated during postharvest storage at room temperature. The quality and chemical parameters, and protection against decay were evaluated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h of storage from fruits of two subsequent picks (termed as first harvest and second harvest). In general, fruits treated with MeJA and chitosan maintained higher levels of fruit firmness, anthocyanin, and showed significant delays in decay incidence compared to control fruit. MeJA-treated fruits exhibited a greater lignin content and SSC/TA ratio, and delayed decay incidences. Instead, chitosan-treated fruits presented higher antioxidant capacity and total phenol content. In short, both the elicitors were able to increase the shelf life of fruits as evidenced by the increased levels of lignin and anthocyanin, especially of the second harvest. PMID:26212995

  11. Elicitation of silymarin in cell cultures of Silybum marianum: effect of subculture and repeated addition of methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sampedro, Maria Angeles; Fernández-Tárrago, Jorge; Corchete, Purificación

    2009-10-01

    Production of silymarin and the effect of the elicitor, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), was monitored in cell cultures of Silybum marianum over 4 years. Silymarin concentrations gradually declined after prolonged subculture, making the success of elicitor strategy limited in long-term cultures. The continuous presence of MeJA in cultures for an extended period was necessary for induction of silymarin accumulation. A repeated elicitor strategy was not a good option for improving silymarin productivity in batch cultures. Removal of medium from elicited cultures and addition of fresh medium avoided the toxic effects of elicitor accumulation, allowing the system to respond to a repeated MeJA treatment without loss of productivity.

  12. Development and characterization of novel potent and stable inhibitors of endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15.

    PubMed Central

    Shrimpton, C N; Abbenante, G; Lew, R A; Smith, I

    2000-01-01

    Solid-phase synthesis was used to prepare a series of modifications to the selective and potent inhibitor of endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15 (EP24.15), N-[1(R, S)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-Ala-Ala-Tyr-p-aminobenzoate (cFP), which is degraded at the Ala-Tyr bond, thus severely limiting its utility in vivo. Reducing the amide bond between the Ala and Tyr decreased the potency of the inhibitor to 1/1000. However, the replacement of the second alanine residue immediately adjacent to the tyrosine with alpha-aminoisobutyric acid gave a compound (JA-2) that was equipotent with cFP, with a K(i) of 23 nM. Like cFP, JA-2 inhibited the closely related endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.16 1/20 to 1/30 as potently as it did EP24.15, and did not inhibit the other thermolysin-like endopeptidases angiotensin-converting enzyme, endothelin-converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase. The biological stability of JA-2 was investigated by incubation with a number of membrane and soluble sheep tissue extracts. In contrast with cFP, JA-2 remained intact after 48 h of incubation with all tissues examined. Further modifications to the JA-2 compound failed to improve the potency of this inhibitor. Hence JA-2 is a potent, EP24.15-preferential and biologically stable inhibitor, therefore providing a valuable tool for further assessing the biological functions of EP24.15. PMID:10620512

  13. Effect of feeding Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) root as prebiotic on nutrient utilization, fecal characteristics and serum metabolite profile of captive Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) fed a meat-on-bone diet.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, S K; Das, A; Kullu, S S; Saini, M; Pattanaik, A K; Dutta, N; Sharma, A K

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of incorporating Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as a prebiotic in the diet of Indian leopards (n = 11 adults) fed a meat-on-bone diet. The trial consisted of three periods (A1 , B, and A2 ). Each period comprised 17 days of adaptation and four days of collection. During the control periods (A1 and A2 ), the leopards were fed their normal zoo diets of 2.5-3 kg of buffalo meat-on-bone six days a week without any supplement. During trial B, meat-on-bone diets of the leopards were supplemented with JA at 2% of dietary dry matter (DM). Meat consumption was similar among the treatments. Supplementation of JA decreased the digestibility of crude protein (P < 0.01). Digestibilities of organic matter and ether extract were similar among the treatments. Serum concentrations of urea and triglycerides were lower (P < 0.05) when JA was added to the diet. Incorporation of JA to the basal diet increased fecal concentrations of acetate (P < 0.01), butyrate (P < 0.01), lactate (P < 0.01), Lactobacillus spp., and Bifidobacterium spp. (P < 0.01) with a simultaneous decrease in the concentration of ammonia (P < 0.01), Clostridia spp. (P < 0.01), and fecal pH (P < 0.01). Fecal microbial profiles and hind gut fermentation were improved, without any adverse effects on feed consumption, nutrient utilization, and serum metabolite profiles. Results of this experiment showed that feeding JA at 2% DM in the whole diet could be potentially beneficial for captive Indian leopards fed meat-on-bone diets.

  14. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants.

    PubMed

    Gordy, John W; Leonard, B Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A; Stout, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved. PMID:26332833

  15. Cytochrome P450 CYP71AT96 catalyses the final step of herbivore-induced phenylacetonitrile biosynthesis in the giant knotweed, Fallopia sachalinensis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takuya; Noge, Koji; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2016-06-01

    The giant knotweed Fallopia sachalinensis (Polygonaceae) synthesizes phenylacetonitrile (PAN) from L-phenylalanine when infested by the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica or treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Here we identified (E/Z)-phenylacetaldoxime (PAOx) as the biosynthetic precursor of PAN and identified a cytochrome P450 that catalysed the conversion of (E/Z)-PAOx to PAN. Incorporation of deuterium-labelled (E/Z)-PAOx into PAN emitted from the leaves of F. sachalinensis was detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Further, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we detected the accumulation of (E/Z)-PAOx in MeJA-treated leaves. These results showed that (E/Z)-PAOx is the biosynthetic precursor of PAN. MeJA-induced mRNAs were analysed by differential expression analysis using a next-generation sequencer. Of the 74,329 contigs obtained from RNA-seq and de novo assembly, 252 contigs were induced by MeJA treatment. Full-length cDNAs encoding MeJA-induced cytochrome P450s CYP71AT96, CYP82AN1, CYP82D125 and CYP715A35 were cloned using 5'- and 3'-RACE and were expressed using a baculovirus expression system. Among these cytochrome P450s, CYP71AT96 catalysed the conversion of (E/Z)-PAOx to PAN in the presence of NADPH and a cytochrome P450 reductase. It also acted on (E/Z)-4-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime and (E/Z)-indole-3-acetaldoxime. The broad substrate specificity of CYP71AT96 was similar to that of aldoxime metabolizing cytochrome P450s. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that CYP71AT96 expression was highly induced because of treatment with MeJA as well as feeding by the Japanese beetle. These results indicate that CYP71AT96 likely contributes the herbivore-induced PAN biosynthesis in F. sachalinensis.

  16. Jasmonates are essential factors inducing gummosis in tulips: mode of action of jasmonates focusing on sugar metabolism.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Edyta; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the mechanism of jasmonates to induce gummosis in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) shoots, especially on the focus of sugar metabolism. Gummosis in the first internode of tulip plants was induced by the application of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me, 1% w/w in lanolin) and jasmonic acid (JA, 1% w/w in lanolin) 5 days after application and strongly stimulated by the simultaneous application of ethylene-releasing compound, ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, 1% w/w in lanolin), although ethephon alone had little effect. JA-Me stimulated ethylene production of the first internodes of tulips, ethylene production increasing up to more than 5 times at day 1 and day 3 after the application. On the other hand, application of ethephon did not increase endogenous levels of jasmonates in tulip stems. Analysis of composition of tulip gums revealed that they were consisted of glucuronoarabinoxylan with an average molecular weight of ca. 700 kDa. JA-Me strongly decreased the total amount of soluble sugars in tulip stems even in 1 day after application, being ca. 50% of initial values 5 days after application, but ethephon did not. However, both JA-Me and ethephon had almost no effect on the neutral sugar compositions of soluble sugars mainly consisting of glucose, mannose and xylose in ratio of 20:2:1 and traces of arabinose. Both JA-Me and ethephon applied exogenously stimulated senescence of tulip shoots shown by the loss of chlorophyll. These results strongly suggest that the essential factor of gummosis in tulips is jasmonates affecting the sugar metabolism in tulip shoots. The mode of action of jasmonates to induce gummosis of tulip shoots is discussed in relation to ethylene production, sugar metabolism and senescence.

  17. Screening of novel yeast inulinases and further application to bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Paixão, Susana M; Teixeira, Pedro D; Silva, Tiago P; Teixeira, Alexandra V; Alves, Luís

    2013-09-25

    Inulin is a carbohydrate composed of linear chains of β-2,1-linked D-fructofuranose molecules terminated by a glucose residue through a sucrose-type linkage at the reducing end. Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is one of the most interesting materials among unconventional and renewable raw materials, with levels of inulin reaching 50-80% of dry matter. Inulin or inulin-rich materials can be actively hydrolyzed by microbial inulinases to produce glucose and fructose syrups that can be used in bioprocesses. In this study, several microbial strains were isolated and their ability to inulinase biosynthesis was evaluated. The novel yeast strain Talf1, identified as Zygosaccharomyces bailii, was the best inulinase producer, attaining 8.67 U/ml of inulinase activity when JA juice was used as the inducer substrate. Z. bailii strain Talf1 and/or its enzymatic crude extract were further applied for bioethanol production and biodesulfurization (BDS) processes, using inulin and JA juice as carbon source. In a consolidated bioprocessing for ethanol production from 200 g/l inulin, Z. bailii strain Talf1 was able to produce 67 g/l of ethanol. This ethanol yield was improved in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, with the ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMI 885 and the Talf1 inulinases, achieving a production of 78 g/l ethanol. However, the highest ethanol yield (∼48%) was obtained in a SSF process from JA juice (∼130 g/l fermentable sugars), where the S. cerevisiae produced 63 g/l ethanol. Relatively to the dibenzothiophene BDS tests, the Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B achieved a desulfurization rate of 4.8 μM/h within a SSF process using Talf1 inulinases and JA juice, highlighting the potential of JA as a less expensive alternative carbon source. These results showed the high potential of Z. bailii strain Talf1 inulinases as a versatile tool for bioprocesses using inulin-rich materials.

  18. No evidence for the induction of brown algal chemical defense by the phytohormones jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Wiesemeier, Theresa; Jahn, Karsten; Pohnert, Georg

    2008-12-01

    Induced chemical defense reactions are widespread in marine brown algae. Despite the evidence that the biosynthesis of defense metabolites can be up-regulated upon herbivory, we do not know how this regulation of biosynthetic pathways to secondary metabolites is achieved in brown algae. In higher plants, the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is crucial for the mediation of induced chemical defenses, and several findings of this metabolite from marine sources have been reported. We tested the hypothesis that JA or related metabolites play a role in induced brown algal defense. Quantification of oxylipins with a detection limit around 20 ng g(-1) algal tissue did not reveal the presence of JA in the seven examined brown algal species Dictyota dichotoma, Colpomenia peregrina, Ectocarpus fasciculatus, Fucus vesiculosus, Himanthalia elongata, Saccharina latissima (formerly Laminaria saccharina), and Sargassum muticum. Moreover, treatment with ecologically relevant concentrations of JA and methyl jasmonate did not lead to a significant change in the profile of medium- and non-polar metabolites of the tested algae. Only when high concentrations of > or =500 microg ml(-1) medium of the phytohormones were applied that a metabolic response which could be attributed to unspecific stress was observed. Bioassays with D. dichotoma that focused on medium- and non-polar compounds confirmed the lack of a biological role of JA and methyl jasmonate in the induction of algal induced chemical defenses. The phytohormone-treated samples did not exhibit any increased defense potential towards the amphipod Ampithoe longimana and the isopod Paracerceis caudata. JA and related phytohormones, known to be active in higher plants, thus appear to play no role in brown algae for induction of the defense chemicals studied here. PMID:19020937

  19. Nicotiana attenuata SIPK, WIPK, NPR1, and Fatty Acid-Amino Acid Conjugates Participate in the Induction of Jasmonic Acid Biosynthesis by Affecting Early Enzymatic Steps in the Pathway1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kallenbach, Mario; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldwin, Ian Thomas; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Wounding and herbivore attack elicit the rapid (within minutes) accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) that results from the activation of previously synthesized biosynthetic enzymes. Recently, several regulatory factors that affect JA production have been identified; however, how these regulators affect JA biosynthesis remains at present unknown. Here we demonstrate that Nicotiana attenuata salicylate-induced protein kinase (SIPK), wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK), nonexpressor of PR-1 (NPR1), and the insect elicitor N-linolenoyl-glucose (18:3-Glu) participate in mechanisms affecting early enzymatic steps of the JA biosynthesis pathway. Plants silenced in the expression of SIPK and NPR1 were affected in the initial accumulation of 13-hydroperoxy-linolenic acid (13-OOH-18:3) after wounding and 18:3-Glu elicitation by mechanisms independent of changes in 13-lipoxygenase activity. Moreover, 18:3-Glu elicited an enhanced and rapid accumulation of 13-OOH-18:3 that depended partially on SIPK and NPR1 but was independent of increased 13-lipoxygenase activity. Together, the results suggested that substrate supply for JA production was altered by 18:3-Glu elicitation and SIPK- and NPR1-mediated mechanisms. Consistent with a regulation at the level of substrate supply, we demonstrated by virus-induced gene silencing that a wound-repressed plastidial glycerolipase (NaGLA1) plays an essential role in the induction of de novo JA biosynthesis. In contrast to SIPK and NPR1, mechanisms mediated by WIPK did not affect the production of 13-OOH-18:3 but were critical to control the conversion of this precursor into 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid. These differences could be partially accounted for by reduced allene oxide synthase activity in WIPK-silenced plants. PMID:19897603

  20. The role of JAR1 in Jasmonoyl-L: -isoleucine production during Arabidopsis wound response.

    PubMed

    Suza, Walter P; Staswick, Paul E

    2008-05-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. JASMONATE RESISTANT 1( JAR1) locus is essential for pathogen defense, but its role in wound response has not been investigated. JAR1 encodes an enzyme that conjugates jasmonic acid (JA) to isoleucine, which was recently shown to function directly in CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1)-mediated signal transduction. Leaf wounding rapidly increased the level of JA-Ile by about 60-fold to a peak of 279 pmole/g FW at 40 min after wounding. Conjugates with Leu, Val and Phe remained near basal level or were not detected. Kinetic analysis showed that JAR1 had a K (m) of 0.03 mM for Ile, which was 60-80-fold lower than for Leu, Val and Phe. JA-Ile accumulated mostly near the wound site with a minor increase in unwounded portions of wounded leaves. JAR1 transcript also increased dramatically in wounded tissue, reaching a maximum after about 1 h. In the jar1-1 mutant JA-Ile was only about 10% of the WT level at 40 min after leaf wounding, and reached a maximum of 47 pmole/g FW at 2 h. However, the reduced accumulation of JA-Ile had little or no effect on several jasmonate-dependent wound-induced genes. Wound induction of the VSP2 transcript was only slightly delayed while transcripts for LOX2, PDF1.2, WRKY33, TAT3 and CORI3 were unaffected. These results suggest that the rapid increase in JA-Ile mediated by the JAR1 enzyme plays only a minor role in transcriptional modulation of genes induced by mechanical wounding.