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Sample records for krishnan rajeshwar rob

  1. Remembering K. S. Krishnan (1946-2014).

    PubMed

    Rikhy, Richa; Kumar, Vimlesh; Basole, Amit; Sanyal, Subhabrata

    2015-03-01

    Dr. K. S. Krishnan was on the faculty of the Division of Biological Sciences at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) in Mumbai, India, and later emeritus professor at the National Center for Biological Sciences (NCBS) in Bangalore, India. His research using fruit flies has contributed richly to our understanding of synaptic function and mechanisms of anesthetic action. Dr. Krishnan passed away suddenly of a heart attack on the 24th of May, 2014. Below a few of his students fondly recall how it was to work in his group.

  2. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  3. MarA-mediated transcriptional repression of the rob promoter.

    PubMed

    Schneiders, Thamarai; Levy, Stuart B

    2006-04-14

    The Escherichia coli transcriptional regulator MarA affects functions that include antibiotic resistance, persistence, and survival. MarA functions as an activator or repressor of transcription utilizing similar degenerate DNA sequences (marboxes) with three different binding site configurations with respect to the RNA polymerase-binding sites. We demonstrate that MarA down-regulates rob transcripts both in vivo and in vitro via a MarA-binding site within the rob promoter that is positioned between the -10 and -35 hexamers. As for the hdeA and purA promoters, which are repressed by MarA, the rob marbox is also in the "backward" orientation. Protein-DNA interactions show that SoxS and Rob, like MarA, bind the same marbox in the rob promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift analyses with a MarA-specific antibody demonstrate that MarA and RNA polymerase form a ternary complex with the rob promoter DNA. Transcription experiments in vitro and potassium permanganate footprinting analysis show that MarA affects the RNA polymerase-mediated closed to open complex formation at the rob promoter.

  4. Two functions of the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli Rob: mediating "sequestration-dispersal" as a novel off-on switch for regulating Rob's activity as a transcription activator and preventing degradation of Rob by Lon protease.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Kevin L; Fitzpatrick, M Megan; Keen, Edward F; Wolf, Richard E

    2009-05-08

    In Escherichia coli, Rob activates transcription of the SoxRS/MarA/Rob regulon. Previous work revealed that Rob resides in three to four immunostainable foci, that dipyridyl and bile salts are inducers of its activity, and that inducers bind to Rob's C-terminal domain (CTD). We propose that sequestration inactivates Rob by blocking its access to the transcriptional machinery and that inducers activate Rob by mediating its dispersal, allowing interaction with RNA polymerase. To test "sequestration-dispersal" as a new mechanism for regulating the activity of transcriptional activators, we fused Rob's CTD to SoxS and used indirect immunofluorescence microscopy to determine the effect of inducers on SoxS-Rob's cellular localization. Unlike native SoxS, which is uniformly distributed throughout the cell, SoxS-Rob is sequestered without an inducer, but is rapidly dispersed when cells are treated with an inducer. In this manner, Rob's CTD serves as an anti-sigma factor in regulating the co-sigma-factor-like activity of SoxS when fused to it. Rob's CTD also protects its N-terminus from Lon protease, since Lon's normally rapid degradation of SoxS is blocked in the chimera. Accordingly, Rob's CTD has novel regulatory properties that can be bestowed on another E. coli protein.

  5. Wasps robbing food from ants: a frequent behavior?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapierre, Louis; Hespenheide, Henry; Dejean, Alain

    2007-12-01

    Food robbing, or cleptobiosis, has been well documented throughout the animal kingdom. For insects, intrafamilial food robbing is known among ants, but social wasps (Vespidae; Polistinae) taking food from ants has, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported. In this paper, we present two cases involving social wasps robbing food from ants associated with myrmecophytes. (1) Polybioides tabida F. (Ropalidiini) rob pieces of prey from Tetraponera aethiops Smith (Formicidae; Pseudomyrmecinae) specifically associated with Barteria fistulosa Mast. (Passifloraceae). (2) Charterginus spp. (Epiponini) rob food bodies from myrmecophytic Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) exploited by their Azteca mutualists (Formicidae; Dolichoderinae) or by opportunistic ants (that also attack cleptobiotic wasps). We note here that wasps gather food bodies (1) when ants are not yet active; (2) when ants are active, but avoiding any contact with them by flying off when attacked; and (3) through the coordinated efforts of two to five wasps, wherein one of them prevents the ants from leaving their nest, while the other wasps freely gather the food bodies. We suggest that these interactions are more common than previously thought.

  6. Sugary food robbing in ants: a case of temporal cleptobiosis.

    PubMed

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Dejean, Alain; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2004-05-01

    This study reports new information on interactions between Ectatomma tuberculatum (Ponerinae) and Crematogaster limata parabiotica (Myrmicinae). Workers of these sympatric arboreal ant species forage on the same pioneer trees. Diurnally, Ectatomma preyed on Crematogaster workers that avoided overt aggression by respecting a 'safe distance'. At night, Crematogaster initiated raids within the Ectatomma nests that they apparently left with their abdomen empty, then remained near the nest entrances where they successfully intercepted 75.2% of the returning Ectatomma foragers (N = 322). Certain intercepted workers rapidly resumed their return trip. Others (39.1%) were stopped, explored and licked during a long time by the Crematogaster. Most of them were carrying between their mandibles a droplet of liquid food that was stolen. This relationship, that appears to be a typical case of interspecific cleptobiosis, whose expression varies during the daytime, demonstrates for the first time sugary-food robbing, instead of prey robbing, in ants.

  7. From Speech to Emotional Interaction: EmotiRob Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Tallec, Marc; Saint-Aimé, Sébastien; Jost, Céline; Villaneau, Jeanne; Antoine, Jean-Yves; Letellier-Zarshenas, Sabine; Le-Pévédic, Brigitte; Duhaut, Dominique

    This article presents research work done in the domain of nonverbal emotional interaction for the EmotiRob project. It is a component of the MAPH project, the objective of which is to give comfort to vulnerable children and/or those undergoing long-term hospitalisation through the help of an emotional robot companion. It is important to note that we are not trying to reproduce human emotion and behavior, but trying to make a robot emotionally expressive. This paper will present the different hypotheses we have used from understanding to emotional reaction. We begin the article with a presentation of the MAPH and EmotiRob project. Then, we quickly describe the speech undestanding system, the iGrace computational model of emotions and integration of dynamics behavior. We conclude with a description of the architecture of Emi, as well as improvements to be made to its next generation.

  8. Floral nectar guide patterns discourage nectar robbing by bumble bees.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Anne S; Brent, Joshua; Papaj, Daniel R; Dornhaus, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Floral displays are under selection to both attract pollinators and deter antagonists. Here we show that a common floral trait, a nectar guide pattern, alters the behavior of bees that can act opportunistically as both pollinators and as antagonists. Generally, bees access nectar via the floral limb, transporting pollen through contact with the plant's reproductive structures; however bees sometimes extract nectar from a hole in the side of the flower that they or other floral visitors create. This behavior is called "nectar robbing" because bees may acquire the nectar without transporting pollen. We asked whether the presence of a symmetric floral nectar guide pattern on artificial flowers affected bumble bees' (Bombus impatiens) propensity to rob or access nectar "legitimately." We discovered that nectar guides made legitimate visits more efficient for bees than robbing, and increased the relative frequency of legitimate visits, compared to flowers lacking nectar guides. This study is the first to show that beyond speeding nectar discovery, a nectar guide pattern can influence bees' flower handling in a way that could benefit the plant.

  9. ROBS: a novel architecture of reliable optical burst switching with congestion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiangtao; Zhang, Zhizhong; Qiu, Shaofeng; Wang, Jun

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel modified architecture of Optical Burst-Switched Networks, called Reliable Optical Burst Switching (ROBS), which introduces congestion control and retransmission mechanisms of TCP to OBS layer. Design scheme of edge and core nodes for ROBS are both demonstrated. Part of the ROBS function has been implemented on ns-2 platform. Performance improvements due to burst retransmission are simulated and presented.

  10. Recent ROB developments on wide bandgap based UV sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordanengo, B.; Ben Moussa, A.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Soltani, A.; de Moor, P.; Minoglou, K.; Malinowski, P.; Duboz, J.-Y.; Chong, Y. M.; Zou, Y. S.; Zhang, W. J.; Lee, S. T.; Dahal, R.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    The next ESA spatial mission planned to study the Sun, Solar Orbiter (SO), necessitates very innovative EUV detectors. The commonly used silicon detectors suffer important limitations mainly in terms of UV robustness and dark current level. An alternative comes from diamond or III-nitride materials. In these materials, the radiation hardness, solar blindness and dark current are improved due to their wide bandgap. This paper presents the new developments on wide bandgap materials at the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB). We present also the LYRA instrument, the BOLD project, and the EUI instrument suite.

  11. Floral Nectar Guide Patterns Discourage Nectar Robbing by Bumble Bees

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Anne S.; Brent, Joshua; Papaj, Daniel R.; Dornhaus, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Floral displays are under selection to both attract pollinators and deter antagonists. Here we show that a common floral trait, a nectar guide pattern, alters the behavior of bees that can act opportunistically as both pollinators and as antagonists. Generally, bees access nectar via the floral limb, transporting pollen through contact with the plant’s reproductive structures; however bees sometimes extract nectar from a hole in the side of the flower that they or other floral visitors create. This behavior is called “nectar robbing” because bees may acquire the nectar without transporting pollen. We asked whether the presence of a symmetric floral nectar guide pattern on artificial flowers affected bumble bees’ (Bombus impatiens) propensity to rob or access nectar “legitimately.” We discovered that nectar guides made legitimate visits more efficient for bees than robbing, and increased the relative frequency of legitimate visits, compared to flowers lacking nectar guides. This study is the first to show that beyond speeding nectar discovery, a nectar guide pattern can influence bees’ flower handling in a way that could benefit the plant. PMID:23418475

  12. Spatio-temporal variation of nectar robbing in Salvia gesneriflora and its effects on nectar production and legitimate visitors.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, E; Rosas-Guerrero, V

    2016-01-01

    Nectar robbing occurs when floral visitors remove floral nectar through floral damage and usually without providing pollination in return. Even though nectar robbing may have negative, neutral or even positive effects on plant fitness, few studies have investigated temporal and spatial variation in robbing rate and their consequences, particularly in the tropics. In this study, robbing levels were estimated during 3 years in four populations of Salvia gesneriflora, a hummingbird-pollinated shrub endemic to central Mexico that is mainly robbed by birds, carpenter bees and bumblebees. The effect of robbing on nectar availability, flower longevity and on visitation rate by floral visitors was also evaluated. Our results indicate great variation in robbing levels across years and populations and a positive relationship between robbing level and flower abundance per population. Moreover, our results show that nectar availability is about eight times higher in unrobbed flowers than in robbed flowers, and that nectar robbers prefer younger flowers, although lifespan of robbed and unrobbed flowers did not differ statistically. Primary and secondary nectar robbers showed a higher visitation rate compared to legitimate visitors, and neither legitimate nor illegitimate floral visitors seem to discriminate between robbed and unrobbed flowers. These results suggest that robbers may respond to food availability and that no floral visitors apparently could differentiate between robbed and unrobbed flowers. Finally, results show that nectar robbers prefer the youngest flowers, which suggests that strong competition for access to nectar between pollinators and robbers might occur, mainly at the first stages of the flowers.

  13. Rob Hargraves and the External Force in Lamellar Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P.; McEnroe, S. A.; Harrison, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    The strong remanence and extreme coercivity of slowly cooled rocks rich in hemo-ilmenite or ilmeno-hematite, poor in or lacking magnetite, was recognized and puzzled over by Rob for 44 years and highlighted in recent studies. Together these are properties neither of paramagnetic (PM) ilmenite nor spin-canted antiferromagnetic (CAF) hematite. The minerals contain fine exsolution lamellae, now shown by TEM to go down to unit-cell scale, suggesting lamellar interfaces as the key. Atomic simulations of PM ilmenite lamellae in CAF hematite show formation of "contact layers" on (001) coherent interfaces that have a hybrid composition between hematite Fe3+ layers and ilmenite Fe2+ layers. These reduce interface charge imbalance, and, more important, have a magnetic moment coupled anti-parallel to but weaker than adjacent hematite layers. Each ilmenite lamella has an odd number of non-magnetic layers plus two contact layers coupled to hematite. The hematite host has an odd number of layers so magnetic moments of all but one cancel. This, combined with two opposite moments of contact layers (2MC-1MH), gives the moment of one lamella, about 4 Bohr magnetons. The maximum moment per formula unit is the moment per lamella times number of lamellae divided by formula units. One key to achieving a high moment is abundant lamellae. Rob's discussion of etched Allard Lake samples brought attention to the 3-phase cooling reaction in the ilmenite-hematite system, where R3c PM titanohematite transforms to about 20% PM R3 ilmenite and 80% CAF hematite, producing instantaneously the required coupled contact layers and a CRM. Lamellar yields up to 33% are obtained by undercooling below the 3-phase reaction, with eventual very fine nucleation. Long-term heating indicates major loss of the high-coercivity component due to lamellar resorption. A second key to strong remanence is that lamellae be magnetically "in-phase". This is optimized in crystals with (001) parallel to the external force

  14. Impact of Striped-Squirrel Nectar-Robbing Behaviour on Gender Fitness in Alpinia roxburghii Sweet (Zingiberaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaobao; Mohandass, Dharmalingam; Katabuchi, Masatoshi; Hughes, Alice C.; Roubik, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Nectar-robbing has the potential to strongly affect male and female reproductive fitness of plants. One example of nectar theft is that shown by striped-squirrels (Tamiops swinhoei) on a number of ginger species, including Alpinia roxburghii and A. kwangsiensis (Zingiberaceae). In this study, we used a fluorescent dye as a pollen analogue, and measured fruit and seed output, to test the effect of squirrel nectar-robbing on A. roxburghii reproductive fitness. Pollen transfer between robbed and unrobbed flowers was assessed by comparing 60 randomly established plots containing robbed and unrobbed flowers. The frequency of squirrel robbing visits and broken styles were recorded from a number of flowers for five consecutive days. Two bee species (Bombus eximius and Apis cerana), were the primary pollinators, and their visitation frequency was recorded for six consecutive days. The results showed that fluorescent powder from unrobbed flowers was dispersed further, and to a greater number of flowers than that placed on robbed flowers. Additionally, robbing flowers caused significant damage to reproductive organs, resulting in lower fruit and seed sets in robbed than in unrobbed flowers and influencing both male and female fitness. The frequency of the primary pollinator visits (B. eximius) was significantly higher for unrobbed plants than for robbed plants. The present study clearly shows the negative impact of squirrel robbing on A. roxburghii male reproductive fitness and neutral impact on female reproductive fitness. PMID:26689684

  15. Impact of Striped-Squirrel Nectar-Robbing Behaviour on Gender Fitness in Alpinia roxburghii Sweet (Zingiberaceae).

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaobao; Mohandass, Dharmalingam; Katabuchi, Masatoshi; Hughes, Alice C; Roubik, David W

    2015-01-01

    Nectar-robbing has the potential to strongly affect male and female reproductive fitness of plants. One example of nectar theft is that shown by striped-squirrels (Tamiops swinhoei) on a number of ginger species, including Alpinia roxburghii and A. kwangsiensis (Zingiberaceae). In this study, we used a fluorescent dye as a pollen analogue, and measured fruit and seed output, to test the effect of squirrel nectar-robbing on A. roxburghii reproductive fitness. Pollen transfer between robbed and unrobbed flowers was assessed by comparing 60 randomly established plots containing robbed and unrobbed flowers. The frequency of squirrel robbing visits and broken styles were recorded from a number of flowers for five consecutive days. Two bee species (Bombus eximius and Apis cerana), were the primary pollinators, and their visitation frequency was recorded for six consecutive days. The results showed that fluorescent powder from unrobbed flowers was dispersed further, and to a greater number of flowers than that placed on robbed flowers. Additionally, robbing flowers caused significant damage to reproductive organs, resulting in lower fruit and seed sets in robbed than in unrobbed flowers and influencing both male and female fitness. The frequency of the primary pollinator visits (B. eximius) was significantly higher for unrobbed plants than for robbed plants. The present study clearly shows the negative impact of squirrel robbing on A. roxburghii male reproductive fitness and neutral impact on female reproductive fitness.

  16. Effects of nectar robbing on male and female reproductive success of a pollinator-dependent plant

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Nossa, Sandra V.; Sánchez, José María; Navarro, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Nectar robbers affect host fitness in different ways and by different magnitudes, both directly and indirectly, and potentially constitute an important part of pollination interactions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nectar robbing on several variables that characterize the reproductive success of Lonicera etrusca, a pollinator-dependent plant with long, tubular flowers that produce abundant nectar. Methods Using fluorescent powder dye as a proxy for pollen, the distance of pollen dispersal was compared for robbed and non-robbed flowers. Artificial nectar robbing treatments were applied to test its effects on four additional measures of reproductive success, namely the quantity of pollen exported, fruit set, seed/ovule ratio and seed weight. Key Results Nectar robbing was not found to have any significant negative consequences on female and male components of reproductive success as determined through the five variables that were measured. Conclusions Although L. etrusca exhibits high levels of nectar robbing and nectar robbers are common floral visitors, no evidence was found of detrimental changes in the components of reproductive success. A combination of morphological and ecological mechanisms is proposed to explain how plants may compensate for the energetic loss caused by the nectar robbers. PMID:26482653

  17. Effects of nectar robbing on male and female reproductive success of a pollinator-dependent plant.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Nossa, Sandra V; Sánchez, José María; Navarro, Luis

    2016-02-01

    Nectar robbers affect host fitness in different ways and by different magnitudes, both directly and indirectly, and potentially constitute an important part of pollination interactions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nectar robbing on several variables that characterize the reproductive success of Lonicera etrusca, a pollinator-dependent plant with long, tubular flowers that produce abundant nectar. Using fluorescent powder dye as a proxy for pollen, the distance of pollen dispersal was compared for robbed and non-robbed flowers. Artificial nectar robbing treatments were applied to test its effects on four additional measures of reproductive success, namely the quantity of pollen exported, fruit set, seed/ovule ratio and seed weight. Nectar robbing was not found to have any significant negative consequences on female and male components of reproductive success as determined through the five variables that were measured. Although L. etrusca exhibits high levels of nectar robbing and nectar robbers are common floral visitors, no evidence was found of detrimental changes in the components of reproductive success. A combination of morphological and ecological mechanisms is proposed to explain how plants may compensate for the energetic loss caused by the nectar robbers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Agile beam director system design: ROBS/TCATS optical tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Brian W.; Trissel, Richard G.; Dunn, Murray; Scotese, Lee

    1999-10-01

    The ROBS tracking telescope was invented and developed at TTC to provide a high acceleration,k large aperture beam steering system for rapid pointing to multiple objects. The optical system consists of a fast, oversized spherical primary mirror with the 50 cm aperture stop at the center of curvature of the primary mirror (CCP). A lightweight secondary mirror selects the instantaneous field of view by scanning over the petzval image surface of the primary mirror. The secondary mirror is gimbaled about the CCP on a rigid, lightweight mast. The system's symmetry about the CCP simplifies the optical and mechanical design and provides very rapid retargeting over a 30 degree field of regard for multiple target tracking. Field corrector and pupil relay optics inside the support tube collimate the light through coude' optics to passive sensor and laser radar optics. The 2-sphere, 2-asphere aplanatic, anastigmat all-reflective design corrects the 9.1 mr of spherical aberration from the F/1 primary and provides 10 microradian resolution over a 5 mr field of view. The system incorporates near field focus adjustment to provide high resolution imaging and laser ranging over a large volume of space. Two 50 cm systems have been built and demonstrated tracking multiple targets in the field. This paper describes the opto-mechanical design and demonstrated system capabilities.

  19. Role of the mar-sox-rob Regulon in Regulating Outer Membrane Porin Expression▿†

    PubMed Central

    Chubiz, Lon M.; Rao, Christopher V.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple factors control the expression of the outer membrane porins OmpF and OmpC in Escherichia coli. In this work, we investigated the role of the mar-sox-rob regulon in regulating outer membrane porin expression in response to salicylate. We provide both genetic and physiological evidence that MarA and Rob can independently activate micF transcription in response to salicylate, leading to reduced OmpF expression. MarA was also found to repress OmpF expression through a MicF-independent pathway. In the case of OmpC, we found that its transcription was moderately increased in response to salicylate. However, this increase was independent of MarA and Rob. Finally, we found that the reduction in OmpF expression in a tolC mutant is due primarily to Rob. Collectively, this work further clarifies the coordinated role of MarA and Rob in regulating the expression of the outer membrane porins. PMID:21398557

  20. Nectar Robbing Positively Influences the Reproductive Success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vineet Kumar; Barman, Chandan; Tandon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    The net consequence of nectar robbing on reproductive success of plants is usually negative and the positive effect is rarely produced. We evaluated the influence of nectar robbing on the behaviour of pollinators and the reproductive success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae) in a natural population. Experimental pollinations showed that the trees were strictly self-incompatible. The three types of floral colour morphs of the tree viz. red, orange and yellow, lacked compatibility barriers. The pollinators (Pycnonotus cafer and Pycnonotus leucotis) and the robber (Nectarinia asiatica) showed equal preference for all the morphs, as they visited each morph with nearly equal frequency and flower-handling time. The sunbirds caused up to 60% nectar robbing, mostly (99%) by piercing through the corolla tube. Although nectar is replenished at regular intervals, insufficient amount of nectar compelled the pollinators to visit additional trees in bloom. Data of manual nectar robbing from the entire tree showed that the pollinators covered lower number of flowers per tree (5 flowers/tree) and more trees per bout (7 trees/bout) than the unrobbed ones (19 flowers/tree and 2 trees bout). The robbed trees set a significantly greater amount of fruits than the unrobbed trees. However, the number of seeds in a fruit did not differ significantly. The study shows that plant-pollinator-robber interaction may benefit the self-incompatible plant species under conditions that increases the visits of pollinators among the compatible conspecifics in a population. PMID:25036554

  1. Building a Career in America's Community Colleges: Essays by Rob Jenkins from "The Chronicle of Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Errico, Deanna, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume collects essays Rob Jenkins originally wrote for "The Two-Year Track" column in "The Chronicle of Higher Education". Drawing on his own experience, Rob has, for many years, been dispensing much-appreciated advice from the frontline--to those considering a community college career as well as those who desire to move up the ranks. This…

  2. 78 FR 46598 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Rob Jaggers Camping Area Business Plan and Expanded Amenity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Draft Rob Jaggers Camping Area Business Plan and... prepared and is making available to the public the Draft Rob Jaggers Camping Area Business Plan and... written comments on the Draft Business Plan by December 15, 2013. ADDRESSES: Copies of the Draft...

  3. Identification of a ROB-1 beta-lactamase in Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, I W; Slaney, L; Juteau, J M; Levesque, R C; Albritton, W L; Ronald, A R

    1992-01-01

    A collection of 100 clinical isolates of Haemophilus ducreyi from Thailand were all found to harbor a 5.4-kb plasmid, designated pTH126, which was shown to contain the bla ROB-1 gene. Restriction enzyme analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed that pTH126 was similar to the ROB-1 beta-lactamase plasmid pVM105 from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In approximately one-half of the isolates, pTH126 was found together with pHD131, which mediates TEM-1 beta-lactamase production. Images PMID:1605612

  4. 75 FR 57664 - Airworthiness Directives; G ROB-WERKE Model G120A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ...-024-AD; Amendment 39-16435; AD 2010-20-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; G ROB-WERKE Model.... The authority citation for part 39 continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113.... (g) You may at any time complete GROB Aircraft AG Repair Instruction No. RI-1121-017, dated April...

  5. Predicting the effects of nectar robbing on plant reproduction: implications of pollen limitation and plant mating system.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Laura A; Irwin, Rebecca E; Newman, Daniel A

    2007-12-01

    The outcome of species interactions is often difficult to predict, depending on the organisms involved and the ecological context. Nectar robbers remove nectar from flowers, often without providing pollination service, and their effects on plant reproduction vary in strength and direction. In two case studies and a meta-analysis, we tested the importance of pollen limitation and plant mating system in predicting the impacts of nectar robbing on female plant reproduction. We predicted that nectar robbing would have the strongest effects on species requiring pollinators to set seed and pollen limited for seed production. Our predictions were partially supported. In the first study, natural nectar robbing was associated with lower seed production in Delphinium nuttallianum, a self-compatible but non-autogamously selfing, pollen-limited perennial, and experimental nectar robbing reduced seed set relative to unrobbed plants. The second study involved Linaria vulgaris, a self-incompatible perennial that is generally not pollen limited. Natural levels of nectar robbing generally had little effect on estimates of female reproduction in L. vulgaris, while experimental nectar robbing reduced seed set per fruit but not percentage of fruit set. A meta-analysis revealed that nectar robbing had strong negative effects on pollen-limited and self-incompatible plants, as predicted. Our results suggest that pollination biology and plant mating system must be considered to understand and predict the ecological outcome of both mutualistic and antagonistic plant-animal interactions.

  6. Differential expression of the transcription factors MarA, Rob, and SoxS of Salmonella Typhimurium in response to sodium hypochlorite: down-regulation of rob by MarA and SoxS.

    PubMed

    Collao, B; Morales, E H; Gil, F; Polanco, R; Calderón, I L; Saavedra, C P

    2012-11-01

    To survive, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) must sense signals found in phagocytic cells and modulate gene expression. In the present work, we evaluated the expression and cross-regulation of the transcription factors MarA, Rob, and SoxS in response to NaOCl. We generated strains ΔsoxS and ΔmarA, which were 20 times more sensitive to NaOCl as compared to the wild-type strain; while Δrob only 5 times. Subsequently, we determined that marA and soxS transcript and protein levels were increased while those of rob decreased in a wild-type strain treated with NaOCl. To assess if changes in S. Typhimurium after exposure to NaOCl were due to a cross-regulation, as in Escherichia coli, we evaluated the expression of marA, soxS, and rob in the different genetic backgrounds. The positive regulation observed in the wild-type strain of marA and soxS was retained in the Δrob strain. As in the wild-type strain, rob was down-regulated in the ΔmarA and ΔsoxS treated with NaOCl; however, this effect was decreased. Since rob was down-regulated by both factors, we generated a ΔmarA ΔsoxS strain finding that the negative regulation was abolished, confirming our hypothesis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using MarA and SoxS confirmed an interaction with the promoter of rob.

  7. [Rob of the physician. An unequaled example of the past "secret remedy"against syphilis].

    PubMed

    Androutsos, Georges; Karamanou, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Since the 16th century syphilis treatment increased the use of mercury despite its strong toxicity. In 1764 in Paris Doctor Boyveau created the so-called rob without mercury and experimented it at the Bicêtre Hospital with the approval of the medical authorities. It was a real important success lasting till 1828, as Giradeau de Saint-Gervais took back the brand. However the suspicion of mercury in the remedy could not be proved.

  8. Evidence that regulatory protein MarA of Escherichia coli represses rob by steric hindrance.

    PubMed

    McMurry, Laura M; Levy, Stuart B

    2010-08-01

    The MarA protein of Escherichia coli can both activate and repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the position and orientation of its degenerate 20-bp binding site ("marbox") at the promoter. For all three known repressed genes, the marbox overlaps the promoter. It has been reported that MarA represses the rob promoter via an RNA polymerase (RNAP)-DNA-MarA ternary complex. Under similar conditions, we found a ternary complex for the repressed purA promoter also. These findings, together with the backwards orientation of repressed marboxes, suggested a unique interaction of MarA with RNAP in repression. However, no repression-specific residues of MarA could be found among 38 single-alanine replacement mutations previously shown to retain activation function or among mutants from random mutagenesis. Mutations Thr12Ala, Arg36Ala, Thr95Ile, and Pro106Ala were more damaging for activation than for repression, some up to 10-fold, so these residues may play a specific role in activation. We found that nonspecific binding of RNAP to promoterless regions of DNA was presumably responsible for the ternary complexes seen previously. When RNAP binding was promoter specific, MarA reduced RNAP access to the rob promoter; there was little or no ternary complex. These findings strongly implicate steric hindrance as the mechanism of repression of rob by MarA.

  9. Performance of ROB's near real-time ionospheric product during normal and disturbed space weather periods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeot, Nicolas; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bruyninx, Carine

    2015-04-01

    Several agencies are routinely monitoring the vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) using GNSS data. Derived maps are available with different latencies, area extents, and grid/time resolutions. However, no high-resolution maps are publically available over Europe in near real-time. In this frame, the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) developed the ROB-IONO software which takes advantage of the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN) to monitor the ionosphere. The main ROB products consist of ionospheric vTEC maps over Europe and their variability estimated in near real-time every 15 min on 0.5° x 0.5° grids using GPS observations. The maps are available online with a latency of ~3 min in the IONEX format at ftp://gnss.oma.be and as interactive web pages at www.gnss.be. During normal ionospheric activity, the ROB-TEC maps show a good agreement with widely used post-processed global products from IGS, CODE and ESA, with mean differences of 1.3 ± 0.9, 0.6 ± 0.7 and 0.4 ± 1.6 TECu respectively for the period 2012 to mid-2013. For a disturbed period, such as the 2003 Halloween ionospheric storm, the mean differences with IGS, CODE and ESA maps are respectively 0.9 ± 2.2, 0.1 ± 2.0 and 0.6 ± 6.8 TECu, with maximum differences (>38 TECu) occurring during the major phase of the storm. These differences are due to the lower resolution of global products in time and space compared to the ROB-TEC maps. A description of two recent events, on March 17, 2013 and February 27, 2014 highlights the capability of the method adopted to detect in near real-time abnormal ionospheric behaviour over Europe. The potential of the variability maps as an indicator of rapid ionospheric variations during the 15 min of observations is also highlighted. More than 30 ionospheric events associated with Space weather were detected during the period 2012-2014. The ionospheric perturbations are associated with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs, ~70% of the time), active geomagnetic conditions

  10. Quantum accelerometer: Distinguishing inertial Bob from his accelerated twin Rob by a local measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragan, Andrzej; Fuentes, Ivette; Louko, Jorma

    2011-04-01

    A single quantum system, such as the Unruh-DeWitt detector, can be used to determine absolute acceleration by local measurements on a quantum field. To show this, we consider two kinematically indistinguishable scenarios: an inertial observer, Bob, measuring the field of a uniformly accelerated cavity, and his noninertial twin, Rob, accelerating and making measurements in a stationary cavity. We find that these scenarios can be distinguished in the nonrelativistic regime only by measurements on highly excited massive fields, allowing one to detect the noninertialness of the reference frame.

  11. Differential effects of nectar robbing by the same bumble-bee species on three sympatric Corydalis species with varied mating systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Wen; Yu, Qian; Zhao, Ji-Min; Guo, You-Hao

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Most research on the widespread phenomenon of nectar robbing has focused on the effect of the nectar robbers' behaviour on host-plant fitness. However, attention also needs be paid to the characteristics of host plants, which can potentially influence the consequences of nectar robbing as well. A system of three sympatric Corydalis species sharing the same nectar-robbing bumble-bee was therefore studied over 3 years in order to investigate the effect of nectar robbing on host reproductive fitness. Methods Three perennial species of Corydalis were studied in the Shennongjia Mountain area, central China. Observations were conducted on visitor behaviour and visitation frequencies of nectar-robbers and legitimate pollinators. Key Results The results indicated that the effect of nectar robbing by Bombus pyrosoma varied among species, and the three species had different mating systems. Seed set was thus influenced differentially: there was no effect on seed set of the predominantly selfing C. tomentella; for the facultative outcrossing C. incisa, nectar robbing by B. pyrosoma had a positive effect; and nectar robbing had a significant negative effect on the seed set of outcrossing C. ternatifolia. Conclusions A hypothesis is proposed that the type of host-plant mating system could influence the consequences of nectar robbing on host reproductive fitness. PMID:19465751

  12. Development of RadRob15, A Robot for Detecting Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear Medicine Departments.

    PubMed

    Shafe, A; Mortazavi, S M J; Joharnia, A; Safaeyan, Gh H

    2016-09-01

    Accidental or intentional release of radioactive materials into the living or working environment may cause radioactive contamination. In nuclear medicine departments, radioactive contamination is usually due to radionuclides which emit high energy gamma photons and particles. These radionuclides have a broad range of energies and penetration capabilities. Rapid detection of radioactive contamination is very important for efficient removing of the contamination without spreading the radionuclides. A quick scan of the contaminated area helps health physicists locate the contaminated area and assess the level of activity. Studies performed in IR Iran shows that in some nuclear medicine departments, areas with relatively high levels of activity can be found. The highest contamination level was detected in corridors which are usually used by patients. To monitor radioactive contamination in nuclear medicine departments, RadRob15, a contamination detecting robot was developed in the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC). The motor vehicle scanner and the gas radiation detector are the main components of this robot. The detection limit of this robot has enabled it to detect low levels of radioactive contamination. Our preliminary tests show that RadRob15 can be easily used in nuclear medicine departments as a device for quick surveys which identifies the presence or absence of radioactive contamination.

  13. Development of RadRob15, A Robot for Detecting Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear Medicine Departments

    PubMed Central

    Shafe, A.; Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Joharnia, A.; Safaeyan, Gh.H.

    2016-01-01

    Accidental or intentional release of radioactive materials into the living or working environment may cause radioactive contamination. In nuclear medicine departments, radioactive contamination is usually due to radionuclides which emit high energy gamma photons and particles. These radionuclides have a broad range of energies and penetration capabilities. Rapid detection of radioactive contamination is very important for efficient removing of the contamination without spreading the radionuclides. A quick scan of the contaminated area helps health physicists locate the contaminated area and assess the level of activity. Studies performed in IR Iran shows that in some nuclear medicine departments, areas with relatively high levels of activity can be found. The highest contamination level was detected in corridors which are usually used by patients. To monitor radioactive contamination in nuclear medicine departments, RadRob15, a contamination detecting robot was developed in the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC). The motor vehicle scanner and the gas radiation detector are the main components of this robot. The detection limit of this robot has enabled it to detect low levels of radioactive contamination. Our preliminary tests show that RadRob15 can be easily used in nuclear medicine departments as a device for quick surveys which identifies the presence or absence of radioactive contamination. PMID:27853728

  14. Managing hydrological measurements for small and intermediate projects: RObsDat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusser, Dominik E.

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological measurements need good management for the data not to be lost. Multiple, often overlapping files from various loggers with heterogeneous formats need to be merged. Data needs to be validated and cleaned and subsequently converted to the format for the hydrological target application. Preferably, all these steps should be easily tracable. RObsDat is an R package designed to support such data management. It comes with a command line user interface to support hydrologists to enter and adjust their data in a database following the Observations Data Model (ODM) standard by QUASHI. RObsDat helps in the setup of the database within one of the free database engines MySQL, PostgreSQL or SQLite. It imports the controlled water vocabulary from the QUASHI web service and provides a smart interface between the hydrologist and the database: Already existing data entries are detected and duplicates avoided. The data import function converts different data table designes to make import simple. Cleaning and modifications of data are handled with a simple version control system. Variable and location names are treated in a user friendly way, accepting and processing multiple versions. A new development is the use of spacetime objects for subsequent processing.

  15. Different effects of transcriptional regulators MarA, SoxS and Rob on susceptibility of Escherichia coli to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs): Rob-dependent CAMP induction of the marRAB operon.

    PubMed

    Warner, Douglas M; Levy, Stuart B

    2010-02-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), a component of the mammalian immune system, protect the host from bacterial infections. The roles of the Escherichia coli transcriptional regulators MarA, SoxS and Rob in susceptibility to these peptides were examined. Overexpression of marA, either in an antibiotic-resistant marR mutant or from a plasmid, decreased bacterial susceptibility to CAMPs. Overexpression of the soxS gene from a plasmid, which decreased susceptibility to antibiotics, unexpectedly caused no decrease in CAMP susceptibility; instead it produced increased susceptibility to different CAMPs. Deletion or overexpression of rob had little effect on CAMP susceptibility. The marRAB operon was upregulated when E. coli was incubated in sublethal amounts of CAMPs polymyxin B, LL-37 or human beta-defensin-1; however, this upregulation required Rob. Deletion of acrAB increased bacterial susceptibility to polymyxin B, LL-37 and human beta-defensin-1 peptides. Deletion of tolC yielded an even greater increase in susceptibility to these peptides and also led to increased susceptibility to human alpha-defensin-2. Inhibition of cellular proton-motive force increased peptide susceptibility for wild-type and acrAB deletion strains; however, it decreased susceptibility of tolC mutants. These findings demonstrate that CAMPs are both inducers of marA-mediated drug resistance through interaction with Rob and also substrates for efflux in E. coli. The three related transcriptional regulators show different effects on bacterial cell susceptibility to CAMPs.

  16. Rethinking the Boundaries and Burdens of Parental Authority over Education: A Response to Rob Reich's Case Study of Homeschooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2008-01-01

    Rob Reich's claim that fruitful discussions about the balance among state, parental, and children's educational interests would benefit by contemplating the widespread phenomenon of homeschooling is a welcome suggestion. His policy recommendations, however, place an unjustified burden on parents to show the adequacy of homeschooling arrangements…

  17. Using Classroom Observations to Measure Teacher Effectiveness: Q&A with Rob Ramsdell. REL Mid-Atlantic Webinar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In this webinar, Mr. Rob Ramsdell, Vice President, Cambridge Education, discussed the use of classroom observations as one measure of teacher effectiveness in a comprehensive educator support system. Mr. Ramsdell presented research-based recommendations for improving the quality and rigor of classroom observations. This Q&A addressed the…

  18. Rethinking the Boundaries and Burdens of Parental Authority over Education: A Response to Rob Reich's Case Study of Homeschooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2008-01-01

    Rob Reich's claim that fruitful discussions about the balance among state, parental, and children's educational interests would benefit by contemplating the widespread phenomenon of homeschooling is a welcome suggestion. His policy recommendations, however, place an unjustified burden on parents to show the adequacy of homeschooling arrangements…

  19. Analytic Calculation of Noise Power Robbing, NPR, and Polarization Isolation Degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Robert; Woolner, Peter; Ekelman, Ernest

    2008-01-01

    Three Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) R transponders (services) required analysis and measurements to develop an accurate link budget. These are a) Search and Rescue transponder which suffers from power robbing due to thermal uplink noise, b) the Data Collection Platform Report which suffers from degradation due to NPR (Noise Power Ratio), and c) GOES Rebroadcast transponder which uses a dual circular downlink L band for which there was no depolarization data. The first two services required development of extended link budget to analytically calculate the impact of these degradations which are shown to have a significant impact on the link budget. The third service required measurements of atmospheric L band CP depolarization as there were no known previous measurements and results are reported her

  20. Catalytic pyrolysis of tobacco rob: kinetic study and fuel gas produced.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Li, Tan; Jin, Shiping; Lin, Yixin; Yang, Haiping

    2011-12-01

    The pyrolysis kinetics of tobacco rob (TR) was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under inert atmosphere, adding chemicals (dolomite and NiO) as catalysts by catalytic-mixing method. The TGA results showed that mass loss and mass loss rates were affected by catalysts. The conversion rates increased while the activation energy decreased. Moreover, the thermal decomposition behaviors of TR were studied in the fixed-bed reactor using dolomite and NiO/γ-Al2O3 as catalysts by catalyst-bed method. A series of experiments had been performed to explore the effects of catalysts, and reaction temperature on the composition and yield of fuel gas. The experiments demonstrated that the catalysts had a high activity of cracking tar and hydrocarbons, as well as yielding a high fuel gas production. For both methods, dolomite and NiO revealed better catalytic performance as a view of enhancing conversion rates and increasing product gas yield.

  1. MarA, SoxS and Rob function as virulence factors in an Escherichia coli murine model of ascending pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Casaz, Paul; Garrity-Ryan, Lynne K; McKenney, David; Jackson, Caroline; Levy, Stuart B; Tanaka, S Ken; Alekshun, Michael N

    2006-12-01

    MarA, SoxS and Rob are transcription factors belonging to the AraC family. While these proteins have been associated historically with control of multiple antibiotic resistance, and tolerance to oxidative stress agents and organic solvents, only a paucity of experimental data support a role in regulating virulence. Clinical Escherichia coli isolates, and isogenic strains lacking marA, soxS and rob, were studied in a murine model of ascending pyelonephritis, which is a clinically relevant model of urinary tract infection. Organisms lacking all three transcription factors (triple knockouts) were significantly less virulent than parental strains, and complementation studies demonstrated that the addition of marA, soxS and rob individually restored wild-type virulence in the triple-knockout strain. Deletion of soxS or rob alone was more detrimental than the removal of marA. Thus, all three proteins contribute to virulence in vivo.

  2. TEM-1 AND ROB-1 PRESENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE STRAINS, ISTANBUL, TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Kuvat, Nuray; Nazik, Hasan; Berkiten, Rahmiye; Öngen, Betigül

    2015-03-01

    Resistance of 235 Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates from Istanbul Medical Faculty Hospital, Turkey were determined against 19 antibiotics by disc diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of those found resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxim, chloramphenicol and meropenem were measured using E-test. Ampicillin-resistant isolates producing beta-lactamase as demonstrated by a nitrocefin assay were analyzed for the presence of TEM-1 and ROB-1 genes by PCR. Eleven percent of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin (10 µg/ml), of which 73% were beta-lactamase positive and carried TEM-1 gene, but none were positive for ROB-1 gene. All isolates susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate (20/10 µg/ml), azithromycin (15 µg/ml), aztreonam (30 µg/ml), cefotaxime (30 µg/ml), ceftriaxone (30 µg/ml), ciprofloxacin (5 µg/ml), levofloxacin (5 µg/ml), and telithromycin (15 µg/ml) but 24%, 15%, 4%, 4%, 2%, 1%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.25/23.75 µg/ml), tetracycline (30 µg/ml), cefaclor (30 µg/ml), clarithromycin (15 µg/ml), cefuroxime (30 µg/ml), meropenem (10 µg/ml), chloramphenicol (30 µg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (10/10 µg/ml), nalidixic acid (30 µg/ml), and fosfomycin (30 µg/ml), respectively. MIC values of three cefuroxime-resistant isolates was 24, 48 and > 256 µg/ml, respectively; of two meropenem-resistant strains > 256 µg/ml; and of two chloramphenicol-susceptible isolates (by disc diffusion method) 6 µg/ml (considered as intermediate susceptible). Multiple- antibiotics resistance was detected in 15% of the strains, with resistance to 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 antibiotics in 8.5%, 4%, 2%, 0.5% and 0.5% of the isolates, respectively. By identifying beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, empirical therapy with beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and second generation cephalosporins would be inappropriate for such patients (approximately 3%). Our findings will

  3. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of 17 rob(13q14q) Robertsonian translocations by FISH, narrowing the region containing the breakpoints.

    PubMed Central

    Han, J. Y.; Choo, K. H.; Shaffer, L. G.

    1994-01-01

    We have characterized 17 rob(13q14q) Robertsonian translocations, using six molecular probes that hybridize to the repetitive sequences of the centromeric and shortarm regions of the five acrocentric chromosomes by FISH. The rearrangements include six de novo rearrangements and the chromosomally normal parents, five maternally and three paternally inherited translocations, and three translocations of unknown origin. The D21Z1/D13Z1 and D14Z1/D22Z1 centromeric alpha-satellite DNA probes showed all rob(13q14q) chromosomes to be dicentric. The rDNA probes did not show hybridization on any of the 17 cases studied. The pTRS-47 satellite III DNA probe specific for chromosomes 14 and 22 was retained around the breakpoints in all cases. However, the pTRS-63 satellite III DNA probe specific for chromosome 14 did not show any signals on the translocation chromosomes examined. In 16 of 17 translocations studied, strong hybridization signals on the translocations were detected with the pTRI-6 satellite I DNA probe specific for chromosome 13. All parents of the six de novo rob(13q14q), including one whose pTRI-6 sequence was lost, showed strong positive hybridization signals on each pair of chromosomes 14 and 13, with pTRS-47, pTRS-63, and pTRI-6. Therefore, the translocation breakpoints in the majority of rob(13q14q) are between the pTRS-47 and pTRS-63 sequences in the p11 region of chromosome 14 and between the pTRI-6 and rDNA sequences within the p11 region of chromosome 13. Images p[962]-a Figure 2 PMID:7977359

  4. Preferential nectar robbing of flowers with long corollas: experimental studies of two hummingbird species visiting three plant species.

    PubMed

    Lara, Carlos; Ornelas, Juan

    2001-07-01

    Long flower tubes have been traditionally viewed as the result of coevolution between plants and specialized, legitimate, long billed-pollinators. However, nectar robbers may have played a role in selection acting on corolla length. This study evaluated whether hummingbirds are more likely to rob flowers with longer corollas from which they cannot efficiently extract nectar with legitimate visits. We compared two hummingbird species with similar bill lengths (Lampornis amethystinus and Colibri thalassinus) visiting floral arrays of artificial flowers with exaggerated corolla lengths, and also evaluated how the birds extract nectar rewards from medium to long corollas of three hummingbird-pollinated plants (Salvia mexicana, S. iodantha and Ipomoea hederifolia). The consequences of foraging for plant fitness were evaluated in terms of seed production per flower. Variation in seed production after legitimate visits of hummingbird-pollinated plants was mostly explained by differences in pollinator effectiveness. Seed production did not increase with the number of legitimate visits to a flower, except in I. hederifolia. We found that birds were more likely to rob both artificial and natural flowers with long corolla tubes. Nectar robbing was not observed on short-corolla flowers of Salvia spp., but robbing negatively affected seed production of long-tubed flowers of I. hederifolia. Significant differences between hummingbird species in the use of this behavior were observed, but males and females behaved alike. We suggest that short-billed hummingbirds with enlarged bill serrations (the edge of both tomia finely toothed) may have an advantage in illegitimately feeding at long-corolla flowers. This raises the possibility of counter-selection on increasing corolla length by nectar robbers.

  5. Immediate effects of nectar robbing by Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea) on nectar alkaloid concentrations in tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca).

    PubMed

    Kaczorowski, Rainee L; Koplovich, Avi; Sporer, Frank; Wink, Michael; Markman, Shai

    2014-04-01

    Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs), such as alkaloids, are often found in many parts of a plant, including flowers, providing protection to the plant from various types of herbivores or microbes. PSMs are also present in the floral nectar of many species, but typically at lower concentrations than in other parts of the plant. Nectar robbers often damage floral tissue to access the nectar. By doing so, these nectar robbers may initiate an increase of PSMs in the floral nectar. It is often assumed that it takes at least a few hours before the plant demonstrates an increase in PSMs. Here, we addressed the question of whether PSMs in the floral tissue are immediately being released into the floral nectar following nectar robbing. To address this research question, we investigated whether there was an immediate effect of nectar robbing by the Palestine Sunbird (Nectarinia osea) on the concentration of nectar alkaloids, nicotine and anabasine, in Tree Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca). We found that the concentration of anabasine, but not nicotine, significantly increased in floral nectar immediately following simulated nectar robbing. These findings suggest that nectar robbers could be ingesting greater amounts of PSMs than they would if they visit flowers legitimately. As a consequence, increased consumption of neurotoxic nectar alkaloids or other PSMs could have negative effects on the nectar robber.

  6. Analysis of spatial correlation between the phenomenon land subsidence and rob (tidal inundation) using sentinel-1 SAR, GPS and geological data in Semarang city-Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, Yudo; Fahrudin, Islam, Lukman Juhdi Fahri

    2017-07-01

    Semarang city is the capital of Central Java province that is experiencing growth and rapid urban growth. But as the development, Semarang indicated experiencing the phenomenon of land subsidence. This happens because the geological structure of the city of Semarang is formed of young alluvial deposits in which still allows the compaction can cause ground subsidence. In addition, groundwater extraction also contributed in the process of land subsidence in the city of Semarang. Other problems are more widespread and increasing phenomenon of tidal inundation (rob) in some areas that were previously normal. The phenomenon of land subsidence and inundation becomes one inhibiting the rate of development progress Semarang. This study aimed to explore the spatial correlation between the appearances of the widespread phenomenon of robs inundation to the level of land subsidence in the area of Semarang. Hypotheses are constructed in this study that the increasing value of land subsidence will provide significant implications for the spread of rob area in the city of Semarang. The method used is the analysis of the spatial correlation between the data processing results of sentinel-1 SAR using DINSAR method between the years 2015-2016, GPS observation data between the years 2015-2016 and geological data in the form of hydrogeology, underground and ground rock distribution also geology structure data. These data are processed simultaneously, including a compilation of the field validation method for determining the distribution of rob inundation and anticipates the new rob area. The results are analyzed in a spatial to see whether the emergence of a new robs area has a significant correlation to the increase in value of land subsidence in that area. In general, the land subsidence in Semarang based methods DINSAR and GPS ranges around 0.07 to 0.21 m/yr with standard deviation around 0.03 m. Expected results of this study can help Semarang city governments in anticipation of

  7. Behavioural differences between male and female carpenter bees in nectar robbing and its effect on reproductive success in Glechoma longituba (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-W; Zhao, J-M; Yang, C-F; Gituru, W R

    2011-01-01

    Male and female nectar robbers may show significantly different behaviour on host plants and thus have different impacts on reproductive fitness of the plants. A 4-year study in natural populations of Glechoma longituba has shown that male carpenter bees (Xylocopa sinensis) are responsible for most of the nectar robbing from these flowers, while female bees account for little nectar robbing, demonstrating distinct behavioural differentiation between male and female bees in visiting flowers. The smaller male bee spends less time visiting a single flower than the larger female bee, consequently, the male bee is capable of visiting more flowers per unit time and has a higher foraging efficiency. Moreover, the robbing behaviour of female carpenter bees is more destructive and affects flower structures (ovules and nectaries) and floral life-span more than that of the male bee. According to the energy trade-off hypothesis, the net energy gain for male bees during nectar robbing greatly surpasses energy payout (17.72 versus 2.43 J), while the female bee net energy gain is barely adequate to meet energy payout per unit time (3.78 versus 2.39 J). The differences in net energy gain for male and female bees per unit time in nectar robbing are the likely cause of observed behavioural differences between the sexes. The differences in food resource preference between male and female bees constitute an optimal resource allocation pattern that enables the visitors to utilise floral resources more efficiently.

  8. Bioflocculant production by Virgibacillus sp. Rob isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cosa, Sekelwa; Mabinya, Leonard V; Olaniran, Ademola O; Okoh, Omobola O; Bernard, Kim; Deyzel, Shaun; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-03-14

    A bioflocculant-producing marine bacterium previously isolated from marine sediment of Algoa Bay was screened for flocculant production. Comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequence identified the isolate to have 99% similarity to Virgibacillus sp. XQ-1 and it was deposited in the GenBank as Virgibacillus sp. Rob with accession number HQ537127. The bacterium produced biflocculants optimally in glucose (70.4%) and peptone (70.4%) as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, alkaline pH (12) (74%); and the presence of Fe2+ (74%). Chemical analysis of the bioflocculant revealed it to be a polysaccharide.

  9. MarA, SoxS and Rob of Escherichia coli - Global regulators of multidrug resistance, virulence and stress response.

    PubMed

    Duval, Valérie; Lister, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria have a great capacity for adjusting their metabolism in response to environmental changes by linking extracellular stimuli to the regulation of genes by transcription factors. By working in a co-operative manner, transcription factors provide a rapid response to external threats, allowing the bacteria to survive. This review will focus on transcription factors MarA, SoxS and Rob in Escherichia coli, three members of the AraC family of proteins. These homologous proteins exemplify the ability to respond to multiple threats such as oxidative stress, drugs and toxic compounds, acidic pH, and host antimicrobial peptides. MarA, SoxS and Rob recognize similar DNA sequences in the promoter region of more than 40 regulatory target genes. As their regulons overlap, a finely tuned adaptive response allows E. coli to survive in the presence of different assaults in a co-ordinated manner. These regulators are well conserved amongst Enterobacteriaceae and due to their broad involvement in bacterial adaptation in the host, have recently been explored as targets to develop new anti-virulence agents. The regulators are also being examined for their roles in novel technologies such as biofuel production.

  10. Additive effects of herbivory, nectar robbing and seed predation on male and female fitness estimates of the host plant Ipomopsis aggregata.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Rebecca E; Brody, Alison K

    2011-07-01

    Many antagonistic species attack plants and consume specific plant parts. Understanding how these antagonists affect plant fitness individually and in combination is an important research focus in ecology and evolution. We examined the individual and combined effects of herbivory, nectar robbing, and pre-dispersal seed predation on male and female estimates of fitness in the host plant Ipomopsis aggregata. By examining the effects of antagonists on plant traits, we were able to tease apart the direct consumptive effects of antagonists versus the indirect effects mediated through changes in traits important to pollination. In a three-way factorial field experiment, we manipulated herbivory, nectar robbing, and seed predation. Herbivory and seed predation reduced some male and female fitness estimates, whereas plants tolerated the effects of robbing. The effects of herbivory, robbing, and seed predation were primarily additive, and we found little evidence for non-additive effects of multiple antagonists on plant reproduction. Herbivory affected plant reproduction through both direct consumptive effects and indirectly through changes in traits important to pollination (i.e., nectar and phenological traits). Conversely, seed predators primarily had direct consumptive effects on plants. Our results suggest that the effects of multiple antagonists on estimates of plant fitness can be additive, and investigating which traits respond to damage can provide insight into how antagonists shape plant performance.

  11. Experimental design and data-analysis in label-free quantitative LC/MS proteomics: A tutorial with MSqRob.

    PubMed

    Goeminne, Ludger J E; Gevaert, Kris; Clement, Lieven

    2017-04-05

    Label-free shotgun proteomics is routinely used to assess proteomes. However, extracting relevant information from the massive amounts of generated data remains difficult. This tutorial provides a strong foundation on analysis of quantitative proteomics data. We provide key statistical concepts that help researchers to design proteomics experiments and we showcase how to analyze quantitative proteomics data using our recent free and open-source R package MSqRob, which was developed to implement the peptide-level robust ridge regression method for relative protein quantification described by Goeminne et al. . MSqRob can handle virtually any experimental proteomics design and outputs proteins ordered by statistical significance. Moreover, its graphical user interface and interactive diagnostic plots provide easy inspection and also detection of anomalies in the data and flaws in the data analysis, allowing deeper assessment of the validity of results and a critical review of the experimental design. Our tutorial discusses interactive preprocessing, data analysis and visualization of label-free MS-based quantitative proteomics experiments with simple and more complex designs. We provide well-documented scripts to run analyses in bash mode on GitHub, enabling the integration of MSqRob in automated pipelines on cluster environments (https://github.com/statOmics/MSqRob).

  12. AraC/XylS Family Stress Response Regulators Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA in the Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Pletzer, Daniel; Schweizer, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional regulators of the AraC/XylS family have been associated with multidrug resistance, organic solvent tolerance, oxidative stress, and virulence in clinically relevant enterobacteria. In the present study, we identified four homologous AraC/XylS regulators, Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA, from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora Ea1189. Previous studies have shown that the regulators MarA, Rob, and SoxS from Escherichia coli mediate multiple-antibiotic resistance, primarily by upregulating the AcrAB-TolC efflux system. However, none of the four AraC/XylS regulators from E. amylovora was able to induce a multidrug resistance phenotype in the plant pathogen. Overexpression of rob led to a 2-fold increased expression of the acrA gene. However, the rob-overexpressing strain showed increased resistance to only a limited number of antibiotics. Furthermore, Rob was able to induce tolerance to organic solvents in E. amylovora by mechanisms other than efflux. We demonstrated that SoxS from E. amylovora is involved in superoxide resistance. A soxS-deficient mutant of Ea1189 was not able to grow on agar plates supplemented with the superoxide-generating agent paraquat. Furthermore, expression of soxS was induced by redox cycling agents. We identified two novel members of the AraC/XylS family in E. amylovora. PliA was highly upregulated during the early infection phase in apple rootstock and immature pear fruits. Multiple compounds were able to induce the expression of pliA, including apple leaf extracts, phenolic compounds, redox cycling agents, heavy metals, and decanoate. OpiA was shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic and alkaline pH stress responses. PMID:24936054

  13. AraC/XylS family stress response regulators Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Daniel; Schweizer, Gabriel; Weingart, Helge

    2014-09-01

    Transcriptional regulators of the AraC/XylS family have been associated with multidrug resistance, organic solvent tolerance, oxidative stress, and virulence in clinically relevant enterobacteria. In the present study, we identified four homologous AraC/XylS regulators, Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA, from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora Ea1189. Previous studies have shown that the regulators MarA, Rob, and SoxS from Escherichia coli mediate multiple-antibiotic resistance, primarily by upregulating the AcrAB-TolC efflux system. However, none of the four AraC/XylS regulators from E. amylovora was able to induce a multidrug resistance phenotype in the plant pathogen. Overexpression of rob led to a 2-fold increased expression of the acrA gene. However, the rob-overexpressing strain showed increased resistance to only a limited number of antibiotics. Furthermore, Rob was able to induce tolerance to organic solvents in E. amylovora by mechanisms other than efflux. We demonstrated that SoxS from E. amylovora is involved in superoxide resistance. A soxS-deficient mutant of Ea1189 was not able to grow on agar plates supplemented with the superoxide-generating agent paraquat. Furthermore, expression of soxS was induced by redox cycling agents. We identified two novel members of the AraC/XylS family in E. amylovora. PliA was highly upregulated during the early infection phase in apple rootstock and immature pear fruits. Multiple compounds were able to induce the expression of pliA, including apple leaf extracts, phenolic compounds, redox cycling agents, heavy metals, and decanoate. OpiA was shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic and alkaline pH stress responses.

  14. Abundances of the pop II sdO stars LS IV-12.1 and ROB 162

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, Ulrich

    LS IV-12.1 and ROB 162 are rare, hot (Teff=50 - 60,000K) subdwarf O stars of population II, evolving from the asymptotic giant branch to the white dwarf domain. FUSE spectra are proposed to determine the abundances of C,N,Si,P,S and Fe by means of NLTE model atmospheres. In the case of LS IV-12.1 its high radial velocity allows the photospheric resonance lines to be separated from interstellar components. The results of the abundance analysis will shed light on PAGB evolution in population II stars and will allow physical processes such as dredge-up of nuclearly processed matter and/or gas-dust fractionation in the AGB progenitor stars envelope to be investigated. The [S/Fe] ratio is a sensitive tracer of the latter process. The crucial sulphur abundance can most reliably be derived from the S IV and S VI lines in the FUV.

  15. Activation of the Escherichia coli marA/soxS/rob regulon in response to transcriptional activator concentration.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert G; Bartlett, Emily S; Rosner, Judah L; Wall, Michael E

    2008-07-04

    The paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob activate a common set of promoters, the marA/soxS/rob regulon of Escherichia coli, by binding a cognate site (marbox) upstream of each promoter. The extent of activation varies from one promoter to another and is only poorly correlated with the in vitro affinity of the activator for the specific marbox. Here, we examine the dependence of promoter activation on the level of activator in vivo by manipulating the steady-state concentrations of MarA and SoxS in Lon protease mutants and by measuring promoter activation using lacZ transcriptional fusions. We found that: (i) the MarA concentrations needed for half-maximal stimulation varied by at least 19-fold among the 10 promoters tested; (ii) most marboxes were not saturated when there were 24,000 molecules of MarA per cell; (iii) the correlation between the MarA concentration needed for half-maximal promoter activity in vivo and marbox binding affinity in vitro was poor; and (iv) the two activators differed in their promoter activation profiles. The marRAB and sodA promoters could both be saturated by MarA and SoxS in vivo. However, saturation by MarA resulted in greater marRAB and lesser sodA transcription than did saturation by SoxS, implying that the two activators interact with RNA polymerase in different ways at the different promoters. Thus, the concentration and nature of activator determine which regulon promoters are activated, as well as the extent of their activation.

  16. Water quality of Rob Roy Reservoir and Lake Owen, Albany County, and Granite Springs and Crystal Lake Reservoirs, Laramie County, Wyoming, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogle, Kathy Muller; Peterson, D.A.; Spillman, Bud; Padilla, Rosie

    1999-01-01

    The water quality of four reservoirs was assessed during 1997 and 1998 as a cooperative project between the Cheyenne Board of Public Utilities and the U. S. Geological Survey. The four reservoirs, Rob Roy, Lake Owen, Granite Springs, and Crystal Lake, provide approximately 75 percent of the public water supply for Cheyenne, Wyoming. Samples of water and bottom sediment were collected and analyzed for selected physical, chemical, and biological characteristics to provide data about the reservoirs. Water flows between the reservoirs through a series of pipelines and stream channels. The reservoirs differ in physical characteristics such as elevation, volume, and depth.Profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH were examined. Three of the four reservoirs exhibited stratification during the summer. The profiles indicate that stratification develops in all reservoirs except Lake Owen. Stratification developed in Rob Roy, Granite Springs, and Crystal Lake Reservoirs by mid-July in 1998 and continued until September, with the thickness of the epilimnion increasing during that time. Secchi disk readings indicated Rob Roy Reservoir had the clearest water of the four reservoirs studied.The composition of the phytoplankton community was different in the upper two reservoirs from that in the lower two reservoirs. Many of the species found in Rob Roy Reservoir and Lake Owen are associated with oligotrophic, nutrient-poor conditions. In contrast, many of the species found in Granite Springs and Crystal Lake Reservoirs are associated with mesotrophic or eutrophic conditions. The total number of taxa identified also increased downstream.The chemical water type in the reservoirs was similar, but dissolved-solids concentrations were greater in the downstream reservoirs. Water in all four reservoirs was a calcium-bicarbonate type. In the fall of 1997, Rob Roy Reservoir had the lowest dissolved-solids concentration (19 milligrams per liter), whereas

  17. Florivory and nectar-robbing perforations in flowers of pointleaf manzanita Arctostaphylos pungens (Ericaceae) and their effects on plant reproductive success

    PubMed Central

    Eliyahu, Dorit; McCall, Andrew C.; Lauck, Marina; Trakhtenbrot, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Damage to petals may have varying effects on the reproductive success of the plant. The variation may depend on the kind of damage to the corolla. Whether the damage is limited to the corolla, as is usually the case with nectar-robbing perforations, or extending to the reproductive parts of the flower, as in the case of florivory holes, might determine the extent of the effect on the plant's reproduction. We examined the various perforations in the flowers of Arctostaphylos pungens and correlated their presence with fruiting success. We found that though florivory holes were highly associated with damage to reproductive parts, fruiting success did not differ significantly between flowers with the two kinds of damage. Although nectar-robbing perforations were not associated with reduced number of fruit produced, they were significantly correlated with reduced number of fruit that contained seemingly viable seeds. The implications of our findings are discussed in the context of pollination and antagonism. PMID:26811740

  18. Characterization of TetD as a transcriptional activator of a subset of genes of the Escherichia coli SoxS/MarA/Rob regulon.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Kevin L; Becker, Stephen M; Wolf, Richard E

    2005-05-01

    In Escherichia coli, SoxS, MarA and Rob form a closely related subset of the AraC/XylS family of positive regulators, sharing approximately 42% amino acid sequence identity over the length of SoxS and the ability to activate transcription of a common set of target genes that provide resistance to redox-cycling compounds and antibiotics. On the basis of its approximately 43% amino acid sequence identity with SoxS, MarA and Rob, TetD, encoded by transposon Tn10, appears to be a fourth member of the subset. However, although its expression has been shown to be negatively regulated by TetC and not inducible by tetracycline, the physiological function of TetD is unknown. Accordingly, in the work presented here, we initiate a molecular characterization of TetD. We show that expression of TetD activates transcription of a subset of the SoxS/MarA/Rob regulon genes and confers resistance to redox-cycling compounds and antibiotics. We show that mutations in the putative TetD binding site of a TetD-activatable promoter and a mutation in the protein's N-terminal DNA recognition helix interfere with transcription activation, thereby indicating that TetD directly activates target gene transcription. Finally, we show that TetD, like SoxS and MarA, is intrinsically unstable; however, unlike SoxS and MarA, TetD is not degraded by Lon or any of the cell's known cytoplasmic ATP-dependent proteases. Thus, we conclude that TetD is a bona fide member of the SoxS/MarA/Rob subfamily of positive regulators.

  19. VRF ("Visual RobFit") — nuclear spectral analysis with non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasche, George; Coldwell, Robert; Metzger, Robert

    2017-09-01

    A new application (known as "VRF", or "Visual RobFit") for analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra has been developed using non-linear fitting techniques to fit full-spectrum nuclide shapes. In contrast to conventional methods based on the results of an initial peak-search, the VRF analysis method forms, at each of many automated iterations, a spectrum-wide shape for each nuclide and, also at each iteration, it adjusts the activities of each nuclide, as well as user-enabled parameters of energy calibration, attenuation by up to three intervening or self-absorbing materials, peak width as a function of energy, full-energy peak efficiency, and coincidence summing until no better fit to the data can be obtained. This approach, which employs a new and significantly advanced underlying fitting engine especially adapted to nuclear spectra, allows identification of minor peaks that are masked by larger, overlapping peaks that would not otherwise be possible. The application and method are briefly described and two examples are presented.

  20. Haemophilus influenzae Clinical Isolates with Plasmid pB1000 Bearing blaROB-1: Fitness Cost and Interspecies Dissemination▿

    PubMed Central

    San Millan, Alvaro; Garcia-Cobos, Silvia; Escudero, Jose Antonio; Hidalgo, Laura; Gutierrez, Belen; Carrilero, Laura; Campos, Jose; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Plasmid pB1000 is a mobilizable replicon bearing the blaROB-1 β-lactamase gene that we have recently described in Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida animal isolates. Here we report the presence of pB1000 and a derivative plasmid, pB1000′, in four Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates of human origin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed unrelated patterns in all strains, indicating that the existence of pB1000 in H. influenzae isolates is not the consequence of clonal dissemination. The replicon can be transferred both by transformation and by conjugation into H. influenzae, giving rise to recipients resistant to ampicillin and cefaclor (MICs, ≥64 μg/ml). Stability experiments showed that pB1000 is stable in H. influenzae without antimicrobial pressure for at least 60 generations. Competition experiments between isogenic H. influenzae strains with and without pB1000 revealed a competitive disadvantage of 9% per 10 generations for the transformant versus the recipient. The complete nucleotide sequences of nine pB1000 plasmids from human and animal isolates, as well as the epidemiological data, suggest that animal isolates belonging to the Pasteurellaceae act as an antimicrobial resistance reservoir for H. influenzae. Further, since P. multocida is the only member of this family that can colonize both humans and animals, we propose that P. multocida is the vehicle for the transport of pB1000 between animal- and human-adapted members of the Pasteurellaceae. PMID:20086141

  1. Effect of Transcriptional Activators SoxS, RobA, and RamA on Expression of Multidrug Efflux Pump AcrAB-TolC in Enterobacter cloacae

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Astrid; Poza, Margarita; Aranda, Jesús; Latasa, Cristina; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Tomás, María; Romero, Antonio; Lasa, Iñigo

    2012-01-01

    Control of membrane permeability is a key step in regulating the intracellular concentration of antibiotics. Efflux pumps confer innate resistance to a wide range of toxic compounds such as antibiotics, dyes, detergents, and disinfectants in members of the Enterobacteriaceae. The AcrAB-TolC efflux pump is involved in multidrug resistance in Enterobacter cloacae. However, the underlying mechanism that regulates the system in this microorganism remains unknown. In Escherichia coli, the transcription of acrAB is upregulated under global stress conditions by proteins such as MarA, SoxS, and Rob. In the present study, two clinical isolates of E. cloacae, EcDC64 (a multidrug-resistant strain overexpressing the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump) and Jc194 (a strain with a basal AcrAB-TolC expression level), were used to determine whether similar global stress responses operate in E. cloacae and also to establish the molecular mechanisms underlying this response. A decrease in susceptibility to erythromycin, tetracycline, telithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol was observed in clinical isolate Jc194 and, to a lesser extent in EcDC64, in the presence of salicylate, decanoate, tetracycline, and paraquat. Increased expression of the acrAB promoter in the presence of the above-described conditions was observed by flow cytometry and reverse transcription-PCR, by using a reporter fusion protein (green fluorescent protein). The expression level of the AcrAB promoter decreased in E. cloacae EcDC64 derivates deficient in SoxS, RobA, and RamA. Accordingly, the expression level of the AcrAB promoter was higher in E. cloacae Jc194 strains overproducing SoxS, RobA, and RamA. Overall, the data showed that SoxS, RobA, and RamA regulators were associated with the upregulation of acrAB, thus conferring antimicrobial resistance as well as a stress response in E. cloacae. In summary, the regulatory proteins SoxS, RobA, and RamA were cloned and sequenced for the first time in this species. The

  2. An excretory function for the Escherichia coli outer membrane pore TolC: upregulation of marA and soxS transcription and Rob activity due to metabolites accumulated in tolC mutants.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Judah L; Martin, Robert G

    2009-08-01

    Efflux pumps function to rid bacteria of xenobiotics, including antibiotics, bile salts, and organic solvents. TolC, which forms an outer membrane channel, is an essential component of several efflux pumps in Escherichia coli. We asked whether TolC has a role during growth in the absence of xenobiotics. Because tolC transcription is activated by three paralogous activators, MarA, SoxS, and Rob, we examined the regulation of these activators in tolC mutants. Using transcriptional fusions, we detected significant upregulation of marRAB and soxS transcription and Rob protein activity in tolC mutants. Three mechanisms could be distinguished: (i) activation of marRAB transcription was independent of marRAB, soxR, and rob functions; (ii) activation of soxS transcription required SoxR, a sensor of oxidants; and (iii) Rob protein was activated posttranscriptionally. This mechanism is similar to the mechanisms of upregulation of marRAB, soxS, and Rob by treatment with certain phenolics, superoxides, and bile salts, respectively. The transcription of other marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters, including tolC itself, was also elevated in tolC mutants. We propose that TolC is involved in the efflux of certain cellular metabolites, not only xenobiotics. As these metabolites accumulate during growth, they trigger the upregulation of MarA, SoxS, and Rob, which in turn upregulate tolC and help rid the bacteria of these metabolites, thereby restoring homeostasis.

  3. A Study of H2 Emission in Three Bipolar Proto-Planetary Nebulae: IRAS 16594-4656, Hen 3-401, and Rob 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Smith, Nathan; Su, Kate Y. L.; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2008-11-01

    We have carried out a spatial-kinematic study of three proto-planetary nebulae, IRAS 16594-4656, Hen 3-401, and Rob 22. High-resolution H2 images were obtained with NICMOS on the Hubble Space Telescope, and high-resolution spectra were obtained with the Phoenix spectrograph on Gemini-South. IRAS 16594-4656 shows a "peanut-shaped" bipolar structure with H2 emission from the walls and from two pairs of more distant, point-symmetric faint blobs. The velocity structure shows the polar axis to be in the plane of the sky, contrary to the impression given by the more complex visual image and the visibility of the central star, with an ellipsoidal velocity structure. Hen 3-401 shows the H2 emission coming from the walls of the very elongated, open-ended lobes seen in visible light, along with a possible small disk around the star. The bipolar lobes appear to be tilted 10°-15° with respect to the plane of the sky, and their kinematics display a Hubble-like flow. In Rob 22, the H2 appears in the form of an "\\textsf{S}"-shape, approximately tracing out the similar pattern seen in the visible. H2 is especially seen at the ends of the lobes and at two opposite regions close to the unseen central star. The axis of the lobes is nearly in the plane of the sky. Expansion ages of the lobes are calculated to be ~1600 yr (IRAS 16594-4656), ~1100 yr (Hen 3-401), and ~640 yr (Rob 22), based on approximate distances.

  4. MarA, SoxS and Rob of Escherichia coli – Global regulators of multidrug resistance, virulence and stress response

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Valérie; Lister, Ida M.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria have a great capacity for adjusting their metabolism in response to environmental changes by linking extracellular stimuli to the regulation of genes by transcription factors. By working in a co-operative manner, transcription factors provide a rapid response to external threats, allowing the bacteria to survive. This review will focus on transcription factors MarA, SoxS and Rob in Escherichia coli, three members of the AraC family of proteins. These homologous proteins exemplify the ability to respond to multiple threats such as oxidative stress, drugs and toxic compounds, acidic pH, and host antimicrobial peptides. MarA, SoxS and Rob recognize similar DNA sequences in the promoter region of more than 40 regulatory target genes. As their regulons overlap, a finely tuned adaptive response allows E. coli to survive in the presence of different assaults in a co-ordinated manner. These regulators are well conserved amongst Enterobacteriaceae and due to their broad involvement in bacterial adaptation in the host, have recently been explored as targets to develop new anti-virulence agents. The regulators are also being examined for their roles in novel technologies such as biofuel production. PMID:24860636

  5. Regulation of marA, soxS, rob, acrAB and micF in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Efrat; Ben-Shalom, Lior; Shachar, Dina; Matthews, Karl R; Yaron, Sima

    2008-12-01

    Importance of the overexpression of AcrAB efflux pumps in the low-level resistance of pathogens to antimicrobials requires a better understanding of the AcrAB regulation. The goal of the present research was to study the transcription of acrAB, as well as the genes that play a role in its regulation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We monitored the transcription of these genes during growth at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C, and thoroughly studied the effect of salicylate, paraquat and decanoate. The strengths of the promoters' activities were ordered from strong to weak as micF > rob > acrAB > soxS, marRAB. At both temperatures, marRAB was mainly upregulated by salicylate and decanoate, soxS by paraquat and acrAB and micF by all three compounds. rob was always downregulated. Transcription rates of all promoters were at the greatest level at the beginning of the stationary phase and, except for soxS, levels of transcription and induction were greater at 37 degrees C. Results show that despite the promoters' similar activity and the sequence homology between Escherichia coli and S. typhimurium, regulation of the investigated genes of both strains differed in the response to temperature. This difference was found to be dependent on the promoters' sequence, as the marRAB and acrAB promoters maintained their original dependence on temperature when they were analyzed in the other strain. Hence, it is most likely that the nutrient-limited environment at 37 degrees C in the human body will lead to increased transcription of marA, acrAB and micF in Salmonella, enhancing the resistance properties of the bacteria.

  6. Fis, an accessorial factor for transcriptional activation of the mar (multiple antibiotic resistance) promoter of Escherichia coli in the presence of the activator MarA, SoxS, or Rob.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, R G; Rosner, J L

    1997-01-01

    Transcription of the multiple antibiotic resistance marRAB operon increases when one of the sequence-related activators, MarA, SoxS, or Rob, binds to the "marbox" centered at -61.5 relative to the transcriptional start site. Previous deletion analyses showed that an adjacent upstream "accessory region" was needed to augment the marbox-dependent activation. To analyze the roles of the marbox and accessory regions on mar transcription, thirteen promoters, each with a different 5-bp transversion of the -96 to -32 sequence, were synthesized, fused to lacZ, and assayed for beta-galactosidase production in single-copy lysogens with appropriate genotypes. The accessory region is shown here to be a binding site for Fis centered at -81 and to bind Fis, a small DNA-binding and -bending protein, with a Kd of approximately 5 nM. The binding of MarA to the marbox and that of Fis to its site were independent of each other. MarA, SoxS, and Rob each activated the mar promoter 1.5-to 2-fold when it had a wild-type marbox but Fis was absent. In the presence of MarA, SoxS, or Rob, Fis further enhanced the activity of the promoter twofold provided the promoter was also capable of binding Fis. However, in the absence of MarA, SoxS, or Rob or in the absence of a wild-type marbox, Fis nonspecifically lowered the activity of the mar promoter about 25% whether or not a wild-type Fis site was present. Thus, Fis acts as an accessory transcriptional activator at the mar promoter. PMID:9393706

  7. One-step "green" preparation of graphene nanosheets and carbon nanospheres mixture by electrolyzing graphite rob and its application for glucose biosensing.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huanshun; Zhou, Yunlei; Meng, Xiaomeng; Shang, Kun; Ai, Shiyun

    2011-12-15

    The graphene nanosheets and carbon nanospheres mixture (GNS-CNS) was prepared by electrolyzing graphite rob in KNO(3) solution under constant current, which was characterized by TEM, AFM, SEM, FT-IR, XRD, XPS, TGA and UV-vis. The nano-mixture can keep stable in water for more than one month. Based on this kind of mixture material, a novel electrochemical biosensing platform for glucose determination was developed. Cyclic voltammetry of glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized on GNS-CNS/GCE exhibited a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks at -0.488 V (E(pa)) and -0.509 V (E(pc)) by direct electron transfer between the protein and the electrode. The charge-transfer coefficient (α) was 0.51, the electron transfer rate constant was 2.64 s(-1) and the surface coverage of HRP was 3.18×10(-10) mol cm(-2). The immobilized GOD could retain its bioactivity and catalyze the reduction of dissolved oxygen. The glucose biosensor has a linear range from 0.4 to 20 mM with detection limit of 0.1 mM. Moreover, the biosensor exhibits acceptable reproducibility and storage stability. The fabricated biosensor was further used to determine glucose in human plasma sample with the recoveries from 96.83% to 105.52%. Therefore, GOD/GNS-CNS/GCE could be promisingly applied to determine blood sugar concentration in the practical clinical analysis.

  8. Contribution of PBP3 Substitutions and TEM-1, TEM-15, and ROB-1 Beta-Lactamases to Cefotaxime Resistance in Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Annette; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the relative contributions of naturally occurring penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) substitutions, and TEM-1, TEM-15, and ROB-1 beta-lactamases on resistance to a third-generation cephalosporin in Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefotaxime (CTX) was assessed after transformation with PCR-amplified ftsI genes expressing altered PBP3 and/or small plasmids encoding beta-lactamases into an isogenic environment of H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. Group III PBP3, comprising substitutions N526K, S385T, and L389F, conferred CTX resistance to H. influenzae according to EUCAST interpretative criteria. Group III-like PBP3, comprising substitutions N526H and S385T, increased the CTX MIC of H. parainfluenzae ninefold, but the level did not transgress the resistance breakpoint. Production of TEM-15 beta-lactamase conferred CTX resistance on both H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. A nitrocefin hydrolysis assay showed TEM-15 to be a less efficient enzyme compared to TEM-1. TEM-15 and PBP3 substitutions impose an additive effect on resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in both H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. The effect of PBP3 substitutions on beta-lactam resistance in H. parainfluenzae can be addressed by transfer of ftsI genes in vitro.

  9. Novel blaROB-1-Bearing Plasmid Conferring Resistance to β-Lactams in Haemophilus parasuis Isolates from Healthy Weaning Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Moleres, Javier; Santos-López, Alfonso; Lázaro, Isidro; Labairu, Javier; Prat, Cristina; Ardanuy, Carmen; González-Zorn, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis, the causative agent of Glässer's disease, is one of the early colonizers of the nasal mucosa of piglets. It is prevalent in swine herds, and lesions associated with disease are fibrinous polyserositis and bronchopneumonia. Antibiotics are commonly used in disease control, and resistance to several antibiotics has been described in H. parasuis. Prediction of H. parasuis virulence is currently limited by our scarce understanding of its pathogenicity. Some genes have been associated with H. parasuis virulence, such as lsgB and group 1 vtaA, while biofilm growth has been associated with nonvirulent strains. In this study, 86 H. parasuis nasal isolates from farms that had not had a case of disease for more than 10 years were obtained by sampling piglets at weaning. Isolates were studied by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR and determination of the presence of lsgB and group 1 vtaA, biofilm formation, inflammatory cell response, and resistance to antibiotics. As part of the diversity encountered, a novel 2,661-bp plasmid, named pJMA-1, bearing the blaROB-1 β-lactamase was detected in eight colonizing strains. pJMA-1 was shown to share a backbone with other small plasmids described in the Pasteurellaceae, to be 100% stable, and to have a lower biological cost than the previously described plasmid pB1000. pJMA-1 was also found in nine H. parasuis nasal strains from a separate collection, but it was not detected in isolates from the lesions of animals with Glässer's disease or in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates. Altogether, we show that commensal H. parasuis isolates represent a reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes which can be transferred to pathogens or other bacteria. PMID:25747001

  10. Projeto observatórios virtuais: educação através de telescópios robóticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, P. H. S.; Shida, R. Y.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo do projeto Observatórios Virtuais é o ensino na área de ciências através de atividades práticas desenvolvidas em colaboração entre instituições de pesquisa em astronomia e escolas de ensino médio e fundamental. Este ano deverá ser concluída a implantação do programa piloto de estudos, pesquisas e observação astronômica direta, com utilização em tempo real de telescópios robóticos, que assim funcionarão como "observatórios virtuais". O objetivo pedagógico das atividades práticas baseadas nas imagens atronômicas é desenvolver as habilidades e competências dos alunos no uso do método científico. Para isso, serão realizados projetos interdisciplinares, a partir de observações astronômicas, já que a astronomia é uma área interdisciplinar por excelência. Essas atividades terão níveis diferenciados de complexidade, que podem ser adequados aos vários graus do ensino e realidades regionais. Será dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento e aplicação em São Paulo, onde atua a equipe do IAG/USP. Como resultados apresentados no presente trabalho, temos a criação de um software em português para o processamento de imagens obtidas através de CCDs e a elaboração de material para as atividades educacionais relacionadas.

  11. Novel blaROB-1-bearing plasmid conferring resistance to β-lactams in Haemophilus parasuis isolates from healthy weaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Moleres, Javier; Santos-López, Alfonso; Lázaro, Isidro; Labairu, Javier; Prat, Cristina; Ardanuy, Carmen; González-Zorn, Bruno; Aragon, Virginia; Garmendia, Junkal

    2015-05-01

    Haemophilus parasuis, the causative agent of Glässer's disease, is one of the early colonizers of the nasal mucosa of piglets. It is prevalent in swine herds, and lesions associated with disease are fibrinous polyserositis and bronchopneumonia. Antibiotics are commonly used in disease control, and resistance to several antibiotics has been described in H. parasuis. Prediction of H. parasuis virulence is currently limited by our scarce understanding of its pathogenicity. Some genes have been associated with H. parasuis virulence, such as lsgB and group 1 vtaA, while biofilm growth has been associated with nonvirulent strains. In this study, 86 H. parasuis nasal isolates from farms that had not had a case of disease for more than 10 years were obtained by sampling piglets at weaning. Isolates were studied by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR and determination of the presence of lsgB and group 1 vtaA, biofilm formation, inflammatory cell response, and resistance to antibiotics. As part of the diversity encountered, a novel 2,661-bp plasmid, named pJMA-1, bearing the blaROB-1 β-lactamase was detected in eight colonizing strains. pJMA-1 was shown to share a backbone with other small plasmids described in the Pasteurellaceae, to be 100% stable, and to have a lower biological cost than the previously described plasmid pB1000. pJMA-1 was also found in nine H. parasuis nasal strains from a separate collection, but it was not detected in isolates from the lesions of animals with Glässer's disease or in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates. Altogether, we show that commensal H. parasuis isolates represent a reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes which can be transferred to pathogens or other bacteria. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Constitutive SoxS expression in a fluoroquinolone-resistant strain with a truncated SoxR protein and identification of a new member of the marA-soxS-rob regulon, mdtG.

    PubMed

    Fàbrega, Anna; Martin, Robert G; Rosner, Judah L; Tavio, M Mar; Vila, Jordi

    2010-03-01

    Elevated levels of fluoroquinolone resistance are frequently found among Escherichia coli clinical isolates. This study investigated the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of strain NorE5, derived in vitro by exposing an E. coli clinical isolate, PS5, to two selection steps with increasing concentrations of norfloxacin. In addition to the amino acid substitution in GyrA (S83L) present in PS5, NorE5 has an amino acid change in ParC (S80R). Furthermore, we now find by Western blotting that NorE5 has a multidrug resistance phenotype resulting from the overexpression of the antibiotic resistance efflux pump AcrAB-TolC. Microarray and gene fusion analyses revealed significantly increased expression in NorE5 of soxS, a transcriptional activator of acrAB and tolC. The high soxS activity is attributable to a frameshift mutation that truncates SoxR, rendering it a constitutive transcriptional activator of soxS. Furthermore, microarray and reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that mdtG (yceE), encoding a putative efflux pump, is overexpressed in the resistant strain. SoxS, MarA, and Rob activated an mdtG::lacZ fusion, and SoxS was shown to bind to the mdtG promoter, showing that mdtG is a member of the marA-soxS-rob regulon. The mdtG marbox sequence is in the backward or class I orientation within the promoter, and its disruption resulted in a loss of inducibility by MarA, SoxS, and Rob. Thus, chromosomal mutations in parC and soxR are responsible for the increased antibiotic resistance of NorE5.

  13. Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae) in sub-Saharan Africa: A synthesis and review of its medicinal potential.

    PubMed

    Omokhua, Aitebiremen G; McGaw, Lyndy J; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-05-13

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae) is a scrambling perennial shrub that originated in the Americas, but is now common in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Oceania, where it has become a serious weed. The species, particularly the biotype found in Asia and West Africa, has many ethnopharmacological uses, including treatment of malaria, wounds, diarrhoea, skin infection, toothache, dysentery, stomach ache, sore throat, convulsions, piles, coughs and colds. Furthermore, no attempt has been made to synthesise and review the available literature on the usefulness of the plant in the sub-Saharan African region, hence this paper examines the beneficial attributes of C. odorata in sub-Saharan Africa. Published information on the species was gathered by the use of different database platforms, including Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, SciFinder and Scopus. Records indicate that two biotypes of C. odorata are present in sub-Saharan Africa viz. the more widespread Asian/West African C. odorata biotype (AWAB) and the southern African biotype (SAB). While the usefulness of the former is well elucidated in the literature, such information on the latter is still scarce. Although the importance of AWAB C. odorata as a fallow species and as a soil fertility improvement plant in the slash and burn rotation system of agriculture in West Africa is increasingly being recognised, its usage in traditional medicinal practice is far more appreciated. The species has a wide range of ethnopharmacological uses, possibly because of the presence of flavonoids, essential oils, phenolics, tannins and saponins. The plant is reported to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anthelminthic, antifungal, cytotoxic, anticonvulsant, antiprotozoal, antispasmodic, antipyretic and analgesic properties. While the results of this review suggest that the AWAB plant can be exploited as an alternative to other threatened plant species known to possess similar medicinal potential

  14. Robbing Peter to pay Paul.

    PubMed

    Briggs, P

    1979-10-05

    Cutbacks in the health service are already affecting recruitment. Employing authorities are facing the problem of reducing expenditure and this will, inevitably lead to a reappraisal of decisions to employ locums. Peter Briggs, area medical officer for Hillingdon, discusses the implications and looks at the situation in the London area.

  15. Theoretical investigation on the bond dissociation enthalpies of phenolic compounds extracted from Artocarpus altilis using ONIOM(ROB3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p):PM6) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, Nguyen Minh; Duong, Tran; Pham, Linh Thuy; Nam, Pham Cam

    2014-10-01

    Theoretical calculations have been performed to predict the antioxidant property of phenolic compounds extracted from Artocarpus altilis. The Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization energy (IE), and proton dissociation enthalpy (PDE) of the phenolic compounds have been computed. The ONIOM(ROB3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p):PM6) method is able to provide reliable evaluation for the BDE(Osbnd H) in phenolic compounds. An important property of antioxidants is determined via the BDE(Osbnd H) of those compounds extracted from A. altilis. Based on the BDE(Osbnd H), compound 12 is considered as a potential antioxidant with the estimated BDE value of 77.3 kcal/mol in the gas phase.

  16. The ability of the blowflies Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the muscid flies Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and Muscina prolapsa (Harris) (Diptera: Muscidae) to colonise buried remains.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Alan; Bird, Jerry

    2011-04-15

    The blowflies Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) exhibited a limited ability to colonise pig liver baits buried in loose soil. Calliphora vomitoria colonised baits buried at 5 cm but no deeper whilst C. vicina and L. sericata colonised remains at 10 cm but not at 20 cm. The baits were colonised by larvae hatching from eggs laid on the surface of the soil. Both C. vomitoria and L. sericata were able to develop from eggs through to adulthood on baits that were infested before being buried and the larvae developed at similar rates and pupariated at similar depths to larvae developing on baits on the soil surface. The muscid flies Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and Muscina prolapsa (Harris) colonised remains buried in loose soil at a depth of 40 cm and even when presented with baits on the soil surface their larvae tended to remain in the soil beneath the baits. In compacted soil, M. stabulans colonised baits buried at 10 cm but M. prolapsa only colonised those buried at 5 cm. In both muscid species, the adult flies were instantly attracted to feed on fresh blood and laid eggs in the soil above buried baits within 30min of them being introduced into the cages. The adult muscid flies did not attempt to burrow into the soil and their larvae colonised the baits from eggs laid on the soil surface. This information could be useful in determining whether a body was stored above ground before being buried and/or the time since burial occurred.

  17. Mixed-Methods Study that Examines Nine Science Teachers' Perceptions of Slooh Robotic Telescope for Teaching Astronomy. (Breton Title: Métodos Mistos de Estudo que Examinam a Percepção de Nove Professores de Ciências sobre o Telescópio Robótico Slooh Para Ensino de Astronomia.) Métodos Mixtos de Estudio que Examinan la Percepcion de Nueve Profesores de Ciencias sobre EL Telescopio Robótico Slooh Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, Daniel C.; Slater, Timothy F.; Berryhill, Katie J.

    2014-07-01

    Although previous studies show that robotic telescopes have the potential to enhance student learning, there is comparatively little research that focuses on teacher perceptions of this technology. This study investigates: "what is the academic merit of using SLOOH robotic telescopes to teach astronomy as perceived by science teachers?" Our sample consists of nine science teachers of students aged 13-18 years. Pre- and post-tests, interviews, and surveys were collected during two weeks of a summer online course about robotic telescopes. While pre and post-tests do not reveal a statistically significant gain in astronomy content knowledge, analysis of qualitative data reveals five themes which describe the most important aspects of using SLOOH according to participants: "Images," "Interface," "Classroom Application," "Instructor Impact," and "Logistical Issues." Analysis of these themes suggests that SLOOH can provide an interactive and social learning environment with capabilities to incorporate crossdisciplinary themes. Embora estudos anteriores mostram que os telescópios robóticos têm o potencial de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos, há relativamente pouca investigação focada nas percepções de professores a respeito desta tecnologia. Este estudo investiga: "qual é o mérito acadêmico da utilização de telescópios robóticos Slooh para ensinar astronomia, tal como percebido pelos professores de ciências?" Nossa amostra é composta por nove professores de ciências de estudantes com idades entre 13-18 anos pré e pós-testes, entrevistas, e levantamentos foram coletados durante duas semanas de um curso on-line de verão sobre telescópios robóticos. Enquanto os testes pré e pós não revelaram um ganho estatisticamente significativo no conhecimento do conteúdo astronomia, a análise de dados qualitativos revela cinco temas que descrevem os aspectos mais importantes da utilização Slooh de acordo aos participantes: "Imagens", "Interface", "Aplica

  18. Robbing the Bank with a Theorem Prover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clulow, Jolyon

    So it's a fairly provocative title, how did we get to that? Well automated tools have been successfully applied to modelling security protocols and finding attacks, and some good examples here are Gavin Lowe's work, using FDR to model the Needham-Shroeder protocols, and Larry Paulson's work using Isabella to prove the SET protocol secure. Now we come to the observation that security protocols, and security application programming interfaces are very closely related. So just to define what we mean by a security API here. We're talking devices that offer security services, that will obviously have some interface, typically the application programming interface, and unlike a normal API it also has to enforce policy onto the user, it has to make sure that keys remain secret, that PINs aren't revealed, and that users can't generally do things that would violate the security policy.

  19. Robbing the Bank with a Theorem Prover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Paul; Adida, Ben; Bond, Mike; Clulow, Jolyon; Herzog, Jonathan; Lin, Amerson; Rivest, Ronald L.; Anderson, Ross

    In this work, we present the first automated analysis of security application programming interfaces (security APIs). In particular, we analyze the API of the IBM 4758 CCA, a hardware security module for banking networks. Adapting techniques from formal analyses of security protocols, we model the API purely according its specification and assuming ideal encryption primitives. We then use the automated theorem-prover Otter to analyze this model, combining its standard reasoning strategies with novel techniques of our own (also presented here). In this way, we derive not only all published API-level attacks against the 4758 CCA, but an extension to these attacks as well. Thus, this work represents the first step toward fully-automated, rigorous analyses of security APIs.

  20. Robbing Peter...Balancing Collection Development and Reference Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, David G.

    1988-01-01

    Examines problems of librarians responsible for both collection development and reference services, including time demands, unclear supervisory lines, and misunderstanding of collection development. The discussion includes suggestions for improving this situation, e.g., formal reporting lines for both areas, increased communication among…

  1. Could Your Office Job Rob You of Vitamin D?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to milk and other products. Skin exposure to sunlight also produces vitamin D, which is why it's ... D deficiency, Heller said. Getting vitamin D from sunlight is the natural way, but Straube cautions against ...

  2. Bush's 2008 Budget: "Robbing Peter to Pay Pell"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    A few days before President Bush officially released his 2008 budget, administration officials announced that it would contain a historic increase in the maximum Pell Grant. The increase in Pell Grants would be paid for by cutting subsidies for student loans, a step that experts predicted could induce lenders to offer fewer benefits to borrowers.…

  3. Robbing Peter...Balancing Collection Development and Reference Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, David G.

    1988-01-01

    Examines problems of librarians responsible for both collection development and reference services, including time demands, unclear supervisory lines, and misunderstanding of collection development. The discussion includes suggestions for improving this situation, e.g., formal reporting lines for both areas, increased communication among…

  4. Robbed of Humanity: Lives of Guatemalan Street Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Nancy Leigh

    The situation for "street children" has degenerated over the past two decades following the economic and political transitions in much of Latin America. Drawing on scholarly materials, interviews with child rights advocates, and the words of the children themselves, this book explores the abuse, limited choices, despair, loyalty, and…

  5. Chemistry, 2nd Edition (by Rob Lewis and Wynne Evans)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, Wheeler

    2002-04-01

    In summary, what American course would be best served with this text? Probably not a GOB course, because it contains too much math. Probably not a general chemistry course, because it contains not enough math--although more math would then make it an ideal text for general chemistry. Maybe a course in applied chemistry for two-year-college students--but it would be a tough sell, given the availability of such books as Zumdahl's Introductory Chemistry or Stoker's Introduction to Chemical Principles for that set. Perhaps we'll develop a course called "Honors Applied Chemistry" and use it there. Until then, it will remain in my collection as a reference.

  6. Robbing Peter to Pay Paul: The Case Against "Comparability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Two proposals in the bill currently circulating to reauthorize No Child Left Behind seem to be shoe-ins for making their way into federal law. The impetus behind both proposals is to help poor kids by making sure that districts spend as much money on them as gets spent on rich kids. Going against the grain, the National Council on Teacher Quality…

  7. Bush's 2008 Budget: "Robbing Peter to Pay Pell"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    A few days before President Bush officially released his 2008 budget, administration officials announced that it would contain a historic increase in the maximum Pell Grant. The increase in Pell Grants would be paid for by cutting subsidies for student loans, a step that experts predicted could induce lenders to offer fewer benefits to borrowers.…

  8. Robbing Peter to Pay Paul: The Price of Standards-Driven Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingleby, Ewan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research findings on mentoring within PCET ITT (Post-Compulsory Education and Training Initial Teacher Training). The research has identified that mentors and mentees consider that the role of the mentor is unclear. Moreover, mentors are unsure of the aims of PCET ITT programmes. The inconsistency of mentor training…

  9. Another Woman Gets Robbed? What Jung, Freud, Piaget, and Vygotsky Took from Sabina Spielrein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Certainly not as many who have heard the names of Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky, have heard of Sabina Spielrein. While Spielrein had numerous face-to-face encounters, some personal and some professional, with all four men, and the accounting of her life and the interactions she had with them has been the content of…

  10. Hit, Robbed, and Put Down (but not Bullied): Underreporting of Bullying by Minority and Male Students.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tianjian; Kao, Grace

    2017-09-19

    To tackle adolescent bullying and identify students most vulnerable to being bullied, it is essential to examine both occurrences of bullying behaviors and students' own likelihoods of reporting bullying. This study examines ethnic and gender differences in students' odds of reporting bullying using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, a nationally representative study of United States high school sophomores (N = 15,362; ages 15-19; 50.2% female). Compared to White and female students, minority (particularly Black and Hispanic) and male students report comparable or greater experiences of bullying behaviors (such as being threatened, hit, put down by peers, or having belongings forced from them, stolen or damaged), but are less likely to report that they have been "bullied." These findings point to racialized and gendered differences in reporting bullying experiences such that indicators of "weakness" in peer relations may carry a greater stigma for minority and male students.

  11. Robbing Peter to Pay Paul: The Price of Standards-Driven Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingleby, Ewan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research findings on mentoring within PCET ITT (Post-Compulsory Education and Training Initial Teacher Training). The research has identified that mentors and mentees consider that the role of the mentor is unclear. Moreover, mentors are unsure of the aims of PCET ITT programmes. The inconsistency of mentor training…

  12. Another Woman Gets Robbed? What Jung, Freud, Piaget, and Vygotsky Took from Sabina Spielrein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Certainly not as many who have heard the names of Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky, have heard of Sabina Spielrein. While Spielrein had numerous face-to-face encounters, some personal and some professional, with all four men, and the accounting of her life and the interactions she had with them has been the content of…

  13. Robbing Public to Pay Private? Two Cases of Refinancing Education Infrastructure in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Stephen; Slee, Roger

    2005-01-01

    This paper will explore private sector participation in public sector education in the Australian context, focusing on case studies of Queensland and New South Wales, with reference to developments in other states and territories and internationally. In Australia, most states and territories have PPP policies and key projects include the Southbank…

  14. Electronic and Ionic Transport in Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-29

    and Rajeshwar, K., "Synthesis, Characterization, Theoretical Modeling, and Polymerization of New Fluorophore-Containing Derivatives of Thiophene and... orbital calculat- ions; Organometallic polymers; Liquid crystalline polymers. i9. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block...have been used to calculate structures, conformations, spin densities, HOMO-LUMO gaps, and potential energy surfaces for a wide variety of

  15. Bringing compassion to the ethical dilemma in killing kangaroos for conservation: comment on "Conservation through sustainable use" by Rob Irvine.

    PubMed

    Ramp, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Ethical debate on the killing of kangaroos has polarised conservation and animal welfare science, yet at the heart of these scientific disciplines is the unifying aim of reducing harm to non-human animals. This aim provides the foundation for common ground, culminating in the development of compassionate conservation principles that seek to provide mechanisms for achieving both conservation and welfare goals. However, environmental decision-making is not devoid of human interests, and conservation strategies are commonly employed that suit entrenched positions and commercial gain, rather than valuing the needs of the non-human animals in need of protection. The case study on the wild kangaroo harvest presents just such a dilemma, whereby a conservation strategy is put forward that can only be rationalised by ignoring difficulties in the potential for realising conservation benefits and the considerable welfare cost to kangaroos. Rather than an open debate on the ethics of killing game over livestock, in this response I argue that efforts to bring transparency and objectivity to the public debate have to date been obfuscated by those seeking to maintain entrenched interests. Only by putting aside these interests will debate about the exploitation of wildlife result in humane, compassionate, and substantive conservation benefits.

  16. Commemorating the 20th century Darwin: Ernst Mayr's words and thoughts, five years later. Interview by Rob J. Kulathinal.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Ernst

    2010-02-01

    It has been five years since Ernst Mayr, one of the most influential evolutionary biologists of the last century, passed away. Mayr's seminal work as a naturalist and, in particular, as a bird systematist allowed him to approach the species problem in a revolutionary way. As a leading architect of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, Mayr helped integrate Darwinian theory with the broad fields of systematics and genetics. We pay tribute to this legend by publishing an interview taken shortly before his death.

  17. Robbing Peter to Pay Paul: Modeling the Dynamic Evolution of the Coastal Carbon Sink Across Multiple Landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, E. R.; Walters, D.; Windham-Myers, L.; Kirwan, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Evaluating the strength and long-term stability of the coastal carbon sink requires a consideration of the spatial evolution of coastal landscapes in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions. We present a model of the transformation and burial of carbon along a bay-marsh-upland forest complex to explore the response of the coastal carbon sink to sea level rise (SLR) and anthropogenic activity. We establish a carbon mass-balance by coupling dynamic biogeochemically-based models of soil carbon burial in aquatic, intertidal, and upland environments with a physically-based model of marsh edge erosion, vertical growth and migration into adjacent uplands. The modeled increase in marsh vertical growth and carbon burial at moderate rates of sea level rise (3-10 mm/yr) is consistent with a synthesis of 219 field measurements of marsh carbon accumulation that show a significant (p<0.0001) positive correlation with local SLR rates. The model suggests that at moderate SLR rates in low topographic relief landscapes, net marsh expansion into upland forest concomitant with increased carbon burial rates are sufficient to mitigate the associated loss of forest carbon stocks. Coastlines with high relief or barriers to wetland migration can become sources of carbon through the erosion of buried carbon stocks, but we show that the recapture of eroded carbon through vertical growth can be an important mechanism for reducing carbon loss. Overall, we show that the coastal carbon balance must be evaluated in a landscape context to account for changes in the size and magnitude of both the stocks and sinks of marsh carbon and for the transfers of carbon between coastal habitats. These results may help inform current efforts to appraise coastal carbon sinks that are beset by issues of landscape heterogeneity and the provenance of buried carbon.

  18. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Yanne S; Trindade, Luma M P; Rezende, Maria Helena; Paula, José R; Gonçalves, Letícia A

    2016-03-01

    Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56%) and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%).

  19. Calculated properties of some oxoborons R-B≡) and their higher energy isomers R-O=B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh Tho; Groarke, Peter J.; Ha, Tae-Kyu

    Ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been employed to study four simple oxoboron molecules, XBO (X = H, F, Cl and CH3) and their isomers XOB. Several properties of oxoborons including the geometries, rotational constants, vibrational wavenumbers, thermochemical parameters and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants have been calculated and thereby predicted using appropriate correction schemes based on available experimental data. Energy barriers for the 1,2-shifts obtained at the MP4/DZP level using MP2/DZP-geometries suggest that, while HOB and CH3OB are relatively stable with respect to unimolecular rearrangement (energy barrier of about 25 kcal mol-1), FOB and ClOB are unstable in this regard. The former have bent equilibrium structures and their energy is quite high relative to their oxoboron isomers (≥ 50 kcal mol-1). An analysis based on the Boys' localized orbitals and molecular electrostatic potentials discloses that during the 1,2-shifts, the migrating group (H or CH3) behaves essentially as a cationic species moving between two electron pairs.

  20. Isolation breeds naivety: island living robs Australian varanid lizards of toad-toxin immunity via four-base-pair mutation.

    PubMed

    Ujvari, Beata; Mun, Hee-chang; Conigrave, Arthur D; Bray, Alessandra; Osterkamp, Jens; Halling, Petter; Madsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction to the toad-free Australian continent cane toads (Bufo marinus) have caused a dramatic increase in naïve varanid mortality when these large lizards attempt to feed on this toxic amphibian. In contrast Asian-African varanids, which have coevolved with toads, are resistant to toad toxin. Toad toxins, such as Bufalin target the H1-H2 domain of the α(1) subunit of the sodium-potassium-ATPase enzyme. Sequencing of this domain revealed identical nucleotide sequences in four Asian as well as in three African varanids, and identical sequences in all 11 Australian varanids. However, compared to the Asian-African varanids, the Australian varanids showed four-base-pair substitutions, resulting in the alteration in three of the 12 amino acids representing the H1-H2 domain. The phenotypic effect of the substitutions was investigated in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably transfected with the Australian and the Asian-African H1-H2 domains. The transfections resulted in an approximate 3000-fold reduction in resistance to Bufalin in the Australian HEK293 cells compared to the Asian-African HEK293 cells, demonstrating the critical role of this minor mutation in providing Bufalin resistance. Our study hence presents a clear link between genotype and phenotype, a critical step in understanding the evolution of phenotypic diversity. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Coastal-storm Inundation and Sea-level Rise in New Zealand Scott A. Stephens and Rob Bell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, S. A.; Bell, R.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal-storm inundation is a growing problem in New Zealand. It happens occasionally, when the combined forces of weather and sea line up, causing inundation of low-elevation land, coastal erosion, and rivers and stormwater systems to back up causing inland flooding. This becomes a risk where we have placed buildings and infrastructure too close to the coast. Coastal-storm inundation is not a new problem, it has happened historically, but it is becoming more frequent as the sea level continues to rise. From analyses of historic extreme sea-level events, we show how the different sea-level components, such as tide and storm surge, contribute to extreme sea-level and how these components vary around New Zealand. Recent sea-level analyses reveal some large storm surges, bigger than previously reported, and we show the type of weather patterns that drive them, and how this leads to differences in storm surge potential between the east and west coasts. Although large and damaging storm-tides have occurred historically, we show that there is potential for considerably larger elevations to be reached in the "perfect storm", and we estimate the likelihood of such extreme events occurring. Sea-level rise (SLR) will greatly increase the frequency, depth and consequences of coastal-storm inundation in the future. We show an application of a new method to determine the increasing frequency of extreme sea-levels with SLR, one which integrates the extreme tail with regularly-occurring high tides. We present spatial maps of several extreme sea-level threshold exceedance statistics for a case study at Mission Bay, Auckland, New Zealand. The maps show how the local community is likely to face decision points at various SLR thresholds, and we conclude that coastal hazard assessments should ideally use several SLR scenarios and time windows within the next 100 years or more to support the decision-making process for future coastal adaptation and when response options will be needed. In tandem, coastal hazard assessments should also provide information on SLR values linked to expected inundation frequency or depth. This can be linked to plausible timeframes for SLR thresholds to determine when critical decision points for adaptation might be reached, and we show how this might be achieved.

  2. Too Much and Too Many: How Commercialism and Screen Technology Combine to Rob Children of Creative Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Hands-on creative play is essential to children's health and well being, yet in the 21st century United States, nurturing such play has actually become countercultural. The dominant, marketing-driven, media-saturated culture dictates against it. In addition to depriving children of time spent in creative play, unlimited access to screens means…

  3. An Industrial Perspective of CAM/ROB Fuzzy Integrated Postprocessing Implementation for Redundant Robotic Workcells Applicability for Big Volume Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, J.; Gracia, L.; Tornero, J.; García, J. A.; González, F.

    2009-11-01

    The implementation of a postprocessor for the NX™ platform (Siemens Corp.) is described in this paper. It is focused on a milling redundant robotic milling workcell consisting of one KUKA KR 15/2 manipulator (6 rotary joints, KRC2 controller) mounted on a linear axis and synchronized with a rotary table (i.e., two additional joints). For carrying out a milling task, a choice among a set of possible configurations is required, taking into account the ability to avoid singular configurations by using both additional joints. Usually, experience and knowledge of the workman allow an efficient control in these cases, but being it a tedious job. Similarly to this expert knowledge, a stand-alone fuzzy controller has been programmed with Matlab's Fuzzy Logic Toolbox (The MathWorks, Inc.). Two C++ programs complement the translation of the toolpath tracking (expressed in the Cartesian space) from the NX™-CAM module into KRL (KUKA Robot Language). In order to avoid singularities or joint limits, the location of the robot and the workpiece during the execution of the task is fit after an inverse kinematics position analysis and a fuzzy inference (i.e., fuzzy criterion in the Joint Space). Additionally, the applicability of robot arms for the manufacture of big volume prototypes with this technique is proven by means of one case studied. It consists of a big orographic model to simulate floodways, return flows and retention storage of a reservoir in the Mijares river (Puebla de Arenoso, Spain). This article deals with the problem for a constant tool orientation milling process and sets the technological basis for future research at five axis milling operations.

  4. Evaluating the Significance of CDK2-PELP1 Axis in Tumorigenesis and Hormone Therapy Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    Rambabu Challa1, Bramanandam Manavathi3, nee Yew2, Rakesh Kumar4, Rajeshwar Rao Tekmal1, and Ratna K. Vadlamudi1ract Estr influen recept cancer genesi the...coregulator PELP1/MNAR. Nucl Recept Signal 7;5:e004. jhans R, Nair S, Holden AH, Kumar R, Tekmal RR, Vadlamudi RK. cogenic potential of the nuclear...done to elucidate the role of ILK1 in metastatic prostate, cervical and endometrial cancers. A recent study using prostate cancer cell lines

  5. High Resolution Transferred Substrate HBT Microwave/RF ADCs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-21

    obtained. Staff supported S. Jaganathan (Ph.D. 2000) Sundararajan Krishnan (Ph.D. 2002) Thomas Mathew (Ph.D. 2001) C. Serhan (M.S. 2000) 17...Conference on Indium Paper Smith, S. Jaganathan, T. Mathew, P. Phosphide and Related (Invited) Krishnan, C. Serhan , and S. Long, Materials, Davos

  6. When Art and Business Don't Mix: Overemphasis on Marketing Can Distract Artists and Rob Cultures, Argues One Art Instructor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKichan, Margaret A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the limited options available to Native American art students for developing artistic skills, stressing that the emphasis on mass marketing can hinder the creativity of young artists. Suggests alternatives for art programs and art students. Urges students to recognize that there are choices when it comes to serious art. (MY)

  7. Disaster Rules Rob Russell , Timothy Hodgetts , Peter Mahoney Disaster Rules et al Wiley Blackwell £24.99 176pp 9781405193788 1405193786 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2011-03-01

    In TWELVE short chapters, this excellent and concise pocket-sized book presents 80 'disaster rules' concerning triage after chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear incidents. it also covers international and paediatric issues, and provides references for further reading and the sources of national guidelines.

  8. When Art and Business Don't Mix: Overemphasis on Marketing Can Distract Artists and Rob Cultures, Argues One Art Instructor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKichan, Margaret A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the limited options available to Native American art students for developing artistic skills, stressing that the emphasis on mass marketing can hinder the creativity of young artists. Suggests alternatives for art programs and art students. Urges students to recognize that there are choices when it comes to serious art. (MY)

  9. Moving and handling Helen Leslie Moving and handling and Rob MacKenzie Dementia Services Development Centre, University of Stirling £10 including p&p.

    PubMed

    2003-09-01

    This book provides guidance on how to approach people with dementia to ensure that moving and handling are positive experiences for both the person with dementia and staff. Simple exercises are provided so the guide can be used for self- study or small group training. Tel: 01786 467740. www.stir.ac.uk /dsdc.

  10. Instalación de un nuevo telescopio robótico en la estación de altura Cesco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. A. Perna, P.; Mauas, P.; Veltri, A.; Hereñú, H.

    In this paper we present the works done for the installation of a 16 inches reflector telescope at the Carlos U. Cesco high altitude station of the Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar; San Juan; Argentina. We describe the implementation of the software and hardware needed for the remote control of the instrument and its future robotization. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  11. Rotator cuff problems

    MedlinePlus

    Miller RH III, Azar FM, Throckmorton TW. Shoulder and elbow injuries. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. ... Krishnan SG. Rotator cuff and impingement lesions. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ...

  12. Robertsonian Translocations: An Overview of 872 Robertsonian Translocations Identified in a Diagnostic Laboratory in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fan; Jiang, Shuai; Su, Hui; Liang, Jianfen; Deng, Chunhua; Hu, Chaohui; Yu, Shihui

    2015-01-01

    Robertsonian translocations (ROBs) have an estimated incidence rate of 1/1000 births, making this type of rearrangement the most common structural chromosomal abnormalities seen in the general population. In this study, we reports 872 cases of ROBs from 205,001 specimens karyotyped postnatally in a single accredited laboratory in China, including 583 balanced ROBs, 264 unbalanced ROBs, 9 mosaic ROBs, and 18 complex ROBs. Ninety-three percent of the balanced ROBs observed were adults with infertility, miscarriage, or offspring(s) with known chromosomal abnormalities. Significant excess of females were found to be carriers of balanced ROBs with an adjusted male/female ratio of 0.77. Ninety-eight percent of the unbalanced ROBs observed were children with variable referral reasons. Almost all of the unbalanced ROBs involved chromosome 21 except a single ROB with [46,XX,der(13;14),+13] identified in a newborn girl with multiple congenital anomalies. Multiple novel ROB karyotypes were reported in this report. This study represents the largest collections of ROBs in Chinese population. PMID:25932913

  13. Inhibitory effect of the Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis (Spreng) R.M. King & H. Rob. aqueous extract on human lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ and TNF-α production in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, V.G.; Avelar-Freitas, B.A.; Santos, M.G.; Costa, L.A.; Silva, T.J.; Pereira, W.F.; Amorim, M.L.L.; Grael, C.F.F.; Gregório, L.E.; Rocha-Vieira, E.; Brito-Melo, G.E.A.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis (Asteraceae) is a plant commonly known as arnica-do-campo and belongs to the native flora of the Brazilian Cerrado. The alcoholic extract of the plant has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine, but the biological mechanism of action has not been elucidated. The present study evaluated the composition of P. brasiliensis aqueous extract and its effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation. The extracts were prepared by sequential maceration of P. brasiliensis leaves in ethanol, ethyl acetate, and water. Extract cytotoxicity was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion assay, and apoptosis and necrosis were measured by staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. The ethanolic (ETA) and acetate (ACE) extracts showed cytotoxic effects. The aqueous extract (AQU) was not cytotoxic. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin and treated with AQU (100 μg/mL) showed reduced interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression. AQU also inhibited lymphocyte proliferative response after nonspecific stimulation with phytohemagglutinin. The aqueous extract was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry. Quinic acid and its derivatives 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as well as the flavonoids luteolin and luteolin dihexoside, were detected. All these compounds are known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that P. brasiliensis aqueous extract can inhibit the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and proliferative response of lymphocytes. These effects may be related to the presence of chemical substances with anti-inflammatory actions previously reported in scientific literature. PMID:28700031

  14. Flexibility in Management of Modernization in Construction - Electrical Works/ Elastyczność W Zarządzaniu Modernizacją Obiektów Budowlanych Na Przykładzie Robót Elektrycznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowotarski, Piotr; Pasławski, Jerzy

    2015-06-01

    The article presents the general principles of flexible approach, illustrated with case study regarding flexibility in modernization. Flexibility is understood in the present case as a skilful adaptation to changes in the dynamically changing environment. The essence of flexibility approach is being staged to make decisions based on environmental and process monitoring in progress. Presented case study of upgrading the electrical system in the multi-family housing in the common area is based on step by step procedure responding to damage state of this system. Simple analysis is based on cost comparison but there are other criteria (environmental, social etc.) and conflict solving situations taken into account in presented paper. Artykuł prezentuje możliwość zastosowania elastyczności w modernizacjach istniejących obiektów budowlanych na przykładzie instalacji oświetleniowej. Elastyczność jest rozumiana w tym przypadku jako umiejętne dostosowanie się do zmian w dynamicznie zmieniającym się środowisku. Istotą podejścia elastycznego jest podejmowanie odpowiednich decyzji w odpowiednim czasie opartych na monitoringu środowiska i procesu w toku. Prezentowane studium przypadku modernizacji instalacji elektrycznej w budownictwie wielorodzinnym w częściach wspólnych obiektu (korytarze, klatki schodowe, hala garażowa) opiera się na wymianie i modernizacji tylko tych punktów, które w danym momencie ulegają awarii. Prosta analiza oby typów modernizacji opiera się na porównaniu kosztów, natomiast trzeba zaznaczyć, że możliwe są także inne kryteria (środowiskowe, konfliktu społecznego, itp.), które będą przedmiotem kolejnych publikacji. Zastąpienie tradycyjnych żarówek rozwiązaniami opartymi na technologii LED z zastosowaniem czujników ruchu może prowadzić do znacznych oszczędności, ale może też oznaczać obniżenie komfortu dla użytkowników (np. dla osób starszych, którym jeden cykl działania oświetlenia nie jest wystarczający do pokonania całej drogi na korytarzu). Osiągnięcie kompromisu w tego typu konfliktach interesów może być rozwiązane za pomocą podejścia elastycznego i zwinnego.

  15. Practicalities of Using a Modified Version of the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool for Randomised and Non-Randomised Study Designs Applied in a Health Technology Assessment Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Clare; Ramsay, Craig; Gurung, Tara; Mowatt, Graham; Pickard, Robert; Sharma, Pawana

    2014-01-01

    We describe our experience of using a modified version of the Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tool for randomised and non-randomised comparative studies. Objectives: (1) To assess time to complete RoB assessment; (2) To assess inter-rater agreement; and (3) To explore the association between RoB and treatment effect size. Methods: Cochrane risk of…

  16. Practicalities of Using a Modified Version of the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool for Randomised and Non-Randomised Study Designs Applied in a Health Technology Assessment Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Clare; Ramsay, Craig; Gurung, Tara; Mowatt, Graham; Pickard, Robert; Sharma, Pawana

    2014-01-01

    We describe our experience of using a modified version of the Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tool for randomised and non-randomised comparative studies. Objectives: (1) To assess time to complete RoB assessment; (2) To assess inter-rater agreement; and (3) To explore the association between RoB and treatment effect size. Methods: Cochrane risk of…

  17. Structure and Functional Studies on Dengue-2 Virus Genome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    AD STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL STUDIES ON DENGUE -2 VIRUS GENOME FINAL Report Lfl C’) Radha Krishnan Padmanabhan, Ph.D. 0) March 1, 1986 Supported by U.S...and Functional Studies on Dengue -2 Virus Genome 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Radha Krishnan Padmanabhan 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF...3’-end of Dengue RNA in order to facilitate cDNA synthesis by oligo d(T) priming as proposed in the original research project. 2. We also showed that

  18. Structure and Functional Studies on Dengue-2 Virus Genome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    AD_ _ _ Lfl oSTRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL STUDIES ON DENGUE -2 VIRUS GENOME 0Annual Report Radha Krishnan Padmanabhan, Ph.D. March 1, 1986 Supported by...Studies on Dengue -2 Virus Genome 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Radha Krishnan Padmanabhan 13a TYPE OF REPORT 1 3b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day...analysis of these clones totalling 06 01 14,586 nucleotides: Deduced amino acid sequences of dengue virI 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse of

  19. Novel Burkholderia mallei Virulence Factors Linked to Specific Host-Pathogen Protein Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-23

    systems. Combinatorial Chem. High Throughput Screening 9, 365–380 73. Brass, A. L., Huang, I. C., Benita, Y., John , S. P., Krishnan, M. N., Feeley, E. M...tion by bacterial effectors: A ubiquitous theme. PLOS Pathogens 8, e1002823 89. Angot, A., Vergunst, A., Genin, S., and Peeters , N. (2007) Exploitation

  20. Group Centric Information Sharing Using Hierarchical Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Baltimore, MD, USA (June 2010 – Aug 2010). Programmer Analyst, Cognizant Technology Solutions, Chennai , India (Nov 2008 – July 2009...CollaborateCom), Crystal City , Virginia, November 11-14, 2009, pages 1-10. [3] Ravi Sandhu, Ram Krishnan, Jianwei Niu and William Winsborough, Group

  1. Single Molecular Detection via Micro-Scale Polymeric Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    39] C. V . Raman, and K. S. Krishnan, “A New Type of Secondary Radiation,” Nature, 121(3048), 501 (1928). [40] S. Nie and S. R . Emory, “Probing...31 Figure 21. Computer model for the micro-transmissive microscope using Code V ...50 v Figure 37. Microfabrication procedure of a self-aligned vertical comb drive using a

  2. EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMOVAL OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of Drinking Water Treatment Technologies for Removal of Endocrine Disruptors. Schenck, K*, Speth, T, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, OH, USA, Rosenblum, L, Wendelken, S, Pepich, B, and Krishnan, R, Shaw Environmental, Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA. Many of the chemicals identified...

  3. Familiarizing Postgraduate ESL Students with the Literature Review in a WAC/EAP Engineering Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melles, Gavin

    2005-01-01

    The literature review is an academic genre that has a natural place in theses, dissertations, and other genres such as the lab report. The typical final (fourth) year project in the engineering curriculum is an example where such an extensive review can take place (Krishnan & Kathpalia 2002). Second language students may have special…

  4. Familiarizing Postgraduate ESL Students with the Literature Review in a WAC/EAP Engineering Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melles, Gavin

    2005-01-01

    The literature review is an academic genre that has a natural place in theses, dissertations, and other genres such as the lab report. The typical final (fourth) year project in the engineering curriculum is an example where such an extensive review can take place (Krishnan & Kathpalia 2002). Second language students may have special…

  5. Maskless Nanoscale Writing of Nanoparticle-Polymer Composites and Nanoparticle Assemblies using Thermal Nanoprobes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-14

    Frydman, V.; Sperling, J.; Yacoby, A.; Bar- Joseph , I. Nature 2005, 436, 677–680. (11) Sun, S. H.; Murray, C. B.; Weller, D.; Folks, L.; Moser, A. Science...Hawker, C. J.; Van Horn, B.; Guan, Z. B.; Chen, G. H.; Krishnan, R. S. Science 2006, 311, 1740–1743. (23) Rittigstein, P.; Priestley , R. D.; Broadbelt, L

  6. The risk of bias of animal experiments in implant dentistry: a methodological study.

    PubMed

    Faggion, Clovis Mariano; Diaz, Karla Tatiana; Aranda, Luisiana; Gabel, Frank; Listl, Stefan; Alarcón, Marco Antonio

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the risk of bias (ROB) in reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of animal experiments published in implant dentistry, and to explore the association between animal experiment characteristics and ROB. We searched the MEDLINE (via PubMed), SCOPUS and SciELO databases from 2010 to March 2015 for reports of RCTs of animal experiments published in implant dentistry. We evaluated independently and in duplicate the ROB of these experiments by the use of a tool specifically developed to evaluate ROB in animal studies, the SYRCLE's tool. ROB was judged as low, high or unclear (when there was not enough information to judge ROB). We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to evaluate the association of specific study characteristics and extent of ROB. We initially selected 850 publications and 161 reports of animal experiments were included. For a total of 1449 entries (records), 486 (34%) were rated as low ROB. High ROB was attributed to 80 (6%) of entries, and 883 (60%) entries were rated as unclear ROB. The characteristics "impact factor" (IF), reporting of standard error (SE) and reporting of confidence interval (CI) were significantly associated with low ROB in some SYRCLE domains. A substantial number of items with unclear ROB were observed in this sample of animal experiments in implant dentistry. Furthermore, the present findings suggest that implant dentistry animal experiments published in journals with higher IF and better report of measures of precision; that is, CI and SE may have lower ROB than those not having these characteristics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Safety and blood sample volume and quality of a refined retro-orbital bleeding technique in rats using a lateral approach.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashish; Fish, Brian L; Moulder, John E; Medhora, Meetha; Baker, John E; Mader, Marylou; Cohen, Eric P

    2014-02-01

    The collection of blood samples from laboratory rats requires the use of bleeding techniques that provide quality samples of sufficient volume for analysis without injury to the animal. Retro-orbital bleeding (ROB) is a phlebotomy technique that can yield high-quality samples of adequate volume, but it has been criticized for its potential to cause injury. To evaluate the injury-causing potential of their refined ROB method using a lateral approach, the authors retrospectively reviewed ROB procedures carried out in their colony during an 18-month period and found that 0.6% of these procedures were associated with ocular injury. The authors also compared the quality of blood samples collected by ROB and by saphenous phlebotomy and found that ROB yielded samples of better quality. The authors conclude that, when done using a lateral approach and by an experienced technician, ROB is humane and safe and provides blood samples of adequate volume and quality for analysis.

  8. Entanglement Degradation in the Presence of (4 + n)-DIMENSIONAL Schwarzschild Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Daekil

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we compute the various bipartite quantum correlations in the presence of the (4 + n)-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. In particular, we focus on the n-dependence of various bosonic bipartite entanglements. For the case between Alice and Rob, where the former is free falling observer and the latter is at the near-horizon region, the quantum correlation is degraded compared to the case in the absence of the black hole. The degradation rate increases with decreasing n. We also compute the physically inaccessible correlations. It is found that there is no creation of quantum correlation between Alice and AntiRob. For the case between Rob and AntiRob the quantum entanglement is created although they are separated in the causally disconnected regions. It is found that contrary to the physically accessible correlation the entanglement between Rob and AntiRob decreases with increasing n.

  9. Air Vehicle Integration and Technology Research (AVIATR). Task Order 0023: Predictive Capability for Hypersonic Structural Response and Life Prediction: Phase 2 - Detailed Design of Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle Hot-Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Structural Response and Life Prediction: Phase II – Detailed Design of Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle Hot-Structure Rob Quiroz , Jon Embler, Rich Jacobs...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-08-D-3857-0023 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62201F 6. AUTHOR(S) Rob Quiroz , Jon Embler, Rich...officer for the program has been Ms. Genet Stewart. The Boeing team was composed of a core group consisting of Rob Quiroz , Rick Jacobs, George

  10. Controlling Inference.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION parents, fathers are male parents, child and parent are inverse relationships, sons are male children and daughters are female... children , respectively. Given a small collection of kinship data, such as Brother(Rob, Larry) Father(Rob, Bill) Mother(Rob, Terry) (1.2) Father(Pat...the laws of control, not with the language in which they are expressed. Predicate calculus is ’Actually, there may be control decisions where the

  11. 76 FR 58393 - High Density Traffic Airports; Notice of Determination Regarding Low Demand Periods at Ronald...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Hawks, Office of the Chief Counsel, Federal Aviation Administration, 800...-mail: rob.hawks@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The FAA issued the High Density...

  12. Quantum communication in the presence of a horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Daiqin; Ralph, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    Based on homodyne detection, we discuss how the presence of an event horizon affects quantum communication between an inertial partner, Alice, and a uniformly accelerated partner, Rob. We show that there exists a low frequency cutoff for Rob's homodyne detector that maximizes the signal to noise ratio and it approximately corresponds to the Unruh frequency. In addition, the low frequency cutoff which minimizes the conditional variance between Alice's input state and Rob's output state is also approximately equal to the Unruh frequency. Thus the Unruh frequency provides a natural low frequency cutoff in order to optimize quantum communication of both classical and quantum information between Alice and Rob.

  13. Introduction to NATO Technical Course HFM 180 on Strategies to Address Recruiting & Retention Issues in the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    United States Major Rob Morrow Canada Maj Psych Jose Puente Spain Dr. Canan Sumer Turkey Ms. Fariya Syed Canada (Director) Local Hosts Major Rob Morrow...Lescreve Belgium Major Rob Morrow Canada (Co-Chair) Maj Psych Jose Puente Spain Mr. Bert Schreurs Belgium Dr. Gerhard Storm Germany (Chair) Joanne...term Consequences of (Mis)Information” - Major Rob Morrow • 10:00 “Values Research” - Major Psy José María Puente • 10:45 MORNING BREAK • 11:15

  14. Unbalanced and balanced acrocentric rearrangements involving chromosomes other than chromosome 21 at amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Pei-Chen; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lee, Chen-Chi; Town, Dai-Dyi; Chen, Wen-Lin; Chen, Li-Feng; Lee, Meng-Shan; Pan, Chen-Wen; Wang, Wayseen

    2009-12-01

    To investigate unbalanced and balanced acrocentric rearrangements involving chromosomes other than chromosome 21 at amniocentesis. From January 1987 to September 2009, 31,194 amniocenteses were performed at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Two cases with unbalanced acrocentric rearrangements involving chromosomes other than chromosome 21 from two families, and 24 cases with balanced acrocentric rearrangements involving chromosomes other than chromosome 21 from 21 families were diagnosed and investigated. We detected i(13q13q), +13 (one case), rob(13q14q), +13 (one case), rob(13q14q) (16 cases), rob(14q15q) (five cases), rob(13q15q) (one case), rob(15q22q) (one case), and mosaic rob(14q22q) (one case). Of the 25 cases that underwent parental cytogenetic investigation, six arose de novo and 19 were inherited (10 maternal and nine paternal). The 16 families with an inherited Robertsonian translocation included rob(13q14q) (11 families), rob(14q15q) (four families), and rob(15q22q) (one family). Of these 16 families, only two had known parental carrier status prior to the first amniocentesis, while the other 14 were aware of a parental carrier status only after prenatal diagnosis of a fetus with a heterologous Robertsonian translocation. The 18 fetuses with balanced heterologous Robertsonian translocations inherited them from six maternal carriers of rob(13q14q), four paternal carriers of rob(13q14q), four paternal carriers of rob(14q15q), and one maternal carrier of rob(15q22q). Neither UPD14 nor UPD15 was detected in any of the 16 cases tested for UPD. Concerning acrocentric rearrangements involving chromosomes other than chromosome 21, we found a frequency of 0.0064% for unbalanced rearrangements and 0.0769% for balanced rearrangements at amniocentesis in this study. rob(13q14q) was the most common and rob(14q15q) the second most common rearrangement. Of the families with an inherited translocation, 87.5% were aware of parental carrier status only after

  15. Optimized Determination of Deployable Consumable Spares Packages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    inclusion on the MORSS CD and/or posting on the MORS web site. Name of Principal Author and all other author(s): David Fulk Douglas Blazer Rob Kline...Determination of Deployable Consumable Spares Packages Dr David Fulk Dr Douglas Blazer Mr Rob Kline P A G E 3 Abstract This presentation will describe the

  16. XPLANE: Real-Time Awareness of Tactical Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Conference, pages 1–6. IEEE, 2010. [3] Nate Foster, Rob Harrison, Michael J. Freedman, Christopher Monsanto , Jennifer Rexford, Alec Story, and David...architecture for user-level packet capture. In Proceedings USENIX Winter 1993 Conference. ACM, 1993. [10] Christopher Monsanto , Nate Foster, Rob

  17. Impact of Decision Criteria on Federal Aviation Administration Certification of Military Commercial Derivative Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    military organizations is operational effectiveness (Bongiovi, Rob, Darrell Holcomb, Milt Ross, Bill Stockman, & Tony Perfilio, 2009). Overlapping...processes to follow FAA certification requirements is cost effective (Stockman, William, Milt Ross, Robert Bongiovi, & Greg Sparks, 2011). Before...Baye, Michael R. Managerial Economics and Business Strategy. New York: McGraw- Hill Erwin, 2010. Bongiovi, Rob, Darrell Holcomb, Milt Ross

  18. DoD Technology Management in a Global Technology Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Atta, Michael Lippitz, Jasper Lupo , Rob Mahoney, Jack Nunn, Transformation and Transition: DARPA’s Role in Fostering an Emerging Revolution in...Michael Lippitz, Jasper Lupo , Rob Mahoney, Jack Nunn, Transformation and Transition: DARPA’s Role in Fostering an Emerging Revolution in Military

  19. Quasi-Optical Power Combining

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    and Related Materials Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, May 12-16. 47. Yun Wei, Krishnan Sundararajan, Miguel Urteaga, Zach Griffith, Dennis Scott, Vamsi...Devices, Newark, Delaware, August 6-8, 2002 48. Yun Wei, Miguel Urteaga, Zach Griffith, Dennis Scott, Shouxuan Xie, Vamsi Paidi, Navin...Amplifier,” Chun-Tung Cheung, Jonathan B. Hacker, Gabor Nagy, David Rutledge, International Microwave Symposium, Seattle, June 2002. 56. “V-band

  20. Sensorimotor Integration of Antennal Positioning in Flying Insects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-02

    dendritic arbors of antennal muscle motor neurons. Antennal muscles respond to stimulation of the Böhm’s bristles at very short time scales (᝺ms...integrates multi-modal information from both vision and mechanosensation, thus making it a powerful system to study how antennal motor neurons (and...the antennal motor system of hawk moths (Anand Krishnan) Antennal positioning in hawkmoths is one of the first observable behaviours indicating the

  1. Tailoring the Surface Properties of Coatings Through Self-Stratification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-13

    Biofouling 2011 ,27 (9), 1043- 1055 . 52. Aldred, N. ; lsta, L. K. ; Callow, M. E. ; Callow, J. A. ; Lopez, G. P.; Clare, A. S., Mussel (Mytilus...1043- 1055 (2011) 43 Supplemental Information Poly (ethylene) glycol modified amphiphilic siloxane polyurethane coatings and their performance as...behaviour of barnacle cyprids (Balanus amphitrite). Biofouling 2011 , 27 (9) , 1043- 1055 . 16. Krishnan, S.; Wang, N.; Ober, C. K. ; Finlay, J. A.; Callow

  2. Interacting with Users in Social Networks: The Follow-back Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-02

    Interacting with users in social networks: The Follow-back Problem by Krishnan Rajagopalan B.S, U.S. Naval Academy (2014) Submitted to the Sloan...Bertsimas Boeing Professor of Operations Research CoDirector, Operations Research Center 2 Interacting with users in social networks: The Follow-back...of Master of Science in Operations Research Abstract Imagine in a social network that an agent wants to form a connection with a target user (s) by

  3. Morphological, Thermal, Electrical and Electromechanical Properties of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)-Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Composites (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    FUNCTIONALIZED CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITES (PREPRINT) Varrla Eswaraiah, Krishnan Balasubramaniam, and Sundara Ramaprabhu Indian Institute of Technology...composite and carbon nanotubes are embedded within and in between the microspheres. As the concentration of carbon nanotubes increases in the polymer, end...wt % of carbon nanotubes , nearly 25°C of onset decomposition temperature is achieved. DSC manifests the existence of polymer crystalline nature in

  4. Task-Related Suppression of the Brainstem Frequency following Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-18

    related mediation of the FFR in both amplitude and latency [28–30]. For example, attending to vowels leads to an amplitude increase of the fundamental...10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3900–09.2009. 4. Krishnan A (2002) Human frequency-following responses: representation of steady-state synthetic vowels . Hear Res 166: 192...Ashley R (2009) Musical experience and neural efficiency: effects of training on subcortical processing of vocal expressions of emotion . Eur J

  5. Evaporating dynamical horizon with the Hawking effect in Vaidya spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Sawayama, Shintaro

    2006-03-15

    We consider how the mass of the black hole decreases due to the Hawking radiation in the Vaidya spacetime, using the concept of the dynamical horizon equation, proposed by Ashtekar and Krishnan. Using the formula for the change of the dynamical horizon, we derive an equation for the mass incorporating the Hawking radiation. It is shown that the final state is the Minkowski spacetime in our particular model.

  6. 2014 Materials Research Society (MRS) Fall Meeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-18

    Number: Sub Contractors (DD882) Names of Faculty Supported Names of Under Graduate students supported Names of Personnel receiving masters degrees Names...in Bismuth Ferrite under Varying Epitaxial Strain States Michael Jablonski, Drexel University Ferroelectric materials find use in a number of...and Eric A. Armour and Balakrishnan Krishnan and Soo Min Lee and George D. Papasouliotis MRS Online Proceedings Library, Volume 1736, 2015, mrsf14-1736

  7. Technical Operations Support III (TOPS III). Task Order 0018: Nanostructured Graphene-Like Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    transition phenomenon in certain polymers and its application to fiber spinning. Journal of Rheology 46, 977--999. 4. Krishnan, J. M. and K. R...Rajagopal (2004). Thermodynamic framework for the constitutive modeling of asphalt concrete: Theory and applications. Journal of materials in Civil ... Engineering 16 (2), 155--166. 5. Prasad, S. C., K. R. Rajagopal, and I. J. Rao (2006). A continuum model for the anisotropic creep of single crystal

  8. Combined Investigation on Durability and Dynamic Failure of Advanced Naval Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-06

    NC 27709-2211 Composites, Seawater, Fracture REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S...International Journal of Fracture , (6 2012): 0. doi: 10.1007/s10704-012-9727-x L. Roy Xu, Arun Krishnan. A Simple Effective Flaw Model on Analyzing the...Daniel IM, Ishai O (2006). Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials. Oxford University Press, New York. 5. Fisher-Cripps AC (2004). Nano

  9. Systems Biology Application to Studies of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (57251LS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-02

    Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;in press. [41] Brun JF, Khaled S, Raynaud E, Bouix D, Micallef JP, Orsetti A. The triphasic effects of exercise on...Kucukatay M, Senturk UK, Baskurt OK. Effects of swimming exercise on red blood cell rheology in trained and untrained rats. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88...McClung CA, Dileone RJ, Krishnan V, Renthal W, Russo SJ, et al. Essential role of BDNF in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway in social defeat stress

  10. Applying the Risk of Bias Tool in a Systematic Review of Combination Long-Acting Beta-Agonists and Inhaled Corticosteroids for Persistent Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Hartling, Lisa; Bond, Kenneth; Vandermeer, Ben; Seida, Jennifer; Dryden, Donna M.; Rowe, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Risk of Bias (RoB) tool is used to assess internal validity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate inter-rater agreement of the RoB tool; 2) determine the time to access supplemental study information; 3) compare the RoB tool with the Jadad scale and Schulz allocation concealment (AC); and 4) examine the relationship between RoB and effect estimates. Methods We conducted a systematic review of long-acting beta agonists (LABA) combined with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for adults with persistent asthma. Two reviewers independently assessed 107 trials using RoB, Jadad, and AC. One reviewer searched for study protocols. We assessed inter-rater agreement using weighted Kappa (κ) and the correlation between tools using Kendall's Tau (τ). Mean differences in effect sizes for RCTs with different RoB were calculated using inverse variance method and random effects model. Results Trials had good Jadad scores (median 4, IQR 3-4); however, 85% had unclear AC and 87% high RoB. The factor that most influenced RoB was the potential inappropriate influence of study sponsors (95% industry funded). Agreement on RoB domains was fair (κ = 0.40) to almost perfect (κ = 0.86), and moderate for overall RoB (κ = 0.41). Median time to complete RoB assessments was 21 minutes (IQR 14-27) and 12 minutes (IQR 9-16) to search for protocols. Protocols were identified for 5/42 studies (12%); in 3 cases the assessment of selective outcome reporting changed. There was low correlation between overall RoB vs. Jadad (τ = 0.04, p = 0.3) and AC (τ = −0.02, p = 0.7). Analyses comparing effect estimates and risk showed no important patterns. Conclusions Inter-rater agreement on RoB assessments was better than previously reported suggesting that review-specific guidelines are important. The correlation between RoB and Jadad was low suggesting measurement of different constructs (risk of bias vs. quality of reporting

  11. Kerr-Newman black hole in the formalism of isolated horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtz, M.; Flandera, A.; Gürlebeck, Norman

    2017-09-01

    The near horizon geometry of general black holes in equilibrium can be conveniently characterized in the formalism of weakly isolated horizons in the form of the Bondi-like expansions (Krishnan B, Classical Quantum Gravity 29, 205006, 2012, 10.1088/0264-9381/29/20/205006). While the intrinsic geometry of the Kerr-Newman black hole has been extensively investigated in the weakly isolated horizon framework, the off-horizon description in the Bondi-like system employed by Krishnan has not been studied. We extend Krishnan's work by explicit, nonperturbative construction of the Bondi-like tetrad in the full Kerr-Newman spacetime. Namely, we construct the Bondi-like tetrad which is parallelly propagated along a nontwisting null geodesic congruence transversal to the horizon and provide all Newman-Penrose scalars associated with this tetrad. This work completes the description of the Kerr-Newman spacetime in the formalism of weakly isolated horizons and is a starting point for the investigation of deformed black holes.

  12. AN APPLIED ONTOLOGY TO THE MID-ATLANTIC CABLE: HISTORICAL TO MODERN INFORMATICS CONSIDERATION FROM A MATH PERSPECTIVE KAIEM L. FRINK ELIZABETH CITY STATE UNIVERSITY(ECSU)KAIEM_FRINK@HOTMAIL.COM, DR. DEWAYNE B. BRANCH ECSU, DR. ROB RASKIN JET PROPULSIONS LABORATORY GLENDA THOMAS ECSU,KENNETH JONES ECSU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frink, K.; Branch, B. D.; Raskin, R.

    2009-12-01

    As early as the 1600's scientists in various fields world to address a global human need of human communication on a global basis by implementing the trans-Atlantic cable. The Mid 4Trans-Atlantic cable is one of the earliest forms of global commutation. Here may be the first evidence of informatics needs where science, data, and engineering were collaborated across disciplines to advance a world standard of living. This work investigates what applied ontology may have been consisting with the thought pattern of such expertise who conducted informatics arguably without computers, ontology’s, and a cyber infrastructure. In modern context, an applied ontology may best represent the body of intentional learning, research and collaboration among scientists to achieve a human goal. Perhaps if such intentional non-partisan work can achieve a solution such as Trans-Atlantic Cable, climate change may benefit from intentional collaborative ontology’s and systems of multi user knowledgebase or expert informatics systems. 1Bruce C. Heezen 1924 -1977 American Geologist famous for mapping the Mid Atlantic Mountain Ridge in the 1950’s. Heezen died in 1977 on a submarine cruise to study the Mid-Atlantic ridge near Ice land aboard the NR-1 submarine. 7Marie Tharp academic background is Bachelors Degree in English, Master Degree in Geology University of Michigan, and Mathematics Degree at the University of Tulsa. Tharp worked at Lamont- Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University. History of the Digital Divide during the 1600’s touches on the availability of information. 3Issue of Mathematics during the 1600’s would be lack of communications and assessment. The scientific communities cannot address climate change most largely due to language barriers amongst humans. Weight per meter for the cable and the ships weight capacity in the 1600’sWeight/per meter 2w/m=X1 taking into account that maximum depths or Atlantic Ocean was unknown at that time and still is.

  13. Evaluation of the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias in randomized trials: focus groups, online survey, proposed recommendations and their implementation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008, the Cochrane Collaboration introduced a tool for assessing the risk of bias in clinical trials included in Cochrane reviews. The risk of bias (RoB) tool is based on narrative descriptions of evidence-based methodological features known to increase the risk of bias in trials. Methods To assess the usability of this tool, we conducted an evaluation by means of focus groups, online surveys and a face-to-face meeting. We obtained feedback from a range of stakeholders within The Cochrane Collaboration regarding their experiences with, and perceptions of, the RoB tool and associated guidance materials. We then assessed this feedback in a face-to-face meeting of experts and stakeholders and made recommendations for improvements and further developments of the RoB tool. Results The survey attracted 380 responses. Respondents reported taking an average of between 10 and 60 minutes per study to complete their RoB assessments, which 83% deemed acceptable. Most respondents (87% of authors and 95% of editorial staff) thought RoB assessments were an improvement over past approaches to trial quality assessment. Most authors liked the standardized approach (81%) and the ability to provide quotes to support judgements (74%). A third of participants disliked the increased workload and found the wording describing RoB judgements confusing. The RoB domains reported to be the most difficult to assess were incomplete outcome data and selective reporting of outcomes. Authors expressed the need for more guidance on how to incorporate RoB assessments into meta-analyses and review conclusions. Based on this evaluation, recommendations were made for improvements to the RoB tool and the associated guidance. The implementation of these recommendations is currently underway. Conclusions Overall, respondents identified positive experiences and perceptions of the RoB tool. Revisions of the tool and associated guidance made in response to this evaluation, and improved

  14. Use of the new da Vinci Xi® during robotic rectal resection for cancer: a pilot matched-case comparison with the da Vinci Si®.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Luca; Guadagni, Simone; Di Franco, Gregorio; Palmeri, Matteo; Caprili, Giovanni; D'Isidoro, Cristiano; Cobuccio, Luigi; Marciano, Emanuele; Di Candio, Giulio; Mosca, Franco

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the short-term outcomes of robotic rectal resection with total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer, with the use of the new da Vinci Xi® (Xi-RobTME group) and the da Vinci Si® (Si-RobTME group). Ten patients with histologically confirmed rectal cancer underwent robot-assisted TME with the use of the new da Vinci Xi. The outcomes of Xi-RobTME group were compared with a Si-RobTME group selected using a case-matched methodology. Overall operative times and mean hospital stays were shorter in the Xi-RobTME group. Surgeries were fully robotic with a complete take-down of the splenic flexure in all Xi-RobTME cases, while only four cases of the Si-RobTME group were fully robotic, with two cases of complete take-down of the splenic flexure. The new da Vinci Xi could offer some advantages with respect to the da Vinci Si in rectal resection for cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A Novel Repressor of the ica Locus Discovered in Clinically Isolated Super-Biofilm-Elaborating Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Liansheng; Hisatsune, Junzo; Hayashi, Ikue; Tatsukawa, Nobuyuki; Sato’o, Yusuke; Mizumachi, Emiri; Kato, Fuminori; Hirakawa, Hideki; Pier, Gerald B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus TF2758 is a clinical isolate from an atheroma and a super-biofilm-elaborating/polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA)/poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG)-overproducing strain (L. Shrestha et al., Microbiol Immunol 60:148–159, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12359). A microarray analysis and DNA genome sequencing were performed to identify the mechanism underlying biofilm overproduction by TF2758. We found high transcriptional expression levels of a 7-gene cluster (satf2580 to satf2586) and the ica operon in TF2758. Within the 7-gene cluster, a putative transcriptional regulator gene designated rob had a nonsense mutation that caused the truncation of the protein. The complementation of TF2758 with rob from FK300, an rsbU-repaired derivative of S. aureus strain NCTC8325-4, significantly decreased biofilm elaboration, suggesting a role for rob in this process. The deletion of rob in non-biofilm-producing FK300 significantly increased biofilm elaboration and PIA/PNAG production. In the search for a gene(s) in the 7-gene cluster for biofilm elaboration controlled by rob, we identified open reading frame (ORF) SAOUHSC_2898 (satf2584). Our results suggest that ORF SAOUHSC_2898 (satf2584) and icaADBC are required for enhanced biofilm elaboration and PIA/PNAG production in the rob deletion mutant. Rob bound to a palindromic sequence within its own promoter region. Furthermore, Rob recognized the TATTT motif within the icaR-icaA intergenic region and bound to a 25-bp DNA stretch containing this motif, which is a critically important short sequence regulating biofilm elaboration in S. aureus. Our results strongly suggest that Rob is a long-sought repressor that recognizes and binds to the TATTT motif and is an important regulator of biofilm elaboration through its control of SAOUHSC_2898 (SATF2584) and Ica protein expression in S. aureus. PMID:28143981

  16. Robot-assisted versus laparoscopic rectal resection for cancer in a single surgeon's experience: a cost analysis covering the initial 50 robotic cases with the da Vinci Si.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Luca; Guadagni, Simone; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Di Franco, Gregorio; Cobuccio, Luigi; Palmeri, Matteo; Caprili, Giovanni; D'Isidoro, Cristiano; Moglia, Andrea; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Di Candio, Giulio; Mosca, Franco; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare surgical parameters and the costs of robotic surgery with those of laparoscopic approach in rectal cancer based on a single surgeon's early robotic experience. Data from 25 laparoscopic (LapTME) and the first 50 robotic (RobTME) rectal resections performed at our institution by an experienced laparoscopic surgeon (>100 procedures) between 2009 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed and compared. Patient demographic, procedure, and outcome data were gathered. Costs of the two procedures were collected, differentiated into fixed and variable costs, and analyzed against the robotic learning curve according to the cumulative sum (CUSUM) method. Based on CUSUM analysis, RobTME group was divided into three phases (Rob1: 1-19; Rob2: 20-40; Rob3: 41-50). Overall median operative time (OT) was significantly lower in LapTME than in RobTME (270 vs 312.5 min, p = 0.006). A statistically significant change in OT by phase of robotic experience was detected in the RobTME group (p = 0.010). Overall mean costs associated with LapTME procedures were significantly lower than with RobTME (p < 0.001). Statistically significant reductions in variable and overall costs were found between robotic phases (p < 0.009 for both). With fixed costs excluded, the difference between laparoscopic and Rob3 was no longer statistically significant. Our results suggest a significant optimization of robotic rectal surgery's costs with experience. Efforts to reduce the dominant fixed cost are recommended to maintain the sustainability of the system and benefit from the technical advantages offered by the robot.

  17. Physical and chemical characterization of residential oil boiler emissions.

    PubMed

    Hays, Michael D; Beck, Lee; Barfield, Pamela; Lavrich, Richard J; Dong, Yuanji; Vander Wal, Randy L

    2008-04-01

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil coupled with the regional proximity and seasonal use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important public health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source is available for climate and air quality modeling and for improving our understanding of aerosol-related human health effects. The gas- and particle-phase emissions from an active ROB firing distillate fuel oil (commonly known as diesel fuel) were evaluated to address this deficiency. Ion chromatography of impactor samples showed that the ultrafine ROB aerosol emissions were approximately 45% (w/w) sulfate. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected various n-alkanes at trace levels, sometimes in accumulation mode particles, and out of phase with the size distributions of aerosol mass and sulfate. The carbonaceous matter in the ROB aerosol was primarily light-adsorbing elemental carbon. Gas chromatography-atomic emission spectroscopy measured a previously unrecognized organosulfur compound group in the ROB aerosol emissions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of ROB soot indicated the presence of a highly ordered primary particle nanostructure embedded in larger aggregates. Organic gas emissions were measured using EPA Methods TO-15 and TO-11A. The ROB emitted volatile oxygenates (8 mg/(kg of oil burned)) and olefins (5 mg/(kg of oil burned)) mostly unrelated to the base fuel composition. In the final analysis, the ROB tested was a source of numerous hazardous air pollutants as defined in the Clean Air Act Amendments. Approximations conducted using emissions data from the ROB tests show relatively low contributions to a regional-level anthropogenic emissions inventory for volitile organic compounds, PM2.5, and SO2 mass.

  18. Parameter estimation using NOON states over a relativistic quantum channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosler, Dominic; Kok, Pieter

    2013-11-01

    We study the effect of the acceleration of the observer on a parameter estimation protocol using NOON states. An inertial observer, Alice, prepares a NOON state in Unruh modes of the quantum field, and sends it to an accelerated observer, Rob. We calculate the quantum Fisher information of the state received by Rob. We find the counterintuitive result that the single-rail encoding outperforms the dual rail. The NOON states have an optimal N for the maximum information extractable by Rob, given his acceleration. This optimal N decreases with increasing acceleration.

  19. Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews of Non-Randomized Studies of Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Thiazolidinediones and Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors: Application of a New Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool

    PubMed Central

    Bilandzic, Anja; Fitzpatrick, Tiffany; Rosella, Laura; Henry, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare interventions frequently include non-randomized studies. These are subject to confounding and a range of other biases that are seldom considered in detail when synthesizing and interpreting the results. Our aims were to assess the reliability and usability of a new Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tool for non-randomized studies of interventions and to determine whether restricting analysis to studies with low or moderate RoB made a material difference to the results of the reviews. Methods and Findings We selected two systematic reviews of population-based, controlled non-randomized studies of the relationship between the use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and major cardiovascular events. Two epidemiologists applied the Cochrane RoB tool and made assessments across the seven specified domains of bias for each of 37 component studies. Inter-rater agreement was measured using the weighted Kappa statistic. We grouped studies according to overall RoB and performed statistical pooling for (a) all studies and (b) only studies with low or moderate RoB. Kappa scores across the seven bias domains ranged from 0.50 to 1.0. In the COX-2 inhibitor review, two studies had low overall RoB, 14 had moderate RoB, and five had serious RoB. In the TZD review, six studies had low RoB, four had moderate RoB, four had serious RoB, and two had critical RoB. The pooled odds ratios for myocardial infarction, heart failure, and death for rosiglitazone versus pioglitazone remained significantly elevated when analyses were confined to studies with low or moderate RoB. However, the estimate for myocardial infarction declined from 1.14 (95% CI 1.07–1.24) to 1.06 (95% CI 0.99–1.13) when analysis was confined to studies with low RoB. Estimates of pooled relative risks of cardiovascular events with COX-2 inhibitors compared with no nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug changed little when analyses were

  20. 77 FR 1549 - Order Limiting Scheduled Operations at Newark Liberty International Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ...-13 slots. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Hawks, Office of the Chief Counsel, Federal...; email: rob.hawks@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background By letter dated December 6, 2011,...

  1. 77 FR 19076 - High Density Traffic Airports; Notice of Determination Regarding Low Demand Periods at Ronald...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Hawks, Office of the Chief Counsel, Federal Aviation Administration...- 267-7971; email: rob.hawks@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The FAA issued the...

  2. 77 FR 31064 - Petition for Exemption; Summary of Petition Received

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ..., except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Hawks, Office of the Chief Counsel...-7143; email: rob.hawks@faa.gov . This notice is published pursuant to 14 CFR 11.85. Issued...

  3. Army Reserve Military Intelligence: Time for Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-20

    Miramax Books, 2002. Goleman , Daniel . Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books, 1997. Goleman , Daniel , Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee...Lieutenant Colonel Neil Anderson, Colonel Marissa Tanner, Mr. Richard Allenbaugh, Colonel (Promotable) Rob Walter, Colonel Jody Daniels , Lieutenant

  4. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart Q of... - Confinement of Persons in District of Columbia Correctional Institutions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... violence means murder, manslaughter, rape, kidnapping, robbery, burglary, assault with intent to kill, assault with intent to rape, assault with intent to rob or extortion involving the threat or use of...

  5. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart Q of... - Confinement of Persons in District of Columbia Correctional Institutions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... violence means murder, manslaughter, rape, kidnapping, robbery, burglary, assault with intent to kill, assault with intent to rape, assault with intent to rob or extortion involving the threat or use of...

  6. Reversing the Literacy Decline by Controlling the Electronic Demons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenkman, Harriet

    1985-01-01

    Computer games, rock video, television, and movies are robbing teenagers of time they should be using to develop their minds. However, the electronic media do have a positive potential. A 10-item reference list is provided. (Author/DCS)

  7. Asthma Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere when taking certain asthma medications. Until recently, most ... hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) inhalers, that do not rob the atmosphere of ozone. “The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] ...

  8. 77 FR 36901 - World Elder Abuse Awareness Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... and premature death, while financial exploitation can rob men and women of the security they have... partnering with State and local authorities to ensure seniors can live their lives with dignity and...

  9. 77 FR 31064 - Petition for Exemption; Summary of Petition Received

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Hawks, Office of the...; telephone: (202) 267-7143; email: rob.hawks@faa.gov . This notice is published pursuant to 14 CFR 11.85...

  10. Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts Rob Mitchell Abstract: Switchgrass, big bluestem, and warm-season grass mixtures provide numerous benefits. Existing field equipment, herbicides, and cultivar improvement promote rapid establishment in the planting year. These gra...

  11. New ORNL Method Could Unleash Solar Power Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Mary Jane

    2016-03-17

    Measurement and data analysis techniques developed at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory could provide new insight into performance-robbing flaws in crystalline structures, ultimately improving the performance of solar cells.

  12. New ORNL Method Could Unleash Solar Power Potential

    ScienceCinema

    Simpson, Mary Jane

    2016-07-12

    Measurement and data analysis techniques developed at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory could provide new insight into performance-robbing flaws in crystalline structures, ultimately improving the performance of solar cells.

  13. ISS Update: Progress 50 Launch and Docking with Tom Erkenswick

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Rob Navias conducts an interview with Visiting Vehicle Officer Tom Erkenswick about the launch of the ISS Progress 50 resupply ship and its docking to the International ...

  14. Living Well with Parkinson's Disease is an Art | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... about Parkinson's. Photo courtesy of Rob Cunningham When did you first get diagnosed with Parkinson's disease? What ... took up painting after you were diagnosed. How did you decide to do that? Does your condition ...

  15. What Is Stress Management?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Applied Learning Research at Seattle Pacific University, says creativity, productivity, motivation and sometimes even your immune system ... do each day. Everyone needs pleasure, productivity and creativity in their lives and chronic stress robs us ...

  16. Robert Ambrose: Principal Investigator, Game Changing Development Program

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Dr. Rob Ambrose is currently overseeing one very large existing project and will likely be overseeing several new starts in the near future. In addition, he has three projects: Human Robotic System...

  17. ISS Update: Keeping Track of Station Inventory – 03.14.13

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Rob Adams, Inventory and Stowage Officer, inside the Mission Control Center. Adams and his team keep track of the gear aboard the International Space Stat...

  18. NASA Now: Forces and Motion: Project Morpheus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Meet NASA engineer Rob Morehead who works on the main engines for Project Morpheus, a revolutionary new robotic lander. Morpheus is a full spacecraft and rocket-powered lander, which demonstrates n...

  19. Welcome Back to Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA astronaut Scott Kelly is interviewed by public affairs officer Rob Navias just after returning to Earth aboard a Soyuz spacecraft on March 1, 2016 (March 2, local Kazakh time) following a 340 ...

  20. Acting Administrator Lightfoot Visits Ball Aerospace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-06

    Acting NASA Deputy Administrator Lesa Roe, right, speaks with Rob Strain, president of Ball Aerospace, Thursday, April 6, 2017 during a visit to Ball Aerospace in Boulder, Colo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  1. Tiny Asteroid Approaches Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    On Oct. 15, 2010, NASA astronomer Rob Suggs captured this view of the tiny asteroid 2010 TG19 as it made its way among the stars of the constellation Pegasus. It will continue to approach during th...

  2. Paralyzed Patients Regain Voluntary Movement | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: Spinal Cord Stimulation Paralyzed Patients Regain Voluntary Movement Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Kent ... training, could help patients with paralysis regain some movement. In the pilot, Rob Summers, a young man ...

  3. CardioPulse. Company success stories: Medtronic: From a garage workshop to a billion-dollar enterprise.

    PubMed

    ten Hoedt, Rob

    2010-10-01

    Freelance medical journalist, Emma Wilkinson, MA, talks to Rob ten Hoedt, vice president of Medtronic's cardiovascular business in Western Europe, about the growth of the world's largest medical device company.

  4. Reversing the Literacy Decline by Controlling the Electronic Demons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenkman, Harriet

    1985-01-01

    Computer games, rock video, television, and movies are robbing teenagers of time they should be using to develop their minds. However, the electronic media do have a positive potential. A 10-item reference list is provided. (Author/DCS)

  5. SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool for animal studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic Reviews (SRs) of experimental animal studies are not yet common practice, but awareness of the merits of conducting such SRs is steadily increasing. As animal intervention studies differ from randomized clinical trials (RCT) in many aspects, the methodology for SRs of clinical trials needs to be adapted and optimized for animal intervention studies. The Cochrane Collaboration developed a Risk of Bias (RoB) tool to establish consistency and avoid discrepancies in assessing the methodological quality of RCTs. A similar initiative is warranted in the field of animal experimentation. Methods We provide an RoB tool for animal intervention studies (SYRCLE’s RoB tool). This tool is based on the Cochrane RoB tool and has been adjusted for aspects of bias that play a specific role in animal intervention studies. To enhance transparency and applicability, we formulated signalling questions to facilitate judgment. Results The resulting RoB tool for animal studies contains 10 entries. These entries are related to selection bias, performance bias, detection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias and other biases. Half these items are in agreement with the items in the Cochrane RoB tool. Most of the variations between the two tools are due to differences in design between RCTs and animal studies. Shortcomings in, or unfamiliarity with, specific aspects of experimental design of animal studies compared to clinical studies also play a role. Conclusions SYRCLE’s RoB tool is an adapted version of the Cochrane RoB tool. Widespread adoption and implementation of this tool will facilitate and improve critical appraisal of evidence from animal studies. This may subsequently enhance the efficiency of translating animal research into clinical practice and increase awareness of the necessity of improving the methodological quality of animal studies. PMID:24667063

  6. Installation Restoration Program. Preliminary Assessment: 137th Tactical Airlift Wing, Oklahoma Air National Guard, Will Rogers World Airport, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    better estimate the bearing capacity of these soils, I Unconfined Test was I performed on I split spoon samole obtained in the Cow spoon sampler. 7ne...AUTOMATIC SAM1PL.ER. ISTALLED BY ROB SLINOERLAD AND SAMl ALEXANDER DATE & TIME: 3-10-88 9:00 .a--18 9:00 4.3.(24 HOURS C14E111T: GLEN SPECK AND ROB

  7. LIRA: Lightweight Incentivized Routing for Anonymity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    accountability that plagues PAR and XPAY, wherein anonymity inherently de- creases as the ability to detect cheaters improves. Ngan et al. propose a...LIRA: Lightweight Incentivized Routing for Anonymity Rob Jansen Aaron Johnson U.S. Naval Research Laboratory {rob.g.jansen, aaron.m.johnson...prob- lems stemming from a lack of incentives for volunteers to contribute. Insufficient capacity limits scalability and harms the anonymity of its

  8. Teleportation with a uniformly accelerated partner.

    PubMed

    Alsing, Paul M; Milburn, G J

    2003-10-31

    In this work, we give a description of the process of teleportation between Alice in an inertial frame, and Rob who is in uniform acceleration with respect to Alice. The fidelity of the teleportation is reduced due to Davies-Unruh radiation in Rob's frame. In so far as teleportation is a measure of entanglement, our results suggest that quantum entanglement is degraded in noninertial frames.

  9. Language Abstractions for Software-Defined Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Academy Christopher Monsanto Princeton University Mark Reitblatt Cornell University Jennifer Rexford Princeton University Alec Story Cornell...Transactions on Networking, 17(4), August 2009. [3] Nate Foster, Rob Harrison, Michael J. Freedman, Christopher Monsanto , Jennifer Rexford, Alec Story...networks. SIGCOMM CCR, 38(2):69–74, 2008. [7] Christopher Monsanto , Nate Foster, Rob Harrison, and David Walker. A compiler and run-time system for

  10. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bub, J.

    The papers in this issue stem from a conference, 'New Directions in the Foundations of Physics: A Memorial Conference for Rob Clifton (1964-2002),' organized by members of the Foundations of Physics Group of the University of Maryland, Johns Hopkins University, and Georgetown University (Jossi Berkovitz, Jeffrey Bub, James Mattingly, and Rob Rynasiewicz), John Earman and John Norton of the University of Pittsburgh, and Jeremy Butterfield of Oxford University.

  11. KSC-2013-2502

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-30

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Ed Hoffman, from left, Jack Fox and Rob Mueller discuss techniques to enable and enhance innovation during the third session in a weeklong series called "Masters with Masters" at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Hoffman, NASA's chief Knowledge officer, Fox, chief, Surface Systems Office, and Rob Mueller, senior technologist, Surface Systems Office, talked about the work of the Swamp Works facility at Kennedy. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  12. KSC-2013-2501

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-29

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Ed Hoffman, from left, Jack Fox and Rob Mueller discuss techniques to enable and enhance innovation during the third session in a weeklong series called "Masters with Masters" at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Hoffman, NASA's chief Knowledge officer, Fox, chief, Surface Systems Office, and Rob Mueller, senior technologist, Surface Systems Office, talked about the work of the Swamp Works facility at Kennedy. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  13. SYRCLE's risk of bias tool for animal studies.

    PubMed

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R; Rovers, Maroeska M; de Vries, Rob B M; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Langendam, Miranda W

    2014-03-26

    Systematic Reviews (SRs) of experimental animal studies are not yet common practice, but awareness of the merits of conducting such SRs is steadily increasing. As animal intervention studies differ from randomized clinical trials (RCT) in many aspects, the methodology for SRs of clinical trials needs to be adapted and optimized for animal intervention studies. The Cochrane Collaboration developed a Risk of Bias (RoB) tool to establish consistency and avoid discrepancies in assessing the methodological quality of RCTs. A similar initiative is warranted in the field of animal experimentation. We provide an RoB tool for animal intervention studies (SYRCLE's RoB tool). This tool is based on the Cochrane RoB tool and has been adjusted for aspects of bias that play a specific role in animal intervention studies. To enhance transparency and applicability, we formulated signalling questions to facilitate judgment. The resulting RoB tool for animal studies contains 10 entries. These entries are related to selection bias, performance bias, detection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias and other biases. Half these items are in agreement with the items in the Cochrane RoB tool. Most of the variations between the two tools are due to differences in design between RCTs and animal studies. Shortcomings in, or unfamiliarity with, specific aspects of experimental design of animal studies compared to clinical studies also play a role. SYRCLE's RoB tool is an adapted version of the Cochrane RoB tool. Widespread adoption and implementation of this tool will facilitate and improve critical appraisal of evidence from animal studies. This may subsequently enhance the efficiency of translating animal research into clinical practice and increase awareness of the necessity of improving the methodological quality of animal studies.

  14. A Best Effort Traffic Management Solution for Server and Agent-Based Active Network Management (SAAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    rob from the rich, give to the poor” Robin Hood approach. The “rich” are those aggregate BE traffic flows that experience a packet loss rate less...between hosts or sessions. Additionally, the methodology adopted of a Robin Hood do-good approach based on coarse statistical measures could be made...source and destination is reverted back to the primary path. Robin Hood A mythical vigilante from Merry Olde England who robbed from the rich and

  15. Thermal bath of Dirac field in non-inertial frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Anwei

    2016-07-01

    The properties of inertial Dirac thermal bath viewed from the perspective of a uniformly accelerated observer is investigated. Using the single-mode approximation, we obtain the expression of the thermal reduced density matrix, which is constructed by the effective partition function in another way compared with the case of scalar field. We deduce the spectrum of particles and antiparticles seen by Rob and antiRob, respectively. It is found that the fermionic thermal bath will suppress the appearance of Unruh particles.

  16. Unveiling quantum entanglement degradation near a Schwarzschild black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Leon, Juan; Garay, Luis J.

    2010-09-15

    We analyze the entanglement degradation provoked by the Hawking effect in a bipartite system Alice-Rob when Rob is in the proximities of a Schwarzschild black hole while Alice is free falling into it. We will obtain the limit in which the tools imported from the Unruh entanglement degradation phenomenon can be used properly, keeping control on the approximation. As a result, we will be able to determine the degree of entanglement as a function of the distance of Rob to the event horizon, the mass of the black hole, and the frequency of Rob's entangled modes. By means of this analysis we will show that all the interesting phenomena occur in the vicinity of the event horizon and that the presence of event horizons do not effectively degrade the entanglement when Rob is far off the black hole. The universality of the phenomenon is presented: There are not fundamental differences for different masses when working in the natural unit system adapted to each black hole. We also discuss some aspects of the localization of Alice and Rob states. All this study is done without using the single mode approximation.

  17. Effect of surgical approach on physical activity and pain control after sacral colpopexy.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sarah A; Tulikangas, Paul K; O'Sullivan, David M

    2012-05-01

    We sought to compare recovery of activity and pain control after robotic (ROB) vs abdominal (ABD) sacral colpopexy. Women undergoing ROB and ABD sacral colpopexy wore accelerometers for 7 days preoperatively and the first 10 days postoperatively. They completed postoperative pain diaries and Short Form-36 questionnaires before and after surgery. At 5 days postoperatively, none of the 14 subjects in the ABD group and 4 of 28 (14.3%) in the ROB group achieved 50% total baseline activity counts (P = .283). At 10 days, 5 of 14 (35.7%) in the ABD group and 8 of 26 (30.8%) in the ROB group (P = .972) achieved 50%. Postoperative pain was similar in both groups. Short Form-36 vitality scores were lower (P = .017) after surgery in the ABD group, but not in the ROB group. Women undergoing ROB vs ABD sacral colpopexy do not recover physical activity faster, and pain control is not improved. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive and Network Centric Military Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-05

    WiFi (802.11), and RFID have enabled a host of new service-oriented applications. This opens up the opportunities for using services from different...in both a 802.11 ( WiFi ) network as well as a 802.15.4 (ZigBee) network in a real office building environment. 3.2 Simulation Results of Neighbor...Review, special edition, Localisation Systems, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp.115-124, 2008. [8] D. Madigan, E. Elnahrawy, R. Martin, W. Ju, P. Krishnan, and A

  19. Modified Embedded Atom Method Study of the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Nickel Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    reinforced nickel composites Jamal Uddin,1,2,* M . I. Baskes,3 S. G. Srinivasan,2,4 Thomas R. Cundari,1,2 and Angela K. Wilson1,2 1Department of...Yuan, Force-Fieldj 1200 Tombler et al.k 740 MWCNT 1220 Hernández et al., TB-MDl 1250 Krishnan et al. m 4700 Tu, LDAn 764 Zhou et al., LCAO...for cubic and orthorhombic lattices along the principal a, b, and c axes. Poisson’s ratio n , m of an elastic solid for any two specified general

  20. Fundamental Issues in Space Electronics Reliability: Negative Bias Temperature Instability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Devices, NY: Wiley, Chapter 8, 1981 [3] R. A. B. Devine, J. K. Mee, H. P. Hjalmarson M. A. Quevedo -Lopez and H. N. Alshareef, “A simplified... Quevedo -Lopez, P. D. Kirsch, S. Krishnan, H. N. Alshareef, J. Barnett, H. R. Harris, A. Neugroschel, F. S. Aguirre-Tostado, B. E. Gnade, M. J. Kirm, R. M...Mee, H. P. Hjalmarson M. A. Quevedo -Lopez and H. N. Alshareef, “A simplified approach to estimating the total trap charge contributions in negative

  1. ‘AMRITHAPALA’ (Janakia arayalpatra, Joseph & Chandrasekharan), A NEW DRUG FROM THE KANI TRIBE OF KERALA

    PubMed Central

    Pushpagadan, P.; Rajasekharan, A.; Ratheeshkumar, P.K.; Jawahar, C.R.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Nair, C.P.R.; Amma, L. Sarada; Bhatt Aicrpe, A. V.

    1990-01-01

    Amrithapala (Janakia arayalpatra), a rare and endemic plant species found in the Southern forests of Western Ghat region of kerala, is used by the local ‘Kani’ tribe as an effective remedy for peptic ulcer, cancer-like afflictions and as a rejuvenating tonic. Search made in Ayurvedic literature indicates that the plant may be the divine drug named variously as MRITHA SANJEEVINI (the drug that can revive unconscious or dead) or SANJEEVINI, THAMPRA RASAYANI in the Oushadha Nighantu (Dictionary of Medicinal Drugs) of Tayyil Kumaran Krishnan (1906) PMID:22557701

  2. Multidimensional Many-Body Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-31

    which is for U n thro h the resolvent operator a unit matrix in the van Vleck case). The correspond- R 0) = Q )i (24) ing eigenfunctions k, of H are...Bent, G. D. Purvis, and R . J. Bartlett. J. Chem. Phys. 71, 3697 (1979). tions, beginning with Eq. (68) and using Eqs. (58) and 18j. A . Pople, J. S...expressed in any of the " R . Krishnan and J. A . Pople, Lnt. J. Quantum Chem. 14, 91 forms (1978). iot 20S. Wilson and D. M. Silver, J. Chem. Phvs. 66

  3. Cloning and Expression of Genes for Dengue Virus Type-2 Encoded-Antigens for Rapid Diagnosis and Vaccine Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-12

    Della-Porta and Westaway, 1977; Kitano et al., 1974; Heinz et al., 1981). In order to develop a subunit vaccine against dengue virus, it is important to...Antigens for Rapid Diagnosis and Vaccine Development DPC TAB 0 A .. asin]o ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT ’Q;-10.v&,,,d 0 by By SAv.ailability Caote# Radha Krishnan...Type 2 Encoded Antigens for Rapid Diagnosis and Vaccine Development 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Radha K. Padmanabhan 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED

  4. Poor Reliability between Cochrane Reviewers and Blinded External Reviewers When Applying the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool in Physical Therapy Trials

    PubMed Central

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Ospina, Maria; da Costa, Bruno R.; Egger, Matthias; Saltaji, Humam; Fuentes, Jorge; Ha, Christine; Cummings, Greta G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To test the inter-rater reliability of the RoB tool applied to Physical Therapy (PT) trials by comparing ratings from Cochrane review authors with those of blinded external reviewers. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in PT were identified by searching the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for meta-analysis of PT interventions. RoB assessments were conducted independently by 2 reviewers blinded to the RoB ratings reported in the Cochrane reviews. Data on RoB assessments from Cochrane reviews and other characteristics of reviews and trials were extracted. Consensus assessments between the two reviewers were then compared with the RoB ratings from the Cochrane reviews. Agreement between Cochrane and blinded external reviewers was assessed using weighted kappa (κ). Results In total, 109 trials included in 17 Cochrane reviews were assessed. Inter-rater reliability on the overall RoB assessment between Cochrane review authors and blinded external reviewers was poor (κ  =  0.02, 95%CI: −0.06, 0.06]). Inter-rater reliability on individual domains of the RoB tool was poor (median κ  = 0.19), ranging from κ  =  −0.04 (“Other bias”) to κ  =  0.62 (“Sequence generation”). There was also no agreement (κ  =  −0.29, 95%CI: −0.81, 0.35]) in the overall RoB assessment at the meta-analysis level. Conclusions Risk of bias assessments of RCTs using the RoB tool are not consistent across different research groups. Poor agreement was not only demonstrated at the trial level but also at the meta-analysis level. Results have implications for decision making since different recommendations can be reached depending on the group analyzing the evidence. Improved guidelines to consistently apply the RoB tool and revisions to the tool for different health areas are needed. PMID:24824199

  5. How do systematic reviews incorporate risk of bias assessments into the synthesis of evidence? A methodological study

    PubMed Central

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Egan, Matt; Petticrew, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews (SRs) are expected to critically appraise included studies and privilege those at lowest risk of bias (RoB) in the synthesis. This study examines if and how critical appraisals inform the synthesis and interpretation of evidence in SRs. Methods All SRs published in March–May 2012 in 14 high-ranked medical journals and a sample from the Cochrane library were systematically assessed by two reviewers to determine if and how: critical appraisal was conducted; RoB was summarised at study, domain and review levels; and RoB appraisals informed the synthesis process. Results Of the 59 SRs studied, all except six (90%) conducted a critical appraisal of the included studies, with most using or adapting existing tools. Almost half of the SRs reported critical appraisal in a manner that did not allow readers to determine which studies included in a review were most robust. RoB assessments were not incorporated into synthesis in one-third (20) of the SRs, with their consideration more likely when reviews focused on randomised controlled trials. Common methods for incorporating critical appraisals into the synthesis process were sensitivity analysis, narrative discussion and exclusion of studies at high RoB. Nearly half of the reviews which investigated multiple outcomes and carried out study-level RoB summaries did not consider the potential for RoB to vary across outcomes. Conclusions The conclusions of the SRs, published in major journals, are frequently uninformed by the critical appraisal process, even when conducted. This may be particularly problematic for SRs of public health topics that often draw on diverse study designs. PMID:25481532

  6. Relativistic Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosler, Dominic

    In this Ph.D. thesis, I investigate the communication abilities of non-inertial observers and the precision to which they can measure parametrized states. I introduce relativistic quantum field theory with field quantisation, and the definition and transformations of mode functions in Minkowski, Schwarzschild and Rindler spaces. I introduce information theory by discussing the nature of information, defining the entropic information measures, and highlighting the differences between classical and quantum information. I review the field of relativistic quantum information. We investigate the communication abilities of an inertial observer to a relativistic observer hovering above a Schwarzschild black hole, using the Rindler approximation. We compare both classical communication and quantum entanglement generation of the state merging protocol, for both the single and dual rail encodings. We find that while classical communication remains finite right up to the horizon, the quantum entanglement generation tends to zero. We investigate the observers' abilities to precisely measure the parameter of a state that is communicated between Alice and Rob. This parameter was encoded to either the amplitudes of a single excitation state or the phase of a NOON state. With NOON states the dual rail encoding provided greater precision, which is different to the results for the other situations. The precision was maximum for a particular number of excitations in the NOON state. We calculated the bipartite communication for Alice-Rob and Alice-AntiRob beyond the single mode approximation. Rob and AntiRob are causally disconnected counter-accelerating observers. We found that Alice must choose in advance with whom, Rob or AntiRob she wants to create entanglement using a particular setup. She could communicate classically to both.

  7. Robot-assisted total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: case-matched comparison of short-term surgical and functional outcomes between the da Vinci Xi and Si.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Luca; Di Franco, Gregorio; Guadagni, Simone; Rossi, Leonardo; Palmeri, Matteo; Furbetta, Niccolò; Gianardi, Desirée; Bianchini, Matteo; Caprili, Giovanni; D'Isidoro, Cristiano; Mosca, Franco; Moglia, Andrea; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2017-07-21

    Robotic rectal resection with da Vinci Si has some technical limitations, which could be overcome by the new da Vinci Xi. We compare short-term surgical and functional outcomes following robotic rectal resection with total mesorectal excision for cancer, with the da Vinci Xi (Xi-RobTME group) and the da Vinci Si (Si-RobTME group). The first consecutive 30 Xi-RobTME were compared with a Si-RobTME control group of 30 patients, selected using a one-to-one case-matched methodology from our prospectively collected Institutional database, comprising all cases performed between April 2010 and September 2016 by a single surgeon. Perioperative outcomes were compared. The impact of minimally invasive TME on autonomic function and quality of life was analyzed with specific questionnaires. The docking and overall operative time were shorter in the Xi-RobTME group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05 respectively). The mean differences of overall operative time and docking time were -33.8 min (95% CI -5.1 to -64.5) and -6 min (95% CI -4.1 to -7.9), respectively. A fully-robotic approach with complete splenic flexure mobilization was used in 30/30 (100%) of the Xi-RobTME cases and in 7/30 (23%) of the Si-RobTME group (p < 0.001). The hybrid approach in males and patients with BMI > 25 kg/m(2) was necessary in ten patients (45 vs. 0%, p < 0.001) and in six patients (37 vs. 0%, p < 0.05), in the Si-RobTME and Xi-RobTME groups, respectively. There were no differences in conversion rate, mean hospital stay, pathological data, and in functional outcomes between the two groups before and at 1 year after surgery. The technical advantages offered by the da Vinci Xi seem to be mainly associated with a shorter docking and operative time and with superior ability to perform a fully-robotic approach. Clinical and functional outcomes seem not to be improved, with the introduction of the new Xi platform.

  8. Air-quality investigation in the NIH (National Institutes of Health) Radiation Oncology Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Persily, A.; Dols, W.S.; Nabinger, S.J.; VanBronkhorst, D.A.

    1989-08-01

    The Radiation Oncology Branch (ROB) is located in the Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The occupants of the ROB facility have expressed dissatisfaction with the air-quality within the facility for several years. To identify the sources of the air quality problems in the ROB facility and to obtain recommendations for their solution, the Center for Building Technology at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly The National Bureau of Standards) conducted an indoor-quality investigation of the ROB facility. Results revealed several deficiencies in the design and current condition of the ROB ventilation system, such as significant differences between the design airflow rates and those recommended in current standards and guidelines. The airflow measurements showed many instances in which measured airflow rates were different from their design values and revealed the existence of airflows leading to the potential for pollutant transport within the building. The contaminant measurements fell generally well below the maximum values in the ASHRAE air-quality standard. Thermal-comfort measurements revealed instances when the temperature and relative humidity were outside of ASHRAE comfort limits. Recommendations are made to remedy the deficiencies noted and to control the conditions contributing to the building's air-quality problems.

  9. Unveiling quantum entanglement degradation near a Schwarzschild black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Garay, Luis J.; León, Juan

    2010-09-01

    We analyze the entanglement degradation provoked by the Hawking effect in a bipartite system Alice-Rob when Rob is in the proximities of a Schwarzschild black hole while Alice is free falling into it. We will obtain the limit in which the tools imported from the Unruh entanglement degradation phenomenon can be used properly, keeping control on the approximation. As a result, we will be able to determine the degree of entanglement as a function of the distance of Rob to the event horizon, the mass of the black hole, and the frequency of Rob’s entangled modes. By means of this analysis we will show that all the interesting phenomena occur in the vicinity of the event horizon and that the presence of event horizons do not effectively degrade the entanglement when Rob is far off the black hole. The universality of the phenomenon is presented: There are not fundamental differences for different masses when working in the natural unit system adapted to each black hole. We also discuss some aspects of the localization of Alice and Rob states. All this study is done without using the single mode approximation.

  10. Air Sparging for Mixing Non-Newtonian Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Tzemos, Spyridon

    2010-01-01

    The mechanics of air sparger systems have been primarily investigated for aqueous-based Newtonian fluids. Tilton et al. (1982) [1] describes the fluid mechanics of air sparging systems in non-Newtonian fluids as having two primary flow regions. A center region surrounding the sparger, referred to as the region of bubbles (ROB), contains upward flow due to the buoyant driving force of the rising bubbles. In an annular region, outside the ROB, referred to as the zone of influence (ZOI), the fluid flow is reversed and is opposed to the direction of bubble rise. Outside the ZOI the fluid is unaffected by the air sparger system. The flow regime in the ROB is often turbulent, and the flow regime in the ZOI is laminar; the flow regime outside the ZOI is quiescent. Tests conducted with shear thinning non-Newtonian fluid in a 34-in. diameter tank showed that the ROB forms an approximately inverted cone that is the envelop of the bubble trajectories. The depth to which the air bubbles reach below the sparger nozzle is a linear function of the air-flow rate. The recirculation time through the ZOI was found to vary proportionally with the inverse square of the sparging air-flow rate. Visual observations of the ROB were made in both water and Carbopol®. The bubbles released from the sparge tube in Carbopol® were larger than those in water

  11. Final Data Report: P- and S-Wave Velocity Logging Borings C4993, C4996, and C4997 Part A: Interval Logs

    SciTech Connect

    Steller, Robert; Diehl, John

    2007-02-01

    Insitu borehole P- and S-wave velocity measurements were collected in three borings located within the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) boundaries at the Hanford Site, southeastern Washington. Geophysical data acquisition was performed between August and October of 2006 by Rob Steller, Charles Carter, Antony Martin and John Diehl of GEOVision. Data analysis was performed by Rob Steller and John Diehl, and reviewed by Antony Martin of GEOVision, and report preparation was performed by John Diehl and reviewed by Rob Steller. The work was performed under subcontract with Battelle, Pacific Northwest Division with Marty Gardner as Battelle’s Technical Representative and Alan Rohay serving as the Technical Administrator for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This report describes the field measurements, data analysis, and results of this work.

  12. Cuatrecasanthus (Vernonieae, Compositae): A revision of a north-central Andean genus.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki A

    2012-01-01

    Cuatrecasanthus is native to Ecuador and Peru and although several unusual characters define the genus, such as single flowered heads and corolla throat (limb) divided to the base with lobes that are thickened at the margins, the members of the genus were not recognized as especially closely related until relatively recently. All six species are described, including two new to science (Cuatrecasanthus kingii H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, sp. nov. and Cuatrecasanthus lanceolatus H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, sp. nov.), and one new combination is recognized (Cuatrecasanthus giannasii (Stutts) H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, comb. nov.). A key is provided along with images of the types, SEM photographs of the leaf surfaces, a distribution map, and illustrations of the two new species. All species are given a preliminary conservation status of Data Deficient in regard to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

  13. Cuatrecasanthus (Vernonieae, Compositae): A revision of a north-central Andean genus

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cuatrecasanthus is native to Ecuador and Peru and although several unusual characters define the genus, such as single flowered heads and corolla throat (limb) divided to the base with lobes that are thickened at the margins, the members of the genus were not recognized as especially closely related until relatively recently. All six species are described, including two new to science (Cuatrecasanthus kingii H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, sp. nov. and Cuatrecasanthus lanceolatus H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, sp. nov.), and one new combination is recognized (Cuatrecasanthus giannasii (Stutts) H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, comb. nov.). A key is provided along with images of the types, SEM photographs of the leaf surfaces, a distribution map, and illustrations of the two new species. All species are given a preliminary conservation status of Data Deficient in regard to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. PMID:23170071

  14. Final Data Report: P- and S-Wave Velocity Logging Borings C4993, C4996, and C4997 Part B: Overall Logs

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, John; Steller, Robert

    2007-03-20

    Insitu borehole P- and S-wave velocity measurements were collected in three borings located within the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) boundaries at the Hanford Site, southeastern Washington. Geophysical data acquisition was performed between August and October of 2006 by Rob Steller, Charles Carter, Antony Martin and John Diehl of GEOVision. Data analysis was performed by Rob Steller and John Diehl, and reviewed by Antony Martin of GEOVision, and report preparation was performed by John Diehl and reviewed by Rob Steller. The work was performed under subcontract with Battelle, Pacific Northwest Division with Marty Gardner as Battelle’s Technical Representative and Alan Rohay serving as the Technical Administrator for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This report describes the field measurements, data analysis, and results of this work.

  15. Localized detection of quantum entanglement through the event horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragan, Andrzej; Doukas, Jason; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo

    2013-05-01

    We present a localized solution to the problem of entanglement degradation in noninertial frames. A two-mode squeezed state is considered from the viewpoint of two observers, Alice (inertial) and Rob (accelerated), each observing a single localized mode of the field. We study the state of these modes to determine how much entanglement the observers can extract from the initial state. The dominant source of degradation is an inevitable mode mismatch between the mode of the squeezed state Rob is given and the mode he is able to observe from his accelerated frame. Leakage of the initial mode through Rob's horizon places a limit on his ability to fully measure the state, leading to an inevitable degradation of entanglement that even in principle cannot be fully retrieved by any measurement device.

  16. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS.

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Souza, Camila Ribeiro; Maia, Polyana Mendes; Siqueira, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. A utilização de robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos tem sido cada vez mais frequente na atualidade, o que permite a emergência de inúmeras questões bioéticas nesse âmbito. Apresentar revisão sobre os aspectos éticos dos usos de robôs em cirurgia. Realizou-se revisão nas bases de dados Pubmed, SciELO e Lilacs cruzando-se os descritores "bioética", "cirurgia", "ética", "laparoscopia" e "robótica". Do total de citações obtidas, selecionou-se 17 artigos, os quais foram utilizados para a elaboração do artigo. Ele contém breve apresentação sobre a robótica, sua inserção na saúde e os aspectos bioéticos da utilização dos robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos. A cirurgia robótica é uma realidade, hoje, em muitas unidades hospitalares, o que torna essencial a reflexão bioética sobre as relações entre profissionais da saúde, autômatos e pacientes.

  17. Veterinary homeopathy: systematic review of medical conditions studied by randomised trials controlled by other than placebo.

    PubMed

    Mathie, Robert T; Clausen, Jürgen

    2015-09-15

    No systematic review has previously been carried out on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of veterinary homeopathy in which the control group was an intervention other than placebo (OTP). For eligible peer-reviewed RCTs, the objectives of this study were to assess the risk of bias (RoB) and to quantify the effect size of homeopathic intervention compared with an active comparator or with no treatment. Our systematic review approach complied fully with the PRISMA 2009 Checklist. Cochrane methods were applied to assess RoB and to derive effect size using standard meta-analysis methods. Based on a thorough and systematic literature search, the following key attributes of the published research were distinguished: individualised homeopathy (n = 1 RCT)/non-individualised homeopathy (n = 19); treatment (n = 14)/prophylaxis (n = 6); active controls (n = 18)/untreated controls (n = 2). The trials were highly diverse, representing 12 different medical conditions in 6 different species. No trial had sufficiently low RoB to be judged as reliable evidence: 16 of the 20 RCTs had high RoB; the remaining four had uncertain RoB in several domains of assessment. For three trials with uncertain RoB and without overt vested interest, it was inconclusive whether homeopathy combined with conventional intervention was more or was less effective than conventional intervention alone for modulation of immune response in calves, or in the prophylaxis of cattle tick or of diarrhoea in piglets. Due to the poor reliability of their data, OTP-controlled trials do not currently provide useful insight into the effectiveness of homeopathy in animals.

  18. Building a Cloud Computing and Big Data Infrastructure for Cybersecurity Research and Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-17

    30,940.00 $0.00 $0.00 $30,940.00 Technical Sales Specialist $424,195.70 Rob Hall $70,485.41 rob_a_hall@dell.com $0.00 512-513-9177 $0.00 $495,922.21 VMWARE...Application Description 5 Extra Master Nodes Racks/ PDU’s/ UPS 3 Switches 12 Slave Nodes 5 Server Master Nodes Grand Total Hardware Shipping Sales Tax...11026148 Contract #: 70137 CustomerAgreement #: Dell Std Terms Quote Date: 2/25/2014 Customer Name: NORFOLK STATE UNIV SALES REP: DAVID MCCULLOUGH

  19. Designing a Group Wage Incentive System for Shipyard Production Employees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    13.23 2.743.90 279.0 )30 31 )30 31 >30 31 J30 31 29 FISHER 30 MINES -31 LfTfLE 32 KARL 9 30 31 30 31 33 MERTZ 34 CARLIN ¥ 21317...21*03 21*77 21505 21577 KRAUSS MOULIN WALTERS _ WIL,LIAMS_ GRANT STEVENS SEALEY ...PA.6R . .. HUDSON GILLARD PHIL MEL RONALD JERRY...ROB DEL WILLIAM FRAN DREW WALTER RICHARD JOHN LES BOB THOMAS KARL KEVIN LARRY BRENT DENNIS GREG DANIEL FRED ROB WES EARL

  20. Removal of bisphenol A by a nanofiltration membrane in view of drinking water production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Causserand, C; Aimar, P; Cravedi, J P

    2006-12-01

    The efficiency with which a nanofiltration membrane (Desal 5 DK) removes bisphenol A (BPA) was investigated, together with the mechanisms involved. Whereas high retention (>90%) was obtained at the beginning of the filtration, the observed retention coefficient (R(obs)) decreased to around 50% when the membrane became saturated, due to adsorption of BPA onto the membrane structure. The presence of ions (Na+, Cl-) affects the R(obs), this effect being attributed to a change in BPA hydrodynamic radius. Moreover, in our operating conditions, the presence of natural organic matter (1mg/L) in the feed solution does not lead to variation in BPA retention at steady state.

  1. Near real-time ionospheric monitoring over Europe at the Royal Observatory of Belgium using GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeot, Nicolas; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bruyninx, Carine; Pottiaux, Eric; Aerts, Wim; Baire, Quentin; Legrand, Juliette; Defraigne, Pascale; Huang, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Various scientific applications and services increasingly demand real-time information on the effects of space weather on Earth's atmosphere. In this frame, the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) takes advantage of the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN) to monitor the ionosphere over Europe from the measured delays in the GNSS signals, and provides publicly several derived products. The main ROB products consist of ionospheric vertical Total Electron Content (TEC) maps over Europe and their variability estimated in near real-time every 15 min on 0.5° × 0.5° grids using GPS observations. The maps are available online with a latency of ~3 min in IONEX format at ftp://gnss.oma.be and as interactive web pages at http://www.gnss.be/Atmospheric_Maps/ionospheric_maps.php. This paper presents the method used in the ROB-IONO software to generate the maps. The ROB-TEC maps show a good agreement with widely used post-processed products such as IGS and ESA with mean differences of 1.3 ± 0.9 and 0.4 ± 1.6 TECu respectively for the period 2012 to mid-2013. In addition, we tested the reliability of the ROB-IONO software to detect abnormal ionospheric activity during the Halloween 2003 ionospheric storm. For this period, the mean differences with IGS and ESA maps are 0.9 ± 2.2 and 0.6 ± 6.8 TECu respectively with maximum differences (>38 TECu) occurring during the major phase of the storm. These differences are due to the lower resolution in time and space of both IGS and ESA maps compared to the ROB-TEC maps. A description of two recent events, one on March 17, 2013 and one on February 27, 2014 also highlights the capability of the method adopted in the ROB-IONO software to detect in near real-time abnormal ionospheric behaviour over Europe. In that frame, ROB maintains a data base publicly available with identified ionospheric events since 2012.

  2. Temperature characteristics of microfiber coil resonators embedded in teflon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ye; Ming, Yang; Guo, Wei; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we investigate the temperature characteristic of an optical microfiber coil resonator (OMCR) which is wrapped on Teflon coated PMMA rob and embedded in low index polymer Teflon. The micro fiber used to fabricated the OMCR was 4 ~ 5μm in diameter and 14 mm in waist region length. The PMMA rob has a diameter of 2 mm. Our sample shows high temperature sensitivity as much as 80 pm/°C. The test result suggests OMCR could be of good value in application of temperature sensing.

  3. PTP1B: a new therapeutic target for Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tautz, Lutz

    2015-08-03

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by successive loss of acquired cognitive, social, and motor skills and development of autistic behavior. RTT affects approximately 1 in 10,000 live female births and is the second most common cause of severe mental retardation in females, after Down syndrome. Currently, there is no cure or effective therapy for RTT. Approved treatment regimens are presently limited to supportive management of specific physical and mental disabilities. In this issue, Krishnan and colleagues reveal that the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is upregulated in patients with RTT and in murine models and provide strong evidence that targeting PTP1B has potential as a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of RTT.

  4. Shear flow behavior of a dynamically symmetric polymeric bicontinuous microemulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ning

    2005-03-01

    Soft materials with complex internal structure often exhibit fascinating rheological behavior. For example, under flow the poly (ethylethylene) (PEE)/poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS)/PEE-PDMS polymeric bicontinuous microemulsion (BμE) showed shear-induced macrophase separation.^ 1 This was tentatively attributed to the extreme dynamical asymmetry of the two homopolymers, i.e., their viscosities differed by three orders of magnitude. To understand the role of the dynamic symmetry of a BμE when subjected to shear flow, we have developed a new ternary polymer blend system poly(butylene oxide) (PBO)/ poly(ethylenepropylene) (PEP)/PEP-PBO, which is dynamically almost symmetric. We will report on the shear flow behavior of this new BμE. Reference: [1] Krishnan et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2001, 87, 098301

  5. PTP1B: a new therapeutic target for Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tautz, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by successive loss of acquired cognitive, social, and motor skills and development of autistic behavior. RTT affects approximately 1 in 10,000 live female births and is the second most common cause of severe mental retardation in females, after Down syndrome. Currently, there is no cure or effective therapy for RTT. Approved treatment regimens are presently limited to supportive management of specific physical and mental disabilities. In this issue, Krishnan and colleagues reveal that the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is upregulated in patients with RTT and in murine models and provide strong evidence that targeting PTP1B has potential as a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of RTT. PMID:26214520

  6. Spinal cord injury: reversing the incorrect cortical maps by inductive lability procedure.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, R V

    2004-06-01

    Within the brain-stem and on the cerebral cortex there are locomotor control centers arranged in a ladder-form control system. These centers are somatotopic, self-organizing neural network maps capable of simultaneously learning and task execution. In spinal cord injury (SCI) these self-organized maps get erroneously re-organized and maladaptively stabilized. The extent and quality of sensory-motor recovery, if any appears, is affected by and compromised due to incorrect mapping processes. The treatment method based on inductive lability procedure (Krishnan, 2003a, 2003b, 2003c) uses botulinum toxin for the purpose. It recreates competition among synapses in a locomotor training-based corrective re-self-organization of the maps in various steps of the ladder.

  7. Thermodynamic black di-rings

    SciTech Connect

    Iguchi, Hideo; Mishima, Takashi

    2010-10-15

    Previously the five dimensional S{sup 1}-rotating black rings have been superposed in a concentric way by some solitonic methods, and regular systems of two S{sup 1}-rotating black rings were constructed by the authors and then Evslin and Krishnan (we called these solutions 'black di-rings'). In this place we show some characteristics of the solutions of five dimensional black di-rings, especially in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the summary of the di-ring expressions and their physical quantities, first we comment on the equivalence of the two different solution sets of the black di-rings. Then the existence of thermodynamic black di-rings is shown, in which both isothermality and isorotation between the inner black ring and the outer black ring are realized. We also give detailed analysis of peculiar properties of the thermodynamic black di-ring including discussion about a certain kind of thermodynamic stability (instability) of the system.

  8. Generalized Damour-Navier-Stokes equation applied to trapping horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    2005-11-15

    An identity is derived from the Einstein equation for any hypersurface H which can be foliated by spacelike two-dimensional surfaces. In the case where the hypersurface is null, this identity coincides with the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes-like equation obtained by Damour in the membrane approach to a black hole event horizon. In the case where H is spacelike or null and the 2-surfaces are marginally trapped, this identity applies to Hayward's trapping horizons and to the related dynamical horizons recently introduced by Ashtekar and Krishnan. The identity involves a normal fundamental form (normal connection 1-form) of the 2-surface, which can be viewed as a generalization to non-null hypersurfaces of the Hajicek 1-form used by Damour. This 1-form is also used to define the angular momentum of the horizon. The generalized Damour-Navier-Stokes equation leads then to a simple evolution equation for the angular momentum.

  9. Progression to Uncontrolled Severe Asthma: A Novel Risk Equation.

    PubMed

    Casciano, Julian; Krishnan, Jerry; Small, Mary Buatti; Li, Chenghui; Dotiwala, Zenobia; Martin, Bradley C

    2017-01-01

    -statistic was used to test the model's discrimination power. The study included 2,405 patients, 147 (6%) of whom developed uncontrolled severe asthma. Higher eosinophil level and CCI score > 0 were significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of uncontrolled severe asthma in the derivation cohort (HR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.17-3.08 and HR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.28-3.13, respectively); findings were similar in the validation cohort. Total risk score was categorized as 0, 2, and 4. All models showed good C-statistics (0.79-0.80), indicating favorable model discrimination. There was a significantly greater number of patients with uncontrolled severe asthma in the risk score segments of 2 and 4 compared with 0 (each P < 0.0001). A risk stratification tool using peripheral eosinophil counts and CCI can be used to predict the development of uncontrolled severe asthma. This study was funded by Teva Pharmaceuticals. eMAX Health Systems was a consultant to Teva Pharmaceuticals for this study and received payment from Teva Pharmaceuticals for work on this study. Casciano and Dotiwala are employed by eMAX Health Systems. Krishnan, Li, and Martin received payment from eMAX Health Systems for work on this study. Small was employed by Teva Pharmaceuticals at the time of this study. Study concept and design were contributed primarily by Casciano, Krishnan, Small, and Martin, along with Li and Dotiwala. Dotiwala, Casciano, Small, and Li collected the data, along with Martin and Li and Krishnan. Data interpretation was provided by Martin, Casciano, and Li, with assistance from the other authors. The manuscript was written by Li, Casciano, Dotiwala, and Small, with assistance from the other authors, and revised by Dotiwala, Small, Li, and Martin, with assistance from Krishnan and Casciano.

  10. Indigenous Knowledge in the Life Sciences Classroom: Put on Your de Bono Hats!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beer, Josef; Whitlock, Elrina

    2009-01-01

    The whole world was united in its condemnation of the pre-1994 apartheid regime in South Africa. Apartheid meant that many South Africans were robbed of their democratic voices and cultural identities. In this article, the authors pose the question: Are you guilty of "knowledge apartheid" in your biology classroom? Does every student have a voice…

  11. Don't Bother Me, I'm Reading: Graphic Nonfiction for Middle Schoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a savvy guide to the best graphic nonfiction books for middle schoolers. These include: "Ronald Reagan: A Graphic Biography" by Andrew Hefler; "Clan Apis" by Jay Hosler; and "Corpses and Skeletons: The Science of Forensic Anthropology" by Rob Shone.

  12. Is Interdisciplinarity Old News? A Disciplined Consideration of Interdisciplinarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theory of Basil Bernstein and on more recent applications of it by Rob Moore, John Beck and Michael Young to respond to recent calls for the replacement of discipline-based university faculties and departments with "problem-based" curricula and programmes of study. It considers, particularly, the potential…

  13. Human Trafficking. Ministering to The 'Invisible' Victim.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Colleen; Krausa, Laura

    2016-07-01

    Human trafficking is modern-day slavery - an insidious, criminal industry that gener- ates billions of dollars in labor trafficking alone. It knows no boundary of continent, country, race or class; it is a shattering, impartial predator that robs individuals of their basic human dignity.

  14. 28 CFR 2.219 - Maximum terms of imprisonment and supervised release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sentenced for an offense for which registration is required by the Sex Offender Registration Act of 1999. (3... intent to kill/rob/poison, to commit sex abuse (1st or 2nd degree) or child sex abuse 3 years (10 years...-3002 Sex abuse 1st degree * 5 years (life if SOR) 5 years. 22-3002, 4502 Sex abuse 1st degree...

  15. 28 CFR 2.219 - Maximum terms of imprisonment and supervised release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sentenced for an offense for which registration is required by the Sex Offender Registration Act of 1999. (3... intent to kill/rob/poison, to commit sex abuse (1st or 2nd degree) or child sex abuse 3 years (10 years...-3002 Sex abuse 1st degree * 5 years (life if SOR) 5 years. 22-3002, 4502 Sex abuse 1st degree...

  16. 28 CFR 2.219 - Maximum terms of imprisonment and supervised release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sentenced for an offense for which registration is required by the Sex Offender Registration Act of 1999. (3... intent to kill/rob/poison, to commit sex abuse (1st or 2nd degree) or child sex abuse 3 years (10 years...-3002 Sex abuse 1st degree * 5 years (life if SOR) 5 years. 22-3002, 4502 Sex abuse 1st degree...

  17. 28 CFR 2.219 - Maximum terms of imprisonment and supervised release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sentenced for an offense for which registration is required by the Sex Offender Registration Act of 1999. (3... intent to kill/rob/poison, to commit sex abuse (1st or 2nd degree) or child sex abuse 3 years (10 years...-3002 Sex abuse 1st degree * 5 years (life if SOR) 5 years. 22-3002, 4502 Sex abuse 1st degree...

  18. 28 CFR 2.219 - Maximum terms of imprisonment and supervised release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sentenced for an offense for which registration is required by the Sex Offender Registration Act of 1999. (3... intent to kill/rob/poison, to commit sex abuse (1st or 2nd degree) or child sex abuse 3 years (10 years...-3002 Sex abuse 1st degree * 5 years (life if SOR) 5 years. 22-3002, 4502 Sex abuse 1st degree...

  19. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Pavlov evidently does not think of the return that "defense" may generate in five years, as his task is to rob the enterprises now to somehow bring... Ivan Bentsa, followed by report from USSR Defense Ministry by Viktor Litovkin: "Novaya Zemlya Prepares For Nuclear Explosions"] [Text] New plans for

  20. A Teaching Makeover Improves Learning for Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubet, Kristina J.; Hockett, Jessica A.; Brighton, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    In many primary classrooms, the prospect of addressing standards threatens to rob young children of the joy of learning. Teachers who feel pressed to move students of all backgrounds toward mastery of increasingly complex standards may abandon rich curriculum and move toward isolated "skill drills." This may be counterproductive. The…

  1. 3 CFR 8591 - Proclamation 8591 of October 29, 2010. National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2010 8591 Proclamation 8591 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8591 of October 29, 2010 Proc. 8591 National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2010By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Alzheimer’s disease tragically robs individuals...

  2. 3 CFR 8897 - Proclamation 8897 of November 1, 2012. National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2012 8897 Proclamation 8897 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8897 of November 1, 2012 Proc. 8897 National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2012By the... tragic realities of Alzheimer's disease—an irreversible, fatal illness that robs men and women of...

  3. Stage 2--Information Seeking Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsenberg, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    A brief overview of one Big6 stage by Mike Eisenberg, followed by articles by two exemplary Big6 teachers, Barbara Jansen and Rob Darrow, offering practical uses of the Big6 in elementary and secondary situations is presented. The two-part nature of information seeking strategies that includes brainstorming and choosing is emphasized.

  4. 77 FR 24466 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... online at: https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov/preview/preview_open_for_comment.cfm . DATES: Comments or requests... nmfs.nwr.apps@noaa.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rob Clapp, Portland, OR (ph.: 503-231- 2314... the address above, or online at https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Species...

  5. 78 FR 69374 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... at: https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov/preview/preview_open_for_comment.cfm . DATES: Comments or requests for....nwr.apps@noaa.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rob Clapp, Portland, OR (ph.: 503-231- 2314), Fax... address above, or online at https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Species Covered in...

  6. 45 CFR 1706.170 - Compliance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INFORMATION SCIENCE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE § 1706.170 Compliance procedures. (a... Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Suite 3122, GSA-ROB 3, Washington, DC 20024. (d) The...

  7. Field test results of the three-dimensional acquisition and tracking (3DATA) sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, Paul W.; Lilly, David; Matkin, William B.

    2004-01-01

    Trex has developed two innovative MWIR tracking systems, the Rapid Optical Beam Steering (ROBS) system and the Fast InfraRed Sniper Tracker (FIRST). ROBS was developed by Trex in the mid 1980"s for BMDO and the Navy as a prototype 0.5 meter aperture, wide-angle, multiple target detection, tracking, and imaging system with laser ranging. The smaller FIRST system was developed in the mid 1990"s by Trex for DARPA to acquire and track small caliber bullets. Both systems utilize innovative fast steering methods for achieving very high acceleration rates, ~ 1,000 radians/sec2 for ROBS and ~ 40,000 radians/sec2 for the FIRST system. Each can provide high precision 3D tracking over a large field of regard and both have been demonstrated in field tests. Presently the capabilities of these systems are being expanded. A newer version of the ROBS, 3DATA, is being completed which will provide a capability to precisely track in three dimensions up to 20 targets per second, simultaneously. In addition, an upgraded FIRST system is being designed and built which will handle multiple slow targets in addition to the faster bullets.

  8. Monitoring oak-hickory forest change during an unprecedented red oak borer outbreak in the Ozark Mountains: 1990 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joshua S.; Tullis, Jason A.; Haavik, Laurel J.; Guldin, James M.; Stephen, Fred M.

    2014-01-01

    Upland oak-hickory forests in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma experienced oak decline in the late 1990s and early 2000s during an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle, the red oak borer (ROB), Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). Although remote sensing supports frequent monitoring of continuously changing forests, comparable in situ observations are critical for developing an understanding of past and potential ROB damage in the Ozark Mountains. We categorized forest change using a normalized difference water index (NDWI) applied to multitemporal Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (1990, 2001, and 2006). Levels of decline or growth were categorized using simple statistical thresholds of change in the NDWI over time. Corresponding decline and growth areas were then observed in situ where tree diameter, age, crown condition, and species composition were measured within variable radius plots. Using a machine learning decision tree classifier, remote sensing-derived decline and growth was characterized in terms of in situ observation. Plots with tree quadratic mean diameter at breast height ≥21.5 cm were categorized remotely as in severe decline. Landsat TM/ETM+-based NDWI derivatives reveal forest decline and regrowth in post-ROB outbreak surveys. Historical and future Landsat-based canopy change detection should be incorporated with existing landscape-based prediction of ROB hazard.

  9. Network Oxygen Exchange During Water Diffusion in SiO2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    in the Ŕ (p,a) "N reaction. Beam energy was monitored by means of an NMR gauss - meter whose probe was mounted between the analyzing magnet pole...1977). 2R. H. Doremus, in Reactivity of Solids, edited by Mitchell, de Vries, Rob- erts, and Cannon (Wiley, New York, 1969), p. 667. ’G. Amsel, J

  10. Water intoxication by the oral route in an infant.

    PubMed Central

    Etzioni, A; Benderley, A; Levi, Y

    1979-01-01

    Symptomatic water intoxication is common when hypo-osmolar fluids are given therapeutically, usually intravenously, but it is rare after drinking voluntarily (Wynn and Rob, 1954). We report a case of water intoxication caused by voluntary drinking in an infant. PMID:485199

  11. Sport-Based Youth and Community Development: Beyond the Ball in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jennifer M.; Castañeda, Amy; Castañeda, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Rob and Amy Castañeda, the co-founders of a sports/play-based youth and community development organization called Beyond the Ball (www.beyondtheball.org), cite the collaborative and dynamic nature of the TPSR Alliance as an important influence for their work. Beyond the Ball serves individuals between kindergarten and post-college, in the North…

  12. Humans, Sharks and the Shared Environment in the Contemporary Eco-Doc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Focussing on the film "Sharkwater" directed by Rob Stewart (2006), this article discusses formal interpretive aspects of recent environmental documentaries which are intended to raise awareness about environmental issues. It is argued that contemporary environmental documentaries seek to persuade audiences to protect the shared physical…

  13. Marine and land active-source seismic imaging of mid-Miocene to Holocene-aged faulting near geothermal prospects at Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G.; Driscoll, N.; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R.; Louie, J.; Pullammanappallil, S.

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie Kell, Graham Kent, Neal Driscoll, Robert Karlin, Rob Baskin, John Louie, and Satish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic imaging of mid-Miocene to Holocene-aged faulting near geothermal prospects at Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting, San Diego, Oct. 23-26.

  14. Counterterrorism Tactics: A Model of Cell Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    feed a drug habit ? OK, who is he buying his drugs from? Or is he robbing to raise funds to buy guns for a gang? Which gang? Who are his associates...STUDIES...........................................................................................................5 A. MILLENNIAL BOMBING...conducts primary research into the following three thwarted terrorist attacks: 1) the Brooklyn Bridge attack by Iyman Faris, 2) the Millennial Bombings at

  15. Use of PCR analysis for identification of species and genus of Septoria on grain crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research on methods for molecular-genetic testing of the Septoria pathogens of wheat was initiated. Two species of septoria were studied: Septoria tritici Rob. et Desm., and Stagonospora nodorum [Berk] Castellani and E.G. Germano. Different protocols for extraction of DNA were applied; the best meth...

  16. The International Sailing Canoe: A Technical Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    Mermaid , considered the ultimate develop- ment in the 16 x 30 class, as she with skipper Leo Friede won the New York Cup in 1914. Various sailing...canoes, including Kestrel (circa 1890), Bee (circa 1890), Argonaut (cirea 1910), Mermaid (ci rca 1913, 1923) and an example of a "Rob Roy" Canoe (circa

  17. Issues of Class and Culture in Today's Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Laura I.

    New researchers on community colleges, such as Rob Rhoads, Estela Bensimon, Bill Tierney, James Valadez, Berta Laden, and Romero Jalomo, are exploring new conceptual frameworks to guide thinking about the transformation of community colleges from mere open-access institutions into colleges that make a difference in the lives of students who have…

  18. Music in the Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Patience

    2011-01-01

    In this article, five highly experienced music educators tell what they love about teaching music. They are: (1) Rob Amchin, professor of music education at the University of Louisville, Kentucky (elementary general music specialist and percussionist--over 30 years of experience); (2) Susan Bechler, retired orchestra teacher for the Victor Central…

  19. Fostering Resilience in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Practical Strategies EC Staff Can Put into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Children enmeshed in violence don't experience a relaxed, predictable, or trusting home life. In fact, children exposed to home violence often experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) just as adults do after enduring violence. Domestic violence robs children of their childhood. And while early childhood staff can't erase the…

  20. Bullying of Students by Teachers and Peers and Its Effect on the Psychological Well-Being of Students in Jamaican Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottinger, Audrey M.; Stair, Angela Gordon

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 225 Jamaican university students were asked to recall their bullying experiences at elementary and high schools. Being verbally humiliated, robbed, and beaten were the top three frequently-occurring experiences. Acts of bullying by peers and educators were compared for their impact on students' psychological well being. Educator but…

  1. Workplace Education: The Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.

    The 23 chapters of this book are as follows: "A Framework for Developing Partnerships" (Wendy M. Doughty); "Partnership Building in Nova Scotia" (Marjorie Davison, Paul Temple); "What Makes a Successful Workplace Education Partnership?" (Rob Despins et al.); "Building Linkages in Large Organizations: The Syncrude…

  2. Process-Model Feminism in the Corporate University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer-Hanks, D. T.

    2016-01-01

    In a period characterised by worries over the rise of the corporate university, it is important to ask what role feminism plays in the academy, and whether that role is commensurate with feminist values and ethics. Commercial and political pressures brought to bear on the encounter between instructor and student can rob teaching of its efficacy,…

  3. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  4. Time to Learn. Research Points. Volume 5, Issue 2, Winter 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangel, Elizabeth S.

    2007-01-01

    Calls for more school instructional time are coming from multiple quarters. Academic standards and frequent assessments have changed the nature, but not the length, of the instructional day. Schools find themselves "robbing Peter to pay Paul," taking time from the arts, recess, and physical education to give to reading and math, subjects that…

  5. Clinical outcome of treatment cycles using preimplantation genetic diagnosis for structural chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Fridström, M; Ahrlund-Richter, L; Iwarsson, E; Malmgren, H; Inzunza, J; Rosenlund, B; Sjöblom, P; Nordenskjöld, M; Blennow, E; Hovatta, O

    2001-09-01

    To explore oocyte recovery, embryo quality, the number of transferable embryos and pregnancy rate after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in patients with structural chromosomal aberrations. PGD was performed in seven couples with Robertsonian translocations (Rob), eight couples with reciprocal translocations (Rec), two couples with inversions and one couple with a deletion. A total of 43 treatment cycles were carried out. A total of 14.2 oocytes per cycle were retrieved. Fertilisation and cleavage rates were 63% and 58%, respectively. Of the biopsied embryos 20% were transferable. Comparison of the Rob and Rec group revealed no significant differences in number of oocytes, fertilisation or cleavage rates. The number of transferable embryos after biopsy was significantly higher in the Rob group than in the Rec group. When embryo transfer (ET) was performed the pregnancy rate did not differ between the Rob and the Rec groups. Twenty-eight embryo transfers (one or two embryos) were carried out leading to eight clinical pregnancies (29% per ET): two twins, four singletons, one miscarriage and one ectopic pregnancy. All the children are carriers of balanced chromosomal aberrations. An acceptable pregnancy rate can be achieved among couples with structural chromosomal abnormalities. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Operation Everest II. Plasma Lipid and Hormonal Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Powles Jack Reeves, Rob Roach, Paul Rock, Madeliene Rose, Robert Schoene, Jose Suarez , Brenda Townes, Darlene Tyler, Peter Wagner, and Patricia Young...Ineichen, E. Salazar , A. Zerpa, and C. J. Glueck. Lipids and lipoproteins in subjects at 1000 and 3500 meters altitude. Arch. Environ. Health 34: 308

  7. Pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in the traditional Andean herbal medicine "asmachilca"

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Asmachilca is a Peruvian medicinal herb preparation ostensibly derived from Eupatorium gayanum Wedd. = Aristeguietia gayana (Wedd.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae). Decoctions of the plant have a reported bronchodilation effect that is purported to be useful in the treatment of respir...

  8. RHex: A Biologically Inspired Hexapod Runner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    brachiating robot (Nakanishi et al., 2000). All of these robots were conceived as laboratory demonstration machines. In contrast, RHex’s intrinsic...2000. A Brachiating Robot Controller. IEEE Trans. Rob. Aut. 16(2):109-123. Papadopoulos, D. and Buehler, M. 2000. Stable running in a quadruped robot

  9. Evidence for Spring Loaded Inverted Pendulum Running in a Hexapod Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    three degree of freedom environment) [9]. This same idea is used to control a recently reported brachiating robot [10]. In this sec- tion we review the...24. [10] Nakanishi J, Fukuda T, and Koditschek D E 2000 A Brachiating Robot Con- troller. IEEE Trans. Rob. Aut. 16(2):109-123. [11] Schwind W J 1998

  10. Automating Libraries: The Major Mistakes Vendors Are Likely to Make.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Hi Tech, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Five prominent consultants--Richard Boss, Susan Baerg Epstein, Rob McGee, Joseph Matthews, James E. Rush--discuss the most common mistakes vendors make in implementing library automated systems. Suggestions are made for correcting basic problems relating to identification of library needs, communications, delivery dates, inadequate systems, and…

  11. Pre-Milestone I Program Development Process Guide (ASC/YX).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    Rudduck Susan Strauser Walter Torrey Lt Col Harry Walker Steve Walker Debbie Weber Mark Weitz John Wilson Dave Wright KEY MANAGEMENT SUPPORT Col Rob...IIIp NOvW 93 Id-vu ToWk0.1* -qr#! Poter "ia Sytm Afterntativ 4?,’ - • I /7 Figure 3-. Task . 1.9 - Identify Potential System Alternatives - - The

  12. Overcoming Obstacles to Education: The Experience of Women University Students Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Sonya Corbin

    2000-01-01

    A hermeneutic phenomenological methodology was used to explore the experience of eight women university students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two themes describing obstacles to their education - "robbed of time" and "thoughts like a rubber ball" - were identified. Discusses strategies and treatment issues and…

  13. 77 FR 73889 - National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Part V The President Proclamation 8914--National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2012 Executive Order... National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... American people. In less than 2 hours, the bombs that rained on Pearl Harbor robbed thousands of men, women...

  14. Do patients benefit from orthognathic surgery? A systematic review on the effects of elective orthognathic surgery on psychosocial functioning and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Broers, Dyonne L M; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; Rozema, Frederik R; de Jongh, Ad

    2017-09-11

    The main purpose of this systematic review was to determine the current state of evidence regarding patient satisfaction with, and the impact of, orthognathic surgery on psychosocial functioning of patients 17 yr of age and older. A secondary aim was to determine whether individuals with psychiatric disorders and mental health conditions are more likely to be dissatisfied with the treatment outcome than those without. We systematically searched PubMed, PsycInfo, and Embase for relevant studies (up to 6 June 2016). After selection of articles we determined the Directness of Evidence (DoE) and Risk of Bias (RoB). We identified 3,948 studies (1,053 studies in Pubmed, 2,023 in Embase, and 872 in PsycInfo). Of these, 87 remained after screening of title and abstract, while after full-text screening only nine remained for DoE and RoB assessment. All nine studies had a high RoB and a low or moderate DoE. The quality of the methods of studies, published to date, on the effects of orthognathic surgery on patient satisfaction or the psychosocial impact carry a high RoB. Therefore, these do not allow inferences on the effects of orthognathic surgery on patient satisfaction or their psychosocial functioning. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  15. Report on the Second International Workshop on Development and Evolution of Software Architectures for Product Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    evolved to a new ADL called Koala . The group working on analysis from the Polytechnical University of Madrid used various tools including the...Sligte, An Integral Hierarchy and Diversity Model for Describing Product Family Architecture 4. Rob van Ommering, Koala , a Component Model for Consumer

  16. Particle Choices and Collocation in Cameroon English Phrasal Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epoge, Napoleon

    2016-01-01

    The meaning of some phrasal verbs can be guessed from the meanings of the parts (to sit down = sit + down, run after = run + after) and the meaning of some others have to be learned (to put up (a visitor) = accommodate, to hold up = cause delay or try to rob someone) due to their syntactic and semantic complexities. In this regard, the syntactic…

  17. Don't Bother Me, I'm Reading: Graphic Nonfiction for Middle Schoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a savvy guide to the best graphic nonfiction books for middle schoolers. These include: "Ronald Reagan: A Graphic Biography" by Andrew Hefler; "Clan Apis" by Jay Hosler; and "Corpses and Skeletons: The Science of Forensic Anthropology" by Rob Shone.

  18. Pictures of Our Nobler Selves: A History of Native American Contributions to News Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trahant, Mark N.

    Many American Indians deeply resent distorted depictions of themselves in the media. They are convinced that false media caricatures have helped rob them of their history. This report addresses a fascinating incongruity: the contributions made by Native Americans to the U.S. news media--a media that has played a key role in creating the flawed…

  19. Identifying, Confronting and Disrupting Stereotypes: Role on the Wall in an Intergenerational LGBTQ Applied Theatre Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseal, Jennifer; Ray, Kevin; Teitelbaum, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    In New York City, LGBTQ people from different generations have had few opportunities to connect. They have splintered into age-segregated micro-communities, robbing them of opportunities to weave a common history and share strategies that community members have used to survive and thrive. "Bridging the Gap" was a community-based…

  20. Hastily-Formed Networks for First Responders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    additional modules as identified throughout this paper . We also need to develop TwiddleNet management tools so that user accounts and connections can be...of their work. 10 9 Acknowledgements MAJ Jon Towle , CAPT Rob Myers, CAPT Eddie Zapata all of the US Marine Corps, and LT Chris Clotfelter of US

  1. 76 FR 56488 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Related to the March 11, 2011, Earthquake and Tsunami Events in Fukushima, Japan (Tentative) b. Nuclear... Report--Short-Term Actions (Public Meeting) (Contact: Rob Taylor, 301-415-3172) This meeting will be..., October 11, 2011 9 a.m. Briefing on the Japan Near Term Task Force Report-- Prioritization of...

  2. Informal Learning. Symposium 27. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document contains three papers on informal learning and human resource development. "Workplace Learning Reviewed: Confronting the Rhetoric with Empirical Research" (Rob F. Poell, Ferd J. Van der Krogt) discusses the considerable discrepancy between theory on workplace learning and actual workplace learning-related developments in…

  3. Asymmetrical disassortative pollination in a distylous primrose: the complementary roles of bumblebee nectar robbers and syrphid flies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xing-Fu; Jiang, Xian-Feng; Li, Li; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Qing-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly is a floral polymorphism characterized by reciprocal herkogamy maintained through high levels of mating between morphs, serviced by appropriate pollinators. We studied how differential efficiency and abundance of distinct pollinators affect plant female reproduction in self- and intra-morph incompatible distylous Primula secundiflora. Bumblebees and syrphid flies were found to be the most abundant floral visitors. Bumblebees frequently exhibited nectar-robbing behavior. Because the robbing holes were always situated between the high- and low-level organs on both morphs, nectar-robbing bumblebees only pollinated S-styled flowers. L-styled flowers set four times as many seeds as did S-styled flowers after being visited by pollen-collecting syrphid flies. The natural female fecundity and the magnitude of pollen limitation varied between the morphs within populations because of the mosaic distribution of nectar-robbing bumblebees and syrphid flies. L-styled flowers and S-styled flowers set the same number of seeds after supplemental hand pollination, indicating equivalent female reproductive potential. We suggest that bumblebee nectar robbers and syrphid flies play an important role in sustaining the floral dimorphism of heterostyly in P. secundiflora because of their complementary roles in the pollination system. PMID:25579323

  4. Influences of Television on Children's Behavior: Implications for War and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    Television is robbing children of their childhood. Moreover, it is destroying children's developing symbolic processes, and inhibiting their creativity and play. Television has remarkable influence over children's behavior. At this point, it is plausible to hypothesize linkages between television viewing and numerous social problems involving…

  5. Computers and the Primary Curriculum 3-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Rob, Ed.

    This book is a comprehensive and practical guide to the use of computers across a wide age range. Extensive use is made of photographs, illustrations, cartoons, and samples of children's work to demonstrate the versatility of computer use in schools. An introduction by Rob Crompton placing computer use within the educational context of the United…

  6. Digital Schools: How Technology Can Transform Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Darrell M.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly a century ago, famed educator John Dewey said that "if we teach today's students as we taught yesterday's, we rob them of tomorrow." That wisdom resonates more strongly than ever today, and that maxim underlies this insightful look at the present and future of education in the digital age. As Darrell West makes clear, today's…

  7. Become "Environmentally" Aware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rob; Chval, Kathryn B.

    2009-01-01

    This article shares how elementary teacher Rob Allen realized what it means to create an effective classroom mathematics environment. Through self-reflection on his teaching, observing some students' negative attitudes and low self-esteem, and examining the type of questions and activities taking place in the classroom, Allen understood that the…

  8. 1300101

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-22

    FROM LEFT, NASA ADMINISTRATOR CHARLES BOLDEN LISTENS TO MARSHALL MATERIALS ENGINEER NANCY TOLLIVER; JOHN VICKERS, MANAGER OF THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR ADVANCED MANUFACTURING; AND MARSHALL FLIGHT SYSTEMS DESIGN ENGINEER ROB BLACK AS THEY BRIEF HIM ON THE USE OF 3-D PRINTING AND PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY TO CREATE PARTS FOR THE SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM

  9. On-line Mobile Robotic Dynamic Modeling using Integrated Perturbative Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    SACR team - Jason Ziglar, Nicholas Chan, and Rob Meyers - helped collect the vehicle data and were always willing to help, even though I had a bad...collect a data log of time-tagged commands and measured poses on an on appropriate vehicle, in appropriate terrain (mechanical, geometry ), for appropriate

  10. Thin Film PZT Piezo MEMS for Micro-Robotic Angular Rate Sensing and Rotary Actuation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-31

    Luz Sanchez, Rob Proie, Vishnu Ganesan, Joe Conroy, and Ron Polcawich July 31, 2012 U.S. Army Research Laboratory THIN FILM PZT PIEZO MEMS FOR...Caltech Angular rate sensing on 1-30 mg platform • 2 orders smaller than packaged state of the art gyroscope. • Integrated biomimetic PZT actuator

  11. Monitoring oak-hickory forest change during an unprecedented red oak borer outbreak in the Ozark Mountains: 1990 to 2006

    Treesearch

    Joshua S. Jones; Jason A. Tullis; Laurel J. Haavik; James M. Guldin; Fred M. Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Upland oak-hickory forests in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma experienced oak decline in the late 1990s and early 2000s during an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle, the red oak borer (ROB), Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). Although remote sensing supports frequent monitoring of continuously changing forests, comparable in situ observations are critical for...

  12. An Ethnographic Study of the Kids on the Streets of Fortaleza, Brazil: Family, School, Peer and Community Life, Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos Monteiro, Julieta M.; And Others

    Depiction of the problem of children living in the streets in third world countries emphasizes the extent to which they are victims (as statistics have shown them as numbers on the streets or killed by "death squads") or victimizers who affect an economy (e.g., by robbing tourists). Both descriptions suggest that one-dimensional portrait…

  13. Army Precision at Central Headquarters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jay P.

    2005-01-01

    William "Rob" Roberts wasn't thinking about working as a professional educator, much less running a major school system, when he decided he'd had enough of formal schooling himself at age 19. Rather, he dreamed of big adventures, flying combat aircraft for the military. When he discovered the U.S. Army didn't insist on two years of…

  14. Influences of Television on Children's Behavior: Implications for War and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    Television is robbing children of their childhood. Moreover, it is destroying children's developing symbolic processes, and inhibiting their creativity and play. Television has remarkable influence over children's behavior. At this point, it is plausible to hypothesize linkages between television viewing and numerous social problems involving…

  15. 45 CFR 1706.170 - Compliance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INFORMATION SCIENCE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE § 1706.170 Compliance procedures. (a... Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Suite 3122, GSA-ROB 3, Washington, DC 20024. (d) The...

  16. Techniques for Cyber Attack Attribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    Measurement Working Group. http://www.caida.org/projects/ngi/content/security/1198 [Sanchez 2001] Sanchez, Luis A., Walter C. Milliken , Alex C. Snoeren...seclab.cs.ucdavis.edu/papers/DetectingSpoofed-DISCEX.pdf [Thomas 2001] Thomas, Rob . February 8, 2001. Tracking Spoofed IP Addresses Version 2.0. http

  17. Annual Progress Report (17th) and 1992-97 Renewal Proposal Interactive Graphics for Molecular Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-24

    manipulation interface. Graduate research assistant Rob Katz has worked on this problem. Jim Begley, a new graduate research assistant with SGI...Missing Meaning," Proceedings of CHI 󈨝, Austin, TX, April 1989, F.P. Brooks, Jr., M. Beheasky, D. Milliken , M. Russo and A. Drumn, panelists. Ouh-Young

  18. Prior Assault and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Combat Deployment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Manpower Data Center, Sea- side, California. Additionally, we thank Lacy Farnell, Gia Gumbs, Isabel Jacobson, Cynthia Leard, Travis Leleu, Rob - ert Reed...problems, and barriers to care. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:13–22. 9. Hoge CW, Auchterlonie JL, Milliken CS. Mental health problems, use of mental health

  19. Analysis and Simulation of Narrowband GPS Jamming Using Digital Excision Temporal Filtering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    thank my study partners, Jeff, Lori, Wayne, Rich, Georgia, and Rob who were an immense help in understanding the material in the many classes we shared. I...New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1972. [MIL80] Milliken , R. J., "Principle of Operation of NAVSTAR and System Characteristics," Papers published in

  20. Combined Quarterly Technical Report Number 36. Pluribus Satellite IMP (Interface Message Processors) Development Mobile Access Terminal Network.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    Wideband Network and was actually robbing power from the Wideband Network. .... .................... ... . ........... . .~.’... %.*. .* Report No...McKenzie D. Melone W. Milliken R. Quiros R. Rettberg H. Rising .1. Robinson E. Rosen P. Santos S. Starch R. Thomas -t.. C. Topolcic R. Waters B

  1. Expression and Diagnostic Utility of Hepatitis E Virus Putative Structural Proteins Expressed in Insect Cells.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    returnees and William Jones for technical assistance, and Y. H. Kang and Rob from Asia and Africa. Dig. Dis. Sci. 32:1151-1154. ,Williams for help in...Sambrook, J., E. F. Fritsch, and T. Maniatis. 1989. Molecular 28. Tavera, C., 0. Velazquez , C. Avila, G. Ornelas, C. Alvarez, and cloning: a laboratory

  2. Narrative Chance. Postmodern Discourse on Native American Indian Literatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizenor, Gerald, Ed.

    Native American literary works have often been ignored by serious critics or examined by social scientists in ways that rob them of their effectiveness as works of art. The emphasis of postmodern theory on the creative power of language, on narrative discourse, and on signs and semiotics allows an original and perceptive approach to Native…

  3. Treatment of Neurosensory Disorders Improves Psychological Well-Being in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlander, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Psychological well-being is the ultimate "quality of life" measure. The presence of a neurosensory disorder (NSD) in a child, such as ADD, ADHD, Asperger's syndrome, or autism, can rob the child of psychological well-being, or hamper the growth of well-being as the child develops. Fortunately, treatment of NSDs can remove obstacles to the…

  4. 76 FR 28421 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine... collection instrument(s) and instructions should be directed to Rob Andrews, NOAA, National Marine Fisheries... INFORMATION: I. Abstract This request is for a revision of a current information collection....

  5. Ending Discrimination against People with Alcohol and Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    People with alcohol or other drug disease face public and private policies that restrict their access to appropriate health care, employment, and public benefits, discouraging them from seeking treatment, robbing them of hope for recovery, and costing society millions of dollars. Join Together, a project of Boston University School of Public…

  6. The Use of EFL Reading Strategies among High School Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kate Tzu-Ching; Chen, Sabina Chia-Li

    2015-01-01

    In the traditional English l language classroom, reading is the skill that receives the most emphasis (Susser & Rob, 1990). Learners should use reading strategies to plan how to read and to enhance their reading comprehension (Poole, 2010). The purpose of this study was to explore the use of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading…

  7. ARC-2006-ACD06-0050-055

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-03-14

    Space Shuttle 3% scale model to analyze removal of PAL ramp and other effects in the 11 ft. w.t. from left to right Rabi Meha, Ames AO, Grey Potts, Boeing, Bill Van Zuylen, Ames AO, Chris Radbourne and Rob Kornienko

  8. Heat Transfer Near the Entrance to a Film Cooling Hole in a Gas Turbine Blade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Fluent; Dr. Simon Hogg for describing the internal workings of CFD codes; Ken Dunford for solving various computer problems; Esther Rose for tracking down...invaluable. I benefitted greatly from technical discussions with Rob Davenport, Chris Graham, Bill Pierce, Dave Bryant, Sarah Ashton, Dave Hicklin, and Jenny

  9. THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EMISSIONS FROM A RESIDENTIAL OIL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil and the use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source are available for dispersion, climate, and source-recep...

  10. Indigenous Knowledge in the Life Sciences Classroom: Put on Your de Bono Hats!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beer, Josef; Whitlock, Elrina

    2009-01-01

    The whole world was united in its condemnation of the pre-1994 apartheid regime in South Africa. Apartheid meant that many South Africans were robbed of their democratic voices and cultural identities. In this article, the authors pose the question: Are you guilty of "knowledge apartheid" in your biology classroom? Does every student have a voice…

  11. A Teaching Makeover Improves Learning for Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubet, Kristina J.; Hockett, Jessica A.; Brighton, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    In many primary classrooms, the prospect of addressing standards threatens to rob young children of the joy of learning. Teachers who feel pressed to move students of all backgrounds toward mastery of increasingly complex standards may abandon rich curriculum and move toward isolated "skill drills." This may be counterproductive. The…

  12. Consultancy pay for nurses.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Nurses working for NHS Direct could be paid at medical consultant level based on equal pay for equal work initiatives, according to Rob Crouch, Deputy Director and Research Fellow (A&E), Centre for the Advancement of Clinical Practice, University of Surrey.

  13. Identifying, Confronting and Disrupting Stereotypes: Role on the Wall in an Intergenerational LGBTQ Applied Theatre Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseal, Jennifer; Ray, Kevin; Teitelbaum, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    In New York City, LGBTQ people from different generations have had few opportunities to connect. They have splintered into age-segregated micro-communities, robbing them of opportunities to weave a common history and share strategies that community members have used to survive and thrive. "Bridging the Gap" was a community-based…

  14. The Use of EFL Reading Strategies among High School Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kate Tzu-Ching; Chen, Sabina Chia-Li

    2015-01-01

    In the traditional English l language classroom, reading is the skill that receives the most emphasis (Susser & Rob, 1990). Learners should use reading strategies to plan how to read and to enhance their reading comprehension (Poole, 2010). The purpose of this study was to explore the use of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading…

  15. How to Fix Our Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Joel Klein, chancellor of the New York City public school system, and Michelle Rhee, who resigned October 13 as Washington, DC, chancellor, published a "manifesto" in the "Washington Post" claiming that the difficulty of removing incompetent teachers "has left school districts impotent and, worse, has robbed millions of children of a real future."…

  16. How to Fix Our Schools: It's More Complicated, and More Work, than the Klein-Rhee "Manifesto" Wants You to Believe. EPI Issue Brief #286

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Joel Klein, chancellor of the New York City public school system, and Michelle Rhee, who resigned October 13 as Washington, D.C. chancellor, published a "manifesto" in the "Washington Post" claiming that the difficulty of removing incompetent teachers "has left our school districts impotent and, worse, has robbed millions…

  17. THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EMISSIONS FROM A RESIDENTIAL OIL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil and the use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source are available for dispersion, climate, and source-recep...

  18. The Power of Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traver, Rob

    2016-01-01

    "Students are naturally inclined to watch one another, to make suggestions and support their peers, to avoid mistakes, to copy what works and modify what doesn't, and to learn from one another," writes Rob Traver in this article. To prove his point, Traver brings readers into three classrooms where teachers tap into students' intrinsic…

  19. Using Order of Magnitude Calculations to Extend Student Comprehension of Laboratory Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Rob L.

    2015-01-01

    Author Rob Dean previously published an Illuminations article concerning "challenge" questions that encourage students to think imaginatively with approximate quantities, reasonable assumptions, and uncertain information. This article has promoted some interesting discussion, which has prompted him to present further examples. Examples…

  20. Identification of a new species of Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) based on distinct morphology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aphis elena Lagos-Kutz and Voegtlin, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is described from specimens collected in Illinois, USA, on the North American native plant, Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) T. Dur. & B.D. Jacks. ex B.L. Rob. & Fernald (Family: Lamiaceae). Both apterous and alate viviparae are desc...

  1. Workplace Education: The Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.

    The 23 chapters of this book are as follows: "A Framework for Developing Partnerships" (Wendy M. Doughty); "Partnership Building in Nova Scotia" (Marjorie Davison, Paul Temple); "What Makes a Successful Workplace Education Partnership?" (Rob Despins et al.); "Building Linkages in Large Organizations: The Syncrude…

  2. It Makes You Think: Learning Together. Think Global Thinkpiece Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Rob

    2015-01-01

    In this thinkpiece Rob Bowden argues that an East meets West project points the way for global learning to be truly transformative. The project has a simple premise--that there is much to be learned by bringing Eastern and Western perspectives and pedagogies together and that such a process not only nurtures a global learning disposition…

  3. West Virginia's big trees: setting the record straight

    Treesearch

    Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy; Robert. Whetsell

    2016-01-01

    People love big trees, people love to find big trees, and people love to find big trees in the place they call home. Having been suspicious for years, my coauthor and historian Rob Whetsell, approached me with a species identification challenge. There are several photographs of giant trees used by many people to illustrate the past forests of West Virginia,...

  4. Using Order of Magnitude Calculations to Extend Student Comprehension of Laboratory Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Rob L.

    2015-01-01

    Author Rob Dean previously published an Illuminations article concerning "challenge" questions that encourage students to think imaginatively with approximate quantities, reasonable assumptions, and uncertain information. This article has promoted some interesting discussion, which has prompted him to present further examples. Examples…

  5. Treatment of Neurosensory Disorders Improves Psychological Well-Being in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlander, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Psychological well-being is the ultimate "quality of life" measure. The presence of a neurosensory disorder (NSD) in a child, such as ADD, ADHD, Asperger's syndrome, or autism, can rob the child of psychological well-being, or hamper the growth of well-being as the child develops. Fortunately, treatment of NSDs can remove obstacles to the…

  6. DAU Consulting Might Be the Right Enabler To Improve Your Acquisition Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    on a source selection, or were facing several foreboding programmatic risks, or were challenged by recent Karon Curry n Rob Tremaine Tom...as well: Dr. James McMichael, acting President, De- fense Acquisition Uni- versity: “Our mission at DAU is to develop qualified acquisition

  7. Using Information-Sharing Exchange Techniques from the Private Sector to Enhance Information Sharing Between Domestic Intelligence Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    against any challenge. Colonel Rob Haley , Lieutenant Colonel Todd Kilby, Major Brad Carnduff, Lieutenant Eric Wolf, Master Sergeant Mike Gillock...Brueggemann, Lieutenant Colonel Craig Koehler, and Major Jay Keeven, you are great professional and personal examples for me and I miss our years commuting

  8. Neil Armstrong Family Memorial Service

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-31

    U.S. Sen. Rob Portman, R-Ohio, speaks during a memorial service celebrating the life of Neil Armstrong, Friday, Aug. 31, 2012, at the Camargo Club in Cincinnati. Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon during the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, died Saturday, Aug. 25. He was 82. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. A Commentary on"'Sustainability and Accounting Education: The Elephant in the Classroom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Matias

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary Matias Laine reviews the vivid paper written by Rob Gray (2013) who discusses his view of how sustainability is positioned within accounting education and how accounting educators can directly approach sustainability in their teaching. Laine notes many of the aspects that Gray considers important reflect the starting point of…

  10. A Commentary on"'Sustainability and Accounting Education: The Elephant in the Classroom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Matias

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary Matias Laine reviews the vivid paper written by Rob Gray (2013) who discusses his view of how sustainability is positioned within accounting education and how accounting educators can directly approach sustainability in their teaching. Laine notes many of the aspects that Gray considers important reflect the starting point of…

  11. Commencing the Rhizome: Towards a Minor Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoriou, Zelia

    2004-01-01

    In "The Postmodern Explained," a pedagogical sequel to "The Postmodern Condition," Jean Francois Lyotard reports on the domination of thought by the principle of realism. Lyotard speaks of a demand that threatens to totalize experience, to reduce language to Newspeak, to rob thinking of its childhood and pedagogy of its philosophical moment. It is…

  12. Regaining a Lost Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Toni

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, Blacks are turning to science and not assumptions to put "Africa" back in "African-American." The eagerness to reconnect is understandable. People robbed of their history innately want to know where they come from. Blacks are now using DNA testing to determine their African lineage. Veteran genealogists say the…

  13. The Power of Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traver, Rob

    2016-01-01

    "Students are naturally inclined to watch one another, to make suggestions and support their peers, to avoid mistakes, to copy what works and modify what doesn't, and to learn from one another," writes Rob Traver in this article. To prove his point, Traver brings readers into three classrooms where teachers tap into students' intrinsic…

  14. "El Grito En Aztlan": Voice and Presence in Chicana/o Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macias, Reynaldo F.

    2005-01-01

    Professor Aguirre's essay provides a strong argument for his thesis that the academy robs Chicana/o scholars of their presence and voice. However, he does not share much on how successful the agency of these scholars has been in opening the space needed for that presence, and what gains there have been in expressing their voice. The author reviews…

  15. Is Interdisciplinarity Old News? A Disciplined Consideration of Interdisciplinarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theory of Basil Bernstein and on more recent applications of it by Rob Moore, John Beck and Michael Young to respond to recent calls for the replacement of discipline-based university faculties and departments with "problem-based" curricula and programmes of study. It considers, particularly, the potential…

  16. A Mean Wink at Authenticity: Chinese Images in Disney's "Mulan."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mo, Weimin; Shen, Wenju

    2000-01-01

    Offers a critique from two Chinese educators with regard to the historical, cultural, linguistic, and artistic authenticity of Disney's animated film "Mulan." Argues that the filmmakers robbed the original story of its soul and "ran over Chinese culture with the Disney bulldozer," imposing mainstream cultural beliefs and…

  17. A man of universal interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakharov, Andrei

    1988-02-01

    The death of Ya. B. Zel'dovich robs physics of one of its guiding lights of the twentieth century. Here Andrei Sakharov reflects on his life and his science, while on p. 673 appears a report of two meetings written by ZeVdovich, in collaboration with A. A. Starobinskii, shortly before his death.

  18. Digital Signal Processing Leveraged for Intrusion Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-27

    threats including, but not limited to, pre-packaged or scripted attacks delivered by readily available tools such as Metasploit , WinNuke and others...The metasploit project, 2008. [Rob04] Michael J. Roberts. Signals and systems :analysis using transform methods and MATLAB. McGrawHill, Dubuque, Iowa

  19. Regaining a Lost Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Toni

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, Blacks are turning to science and not assumptions to put "Africa" back in "African-American." The eagerness to reconnect is understandable. People robbed of their history innately want to know where they come from. Blacks are now using DNA testing to determine their African lineage. Veteran genealogists say the…

  20. Sport-Based Youth and Community Development: Beyond the Ball in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jennifer M.; Castañeda, Amy; Castañeda, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Rob and Amy Castañeda, the co-founders of a sports/play-based youth and community development organization called Beyond the Ball (www.beyondtheball.org), cite the collaborative and dynamic nature of the TPSR Alliance as an important influence for their work. Beyond the Ball serves individuals between kindergarten and post-college, in the North…

  1. Fostering Resilience in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Practical Strategies EC Staff Can Put into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Children enmeshed in violence don't experience a relaxed, predictable, or trusting home life. In fact, children exposed to home violence often experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) just as adults do after enduring violence. Domestic violence robs children of their childhood. And while early childhood staff can't erase the…

  2. Bullying of Students by Teachers and Peers and Its Effect on the Psychological Well-Being of Students in Jamaican Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottinger, Audrey M.; Stair, Angela Gordon

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 225 Jamaican university students were asked to recall their bullying experiences at elementary and high schools. Being verbally humiliated, robbed, and beaten were the top three frequently-occurring experiences. Acts of bullying by peers and educators were compared for their impact on students' psychological well being. Educator but…

  3. 50th Annual Fuze Conference.Session 3 and 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-11

    DAHLGREN, PORT HUENEME KDI Precision Products ESAF / HOB Sensor I recisi r cts F / ensor Naval Surface Warfare Center (Dahlgren, Virginia) Warhead aval...Knisley – Rob Wood • Electrical – Debbie Calomiris – Len Goodman – Hai Pham – Fred Oliver – Mary Labib – James Wiltz – Tom Walker – Jerry Frazier

  4. Humans, Sharks and the Shared Environment in the Contemporary Eco-Doc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Focussing on the film "Sharkwater" directed by Rob Stewart (2006), this article discusses formal interpretive aspects of recent environmental documentaries which are intended to raise awareness about environmental issues. It is argued that contemporary environmental documentaries seek to persuade audiences to protect the shared physical…

  5. Paul Goodman Then and Now: An Inquiry into Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Maxine

    Paul Goodman's work in psychology, social criticism, linguistics, and education deserves reconsideration. His thoughts and language found their audience among the youth of the 60's who used them to articulate rebellion. The "system," viewed by Goodman, was nonexploitive but seemed to rob young people of a sense of significance. Goodman…

  6. The Student Aid Gauntlet: Making Access to College Simple and Certain. Final Report of the Special Study of Simplification of Need Analysis and Application for Title IV Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Jeneva E., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Millions of students and adult learners who aspire to college are overwhelmed by the complexity of student aid. Uncertainty and confusion rob them of its significant benefits. Rather than promote access, student aid often creates a series of barriers--a gauntlet that the poorest students must run to get to college. Replacing complexity with a…

  7. The Carolinas Speech Communication Annual, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, John T., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This 1995 issue of the "Carolinas Speech Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Contrast and Complement in Presidential Campaign Communication: Adjusting the Vice Presidential Role in the Clinton-Gore Campaign" (Rob L. Wiley); "Film Critic as Rhetor: Crafting a Fitting Response to Racial Images in 'Places…

  8. Using Online Storybooks to Build Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacina, Jan; Mathews, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    "If we teach today as we taught yesterday, then we rob our children of tomorrow" (Dewey, 1916). Dewey's words are still relevant today as educators across the world consider how to best connect the print-based literacies of the past to the technologically based literacies of the present. Dewey's advice of re-envisioning how to best teach children…

  9. Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition from Language Input and from Form-Focused Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia

    2009-01-01

    Interest in L2 vocabulary learning and teaching started long before the nineteen-eighties (for references to earlier studies, see Rob Waring's database http://www1.harenet.ne.jp/~waring/vocab/vocrefs/vocref.html) but it declined with the advent of generative linguistics to the point of discrimination and neglect (Meara 1980). In 1986, I argued…

  10. The minimal flow unit in complex turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, A.; Biringen, S.

    2016-12-01

    Direct numerical simulations of spanwise-rotating periodic turbulent channel flow were conducted for three rotation numbers: Rob = 0, 0.2, and 0.5 at a Reynolds number of 8000 based on laminar centerline mean velocity. An additional simulation was conducted at a Reynolds number of 27 000 and rotation number Rob = 0.2 to study higher-Reynolds number effects. In order to determine the proper computational box size for a minimal flow unit (MFU) at Rob = 0.5, spanwise arrays of Taylor-Gortler vortices in the highly turbulent pressure region were examined and complete realization of the vortices was demonstrated to be necessary for accurate MFU turbulence statistics requiring a minimum spanwise domain length Lz = π. An equivalent MFU model produced similar results for Rob = 0.2 but demonstrated decreased accuracy for the higher-Reynolds number simulation. Analysis of pressure statistics also showed that the MFU model could accurately approximate mean pressure but not fluctuating pressure distributions across the channel. For higher-order statistics in the pressure region with rotation, the MFU model demonstrated good agreement with the full simulations. In the suction region, the MFU model with rotation failed to capture intermittent extreme-amplitude fluctuations, resulting in poor accuracy for higher-order statistics.

  11. Secure Design Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    www.devshed.com/c/a/PHP/Validating-User-Input-with-the-Strategy-Pattern/ [ Kernighan 1999] Kernighan , Brian W. & Pike, Rob. The Practice of...Postfix mail system designs • relevant recommendations from Kernighan and Pike’s The Practice of Programming [Ker- nighan 1999] • well-known basic design

  12. Beyond the Universities: The New Higher Education. Monitoring Change in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Philip, Ed.

    This book explores the expansion of higher education in the United Kingdom during the past 50 years and the coordination of university and further and distance education. The following 12 chapters are included: "Patterns of HE/FE [Higher Education/Further Education] Collaboration" (Tony Lewis, Rob Allen); "Student and Staff…

  13. Narrative Chance. Postmodern Discourse on Native American Indian Literatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizenor, Gerald, Ed.

    Native American literary works have often been ignored by serious critics or examined by social scientists in ways that rob them of their effectiveness as works of art. The emphasis of postmodern theory on the creative power of language, on narrative discourse, and on signs and semiotics allows an original and perceptive approach to Native…

  14. Orion Heat Shield

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-06

    OVERSEEING ORION HEAT SHIELD WORK IN MARSHALL'S SEVEN-AXIS MILLING AND MACHINING FACILITY ARE, FROM LEFT, JOHN KOWAL, MANAGER OF ORION'S THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM AT JOHNSON SPACE CENTER; NICHOLAS CROWLEY, AN AMES ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN; AND ROB KORNIENKO, AMES ENGINEERING BRANCH CHIEF. THE HEAT SHIELD FLEW TO SPACE DURING THE EFT-1 FULL SCALE FLIGHT TEST OF ORION IN DECEMBER, 2014

  15. Process-Model Feminism in the Corporate University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer-Hanks, D. T.

    2016-01-01

    In a period characterised by worries over the rise of the corporate university, it is important to ask what role feminism plays in the academy, and whether that role is commensurate with feminist values and ethics. Commercial and political pressures brought to bear on the encounter between instructor and student can rob teaching of its efficacy,…

  16. Horizontal Gaze Palsy and Progressive Scoliosis With ROBO 3 Mutations in Patients From Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Mendes Marques, Nadine B P S; Barros, Sandra R; Miranda, Ana F; Nobre Cardoso, João; Parreira, Sónia; Fonseca, Teresa; Donaire, Nelvia M; Campos, Nuno

    2016-10-03

    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare and autosomal recessive syndrome. We describe 2 cases of HGPPS which are the first documented in patients of African ancestry from an isolated population in Cape Verde. They demonstrated typical findings on neuro-ophthalmic examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging. One patient had novel heterozymous mutations of the ROB0 3 gene.

  17. Command of the Sea: An Old Concept Resurfaces in a New Form

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    maritime trading democracies, such command underpinned the achievement of the Bretton Woods accords of 1944 and the subsequent evolution of the...to the United States in 1945, China would, to a significant degree, rob the United States of that com- mand necessary to underpin the Bretton Woods

  18. Concepts Shaping Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Rob White's paper explores ways in which community building can be integrated into the practices of juvenile justice work. He provides a model of what can be called "restorative social justice", one that builds upon the juvenile conferencing model by attempting to fuse social justice concerns with progressive juvenile justice practices.

  19. Bullying in Elementary School: An American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Bullying in elementary schools is a recognized and widespread occurrence that threatens to rob children of their childhood. Part I of this commentary describes existing scientifically-based research on the nature, extent and effects of the phenomenon on children in United States schools. Part II analyzes the effectiveness of bullying prevention…

  20. The Athletae Dei: Missing the Meaning of Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Shirl J.

    By making virtue of ascesis or self-discipline in their sport, the athlete evangelists (the "athletae-Dei"), unwittingly rob sport of its fundamental theological significance. These proponents of an evangelical brand of protestant theology have shifted drastically from an anti-sport stance of a century ago to a position that not only…

  1. Influenza-like Illness Surveillance on the California-Mexico Border, 2004-2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    event of other public health emergencies. Acknowledgements We thank Melinda Balansay, Daisy Cabrera , Rob Coon, Christian Hansen, Karen Ferran, Akiko...conceived program, write manuscript; M. L. Nava (ISESALUD, Baja California, Mexico): conceived program; L. Wong Lopez (ISESALUD, Baja California, Mexico...GA, USA): conceived program, write manuscript; K. Lopez (Imperial County Public Health Department, CA, USA):conceived program; J. Johnson (County of

  2. Army Precision at Central Headquarters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jay P.

    2005-01-01

    William "Rob" Roberts wasn't thinking about working as a professional educator, much less running a major school system, when he decided he'd had enough of formal schooling himself at age 19. Rather, he dreamed of big adventures, flying combat aircraft for the military. When he discovered the U.S. Army didn't insist on two years of…

  3. 45 CFR 1706.170 - Compliance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND... CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE § 1706.170 Compliance procedures. (a... Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Suite 3122, GSA-ROB 3, Washington, DC 20024. (d) The...

  4. How to Fix Our Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Joel Klein, chancellor of the New York City public school system, and Michelle Rhee, who resigned October 13 as Washington, DC, chancellor, published a "manifesto" in the "Washington Post" claiming that the difficulty of removing incompetent teachers "has left school districts impotent and, worse, has robbed millions of children of a real future."…

  5. Legacy Systems Upgrade for Software Risk Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    intWksNum = intWksNum + 1 End Function ’ Function from Access 2000 Programming for Dummies ’ This function is used to set the column letter for use...in Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory. 1996 Krumm, Rob, Access 2000 Programming for Dummies , IDG Books Worldwide, Inc., 1999

  6. Development of a set of compensating Triticum aestivum-Dasypyrum villosum Robertsonian translocation lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy, a wild relative of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the source of agronomically important genes for wheat improvement. The first step in exploiting this variation is the production of compensating Robertsonian translocations (cRobTs) consisting of D. villosum c...

  7. RNAs in the virion of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, Jill; Grundhoff, Adam; Ganem, Don

    2005-08-01

    De novo infection of cultured cells with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) typically results in a latent infection. Recently, however, it has been reported that a subset of lytic mRNAs can be detected in cells shortly after KSHV infection; this expression is transient and eventually subsides, leading to latent infection (H. H. Krishnan et al., J. Virol 78:3601-3620, 2004). Since it has been shown that viral RNAs can be packaged into other herpesvirus virions, we sought to determine if KSHV virions contained RNAs and, if so, whether these RNAs contributed to the pool of lytic transcripts detected immediately after infection. Using DNA microarray, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, and Northern blotting analyses, we identified 11 virally encoded RNAs in KSHV virions. These corresponded in size to the full-length mRNAs found in cytoplasmic RNA, and at least one was directly demonstrated to be translated upon infection in the presence of actinomycin D. Ten of these RNAs correspond to transcripts reported by Krishnan et al. at early times of infection, representing ca. 30% of such RNAs. Thus, import of RNAs in virions can account for some but not all of the early-appearing lytic transcripts. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of infected-cell RNA demonstrated that most of the virion RNAs were very abundant at late times of infection, consistent with nonspecific incorporation during budding. However, the intracellular levels of one virion mRNA, encoding the viral protease, were much lower than those of transcripts not packaged in the virus particle, strongly suggesting that it may be incorporated by a specific mechanism.

  8. The Alteration of Neonatal Raphe Neurons by Prenatal–Perinatal Nicotine. Meaning for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cerpa, Verónica J.; Aylwin, María de la Luz O.; Beltrán-Castillo, Sebastián; Bravo, Eduardo U.; Llona, Isabel R.; Richerson, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine may link maternal cigarette smoking with respiratory dysfunctions in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Prenatal–perinatal nicotine exposure blunts ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and reduces central respiratory chemoreception in mouse neonates at Postnatal Days 0 (P0) to P3. This suggests that raphe neurons, which are altered in SIDS and contribute to central respiratory chemoreception, may be affected by nicotine. We therefore investigated whether prenatal–perinatal nicotine exposure affects the activity, electrical properties, and chemosensitivity of raphe obscurus (ROb) neurons in mouse neonates. Osmotic minipumps, implanted subcutaneously in 5- to 7-day-pregnant CF1 mice, delivered nicotine bitartrate (60 mg kg−1 d−1) or saline (control) for up to 28 days. In neonates, ventilation was recorded by head-out plethysmography, c-Fos (neuronal activity marker), or serotonin autoreceptors (5HT1AR) were immunodetected using light microscopy, and patch-clamp recordings were made from raphe neurons in brainstem slices under normocarbia and hypercarbia. Prenatal–perinatal nicotine exposure decreased the hypercarbia-induced ventilatory responses at P1–P5, reduced both the number of c-Fos–positive ROb neurons during eucapnic normoxia at P1–P3 and their hypercapnia-induced recruitment at P3, increased 5HT1AR immunolabeling of ROb neurons at P3–P5, and reduced the spontaneous firing frequency of ROb neurons at P3 without affecting their CO2 sensitivity or their passive and active electrical properties. These findings reveal that prenatal–perinatal nicotine reduces the activity of neonatal ROb neurons, likely as a consequence of increased expression of 5HT1ARs. This hypoactivity may change the functional state of the respiratory neural network leading to breathing vulnerability and chemosensory failure as seen in SIDS. PMID:25695895

  9. The Alteration of Neonatal Raphe Neurons by Prenatal-Perinatal Nicotine. Meaning for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cerpa, Verónica J; Aylwin, María de la Luz O; Beltrán-Castillo, Sebastián; Bravo, Eduardo U; Llona, Isabel R; Richerson, George B; Eugenín, Jaime L

    2015-10-01

    Nicotine may link maternal cigarette smoking with respiratory dysfunctions in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Prenatal-perinatal nicotine exposure blunts ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and reduces central respiratory chemoreception in mouse neonates at Postnatal Days 0 (P0) to P3. This suggests that raphe neurons, which are altered in SIDS and contribute to central respiratory chemoreception, may be affected by nicotine. We therefore investigated whether prenatal-perinatal nicotine exposure affects the activity, electrical properties, and chemosensitivity of raphe obscurus (ROb) neurons in mouse neonates. Osmotic minipumps, implanted subcutaneously in 5- to 7-day-pregnant CF1 mice, delivered nicotine bitartrate (60 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) or saline (control) for up to 28 days. In neonates, ventilation was recorded by head-out plethysmography, c-Fos (neuronal activity marker), or serotonin autoreceptors (5HT1AR) were immunodetected using light microscopy, and patch-clamp recordings were made from raphe neurons in brainstem slices under normocarbia and hypercarbia. Prenatal-perinatal nicotine exposure decreased the hypercarbia-induced ventilatory responses at P1-P5, reduced both the number of c-Fos-positive ROb neurons during eucapnic normoxia at P1-P3 and their hypercapnia-induced recruitment at P3, increased 5HT1AR immunolabeling of ROb neurons at P3-P5, and reduced the spontaneous firing frequency of ROb neurons at P3 without affecting their CO2 sensitivity or their passive and active electrical properties. These findings reveal that prenatal-perinatal nicotine reduces the activity of neonatal ROb neurons, likely as a consequence of increased expression of 5HT1ARs. This hypoactivity may change the functional state of the respiratory neural network leading to breathing vulnerability and chemosensory failure as seen in SIDS.

  10. Systematic Review of Acupuncture in Cancer Care: A Synthesis of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, M. Kay; McQuade, Jennifer; Haddad, Robin; Patel, Sonya; Lee, Richard; Yang, Peiying; Palmer, J. Lynn; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Many cancer centers offer acupuncture services. To date, a comprehensive systematic review of acupuncture in cancer care has not been conducted. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture for symptom management in patients with cancer. Methods Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane (all databases), Scopus, and PubMed were searched from inception through December 2011 for prospective randomized clinical trials (RCT) evaluating acupuncture for symptom management in cancer care. Only studies involving needle insertion into acupuncture points were included. No language limitations were applied. Studies were assessed for risk of bias (ROB) according to Cochrane criteria. Outcomes by symptom were designated as positive, negative, or unclear. Results A total of 2,151 publications were screened. Of those, 41 RCTs involving eight symptoms (pain, nausea, hot flashes, fatigue, radiation-induced xerostomia, prolonged postoperative ileus, anxiety/mood disorders, and sleep disturbance) met all inclusion criteria. One positive trial of acupuncture for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting had low ROB. Of the remaining studies, eight had unclear ROB (four positive, three negative, and one with unclear outcomes). Thirty-three studies had high ROB (19 positive, 11 negative, and three with both positive and negative outcomes depending on the symptom). Conclusion Acupuncture is an appropriate adjunctive treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting, but additional studies are needed. For other symptoms, efficacy remains undetermined owing to high ROB among studies. Future research should focus on standardizing comparison groups and treatment methods, be at least single-blinded, assess biologic mechanisms, have adequate statistical power, and involve multiple acupuncturists. PMID:23341529

  11. Influence of three coccidiostats on the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun; Wang, Sheng-Jie; Zhang, Qian; Shao, Yi-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    In-feed Medication has been used for a long time to prevent coccidiosis, a worldwide protozoal disease in rabbits. Florfenicol (FFC) has been widely used in veterinary clinics for bacterial diseases treatment. Therefore, the use of combinations of coccidiostats with FFC in rabbits is common. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of three coccidiostats, sulfaquinoxaline (SUL), robenidine (ROB), and toltrazuril (TOL), as feed additives on the pharmacokinetic profile of FFC in rabbits. The disposition kinetics of FFC in rabbits were investigated after a single intravenous injection (25 mg/kg) in rabbits fed anticoccidial-free diets or feeds containing SUL (250 ppm), ROB (66 ppm), or TOL (2 ppm), respectively, for 20 days. Plasma FFC concentrations were determined by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of FFC were analyzed using a non-compartmental analysis based on the statistical moment theory. The results demonstrated that ROB feeding resulted in an obvious decrease in plasma FFC level as compared with anticoccidial-free feeding. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2z), area under the concentration–time curve (AUC), area under the first moment curve (AUMC), and mean residence time (MRT) significantly decreased, whereas the elimination rate constant (λz) and total body clearance (CLz) obviously increased in rabbits pretreated with ROB. However, we did not find that SUL or TOL feeding had any effect on the pharmacokinetic profile of FFC. Our findings suggested that more attention should be paid to the use of FFC in rabbits supplemented with ROB. PMID:25319758

  12. The optimal combination of substrate chemistry with physiological fluid shear stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Luo, Yanfeng; Xie, Zhao; Xing, Juan; Lin, Manping; Yang, Li; Wang, Yuanliang; Huang, Ke

    2013-12-01

    Osteoblasts on implanted biomaterials sense both substrate chemistry and mechanical stimulus. The effects of substrate chemistry alone and mechanical stimulus alone on osteoblasts have been widely studied. This study investigates the optimal combination of substrate chemistry and 12dyn/cm(2) physiological flow shear stress (FSS) by examining their influences on primary rat osteoblasts (ROBs), including the releases of ATP, nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on glass slides with -OH, -CH3, and -NH2 were employed to provide various substrate chemistries, whereas a parallel-plate fluid flow system produced the physiological FSS. Substrate chemistry alone exerted no observable effects on the releases of ATP, NO, and PGE2. Nevertheless, when ROBs were exposed to both substrate chemistry and FSS, the ATP releases of NH2 were upregulated about 12-fold compared to substrate chemistry alone, while the ATP releases of CH3 and OH was similarly increased 7-fold at the peak. Similar trends were observed for the releases of NO and PGE2. The expressions of ATP, NO, and PGE2 followed the pattern of NH2-FSS>Glass-FSS>CH3-FSS≈OH-FSS. ROBs on NH2 produced the optimal combination of substrate chemistry with the physiological FSS. The F-actin organization and focal adhesion (FA) formation of ROBs on various SAMs without FSS were examined. NH2 produced the best results whereas CH3 and OH produced the worst ones. Inhibition of FAs and/or disruption of F-actin significantly decreased the releases of FSS-induced PGE2, NO, and/or ATP. Consequently, a mechanism was proposed that the best F-actin organization and FA formation of ROBs on NH2 lead to the optimal combination of substrate chemistry with the 12dyn/cm(2) physiological FSS. This mechanism gives guidance for the design of implanted biomaterials and bioreactors for bone tissue engineering.

  13. Expression of precerebellins in cultured rat calvaria osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Zok, Agnieszka; Guidolin, Diego; De Caro, Raffaele; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2008-10-01

    Cerebellin (CER), originally isolated from rat cerebellum, is a hexadecapeptide derived from the larger precursor called precerebellin 1 (Cbln1). At present 4 propeptides designated as Cbln1, Cbln2, Cbln3 and Cbln4 are recognized. They belong to precerebellin subfamily of the C1q family proteins. Precerebellins act as transneuronal regulators of synapse development and synaptic plasticity in various brain regions. Initially CER was thought to be a cerebellum specific peptide, however subsequent studies revealed its presence in other brain regions as well as in extraneuronal tissues. We investigated whether precerebellins are expressed and involved in regulation of cultured rat calvarial osteoblast-like (ROB) cells. Classic RT-PCR revealed the presence of Cbln1 and Cbln3 mRNA in fragments of rat calvaria, in freshly isolated ROB cells and in ROB cells cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days. Cbln2 and Cbln4 mRNA, on the other hand, could not be demonstrated in ROB cells but was found to be present in the brain. In freshly isolated ROB cells expression of Cbln1 gene was very low and gradually increased in relation to the duration of culture. Expression of Cbln3, on the other hand, was very low in fragments of rat calvaria, and increased notably after digestion with collagenase-I. The highest expression of this precerebellin was observed at day 14 of culture while at days 7 and 21 levels of expressions were notably lower. Neither Cbln2 nor Cbln4 was found to be expressed in the ROB cells. Neither CER nor des-Ser1-CER (10(-10)-10(-6)M) affect osteocalcin production and proliferation rate of studied cells. The above findings suggest that CER, which theoretically would be derived from Cbln1, modulate neither differentiated (osteocalcin secretion) nor basic (proliferation) functions of cultured rat osteoblast-like cells. The obtained data raise an intriguing hypothesis that precerebellins may be involved in regulating of spatial organization of osteoblastic niches in the bone.

  14. Varroa destructor Mites Can Nimbly Climb from Flowers onto Foraging Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor, the introduced parasite of European honey bees associated with massive colony deaths, spreads readily through populations of honey bee colonies, both managed colonies living crowded together in apiaries and wild colonies living widely dispersed in natural settings. Mites are hypothesized to spread between most managed colonies via phoretically riding forager bees when they engage in robbing colonies or they drift between hives. However, widely spaced wild colonies show Varroa infestation despite limited opportunities for robbing and little or no drifting of bees between colonies. Both wild and managed colonies may also exchange mites via another mechanism that has received remarkably little attention or study: floral transmission. The present study tested the ability of mites to infest foragers at feeders or flowers. We show that Varroa destructor mites are highly capable of phoretically infesting foraging honey bees, detail the mechanisms and maneuvers by which they do so, and describe mite behaviors post-infestation. PMID:27942015

  15. Calcium-Iron Oxide as Energy Storage Medium in Rechargeable Oxide Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Berger, Cornelius M.; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah; Hermann, Raphaël P.; ...

    2016-08-08

    Rechargeable oxide batteries (ROB) comprise a regenerative solid oxide cell (rSOC) and a storage medium for oxygen ions. A sealed ROB avoids pumping loss, heat loss, and gas purity expenses in comparison with conventional rSOC. However, the iron oxide base storage medium degrades during charging–discharging cycles. In comparison, CaFe3O5 has improved cyclability and a high reversible oxygen storage capacity of 22.3 mol%. In this paper, we analyzed the redox mechanism of this compound. After a solid-state synthesis of CaFe3O5, we verified the phase composition and studied the redox reaction by means of X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy.more » Finally, results show a great potential to operate the battery with this storage material during multiple charging–discharging cycles.« less

  16. Calcium-Iron Oxide as Energy Storage Medium in Rechargeable Oxide Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Cornelius M.; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah; Braun, Waldemar; Yazhenskikh, Elena; Sohn, Yoo Jung; Menzler, Norbert H.; Guillon, Olivier; Bram, Martin

    2016-08-08

    Rechargeable oxide batteries (ROB) comprise a regenerative solid oxide cell (rSOC) and a storage medium for oxygen ions. A sealed ROB avoids pumping loss, heat loss, and gas purity expenses in comparison with conventional rSOC. However, the iron oxide base storage medium degrades during charging–discharging cycles. In comparison, CaFe3O5 has improved cyclability and a high reversible oxygen storage capacity of 22.3 mol%. In this paper, we analyzed the redox mechanism of this compound. After a solid-state synthesis of CaFe3O5, we verified the phase composition and studied the redox reaction by means of X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Finally, results show a great potential to operate the battery with this storage material during multiple charging–discharging cycles.

  17. Involvement of outer membrane protein TolC, a possible member of the mar-sox regulon, in maintenance and improvement of organic solvent tolerance of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Aono, R; Tsukagoshi, N; Yamamoto, M

    1998-02-01

    Escherichia coli mutants with improved organic solvent tolerance levels showed high levels of outer membrane protein TolC and inner membrane protein AcrA. The TolC level was regulated positively by MarA, Rob, or SoxS. A possible mar-rob-sox box sequence was found upstream of the tolC gene. These findings suggest that tolC is a member of the mar-sox regulon responsive to stress conditions. When a defective tolC gene was transferred to n-hexane- or cyclohexane-tolerant strains by P1 transduction, the organic solvent tolerance level was lowered dramatically to the decane-tolerant and nonane-sensitive level. The tolerance level was restored by transformation of the transductants with a wild-type tolC gene. Therefore, it is evident that TolC is essential for E. coli to maintain organic solvent tolerance.

  18. KSC-05pd2291

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the NASA Kennedy Space Center Training Auditorium, President of United Way in Brevard Rob Rains (left) and Center Director Jim Kennedy (right) recognize James Hall (center) who submitted the winning theme for the center’s 2005 Combined Federal Campaign, “Launching Dreams of Those in Need.” The occasion was the kickoff of the campaign at the center. Guest speakers included Janet Bryant, executive director and CEO of the American Red Cross, Brevard County Chapter; Major Jack Owens, commanding officer of the Salvation Army, North/Central Brevard; and Rob Rains, president of United Way of Brevard. The campaign seeks voluntary donations from Federal civilian, postal and military workers during the campaign season to support eligible nonprofit organizations that provide health and human service benefits throughout the world.

  19. Uccle Carte du Ciel Plate Catalogue Present in the WFPDB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkova, Katya; Tsvetkov, Milcho; Lampens, Patricia; Duval, David

    2007-08-01

    We present the catalogue of the Carte du Ciel plates collected at the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) and incorporated in the Wide-Field Plate Database. The catalogue comprises the descriptive information for 682 plates obtained with the Gautier 0.33-m equatorial telescope in the framework of the Carte du Ciel project in the period 1908-1939. The plates were taken using triple exposures with duration of 15 to 30 minutes. An analysis of the ROB CdC catalogue's content is presented. The catalogue, as well as the plate previews taken with a flatbed scanner AGFA (model DUOSCAN HiD) with a resolution of 250 dpi in TIFF format (of size 2.5 MB), are available on-line at http://www.skyarchive.org/.

  20. The D4A Digitiser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cuyper, J.-P.; Winter, L.

    2006-07-01

    The D4A (Digital Access to Aerial- and Astro-photographic Archives) project aims to acquire the necessary know-how, hardware and software to digitise the astro-photographic collections of the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) and the aerial-photographic collections of the National Geographic Institute and the Royal Museum of Central Africa in collaboration with AGFA-Gevaert, a world-leader in photographic matters. The final design of the ``D4A Digitiser'' that is being built by the ROB in Brussels is presented. A geometric benchmark testing of different commercial flatbed scanners is given and the results are compared with the requirements needed for the astrometric and photometric data extraction from the digitised images.

  1. A new genus, Nothovernonia, from tropical Africa (Asteraceae or Compositae, Vernonieae).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki A

    2011-01-01

    Nothovernoniagen. nov., is described as a new genus for the tropical African Vernonia purpurea Sch.Bip. ex Walp. and Vernonia amblyolepis Bak, having cymiform inflorescences, pedunculate heads with differentiated foliiform bracts at the base, apiculate involucral bracts with scarious lateral margins, spiculiferous corolla lobes, and strongly spinose, sublopohate tricolporate pollen with the colpi meeting at the poles. The new genus belongs to the subtribe Centrapalinae and a key to the known DNA-sequenced genera of the subtribe is provided. The new species names are Nothovernonia purpurea (Sch.Bip. ex Walp.) H.Rob. and V.A.Funk, comb. nov., and Nothovernonia amblyolepis (Baker) H.Rob. & V.A.Funk, comb. nov.

  2. A new genus, Nothovernonia, from tropical Africa (Asteraceae or Compositae, Vernonieae)

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nothovernonia gen. nov., is described as a new genus for the tropical African Vernonia purpurea Sch.Bip. ex Walp. and Vernonia amblyolepis Bak, having cymiform inflorescences, pedunculate heads with differentiated foliiform bracts at the base, apiculate involucral bracts with scarious lateral margins, spiculiferous corolla lobes, and strongly spinose, sublopohate tricolporate pollen with the colpi meeting at the poles. The new genus belongs to the subtribe Centrapalinae and a key to the known DNA-sequenced genera of the subtribe is provided. The new species names are Nothovernonia purpurea (Sch.Bip. ex Walp.) H.Rob. and V.A.Funk, comb. nov., and Nothovernonia amblyolepis (Baker) H.Rob. & V.A.Funk, comb. nov. PMID:22171176

  3. Calcium-Iron Oxide as Energy Storage Medium in Rechargeable Oxide Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Cornelius M.; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah; Braun, Waldemar; Yazhenskikh, Elena; Sohn, Yoo Jung; Menzler, Norbert H.; Guillon, Olivier; Bram, Martin

    2016-08-08

    Rechargeable oxide batteries (ROB) comprise a regenerative solid oxide cell (rSOC) and a storage medium for oxygen ions. A sealed ROB avoids pumping loss, heat loss, and gas purity expenses in comparison with conventional rSOC. However, the iron oxide base storage medium degrades during charging–discharging cycles. In comparison, CaFe3O5 has improved cyclability and a high reversible oxygen storage capacity of 22.3 mol%. In this paper, we analyzed the redox mechanism of this compound. After a solid-state synthesis of CaFe3O5, we verified the phase composition and studied the redox reaction by means of X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Finally, results show a great potential to operate the battery with this storage material during multiple charging–discharging cycles.

  4. The GBT-based readout concept for the silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Jörg; Müller, Walter F. J.; Schmidt, Christian J.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the readout concept for the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the CBM experiment at FAIR, which is designed to handle interaction rates up to 10 MHz with hundreds of tracks in fixed target heavy ion collisions of up to 35 AGeV. For data readout from the frontend electronics located close to the silicon strip sensors, the radiation tolerant Gigabit Transceiver ASICs (GBTx) and Versatile Link optical modules developed at CERN are used. The usage of these devices in the STS readout and the readout concept from the frontend electronics to the GBT based STS readout board (ROB) are detailed. Special emphasis is put on the implementation of the interface between the frontend boards (FEBs) and the ROB layer.

  5. Varroa destructor Mites Can Nimbly Climb from Flowers onto Foraging Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Peck, David T; Smith, Michael L; Seeley, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor, the introduced parasite of European honey bees associated with massive colony deaths, spreads readily through populations of honey bee colonies, both managed colonies living crowded together in apiaries and wild colonies living widely dispersed in natural settings. Mites are hypothesized to spread between most managed colonies via phoretically riding forager bees when they engage in robbing colonies or they drift between hives. However, widely spaced wild colonies show Varroa infestation despite limited opportunities for robbing and little or no drifting of bees between colonies. Both wild and managed colonies may also exchange mites via another mechanism that has received remarkably little attention or study: floral transmission. The present study tested the ability of mites to infest foragers at feeders or flowers. We show that Varroa destructor mites are highly capable of phoretically infesting foraging honey bees, detail the mechanisms and maneuvers by which they do so, and describe mite behaviors post-infestation.

  6. How Efficacious is Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) Dripping Pill in Treating Angina Pectoris? Evidence Assessment for Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yongliang; Leung, Siu-Wai

    2017-09-01

    More than 230 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of danshen dripping pill (DSP) and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) in treating angina pectoris after the first preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses-compliant comprehensive meta-analysis were published in 2010. Other meta-analyses had flaws in study selection, statistical meta-analysis, and evidence assessment. This study completed the meta-analysis with an extensive assessment of the evidence. RCTs published from 1994 to 2016 on DSP and ISDN in treating angina pectoris for at least 4 weeks were included. The risk of bias (RoB) of included RCTs was assessed with the Cochrane's tool for assessing RoB. Meta-analyses based on a random-effects model were performed on two outcome measures: symptomatic (SYM) and electrocardiography (ECG) improvements. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, metaregression, and publication bias analysis were also conducted. The evidence strength was evaluated with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) method. Among the included 109 RCTs with 11,973 participants, 49 RCTs and 5042 participants were new (after 2010). The RoB of included RCTs was high in randomization and blinding. Overall effect sizes in odds ratios for DSP over ISDN were 2.94 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.53-3.41) on SYM (n = 108) and 2.37 (95% CI: 2.08-2.69) by ECG (n = 81) with significant heterogeneities (I(2) = 41%, p < 0.0001 on SYM and I(2) = 44%, p < 0.0001 on ECG). Subgroup, sensitivity, and metaregression analyses showed consistent results without publication bias. However, the evidence strength was low in GRADE. The efficacy of DSP was still better than ISDN in treating angina pectoris, but the confidence decreased due to high RoB and heterogeneities.

  7. Diffraction Theory for Polygonal Apertures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    Institute of Optics, for providing a fertile environment for growth and learning. Thank you, Scott, Maddy, Rob, Keith, Paul, Tom, Shen-ge, Lyle, Dennis ...completeness. The Gabor 15 (1946) representation was introduced within the context of communication theory. After proving that a signal’s specificity...information), Gabor found a general family of signals that achieve the theoretical lower limit of joint uncertainty in time and frequency. These

  8. Constitutional and somatic rearrangement of chromosome 21 in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Papaemmanuil, Elli; Robinson, Hazel M.; Jacobs, Patricia; Moorman, Anthony V.; Dyer, Sara; Borrow, Julian; Griffiths, Mike; Heerema, Nyla A.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Talley, Polly; Bown, Nick; Telford, Nick; Ross, Fiona M.; Gaunt, Lorraine; McNally, Richard J. Q.; Young, Bryan D.; Sinclair, Paul; Rand, Vikki; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Joseph, Olivia; Robinson, Ben; Maddison, Mark; Dastugue, Nicole; Vandenberghe, Peter; Stephens, Philip J.; Cheng, Jiqiu; Van Loo, Peter; Stratton, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in gene dosage are a major driver of cancer, engineered from a finite, but increasingly well annotated, repertoire of mutational mechanisms1. This can potentially generate correlated copy number alterations across hundreds of linked genes, as exemplified by the 2% of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with recurrent amplification of megabase regions of chromosome 21 (iAMP21)2,3. We used genomic, cytogenetic and transcriptional analysis, coupled with novel bioinformatic approaches, to reconstruct the evolution of iAMP21 ALL. We find that individuals born with the rare constitutional Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes 15 and 21, rob(15;21)(q10;q10)c, have ~2700-fold increased risk of developing iAMP21 ALL compared to the general population. In such cases, amplification is initiated by a chromothripsis event involving both sister chromatids of the Robertsonian chromosome, a novel mechanism for cancer predisposition. In sporadic iAMP21, breakage-fusion-bridge cycles are typically the initiating event, often followed by chromothripsis. In both sporadic and rob(15;21)c-associated iAMP21, the final stages frequently involve duplications of the entire abnormal chromosome. The end-product is a derivative of chromosome 21 or the rob(15;21)c chromosome with gene dosage optimised for leukemic potential, showing constrained copy number levels over multiple linked genes. Thus, dicentric chromosomes may be an important precipitant of chromothripsis, as we show rob(15;21)c to be constitutionally dicentric and breakage-fusion-bridge cycles generate dicentric chromosomes somatically. Furthermore, our data illustrate that several cancer-specific mutational processes, applied sequentially, can co-ordinate to fashion copy number profiles over large genomic scales, incrementally refining the fitness benefits of aggregated gene dosage changes. PMID:24670643

  9. Pantoporate pollen in the Asteraceae (Vernonieae)

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Skvarla, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pantoporate pollen, which occurs sporadically in the Monocots and Dicots, has now been found in Asteraceae in two apparently related genera of the tribe Vernonieae, Polydora Fenzl and Oocephala H.Rob. Disposition of pores in Polydora seems more asymmetric than in Oocephala. Based on the known relationships within the Vernonieae, some conjectures are made regarding development of the pantoporate condition in the group. PMID:25009434

  10. A new species of Camchaya (Asteraceae, Vernonieae) from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bunwong, Sukhonthip; Chantaranothai, Pranom; Keeley, Sterling C

    2012-01-01

    Camchaya thailandica Bunwong, Chantar. & S.C.Keeley, sp. nov. from Phu Phrabat Historical Park, Udon Thani, Thailandis described as a new species. Plant of this new species are similar to Camchaya gracilis (Gagnep.) Bunwong & H.Rob. but differ in having ovate phyllaries without margin spines, 10-ribbed achenes, and broadly ovate leaves. This species is a rare endemic known only from the type collection and probably confined to open areas of sandstone hills in Udon Thani province.

  11. A new species of Camchaya (Asteraceae, Vernonieae) from Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Bunwong, Sukhonthip; Chantaranothai, Pranom; Keeley, Sterling C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Camchaya thailandica Bunwong, Chantar. & S.C.Keeley, sp. nov. from Phu Phrabat Historical Park, Udon Thani, Thailandis described as a new species. Plant of this new species are similar to Camchaya gracilis (Gagnep.) Bunwong & H.Rob. but differ in having ovate phyllaries without margin spines, 10-ribbed achenes, and broadly ovate leaves. This species is a rare endemic known only from the type collection and probably confined to open areas of sandstone hills in Udon Thani province. PMID:22645414

  12. Moral theories may have some role in teaching applied ethics

    PubMed Central

    Benatar, D

    2007-01-01

    In a recent paper, Rob Lawlor argues that moral theories should not be taught in courses on applied ethics. The author contends that Dr Lawlor's arguments overlook at least two important roles that some attention to ethical theories may play in practical ethics courses. The conclusion is not that moral theory must be taught, but rather that there is more to be said for it than Dr Lawlor's arguments reveal. PMID:17971473

  13. Bibliography of Joint Aircraft Survivability Reports and Related Documents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    Aeronautical Systems Center (ASC/XREWS) Project Engineer: Steve Polyak Performing Organization: ASI Systems International 838 N. Eglin Parkway, Suite...RELATED DOCUMENTS JULY 1994 .•4 Prepared by ASI Systems International forthe Joint Technical Coordinating Group on Aircraft Survivability (JTCG/AS...Issued SMCAR-AEE-O (R. Ritchie) Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806-5000 Project Engineer: Rob Ritchie Performing Organization: SRI International 333

  14. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 81, Number 1, January-February 1938

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1938-02-01

    old dis- cussion. I think leadership has its genesis in hum~n love. Unless a man loves his fellow-man he is as deVOid of leadership as a tone- deaf man... hereditary officer caste. In fact, Americans can take Original studies comfort that their leaders have seldom pursued the militar- U Historical examples...occasion when General Washington issued letters of mark to the schooner Hannah thereby founding the United States Navy. This summary treatment robs us

  15. JPRS Report China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Heavenly Land, abounds in tourist sites and is world- famed for its treasures. Some comrades said that if one or two pandas were exhibited abroad in...abducting and selling humans, robbing tombs, selling and smuggling cultural objects, illegal publishing, hunting and killing giant pan- das, illegal...purchasing and selling of gold and panda furs, evading taxes and refusing to pay taxes, against prosti- tution and operation of brothels, and efforts

  16. Rapid Acquisition and Fielding for Information Assurance and Cyber Security in the Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Both the DSB and the Secretary of Defense have advocated continuous and auto - matic IT testing, which requires dedicated facilities (OSD, 2010, p. 10... money ” issues are also problematic for rapid acquisition programs. These 26 Rapid Acquisition and Fielding for Information Assurance and Cyber... money needs to be moved. There has been pushback from traditional stakeholders when funding is redirected to fulfill urgent needs (i.e., “robbing

  17. Field Portable Digital Ophthalmoscope/Fundus Camera. Phase I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    robbing injuries and pathologies. Included are retinal detachments, laser damage, CMV retinitis , retinitis pigmentosa , glaucoma, tumors, and the like...RMI-S, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21702-5012. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Retinal imaging is key for diagnoses and treatment of various eye-sight...personnel, and generally only used by ophthalmologists or in hospital settings. The retinal camera of this project will revolutionize retinal imaging

  18. ompW is cooperatively upregulated by MarA and SoxS in response to menadione.

    PubMed

    Collao, B; Morales, E H; Gil, F; Calderón, I L; Saavedra, C P

    2013-04-01

    OmpW is a minor porin whose biological function has not been clearly defined. Evidence obtained in our laboratory indicates that in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium the expression of OmpW is activated by SoxS upon exposure to paraquat and it is required for resistance. SoxS belongs to the AraC family of transcriptional regulators, like MarA and Rob. Due to their high structural similarity, the genes under their control have been grouped in the mar/sox/rob regulon, which presents a DNA-binding consensus sequence denominated the marsox box. In this work, we evaluated the role of the transcription factors MarA, SoxS and Rob of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in regulating ompW expression in response to menadione. We determined the transcript and protein levels of OmpW in different genetic backgrounds; in the wild-type and Δrob strains ompW was upregulated in response to menadione, while in the ΔmarA and ΔsoxS strains the induction was abolished. In a double marA soxS mutant, ompW transcript levels were lowered after exposure to menadione, and only complementation in trans with both genes restored the positive regulation. Using transcriptional fusions and electrophoretic mobility shift assays with mutant versions of the promoter region we demonstrated that two of the predicted sites were functional. Additionally, we demonstrated that MarA increases the affinity of SoxS for the ompW promoter region. In conclusion, our study shows that ompW is upregulated in response to menadione in a cooperative manner by MarA and SoxS through a direct interaction with the promoter region.

  19. Pyrolysis and Oxidation Kinetics of Anisole and Phenol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    opportunity later on to serve as Rob’s teaching assistant. I chose to work with Profs. Irv Glassman and Ken Brezinsky because of their obvious enthusiasm...solvents. In general, the thermochemistry for H abstraction by C6H50- is similar to the thermochemistry for the same H abstraction by H02. However, the...1965). Effects of resonance and structure on the thermochemistry of organic’peroxy radicals and the kinetics of combustion reactions. J. Am. Chem

  20. Ghrelin Increases Beta-Catenin Level through Protein Kinase A Activation and Regulates OPG Expression in Rat Primary Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Mrak, Emanuela; Casati, Lavinia; Pagani, Francesca; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Zarattini, Guido; Sibilia, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, by binding growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), promotes osteoblast proliferation but the signaling mechanism of GHS-R on these cells remains unclear. Since canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is critically associated with bone homeostasis, we investigated its involvement in mediating ghrelin effects in osteoblasts and in osteoblast-osteoclast cross talk. Ghrelin (10−10M) significantly increased β-catenin levels in rat osteoblasts (rOB). This stimulatory action on β-catenin involves a specific interaction with GHS-R1a, as it is prevented by the selective GHS-R1a antagonist, D-Lys3-GHRP-6 (10−7M). The effect of ghrelin on β-catenin involves the phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3β via protein kinase A (PKA). Inhibition of PKA activity reduces the facilitatory action of ghrelin on β-catenin stabilization. Ghrelin treatment of rOB significantly increases the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), which plays an important role in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis, and this effect is blocked by D-Lys3-GHRP-6. Furthermore, ghrelin reduced RANKL/OPG ratio thus contrasting osteoclastogenesis. Accordingly, conditioned media from rOB treated with ghrelin decreased the number of multinucleated TRAcP+ cells as compared with the conditioned media from untreated-control rOB. Our data suggest new roles for ghrelin in modulating bone homeostasis via a specific interaction with GHSR-1a in osteoblasts with subsequent enhancement of both β-catenin levels and OPG expression. PMID:25866509

  1. Adaptive Maritime Video Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Some programs and efforts such as the DARPA PANDA program [3] and those in the private sector [4] address the maritime domain awareness problem at...the referen continuous real value greater than or equal to 0. (We define our distance function below.) c. Related object bearing (rob): This is the...tracking performance, which could have a significant bearing on the Behavior Interpreter. Fourth, we will consider several algorithmic improvements to the

  2. Soviet News and Propaganda Analysis Based on RED STAR (The Official Newspaper of the Soviet Defense Establishment) for the Period 1-31 July 1984. Volume 4, Number 7.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-31

    tourists will be robbed of their valuables. e The Los Angeles Olympics will be second rate without the Soviet athletes. Many sports are dominated by...training. The local officials claimed that they had other plans for the facilities, but they were never used. Red Star urges an end to the...Star about the rudeness of a subordinate officer. Red Star received a second letter complaining about this (same) officer. Criticism in the press must

  3. A Navigation Reference System (NRS) Using Global Positioning System (GPS) Aiding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    forever. inii Tom Cox, Ken Crosby, Roger Evans, Tom Flynn, Maurice Martin, Russ Miller, Rob Moyle, Barbara Niblett, Paul Rohs, Dan Sims, Jack Taylor...from [31]. A good error model for the GPS error sources Is extracted from separate articles by Cox [6], Martin [21], and Milliken and Zoller [27] and...navigation solution, However, Milliken and Zoller also state that fewev SVs are needed If the user has other information (such as baro-altimeter measure- ments

  4. Constructing and Experiencing Boyhoods in Research in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattman, Rob; Frosh, Stephen; Phoenix, Ann

    2005-01-01

    When Rob was about 14-years-old, at an all male boarding school, he was so glad that he did not have a tiny penis like another boy who was called girl. He was popular because he was good at sport, missed his mum and dog terribly but never showed it (except a little to his mum and dog) and talked a lot about girls he fancied. These memories were…

  5. Experimentation with GRACE, the Generic Model of Emotions For Computational Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Thi-Hai-Ha; Duhaut, Dominique

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we present a model of emotions that we proposed in EmotiRob project. First of all, we make a comparison of recent models of emotions and show that our model is generic in basing on the theories of emotions of Ortony et al., of Lazarus, of Scherer and then the personality theory of Meyers-Brigg and Meyers. Then, we present our experimentation with the first instance of the model and its result to validate our work.

  6. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-24

    Not the Best,” New York Times, April 24, 2001; Steven Mufson and Dana Milbank, “Taiwan to Get Variety of Arms,” Washington Post, April 24, 2001; Neil ...Next 25 Years,” April 21, 2004. 130 Richard Armitage, Interview with PBS, December 10, 2004. 131 President George W. Bush, “Your World with Neil ...Department and Representatives Rob Simmons, Lane Evans, Roskoe Bartlett , Chris Smith, John Hostettler, Madeleine Bordallo, Trent Franks, and Jeb Bradley

  7. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Chris Clotfelter, Rob Myers and Dirk Ableiter for their help and support. Furthermore, I would like to thank my wife Xanthippi for her patience...and share them on TwiddleNet. TwiddleNet automatically tags the images with date/time, location and author information. Chris , the local head of the...fire brigade, is 4 heading up the command post and he notifies that new pictures are available from the first two responders of every team. Chris

  8. Castration Induced Neuroendocrine Mediated Progression of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    of GRP may stimulate growth of androgen sensitive Zeo cells both in vitro and in vivo through paracrine effect. 5 ...lymphadenectomy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy to im 14:251-257. 5 . 2005 Sam S. Chang, Mitchell C. Benson, Steve Campbell, Juanita Crook, Rob...A. J., Evans, C.P. Management Approaches to Small Renal Tumours BJU Int. 97:456-60. 3. 2006 Cambio A.J. and Evans, C.P. Minimising postoperative

  9. TEM-1-encoding small plasmids impose dissimilar fitness costs on Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Annette; Lund, Marianne; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2015-12-01

    Only two beta-lactamases, TEM-1 and ROB-1, have been observed in Haemophilus influenzae, while four different TEM but no ROB enzymes have been found in Haemophilus parainfluenzae. In order to investigate the mechanisms behind the dissemination of small beta-lactamase-encoding plasmids in H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae, we assessed the fitness cost of three TEM-1- (pPN223, pA1209, pA1606), one TEM-15- (pSF3) and one ROB-1-bearing (pB1000) plasmid when expressed in either bacterial species. All plasmids were stable in H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae except pB1000, which showed on average (sample mean) 76% curing in H. parainfluenzae after 5  days of subculture. Competition assays between isogenic strains with and without plasmid showed no competitive disadvantage of pPN223 and pA1606 in H. influenzae, or of pA1209 in H. parainfluenzae. In contrast, pSF3 and pB1000 were associated with significant competitive disadvantages in both species. Some of the competitive disadvantages may be related to differences in plasmid copy number and mRNA expression of the beta-lactamase genes, as revealed by quantitative PCR analysis. In conclusion, plasmids encoding TEM beta-lactamases isolated from H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae can be stably transferred between species. The fast curing of pB1000 in H. parainfluenzae observed in this study correlates to the fact that ROB-1 has never been reported for this species. TEM-1-encoding plasmids are associated with the lowest level of fitness cost, but different TEM-1 plasmids confer different levels of fitness cost on the two hosts.

  10. Polymer Nanocomposites As Future Materials For Defense & Energy Applications-High Energy Density Storage Systems With Reduced Size And Weight For Pulse Power Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-21

    Rob Klein from Luna Innovations. A paper summarizing this work has been submitted for publication to IEEETDEI. In this manuscript we reported that...layered materials can also exhibit excellent wide-temperature performance. Barium titanate phenyl phosphnate (BaTi(PPA)3) and titanium phosphonate...calorimetry and impedance spectroscopy with temperature. This is in contrast to barium titanate , which possesses a strong Curie transition at 120

  11. Development and Exploration of the Core-Corona Model of Imploding Plasma Loads.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    magnitude of the "notch" in the total current. * On the other hand, a more dense corona of smaller spatial extent may rob an appreciable fraction of...partition of total current between core and corona is determined self-consistently, with the result that the coronal Joule dissipation can be larger than the...since the corona is quasi-static its total Joule heating is balanced by microturbulent diffusion of energetic electrons into the core. (It was assumed

  12. Beyond Territorial Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    Although sovereignty and territoriality are closely related in practice, they are not actually coterminous. As Stephen Krasner explains, “The term...Division, 2013), pp. 7-8. 2 Ibid., p. 39. 3 Stephen D. Krasner , Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999), pp...uploads/2011/05/Canadian-Arctic-Sovereignty-and-Security-Rob-Huebert1.pdf. Krasner , Stephen D., Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy (Princeton, N.J

  13. Stennis award

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden (l to r), NASA Chief Human Capital Officer Jeri Buchholz, Stennis Space Center Director Patrick Scheuermann and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Director Rob Strain display certificates designating NASA and Stennis as best places to work in the government. NASA ranks No. 5 on a list of best places to work in the federal government. Stennis sits at the top of the list of NASA centers as the best place to work.

  14. Ethics On The Fly: Toward A Drone - Specific Code Of Conduct For Law Enforcement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    TOWARD A DRONE -SPECIFIC CODE OF CONDUCT FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT by Brian T. Smith March 2016 Thesis Co-Advisors: Kathleen Kiernan Rob...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ETHICS ON THE FLY: TOWARD A DRONE -SPECIFIC CODE OF CONDUCT FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...creating a drone -specific code of conduct for policing. A case is made for publicly declaring an agency’s code of conduct in the interest of

  15. Stress Exposure Training for the Dismounted Squad: The Human Dimension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-30

    certified level III in the Army Acquisition Corps in Program Management and System Planning, Research, Development, and Engineering and holds Master...Integrator; Brian Kemper PM TRADE Chief Engineer ; Rob Parrish, PM CATT Chief Engineer ; Dr. Joan Johnston, ARL Senior Scientist; Pat Garrity, STTC Chief... Engineer ; Dr. Jay Brimstin, Jim Moon, Chris Jaques, Milton Fields, Sam Rhodes, Fort Benning MCoE; Anita Zabek, Paul Butler, Rick Osborne, Patrick

  16. Vantage Theory and Linguistic Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Rob MacLaury's Vantage Theory, VT, models the way in which a cognizer constructs, recalls, uses, and modifies a category in terms of point of view or vantage. Alongside of VT, there is place for the kind of semantic specification found in the lexicon. VT2 [Allan, Keith, 2002. "Vantage theory, VT2, and number." "Language Sciences" 24(5-6), 679-703…

  17. Automatic Representation Changes in Problem Solving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    Michael Cox, Rujith DeSilva, Rob Driskill, Karen Haigh, Vera Kettnaker, Craig Knoblock, Erica Melis, Steven Minton, Alicia Perez, Paola Rizzo, Yury ...thank Yury Smirnov for his feedback and constructive criticism. Svetlana Vainer, a graduate student in mathematics, aided me in constructing the sta...Natalie Gurevich , Alex Gurevich , and Lala Matievsky played especially important role in my life. They encouraged me to immigrate from Russia and helped

  18. Constitutional and somatic rearrangement of chromosome 21 in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Yilong; Schwab, Claire; Ryan, Sarra L; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Robinson, Hazel M; Jacobs, Patricia; Moorman, Anthony V; Dyer, Sara; Borrow, Julian; Griffiths, Mike; Heerema, Nyla A; Carroll, Andrew J; Talley, Polly; Bown, Nick; Telford, Nick; Ross, Fiona M; Gaunt, Lorraine; McNally, Richard J Q; Young, Bryan D; Sinclair, Paul; Rand, Vikki; Teixeira, Manuel R; Joseph, Olivia; Robinson, Ben; Maddison, Mark; Dastugue, Nicole; Vandenberghe, Peter; Haferlach, Claudia; Stephens, Philip J; Cheng, Jiqiu; Van Loo, Peter; Stratton, Michael R; Campbell, Peter J; Harrison, Christine J

    2014-04-03

    Changes in gene dosage are a major driver of cancer, known to be caused by a finite, but increasingly well annotated, repertoire of mutational mechanisms. This can potentially generate correlated copy-number alterations across hundreds of linked genes, as exemplified by the 2% of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with recurrent amplification of megabase regions of chromosome 21 (iAMP21). We used genomic, cytogenetic and transcriptional analysis, coupled with novel bioinformatic approaches, to reconstruct the evolution of iAMP21 ALL. Here we show that individuals born with the rare constitutional Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes 15 and 21, rob(15;21)(q10;q10)c, have approximately 2,700-fold increased risk of developing iAMP21 ALL compared to the general population. In such cases, amplification is initiated by a chromothripsis event involving both sister chromatids of the Robertsonian chromosome, a novel mechanism for cancer predisposition. In sporadic iAMP21, breakage-fusion-bridge cycles are typically the initiating event, often followed by chromothripsis. In both sporadic and rob(15;21)c-associated iAMP21, the final stages frequently involve duplications of the entire abnormal chromosome. The end-product is a derivative of chromosome 21 or the rob(15;21)c chromosome with gene dosage optimized for leukaemic potential, showing constrained copy-number levels over multiple linked genes. Thus, dicentric chromosomes may be an important precipitant of chromothripsis, as we show rob(15;21)c to be constitutionally dicentric and breakage-fusion-bridge cycles generate dicentric chromosomes somatically. Furthermore, our data illustrate that several cancer-specific mutational processes, applied sequentially, can coordinate to fashion copy-number profiles over large genomic scales, incrementally refining the fitness benefits of aggregated gene dosage changes.

  19. Vantage Theory and Linguistic Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Rob MacLaury's Vantage Theory, VT, models the way in which a cognizer constructs, recalls, uses, and modifies a category in terms of point of view or vantage. Alongside of VT, there is place for the kind of semantic specification found in the lexicon. VT2 [Allan, Keith, 2002. "Vantage theory, VT2, and number." "Language Sciences" 24(5-6), 679-703…

  20. Constructing and Experiencing Boyhoods in Research in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattman, Rob; Frosh, Stephen; Phoenix, Ann

    2005-01-01

    When Rob was about 14-years-old, at an all male boarding school, he was so glad that he did not have a tiny penis like another boy who was called girl. He was popular because he was good at sport, missed his mum and dog terribly but never showed it (except a little to his mum and dog) and talked a lot about girls he fancied. These memories were…

  1. Interfacial and Thin Film Chemistry in Electron Device Fabrication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    from Semiconductor Surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011 (1990). J. Z. Chou . S. A. Hewitt, J. F. Hershberger, B. B. Brady, G. B Spector, L Chia, and...Collisions with High Energy Electrons from 193 nm Excimer Laser Photolysis of Iodine," J. Chem. Phys. 92, 6974 (1990) James Z. Chou and George W. Flynn...GRADUATE RESEARCH ASSISTANTS Rob Beresford (ONR Fellow) Robert Ade Justin Darrow (ONR Fellow) Bob Burke Cynthia Jenks (ONR Fellow) Dan-Li Chen Tom

  2. Special Advanced Studies for Pollution Prevention. Delivery Order 0058: "The Monitor" - Summer 1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL AWARD FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION - Linda Larson Proudly, Rob- ins’ Environ- mental Man- agement Di- rectorate not only main- tains high en...AFRL-ML-WP-TP-2005-400 SPECIAL ADVANCED STUDIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION Delivery Order 0058: “The Monitor” – Summer 1999 Science...STUDIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION Delivery Order 0058: “The Monitor” – Summer 1999 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4349 5e

  3. Cybersecurity Challenges for Program Managers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    41 Defense AT&L: September–October 2014 Cybersecurity Challenges for Program Managers Steve Mills n Rob Goldsmith Mills is a former program...University. Goldsmith is a systems engineer and currently the Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center Cybersecurity Lead at...Redstone Arsenal, Ala. Cybersecurity threats to Department of De-fense (DoD) acquisi-tion programs are both challenging and com- plex. Program managers (PMs

  4. jsc2017e038547

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-30

    jsc2017e038547 (March 30, 2017) --- At the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Expedition 51 crewmembers Jack Fischer of NASA (left) and Fyodor Yurchikhin of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, right) flash broad smiles March 30 as they begin final crew qualification exams. They will launch April 20 on the Soyuz MS-04 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for a four and a half month mission on the International Space Station. Credit: NASA/Rob Navias

  5. York University at TREC 2009: Relevance Feedback Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    under Rocchio’s framework. 3.1 Rocchio Query expansion Rocchio’s classical algorithm [Roc71] provides a general framework for implementing relevance... Rocchios framework. For example, a popular and successful relevance feedback algorithm was proposed by Robertson [Rob90] while developing the Okapi...system. Okapis relevance feed- back algorithm is similar to Rocchios , while using a different term weighting strategy called the Robertson Selection

  6. NATO Relevance: Military Implications and Translation of the 2010 Strategic Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-17

    Rob de Wijk, NATO on the Brink of the New Millennium: the Battle for Consensus ( Brassey ‟ s Atlantic Commentary, London: Brassey ‟ s , 1997), 44, 105-106... international organizations such as the EU, and this supported the Alliance‟ s 1999 strategic objective to promote wide-ranging...was comprised of representatives from twelve NATO nations. It was formally advised by twelve members of NATO‟ s international staff and other

  7. New Near-Real Time Monitoring of the Ionosphere over Europe Available On-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, J. M.; Bergeot, N.; Bruyninx, C.; Pottiaux, E.; Aerts, W.; Baire, Q.; Legrand, J.; Defraigne, P.

    2012-04-01

    With the beginning of the 24th Solar cycle, the increased Solar activity requires having a close eye on the ionosphere for better understanding Space Weather physics and its effects on radio communications. In that frame, near-real time ionospheric models over Europe are now routinely generated at the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB). These models are made available to the public through new interactive web pages at the web site of the GNSS team (www.gnss.be) and the Solar Influences Data Analysis Center (www.sidc.be) of ROB. The models are ionospheric Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) maps estimated every 15 minutes on a 0.5°x0.5° grid. They use the high-rate GPS observations of the real-time stations in the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) provided by the ROB NTRIP broadcaster. The maps are published on the ROB web site with a latency of 7-15 minutes with respect to the last GPS measurement included in the 15-minute observation files. In a first step, this paper presents the processing strategy used to generate the VTEC maps: input data, parameter estimation, data cleaning and interpolation method. In addition, the tools developed to further exploit the product are introduced, e.g. on-demand animated VTEC maps. In a second step, the VTEC maps are compared with external ionospheric products and models such as Global Ionospheric Maps and IRI 2011. These new near-real time VTEC maps will allow any user within the geographical scope of the maps to estimate in near-real time the ionospheric delay induced along the signal of any observed satellite. In the future, the web site will continuously be updated in response to evolving user needs. This paper opens doors to discussions with the user community to target their needs.

  8. Teleportation of three-dimensional single particle state in noninertial frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qi-Cheng; Wen, Jing-Ji; Ji, Xin; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang

    2014-02-01

    Considering the spin degree of freedom of the Dirac field, we study the entanglement behavior of a different class of communication channel and teleportation of three-dimensional single particle state in noninertial frames. Numerical analysis shows that the communication channel in our scheme can offer enough distillable entanglement for the teleportation protocol. Moreover, the teleportation protocol could work well if Rob's acceleration is not very big, but the fidelity of the teleportation is still reduced due to the Unruh effect.

  9. Software Engineering Education Directory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Language by Kernighan , Brian and Richie, Dennis Writing Efficient Programs by Bentley, Jon Louis Computers: SUN 3 Workstations Management of...N. and McGettrich, A. The UNIX Programming Environment by Kernighan , Brian and Pike, Rob Computers: SUN 3 Workstations Design and...The C Programming Language by Kernighan , Brian W. and Ritchie, Dennis M. Compilers: C Computers: NCR Tower 32/600 running UNIX System V

  10. Network Formation: Neighborhood Structures, Establishment Costs, and Distributed Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-19

    element equal to 1; and (iii) λ ≥ 0 is a parameter used to model possible perturbations in the decision making process, also called mutations [33...vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 265–295, 2002. [19] N. Olaizola and F. Valenciano, “One-way flow network formation under constraints,” University of the Basque ...57–84, 1993. [34] L. Breiman, Probability. Philadelphia: SIAM, 1992. [35] M. Kandori, G. Mailath, and R. Rob, “Learning, mutation , and long-run

  11. Firm foundations for sustainability.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Rob

    2009-05-01

    Ensuring that modern healthcare facilities are designed, constructed and maintained sustainably is now as important as specifying the right equipment to provide the very best in healthcare. But how can engineers, and those others in the healthcare sector responsible for the environmental aspects of new schemes, meet the current requirements, and what factors must be considered? Rob Pratt, director at independent engineering consultant Henderson Green, explains how BREEAM Healthcare can help organisations achieve a clean bill of health.

  12. Colleges Weigh When to Alert Students of Danger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric; Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    At the University of Chicago, the third Monday in November began with an hour of violence. Around 12:30 a.m., an assailant fired a shot at a staff member who was walking on the campus. At 1:15 a group of men robbed two female students on a nearby street. Just before 1:30, Amadou Cisse, a doctoral student, was shot and killed while walking to his…

  13. America’s Access to Space: Assuring Future Affordability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Accountability Office, Space Acquisitions: Uncertainties. 51 Jessica West, Space Security 2009 (Kitchner, Ontario: Pandora Press, 2009), 90. 25 In... Pandora Press, 2010), 108. 106 Rob Peckham, “Sea Launch: Providing Assured Commercial Access to Space,” High Frontier 3, no. 1 (November 2006), 53... Pandora Press, 2010. Accessed August 20, 2010, http://www.spacesecurity.org/SSI2010ExecutiveSummary.pd f. Kaivanto, Kim. "Premise and Practice of UK

  14. Stennis award

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-20

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden (l) and NASA Small Business Programs Associate Administrator Glenn Delgado (r) present NASA's Small Business Administrator's Cup Award to Stennis Space Center in recognition of its stellar small business program for fiscal year 2011. Receiving the award April 20, 2012, are (l to r) Stennis Procurement Office personnel Michelle Stracener and Rob Harris, along with Stennis Space Center Director Patrick Scheuermann. Bolden and Delgado presented the award during an onsite visit April 20.

  15. Shadow-Bitcoin: Scalable Simulation via Direct Execution of Multi-Threaded Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-10

    Shadow -Bitcoin: Scalable Simulation via Direct Execution of Multi-threaded Applications Andrew Miller University of Maryland amiller@cs.umd.edu Rob...threaded applications inside of Shadow , an existing parallel discrete-event network sim- ulation framework. Our methodology utilizes function... Shadow plug-in that directly executes the Bitcoin reference client software. To demonstrate the usefulness of this tool, we present novel denial-of

  16. Pollinators shift to nectar robbers when florivory occurs, with effects on reproductive success in Iris bulleyana (Iridaceae).

    PubMed

    Ye, Z-M; Jin, X-F; Wang, Q-F; Yang, C-F; Inouye, D W

    2017-09-01

    Studies have indicated that florivory and nectar robbing may reduce reproductive success of host plants. However, whether and how these effects might interact when plants are simultaneously attacked by both florivores and nectar robbers still needs further investigation. We used Iris bulleyana to detect the interactions among florivory, nectar robbing and pollination, and moreover, their effects on plant reproductive success. Field investigations and hand-pollination treatments were conducted on two experimental plots from a natural population, in which Experimental plot was protected from florivores and Control plot was not manipulated. The flower calyx was bitten by sawflies to consume the nectary, and three bumblebee species were pollinators. In addition, the short-tongued pollinator, Bombus friseanus, was the only robber when there was a hole made by a sawfly. The bumblebee had significantly shortened flower handling time when robbing, as compared to legitimate visits. Pollinator visitation and seed production decreased significantly in damaged flowers. However, seed production per flower after supplementary hand-pollination did not differ significantly between damaged and undamaged flowers. Compared to the Experimental plot, bumblebees visited fewer flowers per plant in a foraging bout in the Control plot. The flowers damaged by florivory allowed B. friseanus to shift to a nectar robber. Florivory and nectar robbing collectively decreased plant reproductive success by consuming nectar resources, which may reduce attractiveness to pollinators of the damaged flowers. However, the changes in pollinator behaviour might be beneficial to the plant by reducing the risk of geitonogamous mating. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. 3-Methylcholanthrene, which binds to the arylhydrocarbon receptor, inhibits proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro and ossification in vivo.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Masae; Ishihara, Yoko; Miyagawa-Tomita, Sachiko; Koyama, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Hiromi

    2002-09-01

    3-Methylcholanthrene (3MC) is a ligand for arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which binds dioxin. We examined the effects of 3MC on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts using cultures of rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells (ROB cells) and mouse calvarial clonal preosteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells). Analysis by RT-PCR revealed that the mRNAs for AhR and AhR nuclear translocators were expressed in both ROB and MC3T3-E1 cells. Cell proliferation and the synthesis of DNA by ROB cells and MC3T3-E1 cells were markedly inhibited on exposure of cells to 3MC. Furthermore, 3MC reduced the activity of alkaline phosphatase and the rate of deposition of calcium by cells. The level of expression of mRNA for osteocalcin, which is a marker of osteoblastic differentiation, was also depressed by 3MC. Moreover, when 3MC (1 mg/kg body weight) was administered sc to pregnant mice at 10.5, 12.5, and 14.5 d post coitus, fetuses examined subsequently at 15.5 or 17.5 d post coitus revealed evidence of inhibition of appropriate calcification of bones. The treated metacarpals showed no subperiosteal bone matrix histologically. Our findings indicate that 3MC might have critical effects on the formation of bone both in vivo and in vitro.

  18. Fermionic entanglement that survives a black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Leon, Juan

    2009-10-15

    We introduce an arbitrary number of accessible modes when analyzing bipartite entanglement degradation due to Unruh effect between two partners Alice and Rob. Under the single mode approximation (SMA) a fermion field only had a few accessible levels due to Pauli exclusion principle conversely to bosonic fields which had an infinite number of excitable levels. This was argued to justify entanglement survival in the fermionic case in the SMA infinite acceleration limit. Here we relax SMA. Hence, an infinite number of modes are excited as the observer Rob accelerates, even for a fermion field. We will prove that, despite this analogy with the bosonic case, entanglement loss is limited. We will show that this comes from fermionic statistics through the characteristic structure it imposes on the infinite dimensional density matrix for Rob. Surprisingly, the surviving entanglement is independent of the specific maximally entangled state chosen, the kind of fermionic field analyzed, and the number of accessible modes considered. We shall discuss whether this surviving entanglement goes beyond the purely statistical correlations, giving insight concerning the black hole information paradox.

  19. The poor, the Black, and the marginalized as the source of cadavers in United States anatomical education.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Edward C

    2007-07-01

    When the practice of hands-on anatomical dissection became popular in United States medical education in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, demand for cadavers exceeded the supply. Slave bodies and thefts by grave robbers met this demand. Members of the public were aware that graves were being robbed and countered with various protective measures. Since the deterrence of grave robbing took time and money, those elements of society who were least economically and socially advantaged were the most vulnerable. Enslaved and free African Americans, immigrants, and the poor were frequently the target of grave robbing. The politically powerful tolerated this behavior except when it affected their own burial sites. Slave owners sold the bodies of their deceased chattel to medical schools for anatomic dissection. Stories of the "night doctors" buying and stealing bodies became part of African American folklore traditions. The physical and documentary evidence demonstrates the disproportionate use of the bodies of the poor, the Black, and the marginalized in furthering the medical education of white elites. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Chicken Essence for Cognitive Function Improvement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Siew Li; Sudfangsai, Suthinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lai, Nai Ming; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-01-01

    Chicken essence (CE) is a popular traditional remedy in Asia, which is believed to improve cognitive functions. CE company claimed that the health benefits were proven with research studies. A systematic review was conducted to determine the cognitive-enhancing effects of CE. We systematically searched a number of databases for randomized controlled trials with human subjects consuming CE and cognitive tests involved. Cochrane’s Risk of Bias (ROB) tool was used to assess the quality of trials and meta-analysis was performed. Seven trials were included, where six healthy subjects and one subject with poorer cognitive functions were recruited. One trial had unclear ROB while the rest had high ROB. For executive function tests, there was a significant difference favoring CE (pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) of −0.55 (−1.04, −0.06)) and another with no significant difference (pooled SMD of 0.70 (−0.001, 1.40)). For short-term memory tests, no significant difference was found (pooled SMD of 0.63 (−0.16, 1.42)). Currently, there is a lack of convincing evidence to show a cognitive enhancing effect of CE. PMID:26805876

  1. Chicken Essence for Cognitive Function Improvement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Siew Li; Sudfangsai, Suthinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lai, Nai Ming; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-01-20

    Chicken essence (CE) is a popular traditional remedy in Asia, which is believed to improve cognitive functions. CE company claimed that the health benefits were proven with research studies. A systematic review was conducted to determine the cognitive-enhancing effects of CE. We systematically searched a number of databases for randomized controlled trials with human subjects consuming CE and cognitive tests involved. Cochrane's Risk of Bias (ROB) tool was used to assess the quality of trials and meta-analysis was performed. Seven trials were included, where six healthy subjects and one subject with poorer cognitive functions were recruited. One trial had unclear ROB while the rest had high ROB. For executive function tests, there was a significant difference favoring CE (pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) of -0.55 (-1.04, -0.06)) and another with no significant difference (pooled SMD of 0.70 (-0.001, 1.40)). For short-term memory tests, no significant difference was found (pooled SMD of 0.63 (-0.16, 1.42)). Currently, there is a lack of convincing evidence to show a cognitive enhancing effect of CE.

  2. An invasive slug exploits an ant-seed dispersal mutualism.

    PubMed

    Meadley Dunphy, Shannon A; Prior, Kirsten M; Frederickson, Megan E

    2016-05-01

    Plant-animal mutualisms, such as seed dispersal, are often vulnerable to disruption by invasive species. Here, we show for the first time how a non-ant invasive species negatively affects seed dispersal by ants. We examined the effects of several animal species that co-occur in a temperate deciduous forest-including native and invasive seed-dispersing ants (Aphaenogaster rudis and Myrmica rubra, respectively), an invasive slug (Arion subfuscus), and native rodents-on a native myrmecochorous plant, Asarum canadense. We experimentally manipulated ant, slug, and rodent access to seed depots and measured seed removal. We also video-recorded depots to determine which other taxa interact with seeds. We found that A. rudis was the main disperser of seeds and that A. subfuscus consumed elaiosomes without dispersing seeds. Rodent visitation was rare, and rodent exclusion had no significant effect on seed or elaiosome removal. We then used data obtained from laboratory and field mesocosm experiments to determine how elaiosome robbing by A. subfuscus affects seed dispersal by A. rudis and M. rubra. We found that elaiosome robbing by slugs reduced seed dispersal by ants, especially in mesocosms with A. rudis, which picks up seeds more slowly than M. rubra. Taken together, our results show that elaiosome robbing by an invasive slug reduces seed dispersal by ants, suggesting that invasive slugs can have profound negative effects on seed dispersal mutualisms.

  3. Effect of nursing home characteristics on residents' quality of life: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongjuan; Kane, Robert L; Shamliyan, Tatyana A

    2013-01-01

    The association between nursing home (NH) characteristics and residents' quality of life (QOL) has not been systematically reviewed. This study synthesizes published evidence about the association between NH ownership, affiliation, location, chain membership, percentage of private rooms, facility size, and staffing with residents' QOL. We searched Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Scirus for primary studies published between 1960 and March 31, 2012. We critically appraised risk of bias according to study design, QOL measurements, and adjustment for residents' characteristics. We analyzed the statistical and clinical significance, direction and magnitude of the association. From 1117 citations retrieved, we found one longitudinal quasi-experimental and 10 cross-sectional eligible studies. Variability in the NH characteristics reported and QOL measurements precluded meta-analysis. Studies with low and medium risk of bias (ROB) suggested that nonprofit NHs resulted in better QOL for residents. The low ROB study indicated that in certain QOL domains, rural facilities and facilities with a higher percentage of private rooms were associated with better self-reported resident QOL. All low and medium ROB studies found that RN, LVN/LPN and total nursing staff had no significant relationship with QOL. One longitudinal quasi-experimental study indicated that the Green House with individualized care had better QOL than conventional NHs. The available evidence does not permit strong conclusions about the association between NH characteristics and residents' QOL. The evidence does, however, raise questions about whether NH structure alone can improve residents' QOL and how residents' QOL should be measured and improved.

  4. [Effect of isopsoralen on the proliferation and differentiate of osteoblasts in vitro].

    PubMed

    Ming, Lei-Guo; Cheng, Ke-Ming; Ge, Bao-Fen; Ma, Hui-Ping; Zai, Yuan-Kun

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the effect of isopsoralen on proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and calcification capacity of rat calvarial osteoblasts (ROB). Segregated neonatal SD rat skull,and digestion with enzyme to obtain bone cells and cultured in MEM containing 10% FBS. Exchange the medium after three days, proceeded serial subcultivation when cells covered with 90% culture dish. Proliferation analysis was performed in 96-well plates use MTT method, isopsoralen's final concentration were 1 x 10(-4), 1 x10(-5), 1 x 10(-6), 1 x 10(-7) mmol/L. Differentiation analysis was performed in 24-well plates, the Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium salt sediment yield and osteocalcin measured at the 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th day. At 12th day, proceeded ALP stain, and at 14th day for alizarin red staining and calcified nodule count. When the Isopsoralen's final concentration was 1 x 10(-5) mmol/L, there was no significant effect on the ROB's proliferation, but it could promote osteogenesis. It also could raise the ALP activity and calcium salt sediment yield and osteocalcin, increase calcified tubercle amount. When the isopsoralen final concentration is 1 x 10(-5) mmol/L, it promoted ROB differentiation and maturation. Isopsoralen may be the active ingredients of preventing anti-osteoporosis in Psoralea corylifolia.

  5. Pharmacopuncture for cancer care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Soyeon; Zhang, Xiuyu; Lee, In-Seon; Cho, Seung-Hun; Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Hyangsook

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pharmacopuncture, injection to acupoints with pharmacological medication or herbal medicine, is a new acupuncture therapy widely available in Korea and China for cancer-related symptoms. However, the evidence is yet to be clear. Objective. To determine pharmacopuncture's effectiveness on cancer-related symptoms. Methods. Eleven databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of pharmacopuncture in cancer patients. The Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Results. Twenty-two studies involving 2,459 patients were included. Five trials of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) underwent meta-analysis. Pharmacopuncture significantly relieved severity of CINV compared with control group (3 trials, risk ratio (RR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-1.44). The frequency of CINV was also significantly reduced with pharmacopuncture (2 trials, RR 2.47, 95% CI = 2.12-2.89). Seventeen trials studied various symptoms, and in most studies, pharmacopuncture significantly relieved pain, ileus, hiccup, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms and improved quality of life in various cancer patients. ROB was generally high. Conclusion. It may be suggested with caution that pharmacopuncture may help various symptom relief in cancer patients, but it is hard to draw a firm conclusion due to clinical heterogeneity and high ROB of the included studies, hence warranting further investigation.

  6. Pharmacopuncture for Cancer Care: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Soyeon; Zhang, Xiuyu; Lee, In-Seon; Cho, Seung-Hun; Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Hyangsook

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pharmacopuncture, injection to acupoints with pharmacological medication or herbal medicine, is a new acupuncture therapy widely available in Korea and China for cancer-related symptoms. However, the evidence is yet to be clear. Objective. To determine pharmacopuncture's effectiveness on cancer-related symptoms. Methods. Eleven databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of pharmacopuncture in cancer patients. The Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Results. Twenty-two studies involving 2,459 patients were included. Five trials of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) underwent meta-analysis. Pharmacopuncture significantly relieved severity of CINV compared with control group (3 trials, risk ratio (RR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14–1.44). The frequency of CINV was also significantly reduced with pharmacopuncture (2 trials, RR 2.47, 95% CI = 2.12–2.89). Seventeen trials studied various symptoms, and in most studies, pharmacopuncture significantly relieved pain, ileus, hiccup, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms and improved quality of life in various cancer patients. ROB was generally high. Conclusion. It may be suggested with caution that pharmacopuncture may help various symptom relief in cancer patients, but it is hard to draw a firm conclusion due to clinical heterogeneity and high ROB of the included studies, hence warranting further investigation. PMID:24899911

  7. Significant influence of the boreal summer monsoon flow on the Indian Ocean response during dipole events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Krishnan; Panickal, Swapna

    2010-05-01

    A majority of positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events in the last 50-years were accompanied by enhanced summer-monsoon circulation and above-normal precipitation over central-north India. Given that IODs peak during boreal-autumn following the summer-monsoon season, this study examines the role of the summer-monsoon flow on the Indian Ocean (IO) response using a suite of ocean model experiments and supplementary data-diagnostics. The present results indicate that if the summer-monsoon Hadley-type circulation strengthens during positive-IOD events, then the strong off-equatorial south-easterly winds over the northern flanks of the intensified Australian High can effectively promote upwelling in the south-eastern tropical Indian Ocean and amplify the zonal-gradient of the IO heat-content response. While it is noted that a strong-monsoon cross-equatorial flow by itself may not generate a dipole-like response, a strengthening (weakening) of monsoon easterlies to the south-of-equator during positive-IOD events tends to reinforce (hinder) the zonal-gradient of the upper-ocean heat-content response. The findings show that an intensification of monsoonal-winds during positive-IOD periods produces nonlinear amplification of easterly wind-stress anomalies to the south-of-equator due to the nonlinear dependence of wind-stress on wind-speed. It is noted that such an off-equatorial intensification of easterlies over SH enhances upwelling in the eastern IO off Sumatra-Java; and the thermocline shoaling provides a zonal pressure-gradient which drives anomalous eastward equatorial under-currents (EUC) in the sub-surface. Furthermore, the combination of positive-IOD and stronger-than-normal monsoonal flow favors intensification of shallow transient meridional-overturning circulation in the eastern IO; and enhances the feed of cold subsurface off-equatorial waters to the EUC. References: P. Swapna and R. Krishnan 2008: Geophy. Res. Lett. 35, L14S04, doi: 10.1029/ 2008GL033430 R

  8. Inconsistency in the items included in tools used in general health research and physical therapy to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Fuentes, Jorge; Ospina, Maria; Saltaji, Humam; Hartling, Lisa

    2013-09-17

    Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare to those of the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool. We used comprehensive literature searches and a systematic approach to identify tools that evaluated the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in general health and PT research. We extracted individual items from all quality tools. We calculated the frequency of quality items used across tools and compared them to those in the RoB tool. Comparisons were made between general health and PT quality tools using Chi-squared tests. In addition to the RoB tool, 26 quality tools were identified, with 19 being used in general health and seven in PT research. The total number of quality items included in general health research tools was 130, compared with 48 items across PT tools and seven items in the RoB tool. The most frequently included items in general health research tools (14/19, 74%) were inclusion and exclusion criteria, and appropriate statistical analysis. In contrast, the most frequent items included in PT tools (86%, 6/7) were: baseline comparability, blinding of investigator/assessor, and use of intention-to-treat analysis. Key items of the RoB tool (sequence generation and allocation concealment) were included in 71% (5/7) of PT tools, and 63% (12/19) and 37% (7/19) of general health research tools, respectively. There is extensive item variation across tools that evaluate the risk of bias of RCTs in health research. Results call for an in-depth analysis of items that should be used to assess risk of bias of RCTs. Further

  9. Inconsistency in the items included in tools used in general health research and physical therapy to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare to those of the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool. Methods We used comprehensive literature searches and a systematic approach to identify tools that evaluated the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in general health and PT research. We extracted individual items from all quality tools. We calculated the frequency of quality items used across tools and compared them to those in the RoB tool. Comparisons were made between general health and PT quality tools using Chi-squared tests. Results In addition to the RoB tool, 26 quality tools were identified, with 19 being used in general health and seven in PT research. The total number of quality items included in general health research tools was 130, compared with 48 items across PT tools and seven items in the RoB tool. The most frequently included items in general health research tools (14/19, 74%) were inclusion and exclusion criteria, and appropriate statistical analysis. In contrast, the most frequent items included in PT tools (86%, 6/7) were: baseline comparability, blinding of investigator/assessor, and use of intention-to-treat analysis. Key items of the RoB tool (sequence generation and allocation concealment) were included in 71% (5/7) of PT tools, and 63% (12/19) and 37% (7/19) of general health research tools, respectively. Conclusions There is extensive item variation across tools that evaluate the risk of bias of RCTs in health research. Results call for an in-depth analysis of items that should be used to

  10. Utilizing Nontraditional Data Sources for Near Real-Time Estimation of Transmission Dynamics During the 2015-2016 Colombian Zika Virus Disease Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Santillana, Mauricio; Mekaru, Sumiko R; McGinnis, Denise P; Khan, Kamran; Brownstein, John S

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 40 countries in Central and South America have experienced local vector-born transmission of Zika virus, resulting in nearly 300,000 total reported cases of Zika virus disease to date. Of the cases that have sought care thus far in the region, more than 70,000 have been reported out of Colombia. Objective In this paper, we use nontraditional digital disease surveillance data via HealthMap and Google Trends to develop near real-time estimates for the basic (R0) and observed (Robs) reproductive numbers associated with Zika virus disease in Colombia. We then validate our results against traditional health care-based disease surveillance data. Methods Cumulative reported case counts of Zika virus disease in Colombia were acquired via the HealthMap digital disease surveillance system. Linear smoothing was conducted to adjust the shape of the HealthMap cumulative case curve using Google search data. Traditional surveillance data on Zika virus disease were obtained from weekly Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) epidemiological bulletin publications. The Incidence Decay and Exponential Adjustment (IDEA) model was used to estimate R0 and Robs for both data sources. Results Using the digital (smoothed HealthMap) data, we estimated a mean R0 of 2.56 (range 1.42-3.83) and a mean Robs of 1.80 (range 1.42-2.30). The traditional (INS) data yielded a mean R0 of 4.82 (range 2.34-8.32) and a mean Robs of 2.34 (range 1.60-3.31). Conclusions Although modeling using the traditional (INS) data yielded higher R0 estimates than the digital (smoothed HealthMap) data, modeled ranges for Robs were comparable across both data sources. As a result, the narrow range of possible case projections generated by the traditional (INS) data was largely encompassed by the wider range produced by the digital (smoothed HealthMap) data. Thus, in the absence of traditional surveillance data, digital surveillance data can yield similar estimates for key transmission parameters and

  11. Ovarian Torsion in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy Leading to Iatrogenic Preterm Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vlachodimitropoulou Koumoutsea, Evangelia; Gupta, Manish; Hollingworth, Antony; Gorry, Anwen

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian torsion in the third trimester of pregnancy leading to a midline laparotomy and caesarean section for the delivery of a preterm baby is an uncommon event. As the woman is likely to present with nonspecific symptoms of lower abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, ovarian torsion can often be misdiagnosed as appendicitis or preterm labour. Treatment and the opportunity to preserve the tube and ovary may consequently be delayed. We report the case of a multiparous woman who had undergone two previous caesarean sections at term, presenting at 35 weeks of gestation with a presumptive diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Ultrasonography described a cystic lesion 6 × 3 cm in the right adnexa, potentially a degenerating fibroid or a torted right ovary. MRI of the pelvis was unable to provide further clarity. The patient was managed by midline laparotomy and simultaneous detorsion of the ovarian pedicle and ovarian cystectomy together with caesarean section of a preterm infant. This report describes that prompt recognition and ensuring intraoperative access can achieve a successful maternal and fetal outcome in this rare and difficult scenario. Furthermore, we would like to emphasise that the risk for a pregnant woman and her newborn could be reduced by earlier diagnosis and management of ovarian masses (Krishnan et al., 2011). PMID:27066282

  12. Origins of Radio Astronomy at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the role of J. L. Pawsey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, W. M.

    I will discuss the interactions of a number of individuals that played major roles in the formation of radio astronomy in India in the period 1952-1962, particularly Dr. Joseph L. Pawsey. The story began in 1953-1954: Pawsey brought Govind Swarup to Australia as a Colombo Fellow in 1953, where he worked with Christiansen, Mills, Wild and Bolton. Later, Swarup went to Stanford where he completed a PhD with Ron Bracewell working on the new Solar Microwave Spectroheliograph. In the era 1960-1963, with the encouragement of Pawsey, several colleagues in Australia and Bracewell, discussions began among a number of Indian colleagues to form a radio astronomy group in India. The main players were G. Swarup, T.K. Menon, M.R. Kundu and T. Krishnan. Homi J. Bhabha, the Director of TIFR, made the decisive offer to this group to start a radio astronomy project in early 1962. Swarup joined TIFR in early April 1963. Many factors contributed to the successful formation of the new group: international networking among scientists of several generations, rapid decisions by Bhabha and the readiness to take chances in choosing promising, young, energetic scientists. In December 2013, we have celebrated 50 years of ground breaking research by the TIFR radio astronomers as well as the outstanding decade of research with the GMRT- the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. Govind Swarup has provided the inspiration and leadership for this remarkable achievement.

  13. KSC-98pc1626

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-11-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF-2), workers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory open the drums containing the Mars microprobes that will hitchhike on the Mars Polar Lander. From left, they are Satish Krishnan, Charles Cruzan, Chris Voorhees and Arden Acord. Scheduled to be launched Jan. 3, 1999, aboard a Delta II rocket, the solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. The Mars microprobes, called Deep Space 2, are part of NASA's New Millennium Program. They will complement the climate-related scientific focus of the lander by demonstrating an advanced, rugged microlaser system for detecting subsurface water. Such data on polar subsurface water, in the form of ice, should help put limits on scientific projections for the global abundance of water on Mars

  14. KSC-98pc1628

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-11-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF-2), Satish Krishnan (right) from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory places a Mars microprobe on a workstand. In the background, Chris Voorhees watches. Two microprobes will hitchhike on the Mars Polar Lander, scheduled to be launched Jan. 3, 1999, aboard a Delta II rocket. The solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. The Mars microprobes, called Deep Space 2, are part of NASA's New Millennium Program. They will complement the climate-related scientific focus of the lander by demonstrating an advanced, rugged microlaser system for detecting subsurface water. Such data on polar subsurface water, in the form of ice, should help put limits on scientific projections for the global abundance of water on Mars

  15. KSC-98pc1641

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-11-12

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF-2), Chris Voorhees (left) and Satish Krishnan (right), from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, remove the second Mars microprobe from a drum. Two microprobes will hitchhike on the Mars Polar Lander, scheduled to be launched Jan. 3, 1999, aboard a Delta II rocket. The solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. The Mars microprobes, called Deep Space 2, are part of NASA's New Millennium Program. They will complement the climate-related scientific focus of the lander by demonstrating an advanced, rugged microlaser system for detecting subsurface water. Such data on polar subsurface water, in the form of ice, should help put limits on scientific projections for the global abundance of water on Mars

  16. KSC-98pc1629

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-11-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), Tandy Bianco, with Lockheed Martin, and Satish Krishnan (foreground) and Chris Voorhees (behind him), from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, observe a Mars microprobe on the workstand. Two microprobes will hitchhike on the Mars Polar Lander, scheduled to be launched Jan. 3, 1999, aboard a Delta II rocket. The solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. The Mars microprobes, called Deep Space 2, are part of NASA's New Millelnnium Program. They will complement the climate-related scientific focus of the lander by demonstrating an advanced, rugged microlaser system for detecting subsurface water. Such data on polar subsurface water, in the form of ice, should help put limits on scientific projections for the global abundance of water on Mars

  17. KSC-98pc1642

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-11-12

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF-2), Chris Voorhees (front) watches while Satish Krishnan (back) places a Mars microprobe on a workstand. Two microprobes will hitchhike on the Mars Polar Lander, scheduled to be launched Jan. 3, 1999, aboard a Delta II rocket. The solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. The Mars microprobes, called Deep Space 2, are part of NASA's New Millennium Program. They will complement the climate-related scientific focus of the lander by demonstrating an advanced, rugged microlaser system for detecting subsurface water. Such data on polar subsurface water, in the form of ice, should help put limits on scientific projections for the global abundance of water on Mars

  18. KSC-98pc1627

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-11-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF-2), Chris Voorhees and Satish Krishnan from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory remove a microprobe which will hitchhike on the Mars Polar Lander. Scheduled to be launched Jan. 3, 1999, aboard a Delta II rocket, the solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. The Mars microprobes, called Deep Space 2, are part of NASA's New Millennium Program. They will complement the climate-related scientific focus of the lander by demonstrating an advanced, rugged microlaser system for detecting subsurface water. Such data on polar subsurface water, in the form of ice, should help put limits on scientific projections for the global abundance of water on Mars

  19. Prediction of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds for the interpretation of data in breath gas analysis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Christian; Mochalski, Paweł; Unterkofler, Karl; Agapiou, Agapios; Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Liedl, Klaus R

    2016-01-27

    In this article, a database of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients (λ b:a and λ f:a) is reported for estimating 1678 volatile organic compounds recently reported to appear in the volatilome of the healthy human. For this purpose, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach was applied and a novel method for Henry's law constants prediction developed. A random forest model based on Molecular Operating Environment 2D (MOE2D) descriptors based on 2619 literature-reported Henry's constant values was built. The calculated Henry's law constants correlate very well (R(2) test  =  0.967) with the available experimental data. Blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients were calculated according to the method proposed by Poulin and Krishnan using the estimated Henry's constant values. The obtained values correlate reasonably well with the experimentally determined ones for a test set of 90 VOCs (R(2)  =  0.95). The provided data aim to fill in the literature data gap and further assist the interpretation of results in studies of the human volatilome.

  20. A Polarized Light Microscopic Study to Comparatively evaluate Four Remineralizing Agents on Enamel viz CPP-ACPF, ReminPro, SHY-NM and Colgate Strong Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ramesh; Bhaskaran, Bibin; Kumar, Suresh V

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To compare and evaluate the remineralizing potential of four commercially available products namely SHY-NM, GC Tooth Mousse Plus, ReminPro and Colgate strong teeth on demineralized human teeth. Materials and methods: The study included 50 extracted premolars having 3 × 3 mm window prepared on the middle third of the tooth, which was then subjected to demineralization for 48 hours at 37°C. Teeth were randomly selected and grouped into five study groups of 10 teeth in each. Each group was treated with respective remineralizing agent and sectioned using hard-tissue microtome. Each section obtained was visualized under polarized light microscope and analyzed using Image J software. Results: The statistically evaluated results revealed that SHY-NM has the most remineralizing potential followed by ReminPro, GC Tooth Mousse Plus and fluoridated toothpaste. Conclusion: Based on the study, the SHY-NM was superior to the GC Tooth Mousse Plus, ReminPro and Colgate strong teeth on demineralized human teeth. How to cite this article: Rajan R, Krishnan R, Bhaskaran B, Kumar SV. A Polarized Light Microscopic Study to Comparatively evaluate Four Remineralizing Agents on Enamel viz CPP-ACPF, ReminPro, SHY-NM and Colgate Strong Teeth. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):42-47. PMID:26124580

  1. Soot scattering measurements in the visible and near-infrared spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    ZHU,JINYU; CHOI,MUN YOUNG; MULHOLLAND,GEORGE W.; GRITZO,LOUIS A.

    2000-02-08

    Scattering to extinction cross-section ratios, {rho}{sub se} were measured using the NIST Large Agglomerate Optics Facility for soot produced from ethene and acetylene laminar diffusion flames. Measurements were performed using light sources at 543.5 nm, 632.8 nm and 856 nm. The average scattering to extinction cross-section ratios for these wavelengths are equal to 0.246, 0.196, and 0.196 for ethene and 0.316, 0.230, and 0.239 for acetylene. The 856 nm measurements represent the longest wavelength for which accurate scattering measurements have been performed for soot. The size distribution and fractal properties of the two soots were determined to assess the effects of limited acceptance angle range, finite size of the sensor, and departure from cosine response on the uncertainty in the measurement of {rho}{sub se} The expanded relative uncertainty (95% confidence level) was found to be {+-}6% at the two visible wavelengths and {+-}8% at 856 nm. Both the magnitude and wavelength dependence of {rho}{sub se} for the present experiments are significantly different from those reported by Krishnan et al. for overfire soot produced using a turbulent flame. The results are compared with the predictions of fractal optics.

  2. A Polarized Light Microscopic Study to Comparatively evaluate Four Remineralizing Agents on Enamel viz CPP-ACPF, ReminPro, SHY-NM and Colgate Strong Teeth.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Reshma; Krishnan, Ramesh; Bhaskaran, Bibin; Kumar, Suresh V

    2015-01-01

    To compare and evaluate the remineralizing potential of four commercially available products namely SHY-NM, GC Tooth Mousse Plus, ReminPro and Colgate strong teeth on demineralized human teeth. The study included 50 extracted premolars having 3 × 3 mm window prepared on the middle third of the tooth, which was then subjected to demineralization for 48 hours at 37°C. Teeth were randomly selected and grouped into five study groups of 10 teeth in each. Each group was treated with respective remineralizing agent and sectioned using hard-tissue microtome. Each section obtained was visualized under polarized light microscope and analyzed using Image J software. The statistically evaluated results revealed that SHY-NM has the most remineralizing potential followed by ReminPro, GC Tooth Mousse Plus and fluoridated toothpaste. Based on the study, the SHY-NM was superior to the GC Tooth Mousse Plus, ReminPro and Colgate strong teeth on demineralized human teeth. How to cite this article: Rajan R, Krishnan R, Bhaskaran B, Kumar SV. A Polarized Light Microscopic Study to Comparatively evaluate Four Remineralizing Agents on Enamel viz CPP-ACPF, ReminPro, SHY-NM and Colgate Strong Teeth. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):42-47.

  3. Electromagnetically driven, fast opening and closing gas jet valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Elliott, Kristi Wilson; Geddes, C. G. R.; van Mourik, R. A.; Leemans, W. P.; Murphy, H.; Clover, M.

    2011-03-01

    The design and performance are presented of an electromagnetically driven gas valve [M. Krishnan, J. Wright, and T. Ma, Proceedings of the 13th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop, Santa Cruz, CA, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 1086 (AIP, New York, 2008)] that opens in <100μs, closes in <500μs, and can operate at pressures of ˜1000psia to drive supersonic nozzles. Such a valve has applications to laser-plasma accelerators, where the fast opening and closing would allow sharper edges to the flow and also allow higher rep-rate operation without loading the vacuum chamber. The valve action is effected by a flyer plate accelerated by the electromagnetic impulse of a low inductance, spiral wound, strip-line coil driven by a capacitor. Gas flows out of the valve when the seal between this flyer plate and the valve seat is broken. The electromagnetic force greatly exceeds the restoring forces provided by a spring and the gas pressure against the valve seat. Piezoresistive sensor and laser interferometer measurements of flow show that the valve opens in ˜100μs for all pressures up to 800 psia. The closing time is 500μs, set by the spring constant and mass. The prototype valve has been operated with helium at 0.5 Hz and at 500 psia for ˜1 hour at a time with no cooling.

  4. Intraseasonal Variability of the South Asian Summer Monsoon: Present-day Simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Model HIRHAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, F. S.; Rinke, A.; Dethloff, K.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1950, observations show a robust negative trend of the seasonal rainfall associated with the South Asian summer monsoon over India coinciding with a continuous decrease in surface solar radiation ("dimming") over South Asia due to an increase of local aerosol emissions. On the intraseasonal timescale the summer monsoon fluctuates between periods of enhanced and reduced rainfall. The frequency of occurrence of these active and breaks monsoon phases affects directly the seasonal monsoon rainfall. This study investigates the regional pattern and changes of the South Asian monsoon for the period 1979-2012 using the regional atmospheric model HIRHAM5 with a horizontal resolution of 0.25° forced at the lateral and lower boundaries with ERA-Interim reanalysis data. Despite the dry bias in the mean summer monsoon rainfall over the Indian landmass, the simulated temperature and atmospheric circulation patterns are in agreement with the ERA-Interim reanalysis indicating a realistic representation of important dynamical summer monsoon features. In addition, mechanisms which controls active and break phases within the summer monsoon season are analyzed using daily outgoing longwave radiation model data as an identification tool of monsoon breaks as proposed by Krishnan et al. (2000). Model results reveal an increasing trend of the cumulative monsoon break days of around 1.4 days per year during the last 30 years. The possible link between this increasing of cumulative monsoon break days and the observed decrease of seasonal South Asian monsoon rainfall will be the scope of further investigations.

  5. Characterization of Sleep in Aplysia californica

    PubMed Central

    Vorster, Albrecht P.A.; Krishnan, Harini C.; Cirelli, Chiara; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To characterize sleep in the marine mollusk, Aplysia californica. Design: Animal behavior and activity were assessed using video recordings to measure activity, resting posture, resting place preference, and behavior after rest deprivation. Latencies for behavioral responses were measured for appetitive and aversive stimuli for animals in the wake and rest states. Setting: Circadian research laboratory for Aplysia. Patients or Participants: A. californica from the Pacific Ocean. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Aplysia rest almost exclusively during the night in a semi-contracted body position with preferential resting locations in the upper corners of their tank. Resting animals demonstrate longer latencies in head orientation and biting in response to a seaweed stimulus and less frequent escape response steps following an aversive salt stimulus applied to the tail compared to awake animals at the same time point. Aplysia exhibit rebound rest the day following rest deprivation during the night, but not after similar handling stimulation during the day. Conclusions: Resting behavior in Aplysia fulfills all invertebrate characteristics of sleep including: (1) a specific sleep body posture, (2) preferred resting location, (3) reversible behavioral quiescence, (4) elevated arousal thresholds for sensory stimuli during sleep, and (5) compensatory sleep rebound after sleep deprivation. Citation: Vorster AP, Krishnan HC, Cirelli C, Lyons LC. Characterization of sleep in Aplysia californica. SLEEP 2014;37(9):1453-1463. PMID:25142567

  6. Host and viral proteins in the virion of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, Jill T; Winant, Richard C; Ganem, Don

    2005-04-01

    Infection of cultured cells with Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) typically establishes a latent infection, in which only a few viral genes are expressed. Recently, it has been reported that a subset of lytic genes are transiently expressed very early after viral entry but that this burst of abortive lytic gene expression is terminated with the supervention of latency (H. H. Krishnan, P. P. Naranatt, M. S. Smith, L. Zeng, C. Bloomer, and B. Chandran, J. Virol. 78:3601-3620, 2004). To identify molecules imported into cells by KSHV that might influence this gene expression program, we have examined the protein composition of the KSHV particle. Immunoblotting of virus particles demonstrated that RTA, the lytic switch protein, and RAP, a viral protein that is a transcriptional and cell cycle modulator, were both incorporated into virus particles. In a second approach, polypeptides isolated from purified virions were identified by mass-spectrometric analysis of their constituent tryptic peptides. With this approach we were able to identify 18 major virion proteins, including structural, regulatory, and signaling proteins of both viral and cellular origin.

  7. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  8. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  9. Disposal of Energy by UV-B Sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordlund, Thomas; Krishnan, Rajagopal

    2008-03-01

    Ideal sunscreens absorb dangerous UV light and dispose of the energy safely. ``Safe disposal'' usually means conversion to heat. However, efficient absorption entails a high radiative rate, which implies high energy-transfer and other rates, unless some process intervenes to ``defuse'' the excited state. We studied the excited-state kinetics of three UV-B (290-320 nm) sunscreens by absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence. Excited-state rate analysis suggests that some sunscreens have low radiative-rate ``dark'' states, in addition to normal excited states.* We deduce dark states when sunscreens of high extinction coefficient do not show lifetimes and total emission consistent with such high radiative rates. A high radiative rate, accompanied by efficient fluorescence emission and/or transfer, may be unfavorable for a sunscreen. In spite of its dark excited state, padimate O shows significant re-emission of light in the UV-A (320-400 nm) and energy transfer to a natural component of excised skin, probably collagen. * Krishnan, R. and T.M. Nordlund (2007) J. Fluoresc. DOI 10.1007/s10895-007-0264-3.

  10. Prediction of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds for the interpretation of data in breath gas analysis6

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Christian; Mochalski, Paweł; Unterkofler, Karl; Agapiou, Agapios; Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Liedl, Klaus R

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a database of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients (λb:a and λf:a) is reported for estimating 1678 volatile organic compounds recently reported to appear in the volatilome of the healthy human. For this purpose, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach was applied and a novel method for Henry’s law constants prediction developed. A random forest model based on Molecular Operating Environment 2D (MOE2D) descriptors based on 2619 literature-reported Henry’s constant values was built. The calculated Henry’s law constants correlate very well (R2test = 0.967) with the available experimental data. Blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients were calculated according to the method proposed by Poulin and Krishnan using the estimated Henry’s constant values. The obtained values correlate reasonably well with the experimentally determined ones for a test set of 90 VOCs (R2 = 0.95). The provided data aim to fill in the literature data gap and further assist the interpretation of results in studies of the human volatilome. PMID:26815030

  11. Broad specificity of human phosphoglycerate kinase for antiviral nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Faraj, Abdesslem; Seclaman, Edward; Sommadossi, Jean-Pierre; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Véron, Michel

    2004-11-01

    Nucleoside analogs used in antiviral therapies need to be phosphorylated to their tri-phospho counterparts in order to be active on their cellular target. Human phosphoglycerate kinase (hPGK) was recently reported to participate in the last step of phosphorylation of cytidine L-nucleotide derivatives [Krishnan PGE, Lam W, Dutschman GE, Grill SP, Cheng YC. Novel role of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, a glycolytic enzyme, in the activation of L-nucleoside analogs, a new class of anticancer and antiviral agents. J Biol Chem 2003;278:36726-32]. In the present work, we extended the enzymatic study of human PGK specificity to purine and pyrimidine nucleotide derivatives in both D- and L-configuration. Human PGK demonstrated catalytic efficiencies in the 10(4)-10(5)M(-1)s(-1) range for purine ribo-, deoxyribo- and dideoxyribonucleotide derivatives, either in D- or L-configuration. In contrast, it was poorly active with natural pyrimidine D-nucleotides (less than 10(3)M(-1)s(-1)). Pyrimidine L-enantiomers, which are promising therapeutic analogs against B hepatitis, were 2-25 times better substrates than their D-counterparts. The broad specificity of substrate of human PGK suggests that this enzyme may be involved in the cellular activation of several antiviral nucleoside analogs including dideoxyinosine, acyclovir, L-2'-deoxycytosine and L-2'-deoxythymidine.

  12. Risk factors and geographical heterogeneity in unintentional home injuries incidence rate: new evidence based on Multiscopo survey in Italy.

    PubMed

    Snidero, Silvia; Rahim, Yousif; Berchialla, Paola; Gregori, Dario

    2007-12-01

    Home injuries together, with road traffic accidents, are estimated to be the third cause of death in Italy (Arokiasamy and Krishnan 1994). However, as in most other countries, in Italy there is a lack of information on home injuries and on how differences in geographical patterns may influence the scope and magnitude of this phenomenon. By analysing a multipurpose large survey (Multiscopo) carried out annually, geographical heterogeneity in home injuries incidence rate can be investigated. The aim of this study is the assessment of possible differences in geographical patterns among the Italian regions making use of a re-analysis of Multiscopo home injury data. The study results show that Italian regions differ greatly in the number of home injuries. The geographical heterogeneity may be due to the unemployment rate and the incidence of poverty that is greater in the Southern and Insular regions than in other zones. Other socio-economic variables such as alcohol consumption can increase the risk of injury in the home. To prevent them it could be useful to organize campaigns aimed at increasing the awareness among people about this problem.

  13. The sixth presentation of the Maurice Ewing Medal by the American Geophysical Union and the United States Navy to Manik Talwani for leadership in marine geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeda, Seiya; Talwani, Manik

    Manik Talwani's impact on the geosciences clearly places him among those who deserve to be honored as a Ewing medalist. He has contributed major advances to our understanding of Earth's fundamental characteristics and has provided direction that will help guide geological/geophysical research long into the future.Born in Patiala, India, in 1933, Manik earned bachelor's and master's degrees at Delhi University. In the mid-1950s he moved to the United States and enrolled in Columbia University for his Ph.D. studies. It was the beginning of a long association between Manik and Columbia. When he earned his Ph.D. in 1959, it was already apparent that he was destined to make a significant impact on the geosciences. He has been the recipient of several important awards for his contributions and leadership. These include the first Krishnan Medal in 1965, from his home country, and the Macelwane Award from the American Geophysical Union, in 1967, for his pioneering achievements in the application of marine gravimetry to studies of Earth's crust and upper mantle. Since 1970, Manik has been a professor of geology at Columbia, and for 8 years he served as director of Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory. This evening, for his continued contributions and leadership, Manik is being awarded the Maurice Ewing Medal. He is truly qualified for this distinction, based on his many important original contributions to marine geophysics, ocean technology and instrumentation, and also for his outstanding service to marine science.

  14. Using design methods to provide the care that people want and need.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Kim; Krishnan, Jerry A

    2016-01-01

    Kim Erwin is an Assistant Professor at IIT Institute of Design and trained in user-centered design methods, which put people at the center of any problem space so as to develop solutions that better fit their everyday lives, activities and context. Her expertise is in making complex information easier to understand and use. Her research targets communication tools and methods for collaborative knowledge construction built through shared experiences. Her book, Communicating the New: Methods to shape and accelerate innovation focuses on helping teams explore, build and diffuse critical knowledge inside organizations. Jerry Krishnan is a Professor of Medicine and Public Health, and Associate Vice President for Population Health Sciences at the University of Illinois Hospital & Health Sciences System. He pioneered the use of Analytic Hierarchy Process to elicit the expressed needs of stakeholders for research. He previously served as Chair of the US FDA Pulmonary and Allergy Drugs Advisory Committee and is a Principal Investigator in NIH and Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI)-funded research consortia. He chairs the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Clinical Trials review committee and the PCORI Improving Healthcare Systems merit review panel.

  15. Sequence and structure-specific elements of HERG mRNA determine channel synthesis and trafficking efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sroubek, Jakub; Krishnan, Yamini; McDonald, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    Human ether-á-gogo-related gene (HERG) encodes a potassium channel that is highly susceptible to deleterious mutations resulting in susceptibility to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Most mutations adversely affect HERG channel assembly and trafficking. Why the channel is so vulnerable to missense mutations is not well understood. Since nothing is known of how mRNA structural elements factor in channel processing, we synthesized a codon-modified HERG cDNA (HERG-CM) where the codons were synonymously changed to reduce GC content, secondary structure, and rare codon usage. HERG-CM produced typical IKr-like currents; however, channel synthesis and processing were markedly different. Translation efficiency was reduced for HERG-CM, as determined by heterologous expression, in vitro translation, and polysomal profiling. Trafficking efficiency to the cell surface was greatly enhanced, as assayed by immunofluorescence, subcellular fractionation, and surface labeling. Chimeras of HERG-NT/CM indicated that trafficking efficiency was largely dependent on 5′ sequences, while translation efficiency involved multiple areas. These results suggest that HERG translation and trafficking rates are independently governed by noncoding information in various regions of the mRNA molecule. Noncoding information embedded within the mRNA may play a role in the pathogenesis of hereditary arrhythmia syndromes and could provide an avenue for targeted therapeutics.—Sroubek, J., Krishnan, Y., McDonald, T V. Sequence- and structure-specific elements of HERG mRNA determine channel synthesis and trafficking efficiency. PMID:23608144

  16. Diagnostic utility of patient history and physical examination data to detect spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in athletes with low back pain: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Grødahl, Linn Helen J; Fawcett, Louise; Nazareth, Madeleine; Smith, Richard; Spencer, Simon; Heneghan, Nicola; Rushton, Alison

    2016-08-01

    In adolescent athletes, low back pain has a 1-year prevalence of 57% and causes include spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. An accurate diagnosis enables healing, prevention of progression and return to sport. To evaluate the diagnostic utility of patient history and physical examination data to identify spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis in athletes. Systematic review was undertaken according to published guidelines, and reported in line with PRISMA. Key databases were searched up to 13/11/15. athletic population with LBP, patient history and/or physical examination accuracy data for spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis, any study design including raw data. Two reviewers independently assessed risk of bias (ROB) using QUADAS-2. A data extraction sheet was pre-designed. Pooling of data and investigation for heterogeneity enabled a qualitative synthesis of data across studies. Of the eight included studies, two were assessed as low ROB, one of which also had no concerns regarding applicability. Age (<20 years) demonstrated 81% sensitivity and 44% specificity and gender (male) 73% sensitivity and 57% specificity for spondylolysis. Difficulty falling asleep, waking up because of pain, pain worse with sitting and walking all have sensitivity >75% for spondylolisthesis. Step-deformity palpation demonstrated 60-88% sensitivity and 87-100% specificity for spondylolisthesis. The one-legged hyperextension test was not supported for spondylolysis (sensitivity 50-73%, specificity 0-87%). No recommendations can be made utilising patient history data. Based on one low ROB study, step deformity palpation may be useful in diagnosing spondylolisthesis. No physical tests demonstrated diagnostic utility for spondylolysis. Further research is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Robotic Prostatectomy on the Web: A Cross-Sectional Qualitative Assessment.

    PubMed

    Borgmann, Hendrik; Mager, René; Salem, Johannes; Bründl, Johannes; Kunath, Frank; Thomas, Christian; Haferkamp, Axel; Tsaur, Igor

    2016-08-01

    Many patients diagnosed with prostate cancer search for information on robotic prostatectomy (RobP) on the Web. We aimed to evaluate the qualitative characteristics of the mostly frequented Web sites on RobP with a particular emphasis on provider-dependent issues. Google was searched for the term "robotic prostatectomy" in Europe and North America. The mostly frequented Web sites were selected and classified as physician-provided and publically-provided. Quality was measured using Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria, DISCERN score, and addressing of Trifecta surgical outcomes. Popularity was analyzed using Google PageRank and Alexa tool. Accessibility, usability, and reliability were investigated using the LIDA tool and readability was assessed using readability indices. Twenty-eight Web sites were physician-provided and 15 publically-provided. For all Web sites, 88% of JAMA benchmark criteria were fulfilled, DISCERN quality score was high, and 81% of Trifecta outcome measurements were addressed. Popularity was average according to Google PageRank (mean 2.9 ± 1.5) and Alexa Traffic Rank (median, 49,109; minimum, 7; maximum, 8,582,295). Accessibility (85 ± 7%), usability (92 ± 3%), and reliability scores (88 ± 8%) were moderate to high. Automated Readability Index was 7.2 ± 2.1 and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level was 9 ± 2, rating the Web sites as difficult to read. Physician-provided Web sites had higher quality scores and lower readability compared with publically-provided Web sites. Websites providing information on RobP obtained medium to high ratings in all domains of quality in the current assessment. In contrast, readability needs to be significantly improved so that this content can become available for the populace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Karyotype analysis of mithun (Bos frontalis) and mithun bull x Brahman cow hybrids.

    PubMed

    Qu, K-X; He, Z-X; Nie, W-H; Zhang, J-C; Jin, X-D; Yang, G-R; Yuan, X-P; Huang, B-Z; Zhang, Y-P; Zan, L-S

    2012-01-19

    We examined the cytogenetics of mithun (Bos frontalis), a domesticated version of the Asian gaur, and hybrids (F(1) generation) produced by artificial insemination of Brahman cows (Bos indicus) with mithun semen. Reproductive potential was also examined in the F(1) generation and a backcrossed heifer for utilization of heterosis. Metaphase chromosome spreads were examined by conventional staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization hybridized with the entire chromosome 1 of mithun as a specific probe. Chromosome 1 of mithun was found to be equivalent to Bos taurus chromosomes 2 and 28. The karyotype of the female mithun (N = 4) comprised 58 chromosomes, including 54 acrocentric and four large submetacentric chromosomes, without the four acrocentric chromosomes found in the domesticated species B. indicus. However, one of the four female mithuns with a normal mithun phenotype had an abnormal karyotype (2n = 59), indicating introgression from B. taurus or B. indicus. The F(1) karyotypes (N = 6, 3♂3♀) of the mithun bull × Brahman cow cross had 2n = 59, intermediate between their parents; they were consistent heterozygous carriers with a centric fusion involving rob(2;28), as expected. Two pronounced red signals were seen in the mithun karyotypes, three red signals in the mithun × Brahman hybrids, and four red signals in the Brahman cattle, in good agreement with centric fusion of bovine rob(2;28). The female backcross hybrid (N = 1) with 2n = 59 had a similar chromosome configuration to the F(1) karyotypes and had rob(2;28). Such female backcross hybrids normally reproduce; however, the F(1) bulls (N = 3) had not yet generated normal sperm at 24 months.

  19. Gloss, colour and grip: multifunctional epidermal cell shapes in bee- and bird-pollinated flowers.

    PubMed

    Papiorek, Sarah; Junker, Robert R; Lunau, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and spectral reflectance of flowers pollinated by either bees or birds testing three hypotheses: The first two hypotheses imply that bee-pollinated flowers might benefit from rough surfaces on visually-active parts produced by conical epidermal cells, as they may enhance the colour signal of flowers as well as the grip on flowers for bees. In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging. Moreover, flat petal surfaces in bird-pollinated flowers may hamper grip for bees that do not touch anthers and stigmas while consuming nectar and thus, are considered as nectar thieves. Beside this, the third hypothesis implies that those flower parts which are vulnerable to nectar robbing of bee- as well as bird-pollinated flowers benefit from flat epidermal cells, hampering grip for nectar robbing bees. Our comparative data show in fact that conical epidermal cells are restricted to visually-active parts of bee-pollinated flowers, whereas robbing-sensitive parts of bee-pollinated as well as the entire floral surface of bird-pollinated flowers possess on average flat epidermal cells. However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found. Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower-visitors.

  20. Nectar robbery by a hermit hummingbird: association to floral phenotype and its influence on flowers and network structure.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Dalsgaard, Bo; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies

    2015-07-01

    Interactions between flowers and their visitors span the spectrum from mutualism to antagonism. The literature is rich in studies focusing on mutualism, but nectar robbery has mostly been investigated using phytocentric approaches focused on only a few plant species. To fill this gap, we studied the interactions between a nectar-robbing hermit hummingbird, Phaethornis ruber, and the array of flowers it visits. First, based on a literature review of the interactions involving P. ruber, we characterized the association of floral larceny to floral phenotype. We then experimentally examined the effects of nectar robbing on nectar standing crop and number of visits of the pollinators to the flowers of Canna paniculata. Finally, we asked whether the incorporation of illegitimate interactions into the analysis affects plant-hummingbird network structure. We identified 97 plant species visited by P. ruber and found that P. ruber engaged in floral larceny in almost 30% of these species. Nectar robbery was especially common in flowers with longer corolla. In terms of the effect on C. paniculata, the depletion of nectar due to robbery by P. ruber was associated with decreased visitation rates of legitimate pollinators. At the community level, the inclusion of the illegitimate visits of P. ruber resulted in modifications of how modules within the network were organized, notably giving rise to a new module consisting of P. ruber and mostly robbed flowers. However, although illegitimate visits constituted approximately 9% of all interactions in the network, changes in nestedness, modularity, and network-level specialization were minor. Our results indicate that although a flower robber may have a strong effect on the pollination of a particular plant species, the inclusion of its illegitimate interactions has limited capacity to change overall network structure.

  1. Dreaming of Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Ingo

    2016-10-01

    Radiative transfer retrievals have become the standard in modelling of exoplanetary transmission and emission spectra. Analysing currently available observations of exoplanetary atmospheres often invoke large and correlated parameter spaces that can be difficult to map or constrain.To address these issues, we have developed the Tau-REx (tau-retrieval of exoplanets) retrieval and the RobERt spectral recognition algorithms. Tau-REx is a bayesian atmospheric retrieval framework using Nested Sampling and cluster computing to fully map these large correlated parameter spaces. Nonetheless, data volumes can become prohibitively large and we must often select a subset of potential molecular/atomic absorbers in an atmosphere.In the era of open-source, automated and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, such manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is build to address these issues. RobERt is a deep belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognise molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles and compositions. Using these deep neural networks, we work towards retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.In this talk I will discuss how neural networks and Bayesian Nested Sampling can be used to solve highly degenerate spectral retrieval problems and what 'dreaming' neural networks can tell us about atmospheric characteristics.

  2. Gloss, Colour and Grip: Multifunctional Epidermal Cell Shapes in Bee- and Bird-Pollinated Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Papiorek, Sarah; Junker, Robert R.; Lunau, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and spectral reflectance of flowers pollinated by either bees or birds testing three hypotheses: The first two hypotheses imply that bee-pollinated flowers might benefit from rough surfaces on visually-active parts produced by conical epidermal cells, as they may enhance the colour signal of flowers as well as the grip on flowers for bees. In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging. Moreover, flat petal surfaces in bird-pollinated flowers may hamper grip for bees that do not touch anthers and stigmas while consuming nectar and thus, are considered as nectar thieves. Beside this, the third hypothesis implies that those flower parts which are vulnerable to nectar robbing of bee- as well as bird-pollinated flowers benefit from flat epidermal cells, hampering grip for nectar robbing bees. Our comparative data show in fact that conical epidermal cells are restricted to visually-active parts of bee-pollinated flowers, whereas robbing-sensitive parts of bee-pollinated as well as the entire floral surface of bird-pollinated flowers possess on average flat epidermal cells. However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found. Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower

  3. Dynein light intermediate chain in Aspergillus nidulans is essential for the interaction between heavy and intermediate chains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Shihe; Musa, Shamsideen; Zhou, Henry; Xiang, Xin

    2009-12-11

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a complex containing heavy chains (HCs), intermediate chains (ICs), light intermediate chains (LICs), and light chains (LCs). The HCs are responsible for motor activity. The ICs at the tail region of the motor interact with dynactin, which is essential for dynein function. However, functions of other subunits and how they contribute to the assembly of the core complex are not clearly defined. Here, we analyzed in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans functions of the only LIC and two LCs, RobA (Roadblock/LC7) and TctexA (Tctex1) in dynein-mediated nuclear distribution (nud). Whereas the deletion mutant of tctexA did not exhibit an apparent nud mutant phenotype, the deletion mutant of robA exhibited a nud phenotype at an elevated temperature, which is similar to the previously characterized nudG (LC8) deletion mutant. Remarkably, in contrast to the single mutants, the robA and nudG double deletion mutant exhibits a severe nud phenotype at various temperatures. Thus, functions of these two LC classes overlap to some extent, but the presence of both becomes important under specific conditions. The single LIC, however, is essential for dynein function in nuclear distribution. This is evidenced by the identification of the nudN gene as the LIC coding gene, and by the nud phenotype exhibited by the LIC down-regulating mutant, alcA-LIC. Without a functional LIC, the HC-IC association is significantly weakened, and the HCs could no longer accumulate at the microtubule plus end. Thus, the LIC is essential for the assembly of the core complex of dynein in Aspergillus.

  4. Dynein Light Intermediate Chain in Aspergillus nidulans Is Essential for the Interaction between Heavy and Intermediate Chains*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Shihe; Musa, Shamsideen; Zhou, Henry; Xiang, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a complex containing heavy chains (HCs), intermediate chains (ICs), light intermediate chains (LICs), and light chains (LCs). The HCs are responsible for motor activity. The ICs at the tail region of the motor interact with dynactin, which is essential for dynein function. However, functions of other subunits and how they contribute to the assembly of the core complex are not clearly defined. Here, we analyzed in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans functions of the only LIC and two LCs, RobA (Roadblock/LC7) and TctexA (Tctex1) in dynein-mediated nuclear distribution (nud). Whereas the deletion mutant of tctexA did not exhibit an apparent nud mutant phenotype, the deletion mutant of robA exhibited a nud phenotype at an elevated temperature, which is similar to the previously characterized nudG (LC8) deletion mutant. Remarkably, in contrast to the single mutants, the robA and nudG double deletion mutant exhibits a severe nud phenotype at various temperatures. Thus, functions of these two LC classes overlap to some extent, but the presence of both becomes important under specific conditions. The single LIC, however, is essential for dynein function in nuclear distribution. This is evidenced by the identification of the nudN gene as the LIC coding gene, and by the nud phenotype exhibited by the LIC down-regulating mutant, alcA-LIC. Without a functional LIC, the HC-IC association is significantly weakened, and the HCs could no longer accumulate at the microtubule plus end. Thus, the LIC is essential for the assembly of the core complex of dynein in Aspergillus. PMID:19837669

  5. ROBOTIC ASSISTED SINGLE SITE FOR BILATERAL INGUINAL HERNIA REPAIR.

    PubMed

    Bosi, Henrique Rasia; Guimarães, José Ricardo; Cavazzola, Leandro Totti

    2016-01-01

    The inguinal hernia is one of the most frequent surgical diseases, being frequent procedure and surgeon´s everyday practice. To present technical details in making hernioplasty using robotic equipment on bilateral inguinal hernia repair with single port and preliminary results with the method. The bilateral inguinal hernia repair was performed by using the Single-Site(c) Da Vinci Surgical Access Platform to the abdominal cavity and the placement of clamps. This technique proved to be effective for inguinal hernia and have more aesthetic result when compared to other techniques. Inguinal hernia repair robot-assisted with single-trocar is feasible and effective. However, still has higher costs needing surgical team special training. A hérnia inguinal é uma das doenças cirúrgicas mais frequentes, tornando-a procedimento frequente e do cotidiano do cirurgião. Apresentar detalhes da técnica da hernioplastia inguinal bilateral robótica por single-site e resultados preliminares com o método. Foi realizada hernioplastia inguinal bilateral assistida por robô, utilizando-se da Vinci Single-Site(c) Surgical Platform para acesso a cavidade abdominal e colocação das pinças. Esta técnica demonstrou-se efetiva para correção da hérnia inguinal, além de apresentar melhor resultado estético quando comparado às outras técnicas. A hernioplastia inguinal assistida por robô com trocarte único é viável e eficaz. Contudo, ainda apresenta custos mais elevados e necessidade de treinamento especial por parte da equipe cirúrgica.

  6. Activation of 5‐HT2A receptors by TCB‐2 induces recurrent oscillatory burst discharge in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the mPFC in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Spindle, Michael S.; Thomas, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a region of neocortex that plays an integral role in several cognitive processes which are abnormal in schizophrenic patients. As with other cortical regions, large‐bodied layer 5 pyramidal neurons serve as the principle subcortical output of microcircuits of the mPFC. The coexpression of both inhibitory serotonin 5‐HT1A receptors on the axon initial segments, and excitatory 5‐HT2A receptors throughout the somatodendritic compartments, by layer 5 pyramidal neurons allows serotonin to provide potent top–down regulation of input–output relationships within cortical microcircuits. Application of 5‐HT2A agonists has previously been shown to enhance synaptic input to layer 5 pyramidal neurons, as well as increase the gain in neuronal firing rate in response to increasing depolarizing current steps. Using whole‐cell patch‐clamp recordings obtained from layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the mPFC of C57/bl6 mice, the aim of our present study was to investigate the modulation of long‐term spike trains by the selective 5‐HT2A agonist TCB‐2. We found that in the presence of synaptic blockers, TCB‐2 induced recurrent oscillatory bursting (ROB) after 15–20 sec of tonic spiking in 7 of the 14 cells. In those seven cells, ROB discharge was accurately predicted by the presence of a voltage sag in response to a hyperpolarizing current injection. This effect was reversed by 5–10 min of drug washout and ROB discharge was inhibited by both synaptic activity and coapplication of the 5‐HT2A/2C antagonist ketanserin. While the full implications of this work are not yet understood, it may provide important insight into serotonergic modulation of cortical networks. PMID:24844635

  7. The Belgian National Seismic Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Camp, M.; Lecocq, T.; Vanneste, K.; Rapagnani, G.; Martin, H.; Devos, F.; Bukasa, B.; Hendrickx, M.; Collin, F.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) is responsible for the seismic activity monitoring in Belgium. For this purpose the ROB operates a network of 24 seismic stations. In addition 18 accelerographs have been installed since 2001 in the most seismic active zones. Seismometers allow detecting and localizing any earthquake of magnitude larger than 1.0 in Belgium and surrounding regions. The location of the accelerometric stations is chosen in function of the type of sub-soil and in some places in function of the nearness of important infrastructures as well. Seven seismic stations are now sending their data in real time to the Observatory (in Uccle) using ADSL lines. This will be increased in a near future. Among them 3 broad-band stations are also sending data to the ORFEUS and IRIS data centres. IRIS also receives data from the Belgian superconducting gravimeter. In addition, in 2010, a broadband borehole seismometer is to be installed at the Princess Elizabeth Antarctic station (71°57' S - 23°20' E), on the bedrock, 180 km away from the coastline. Recently a low-cost seismic alert system was developed for the Belgian territory, based on the connection flow on the ROB website (http://www.seismology.be), in parallel to an automatic control of the "Did you feel it ?" macroseismic inquiries, implemented in 2002. The alert is then confirmed at the latest by the seismic signals from five seismic stations that appear on the website with a delay of more or less ten minutes. It was successfully tested during the earthquake sequence that has been observed in the region at the southwest of Brussels since July 2008.

  8. Exposure to parental psychopathology and offspring's risk of suicide-related thoughts and behaviours: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Goodday, S M; Shuldiner, J; Bondy, S; Rhodes, A E

    2017-07-27

    The primary objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesise analytic studies examining the association between exposure to parental psychopathology in childhood and the nature of subsequent suicide-related thoughts (SRT) and suicide-related behaviour (SRB) (severity of ideation, planned/unplanned attempts/lethality) and to describe the direction, and magnitude of associations. The secondary objective was to determine if the associations from the primary objective differ by the type(s) and timing of parental psychopathology, sex/gender of the parent and child and is mediated by child psychiatric symptoms and family functioning. A systematic review was conducted using guidelines from the PRISMA statement. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, psycINFO, Web of Science and grey literature sources were searched by two reviewers to March, 2017. Studies were included if they examined any parental psychopathology (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria or equivalent) or SRT or SRB and offspring SRT or SRB occurring from birth <25 years of age. Out of 10 231 studies identified, 54 were included for review. Studies were clinically and methodologically heterogeneous with none at low risk of bias (ROB). Nine studies with moderate ROB indicated a significantly increased risk of offspring SRT, suicide attempts (SA) and suicide among those exposed to maternal SA and suicide in childhood or adolescence. In the remaining 45 studies with higher ROB this association persisted. Several studies (67%) did not confirm that the exposure occurred in the offspring's childhood or adolescence. Findings were suggestive of a mediating effect of offspring psychiatric symptoms, however, few studies examined mediation and effect modification of contextual variables. Offspring exposed to maternal SA are at an increased risk of these same behaviours early in life. Prospective attention to the types and timing of maternal and paternal psychopathology and the intermediate

  9. SSH-BM-I, a tryptamine derivative, stimulates mineralization in terminal osteoblast differentiation but inhibits osteogenesis of pre-committed progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Yoshikazu; Somei, Masanori; Tsuda, Hiromasa

    2011-01-01

    SSH-BM-I was synthesized from tryptamine by using a newly developed synthetic method, and it has structural similarity to bromomelatonin. Recently, it had been reported that SSH-BM-I increases osteoblasts in scales of gold fish. However, the effect of SSH-BM-I on osteoblast differentiation in mammalian cells has not yet been examined. Therefore, this study examined the effect of SSH-BM-I on osteoblast differentiation in mesenchymal progenitor-like cells and mature osteoblast-like cells. SSH-BM-I enhanced terminal osteoblast differentiation, as indicated by mineralization, which was accompanied by upregulation of the osteogenic marker genes bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OC). However, in mesenchymal progenitor ROB-C26 cultures, no mineralized nodules were observed regardless of SSH-BM-I treatment, although BMP-2 was able to induce nodule formation in these cells. Furthermore, BMP-2-induced nodule formation was suppressed by SSH-BM-I treatment in ROB-C26 cultures. We further investigated the impact of the timing and duration of SSH-BM-I treatment on osteoblast differentiation. The effect of SSH-BM-I treatment on osteoblast differentiation of ROB-C26 in the presence of BMP-2 switches from negative to positive sometime between day 6 and 9, because SSH-BM-I treatment enhanced the formation of mineralized nodules when it was started on day 9, but suppressed nodule formation when it was started at day 6 or earlier. These results suggest that the stimulatory effects of SSH-BM-I on the formation of mineralized nodules depend on the degree of cell differentiation.

  10. RobotReviewer: evaluation of a system for automatically assessing bias in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, Joël; Wallace, Byron C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate RobotReviewer, a machine learning (ML) system that automatically assesses bias in clinical trials. From a (PDF-formatted) trial report, the system should determine risks of bias for the domains defined by the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool, and extract supporting text for these judgments. Methods We algorithmically annotated 12,808 trial PDFs using data from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). Trials were labeled as being at low or high/unclear risk of bias for each domain, and sentences were labeled as being informative or not. This dataset was used to train a multi-task ML model. We estimated the accuracy of ML judgments versus humans by comparing trials with two or more independent RoB assessments in the CDSR. Twenty blinded experienced reviewers rated the relevance of supporting text, comparing ML output with equivalent (human-extracted) text from the CDSR. Results By retrieving the top 3 candidate sentences per document (top3 recall), the best ML text was rated more relevant than text from the CDSR, but not significantly (60.4% ML text rated ‘highly relevant' v 56.5% of text from reviews; difference +3.9%, [−3.2% to +10.9%]). Model RoB judgments were less accurate than those from published reviews, though the difference was <10% (overall accuracy 71.0% with ML v 78.3% with CDSR). Conclusion Risk of bias assessment may be automated with reasonable accuracy. Automatically identified text supporting bias assessment is of equal quality to the manually identified text in the CDSR. This technology could substantially reduce reviewer workload and expedite evidence syntheses. PMID:26104742

  11. RobotReviewer: evaluation of a system for automatically assessing bias in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Iain J; Kuiper, Joël; Wallace, Byron C

    2016-01-01

    To develop and evaluate RobotReviewer, a machine learning (ML) system that automatically assesses bias in clinical trials. From a (PDF-formatted) trial report, the system should determine risks of bias for the domains defined by the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool, and extract supporting text for these judgments. We algorithmically annotated 12,808 trial PDFs using data from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). Trials were labeled as being at low or high/unclear risk of bias for each domain, and sentences were labeled as being informative or not. This dataset was used to train a multi-task ML model. We estimated the accuracy of ML judgments versus humans by comparing trials with two or more independent RoB assessments in the CDSR. Twenty blinded experienced reviewers rated the relevance of supporting text, comparing ML output with equivalent (human-extracted) text from the CDSR. By retrieving the top 3 candidate sentences per document (top3 recall), the best ML text was rated more relevant than text from the CDSR, but not significantly (60.4% ML text rated 'highly relevant' v 56.5% of text from reviews; difference +3.9%, [-3.2% to +10.9%]). Model RoB judgments were less accurate than those from published reviews, though the difference was <10% (overall accuracy 71.0% with ML v 78.3% with CDSR). Risk of bias assessment may be automated with reasonable accuracy. Automatically identified text supporting bias assessment is of equal quality to the manually identified text in the CDSR. This technology could substantially reduce reviewer workload and expedite evidence syntheses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  12. Distribution of Fos-Like Immunoreactivity, Catecholaminergic and Serotoninergic Neurons Activated by the Laryngeal Chemoreflex in the Medulla Oblongata of Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolu; Guo, Ruichen; Zhao, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    The laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR) induces apnea, glottis closure, bradycardia and hypertension in young and maturing mammals. We examined the distribution of medullary nuclei that are activated by the LCR and used immunofluorescent detection of Fos protein as a cellular marker for neuronal activation to establish that the medullary catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons participate in the modulation of the LCR. The LCR was elicited by the infusion of KCl-HCl solution into the laryngeal lumen of adult rats in the experimental group, whereas the control group received the same surgery but no infusion. In comparison, the number of regions of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) that were activated by the LCR significantly increased in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC), the loose formation of the nucleus ambiguus (AmbL), the rostral ventral respiratory group (RVRG), the ventrolateral reticular complex (VLR), the pre-Bötzinger complex (PrBöt), the Bötzinger complex (Böt), the spinal trigeminal nucleus (SP5), and the raphe obscurus nucleus (ROb) bilaterally from the medulla oblongata. Furthermore, 12.71% of neurons with FLI in the dorsolateral part of the nucleus of the solitary tract (SolDL) showed tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity (TH-ir, catecholaminergic), and 70.87% of neurons with FLI in the ROb were serotoninergic. Our data demonstrated the distribution of medullary nuclei that were activated by the LCR, and further demonstrated that catecholaminergic neurons of the SolDL and serotoninergic neurons of the ROb were activated by the LCR, indicating the potential central pathway of the LCR.

  13. Jen Gustetic visits Swamp Works

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-28

    Jenn Gustetic, NASA's Small Business Innovation Research Program executive, talks with Rob Mueller, senior technologist and co-founder of Kennedy Space Center's Swamp Works. Gustetic met team members and viewed many of the pioneering technologies and innovations in development at Kennedy. Swamp Works is a hands-on, lean development environment for innovation following the philosophies pioneered in Kelly Johnson's Skunk Works and Werner von Braun's development shops. The Swamp Works establishes rapid, innovative and cost-effective exploration mission solutions through a highly collaborative, "no walls" approach, leveraging partnerships across NASA, industry and academia.

  14. Manual for Defense Incident-Based Reporting System,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-11-29

    ASSAULT: HARM INFLICTED, OTHER 13A 129-- BURGLARY 220. 130-- ! HOUSEBREAKING 220 A-7 UCMJ CODE TABLE UCMJ CODE DESCRIPTION NIBRS 131-A- PERJURY: GIVING...C4 ASSAULT: INTENT TO RAPE 11A 134-C5 ASSAULT: INTENT TO ROB 13A 134-C6 ASSAULT: INTENT TO SODOMIZE 11B 134-C7 ASSAULT: INTENT TO HOUSEBREAK 13A 134...but not household pets such a dogs and cats 19 Merchandise items held for sale 20 Money legal tender; i.e., coins and paper currency 21 Negotiable

  15. HP-41CV Flight Performance Advisory System (FPAS) for the E-2C, E-2B, and C-2A Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    Ron generally contains ma- chine dedicated code for use by the ,rocesslng unit . ROB mar also be used to permanently store program code in no -volatle...weight (no wind condltions). Informal tests in,!lcate this A3A to e about 16 units . 21 Each value may be observed by pressing R/S to proceed to the...21 to 22 units anle of attack. The &OA probe, however, is a pressure differential 1device that Ame sures pressure t two positions on the surface of a

  16. Autonomous Research Vessels for Adaptive Upper-Ocean Process Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    outlet glacier,  and within meters of large icebergs .   This vehicle  was  specifically  developed  for fjord research, so is small (2...sampling.   As an example,  data from a 1.5 hour mission to study the dynamics of iceberg wakes is shown  below.   During this period, R/V Rob...Sanna, and were  obtainedwithin meters of an unstable   iceberg ; moreover, data were uncontaminated  as shallow as 1 m from the ocean surface

  17. jsc2017e039460

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-03

    jsc2017e039460 (04/03/2017) --- At the Kremlin Wall in Red Square in Moscow. Expedition 51 crewmember Jack Fischer of NASA lays flowers at the site where Russian space icons are interred during traditional ceremonies April 3. Looking on is his crewmate, Fyodor Yurchikhin of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, left)). They will launch April 20 on the Soyuz MS-04 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for a four and a half month mission on the International Space Station. Photo: NASA/Rob Navias

  18. jsc2017e039459

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-03

    jsc2017e039459 (04/03/2017) --- At the Kremlin Wall in Red Square in Moscow, Expedition 51 crewmember Jack Fischer of NASA lays flowers at the site where Russian space icons are interred during traditional ceremonies April 3. Fischer and Fyodor Yurchikhin of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) will launch April 20 on the Soyuz MS-04 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for a four and a half month mission on the International Space Station. Photo: NASA/Rob Navias.

  19. Retinoids for Treatment of Retinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about retinal photoreceptor signal transduction and the visual cycle required for normal eyesight has expanded exponentially over the past decade. Substantial progress in human genetics has allowed identification of candidate genes and complex networks underlying inherited retinal diseases. Natural mutations in animal models that mimic human diseases have been characterized and advanced genetic manipulation now permits generation of small mammalian models of human retinal diseases. Pharmacological repair of defective visual processes in animal models not only validates their involvement in vision but also provides great promise for developing improved therapies for the millions that are progressing towards blindness or are almost completely robbed of eyesight. PMID:20435355

  20. GRL special issue on Core and Core-Mantle Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The editors of Geophysical Research Letters (GRL) invite the submission of manuscripts for a special issue on the geophysics of the core and the core-mantle boundary in commemoration of the 50-year anniversary of the discovery of the inner core by Inge Lehmann. Manuscripts should be submitted to GRL coeditor Rob Van der Voo (Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109) before August 30, 1986, in accordance with the usual rules for manuscript submission. Submissions will undergo the usual rapid GRL review procedure. Camera-ready copy will be due by November 3, 1986; the special issue will be published in December 1986.