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Sample records for krishnan rajeshwar rob

  1. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  2. MarA-mediated transcriptional repression of the rob promoter.

    PubMed

    Schneiders, Thamarai; Levy, Stuart B

    2006-04-14

    The Escherichia coli transcriptional regulator MarA affects functions that include antibiotic resistance, persistence, and survival. MarA functions as an activator or repressor of transcription utilizing similar degenerate DNA sequences (marboxes) with three different binding site configurations with respect to the RNA polymerase-binding sites. We demonstrate that MarA down-regulates rob transcripts both in vivo and in vitro via a MarA-binding site within the rob promoter that is positioned between the -10 and -35 hexamers. As for the hdeA and purA promoters, which are repressed by MarA, the rob marbox is also in the "backward" orientation. Protein-DNA interactions show that SoxS and Rob, like MarA, bind the same marbox in the rob promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift analyses with a MarA-specific antibody demonstrate that MarA and RNA polymerase form a ternary complex with the rob promoter DNA. Transcription experiments in vitro and potassium permanganate footprinting analysis show that MarA affects the RNA polymerase-mediated closed to open complex formation at the rob promoter.

  3. Two functions of the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli Rob: mediating "sequestration-dispersal" as a novel off-on switch for regulating Rob's activity as a transcription activator and preventing degradation of Rob by Lon protease.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Kevin L; Fitzpatrick, M Megan; Keen, Edward F; Wolf, Richard E

    2009-05-08

    In Escherichia coli, Rob activates transcription of the SoxRS/MarA/Rob regulon. Previous work revealed that Rob resides in three to four immunostainable foci, that dipyridyl and bile salts are inducers of its activity, and that inducers bind to Rob's C-terminal domain (CTD). We propose that sequestration inactivates Rob by blocking its access to the transcriptional machinery and that inducers activate Rob by mediating its dispersal, allowing interaction with RNA polymerase. To test "sequestration-dispersal" as a new mechanism for regulating the activity of transcriptional activators, we fused Rob's CTD to SoxS and used indirect immunofluorescence microscopy to determine the effect of inducers on SoxS-Rob's cellular localization. Unlike native SoxS, which is uniformly distributed throughout the cell, SoxS-Rob is sequestered without an inducer, but is rapidly dispersed when cells are treated with an inducer. In this manner, Rob's CTD serves as an anti-sigma factor in regulating the co-sigma-factor-like activity of SoxS when fused to it. Rob's CTD also protects its N-terminus from Lon protease, since Lon's normally rapid degradation of SoxS is blocked in the chimera. Accordingly, Rob's CTD has novel regulatory properties that can be bestowed on another E. coli protein.

  4. Wasps robbing food from ants: a frequent behavior?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapierre, Louis; Hespenheide, Henry; Dejean, Alain

    2007-12-01

    Food robbing, or cleptobiosis, has been well documented throughout the animal kingdom. For insects, intrafamilial food robbing is known among ants, but social wasps (Vespidae; Polistinae) taking food from ants has, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported. In this paper, we present two cases involving social wasps robbing food from ants associated with myrmecophytes. (1) Polybioides tabida F. (Ropalidiini) rob pieces of prey from Tetraponera aethiops Smith (Formicidae; Pseudomyrmecinae) specifically associated with Barteria fistulosa Mast. (Passifloraceae). (2) Charterginus spp. (Epiponini) rob food bodies from myrmecophytic Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) exploited by their Azteca mutualists (Formicidae; Dolichoderinae) or by opportunistic ants (that also attack cleptobiotic wasps). We note here that wasps gather food bodies (1) when ants are not yet active; (2) when ants are active, but avoiding any contact with them by flying off when attacked; and (3) through the coordinated efforts of two to five wasps, wherein one of them prevents the ants from leaving their nest, while the other wasps freely gather the food bodies. We suggest that these interactions are more common than previously thought.

  5. Sugary food robbing in ants: a case of temporal cleptobiosis.

    PubMed

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Dejean, Alain; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2004-05-01

    This study reports new information on interactions between Ectatomma tuberculatum (Ponerinae) and Crematogaster limata parabiotica (Myrmicinae). Workers of these sympatric arboreal ant species forage on the same pioneer trees. Diurnally, Ectatomma preyed on Crematogaster workers that avoided overt aggression by respecting a 'safe distance'. At night, Crematogaster initiated raids within the Ectatomma nests that they apparently left with their abdomen empty, then remained near the nest entrances where they successfully intercepted 75.2% of the returning Ectatomma foragers (N = 322). Certain intercepted workers rapidly resumed their return trip. Others (39.1%) were stopped, explored and licked during a long time by the Crematogaster. Most of them were carrying between their mandibles a droplet of liquid food that was stolen. This relationship, that appears to be a typical case of interspecific cleptobiosis, whose expression varies during the daytime, demonstrates for the first time sugary-food robbing, instead of prey robbing, in ants.

  6. From Speech to Emotional Interaction: EmotiRob Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Tallec, Marc; Saint-Aimé, Sébastien; Jost, Céline; Villaneau, Jeanne; Antoine, Jean-Yves; Letellier-Zarshenas, Sabine; Le-Pévédic, Brigitte; Duhaut, Dominique

    This article presents research work done in the domain of nonverbal emotional interaction for the EmotiRob project. It is a component of the MAPH project, the objective of which is to give comfort to vulnerable children and/or those undergoing long-term hospitalisation through the help of an emotional robot companion. It is important to note that we are not trying to reproduce human emotion and behavior, but trying to make a robot emotionally expressive. This paper will present the different hypotheses we have used from understanding to emotional reaction. We begin the article with a presentation of the MAPH and EmotiRob project. Then, we quickly describe the speech undestanding system, the iGrace computational model of emotions and integration of dynamics behavior. We conclude with a description of the architecture of Emi, as well as improvements to be made to its next generation.

  7. Recent ROB developments on wide bandgap based UV sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordanengo, B.; Ben Moussa, A.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Soltani, A.; de Moor, P.; Minoglou, K.; Malinowski, P.; Duboz, J.-Y.; Chong, Y. M.; Zou, Y. S.; Zhang, W. J.; Lee, S. T.; Dahal, R.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    The next ESA spatial mission planned to study the Sun, Solar Orbiter (SO), necessitates very innovative EUV detectors. The commonly used silicon detectors suffer important limitations mainly in terms of UV robustness and dark current level. An alternative comes from diamond or III-nitride materials. In these materials, the radiation hardness, solar blindness and dark current are improved due to their wide bandgap. This paper presents the new developments on wide bandgap materials at the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB). We present also the LYRA instrument, the BOLD project, and the EUI instrument suite.

  8. Floral Nectar Guide Patterns Discourage Nectar Robbing by Bumble Bees

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Anne S.; Brent, Joshua; Papaj, Daniel R.; Dornhaus, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Floral displays are under selection to both attract pollinators and deter antagonists. Here we show that a common floral trait, a nectar guide pattern, alters the behavior of bees that can act opportunistically as both pollinators and as antagonists. Generally, bees access nectar via the floral limb, transporting pollen through contact with the plant’s reproductive structures; however bees sometimes extract nectar from a hole in the side of the flower that they or other floral visitors create. This behavior is called “nectar robbing” because bees may acquire the nectar without transporting pollen. We asked whether the presence of a symmetric floral nectar guide pattern on artificial flowers affected bumble bees’ (Bombus impatiens) propensity to rob or access nectar “legitimately.” We discovered that nectar guides made legitimate visits more efficient for bees than robbing, and increased the relative frequency of legitimate visits, compared to flowers lacking nectar guides. This study is the first to show that beyond speeding nectar discovery, a nectar guide pattern can influence bees’ flower handling in a way that could benefit the plant. PMID:23418475

  9. Spatio-temporal variation of nectar robbing in Salvia gesneriflora and its effects on nectar production and legitimate visitors.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, E; Rosas-Guerrero, V

    2016-01-01

    Nectar robbing occurs when floral visitors remove floral nectar through floral damage and usually without providing pollination in return. Even though nectar robbing may have negative, neutral or even positive effects on plant fitness, few studies have investigated temporal and spatial variation in robbing rate and their consequences, particularly in the tropics. In this study, robbing levels were estimated during 3 years in four populations of Salvia gesneriflora, a hummingbird-pollinated shrub endemic to central Mexico that is mainly robbed by birds, carpenter bees and bumblebees. The effect of robbing on nectar availability, flower longevity and on visitation rate by floral visitors was also evaluated. Our results indicate great variation in robbing levels across years and populations and a positive relationship between robbing level and flower abundance per population. Moreover, our results show that nectar availability is about eight times higher in unrobbed flowers than in robbed flowers, and that nectar robbers prefer younger flowers, although lifespan of robbed and unrobbed flowers did not differ statistically. Primary and secondary nectar robbers showed a higher visitation rate compared to legitimate visitors, and neither legitimate nor illegitimate floral visitors seem to discriminate between robbed and unrobbed flowers. These results suggest that robbers may respond to food availability and that no floral visitors apparently could differentiate between robbed and unrobbed flowers. Finally, results show that nectar robbers prefer the youngest flowers, which suggests that strong competition for access to nectar between pollinators and robbers might occur, mainly at the first stages of the flowers.

  10. Rob Hargraves and the External Force in Lamellar Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P.; McEnroe, S. A.; Harrison, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    The strong remanence and extreme coercivity of slowly cooled rocks rich in hemo-ilmenite or ilmeno-hematite, poor in or lacking magnetite, was recognized and puzzled over by Rob for 44 years and highlighted in recent studies. Together these are properties neither of paramagnetic (PM) ilmenite nor spin-canted antiferromagnetic (CAF) hematite. The minerals contain fine exsolution lamellae, now shown by TEM to go down to unit-cell scale, suggesting lamellar interfaces as the key. Atomic simulations of PM ilmenite lamellae in CAF hematite show formation of "contact layers" on (001) coherent interfaces that have a hybrid composition between hematite Fe3+ layers and ilmenite Fe2+ layers. These reduce interface charge imbalance, and, more important, have a magnetic moment coupled anti-parallel to but weaker than adjacent hematite layers. Each ilmenite lamella has an odd number of non-magnetic layers plus two contact layers coupled to hematite. The hematite host has an odd number of layers so magnetic moments of all but one cancel. This, combined with two opposite moments of contact layers (2MC-1MH), gives the moment of one lamella, about 4 Bohr magnetons. The maximum moment per formula unit is the moment per lamella times number of lamellae divided by formula units. One key to achieving a high moment is abundant lamellae. Rob's discussion of etched Allard Lake samples brought attention to the 3-phase cooling reaction in the ilmenite-hematite system, where R3c PM titanohematite transforms to about 20% PM R3 ilmenite and 80% CAF hematite, producing instantaneously the required coupled contact layers and a CRM. Lamellar yields up to 33% are obtained by undercooling below the 3-phase reaction, with eventual very fine nucleation. Long-term heating indicates major loss of the high-coercivity component due to lamellar resorption. A second key to strong remanence is that lamellae be magnetically "in-phase". This is optimized in crystals with (001) parallel to the external force

  11. Impact of Striped-Squirrel Nectar-Robbing Behaviour on Gender Fitness in Alpinia roxburghii Sweet (Zingiberaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaobao; Mohandass, Dharmalingam; Katabuchi, Masatoshi; Hughes, Alice C.; Roubik, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Nectar-robbing has the potential to strongly affect male and female reproductive fitness of plants. One example of nectar theft is that shown by striped-squirrels (Tamiops swinhoei) on a number of ginger species, including Alpinia roxburghii and A. kwangsiensis (Zingiberaceae). In this study, we used a fluorescent dye as a pollen analogue, and measured fruit and seed output, to test the effect of squirrel nectar-robbing on A. roxburghii reproductive fitness. Pollen transfer between robbed and unrobbed flowers was assessed by comparing 60 randomly established plots containing robbed and unrobbed flowers. The frequency of squirrel robbing visits and broken styles were recorded from a number of flowers for five consecutive days. Two bee species (Bombus eximius and Apis cerana), were the primary pollinators, and their visitation frequency was recorded for six consecutive days. The results showed that fluorescent powder from unrobbed flowers was dispersed further, and to a greater number of flowers than that placed on robbed flowers. Additionally, robbing flowers caused significant damage to reproductive organs, resulting in lower fruit and seed sets in robbed than in unrobbed flowers and influencing both male and female fitness. The frequency of the primary pollinator visits (B. eximius) was significantly higher for unrobbed plants than for robbed plants. The present study clearly shows the negative impact of squirrel robbing on A. roxburghii male reproductive fitness and neutral impact on female reproductive fitness. PMID:26689684

  12. Effects of nectar robbing on male and female reproductive success of a pollinator-dependent plant

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Nossa, Sandra V.; Sánchez, José María; Navarro, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Nectar robbers affect host fitness in different ways and by different magnitudes, both directly and indirectly, and potentially constitute an important part of pollination interactions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nectar robbing on several variables that characterize the reproductive success of Lonicera etrusca, a pollinator-dependent plant with long, tubular flowers that produce abundant nectar. Methods Using fluorescent powder dye as a proxy for pollen, the distance of pollen dispersal was compared for robbed and non-robbed flowers. Artificial nectar robbing treatments were applied to test its effects on four additional measures of reproductive success, namely the quantity of pollen exported, fruit set, seed/ovule ratio and seed weight. Key Results Nectar robbing was not found to have any significant negative consequences on female and male components of reproductive success as determined through the five variables that were measured. Conclusions Although L. etrusca exhibits high levels of nectar robbing and nectar robbers are common floral visitors, no evidence was found of detrimental changes in the components of reproductive success. A combination of morphological and ecological mechanisms is proposed to explain how plants may compensate for the energetic loss caused by the nectar robbers. PMID:26482653

  13. Role of the mar-sox-rob Regulon in Regulating Outer Membrane Porin Expression▿†

    PubMed Central

    Chubiz, Lon M.; Rao, Christopher V.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple factors control the expression of the outer membrane porins OmpF and OmpC in Escherichia coli. In this work, we investigated the role of the mar-sox-rob regulon in regulating outer membrane porin expression in response to salicylate. We provide both genetic and physiological evidence that MarA and Rob can independently activate micF transcription in response to salicylate, leading to reduced OmpF expression. MarA was also found to repress OmpF expression through a MicF-independent pathway. In the case of OmpC, we found that its transcription was moderately increased in response to salicylate. However, this increase was independent of MarA and Rob. Finally, we found that the reduction in OmpF expression in a tolC mutant is due primarily to Rob. Collectively, this work further clarifies the coordinated role of MarA and Rob in regulating the expression of the outer membrane porins. PMID:21398557

  14. Nectar Robbing Positively Influences the Reproductive Success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vineet Kumar; Barman, Chandan; Tandon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    The net consequence of nectar robbing on reproductive success of plants is usually negative and the positive effect is rarely produced. We evaluated the influence of nectar robbing on the behaviour of pollinators and the reproductive success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae) in a natural population. Experimental pollinations showed that the trees were strictly self-incompatible. The three types of floral colour morphs of the tree viz. red, orange and yellow, lacked compatibility barriers. The pollinators (Pycnonotus cafer and Pycnonotus leucotis) and the robber (Nectarinia asiatica) showed equal preference for all the morphs, as they visited each morph with nearly equal frequency and flower-handling time. The sunbirds caused up to 60% nectar robbing, mostly (99%) by piercing through the corolla tube. Although nectar is replenished at regular intervals, insufficient amount of nectar compelled the pollinators to visit additional trees in bloom. Data of manual nectar robbing from the entire tree showed that the pollinators covered lower number of flowers per tree (5 flowers/tree) and more trees per bout (7 trees/bout) than the unrobbed ones (19 flowers/tree and 2 trees bout). The robbed trees set a significantly greater amount of fruits than the unrobbed trees. However, the number of seeds in a fruit did not differ significantly. The study shows that plant-pollinator-robber interaction may benefit the self-incompatible plant species under conditions that increases the visits of pollinators among the compatible conspecifics in a population. PMID:25036554

  15. 78 FR 46598 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Rob Jaggers Camping Area Business Plan and Expanded Amenity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Draft Rob Jaggers Camping Area Business Plan and... prepared and is making available to the public the Draft Rob Jaggers Camping Area Business Plan and... written comments on the Draft Business Plan by December 15, 2013. ADDRESSES: Copies of the Draft...

  16. 75 FR 57664 - Airworthiness Directives; G ROB-WERKE Model G120A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ...-024-AD; Amendment 39-16435; AD 2010-20-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; G ROB-WERKE Model.... The authority citation for part 39 continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113.... (g) You may at any time complete GROB Aircraft AG Repair Instruction No. RI-1121-017, dated April...

  17. Predicting the effects of nectar robbing on plant reproduction: implications of pollen limitation and plant mating system.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Laura A; Irwin, Rebecca E; Newman, Daniel A

    2007-12-01

    The outcome of species interactions is often difficult to predict, depending on the organisms involved and the ecological context. Nectar robbers remove nectar from flowers, often without providing pollination service, and their effects on plant reproduction vary in strength and direction. In two case studies and a meta-analysis, we tested the importance of pollen limitation and plant mating system in predicting the impacts of nectar robbing on female plant reproduction. We predicted that nectar robbing would have the strongest effects on species requiring pollinators to set seed and pollen limited for seed production. Our predictions were partially supported. In the first study, natural nectar robbing was associated with lower seed production in Delphinium nuttallianum, a self-compatible but non-autogamously selfing, pollen-limited perennial, and experimental nectar robbing reduced seed set relative to unrobbed plants. The second study involved Linaria vulgaris, a self-incompatible perennial that is generally not pollen limited. Natural levels of nectar robbing generally had little effect on estimates of female reproduction in L. vulgaris, while experimental nectar robbing reduced seed set per fruit but not percentage of fruit set. A meta-analysis revealed that nectar robbing had strong negative effects on pollen-limited and self-incompatible plants, as predicted. Our results suggest that pollination biology and plant mating system must be considered to understand and predict the ecological outcome of both mutualistic and antagonistic plant-animal interactions.

  18. Differential expression of the transcription factors MarA, Rob, and SoxS of Salmonella Typhimurium in response to sodium hypochlorite: down-regulation of rob by MarA and SoxS.

    PubMed

    Collao, B; Morales, E H; Gil, F; Polanco, R; Calderón, I L; Saavedra, C P

    2012-11-01

    To survive, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) must sense signals found in phagocytic cells and modulate gene expression. In the present work, we evaluated the expression and cross-regulation of the transcription factors MarA, Rob, and SoxS in response to NaOCl. We generated strains ΔsoxS and ΔmarA, which were 20 times more sensitive to NaOCl as compared to the wild-type strain; while Δrob only 5 times. Subsequently, we determined that marA and soxS transcript and protein levels were increased while those of rob decreased in a wild-type strain treated with NaOCl. To assess if changes in S. Typhimurium after exposure to NaOCl were due to a cross-regulation, as in Escherichia coli, we evaluated the expression of marA, soxS, and rob in the different genetic backgrounds. The positive regulation observed in the wild-type strain of marA and soxS was retained in the Δrob strain. As in the wild-type strain, rob was down-regulated in the ΔmarA and ΔsoxS treated with NaOCl; however, this effect was decreased. Since rob was down-regulated by both factors, we generated a ΔmarA ΔsoxS strain finding that the negative regulation was abolished, confirming our hypothesis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using MarA and SoxS confirmed an interaction with the promoter of rob.

  19. Evidence that regulatory protein MarA of Escherichia coli represses rob by steric hindrance.

    PubMed

    McMurry, Laura M; Levy, Stuart B

    2010-08-01

    The MarA protein of Escherichia coli can both activate and repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the position and orientation of its degenerate 20-bp binding site ("marbox") at the promoter. For all three known repressed genes, the marbox overlaps the promoter. It has been reported that MarA represses the rob promoter via an RNA polymerase (RNAP)-DNA-MarA ternary complex. Under similar conditions, we found a ternary complex for the repressed purA promoter also. These findings, together with the backwards orientation of repressed marboxes, suggested a unique interaction of MarA with RNAP in repression. However, no repression-specific residues of MarA could be found among 38 single-alanine replacement mutations previously shown to retain activation function or among mutants from random mutagenesis. Mutations Thr12Ala, Arg36Ala, Thr95Ile, and Pro106Ala were more damaging for activation than for repression, some up to 10-fold, so these residues may play a specific role in activation. We found that nonspecific binding of RNAP to promoterless regions of DNA was presumably responsible for the ternary complexes seen previously. When RNAP binding was promoter specific, MarA reduced RNAP access to the rob promoter; there was little or no ternary complex. These findings strongly implicate steric hindrance as the mechanism of repression of rob by MarA.

  20. Performance of ROB's near real-time ionospheric product during normal and disturbed space weather periods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeot, Nicolas; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bruyninx, Carine

    2015-04-01

    Several agencies are routinely monitoring the vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) using GNSS data. Derived maps are available with different latencies, area extents, and grid/time resolutions. However, no high-resolution maps are publically available over Europe in near real-time. In this frame, the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) developed the ROB-IONO software which takes advantage of the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN) to monitor the ionosphere. The main ROB products consist of ionospheric vTEC maps over Europe and their variability estimated in near real-time every 15 min on 0.5° x 0.5° grids using GPS observations. The maps are available online with a latency of ~3 min in the IONEX format at ftp://gnss.oma.be and as interactive web pages at www.gnss.be. During normal ionospheric activity, the ROB-TEC maps show a good agreement with widely used post-processed global products from IGS, CODE and ESA, with mean differences of 1.3 ± 0.9, 0.6 ± 0.7 and 0.4 ± 1.6 TECu respectively for the period 2012 to mid-2013. For a disturbed period, such as the 2003 Halloween ionospheric storm, the mean differences with IGS, CODE and ESA maps are respectively 0.9 ± 2.2, 0.1 ± 2.0 and 0.6 ± 6.8 TECu, with maximum differences (>38 TECu) occurring during the major phase of the storm. These differences are due to the lower resolution of global products in time and space compared to the ROB-TEC maps. A description of two recent events, on March 17, 2013 and February 27, 2014 highlights the capability of the method adopted to detect in near real-time abnormal ionospheric behaviour over Europe. The potential of the variability maps as an indicator of rapid ionospheric variations during the 15 min of observations is also highlighted. More than 30 ionospheric events associated with Space weather were detected during the period 2012-2014. The ionospheric perturbations are associated with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs, ~70% of the time), active geomagnetic conditions

  1. Development of RadRob15, A Robot for Detecting Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear Medicine Departments

    PubMed Central

    Shafe, A.; Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Joharnia, A.; Safaeyan, Gh.H.

    2016-01-01

    Accidental or intentional release of radioactive materials into the living or working environment may cause radioactive contamination. In nuclear medicine departments, radioactive contamination is usually due to radionuclides which emit high energy gamma photons and particles. These radionuclides have a broad range of energies and penetration capabilities. Rapid detection of radioactive contamination is very important for efficient removing of the contamination without spreading the radionuclides. A quick scan of the contaminated area helps health physicists locate the contaminated area and assess the level of activity. Studies performed in IR Iran shows that in some nuclear medicine departments, areas with relatively high levels of activity can be found. The highest contamination level was detected in corridors which are usually used by patients. To monitor radioactive contamination in nuclear medicine departments, RadRob15, a contamination detecting robot was developed in the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC). The motor vehicle scanner and the gas radiation detector are the main components of this robot. The detection limit of this robot has enabled it to detect low levels of radioactive contamination. Our preliminary tests show that RadRob15 can be easily used in nuclear medicine departments as a device for quick surveys which identifies the presence or absence of radioactive contamination. PMID:27853728

  2. Development of RadRob15, A Robot for Detecting Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear Medicine Departments.

    PubMed

    Shafe, A; Mortazavi, S M J; Joharnia, A; Safaeyan, Gh H

    2016-09-01

    Accidental or intentional release of radioactive materials into the living or working environment may cause radioactive contamination. In nuclear medicine departments, radioactive contamination is usually due to radionuclides which emit high energy gamma photons and particles. These radionuclides have a broad range of energies and penetration capabilities. Rapid detection of radioactive contamination is very important for efficient removing of the contamination without spreading the radionuclides. A quick scan of the contaminated area helps health physicists locate the contaminated area and assess the level of activity. Studies performed in IR Iran shows that in some nuclear medicine departments, areas with relatively high levels of activity can be found. The highest contamination level was detected in corridors which are usually used by patients. To monitor radioactive contamination in nuclear medicine departments, RadRob15, a contamination detecting robot was developed in the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC). The motor vehicle scanner and the gas radiation detector are the main components of this robot. The detection limit of this robot has enabled it to detect low levels of radioactive contamination. Our preliminary tests show that RadRob15 can be easily used in nuclear medicine departments as a device for quick surveys which identifies the presence or absence of radioactive contamination.

  3. Different effects of transcriptional regulators MarA, SoxS and Rob on susceptibility of Escherichia coli to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs): Rob-dependent CAMP induction of the marRAB operon.

    PubMed

    Warner, Douglas M; Levy, Stuart B

    2010-02-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), a component of the mammalian immune system, protect the host from bacterial infections. The roles of the Escherichia coli transcriptional regulators MarA, SoxS and Rob in susceptibility to these peptides were examined. Overexpression of marA, either in an antibiotic-resistant marR mutant or from a plasmid, decreased bacterial susceptibility to CAMPs. Overexpression of the soxS gene from a plasmid, which decreased susceptibility to antibiotics, unexpectedly caused no decrease in CAMP susceptibility; instead it produced increased susceptibility to different CAMPs. Deletion or overexpression of rob had little effect on CAMP susceptibility. The marRAB operon was upregulated when E. coli was incubated in sublethal amounts of CAMPs polymyxin B, LL-37 or human beta-defensin-1; however, this upregulation required Rob. Deletion of acrAB increased bacterial susceptibility to polymyxin B, LL-37 and human beta-defensin-1 peptides. Deletion of tolC yielded an even greater increase in susceptibility to these peptides and also led to increased susceptibility to human alpha-defensin-2. Inhibition of cellular proton-motive force increased peptide susceptibility for wild-type and acrAB deletion strains; however, it decreased susceptibility of tolC mutants. These findings demonstrate that CAMPs are both inducers of marA-mediated drug resistance through interaction with Rob and also substrates for efflux in E. coli. The three related transcriptional regulators show different effects on bacterial cell susceptibility to CAMPs.

  4. Rethinking the Boundaries and Burdens of Parental Authority over Education: A Response to Rob Reich's Case Study of Homeschooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2008-01-01

    Rob Reich's claim that fruitful discussions about the balance among state, parental, and children's educational interests would benefit by contemplating the widespread phenomenon of homeschooling is a welcome suggestion. His policy recommendations, however, place an unjustified burden on parents to show the adequacy of homeschooling arrangements…

  5. Using Classroom Observations to Measure Teacher Effectiveness: Q&A with Rob Ramsdell. REL Mid-Atlantic Webinar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In this webinar, Mr. Rob Ramsdell, Vice President, Cambridge Education, discussed the use of classroom observations as one measure of teacher effectiveness in a comprehensive educator support system. Mr. Ramsdell presented research-based recommendations for improving the quality and rigor of classroom observations. This Q&A addressed the…

  6. Analytic Calculation of Noise Power Robbing, NPR, and Polarization Isolation Degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Robert; Woolner, Peter; Ekelman, Ernest

    2008-01-01

    Three Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) R transponders (services) required analysis and measurements to develop an accurate link budget. These are a) Search and Rescue transponder which suffers from power robbing due to thermal uplink noise, b) the Data Collection Platform Report which suffers from degradation due to NPR (Noise Power Ratio), and c) GOES Rebroadcast transponder which uses a dual circular downlink L band for which there was no depolarization data. The first two services required development of extended link budget to analytically calculate the impact of these degradations which are shown to have a significant impact on the link budget. The third service required measurements of atmospheric L band CP depolarization as there were no known previous measurements and results are reported her

  7. Catalytic pyrolysis of tobacco rob: kinetic study and fuel gas produced.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Li, Tan; Jin, Shiping; Lin, Yixin; Yang, Haiping

    2011-12-01

    The pyrolysis kinetics of tobacco rob (TR) was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under inert atmosphere, adding chemicals (dolomite and NiO) as catalysts by catalytic-mixing method. The TGA results showed that mass loss and mass loss rates were affected by catalysts. The conversion rates increased while the activation energy decreased. Moreover, the thermal decomposition behaviors of TR were studied in the fixed-bed reactor using dolomite and NiO/γ-Al2O3 as catalysts by catalyst-bed method. A series of experiments had been performed to explore the effects of catalysts, and reaction temperature on the composition and yield of fuel gas. The experiments demonstrated that the catalysts had a high activity of cracking tar and hydrocarbons, as well as yielding a high fuel gas production. For both methods, dolomite and NiO revealed better catalytic performance as a view of enhancing conversion rates and increasing product gas yield.

  8. MarA, SoxS and Rob function as virulence factors in an Escherichia coli murine model of ascending pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Casaz, Paul; Garrity-Ryan, Lynne K; McKenney, David; Jackson, Caroline; Levy, Stuart B; Tanaka, S Ken; Alekshun, Michael N

    2006-12-01

    MarA, SoxS and Rob are transcription factors belonging to the AraC family. While these proteins have been associated historically with control of multiple antibiotic resistance, and tolerance to oxidative stress agents and organic solvents, only a paucity of experimental data support a role in regulating virulence. Clinical Escherichia coli isolates, and isogenic strains lacking marA, soxS and rob, were studied in a murine model of ascending pyelonephritis, which is a clinically relevant model of urinary tract infection. Organisms lacking all three transcription factors (triple knockouts) were significantly less virulent than parental strains, and complementation studies demonstrated that the addition of marA, soxS and rob individually restored wild-type virulence in the triple-knockout strain. Deletion of soxS or rob alone was more detrimental than the removal of marA. Thus, all three proteins contribute to virulence in vivo.

  9. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of 17 rob(13q14q) Robertsonian translocations by FISH, narrowing the region containing the breakpoints.

    PubMed Central

    Han, J. Y.; Choo, K. H.; Shaffer, L. G.

    1994-01-01

    We have characterized 17 rob(13q14q) Robertsonian translocations, using six molecular probes that hybridize to the repetitive sequences of the centromeric and shortarm regions of the five acrocentric chromosomes by FISH. The rearrangements include six de novo rearrangements and the chromosomally normal parents, five maternally and three paternally inherited translocations, and three translocations of unknown origin. The D21Z1/D13Z1 and D14Z1/D22Z1 centromeric alpha-satellite DNA probes showed all rob(13q14q) chromosomes to be dicentric. The rDNA probes did not show hybridization on any of the 17 cases studied. The pTRS-47 satellite III DNA probe specific for chromosomes 14 and 22 was retained around the breakpoints in all cases. However, the pTRS-63 satellite III DNA probe specific for chromosome 14 did not show any signals on the translocation chromosomes examined. In 16 of 17 translocations studied, strong hybridization signals on the translocations were detected with the pTRI-6 satellite I DNA probe specific for chromosome 13. All parents of the six de novo rob(13q14q), including one whose pTRI-6 sequence was lost, showed strong positive hybridization signals on each pair of chromosomes 14 and 13, with pTRS-47, pTRS-63, and pTRI-6. Therefore, the translocation breakpoints in the majority of rob(13q14q) are between the pTRS-47 and pTRS-63 sequences in the p11 region of chromosome 14 and between the pTRI-6 and rDNA sequences within the p11 region of chromosome 13. Images p[962]-a Figure 2 PMID:7977359

  10. TEM-1 AND ROB-1 PRESENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE STRAINS, ISTANBUL, TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Kuvat, Nuray; Nazik, Hasan; Berkiten, Rahmiye; Öngen, Betigül

    2015-03-01

    Resistance of 235 Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates from Istanbul Medical Faculty Hospital, Turkey were determined against 19 antibiotics by disc diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of those found resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxim, chloramphenicol and meropenem were measured using E-test. Ampicillin-resistant isolates producing beta-lactamase as demonstrated by a nitrocefin assay were analyzed for the presence of TEM-1 and ROB-1 genes by PCR. Eleven percent of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin (10 µg/ml), of which 73% were beta-lactamase positive and carried TEM-1 gene, but none were positive for ROB-1 gene. All isolates susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate (20/10 µg/ml), azithromycin (15 µg/ml), aztreonam (30 µg/ml), cefotaxime (30 µg/ml), ceftriaxone (30 µg/ml), ciprofloxacin (5 µg/ml), levofloxacin (5 µg/ml), and telithromycin (15 µg/ml) but 24%, 15%, 4%, 4%, 2%, 1%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.25/23.75 µg/ml), tetracycline (30 µg/ml), cefaclor (30 µg/ml), clarithromycin (15 µg/ml), cefuroxime (30 µg/ml), meropenem (10 µg/ml), chloramphenicol (30 µg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (10/10 µg/ml), nalidixic acid (30 µg/ml), and fosfomycin (30 µg/ml), respectively. MIC values of three cefuroxime-resistant isolates was 24, 48 and > 256 µg/ml, respectively; of two meropenem-resistant strains > 256 µg/ml; and of two chloramphenicol-susceptible isolates (by disc diffusion method) 6 µg/ml (considered as intermediate susceptible). Multiple- antibiotics resistance was detected in 15% of the strains, with resistance to 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 antibiotics in 8.5%, 4%, 2%, 0.5% and 0.5% of the isolates, respectively. By identifying beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, empirical therapy with beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and second generation cephalosporins would be inappropriate for such patients (approximately 3%). Our findings will

  11. Immediate effects of nectar robbing by Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea) on nectar alkaloid concentrations in tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca).

    PubMed

    Kaczorowski, Rainee L; Koplovich, Avi; Sporer, Frank; Wink, Michael; Markman, Shai

    2014-04-01

    Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs), such as alkaloids, are often found in many parts of a plant, including flowers, providing protection to the plant from various types of herbivores or microbes. PSMs are also present in the floral nectar of many species, but typically at lower concentrations than in other parts of the plant. Nectar robbers often damage floral tissue to access the nectar. By doing so, these nectar robbers may initiate an increase of PSMs in the floral nectar. It is often assumed that it takes at least a few hours before the plant demonstrates an increase in PSMs. Here, we addressed the question of whether PSMs in the floral tissue are immediately being released into the floral nectar following nectar robbing. To address this research question, we investigated whether there was an immediate effect of nectar robbing by the Palestine Sunbird (Nectarinia osea) on the concentration of nectar alkaloids, nicotine and anabasine, in Tree Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca). We found that the concentration of anabasine, but not nicotine, significantly increased in floral nectar immediately following simulated nectar robbing. These findings suggest that nectar robbers could be ingesting greater amounts of PSMs than they would if they visit flowers legitimately. As a consequence, increased consumption of neurotoxic nectar alkaloids or other PSMs could have negative effects on the nectar robber.

  12. Behavioural differences between male and female carpenter bees in nectar robbing and its effect on reproductive success in Glechoma longituba (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-W; Zhao, J-M; Yang, C-F; Gituru, W R

    2011-01-01

    Male and female nectar robbers may show significantly different behaviour on host plants and thus have different impacts on reproductive fitness of the plants. A 4-year study in natural populations of Glechoma longituba has shown that male carpenter bees (Xylocopa sinensis) are responsible for most of the nectar robbing from these flowers, while female bees account for little nectar robbing, demonstrating distinct behavioural differentiation between male and female bees in visiting flowers. The smaller male bee spends less time visiting a single flower than the larger female bee, consequently, the male bee is capable of visiting more flowers per unit time and has a higher foraging efficiency. Moreover, the robbing behaviour of female carpenter bees is more destructive and affects flower structures (ovules and nectaries) and floral life-span more than that of the male bee. According to the energy trade-off hypothesis, the net energy gain for male bees during nectar robbing greatly surpasses energy payout (17.72 versus 2.43 J), while the female bee net energy gain is barely adequate to meet energy payout per unit time (3.78 versus 2.39 J). The differences in net energy gain for male and female bees per unit time in nectar robbing are the likely cause of observed behavioural differences between the sexes. The differences in food resource preference between male and female bees constitute an optimal resource allocation pattern that enables the visitors to utilise floral resources more efficiently.

  13. Bioflocculant production by Virgibacillus sp. Rob isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cosa, Sekelwa; Mabinya, Leonard V; Olaniran, Ademola O; Okoh, Omobola O; Bernard, Kim; Deyzel, Shaun; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-03-14

    A bioflocculant-producing marine bacterium previously isolated from marine sediment of Algoa Bay was screened for flocculant production. Comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequence identified the isolate to have 99% similarity to Virgibacillus sp. XQ-1 and it was deposited in the GenBank as Virgibacillus sp. Rob with accession number HQ537127. The bacterium produced biflocculants optimally in glucose (70.4%) and peptone (70.4%) as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, alkaline pH (12) (74%); and the presence of Fe2+ (74%). Chemical analysis of the bioflocculant revealed it to be a polysaccharide.

  14. MarA, SoxS and Rob of Escherichia coli - Global regulators of multidrug resistance, virulence and stress response.

    PubMed

    Duval, Valérie; Lister, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria have a great capacity for adjusting their metabolism in response to environmental changes by linking extracellular stimuli to the regulation of genes by transcription factors. By working in a co-operative manner, transcription factors provide a rapid response to external threats, allowing the bacteria to survive. This review will focus on transcription factors MarA, SoxS and Rob in Escherichia coli, three members of the AraC family of proteins. These homologous proteins exemplify the ability to respond to multiple threats such as oxidative stress, drugs and toxic compounds, acidic pH, and host antimicrobial peptides. MarA, SoxS and Rob recognize similar DNA sequences in the promoter region of more than 40 regulatory target genes. As their regulons overlap, a finely tuned adaptive response allows E. coli to survive in the presence of different assaults in a co-ordinated manner. These regulators are well conserved amongst Enterobacteriaceae and due to their broad involvement in bacterial adaptation in the host, have recently been explored as targets to develop new anti-virulence agents. The regulators are also being examined for their roles in novel technologies such as biofuel production.

  15. Experimental design and data-analysis in label-free quantitative LC/MS proteomics: A tutorial with MSqRob.

    PubMed

    Goeminne, Ludger J E; Gevaert, Kris; Clement, Lieven

    2017-04-05

    Label-free shotgun proteomics is routinely used to assess proteomes. However, extracting relevant information from the massive amounts of generated data remains difficult. This tutorial provides a strong foundation on analysis of quantitative proteomics data. We provide key statistical concepts that help researchers to design proteomics experiments and we showcase how to analyze quantitative proteomics data using our recent free and open-source R package MSqRob, which was developed to implement the peptide-level robust ridge regression method for relative protein quantification described by Goeminne et al. . MSqRob can handle virtually any experimental proteomics design and outputs proteins ordered by statistical significance. Moreover, its graphical user interface and interactive diagnostic plots provide easy inspection and also detection of anomalies in the data and flaws in the data analysis, allowing deeper assessment of the validity of results and a critical review of the experimental design. Our tutorial discusses interactive preprocessing, data analysis and visualization of label-free MS-based quantitative proteomics experiments with simple and more complex designs. We provide well-documented scripts to run analyses in bash mode on GitHub, enabling the integration of MSqRob in automated pipelines on cluster environments (https://github.com/statOmics/MSqRob).

  16. Additive effects of herbivory, nectar robbing and seed predation on male and female fitness estimates of the host plant Ipomopsis aggregata.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Rebecca E; Brody, Alison K

    2011-07-01

    Many antagonistic species attack plants and consume specific plant parts. Understanding how these antagonists affect plant fitness individually and in combination is an important research focus in ecology and evolution. We examined the individual and combined effects of herbivory, nectar robbing, and pre-dispersal seed predation on male and female estimates of fitness in the host plant Ipomopsis aggregata. By examining the effects of antagonists on plant traits, we were able to tease apart the direct consumptive effects of antagonists versus the indirect effects mediated through changes in traits important to pollination. In a three-way factorial field experiment, we manipulated herbivory, nectar robbing, and seed predation. Herbivory and seed predation reduced some male and female fitness estimates, whereas plants tolerated the effects of robbing. The effects of herbivory, robbing, and seed predation were primarily additive, and we found little evidence for non-additive effects of multiple antagonists on plant reproduction. Herbivory affected plant reproduction through both direct consumptive effects and indirectly through changes in traits important to pollination (i.e., nectar and phenological traits). Conversely, seed predators primarily had direct consumptive effects on plants. Our results suggest that the effects of multiple antagonists on estimates of plant fitness can be additive, and investigating which traits respond to damage can provide insight into how antagonists shape plant performance.

  17. AraC/XylS family stress response regulators Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Daniel; Schweizer, Gabriel; Weingart, Helge

    2014-09-01

    Transcriptional regulators of the AraC/XylS family have been associated with multidrug resistance, organic solvent tolerance, oxidative stress, and virulence in clinically relevant enterobacteria. In the present study, we identified four homologous AraC/XylS regulators, Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA, from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora Ea1189. Previous studies have shown that the regulators MarA, Rob, and SoxS from Escherichia coli mediate multiple-antibiotic resistance, primarily by upregulating the AcrAB-TolC efflux system. However, none of the four AraC/XylS regulators from E. amylovora was able to induce a multidrug resistance phenotype in the plant pathogen. Overexpression of rob led to a 2-fold increased expression of the acrA gene. However, the rob-overexpressing strain showed increased resistance to only a limited number of antibiotics. Furthermore, Rob was able to induce tolerance to organic solvents in E. amylovora by mechanisms other than efflux. We demonstrated that SoxS from E. amylovora is involved in superoxide resistance. A soxS-deficient mutant of Ea1189 was not able to grow on agar plates supplemented with the superoxide-generating agent paraquat. Furthermore, expression of soxS was induced by redox cycling agents. We identified two novel members of the AraC/XylS family in E. amylovora. PliA was highly upregulated during the early infection phase in apple rootstock and immature pear fruits. Multiple compounds were able to induce the expression of pliA, including apple leaf extracts, phenolic compounds, redox cycling agents, heavy metals, and decanoate. OpiA was shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic and alkaline pH stress responses.

  18. Activation of the Escherichia coli marA/soxS/rob regulon in response to transcriptional activator concentration.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert G; Bartlett, Emily S; Rosner, Judah L; Wall, Michael E

    2008-07-04

    The paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob activate a common set of promoters, the marA/soxS/rob regulon of Escherichia coli, by binding a cognate site (marbox) upstream of each promoter. The extent of activation varies from one promoter to another and is only poorly correlated with the in vitro affinity of the activator for the specific marbox. Here, we examine the dependence of promoter activation on the level of activator in vivo by manipulating the steady-state concentrations of MarA and SoxS in Lon protease mutants and by measuring promoter activation using lacZ transcriptional fusions. We found that: (i) the MarA concentrations needed for half-maximal stimulation varied by at least 19-fold among the 10 promoters tested; (ii) most marboxes were not saturated when there were 24,000 molecules of MarA per cell; (iii) the correlation between the MarA concentration needed for half-maximal promoter activity in vivo and marbox binding affinity in vitro was poor; and (iv) the two activators differed in their promoter activation profiles. The marRAB and sodA promoters could both be saturated by MarA and SoxS in vivo. However, saturation by MarA resulted in greater marRAB and lesser sodA transcription than did saturation by SoxS, implying that the two activators interact with RNA polymerase in different ways at the different promoters. Thus, the concentration and nature of activator determine which regulon promoters are activated, as well as the extent of their activation.

  19. Water quality of Rob Roy Reservoir and Lake Owen, Albany County, and Granite Springs and Crystal Lake Reservoirs, Laramie County, Wyoming, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogle, Kathy Muller; Peterson, D.A.; Spillman, Bud; Padilla, Rosie

    1999-01-01

    The water quality of four reservoirs was assessed during 1997 and 1998 as a cooperative project between the Cheyenne Board of Public Utilities and the U. S. Geological Survey. The four reservoirs, Rob Roy, Lake Owen, Granite Springs, and Crystal Lake, provide approximately 75 percent of the public water supply for Cheyenne, Wyoming. Samples of water and bottom sediment were collected and analyzed for selected physical, chemical, and biological characteristics to provide data about the reservoirs. Water flows between the reservoirs through a series of pipelines and stream channels. The reservoirs differ in physical characteristics such as elevation, volume, and depth.Profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH were examined. Three of the four reservoirs exhibited stratification during the summer. The profiles indicate that stratification develops in all reservoirs except Lake Owen. Stratification developed in Rob Roy, Granite Springs, and Crystal Lake Reservoirs by mid-July in 1998 and continued until September, with the thickness of the epilimnion increasing during that time. Secchi disk readings indicated Rob Roy Reservoir had the clearest water of the four reservoirs studied.The composition of the phytoplankton community was different in the upper two reservoirs from that in the lower two reservoirs. Many of the species found in Rob Roy Reservoir and Lake Owen are associated with oligotrophic, nutrient-poor conditions. In contrast, many of the species found in Granite Springs and Crystal Lake Reservoirs are associated with mesotrophic or eutrophic conditions. The total number of taxa identified also increased downstream.The chemical water type in the reservoirs was similar, but dissolved-solids concentrations were greater in the downstream reservoirs. Water in all four reservoirs was a calcium-bicarbonate type. In the fall of 1997, Rob Roy Reservoir had the lowest dissolved-solids concentration (19 milligrams per liter), whereas

  20. Florivory and nectar-robbing perforations in flowers of pointleaf manzanita Arctostaphylos pungens (Ericaceae) and their effects on plant reproductive success

    PubMed Central

    Eliyahu, Dorit; McCall, Andrew C.; Lauck, Marina; Trakhtenbrot, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Damage to petals may have varying effects on the reproductive success of the plant. The variation may depend on the kind of damage to the corolla. Whether the damage is limited to the corolla, as is usually the case with nectar-robbing perforations, or extending to the reproductive parts of the flower, as in the case of florivory holes, might determine the extent of the effect on the plant's reproduction. We examined the various perforations in the flowers of Arctostaphylos pungens and correlated their presence with fruiting success. We found that though florivory holes were highly associated with damage to reproductive parts, fruiting success did not differ significantly between flowers with the two kinds of damage. Although nectar-robbing perforations were not associated with reduced number of fruit produced, they were significantly correlated with reduced number of fruit that contained seemingly viable seeds. The implications of our findings are discussed in the context of pollination and antagonism. PMID:26811740

  1. Characterization of TetD as a transcriptional activator of a subset of genes of the Escherichia coli SoxS/MarA/Rob regulon.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Kevin L; Becker, Stephen M; Wolf, Richard E

    2005-05-01

    In Escherichia coli, SoxS, MarA and Rob form a closely related subset of the AraC/XylS family of positive regulators, sharing approximately 42% amino acid sequence identity over the length of SoxS and the ability to activate transcription of a common set of target genes that provide resistance to redox-cycling compounds and antibiotics. On the basis of its approximately 43% amino acid sequence identity with SoxS, MarA and Rob, TetD, encoded by transposon Tn10, appears to be a fourth member of the subset. However, although its expression has been shown to be negatively regulated by TetC and not inducible by tetracycline, the physiological function of TetD is unknown. Accordingly, in the work presented here, we initiate a molecular characterization of TetD. We show that expression of TetD activates transcription of a subset of the SoxS/MarA/Rob regulon genes and confers resistance to redox-cycling compounds and antibiotics. We show that mutations in the putative TetD binding site of a TetD-activatable promoter and a mutation in the protein's N-terminal DNA recognition helix interfere with transcription activation, thereby indicating that TetD directly activates target gene transcription. Finally, we show that TetD, like SoxS and MarA, is intrinsically unstable; however, unlike SoxS and MarA, TetD is not degraded by Lon or any of the cell's known cytoplasmic ATP-dependent proteases. Thus, we conclude that TetD is a bona fide member of the SoxS/MarA/Rob subfamily of positive regulators.

  2. Haemophilus influenzae Clinical Isolates with Plasmid pB1000 Bearing blaROB-1: Fitness Cost and Interspecies Dissemination▿

    PubMed Central

    San Millan, Alvaro; Garcia-Cobos, Silvia; Escudero, Jose Antonio; Hidalgo, Laura; Gutierrez, Belen; Carrilero, Laura; Campos, Jose; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Plasmid pB1000 is a mobilizable replicon bearing the blaROB-1 β-lactamase gene that we have recently described in Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida animal isolates. Here we report the presence of pB1000 and a derivative plasmid, pB1000′, in four Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates of human origin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed unrelated patterns in all strains, indicating that the existence of pB1000 in H. influenzae isolates is not the consequence of clonal dissemination. The replicon can be transferred both by transformation and by conjugation into H. influenzae, giving rise to recipients resistant to ampicillin and cefaclor (MICs, ≥64 μg/ml). Stability experiments showed that pB1000 is stable in H. influenzae without antimicrobial pressure for at least 60 generations. Competition experiments between isogenic H. influenzae strains with and without pB1000 revealed a competitive disadvantage of 9% per 10 generations for the transformant versus the recipient. The complete nucleotide sequences of nine pB1000 plasmids from human and animal isolates, as well as the epidemiological data, suggest that animal isolates belonging to the Pasteurellaceae act as an antimicrobial resistance reservoir for H. influenzae. Further, since P. multocida is the only member of this family that can colonize both humans and animals, we propose that P. multocida is the vehicle for the transport of pB1000 between animal- and human-adapted members of the Pasteurellaceae. PMID:20086141

  3. Effect of Transcriptional Activators SoxS, RobA, and RamA on Expression of Multidrug Efflux Pump AcrAB-TolC in Enterobacter cloacae

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Astrid; Poza, Margarita; Aranda, Jesús; Latasa, Cristina; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Tomás, María; Romero, Antonio; Lasa, Iñigo

    2012-01-01

    Control of membrane permeability is a key step in regulating the intracellular concentration of antibiotics. Efflux pumps confer innate resistance to a wide range of toxic compounds such as antibiotics, dyes, detergents, and disinfectants in members of the Enterobacteriaceae. The AcrAB-TolC efflux pump is involved in multidrug resistance in Enterobacter cloacae. However, the underlying mechanism that regulates the system in this microorganism remains unknown. In Escherichia coli, the transcription of acrAB is upregulated under global stress conditions by proteins such as MarA, SoxS, and Rob. In the present study, two clinical isolates of E. cloacae, EcDC64 (a multidrug-resistant strain overexpressing the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump) and Jc194 (a strain with a basal AcrAB-TolC expression level), were used to determine whether similar global stress responses operate in E. cloacae and also to establish the molecular mechanisms underlying this response. A decrease in susceptibility to erythromycin, tetracycline, telithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol was observed in clinical isolate Jc194 and, to a lesser extent in EcDC64, in the presence of salicylate, decanoate, tetracycline, and paraquat. Increased expression of the acrAB promoter in the presence of the above-described conditions was observed by flow cytometry and reverse transcription-PCR, by using a reporter fusion protein (green fluorescent protein). The expression level of the AcrAB promoter decreased in E. cloacae EcDC64 derivates deficient in SoxS, RobA, and RamA. Accordingly, the expression level of the AcrAB promoter was higher in E. cloacae Jc194 strains overproducing SoxS, RobA, and RamA. Overall, the data showed that SoxS, RobA, and RamA regulators were associated with the upregulation of acrAB, thus conferring antimicrobial resistance as well as a stress response in E. cloacae. In summary, the regulatory proteins SoxS, RobA, and RamA were cloned and sequenced for the first time in this species. The

  4. An excretory function for the Escherichia coli outer membrane pore TolC: upregulation of marA and soxS transcription and Rob activity due to metabolites accumulated in tolC mutants.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Judah L; Martin, Robert G

    2009-08-01

    Efflux pumps function to rid bacteria of xenobiotics, including antibiotics, bile salts, and organic solvents. TolC, which forms an outer membrane channel, is an essential component of several efflux pumps in Escherichia coli. We asked whether TolC has a role during growth in the absence of xenobiotics. Because tolC transcription is activated by three paralogous activators, MarA, SoxS, and Rob, we examined the regulation of these activators in tolC mutants. Using transcriptional fusions, we detected significant upregulation of marRAB and soxS transcription and Rob protein activity in tolC mutants. Three mechanisms could be distinguished: (i) activation of marRAB transcription was independent of marRAB, soxR, and rob functions; (ii) activation of soxS transcription required SoxR, a sensor of oxidants; and (iii) Rob protein was activated posttranscriptionally. This mechanism is similar to the mechanisms of upregulation of marRAB, soxS, and Rob by treatment with certain phenolics, superoxides, and bile salts, respectively. The transcription of other marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters, including tolC itself, was also elevated in tolC mutants. We propose that TolC is involved in the efflux of certain cellular metabolites, not only xenobiotics. As these metabolites accumulate during growth, they trigger the upregulation of MarA, SoxS, and Rob, which in turn upregulate tolC and help rid the bacteria of these metabolites, thereby restoring homeostasis.

  5. MarA, SoxS and Rob of Escherichia coli – Global regulators of multidrug resistance, virulence and stress response

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Valérie; Lister, Ida M.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria have a great capacity for adjusting their metabolism in response to environmental changes by linking extracellular stimuli to the regulation of genes by transcription factors. By working in a co-operative manner, transcription factors provide a rapid response to external threats, allowing the bacteria to survive. This review will focus on transcription factors MarA, SoxS and Rob in Escherichia coli, three members of the AraC family of proteins. These homologous proteins exemplify the ability to respond to multiple threats such as oxidative stress, drugs and toxic compounds, acidic pH, and host antimicrobial peptides. MarA, SoxS and Rob recognize similar DNA sequences in the promoter region of more than 40 regulatory target genes. As their regulons overlap, a finely tuned adaptive response allows E. coli to survive in the presence of different assaults in a co-ordinated manner. These regulators are well conserved amongst Enterobacteriaceae and due to their broad involvement in bacterial adaptation in the host, have recently been explored as targets to develop new anti-virulence agents. The regulators are also being examined for their roles in novel technologies such as biofuel production. PMID:24860636

  6. Regulation of marA, soxS, rob, acrAB and micF in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Efrat; Ben-Shalom, Lior; Shachar, Dina; Matthews, Karl R; Yaron, Sima

    2008-12-01

    Importance of the overexpression of AcrAB efflux pumps in the low-level resistance of pathogens to antimicrobials requires a better understanding of the AcrAB regulation. The goal of the present research was to study the transcription of acrAB, as well as the genes that play a role in its regulation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We monitored the transcription of these genes during growth at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C, and thoroughly studied the effect of salicylate, paraquat and decanoate. The strengths of the promoters' activities were ordered from strong to weak as micF > rob > acrAB > soxS, marRAB. At both temperatures, marRAB was mainly upregulated by salicylate and decanoate, soxS by paraquat and acrAB and micF by all three compounds. rob was always downregulated. Transcription rates of all promoters were at the greatest level at the beginning of the stationary phase and, except for soxS, levels of transcription and induction were greater at 37 degrees C. Results show that despite the promoters' similar activity and the sequence homology between Escherichia coli and S. typhimurium, regulation of the investigated genes of both strains differed in the response to temperature. This difference was found to be dependent on the promoters' sequence, as the marRAB and acrAB promoters maintained their original dependence on temperature when they were analyzed in the other strain. Hence, it is most likely that the nutrient-limited environment at 37 degrees C in the human body will lead to increased transcription of marA, acrAB and micF in Salmonella, enhancing the resistance properties of the bacteria.

  7. One-step "green" preparation of graphene nanosheets and carbon nanospheres mixture by electrolyzing graphite rob and its application for glucose biosensing.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huanshun; Zhou, Yunlei; Meng, Xiaomeng; Shang, Kun; Ai, Shiyun

    2011-12-15

    The graphene nanosheets and carbon nanospheres mixture (GNS-CNS) was prepared by electrolyzing graphite rob in KNO(3) solution under constant current, which was characterized by TEM, AFM, SEM, FT-IR, XRD, XPS, TGA and UV-vis. The nano-mixture can keep stable in water for more than one month. Based on this kind of mixture material, a novel electrochemical biosensing platform for glucose determination was developed. Cyclic voltammetry of glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized on GNS-CNS/GCE exhibited a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks at -0.488 V (E(pa)) and -0.509 V (E(pc)) by direct electron transfer between the protein and the electrode. The charge-transfer coefficient (α) was 0.51, the electron transfer rate constant was 2.64 s(-1) and the surface coverage of HRP was 3.18×10(-10) mol cm(-2). The immobilized GOD could retain its bioactivity and catalyze the reduction of dissolved oxygen. The glucose biosensor has a linear range from 0.4 to 20 mM with detection limit of 0.1 mM. Moreover, the biosensor exhibits acceptable reproducibility and storage stability. The fabricated biosensor was further used to determine glucose in human plasma sample with the recoveries from 96.83% to 105.52%. Therefore, GOD/GNS-CNS/GCE could be promisingly applied to determine blood sugar concentration in the practical clinical analysis.

  8. Novel blaROB-1-Bearing Plasmid Conferring Resistance to β-Lactams in Haemophilus parasuis Isolates from Healthy Weaning Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Moleres, Javier; Santos-López, Alfonso; Lázaro, Isidro; Labairu, Javier; Prat, Cristina; Ardanuy, Carmen; González-Zorn, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis, the causative agent of Glässer's disease, is one of the early colonizers of the nasal mucosa of piglets. It is prevalent in swine herds, and lesions associated with disease are fibrinous polyserositis and bronchopneumonia. Antibiotics are commonly used in disease control, and resistance to several antibiotics has been described in H. parasuis. Prediction of H. parasuis virulence is currently limited by our scarce understanding of its pathogenicity. Some genes have been associated with H. parasuis virulence, such as lsgB and group 1 vtaA, while biofilm growth has been associated with nonvirulent strains. In this study, 86 H. parasuis nasal isolates from farms that had not had a case of disease for more than 10 years were obtained by sampling piglets at weaning. Isolates were studied by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR and determination of the presence of lsgB and group 1 vtaA, biofilm formation, inflammatory cell response, and resistance to antibiotics. As part of the diversity encountered, a novel 2,661-bp plasmid, named pJMA-1, bearing the blaROB-1 β-lactamase was detected in eight colonizing strains. pJMA-1 was shown to share a backbone with other small plasmids described in the Pasteurellaceae, to be 100% stable, and to have a lower biological cost than the previously described plasmid pB1000. pJMA-1 was also found in nine H. parasuis nasal strains from a separate collection, but it was not detected in isolates from the lesions of animals with Glässer's disease or in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates. Altogether, we show that commensal H. parasuis isolates represent a reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes which can be transferred to pathogens or other bacteria. PMID:25747001

  9. Projeto observatórios virtuais: educação através de telescópios robóticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, P. H. S.; Shida, R. Y.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo do projeto Observatórios Virtuais é o ensino na área de ciências através de atividades práticas desenvolvidas em colaboração entre instituições de pesquisa em astronomia e escolas de ensino médio e fundamental. Este ano deverá ser concluída a implantação do programa piloto de estudos, pesquisas e observação astronômica direta, com utilização em tempo real de telescópios robóticos, que assim funcionarão como "observatórios virtuais". O objetivo pedagógico das atividades práticas baseadas nas imagens atronômicas é desenvolver as habilidades e competências dos alunos no uso do método científico. Para isso, serão realizados projetos interdisciplinares, a partir de observações astronômicas, já que a astronomia é uma área interdisciplinar por excelência. Essas atividades terão níveis diferenciados de complexidade, que podem ser adequados aos vários graus do ensino e realidades regionais. Será dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento e aplicação em São Paulo, onde atua a equipe do IAG/USP. Como resultados apresentados no presente trabalho, temos a criação de um software em português para o processamento de imagens obtidas através de CCDs e a elaboração de material para as atividades educacionais relacionadas.

  10. Constitutive SoxS expression in a fluoroquinolone-resistant strain with a truncated SoxR protein and identification of a new member of the marA-soxS-rob regulon, mdtG.

    PubMed

    Fàbrega, Anna; Martin, Robert G; Rosner, Judah L; Tavio, M Mar; Vila, Jordi

    2010-03-01

    Elevated levels of fluoroquinolone resistance are frequently found among Escherichia coli clinical isolates. This study investigated the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of strain NorE5, derived in vitro by exposing an E. coli clinical isolate, PS5, to two selection steps with increasing concentrations of norfloxacin. In addition to the amino acid substitution in GyrA (S83L) present in PS5, NorE5 has an amino acid change in ParC (S80R). Furthermore, we now find by Western blotting that NorE5 has a multidrug resistance phenotype resulting from the overexpression of the antibiotic resistance efflux pump AcrAB-TolC. Microarray and gene fusion analyses revealed significantly increased expression in NorE5 of soxS, a transcriptional activator of acrAB and tolC. The high soxS activity is attributable to a frameshift mutation that truncates SoxR, rendering it a constitutive transcriptional activator of soxS. Furthermore, microarray and reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that mdtG (yceE), encoding a putative efflux pump, is overexpressed in the resistant strain. SoxS, MarA, and Rob activated an mdtG::lacZ fusion, and SoxS was shown to bind to the mdtG promoter, showing that mdtG is a member of the marA-soxS-rob regulon. The mdtG marbox sequence is in the backward or class I orientation within the promoter, and its disruption resulted in a loss of inducibility by MarA, SoxS, and Rob. Thus, chromosomal mutations in parC and soxR are responsible for the increased antibiotic resistance of NorE5.

  11. Robbing Peter to pay Paul.

    PubMed

    Briggs, P

    1979-10-05

    Cutbacks in the health service are already affecting recruitment. Employing authorities are facing the problem of reducing expenditure and this will, inevitably lead to a reappraisal of decisions to employ locums. Peter Briggs, area medical officer for Hillingdon, discusses the implications and looks at the situation in the London area.

  12. Theoretical investigation on the bond dissociation enthalpies of phenolic compounds extracted from Artocarpus altilis using ONIOM(ROB3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p):PM6) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, Nguyen Minh; Duong, Tran; Pham, Linh Thuy; Nam, Pham Cam

    2014-10-01

    Theoretical calculations have been performed to predict the antioxidant property of phenolic compounds extracted from Artocarpus altilis. The Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization energy (IE), and proton dissociation enthalpy (PDE) of the phenolic compounds have been computed. The ONIOM(ROB3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p):PM6) method is able to provide reliable evaluation for the BDE(Osbnd H) in phenolic compounds. An important property of antioxidants is determined via the BDE(Osbnd H) of those compounds extracted from A. altilis. Based on the BDE(Osbnd H), compound 12 is considered as a potential antioxidant with the estimated BDE value of 77.3 kcal/mol in the gas phase.

  13. The ability of the blowflies Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the muscid flies Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and Muscina prolapsa (Harris) (Diptera: Muscidae) to colonise buried remains.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Alan; Bird, Jerry

    2011-04-15

    The blowflies Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) exhibited a limited ability to colonise pig liver baits buried in loose soil. Calliphora vomitoria colonised baits buried at 5 cm but no deeper whilst C. vicina and L. sericata colonised remains at 10 cm but not at 20 cm. The baits were colonised by larvae hatching from eggs laid on the surface of the soil. Both C. vomitoria and L. sericata were able to develop from eggs through to adulthood on baits that were infested before being buried and the larvae developed at similar rates and pupariated at similar depths to larvae developing on baits on the soil surface. The muscid flies Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and Muscina prolapsa (Harris) colonised remains buried in loose soil at a depth of 40 cm and even when presented with baits on the soil surface their larvae tended to remain in the soil beneath the baits. In compacted soil, M. stabulans colonised baits buried at 10 cm but M. prolapsa only colonised those buried at 5 cm. In both muscid species, the adult flies were instantly attracted to feed on fresh blood and laid eggs in the soil above buried baits within 30min of them being introduced into the cages. The adult muscid flies did not attempt to burrow into the soil and their larvae colonised the baits from eggs laid on the soil surface. This information could be useful in determining whether a body was stored above ground before being buried and/or the time since burial occurred.

  14. Mixed-Methods Study that Examines Nine Science Teachers' Perceptions of Slooh Robotic Telescope for Teaching Astronomy. (Breton Title: Métodos Mistos de Estudo que Examinam a Percepção de Nove Professores de Ciências sobre o Telescópio Robótico Slooh Para Ensino de Astronomia.) Métodos Mixtos de Estudio que Examinan la Percepcion de Nueve Profesores de Ciencias sobre EL Telescopio Robótico Slooh Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, Daniel C.; Slater, Timothy F.; Berryhill, Katie J.

    2014-07-01

    Although previous studies show that robotic telescopes have the potential to enhance student learning, there is comparatively little research that focuses on teacher perceptions of this technology. This study investigates: "what is the academic merit of using SLOOH robotic telescopes to teach astronomy as perceived by science teachers?" Our sample consists of nine science teachers of students aged 13-18 years. Pre- and post-tests, interviews, and surveys were collected during two weeks of a summer online course about robotic telescopes. While pre and post-tests do not reveal a statistically significant gain in astronomy content knowledge, analysis of qualitative data reveals five themes which describe the most important aspects of using SLOOH according to participants: "Images," "Interface," "Classroom Application," "Instructor Impact," and "Logistical Issues." Analysis of these themes suggests that SLOOH can provide an interactive and social learning environment with capabilities to incorporate crossdisciplinary themes. Embora estudos anteriores mostram que os telescópios robóticos têm o potencial de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos, há relativamente pouca investigação focada nas percepções de professores a respeito desta tecnologia. Este estudo investiga: "qual é o mérito acadêmico da utilização de telescópios robóticos Slooh para ensinar astronomia, tal como percebido pelos professores de ciências?" Nossa amostra é composta por nove professores de ciências de estudantes com idades entre 13-18 anos pré e pós-testes, entrevistas, e levantamentos foram coletados durante duas semanas de um curso on-line de verão sobre telescópios robóticos. Enquanto os testes pré e pós não revelaram um ganho estatisticamente significativo no conhecimento do conteúdo astronomia, a análise de dados qualitativos revela cinco temas que descrevem os aspectos mais importantes da utilização Slooh de acordo aos participantes: "Imagens", "Interface", "Aplica

  15. Chemistry, 2nd Edition (by Rob Lewis and Wynne Evans)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, Wheeler

    2002-04-01

    In summary, what American course would be best served with this text? Probably not a GOB course, because it contains too much math. Probably not a general chemistry course, because it contains not enough math--although more math would then make it an ideal text for general chemistry. Maybe a course in applied chemistry for two-year-college students--but it would be a tough sell, given the availability of such books as Zumdahl's Introductory Chemistry or Stoker's Introduction to Chemical Principles for that set. Perhaps we'll develop a course called "Honors Applied Chemistry" and use it there. Until then, it will remain in my collection as a reference.

  16. Robbing Peter...Balancing Collection Development and Reference Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, David G.

    1988-01-01

    Examines problems of librarians responsible for both collection development and reference services, including time demands, unclear supervisory lines, and misunderstanding of collection development. The discussion includes suggestions for improving this situation, e.g., formal reporting lines for both areas, increased communication among…

  17. Robbed of Humanity: Lives of Guatemalan Street Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Nancy Leigh

    The situation for "street children" has degenerated over the past two decades following the economic and political transitions in much of Latin America. Drawing on scholarly materials, interviews with child rights advocates, and the words of the children themselves, this book explores the abuse, limited choices, despair, loyalty, and…

  18. Robbing Peter to Pay Paul: The Case Against "Comparability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Two proposals in the bill currently circulating to reauthorize No Child Left Behind seem to be shoe-ins for making their way into federal law. The impetus behind both proposals is to help poor kids by making sure that districts spend as much money on them as gets spent on rich kids. Going against the grain, the National Council on Teacher Quality…

  19. Bush's 2008 Budget: "Robbing Peter to Pay Pell"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    A few days before President Bush officially released his 2008 budget, administration officials announced that it would contain a historic increase in the maximum Pell Grant. The increase in Pell Grants would be paid for by cutting subsidies for student loans, a step that experts predicted could induce lenders to offer fewer benefits to borrowers.…

  20. Robbing Peter to Pay Paul: The Price of Standards-Driven Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingleby, Ewan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research findings on mentoring within PCET ITT (Post-Compulsory Education and Training Initial Teacher Training). The research has identified that mentors and mentees consider that the role of the mentor is unclear. Moreover, mentors are unsure of the aims of PCET ITT programmes. The inconsistency of mentor training…

  1. Another Woman Gets Robbed? What Jung, Freud, Piaget, and Vygotsky Took from Sabina Spielrein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Certainly not as many who have heard the names of Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky, have heard of Sabina Spielrein. While Spielrein had numerous face-to-face encounters, some personal and some professional, with all four men, and the accounting of her life and the interactions she had with them has been the content of…

  2. Evaluating the Significance of CDK2-PELP1 Axis in Tumorigenesis and Hormone Therapy Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    Rambabu Challa1, Bramanandam Manavathi3, nee Yew2, Rakesh Kumar4, Rajeshwar Rao Tekmal1, and Ratna K. Vadlamudi1ract Estr influen recept cancer genesi the...breast cancer progression. Cancer Res; 70(18); 7166–75. ©2010 AACR.CDK2 of tum emerg stream crucia Estr prolife glands gressio cycle ductio is prop

  3. Bringing compassion to the ethical dilemma in killing kangaroos for conservation: comment on "Conservation through sustainable use" by Rob Irvine.

    PubMed

    Ramp, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Ethical debate on the killing of kangaroos has polarised conservation and animal welfare science, yet at the heart of these scientific disciplines is the unifying aim of reducing harm to non-human animals. This aim provides the foundation for common ground, culminating in the development of compassionate conservation principles that seek to provide mechanisms for achieving both conservation and welfare goals. However, environmental decision-making is not devoid of human interests, and conservation strategies are commonly employed that suit entrenched positions and commercial gain, rather than valuing the needs of the non-human animals in need of protection. The case study on the wild kangaroo harvest presents just such a dilemma, whereby a conservation strategy is put forward that can only be rationalised by ignoring difficulties in the potential for realising conservation benefits and the considerable welfare cost to kangaroos. Rather than an open debate on the ethics of killing game over livestock, in this response I argue that efforts to bring transparency and objectivity to the public debate have to date been obfuscated by those seeking to maintain entrenched interests. Only by putting aside these interests will debate about the exploitation of wildlife result in humane, compassionate, and substantive conservation benefits.

  4. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Yanne S; Trindade, Luma M P; Rezende, Maria Helena; Paula, José R; Gonçalves, Letícia A

    2016-03-01

    Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56%) and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%).

  5. An Industrial Perspective of CAM/ROB Fuzzy Integrated Postprocessing Implementation for Redundant Robotic Workcells Applicability for Big Volume Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, J.; Gracia, L.; Tornero, J.; García, J. A.; González, F.

    2009-11-01

    The implementation of a postprocessor for the NX™ platform (Siemens Corp.) is described in this paper. It is focused on a milling redundant robotic milling workcell consisting of one KUKA KR 15/2 manipulator (6 rotary joints, KRC2 controller) mounted on a linear axis and synchronized with a rotary table (i.e., two additional joints). For carrying out a milling task, a choice among a set of possible configurations is required, taking into account the ability to avoid singular configurations by using both additional joints. Usually, experience and knowledge of the workman allow an efficient control in these cases, but being it a tedious job. Similarly to this expert knowledge, a stand-alone fuzzy controller has been programmed with Matlab's Fuzzy Logic Toolbox (The MathWorks, Inc.). Two C++ programs complement the translation of the toolpath tracking (expressed in the Cartesian space) from the NX™-CAM module into KRL (KUKA Robot Language). In order to avoid singularities or joint limits, the location of the robot and the workpiece during the execution of the task is fit after an inverse kinematics position analysis and a fuzzy inference (i.e., fuzzy criterion in the Joint Space). Additionally, the applicability of robot arms for the manufacture of big volume prototypes with this technique is proven by means of one case studied. It consists of a big orographic model to simulate floodways, return flows and retention storage of a reservoir in the Mijares river (Puebla de Arenoso, Spain). This article deals with the problem for a constant tool orientation milling process and sets the technological basis for future research at five axis milling operations.

  6. Isolation breeds naivety: island living robs Australian varanid lizards of toad-toxin immunity via four-base-pair mutation.

    PubMed

    Ujvari, Beata; Mun, Hee-chang; Conigrave, Arthur D; Bray, Alessandra; Osterkamp, Jens; Halling, Petter; Madsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction to the toad-free Australian continent cane toads (Bufo marinus) have caused a dramatic increase in naïve varanid mortality when these large lizards attempt to feed on this toxic amphibian. In contrast Asian-African varanids, which have coevolved with toads, are resistant to toad toxin. Toad toxins, such as Bufalin target the H1-H2 domain of the α(1) subunit of the sodium-potassium-ATPase enzyme. Sequencing of this domain revealed identical nucleotide sequences in four Asian as well as in three African varanids, and identical sequences in all 11 Australian varanids. However, compared to the Asian-African varanids, the Australian varanids showed four-base-pair substitutions, resulting in the alteration in three of the 12 amino acids representing the H1-H2 domain. The phenotypic effect of the substitutions was investigated in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably transfected with the Australian and the Asian-African H1-H2 domains. The transfections resulted in an approximate 3000-fold reduction in resistance to Bufalin in the Australian HEK293 cells compared to the Asian-African HEK293 cells, demonstrating the critical role of this minor mutation in providing Bufalin resistance. Our study hence presents a clear link between genotype and phenotype, a critical step in understanding the evolution of phenotypic diversity.

  7. Too Much and Too Many: How Commercialism and Screen Technology Combine to Rob Children of Creative Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Hands-on creative play is essential to children's health and well being, yet in the 21st century United States, nurturing such play has actually become countercultural. The dominant, marketing-driven, media-saturated culture dictates against it. In addition to depriving children of time spent in creative play, unlimited access to screens means…

  8. Hormonal Resistance and Metastasis: ER-coregulator-Src Targeted Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    1. Dimple Chakravarty, Sujit Nair, Binoj Chandrasekhar Nair, Long Wang , Abhik Bandyopadhyay, Joseph K. Agyin, Frank Lee, Lu- Zhe Sun, I-Tien Yeh...Poster Board Number: 11 Author Block: Dimple Chakravarty, Sujit Nair, Binoj Chandrasekhar Nair, Long Wang , Abhik Bandyopadhyay, Joseph K. Agyin, Frank...Lee, Lu- Zhe Sun, I-Tien Yeh, Rajeshwar Rao Tekmal, Ratna K. Vadlamudi. UT Health Science Ctr., San Antonio, TX, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical

  9. When Art and Business Don't Mix: Overemphasis on Marketing Can Distract Artists and Rob Cultures, Argues One Art Instructor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKichan, Margaret A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the limited options available to Native American art students for developing artistic skills, stressing that the emphasis on mass marketing can hinder the creativity of young artists. Suggests alternatives for art programs and art students. Urges students to recognize that there are choices when it comes to serious art. (MY)

  10. Instalación de un nuevo telescopio robótico en la estación de altura Cesco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. A. Perna, P.; Mauas, P.; Veltri, A.; Hereñú, H.

    In this paper we present the works done for the installation of a 16 inches reflector telescope at the Carlos U. Cesco high altitude station of the Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar; San Juan; Argentina. We describe the implementation of the software and hardware needed for the remote control of the instrument and its future robotization. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  11. Moving and handling Helen Leslie Moving and handling and Rob MacKenzie Dementia Services Development Centre, University of Stirling £10 including p&p.

    PubMed

    2003-09-01

    This book provides guidance on how to approach people with dementia to ensure that moving and handling are positive experiences for both the person with dementia and staff. Simple exercises are provided so the guide can be used for self- study or small group training. Tel: 01786 467740. www.stir.ac.uk /dsdc.

  12. Rotator cuff problems

    MedlinePlus

    Miller RH III, Azar FM, Throckmorton TW. Shoulder and elbow injuries. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. ... Krishnan SG. Rotator cuff and impingement lesions. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ...

  13. Practicalities of Using a Modified Version of the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool for Randomised and Non-Randomised Study Designs Applied in a Health Technology Assessment Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Clare; Ramsay, Craig; Gurung, Tara; Mowatt, Graham; Pickard, Robert; Sharma, Pawana

    2014-01-01

    We describe our experience of using a modified version of the Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tool for randomised and non-randomised comparative studies. Objectives: (1) To assess time to complete RoB assessment; (2) To assess inter-rater agreement; and (3) To explore the association between RoB and treatment effect size. Methods: Cochrane risk of…

  14. Flexibility in Management of Modernization in Construction - Electrical Works/ Elastyczność W Zarządzaniu Modernizacją Obiektów Budowlanych Na Przykładzie Robót Elektrycznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowotarski, Piotr; Pasławski, Jerzy

    2015-06-01

    The article presents the general principles of flexible approach, illustrated with case study regarding flexibility in modernization. Flexibility is understood in the present case as a skilful adaptation to changes in the dynamically changing environment. The essence of flexibility approach is being staged to make decisions based on environmental and process monitoring in progress. Presented case study of upgrading the electrical system in the multi-family housing in the common area is based on step by step procedure responding to damage state of this system. Simple analysis is based on cost comparison but there are other criteria (environmental, social etc.) and conflict solving situations taken into account in presented paper. Artykuł prezentuje możliwość zastosowania elastyczności w modernizacjach istniejących obiektów budowlanych na przykładzie instalacji oświetleniowej. Elastyczność jest rozumiana w tym przypadku jako umiejętne dostosowanie się do zmian w dynamicznie zmieniającym się środowisku. Istotą podejścia elastycznego jest podejmowanie odpowiednich decyzji w odpowiednim czasie opartych na monitoringu środowiska i procesu w toku. Prezentowane studium przypadku modernizacji instalacji elektrycznej w budownictwie wielorodzinnym w częściach wspólnych obiektu (korytarze, klatki schodowe, hala garażowa) opiera się na wymianie i modernizacji tylko tych punktów, które w danym momencie ulegają awarii. Prosta analiza oby typów modernizacji opiera się na porównaniu kosztów, natomiast trzeba zaznaczyć, że możliwe są także inne kryteria (środowiskowe, konfliktu społecznego, itp.), które będą przedmiotem kolejnych publikacji. Zastąpienie tradycyjnych żarówek rozwiązaniami opartymi na technologii LED z zastosowaniem czujników ruchu może prowadzić do znacznych oszczędności, ale może też oznaczać obniżenie komfortu dla użytkowników (np. dla osób starszych, którym jeden cykl działania oświetlenia nie jest wystarczający do pokonania całej drogi na korytarzu). Osiągnięcie kompromisu w tego typu konfliktach interesów może być rozwiązane za pomocą podejścia elastycznego i zwinnego.

  15. Structure and Functional Studies on Dengue-2 Virus Genome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    AD STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL STUDIES ON DENGUE -2 VIRUS GENOME FINAL Report Lfl C’) Radha Krishnan Padmanabhan, Ph.D. 0) March 1, 1986 Supported by U.S...and Functional Studies on Dengue -2 Virus Genome 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Radha Krishnan Padmanabhan 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF...3’-end of Dengue RNA in order to facilitate cDNA synthesis by oligo d(T) priming as proposed in the original research project. 2. We also showed that

  16. Structure and Functional Studies on Dengue-2 Virus Genome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    AD_ _ _ Lfl oSTRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL STUDIES ON DENGUE -2 VIRUS GENOME 0Annual Report Radha Krishnan Padmanabhan, Ph.D. March 1, 1986 Supported by...Studies on Dengue -2 Virus Genome 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Radha Krishnan Padmanabhan 13a TYPE OF REPORT 1 3b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day...analysis of these clones totalling 06 01 14,586 nucleotides: Deduced amino acid sequences of dengue virI 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse of

  17. Familiarizing Postgraduate ESL Students with the Literature Review in a WAC/EAP Engineering Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melles, Gavin

    2005-01-01

    The literature review is an academic genre that has a natural place in theses, dissertations, and other genres such as the lab report. The typical final (fourth) year project in the engineering curriculum is an example where such an extensive review can take place (Krishnan & Kathpalia 2002). Second language students may have special…

  18. EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMOVAL OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of Drinking Water Treatment Technologies for Removal of Endocrine Disruptors. Schenck, K*, Speth, T, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, OH, USA, Rosenblum, L, Wendelken, S, Pepich, B, and Krishnan, R, Shaw Environmental, Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA. Many of the chemicals identified...

  19. Single Molecular Detection via Micro-Scale Polymeric Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    39] C. V . Raman, and K. S. Krishnan, “A New Type of Secondary Radiation,” Nature, 121(3048), 501 (1928). [40] S. Nie and S. R . Emory, “Probing...31 Figure 21. Computer model for the micro-transmissive microscope using Code V ...50 v Figure 37. Microfabrication procedure of a self-aligned vertical comb drive using a

  20. An Influence Analysis of Dissuading Nation States from Producing and Proliferating Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    The Committee was a subsection of the CSIR , and its mission was to promote education in nuclear physics in colleges and universities. Also during...consisted of Dr. Bhabha, Dr. K. S. Krishnan, and Dr. Bhatnagar, director-general of CSIR . Pursuant to the establishment of the AEC, the Prime Minister

  1. Renewable Bio-solar Hydrogen Production from Robust Oxygenic Phototrophs: The Second Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-22

    Waksman Annual Retreat,September 9, 2013 2. Talk: Anagha Krishnan, Metabolic and photosynthetic consequence of mutation of starch biosynthesis in... starch biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. 4. GC Dismukes, invited speaker, Gordon Research Conference: Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels, Ventura...Posewitz, M. P. and Dismukes, G.C. (2015) Metabolic and photosynthetic consequences of blocking starch biosynthesis in the green alga Chlamydomonas

  2. Maskless Nanoscale Writing of Nanoparticle-Polymer Composites and Nanoparticle Assemblies using Thermal Nanoprobes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-14

    Frydman, V.; Sperling, J.; Yacoby, A.; Bar- Joseph , I. Nature 2005, 436, 677–680. (11) Sun, S. H.; Murray, C. B.; Weller, D.; Folks, L.; Moser, A. Science...Hawker, C. J.; Van Horn, B.; Guan, Z. B.; Chen, G. H.; Krishnan, R. S. Science 2006, 311, 1740–1743. (23) Rittigstein, P.; Priestley , R. D.; Broadbelt, L

  3. Safety and blood sample volume and quality of a refined retro-orbital bleeding technique in rats using a lateral approach.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashish; Fish, Brian L; Moulder, John E; Medhora, Meetha; Baker, John E; Mader, Marylou; Cohen, Eric P

    2014-02-01

    The collection of blood samples from laboratory rats requires the use of bleeding techniques that provide quality samples of sufficient volume for analysis without injury to the animal. Retro-orbital bleeding (ROB) is a phlebotomy technique that can yield high-quality samples of adequate volume, but it has been criticized for its potential to cause injury. To evaluate the injury-causing potential of their refined ROB method using a lateral approach, the authors retrospectively reviewed ROB procedures carried out in their colony during an 18-month period and found that 0.6% of these procedures were associated with ocular injury. The authors also compared the quality of blood samples collected by ROB and by saphenous phlebotomy and found that ROB yielded samples of better quality. The authors conclude that, when done using a lateral approach and by an experienced technician, ROB is humane and safe and provides blood samples of adequate volume and quality for analysis.

  4. 76 FR 58393 - High Density Traffic Airports; Notice of Determination Regarding Low Demand Periods at Ronald...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Hawks, Office of the Chief Counsel, Federal Aviation Administration, 800...-mail: rob.hawks@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The FAA issued the High Density...

  5. 75 FR 9017 - Orders Limiting Scheduled Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Hawks, Office of the Chief Counsel, Regulations Division...- 7143; e-mail: rob.hawks@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Multiple snowstorms in...

  6. Introduction to NATO Technical Course HFM 180 on Strategies to Address Recruiting & Retention Issues in the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    United States Major Rob Morrow Canada Maj Psych Jose Puente Spain Dr. Canan Sumer Turkey Ms. Fariya Syed Canada (Director) Local Hosts Major Rob Morrow...Lescreve Belgium Major Rob Morrow Canada (Co-Chair) Maj Psych Jose Puente Spain Mr. Bert Schreurs Belgium Dr. Gerhard Storm Germany (Chair) Joanne...term Consequences of (Mis)Information” - Major Rob Morrow • 10:00 “Values Research” - Major Psy José María Puente • 10:45 MORNING BREAK • 11:15

  7. XPLANE: Real-Time Awareness of Tactical Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Conference, pages 1–6. IEEE, 2010. [3] Nate Foster, Rob Harrison, Michael J. Freedman, Christopher Monsanto , Jennifer Rexford, Alec Story, and David...architecture for user-level packet capture. In Proceedings USENIX Winter 1993 Conference. ACM, 1993. [10] Christopher Monsanto , Nate Foster, Rob

  8. DoD Technology Management in a Global Technology Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Atta, Michael Lippitz, Jasper Lupo , Rob Mahoney, Jack Nunn, Transformation and Transition: DARPA’s Role in Fostering an Emerging Revolution in...Michael Lippitz, Jasper Lupo , Rob Mahoney, Jack Nunn, Transformation and Transition: DARPA’s Role in Fostering an Emerging Revolution in Military

  9. Evaporating dynamical horizon with the Hawking effect in Vaidya spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Sawayama, Shintaro

    2006-03-15

    We consider how the mass of the black hole decreases due to the Hawking radiation in the Vaidya spacetime, using the concept of the dynamical horizon equation, proposed by Ashtekar and Krishnan. Using the formula for the change of the dynamical horizon, we derive an equation for the mass incorporating the Hawking radiation. It is shown that the final state is the Minkowski spacetime in our particular model.

  10. Morphological, Thermal, Electrical and Electromechanical Properties of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)-Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Composites (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    FUNCTIONALIZED CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITES (PREPRINT) Varrla Eswaraiah, Krishnan Balasubramaniam, and Sundara Ramaprabhu Indian Institute of Technology...composite and carbon nanotubes are embedded within and in between the microspheres. As the concentration of carbon nanotubes increases in the polymer, end...wt % of carbon nanotubes , nearly 25°C of onset decomposition temperature is achieved. DSC manifests the existence of polymer crystalline nature in

  11. Quasi-Optical Power Combining

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    and Related Materials Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, May 12-16. 47. Yun Wei, Krishnan Sundararajan, Miguel Urteaga, Zach Griffith, Dennis Scott, Vamsi...Devices, Newark, Delaware, August 6-8, 2002 48. Yun Wei, Miguel Urteaga, Zach Griffith, Dennis Scott, Shouxuan Xie, Vamsi Paidi, Navin...Amplifier,” Chun-Tung Cheung, Jonathan B. Hacker, Gabor Nagy, David Rutledge, International Microwave Symposium, Seattle, June 2002. 56. “V-band

  12. Genetics Home Reference: familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... 44(1):25-32. Review. Citation on PubMed Martín-Campos JM, Julve J, Roig R, Martínez S, Errico TL, Martínez-Couselo S, Escolà-Gil JC, Méndez-González J, Blanco-Vaca F. Molecular analysis of chylomicronemia in a clinical ... Krishnan AS, George TT. Familial chylomicronemia syndrome. Indian J Pediatr. 2005 ...

  13. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 28, Number 3, May-June 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    civilian business objectives across multiple industries.76 Creating legal controls is precarious for dual-use technologies that serve principally...Routledge, 2013). 50. Armin Krishnan, Killer Robots: Legality and Ethicality of Autonomous Weapons (Farn- ham, England: Ashgate, 2009). 51. Ibid., 4–6. 52...HN - host nation LCC - land component command LEGAD - legal adviser MCC - maritime component command PA - public affairs SOCC - special operations

  14. Exploiting Spatial Channel Occupancy Information in WLANs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-15

    Exploiting Spatial Channel Occupancy Information in WLANs Michael N Krishnan Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploiting Spatial Channel Occupancy Information in WLANs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...length adaptation, and 50% via carrier sense threshold adaptation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  15. A New In Vitro Model of Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    affect the quality of life for millions and cause commensurate socioeconomic burden [1,2]. Likewise, cancers in bone are pernicious diseases with...osteoblasts and cancer cells. The OB morphology changes were inhibited. Selenium supplementation caused changes in the osteoblast cell morphology and...Krishnan et al. 2008; Kinder, Chislock et al. 2008)]. In addition we allowed some cultures to grow for about 10 months. We made two major

  16. Anomalous Ground State of the Electrons in Nano-confined Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    Anomalous ground state of the electrons in nano-confined water G. F. Reiter1*, Aniruddha Deb2*, Y. Sakurai3, M. Itou3, V. G. Krishnan4, S. J...R) Abstract: Water confined on the scale of 20Å, is known to have different transport and thermodynamic properties from that of bulk water , and...the proton momentum distribution has recently been shown to have qualitatively different properties from that exhibited in bulk water . The

  17. Combined Investigation on Durability and Dynamic Failure of Advanced Naval Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-06

    NC 27709-2211 Composites, Seawater, Fracture REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S...International Journal of Fracture , (6 2012): 0. doi: 10.1007/s10704-012-9727-x L. Roy Xu, Arun Krishnan. A Simple Effective Flaw Model on Analyzing the...Daniel IM, Ishai O (2006). Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials. Oxford University Press, New York. 5. Fisher-Cripps AC (2004). Nano

  18. Evaluation of the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias in randomized trials: focus groups, online survey, proposed recommendations and their implementation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008, the Cochrane Collaboration introduced a tool for assessing the risk of bias in clinical trials included in Cochrane reviews. The risk of bias (RoB) tool is based on narrative descriptions of evidence-based methodological features known to increase the risk of bias in trials. Methods To assess the usability of this tool, we conducted an evaluation by means of focus groups, online surveys and a face-to-face meeting. We obtained feedback from a range of stakeholders within The Cochrane Collaboration regarding their experiences with, and perceptions of, the RoB tool and associated guidance materials. We then assessed this feedback in a face-to-face meeting of experts and stakeholders and made recommendations for improvements and further developments of the RoB tool. Results The survey attracted 380 responses. Respondents reported taking an average of between 10 and 60 minutes per study to complete their RoB assessments, which 83% deemed acceptable. Most respondents (87% of authors and 95% of editorial staff) thought RoB assessments were an improvement over past approaches to trial quality assessment. Most authors liked the standardized approach (81%) and the ability to provide quotes to support judgements (74%). A third of participants disliked the increased workload and found the wording describing RoB judgements confusing. The RoB domains reported to be the most difficult to assess were incomplete outcome data and selective reporting of outcomes. Authors expressed the need for more guidance on how to incorporate RoB assessments into meta-analyses and review conclusions. Based on this evaluation, recommendations were made for improvements to the RoB tool and the associated guidance. The implementation of these recommendations is currently underway. Conclusions Overall, respondents identified positive experiences and perceptions of the RoB tool. Revisions of the tool and associated guidance made in response to this evaluation, and improved

  19. AN APPLIED ONTOLOGY TO THE MID-ATLANTIC CABLE: HISTORICAL TO MODERN INFORMATICS CONSIDERATION FROM A MATH PERSPECTIVE KAIEM L. FRINK ELIZABETH CITY STATE UNIVERSITY(ECSU)KAIEM_FRINK@HOTMAIL.COM, DR. DEWAYNE B. BRANCH ECSU, DR. ROB RASKIN JET PROPULSIONS LABORATORY GLENDA THOMAS ECSU,KENNETH JONES ECSU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frink, K.; Branch, B. D.; Raskin, R.

    2009-12-01

    As early as the 1600's scientists in various fields world to address a global human need of human communication on a global basis by implementing the trans-Atlantic cable. The Mid 4Trans-Atlantic cable is one of the earliest forms of global commutation. Here may be the first evidence of informatics needs where science, data, and engineering were collaborated across disciplines to advance a world standard of living. This work investigates what applied ontology may have been consisting with the thought pattern of such expertise who conducted informatics arguably without computers, ontology’s, and a cyber infrastructure. In modern context, an applied ontology may best represent the body of intentional learning, research and collaboration among scientists to achieve a human goal. Perhaps if such intentional non-partisan work can achieve a solution such as Trans-Atlantic Cable, climate change may benefit from intentional collaborative ontology’s and systems of multi user knowledgebase or expert informatics systems. 1Bruce C. Heezen 1924 -1977 American Geologist famous for mapping the Mid Atlantic Mountain Ridge in the 1950’s. Heezen died in 1977 on a submarine cruise to study the Mid-Atlantic ridge near Ice land aboard the NR-1 submarine. 7Marie Tharp academic background is Bachelors Degree in English, Master Degree in Geology University of Michigan, and Mathematics Degree at the University of Tulsa. Tharp worked at Lamont- Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University. History of the Digital Divide during the 1600’s touches on the availability of information. 3Issue of Mathematics during the 1600’s would be lack of communications and assessment. The scientific communities cannot address climate change most largely due to language barriers amongst humans. Weight per meter for the cable and the ships weight capacity in the 1600’sWeight/per meter 2w/m=X1 taking into account that maximum depths or Atlantic Ocean was unknown at that time and still is.

  20. Physical and chemical characterization of residential oil boiler emissions.

    PubMed

    Hays, Michael D; Beck, Lee; Barfield, Pamela; Lavrich, Richard J; Dong, Yuanji; Vander Wal, Randy L

    2008-04-01

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil coupled with the regional proximity and seasonal use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important public health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source is available for climate and air quality modeling and for improving our understanding of aerosol-related human health effects. The gas- and particle-phase emissions from an active ROB firing distillate fuel oil (commonly known as diesel fuel) were evaluated to address this deficiency. Ion chromatography of impactor samples showed that the ultrafine ROB aerosol emissions were approximately 45% (w/w) sulfate. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected various n-alkanes at trace levels, sometimes in accumulation mode particles, and out of phase with the size distributions of aerosol mass and sulfate. The carbonaceous matter in the ROB aerosol was primarily light-adsorbing elemental carbon. Gas chromatography-atomic emission spectroscopy measured a previously unrecognized organosulfur compound group in the ROB aerosol emissions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of ROB soot indicated the presence of a highly ordered primary particle nanostructure embedded in larger aggregates. Organic gas emissions were measured using EPA Methods TO-15 and TO-11A. The ROB emitted volatile oxygenates (8 mg/(kg of oil burned)) and olefins (5 mg/(kg of oil burned)) mostly unrelated to the base fuel composition. In the final analysis, the ROB tested was a source of numerous hazardous air pollutants as defined in the Clean Air Act Amendments. Approximations conducted using emissions data from the ROB tests show relatively low contributions to a regional-level anthropogenic emissions inventory for volitile organic compounds, PM2.5, and SO2 mass.

  1. A Novel Repressor of the ica Locus Discovered in Clinically Isolated Super-Biofilm-Elaborating Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Liansheng; Hisatsune, Junzo; Hayashi, Ikue; Tatsukawa, Nobuyuki; Sato’o, Yusuke; Mizumachi, Emiri; Kato, Fuminori; Hirakawa, Hideki; Pier, Gerald B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus TF2758 is a clinical isolate from an atheroma and a super-biofilm-elaborating/polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA)/poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG)-overproducing strain (L. Shrestha et al., Microbiol Immunol 60:148–159, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12359). A microarray analysis and DNA genome sequencing were performed to identify the mechanism underlying biofilm overproduction by TF2758. We found high transcriptional expression levels of a 7-gene cluster (satf2580 to satf2586) and the ica operon in TF2758. Within the 7-gene cluster, a putative transcriptional regulator gene designated rob had a nonsense mutation that caused the truncation of the protein. The complementation of TF2758 with rob from FK300, an rsbU-repaired derivative of S. aureus strain NCTC8325-4, significantly decreased biofilm elaboration, suggesting a role for rob in this process. The deletion of rob in non-biofilm-producing FK300 significantly increased biofilm elaboration and PIA/PNAG production. In the search for a gene(s) in the 7-gene cluster for biofilm elaboration controlled by rob, we identified open reading frame (ORF) SAOUHSC_2898 (satf2584). Our results suggest that ORF SAOUHSC_2898 (satf2584) and icaADBC are required for enhanced biofilm elaboration and PIA/PNAG production in the rob deletion mutant. Rob bound to a palindromic sequence within its own promoter region. Furthermore, Rob recognized the TATTT motif within the icaR-icaA intergenic region and bound to a 25-bp DNA stretch containing this motif, which is a critically important short sequence regulating biofilm elaboration in S. aureus. Our results strongly suggest that Rob is a long-sought repressor that recognizes and binds to the TATTT motif and is an important regulator of biofilm elaboration through its control of SAOUHSC_2898 (SATF2584) and Ica protein expression in S. aureus. PMID:28143981

  2. New ORNL Method Could Unleash Solar Power Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Mary Jane

    2016-03-17

    Measurement and data analysis techniques developed at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory could provide new insight into performance-robbing flaws in crystalline structures, ultimately improving the performance of solar cells.

  3. New ORNL Method Could Unleash Solar Power Potential

    ScienceCinema

    Simpson, Mary Jane

    2016-07-12

    Measurement and data analysis techniques developed at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory could provide new insight into performance-robbing flaws in crystalline structures, ultimately improving the performance of solar cells.

  4. ISS Update: Keeping Track of Station Inventory – 03.14.13

    NASA Video Gallery

    Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Rob Adams, Inventory and Stowage Officer, inside the Mission Control Center. Adams and his team keep track of the gear aboard the International Space Stat...

  5. Tiny Asteroid Approaches Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Oct. 15, 2010, NASA astronomer Rob Suggs captured this view of the tiny asteroid 2010 TG19 as it made its way among the stars of the constellation Pegasus. It will continue to approach during th...

  6. NASA Now: Forces and Motion: Project Morpheus

    NASA Video Gallery

    Meet NASA engineer Rob Morehead who works on the main engines for Project Morpheus, a revolutionary new robotic lander. Morpheus is a full spacecraft and rocket-powered lander, which demonstrates n...

  7. 77 FR 58608 - Notice of Submission Deadline for Schedule Information for O'Hare International Airport, San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Hawks, Office of the Chief Counsel, Federal Aviation Administration...- 267-7971; email: rob.hawks@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA has designated ORD as an...

  8. 77 FR 31064 - Petition for Exemption; Summary of Petition Received

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Hawks, Office of the...; telephone: (202) 267-7143; email: rob.hawks@faa.gov . This notice is published pursuant to 14 CFR...

  9. 77 FR 1549 - Order Limiting Scheduled Operations at Newark Liberty International Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ...-13 slots. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Hawks, Office of the Chief Counsel, Federal...; email: rob.hawks@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background By letter dated December 6, 2011,...

  10. 77 FR 19076 - High Density Traffic Airports; Notice of Determination Regarding Low Demand Periods at Ronald...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Hawks, Office of the Chief Counsel, Federal Aviation Administration...- 267-7971; email: rob.hawks@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The FAA issued the...

  11. 77 FR 30585 - Operating Limitations at New York LaGuardia Airport; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... this Order contact: Robert Hawks, Office of the Chief Counsel, Federal Aviation Administration, 800...: rob.hawks@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On April 4, 2011, the FAA published a...

  12. 77 FR 31064 - Petition for Exemption; Summary of Petition Received

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ..., except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Hawks, Office of the Chief Counsel...-7143; email: rob.hawks@faa.gov . This notice is published pursuant to 14 CFR 11.85. Issued...

  13. Living Well with Parkinson's Disease is an Art | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... about Parkinson's. Photo courtesy of Rob Cunningham When did you first get diagnosed with Parkinson's disease? What ... took up painting after you were diagnosed. How did you decide to do that? Does your condition ...

  14. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart Q of... - Confinement of Persons in District of Columbia Correctional Institutions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... violence means murder, manslaughter, rape, kidnapping, robbery, burglary, assault with intent to kill, assault with intent to rape, assault with intent to rob or extortion involving the threat or use...

  15. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart Q of... - Confinement of Persons in District of Columbia Correctional Institutions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... violence means murder, manslaughter, rape, kidnapping, robbery, burglary, assault with intent to kill, assault with intent to rape, assault with intent to rob or extortion involving the threat or use...

  16. Asthma Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inhaler into the lungs. But CFCs are ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) that hurt the environment. Manufacturers ... inhalers, that do not rob the atmosphere of ozone. “The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] and various ...

  17. Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts Rob Mitchell Abstract: Switchgrass, big bluestem, and warm-season grass mixtures provide numerous benefits. Existing field equipment, herbicides, and cultivar improvement promote rapid establishment in the planting year. These gra...

  18. ISS Update: Progress 50 Launch and Docking with Tom Erkenswick

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Rob Navias conducts an interview with Visiting Vehicle Officer Tom Erkenswick about the launch of the ISS Progress 50 resupply ship and its docking to the International ...

  19. Army Reserve Military Intelligence: Time for Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-20

    Miramax Books, 2002. Goleman , Daniel . Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books, 1997. Goleman , Daniel , Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee...Lieutenant Colonel Neil Anderson, Colonel Marissa Tanner, Mr. Richard Allenbaugh, Colonel (Promotable) Rob Walter, Colonel Jody Daniels , Lieutenant

  20. Reversing the Literacy Decline by Controlling the Electronic Demons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenkman, Harriet

    1985-01-01

    Computer games, rock video, television, and movies are robbing teenagers of time they should be using to develop their minds. However, the electronic media do have a positive potential. A 10-item reference list is provided. (Author/DCS)

  1. Welcome Back to Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA astronaut Scott Kelly is interviewed by public affairs officer Rob Navias just after returning to Earth aboard a Soyuz spacecraft on March 1, 2016 (March 2, local Kazakh time) following a 340 ...

  2. Sailing on the "Boundless and Bottomless Sea": A View from the OIA Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The prevention and resolution of student complaints are critical factors in maintaining and improving the student experience. Rob Behrens looks at the wider context, drawing on lessons from beyond higher education, to examine the opportunities and possible pitfalls.

  3. Robert Ambrose: Principal Investigator, Game Changing Development Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Rob Ambrose is currently overseeing one very large existing project and will likely be overseeing several new starts in the near future. In addition, he has three projects: Human Robotic System...

  4. CardioPulse. Company success stories: Medtronic: From a garage workshop to a billion-dollar enterprise.

    PubMed

    ten Hoedt, Rob

    2010-10-01

    Freelance medical journalist, Emma Wilkinson, MA, talks to Rob ten Hoedt, vice president of Medtronic's cardiovascular business in Western Europe, about the growth of the world's largest medical device company.

  5. Teleportation with a uniformly accelerated partner.

    PubMed

    Alsing, Paul M; Milburn, G J

    2003-10-31

    In this work, we give a description of the process of teleportation between Alice in an inertial frame, and Rob who is in uniform acceleration with respect to Alice. The fidelity of the teleportation is reduced due to Davies-Unruh radiation in Rob's frame. In so far as teleportation is a measure of entanglement, our results suggest that quantum entanglement is degraded in noninertial frames.

  6. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bub, J.

    The papers in this issue stem from a conference, 'New Directions in the Foundations of Physics: A Memorial Conference for Rob Clifton (1964-2002),' organized by members of the Foundations of Physics Group of the University of Maryland, Johns Hopkins University, and Georgetown University (Jossi Berkovitz, Jeffrey Bub, James Mattingly, and Rob Rynasiewicz), John Earman and John Norton of the University of Pittsburgh, and Jeremy Butterfield of Oxford University.

  7. LIRA: Lightweight Incentivized Routing for Anonymity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    accountability that plagues PAR and XPAY, wherein anonymity inherently de- creases as the ability to detect cheaters improves. Ngan et al. propose a...LIRA: Lightweight Incentivized Routing for Anonymity Rob Jansen Aaron Johnson U.S. Naval Research Laboratory {rob.g.jansen, aaron.m.johnson...prob- lems stemming from a lack of incentives for volunteers to contribute. Insufficient capacity limits scalability and harms the anonymity of its

  8. Unveiling quantum entanglement degradation near a Schwarzschild black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Leon, Juan; Garay, Luis J.

    2010-09-15

    We analyze the entanglement degradation provoked by the Hawking effect in a bipartite system Alice-Rob when Rob is in the proximities of a Schwarzschild black hole while Alice is free falling into it. We will obtain the limit in which the tools imported from the Unruh entanglement degradation phenomenon can be used properly, keeping control on the approximation. As a result, we will be able to determine the degree of entanglement as a function of the distance of Rob to the event horizon, the mass of the black hole, and the frequency of Rob's entangled modes. By means of this analysis we will show that all the interesting phenomena occur in the vicinity of the event horizon and that the presence of event horizons do not effectively degrade the entanglement when Rob is far off the black hole. The universality of the phenomenon is presented: There are not fundamental differences for different masses when working in the natural unit system adapted to each black hole. We also discuss some aspects of the localization of Alice and Rob states. All this study is done without using the single mode approximation.

  9. Comparison Between Geometrically Focused Pulses Versus Filaments in Femtosecond Laser Ablation of Steel and Titanium Alloys (Reprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, Z. Sheng, Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002) 7. W. Liu, f. Théberge, E. Arévalo, J.-F. Gravel, A. Becker, S.L. Chin , Opt. Lett. 30...31, 1139 (2006) 19. B. Zeng, T.-J. Wang, S. Hosseini, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, W. Liu, S.L. Chin , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 3226 (2012) 20. D. R. Lide, editor...Bagchi, S.R. Krishnan, C.L. Arnold, G.R. Kumar, A. Couairon, Phys. Rev. A 82, 013805 (2010) 27. W. Liu, S.L. Chin , Opt. Express 13, 5750 (2005) 28. A.A

  10. Multidimensional Many-Body Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-31

    which is for U n thro h the resolvent operator a unit matrix in the van Vleck case). The correspond- R 0) = Q )i (24) ing eigenfunctions k, of H are...Bent, G. D. Purvis, and R . J. Bartlett. J. Chem. Phys. 71, 3697 (1979). tions, beginning with Eq. (68) and using Eqs. (58) and 18j. A . Pople, J. S...expressed in any of the " R . Krishnan and J. A . Pople, Lnt. J. Quantum Chem. 14, 91 forms (1978). iot 20S. Wilson and D. M. Silver, J. Chem. Phvs. 66

  11. A New In Vitro Model of Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and 10–8 M menadione. The hFOB 1.19 line was conditionally immortalized by transfection with a gene encoding for the...2007) 24:385. Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of the Metastasis Research Society. Krishnan V1, Ravi D2 , Vogler EA1,2, and A.M...buffered medium containing various nutrients (e.g., amino acids, glucose, serum proteins, vitamins ). As cells grow, nutrients are depleted, waste

  12. Cloning and Expression of Genes for Dengue Virus Type-2 Encoded-Antigens for Rapid Diagnosis and Vaccine Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-12

    Della-Porta and Westaway, 1977; Kitano et al., 1974; Heinz et al., 1981). In order to develop a subunit vaccine against dengue virus, it is important to...Antigens for Rapid Diagnosis and Vaccine Development DPC TAB 0 A .. asin]o ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT ’Q;-10.v&,,,d 0 by By SAv.ailability Caote# Radha Krishnan...Type 2 Encoded Antigens for Rapid Diagnosis and Vaccine Development 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Radha K. Padmanabhan 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED

  13. Final Data Report: P- and S-Wave Velocity Logging Borings C4993, C4996, and C4997 Part A: Interval Logs

    SciTech Connect

    Steller, Robert; Diehl, John

    2007-02-01

    Insitu borehole P- and S-wave velocity measurements were collected in three borings located within the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) boundaries at the Hanford Site, southeastern Washington. Geophysical data acquisition was performed between August and October of 2006 by Rob Steller, Charles Carter, Antony Martin and John Diehl of GEOVision. Data analysis was performed by Rob Steller and John Diehl, and reviewed by Antony Martin of GEOVision, and report preparation was performed by John Diehl and reviewed by Rob Steller. The work was performed under subcontract with Battelle, Pacific Northwest Division with Marty Gardner as Battelle’s Technical Representative and Alan Rohay serving as the Technical Administrator for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This report describes the field measurements, data analysis, and results of this work.

  14. Cuatrecasanthus (Vernonieae, Compositae): A revision of a north-central Andean genus.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki A

    2012-01-01

    Cuatrecasanthus is native to Ecuador and Peru and although several unusual characters define the genus, such as single flowered heads and corolla throat (limb) divided to the base with lobes that are thickened at the margins, the members of the genus were not recognized as especially closely related until relatively recently. All six species are described, including two new to science (Cuatrecasanthus kingii H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, sp. nov. and Cuatrecasanthus lanceolatus H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, sp. nov.), and one new combination is recognized (Cuatrecasanthus giannasii (Stutts) H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, comb. nov.). A key is provided along with images of the types, SEM photographs of the leaf surfaces, a distribution map, and illustrations of the two new species. All species are given a preliminary conservation status of Data Deficient in regard to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

  15. Cuatrecasanthus (Vernonieae, Compositae): A revision of a north-central Andean genus

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cuatrecasanthus is native to Ecuador and Peru and although several unusual characters define the genus, such as single flowered heads and corolla throat (limb) divided to the base with lobes that are thickened at the margins, the members of the genus were not recognized as especially closely related until relatively recently. All six species are described, including two new to science (Cuatrecasanthus kingii H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, sp. nov. and Cuatrecasanthus lanceolatus H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, sp. nov.), and one new combination is recognized (Cuatrecasanthus giannasii (Stutts) H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, comb. nov.). A key is provided along with images of the types, SEM photographs of the leaf surfaces, a distribution map, and illustrations of the two new species. All species are given a preliminary conservation status of Data Deficient in regard to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. PMID:23170071

  16. Near real-time ionospheric monitoring over Europe at the Royal Observatory of Belgium using GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeot, Nicolas; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bruyninx, Carine; Pottiaux, Eric; Aerts, Wim; Baire, Quentin; Legrand, Juliette; Defraigne, Pascale; Huang, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Various scientific applications and services increasingly demand real-time information on the effects of space weather on Earth's atmosphere. In this frame, the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) takes advantage of the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN) to monitor the ionosphere over Europe from the measured delays in the GNSS signals, and provides publicly several derived products. The main ROB products consist of ionospheric vertical Total Electron Content (TEC) maps over Europe and their variability estimated in near real-time every 15 min on 0.5° × 0.5° grids using GPS observations. The maps are available online with a latency of ~3 min in IONEX format at ftp://gnss.oma.be and as interactive web pages at http://www.gnss.be/Atmospheric_Maps/ionospheric_maps.php. This paper presents the method used in the ROB-IONO software to generate the maps. The ROB-TEC maps show a good agreement with widely used post-processed products such as IGS and ESA with mean differences of 1.3 ± 0.9 and 0.4 ± 1.6 TECu respectively for the period 2012 to mid-2013. In addition, we tested the reliability of the ROB-IONO software to detect abnormal ionospheric activity during the Halloween 2003 ionospheric storm. For this period, the mean differences with IGS and ESA maps are 0.9 ± 2.2 and 0.6 ± 6.8 TECu respectively with maximum differences (>38 TECu) occurring during the major phase of the storm. These differences are due to the lower resolution in time and space of both IGS and ESA maps compared to the ROB-TEC maps. A description of two recent events, one on March 17, 2013 and one on February 27, 2014 also highlights the capability of the method adopted in the ROB-IONO software to detect in near real-time abnormal ionospheric behaviour over Europe. In that frame, ROB maintains a data base publicly available with identified ionospheric events since 2012.

  17. Spinal cord injury: reversing the incorrect cortical maps by inductive lability procedure.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, R V

    2004-06-01

    Within the brain-stem and on the cerebral cortex there are locomotor control centers arranged in a ladder-form control system. These centers are somatotopic, self-organizing neural network maps capable of simultaneously learning and task execution. In spinal cord injury (SCI) these self-organized maps get erroneously re-organized and maladaptively stabilized. The extent and quality of sensory-motor recovery, if any appears, is affected by and compromised due to incorrect mapping processes. The treatment method based on inductive lability procedure (Krishnan, 2003a, 2003b, 2003c) uses botulinum toxin for the purpose. It recreates competition among synapses in a locomotor training-based corrective re-self-organization of the maps in various steps of the ladder.

  18. Laboratory Mass Production and Genetics of ’Anopheles Freeborni’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-19

    Gainesville, FL, on the mass rearing technology of An. aJiJn Wiedemann and An. cuadrimaculatus Say (Dame et al. 1974, 1978, Bailey et al. 1978...similar effects have been reported by Krishnan et al. (1959) for Culex fatigan Wiedemann and by Terzian 31 and Stahler (1945) for laboratory-reared An...chromosome preparation. 0 0 ty I~-r e4 0 . w 0 0 X a 0 ... 0M 4j > M . 0 r- $4 Uv 0 0*-44 0 . 0 S0~0 0O U 0 0 4 UW o o gj 0) u 4 0 *~ 0040k tnC 0n 04. ’V 0

  19. PTP1B: a new therapeutic target for Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tautz, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by successive loss of acquired cognitive, social, and motor skills and development of autistic behavior. RTT affects approximately 1 in 10,000 live female births and is the second most common cause of severe mental retardation in females, after Down syndrome. Currently, there is no cure or effective therapy for RTT. Approved treatment regimens are presently limited to supportive management of specific physical and mental disabilities. In this issue, Krishnan and colleagues reveal that the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is upregulated in patients with RTT and in murine models and provide strong evidence that targeting PTP1B has potential as a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of RTT. PMID:26214520

  20. PTP1B: a new therapeutic target for Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tautz, Lutz

    2015-08-03

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by successive loss of acquired cognitive, social, and motor skills and development of autistic behavior. RTT affects approximately 1 in 10,000 live female births and is the second most common cause of severe mental retardation in females, after Down syndrome. Currently, there is no cure or effective therapy for RTT. Approved treatment regimens are presently limited to supportive management of specific physical and mental disabilities. In this issue, Krishnan and colleagues reveal that the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is upregulated in patients with RTT and in murine models and provide strong evidence that targeting PTP1B has potential as a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of RTT.

  1. Is Interdisciplinarity Old News? A Disciplined Consideration of Interdisciplinarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theory of Basil Bernstein and on more recent applications of it by Rob Moore, John Beck and Michael Young to respond to recent calls for the replacement of discipline-based university faculties and departments with "problem-based" curricula and programmes of study. It considers, particularly, the potential…

  2. Human Trafficking. Ministering to The 'Invisible' Victim.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Colleen; Krausa, Laura

    2016-07-01

    Human trafficking is modern-day slavery - an insidious, criminal industry that gener- ates billions of dollars in labor trafficking alone. It knows no boundary of continent, country, race or class; it is a shattering, impartial predator that robs individuals of their basic human dignity.

  3. Treatment of Neurosensory Disorders Improves Psychological Well-Being in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlander, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Psychological well-being is the ultimate "quality of life" measure. The presence of a neurosensory disorder (NSD) in a child, such as ADD, ADHD, Asperger's syndrome, or autism, can rob the child of psychological well-being, or hamper the growth of well-being as the child develops. Fortunately, treatment of NSDs can remove obstacles to the…

  4. Consultancy pay for nurses.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Nurses working for NHS Direct could be paid at medical consultant level based on equal pay for equal work initiatives, according to Rob Crouch, Deputy Director and Research Fellow (A&E), Centre for the Advancement of Clinical Practice, University of Surrey.

  5. Identifying, Confronting and Disrupting Stereotypes: Role on the Wall in an Intergenerational LGBTQ Applied Theatre Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseal, Jennifer; Ray, Kevin; Teitelbaum, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    In New York City, LGBTQ people from different generations have had few opportunities to connect. They have splintered into age-segregated micro-communities, robbing them of opportunities to weave a common history and share strategies that community members have used to survive and thrive. "Bridging the Gap" was a community-based…

  6. Army Precision at Central Headquarters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jay P.

    2005-01-01

    William "Rob" Roberts wasn't thinking about working as a professional educator, much less running a major school system, when he decided he'd had enough of formal schooling himself at age 19. Rather, he dreamed of big adventures, flying combat aircraft for the military. When he discovered the U.S. Army didn't insist on two years of…

  7. The Carolinas Speech Communication Annual, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, John T., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This 1995 issue of the "Carolinas Speech Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Contrast and Complement in Presidential Campaign Communication: Adjusting the Vice Presidential Role in the Clinton-Gore Campaign" (Rob L. Wiley); "Film Critic as Rhetor: Crafting a Fitting Response to Racial Images in 'Places…

  8. DAU Consulting Might Be the Right Enabler To Improve Your Acquisition Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    on a source selection, or were facing several foreboding programmatic risks, or were challenged by recent Karon Curry n Rob Tremaine Tom...as well: Dr. James McMichael, acting President, De- fense Acquisition Uni- versity: “Our mission at DAU is to develop qualified acquisition

  9. Commencing the Rhizome: Towards a Minor Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoriou, Zelia

    2004-01-01

    In "The Postmodern Explained," a pedagogical sequel to "The Postmodern Condition," Jean Francois Lyotard reports on the domination of thought by the principle of realism. Lyotard speaks of a demand that threatens to totalize experience, to reduce language to Newspeak, to rob thinking of its childhood and pedagogy of its philosophical moment. It is…

  10. Regaining a Lost Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Toni

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, Blacks are turning to science and not assumptions to put "Africa" back in "African-American." The eagerness to reconnect is understandable. People robbed of their history innately want to know where they come from. Blacks are now using DNA testing to determine their African lineage. Veteran genealogists say the…

  11. It Makes You Think: Learning Together. Think Global Thinkpiece Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Rob

    2015-01-01

    In this thinkpiece Rob Bowden argues that an East meets West project points the way for global learning to be truly transformative. The project has a simple premise--that there is much to be learned by bringing Eastern and Western perspectives and pedagogies together and that such a process not only nurtures a global learning disposition…

  12. 3 CFR 8897 - Proclamation 8897 of November 1, 2012. National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2012 8897 Proclamation 8897 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8897 of November 1, 2012 Proc. 8897 National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2012By the... tragic realities of Alzheimer's disease—an irreversible, fatal illness that robs men and women of...

  13. Thin Film PZT Piezo MEMS for Micro-Robotic Angular Rate Sensing and Rotary Actuation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-31

    Luz Sanchez, Rob Proie, Vishnu Ganesan, Joe Conroy, and Ron Polcawich July 31, 2012 U.S. Army Research Laboratory THIN FILM PZT PIEZO MEMS FOR...Caltech Angular rate sensing on 1-30 mg platform • 2 orders smaller than packaged state of the art gyroscope. • Integrated biomimetic PZT actuator

  14. "El Grito En Aztlan": Voice and Presence in Chicana/o Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macias, Reynaldo F.

    2005-01-01

    Professor Aguirre's essay provides a strong argument for his thesis that the academy robs Chicana/o scholars of their presence and voice. However, he does not share much on how successful the agency of these scholars has been in opening the space needed for that presence, and what gains there have been in expressing their voice. The author reviews…

  15. 45 CFR 1706.170 - Compliance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INFORMATION SCIENCE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE § 1706.170 Compliance procedures. (a... Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Suite 3122, GSA-ROB 3, Washington, DC 20024. (d) The...

  16. 77 FR 73889 - National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Part V The President Proclamation 8914--National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2012 Executive Order... National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... American people. In less than 2 hours, the bombs that rained on Pearl Harbor robbed thousands of men,...

  17. Expression and Diagnostic Utility of Hepatitis E Virus Putative Structural Proteins Expressed in Insect Cells.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    returnees and William Jones for technical assistance, and Y. H. Kang and Rob from Asia and Africa. Dig. Dis. Sci. 32:1151-1154. ,Williams for help in...Sambrook, J., E. F. Fritsch, and T. Maniatis. 1989. Molecular 28. Tavera, C., 0. Velazquez , C. Avila, G. Ornelas, C. Alvarez, and cloning: a laboratory

  18. Influences of Television on Children's Behavior: Implications for War and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    Television is robbing children of their childhood. Moreover, it is destroying children's developing symbolic processes, and inhibiting their creativity and play. Television has remarkable influence over children's behavior. At this point, it is plausible to hypothesize linkages between television viewing and numerous social problems involving…

  19. 76 FR 28421 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine... collection instrument(s) and instructions should be directed to Rob Andrews, NOAA, National Marine Fisheries... INFORMATION: I. Abstract This request is for a revision of a current information collection....

  20. The Use of EFL Reading Strategies among High School Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kate Tzu-Ching; Chen, Sabina Chia-Li

    2015-01-01

    In the traditional English l language classroom, reading is the skill that receives the most emphasis (Susser & Rob, 1990). Learners should use reading strategies to plan how to read and to enhance their reading comprehension (Poole, 2010). The purpose of this study was to explore the use of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading…

  1. Process-Model Feminism in the Corporate University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer-Hanks, D. T.

    2016-01-01

    In a period characterised by worries over the rise of the corporate university, it is important to ask what role feminism plays in the academy, and whether that role is commensurate with feminist values and ethics. Commercial and political pressures brought to bear on the encounter between instructor and student can rob teaching of its efficacy,…

  2. THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EMISSIONS FROM A RESIDENTIAL OIL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil and the use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source are available for dispersion, climate, and source-recep...

  3. The minimal flow unit in complex turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, A.; Biringen, S.

    2016-12-01

    Direct numerical simulations of spanwise-rotating periodic turbulent channel flow were conducted for three rotation numbers: Rob = 0, 0.2, and 0.5 at a Reynolds number of 8000 based on laminar centerline mean velocity. An additional simulation was conducted at a Reynolds number of 27 000 and rotation number Rob = 0.2 to study higher-Reynolds number effects. In order to determine the proper computational box size for a minimal flow unit (MFU) at Rob = 0.5, spanwise arrays of Taylor-Gortler vortices in the highly turbulent pressure region were examined and complete realization of the vortices was demonstrated to be necessary for accurate MFU turbulence statistics requiring a minimum spanwise domain length Lz = π. An equivalent MFU model produced similar results for Rob = 0.2 but demonstrated decreased accuracy for the higher-Reynolds number simulation. Analysis of pressure statistics also showed that the MFU model could accurately approximate mean pressure but not fluctuating pressure distributions across the channel. For higher-order statistics in the pressure region with rotation, the MFU model demonstrated good agreement with the full simulations. In the suction region, the MFU model with rotation failed to capture intermittent extreme-amplitude fluctuations, resulting in poor accuracy for higher-order statistics.

  4. How to Fix Our Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Joel Klein, chancellor of the New York City public school system, and Michelle Rhee, who resigned October 13 as Washington, DC, chancellor, published a "manifesto" in the "Washington Post" claiming that the difficulty of removing incompetent teachers "has left school districts impotent and, worse, has robbed millions of children of a real future."…

  5. How to Fix Our Schools: It's More Complicated, and More Work, than the Klein-Rhee "Manifesto" Wants You to Believe. EPI Issue Brief #286

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Joel Klein, chancellor of the New York City public school system, and Michelle Rhee, who resigned October 13 as Washington, D.C. chancellor, published a "manifesto" in the "Washington Post" claiming that the difficulty of removing incompetent teachers "has left our school districts impotent and, worse, has robbed millions…

  6. Proceedings of the Irvine Workshop on Alternatives for the Environment, Certification, and Control of the DOD Common High Order Language, Held at California University, Irvine on 20-22 June 1978.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    of the poet Lord Byron, and Babbage ’s "programmer." For reasons of historical accuracy, the use of the working title "DODi" has been retained in the...Surface Weapons Center Al Irvine, SofTech, Inc. Rob Kling, UC - Irvine John C. Knight, NASA Langley Research Center Charles L. Lawson, Jet Propulsion

  7. Workplace Education: The Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.

    The 23 chapters of this book are as follows: "A Framework for Developing Partnerships" (Wendy M. Doughty); "Partnership Building in Nova Scotia" (Marjorie Davison, Paul Temple); "What Makes a Successful Workplace Education Partnership?" (Rob Despins et al.); "Building Linkages in Large Organizations: The Syncrude…

  8. Operation Everest II. Plasma Lipid and Hormonal Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Powles Jack Reeves, Rob Roach, Paul Rock, Madeliene Rose, Robert Schoene, Jose Suarez , Brenda Townes, Darlene Tyler, Peter Wagner, and Patricia Young...Ineichen, E. Salazar , A. Zerpa, and C. J. Glueck. Lipids and lipoproteins in subjects at 1000 and 3500 meters altitude. Arch. Environ. Health 34: 308

  9. A man of universal interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakharov, Andrei

    1988-02-01

    The death of Ya. B. Zel'dovich robs physics of one of its guiding lights of the twentieth century. Here Andrei Sakharov reflects on his life and his science, while on p. 673 appears a report of two meetings written by ZeVdovich, in collaboration with A. A. Starobinskii, shortly before his death.

  10. A Mean Wink at Authenticity: Chinese Images in Disney's "Mulan."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mo, Weimin; Shen, Wenju

    2000-01-01

    Offers a critique from two Chinese educators with regard to the historical, cultural, linguistic, and artistic authenticity of Disney's animated film "Mulan." Argues that the filmmakers robbed the original story of its soul and "ran over Chinese culture with the Disney bulldozer," imposing mainstream cultural beliefs and…

  11. 75 FR 58020 - Notice of Submission Deadline for Schedule Information for O'Hare International Airport, John F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ...-mail to: 7-AWA-slotadmin@faa.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Hawks, Office of the Chief... number: 202-267-7143; fax number: 202- 267-7971; e-mail: rob.hawks@faa.gov . Issued in Washington, DC,...

  12. Use of PCR analysis for identification of species and genus of Septoria on grain crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on methods for molecular-genetic testing of the Septoria pathogens of wheat was initiated. Two species of septoria were studied: Septoria tritici Rob. et Desm., and Stagonospora nodorum [Berk] Castellani and E.G. Germano. Different protocols for extraction of DNA were applied; the best meth...

  13. Bullying of Students by Teachers and Peers and Its Effect on the Psychological Well-Being of Students in Jamaican Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottinger, Audrey M.; Stair, Angela Gordon

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 225 Jamaican university students were asked to recall their bullying experiences at elementary and high schools. Being verbally humiliated, robbed, and beaten were the top three frequently-occurring experiences. Acts of bullying by peers and educators were compared for their impact on students' psychological well being. Educator but…

  14. Report on the Second International Workshop on Development and Evolution of Software Architectures for Product Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    evolved to a new ADL called Koala . The group working on analysis from the Polytechnical University of Madrid used various tools including the...Sligte, An Integral Hierarchy and Diversity Model for Describing Product Family Architecture 4. Rob van Ommering, Koala , a Component Model for Consumer

  15. Marine and land active-source seismic imaging of mid-Miocene to Holocene-aged faulting near geothermal prospects at Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G.; Driscoll, N.; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R.; Louie, J.; Pullammanappallil, S.

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie Kell, Graham Kent, Neal Driscoll, Robert Karlin, Rob Baskin, John Louie, and Satish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic imaging of mid-Miocene to Holocene-aged faulting near geothermal prospects at Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting, San Diego, Oct. 23-26.

  16. Automating Libraries: The Major Mistakes Vendors Are Likely to Make.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Hi Tech, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Five prominent consultants--Richard Boss, Susan Baerg Epstein, Rob McGee, Joseph Matthews, James E. Rush--discuss the most common mistakes vendors make in implementing library automated systems. Suggestions are made for correcting basic problems relating to identification of library needs, communications, delivery dates, inadequate systems, and…

  17. Fostering Resilience in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Practical Strategies EC Staff Can Put into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Children enmeshed in violence don't experience a relaxed, predictable, or trusting home life. In fact, children exposed to home violence often experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) just as adults do after enduring violence. Domestic violence robs children of their childhood. And while early childhood staff can't erase the…

  18. Informal Learning. Symposium 27. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document contains three papers on informal learning and human resource development. "Workplace Learning Reviewed: Confronting the Rhetoric with Empirical Research" (Rob F. Poell, Ferd J. Van der Krogt) discusses the considerable discrepancy between theory on workplace learning and actual workplace learning-related developments in…

  19. Overcoming Obstacles to Education: The Experience of Women University Students Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Sonya Corbin

    2000-01-01

    A hermeneutic phenomenological methodology was used to explore the experience of eight women university students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two themes describing obstacles to their education - "robbed of time" and "thoughts like a rubber ball" - were identified. Discusses strategies and treatment issues and…

  20. Command of the Sea: An Old Concept Resurfaces in a New Form

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    maritime trading democracies, such command underpinned the achievement of the Bretton Woods accords of 1944 and the subsequent evolution of the...to the United States in 1945, China would, to a significant degree, rob the United States of that com- mand necessary to underpin the Bretton Woods

  1. 76 FR 13970 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Black Stem Rust...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... disease is caused by a fungus that reduces the quality and yield of infected wheat, oat, barley, and rye crops by robbing host plants of food and water. In addition to infecting small grains, the fungus lives... Mahonia. The fungus is spread from host to host by wind-borne spores. The black stem rust quarantine...

  2. Pre-Milestone I Program Development Process Guide (ASC/YX).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    Rudduck Susan Strauser Walter Torrey Lt Col Harry Walker Steve Walker Debbie Weber Mark Weitz John Wilson Dave Wright KEY MANAGEMENT SUPPORT Col Rob...IIIp NOvW 93 Id-vu ToWk0.1* -qr#! Poter "ia Sytm Afterntativ 4?,’ - • I /7 Figure 3-. Task . 1.9 - Identify Potential System Alternatives - - The

  3. Don't Bother Me, I'm Reading: Graphic Nonfiction for Middle Schoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a savvy guide to the best graphic nonfiction books for middle schoolers. These include: "Ronald Reagan: A Graphic Biography" by Andrew Hefler; "Clan Apis" by Jay Hosler; and "Corpses and Skeletons: The Science of Forensic Anthropology" by Rob Shone.

  4. The International Sailing Canoe: A Technical Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    Mermaid , considered the ultimate develop- ment in the 16 x 30 class, as she with skipper Leo Friede won the New York Cup in 1914. Various sailing...canoes, including Kestrel (circa 1890), Bee (circa 1890), Argonaut (cirea 1910), Mermaid (ci rca 1913, 1923) and an example of a "Rob Roy" Canoe (circa

  5. A Commentary on"'Sustainability and Accounting Education: The Elephant in the Classroom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Matias

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary Matias Laine reviews the vivid paper written by Rob Gray (2013) who discusses his view of how sustainability is positioned within accounting education and how accounting educators can directly approach sustainability in their teaching. Laine notes many of the aspects that Gray considers important reflect the starting point of…

  6. 28 CFR 2.219 - Maximum terms of imprisonment and supervised release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intent to kill/rob/poison, to commit sex abuse (1st or 2nd degree) or child sex abuse 3 years (10 years if SOR) 2 years. 22-401, 4502 Assault: with intent to kill etc. while armed * 5 years (10 years if... kill 5 years 3 years. Mayhem/malicious disfigurement 3 years 2 years. Arson 3 years 2 years....

  7. Pictures of Our Nobler Selves: A History of Native American Contributions to News Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trahant, Mark N.

    Many American Indians deeply resent distorted depictions of themselves in the media. They are convinced that false media caricatures have helped rob them of their history. This report addresses a fascinating incongruity: the contributions made by Native Americans to the U.S. news media--a media that has played a key role in creating the flawed…

  8. The Power of Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traver, Rob

    2016-01-01

    "Students are naturally inclined to watch one another, to make suggestions and support their peers, to avoid mistakes, to copy what works and modify what doesn't, and to learn from one another," writes Rob Traver in this article. To prove his point, Traver brings readers into three classrooms where teachers tap into students' intrinsic…

  9. Pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in the traditional Andean herbal medicine "asmachilca"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asmachilca is a Peruvian medicinal herb preparation ostensibly derived from Eupatorium gayanum Wedd. = Aristeguietia gayana (Wedd.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae). Decoctions of the plant have a reported bronchodilation effect that is purported to be useful in the treatment of respir...

  10. Heat Transfer Near the Entrance to a Film Cooling Hole in a Gas Turbine Blade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Fluent; Dr. Simon Hogg for describing the internal workings of CFD codes; Ken Dunford for solving various computer problems; Esther Rose for tracking down...invaluable. I benefitted greatly from technical discussions with Rob Davenport, Chris Graham, Bill Pierce, Dave Bryant, Sarah Ashton, Dave Hicklin, and Jenny

  11. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Pavlov evidently does not think of the return that "defense" may generate in five years, as his task is to rob the enterprises now to somehow bring... Ivan Bentsa, followed by report from USSR Defense Ministry by Viktor Litovkin: "Novaya Zemlya Prepares For Nuclear Explosions"] [Text] New plans for

  12. Ending Discrimination against People with Alcohol and Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    People with alcohol or other drug disease face public and private policies that restrict their access to appropriate health care, employment, and public benefits, discouraging them from seeking treatment, robbing them of hope for recovery, and costing society millions of dollars. Join Together, a project of Boston University School of Public…

  13. Effect of Traumatic Brain Injury Among U.S. Servicemembers with Amputation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    issues, including those related to heterotopic ossification, recurrent infection, prosthetic donning , ambulation, activities of daily living...by Traumatic Brain Injury Status The effect of TBI among servicemembers with a com- bat -related major limb traumatic amputation was most apparent...rehabilitation psychology. Washington (DC): American Psychological Association; 2000. p. 261–86. 11. Hoaglund FT, Jergesen HE, Wilson L, Lamoreux LW, Rob- erts

  14. Humans, Sharks and the Shared Environment in the Contemporary Eco-Doc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Focussing on the film "Sharkwater" directed by Rob Stewart (2006), this article discusses formal interpretive aspects of recent environmental documentaries which are intended to raise awareness about environmental issues. It is argued that contemporary environmental documentaries seek to persuade audiences to protect the shared physical…

  15. Indigenous Knowledge in the Life Sciences Classroom: Put on Your de Bono Hats!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beer, Josef; Whitlock, Elrina

    2009-01-01

    The whole world was united in its condemnation of the pre-1994 apartheid regime in South Africa. Apartheid meant that many South Africans were robbed of their democratic voices and cultural identities. In this article, the authors pose the question: Are you guilty of "knowledge apartheid" in your biology classroom? Does every student have a voice…

  16. Particle Choices and Collocation in Cameroon English Phrasal Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epoge, Napoleon

    2016-01-01

    The meaning of some phrasal verbs can be guessed from the meanings of the parts (to sit down = sit + down, run after = run + after) and the meaning of some others have to be learned (to put up (a visitor) = accommodate, to hold up = cause delay or try to rob someone) due to their syntactic and semantic complexities. In this regard, the syntactic…

  17. Legacy Systems Upgrade for Software Risk Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    intWksNum = intWksNum + 1 End Function ’ Function from Access 2000 Programming for Dummies ’ This function is used to set the column letter for use...in Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory. 1996 Krumm, Rob, Access 2000 Programming for Dummies , IDG Books Worldwide, Inc., 1999

  18. Using Order of Magnitude Calculations to Extend Student Comprehension of Laboratory Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Rob L.

    2015-01-01

    Author Rob Dean previously published an Illuminations article concerning "challenge" questions that encourage students to think imaginatively with approximate quantities, reasonable assumptions, and uncertain information. This article has promoted some interesting discussion, which has prompted him to present further examples. Examples…

  19. Field test results of the three-dimensional acquisition and tracking (3DATA) sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, Paul W.; Lilly, David; Matkin, William B.

    2004-01-01

    Trex has developed two innovative MWIR tracking systems, the Rapid Optical Beam Steering (ROBS) system and the Fast InfraRed Sniper Tracker (FIRST). ROBS was developed by Trex in the mid 1980"s for BMDO and the Navy as a prototype 0.5 meter aperture, wide-angle, multiple target detection, tracking, and imaging system with laser ranging. The smaller FIRST system was developed in the mid 1990"s by Trex for DARPA to acquire and track small caliber bullets. Both systems utilize innovative fast steering methods for achieving very high acceleration rates, ~ 1,000 radians/sec2 for ROBS and ~ 40,000 radians/sec2 for the FIRST system. Each can provide high precision 3D tracking over a large field of regard and both have been demonstrated in field tests. Presently the capabilities of these systems are being expanded. A newer version of the ROBS, 3DATA, is being completed which will provide a capability to precisely track in three dimensions up to 20 targets per second, simultaneously. In addition, an upgraded FIRST system is being designed and built which will handle multiple slow targets in addition to the faster bullets.

  20. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  1. Hastily-Formed Networks for First Responders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    additional modules as identified throughout this paper . We also need to develop TwiddleNet management tools so that user accounts and connections can be...of their work. 10 9 Acknowledgements MAJ Jon Towle , CAPT Rob Myers, CAPT Eddie Zapata all of the US Marine Corps, and LT Chris Clotfelter of US

  2. 45 CFR 1706.170 - Compliance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INFORMATION SCIENCE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE § 1706.170 Compliance procedures. (a... Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Suite 3122, GSA-ROB 3, Washington, DC 20024. (d) The...

  3. Water intoxication by the oral route in an infant.

    PubMed Central

    Etzioni, A; Benderley, A; Levi, Y

    1979-01-01

    Symptomatic water intoxication is common when hypo-osmolar fluids are given therapeutically, usually intravenously, but it is rare after drinking voluntarily (Wynn and Rob, 1954). We report a case of water intoxication caused by voluntary drinking in an infant. PMID:485199

  4. Sport-Based Youth and Community Development: Beyond the Ball in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jennifer M.; Castañeda, Amy; Castañeda, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Rob and Amy Castañeda, the co-founders of a sports/play-based youth and community development organization called Beyond the Ball (www.beyondtheball.org), cite the collaborative and dynamic nature of the TPSR Alliance as an important influence for their work. Beyond the Ball serves individuals between kindergarten and post-college, in the North…

  5. A Teaching Makeover Improves Learning for Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubet, Kristina J.; Hockett, Jessica A.; Brighton, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    In many primary classrooms, the prospect of addressing standards threatens to rob young children of the joy of learning. Teachers who feel pressed to move students of all backgrounds toward mastery of increasingly complex standards may abandon rich curriculum and move toward isolated "skill drills." This may be counterproductive. The…

  6. Network Oxygen Exchange During Water Diffusion in SiO2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    in the Ŕ (p,a) "N reaction. Beam energy was monitored by means of an NMR gauss - meter whose probe was mounted between the analyzing magnet pole...1977). 2R. H. Doremus, in Reactivity of Solids, edited by Mitchell, de Vries, Rob- erts, and Cannon (Wiley, New York, 1969), p. 667. ’G. Amsel, J

  7. 3 CFR 8591 - Proclamation 8591 of October 29, 2010. National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2010 8591 Proclamation 8591 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8591 of October 29, 2010 Proc. 8591 National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2010By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Alzheimer’s disease tragically robs individuals...

  8. The Athletae Dei: Missing the Meaning of Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Shirl J.

    By making virtue of ascesis or self-discipline in their sport, the athlete evangelists (the "athletae-Dei"), unwittingly rob sport of its fundamental theological significance. These proponents of an evangelical brand of protestant theology have shifted drastically from an anti-sport stance of a century ago to a position that not only…

  9. Narrative Chance. Postmodern Discourse on Native American Indian Literatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizenor, Gerald, Ed.

    Native American literary works have often been ignored by serious critics or examined by social scientists in ways that rob them of their effectiveness as works of art. The emphasis of postmodern theory on the creative power of language, on narrative discourse, and on signs and semiotics allows an original and perceptive approach to Native…

  10. Concepts Shaping Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Rob White's paper explores ways in which community building can be integrated into the practices of juvenile justice work. He provides a model of what can be called "restorative social justice", one that builds upon the juvenile conferencing model by attempting to fuse social justice concerns with progressive juvenile justice practices.

  11. Bullying in Elementary School: An American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Bullying in elementary schools is a recognized and widespread occurrence that threatens to rob children of their childhood. Part I of this commentary describes existing scientifically-based research on the nature, extent and effects of the phenomenon on children in United States schools. Part II analyzes the effectiveness of bullying prevention…

  12. Horizontal Gaze Palsy and Progressive Scoliosis With ROBO 3 Mutations in Patients From Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Mendes Marques, Nadine B P S; Barros, Sandra R; Miranda, Ana F; Nobre Cardoso, João; Parreira, Sónia; Fonseca, Teresa; Donaire, Nelvia M; Campos, Nuno

    2016-10-03

    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare and autosomal recessive syndrome. We describe 2 cases of HGPPS which are the first documented in patients of African ancestry from an isolated population in Cape Verde. They demonstrated typical findings on neuro-ophthalmic examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging. One patient had novel heterozymous mutations of the ROB0 3 gene.

  13. Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition from Language Input and from Form-Focused Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia

    2009-01-01

    Interest in L2 vocabulary learning and teaching started long before the nineteen-eighties (for references to earlier studies, see Rob Waring's database http://www1.harenet.ne.jp/~waring/vocab/vocrefs/vocref.html) but it declined with the advent of generative linguistics to the point of discrimination and neglect (Meara 1980). In 1986, I argued…

  14. 45 CFR 1706.170 - Compliance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND... CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE § 1706.170 Compliance procedures. (a... Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Suite 3122, GSA-ROB 3, Washington, DC 20024. (d) The...

  15. Development of a set of compensating Triticum aestivum-Dasypyrum villosum Robertsonian translocation lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy, a wild relative of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the source of agronomically important genes for wheat improvement. The first step in exploiting this variation is the production of compensating Robertsonian translocations (cRobTs) consisting of D. villosum c...

  16. The optimal combination of substrate chemistry with physiological fluid shear stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Luo, Yanfeng; Xie, Zhao; Xing, Juan; Lin, Manping; Yang, Li; Wang, Yuanliang; Huang, Ke

    2013-12-01

    Osteoblasts on implanted biomaterials sense both substrate chemistry and mechanical stimulus. The effects of substrate chemistry alone and mechanical stimulus alone on osteoblasts have been widely studied. This study investigates the optimal combination of substrate chemistry and 12dyn/cm(2) physiological flow shear stress (FSS) by examining their influences on primary rat osteoblasts (ROBs), including the releases of ATP, nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on glass slides with -OH, -CH3, and -NH2 were employed to provide various substrate chemistries, whereas a parallel-plate fluid flow system produced the physiological FSS. Substrate chemistry alone exerted no observable effects on the releases of ATP, NO, and PGE2. Nevertheless, when ROBs were exposed to both substrate chemistry and FSS, the ATP releases of NH2 were upregulated about 12-fold compared to substrate chemistry alone, while the ATP releases of CH3 and OH was similarly increased 7-fold at the peak. Similar trends were observed for the releases of NO and PGE2. The expressions of ATP, NO, and PGE2 followed the pattern of NH2-FSS>Glass-FSS>CH3-FSS≈OH-FSS. ROBs on NH2 produced the optimal combination of substrate chemistry with the physiological FSS. The F-actin organization and focal adhesion (FA) formation of ROBs on various SAMs without FSS were examined. NH2 produced the best results whereas CH3 and OH produced the worst ones. Inhibition of FAs and/or disruption of F-actin significantly decreased the releases of FSS-induced PGE2, NO, and/or ATP. Consequently, a mechanism was proposed that the best F-actin organization and FA formation of ROBs on NH2 lead to the optimal combination of substrate chemistry with the 12dyn/cm(2) physiological FSS. This mechanism gives guidance for the design of implanted biomaterials and bioreactors for bone tissue engineering.

  17. The Alteration of Neonatal Raphe Neurons by Prenatal-Perinatal Nicotine. Meaning for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cerpa, Verónica J; Aylwin, María de la Luz O; Beltrán-Castillo, Sebastián; Bravo, Eduardo U; Llona, Isabel R; Richerson, George B; Eugenín, Jaime L

    2015-10-01

    Nicotine may link maternal cigarette smoking with respiratory dysfunctions in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Prenatal-perinatal nicotine exposure blunts ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and reduces central respiratory chemoreception in mouse neonates at Postnatal Days 0 (P0) to P3. This suggests that raphe neurons, which are altered in SIDS and contribute to central respiratory chemoreception, may be affected by nicotine. We therefore investigated whether prenatal-perinatal nicotine exposure affects the activity, electrical properties, and chemosensitivity of raphe obscurus (ROb) neurons in mouse neonates. Osmotic minipumps, implanted subcutaneously in 5- to 7-day-pregnant CF1 mice, delivered nicotine bitartrate (60 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) or saline (control) for up to 28 days. In neonates, ventilation was recorded by head-out plethysmography, c-Fos (neuronal activity marker), or serotonin autoreceptors (5HT1AR) were immunodetected using light microscopy, and patch-clamp recordings were made from raphe neurons in brainstem slices under normocarbia and hypercarbia. Prenatal-perinatal nicotine exposure decreased the hypercarbia-induced ventilatory responses at P1-P5, reduced both the number of c-Fos-positive ROb neurons during eucapnic normoxia at P1-P3 and their hypercapnia-induced recruitment at P3, increased 5HT1AR immunolabeling of ROb neurons at P3-P5, and reduced the spontaneous firing frequency of ROb neurons at P3 without affecting their CO2 sensitivity or their passive and active electrical properties. These findings reveal that prenatal-perinatal nicotine reduces the activity of neonatal ROb neurons, likely as a consequence of increased expression of 5HT1ARs. This hypoactivity may change the functional state of the respiratory neural network leading to breathing vulnerability and chemosensory failure as seen in SIDS.

  18. Influence of three coccidiostats on the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun; Wang, Sheng-Jie; Zhang, Qian; Shao, Yi-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    In-feed Medication has been used for a long time to prevent coccidiosis, a worldwide protozoal disease in rabbits. Florfenicol (FFC) has been widely used in veterinary clinics for bacterial diseases treatment. Therefore, the use of combinations of coccidiostats with FFC in rabbits is common. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of three coccidiostats, sulfaquinoxaline (SUL), robenidine (ROB), and toltrazuril (TOL), as feed additives on the pharmacokinetic profile of FFC in rabbits. The disposition kinetics of FFC in rabbits were investigated after a single intravenous injection (25 mg/kg) in rabbits fed anticoccidial-free diets or feeds containing SUL (250 ppm), ROB (66 ppm), or TOL (2 ppm), respectively, for 20 days. Plasma FFC concentrations were determined by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of FFC were analyzed using a non-compartmental analysis based on the statistical moment theory. The results demonstrated that ROB feeding resulted in an obvious decrease in plasma FFC level as compared with anticoccidial-free feeding. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2z), area under the concentration–time curve (AUC), area under the first moment curve (AUMC), and mean residence time (MRT) significantly decreased, whereas the elimination rate constant (λz) and total body clearance (CLz) obviously increased in rabbits pretreated with ROB. However, we did not find that SUL or TOL feeding had any effect on the pharmacokinetic profile of FFC. Our findings suggested that more attention should be paid to the use of FFC in rabbits supplemented with ROB. PMID:25319758

  19. Expression of precerebellins in cultured rat calvaria osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Zok, Agnieszka; Guidolin, Diego; De Caro, Raffaele; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2008-10-01

    Cerebellin (CER), originally isolated from rat cerebellum, is a hexadecapeptide derived from the larger precursor called precerebellin 1 (Cbln1). At present 4 propeptides designated as Cbln1, Cbln2, Cbln3 and Cbln4 are recognized. They belong to precerebellin subfamily of the C1q family proteins. Precerebellins act as transneuronal regulators of synapse development and synaptic plasticity in various brain regions. Initially CER was thought to be a cerebellum specific peptide, however subsequent studies revealed its presence in other brain regions as well as in extraneuronal tissues. We investigated whether precerebellins are expressed and involved in regulation of cultured rat calvarial osteoblast-like (ROB) cells. Classic RT-PCR revealed the presence of Cbln1 and Cbln3 mRNA in fragments of rat calvaria, in freshly isolated ROB cells and in ROB cells cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days. Cbln2 and Cbln4 mRNA, on the other hand, could not be demonstrated in ROB cells but was found to be present in the brain. In freshly isolated ROB cells expression of Cbln1 gene was very low and gradually increased in relation to the duration of culture. Expression of Cbln3, on the other hand, was very low in fragments of rat calvaria, and increased notably after digestion with collagenase-I. The highest expression of this precerebellin was observed at day 14 of culture while at days 7 and 21 levels of expressions were notably lower. Neither Cbln2 nor Cbln4 was found to be expressed in the ROB cells. Neither CER nor des-Ser1-CER (10(-10)-10(-6)M) affect osteocalcin production and proliferation rate of studied cells. The above findings suggest that CER, which theoretically would be derived from Cbln1, modulate neither differentiated (osteocalcin secretion) nor basic (proliferation) functions of cultured rat osteoblast-like cells. The obtained data raise an intriguing hypothesis that precerebellins may be involved in regulating of spatial organization of osteoblastic niches in the bone.

  20. A new genus, Nothovernonia, from tropical Africa (Asteraceae or Compositae, Vernonieae).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki A

    2011-01-01

    Nothovernoniagen. nov., is described as a new genus for the tropical African Vernonia purpurea Sch.Bip. ex Walp. and Vernonia amblyolepis Bak, having cymiform inflorescences, pedunculate heads with differentiated foliiform bracts at the base, apiculate involucral bracts with scarious lateral margins, spiculiferous corolla lobes, and strongly spinose, sublopohate tricolporate pollen with the colpi meeting at the poles. The new genus belongs to the subtribe Centrapalinae and a key to the known DNA-sequenced genera of the subtribe is provided. The new species names are Nothovernonia purpurea (Sch.Bip. ex Walp.) H.Rob. and V.A.Funk, comb. nov., and Nothovernonia amblyolepis (Baker) H.Rob. & V.A.Funk, comb. nov.

  1. A new genus, Nothovernonia, from tropical Africa (Asteraceae or Compositae, Vernonieae)

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nothovernonia gen. nov., is described as a new genus for the tropical African Vernonia purpurea Sch.Bip. ex Walp. and Vernonia amblyolepis Bak, having cymiform inflorescences, pedunculate heads with differentiated foliiform bracts at the base, apiculate involucral bracts with scarious lateral margins, spiculiferous corolla lobes, and strongly spinose, sublopohate tricolporate pollen with the colpi meeting at the poles. The new genus belongs to the subtribe Centrapalinae and a key to the known DNA-sequenced genera of the subtribe is provided. The new species names are Nothovernonia purpurea (Sch.Bip. ex Walp.) H.Rob. and V.A.Funk, comb. nov., and Nothovernonia amblyolepis (Baker) H.Rob. & V.A.Funk, comb. nov. PMID:22171176

  2. Varroa destructor Mites Can Nimbly Climb from Flowers onto Foraging Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor, the introduced parasite of European honey bees associated with massive colony deaths, spreads readily through populations of honey bee colonies, both managed colonies living crowded together in apiaries and wild colonies living widely dispersed in natural settings. Mites are hypothesized to spread between most managed colonies via phoretically riding forager bees when they engage in robbing colonies or they drift between hives. However, widely spaced wild colonies show Varroa infestation despite limited opportunities for robbing and little or no drifting of bees between colonies. Both wild and managed colonies may also exchange mites via another mechanism that has received remarkably little attention or study: floral transmission. The present study tested the ability of mites to infest foragers at feeders or flowers. We show that Varroa destructor mites are highly capable of phoretically infesting foraging honey bees, detail the mechanisms and maneuvers by which they do so, and describe mite behaviors post-infestation. PMID:27942015

  3. Uccle Carte du Ciel Plate Catalogue Present in the WFPDB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkova, Katya; Tsvetkov, Milcho; Lampens, Patricia; Duval, David

    2007-08-01

    We present the catalogue of the Carte du Ciel plates collected at the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) and incorporated in the Wide-Field Plate Database. The catalogue comprises the descriptive information for 682 plates obtained with the Gautier 0.33-m equatorial telescope in the framework of the Carte du Ciel project in the period 1908-1939. The plates were taken using triple exposures with duration of 15 to 30 minutes. An analysis of the ROB CdC catalogue's content is presented. The catalogue, as well as the plate previews taken with a flatbed scanner AGFA (model DUOSCAN HiD) with a resolution of 250 dpi in TIFF format (of size 2.5 MB), are available on-line at http://www.skyarchive.org/.

  4. The D4A Digitiser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cuyper, J.-P.; Winter, L.

    2006-07-01

    The D4A (Digital Access to Aerial- and Astro-photographic Archives) project aims to acquire the necessary know-how, hardware and software to digitise the astro-photographic collections of the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) and the aerial-photographic collections of the National Geographic Institute and the Royal Museum of Central Africa in collaboration with AGFA-Gevaert, a world-leader in photographic matters. The final design of the ``D4A Digitiser'' that is being built by the ROB in Brussels is presented. A geometric benchmark testing of different commercial flatbed scanners is given and the results are compared with the requirements needed for the astrometric and photometric data extraction from the digitised images.

  5. Calcium-Iron Oxide as Energy Storage Medium in Rechargeable Oxide Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Berger, Cornelius M.; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah; Hermann, Raphaël P.; ...

    2016-08-08

    Rechargeable oxide batteries (ROB) comprise a regenerative solid oxide cell (rSOC) and a storage medium for oxygen ions. A sealed ROB avoids pumping loss, heat loss, and gas purity expenses in comparison with conventional rSOC. However, the iron oxide base storage medium degrades during charging–discharging cycles. In comparison, CaFe3O5 has improved cyclability and a high reversible oxygen storage capacity of 22.3 mol%. In this paper, we analyzed the redox mechanism of this compound. After a solid-state synthesis of CaFe3O5, we verified the phase composition and studied the redox reaction by means of X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy.more » Finally, results show a great potential to operate the battery with this storage material during multiple charging–discharging cycles.« less

  6. Calcium-Iron Oxide as Energy Storage Medium in Rechargeable Oxide Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Cornelius M.; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah; Braun, Waldemar; Yazhenskikh, Elena; Sohn, Yoo Jung; Menzler, Norbert H.; Guillon, Olivier; Bram, Martin

    2016-08-08

    Rechargeable oxide batteries (ROB) comprise a regenerative solid oxide cell (rSOC) and a storage medium for oxygen ions. A sealed ROB avoids pumping loss, heat loss, and gas purity expenses in comparison with conventional rSOC. However, the iron oxide base storage medium degrades during charging–discharging cycles. In comparison, CaFe3O5 has improved cyclability and a high reversible oxygen storage capacity of 22.3 mol%. In this paper, we analyzed the redox mechanism of this compound. After a solid-state synthesis of CaFe3O5, we verified the phase composition and studied the redox reaction by means of X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Finally, results show a great potential to operate the battery with this storage material during multiple charging–discharging cycles.

  7. Involvement of outer membrane protein TolC, a possible member of the mar-sox regulon, in maintenance and improvement of organic solvent tolerance of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Aono, R; Tsukagoshi, N; Yamamoto, M

    1998-02-01

    Escherichia coli mutants with improved organic solvent tolerance levels showed high levels of outer membrane protein TolC and inner membrane protein AcrA. The TolC level was regulated positively by MarA, Rob, or SoxS. A possible mar-rob-sox box sequence was found upstream of the tolC gene. These findings suggest that tolC is a member of the mar-sox regulon responsive to stress conditions. When a defective tolC gene was transferred to n-hexane- or cyclohexane-tolerant strains by P1 transduction, the organic solvent tolerance level was lowered dramatically to the decane-tolerant and nonane-sensitive level. The tolerance level was restored by transformation of the transductants with a wild-type tolC gene. Therefore, it is evident that TolC is essential for E. coli to maintain organic solvent tolerance.

  8. Varroa destructor Mites Can Nimbly Climb from Flowers onto Foraging Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Peck, David T; Smith, Michael L; Seeley, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor, the introduced parasite of European honey bees associated with massive colony deaths, spreads readily through populations of honey bee colonies, both managed colonies living crowded together in apiaries and wild colonies living widely dispersed in natural settings. Mites are hypothesized to spread between most managed colonies via phoretically riding forager bees when they engage in robbing colonies or they drift between hives. However, widely spaced wild colonies show Varroa infestation despite limited opportunities for robbing and little or no drifting of bees between colonies. Both wild and managed colonies may also exchange mites via another mechanism that has received remarkably little attention or study: floral transmission. The present study tested the ability of mites to infest foragers at feeders or flowers. We show that Varroa destructor mites are highly capable of phoretically infesting foraging honey bees, detail the mechanisms and maneuvers by which they do so, and describe mite behaviors post-infestation.

  9. New Near-Real Time Monitoring of the Ionosphere over Europe Available On-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, J. M.; Bergeot, N.; Bruyninx, C.; Pottiaux, E.; Aerts, W.; Baire, Q.; Legrand, J.; Defraigne, P.

    2012-04-01

    With the beginning of the 24th Solar cycle, the increased Solar activity requires having a close eye on the ionosphere for better understanding Space Weather physics and its effects on radio communications. In that frame, near-real time ionospheric models over Europe are now routinely generated at the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB). These models are made available to the public through new interactive web pages at the web site of the GNSS team (www.gnss.be) and the Solar Influences Data Analysis Center (www.sidc.be) of ROB. The models are ionospheric Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) maps estimated every 15 minutes on a 0.5°x0.5° grid. They use the high-rate GPS observations of the real-time stations in the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) provided by the ROB NTRIP broadcaster. The maps are published on the ROB web site with a latency of 7-15 minutes with respect to the last GPS measurement included in the 15-minute observation files. In a first step, this paper presents the processing strategy used to generate the VTEC maps: input data, parameter estimation, data cleaning and interpolation method. In addition, the tools developed to further exploit the product are introduced, e.g. on-demand animated VTEC maps. In a second step, the VTEC maps are compared with external ionospheric products and models such as Global Ionospheric Maps and IRI 2011. These new near-real time VTEC maps will allow any user within the geographical scope of the maps to estimate in near-real time the ionospheric delay induced along the signal of any observed satellite. In the future, the web site will continuously be updated in response to evolving user needs. This paper opens doors to discussions with the user community to target their needs.

  10. Introducing the Future Now: Using Memetics and Popular Culture to Identify the Post-9/11 Homeland Security Zeitgeist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    the case within NCIS. Law and Order: Criminal Intent Episode 30 February 27, 2007 A reporter is poisoned with Polonium - 210 and the FBI joins the...of elected officials on the steps of the Capitol on September 12, 2001 after a news conference. 210 Other songs...and Rob Sheffield, Rolling Stone, June 24, 2004, http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6085455/the_moments (accessed November 29, 2007). 210 “In

  11. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 23, Number 1, Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Forces in Europe and Empowering Poland : F-16s Fly East... gear suited to con­ trolling and guiding aircraft from the ground 2-SLP-Al-Khuzaai.indd 16 1/27/09 2:00:01 PM 16 AIR & SPACE POWER JOURNAL SPRING...Spinetta is to be commended for injecting a dose of fiscal reality into the debate. Lt Col Rob Levinson, USAF, Retired Fairfax, Virginia PLANETARY

  12. Threatened, Endangered, and at-Risk Species (TER-S) on Dod and Adjacent Lands Symposium and Workshop, Baltimore, MD, 7-9 June 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    State University 1974, M. Sc. Entomology Texas A&M University 1980, Ph. D. Entomology University of California 1985 MEMBERSHIP TO PROFESSIONAL...Dr. Stuart Gage is a Professor of Entomology at Michigan State University. His research and teaching interests are in the areas of Biological...degrees from Michigan State University in Entomology & Systems Ecology. Dr. Rob Maher is an Associate Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at

  13. USAF Women in Combat Policy and Implementation in the All-Volunteer Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    the candidates stemmed from many areas. Segregationists were all for keeping a young black minister, Martin Luther King , Jr. and his 40 followers from...decade were volent ones. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King Jr., and Robert F. Kennedy appeared to rob the nation of bright and...black mayors. The most significant event of 1968 concerning the movement was the assassination of Martin Luther King , Jr. Public reaction was mixed

  14. Special Advanced Studies for Pollution Prevention. Delivery Order 0058: "The Monitor" - Summer 1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL AWARD FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION - Linda Larson Proudly, Rob- ins’ Environ- mental Man- agement Di- rectorate not only main- tains high en...AFRL-ML-WP-TP-2005-400 SPECIAL ADVANCED STUDIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION Delivery Order 0058: “The Monitor” – Summer 1999 Science...STUDIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION Delivery Order 0058: “The Monitor” – Summer 1999 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4349 5e

  15. Interfacial and Thin Film Chemistry in Electron Device Fabrication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    from Semiconductor Surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011 (1990). J. Z. Chou . S. A. Hewitt, J. F. Hershberger, B. B. Brady, G. B Spector, L Chia, and...Collisions with High Energy Electrons from 193 nm Excimer Laser Photolysis of Iodine," J. Chem. Phys. 92, 6974 (1990) James Z. Chou and George W. Flynn...GRADUATE RESEARCH ASSISTANTS Rob Beresford (ONR Fellow) Robert Ade Justin Darrow (ONR Fellow) Bob Burke Cynthia Jenks (ONR Fellow) Dan-Li Chen Tom

  16. Constructing and Experiencing Boyhoods in Research in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattman, Rob; Frosh, Stephen; Phoenix, Ann

    2005-01-01

    When Rob was about 14-years-old, at an all male boarding school, he was so glad that he did not have a tiny penis like another boy who was called girl. He was popular because he was good at sport, missed his mum and dog terribly but never showed it (except a little to his mum and dog) and talked a lot about girls he fancied. These memories were…

  17. Cybersecurity Challenges for Program Managers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    41 Defense AT&L: September–October 2014 Cybersecurity Challenges for Program Managers Steve Mills n Rob Goldsmith Mills is a former program...University. Goldsmith is a systems engineer and currently the Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center Cybersecurity Lead at...Redstone Arsenal, Ala. Cybersecurity threats to Department of De-fense (DoD) acquisi-tion programs are both challenging and com- plex. Program managers (PMs

  18. Adaptive Maritime Video Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Some programs and efforts such as the DARPA PANDA program [3] and those in the private sector [4] address the maritime domain awareness problem at...the referen continuous real value greater than or equal to 0. (We define our distance function below.) c. Related object bearing (rob): This is the...tracking performance, which could have a significant bearing on the Behavior Interpreter. Fourth, we will consider several algorithmic improvements to the

  19. Ghrelin Increases Beta-Catenin Level through Protein Kinase A Activation and Regulates OPG Expression in Rat Primary Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Mrak, Emanuela; Casati, Lavinia; Pagani, Francesca; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Zarattini, Guido; Sibilia, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, by binding growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), promotes osteoblast proliferation but the signaling mechanism of GHS-R on these cells remains unclear. Since canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is critically associated with bone homeostasis, we investigated its involvement in mediating ghrelin effects in osteoblasts and in osteoblast-osteoclast cross talk. Ghrelin (10−10M) significantly increased β-catenin levels in rat osteoblasts (rOB). This stimulatory action on β-catenin involves a specific interaction with GHS-R1a, as it is prevented by the selective GHS-R1a antagonist, D-Lys3-GHRP-6 (10−7M). The effect of ghrelin on β-catenin involves the phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3β via protein kinase A (PKA). Inhibition of PKA activity reduces the facilitatory action of ghrelin on β-catenin stabilization. Ghrelin treatment of rOB significantly increases the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), which plays an important role in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis, and this effect is blocked by D-Lys3-GHRP-6. Furthermore, ghrelin reduced RANKL/OPG ratio thus contrasting osteoclastogenesis. Accordingly, conditioned media from rOB treated with ghrelin decreased the number of multinucleated TRAcP+ cells as compared with the conditioned media from untreated-control rOB. Our data suggest new roles for ghrelin in modulating bone homeostasis via a specific interaction with GHSR-1a in osteoblasts with subsequent enhancement of both β-catenin levels and OPG expression. PMID:25866509

  20. TEM-1-encoding small plasmids impose dissimilar fitness costs on Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Annette; Lund, Marianne; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2015-12-01

    Only two beta-lactamases, TEM-1 and ROB-1, have been observed in Haemophilus influenzae, while four different TEM but no ROB enzymes have been found in Haemophilus parainfluenzae. In order to investigate the mechanisms behind the dissemination of small beta-lactamase-encoding plasmids in H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae, we assessed the fitness cost of three TEM-1- (pPN223, pA1209, pA1606), one TEM-15- (pSF3) and one ROB-1-bearing (pB1000) plasmid when expressed in either bacterial species. All plasmids were stable in H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae except pB1000, which showed on average (sample mean) 76% curing in H. parainfluenzae after 5  days of subculture. Competition assays between isogenic strains with and without plasmid showed no competitive disadvantage of pPN223 and pA1606 in H. influenzae, or of pA1209 in H. parainfluenzae. In contrast, pSF3 and pB1000 were associated with significant competitive disadvantages in both species. Some of the competitive disadvantages may be related to differences in plasmid copy number and mRNA expression of the beta-lactamase genes, as revealed by quantitative PCR analysis. In conclusion, plasmids encoding TEM beta-lactamases isolated from H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae can be stably transferred between species. The fast curing of pB1000 in H. parainfluenzae observed in this study correlates to the fact that ROB-1 has never been reported for this species. TEM-1-encoding plasmids are associated with the lowest level of fitness cost, but different TEM-1 plasmids confer different levels of fitness cost on the two hosts.

  1. NATO Relevance: Military Implications and Translation of the 2010 Strategic Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-17

    Rob de Wijk, NATO on the Brink of the New Millennium: the Battle for Consensus ( Brassey ‟ s Atlantic Commentary, London: Brassey ‟ s , 1997), 44, 105-106... international organizations such as the EU, and this supported the Alliance‟ s 1999 strategic objective to promote wide-ranging...was comprised of representatives from twelve NATO nations. It was formally advised by twelve members of NATO‟ s international staff and other

  2. Acknowledging Limits: Police Advisors and Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    the “ toll booths and targets” should be consolidated. “I wanted to turn my check- point into a provincial training center for the ANP,” the PMT...nally, the ABP was assigned to collect tariffs and tolls , a potentially significant revenue source for the chronically cash-strapped Afghan central... tolls ” and robbing ve- hicles and their passengers. Routine visits from the mentors were meant to deter crime Marines prepare to patrol with the ANP

  3. PCoD Lite - Using an Interim PCoD Protocol to Assess the Effects of Disturbance Associated with US Navy Exercises on Marine Mammal Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    44-1334 477544 email: carl@dmpstats.com John Harwood, Len Thomas, & Rob Schick Centre for Research into Ecological and Environmental...Burgman, M., Thomas, L. & Harwood, J. 2015. An interim framework for assessing the population consequences of disturbance. Methods in Ecology and...Evolution. doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.12411. MacMillan, D. C., & Marshall, K. (2006). The Delphi process - an expert-based approach to ecological

  4. ompW is cooperatively upregulated by MarA and SoxS in response to menadione.

    PubMed

    Collao, B; Morales, E H; Gil, F; Calderón, I L; Saavedra, C P

    2013-04-01

    OmpW is a minor porin whose biological function has not been clearly defined. Evidence obtained in our laboratory indicates that in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium the expression of OmpW is activated by SoxS upon exposure to paraquat and it is required for resistance. SoxS belongs to the AraC family of transcriptional regulators, like MarA and Rob. Due to their high structural similarity, the genes under their control have been grouped in the mar/sox/rob regulon, which presents a DNA-binding consensus sequence denominated the marsox box. In this work, we evaluated the role of the transcription factors MarA, SoxS and Rob of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in regulating ompW expression in response to menadione. We determined the transcript and protein levels of OmpW in different genetic backgrounds; in the wild-type and Δrob strains ompW was upregulated in response to menadione, while in the ΔmarA and ΔsoxS strains the induction was abolished. In a double marA soxS mutant, ompW transcript levels were lowered after exposure to menadione, and only complementation in trans with both genes restored the positive regulation. Using transcriptional fusions and electrophoretic mobility shift assays with mutant versions of the promoter region we demonstrated that two of the predicted sites were functional. Additionally, we demonstrated that MarA increases the affinity of SoxS for the ompW promoter region. In conclusion, our study shows that ompW is upregulated in response to menadione in a cooperative manner by MarA and SoxS through a direct interaction with the promoter region.

  5. Pyrolysis and Oxidation Kinetics of Anisole and Phenol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    opportunity later on to serve as Rob’s teaching assistant. I chose to work with Profs. Irv Glassman and Ken Brezinsky because of their obvious enthusiasm...solvents. In general, the thermochemistry for H abstraction by C6H50- is similar to the thermochemistry for the same H abstraction by H02. However, the...1965). Effects of resonance and structure on the thermochemistry of organic’peroxy radicals and the kinetics of combustion reactions. J. Am. Chem

  6. Diffraction Theory for Polygonal Apertures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    Institute of Optics, for providing a fertile environment for growth and learning. Thank you, Scott, Maddy, Rob, Keith, Paul, Tom, Shen-ge, Lyle, Dennis ...completeness. The Gabor 15 (1946) representation was introduced within the context of communication theory. After proving that a signal’s specificity...information), Gabor found a general family of signals that achieve the theoretical lower limit of joint uncertainty in time and frequency. These

  7. Field Portable Digital Ophthalmoscope/Fundus Camera. Phase I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    robbing injuries and pathologies. Included are retinal detachments, laser damage, CMV retinitis , retinitis pigmentosa , glaucoma, tumors, and the like...RMI-S, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21702-5012. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Retinal imaging is key for diagnoses and treatment of various eye-sight...personnel, and generally only used by ophthalmologists or in hospital settings. The retinal camera of this project will revolutionize retinal imaging

  8. Constitutional and somatic rearrangement of chromosome 21 in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Yilong; Schwab, Claire; Ryan, Sarra L; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Robinson, Hazel M; Jacobs, Patricia; Moorman, Anthony V; Dyer, Sara; Borrow, Julian; Griffiths, Mike; Heerema, Nyla A; Carroll, Andrew J; Talley, Polly; Bown, Nick; Telford, Nick; Ross, Fiona M; Gaunt, Lorraine; McNally, Richard J Q; Young, Bryan D; Sinclair, Paul; Rand, Vikki; Teixeira, Manuel R; Joseph, Olivia; Robinson, Ben; Maddison, Mark; Dastugue, Nicole; Vandenberghe, Peter; Haferlach, Claudia; Stephens, Philip J; Cheng, Jiqiu; Van Loo, Peter; Stratton, Michael R; Campbell, Peter J; Harrison, Christine J

    2014-04-03

    Changes in gene dosage are a major driver of cancer, known to be caused by a finite, but increasingly well annotated, repertoire of mutational mechanisms. This can potentially generate correlated copy-number alterations across hundreds of linked genes, as exemplified by the 2% of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with recurrent amplification of megabase regions of chromosome 21 (iAMP21). We used genomic, cytogenetic and transcriptional analysis, coupled with novel bioinformatic approaches, to reconstruct the evolution of iAMP21 ALL. Here we show that individuals born with the rare constitutional Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes 15 and 21, rob(15;21)(q10;q10)c, have approximately 2,700-fold increased risk of developing iAMP21 ALL compared to the general population. In such cases, amplification is initiated by a chromothripsis event involving both sister chromatids of the Robertsonian chromosome, a novel mechanism for cancer predisposition. In sporadic iAMP21, breakage-fusion-bridge cycles are typically the initiating event, often followed by chromothripsis. In both sporadic and rob(15;21)c-associated iAMP21, the final stages frequently involve duplications of the entire abnormal chromosome. The end-product is a derivative of chromosome 21 or the rob(15;21)c chromosome with gene dosage optimized for leukaemic potential, showing constrained copy-number levels over multiple linked genes. Thus, dicentric chromosomes may be an important precipitant of chromothripsis, as we show rob(15;21)c to be constitutionally dicentric and breakage-fusion-bridge cycles generate dicentric chromosomes somatically. Furthermore, our data illustrate that several cancer-specific mutational processes, applied sequentially, can coordinate to fashion copy-number profiles over large genomic scales, incrementally refining the fitness benefits of aggregated gene dosage changes.

  9. Program Manager: Journal of the Defense Systems Management College. Volume 18. Number 6, November-December 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Wisdom" in Catherine M. Clark Program Management, A ssocate Editor Esaer M. Farris Paul J. Mcllvaine - Corps of Engineers : DIesgplnrlIwtr,,r A program...Ph.D.* Cludi M. o9m, Ph. D. The Corps’ 38,000 employ- ees seek total quality for the largest public engineering Program Manager (ISSN 0199-7114...subdi~epline of engineering that is experi- encing growth and increased importance. 34 Why Offsets? -- " . Lieutenant Colonel Rob rt L. WValler, USAF

  10. The Use of Ritual in the Pastoral Care and Support of Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-26

    sister, Jan, committed suicide by putting their father"s target pistol In her mouth and pulling the trigger. Rob was consid- ered too young to attend...celebrate the young girl’s movement through the life cycle, to help her shape her own Identity as a female. . . in our society the onset of menachre often...Perhaps the church could create rituals and 3 celebrations which recognize the entrance into young adulthood. Confirmation services are an attempt to

  11. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-02

    Not the Best,” New York Times, April 24, 2001; Steven Mufson and Dana Milbank, “Taiwan to Get Variety of Arms,” Washington Post, April 24, 2001; Neil ...President George W. Bush, “Your World with Neil Cavuto,” Fox News, June 8, 2005. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990 Congressional Research...246 Letters between the State Department and Representatives Rob Simmons, Lane Evans, Roskoe Bartlett , Chris Smith, John Hostettler, Madeleine

  12. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-24

    Not the Best,” New York Times, April 24, 2001; Steven Mufson and Dana Milbank, “Taiwan to Get Variety of Arms,” Washington Post, April 24, 2001; Neil ...Next 25 Years,” April 21, 2004. 130 Richard Armitage, Interview with PBS, December 10, 2004. 131 President George W. Bush, “Your World with Neil ...Department and Representatives Rob Simmons, Lane Evans, Roskoe Bartlett , Chris Smith, John Hostettler, Madeleine Bordallo, Trent Franks, and Jeb Bradley

  13. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-28

    2001; Steven Mufson and Dana Milbank, “Taiwan to Get Variety of Arms,” Washington Post, April 24, 2001; Neil King Jr., “Bush Defers Sale of Aegis to...139 Richard Armitage, Interview with PBS, December 10, 2004. 140 President George W. Bush, “Your World with Neil ...252 Letters between the State Department and Representatives Rob Simmons, Lane Evans, Roskoe Bartlett , Chris Smith, John Hostettler

  14. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Chris Clotfelter, Rob Myers and Dirk Ableiter for their help and support. Furthermore, I would like to thank my wife Xanthippi for her patience...and share them on TwiddleNet. TwiddleNet automatically tags the images with date/time, location and author information. Chris , the local head of the...fire brigade, is 4 heading up the command post and he notifies that new pictures are available from the first two responders of every team. Chris

  15. Vantage Theory and Linguistic Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Rob MacLaury's Vantage Theory, VT, models the way in which a cognizer constructs, recalls, uses, and modifies a category in terms of point of view or vantage. Alongside of VT, there is place for the kind of semantic specification found in the lexicon. VT2 [Allan, Keith, 2002. "Vantage theory, VT2, and number." "Language Sciences" 24(5-6), 679-703…

  16. Trading Nets for Guns: The Impact of Illegal Fishing on Piracy in Somalia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    ransom. Merchant vessels had been attacked and robbed by the pirate groups from the early 1990s, but the Kenyan merchant vessel Clove , captured by the...August 3, 2010). 14 for private profit. The attacks following the capture of the Clove typically involved detention of the crew and vessel for...eight in 2001. Though few payments are publicized, the data on those reported remained large, such as $500,000 for the Clove in 1997. 64 UN (2003a

  17. 45th Annual Targets, UAVs and Range Operations Symposium and Exhibition - Tools and Technologies for the Warfighter. Volume 2. Wednesday

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-31

    Technologies for The Warfighter” San Diego, CA 29 – 31 October 2007 Agenda Tuesday, October 30, 2007 Keynote Speaker: Brigadier General David J...Surface Target Laser Aim Scoring System Rob Couture, Program Dir, Meggitt Defense Systems 11:30AM DAU: Contingency Contracting Joel Brown, DAU, San ...TAAS: RICHARD GOMEZ, WD663200E SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TCS: STEVEN ON, AIR-4.1 TAAS: JUAN MOREIRA, AIR-4.1 BFM TCS: VACANT TAAS/TTSP: STEVE PALM, PMA

  18. Taxonomy for and Analysis of Anonymous Communications Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    with respect to preventing physical assault, but as newer business models and media coverage started to significantly affect society, intrusion into...activity are the most obvious drawbacks to anonymity. Governments, businesses and other organizations fear an inability to control abusive and illegal...On the other hand, law enforcement agencies encourage citizens to use anonymous e-mail to report crimes [Ale07, Ano07g, Jor07, Rob07]. Businesses

  19. Pantoporate pollen in the Asteraceae (Vernonieae)

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Skvarla, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pantoporate pollen, which occurs sporadically in the Monocots and Dicots, has now been found in Asteraceae in two apparently related genera of the tribe Vernonieae, Polydora Fenzl and Oocephala H.Rob. Disposition of pores in Polydora seems more asymmetric than in Oocephala. Based on the known relationships within the Vernonieae, some conjectures are made regarding development of the pantoporate condition in the group. PMID:25009434

  20. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 81, Number 1, January-February 1938

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1938-02-01

    old dis- cussion. I think leadership has its genesis in hum~n love. Unless a man loves his fellow-man he is as deVOid of leadership as a tone- deaf man... hereditary officer caste. In fact, Americans can take Original studies comfort that their leaders have seldom pursued the militar- U Historical examples...occasion when General Washington issued letters of mark to the schooner Hannah thereby founding the United States Navy. This summary treatment robs us

  1. JPRS Report China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Heavenly Land, abounds in tourist sites and is world- famed for its treasures. Some comrades said that if one or two pandas were exhibited abroad in...abducting and selling humans, robbing tombs, selling and smuggling cultural objects, illegal publishing, hunting and killing giant pan- das, illegal...purchasing and selling of gold and panda furs, evading taxes and refusing to pay taxes, against prosti- tution and operation of brothels, and efforts

  2. Network Formation: Neighborhood Structures, Establishment Costs, and Distributed Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-19

    element equal to 1; and (iii) λ ≥ 0 is a parameter used to model possible perturbations in the decision making process, also called mutations [33...vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 265–295, 2002. [19] N. Olaizola and F. Valenciano, “One-way flow network formation under constraints,” University of the Basque ...57–84, 1993. [34] L. Breiman, Probability. Philadelphia: SIAM, 1992. [35] M. Kandori, G. Mailath, and R. Rob, “Learning, mutation , and long-run

  3. Firm foundations for sustainability.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Rob

    2009-05-01

    Ensuring that modern healthcare facilities are designed, constructed and maintained sustainably is now as important as specifying the right equipment to provide the very best in healthcare. But how can engineers, and those others in the healthcare sector responsible for the environmental aspects of new schemes, meet the current requirements, and what factors must be considered? Rob Pratt, director at independent engineering consultant Henderson Green, explains how BREEAM Healthcare can help organisations achieve a clean bill of health.

  4. Colleges Weigh When to Alert Students of Danger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric; Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    At the University of Chicago, the third Monday in November began with an hour of violence. Around 12:30 a.m., an assailant fired a shot at a staff member who was walking on the campus. At 1:15 a group of men robbed two female students on a nearby street. Just before 1:30, Amadou Cisse, a doctoral student, was shot and killed while walking to his…

  5. MRS Symposium on Advanced Tomographic Imaging Methods for the Analysis of Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    34 Vol. 12, Su P1. 2, ed. J. S. Waugh (Academic Press, New York 1982). 2. P. V. Morris, "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imtaging in Medicinje and Biology ... biology and medicine. Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge the assistance from Sol Gruner of Princeton University in developing the first...nonlnatrity and sound speed to estimate composition of excised liven. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology , 12:865-874 (1986). 10. ILA. Rob, P.B. Hkffeman, J.J

  6. Sub-Saharan Africa Report, No. 2825.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Residents Demonstrate Against Tribalism (SUNDAY NEWS, 19 Jun 83) 1^1 Matabeleland CFU President, Others Selling Out Due To Unrest ( Pascal Mukondiwa...immediately to the comman- do garrison and returned to the capital with 20 of the "rebels" for negotiations. The party included Captain Blaise Compaore... Pascal Mukondiwa] [Text] THE president of the Matabeleland branch of tne Commercial Farmers’ Union, Mr Rob Sayers, is gelling his dairy farm in

  7. Chicken Essence for Cognitive Function Improvement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Siew Li; Sudfangsai, Suthinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lai, Nai Ming; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-01-01

    Chicken essence (CE) is a popular traditional remedy in Asia, which is believed to improve cognitive functions. CE company claimed that the health benefits were proven with research studies. A systematic review was conducted to determine the cognitive-enhancing effects of CE. We systematically searched a number of databases for randomized controlled trials with human subjects consuming CE and cognitive tests involved. Cochrane’s Risk of Bias (ROB) tool was used to assess the quality of trials and meta-analysis was performed. Seven trials were included, where six healthy subjects and one subject with poorer cognitive functions were recruited. One trial had unclear ROB while the rest had high ROB. For executive function tests, there was a significant difference favoring CE (pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) of −0.55 (−1.04, −0.06)) and another with no significant difference (pooled SMD of 0.70 (−0.001, 1.40)). For short-term memory tests, no significant difference was found (pooled SMD of 0.63 (−0.16, 1.42)). Currently, there is a lack of convincing evidence to show a cognitive enhancing effect of CE. PMID:26805876

  8. Fermionic entanglement that survives a black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Leon, Juan

    2009-10-15

    We introduce an arbitrary number of accessible modes when analyzing bipartite entanglement degradation due to Unruh effect between two partners Alice and Rob. Under the single mode approximation (SMA) a fermion field only had a few accessible levels due to Pauli exclusion principle conversely to bosonic fields which had an infinite number of excitable levels. This was argued to justify entanglement survival in the fermionic case in the SMA infinite acceleration limit. Here we relax SMA. Hence, an infinite number of modes are excited as the observer Rob accelerates, even for a fermion field. We will prove that, despite this analogy with the bosonic case, entanglement loss is limited. We will show that this comes from fermionic statistics through the characteristic structure it imposes on the infinite dimensional density matrix for Rob. Surprisingly, the surviving entanglement is independent of the specific maximally entangled state chosen, the kind of fermionic field analyzed, and the number of accessible modes considered. We shall discuss whether this surviving entanglement goes beyond the purely statistical correlations, giving insight concerning the black hole information paradox.

  9. Effect of nursing home characteristics on residents' quality of life: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongjuan; Kane, Robert L; Shamliyan, Tatyana A

    2013-01-01

    The association between nursing home (NH) characteristics and residents' quality of life (QOL) has not been systematically reviewed. This study synthesizes published evidence about the association between NH ownership, affiliation, location, chain membership, percentage of private rooms, facility size, and staffing with residents' QOL. We searched Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Scirus for primary studies published between 1960 and March 31, 2012. We critically appraised risk of bias according to study design, QOL measurements, and adjustment for residents' characteristics. We analyzed the statistical and clinical significance, direction and magnitude of the association. From 1117 citations retrieved, we found one longitudinal quasi-experimental and 10 cross-sectional eligible studies. Variability in the NH characteristics reported and QOL measurements precluded meta-analysis. Studies with low and medium risk of bias (ROB) suggested that nonprofit NHs resulted in better QOL for residents. The low ROB study indicated that in certain QOL domains, rural facilities and facilities with a higher percentage of private rooms were associated with better self-reported resident QOL. All low and medium ROB studies found that RN, LVN/LPN and total nursing staff had no significant relationship with QOL. One longitudinal quasi-experimental study indicated that the Green House with individualized care had better QOL than conventional NHs. The available evidence does not permit strong conclusions about the association between NH characteristics and residents' QOL. The evidence does, however, raise questions about whether NH structure alone can improve residents' QOL and how residents' QOL should be measured and improved.

  10. 3-Methylcholanthrene, which binds to the arylhydrocarbon receptor, inhibits proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro and ossification in vivo.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Masae; Ishihara, Yoko; Miyagawa-Tomita, Sachiko; Koyama, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Hiromi

    2002-09-01

    3-Methylcholanthrene (3MC) is a ligand for arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which binds dioxin. We examined the effects of 3MC on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts using cultures of rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells (ROB cells) and mouse calvarial clonal preosteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells). Analysis by RT-PCR revealed that the mRNAs for AhR and AhR nuclear translocators were expressed in both ROB and MC3T3-E1 cells. Cell proliferation and the synthesis of DNA by ROB cells and MC3T3-E1 cells were markedly inhibited on exposure of cells to 3MC. Furthermore, 3MC reduced the activity of alkaline phosphatase and the rate of deposition of calcium by cells. The level of expression of mRNA for osteocalcin, which is a marker of osteoblastic differentiation, was also depressed by 3MC. Moreover, when 3MC (1 mg/kg body weight) was administered sc to pregnant mice at 10.5, 12.5, and 14.5 d post coitus, fetuses examined subsequently at 15.5 or 17.5 d post coitus revealed evidence of inhibition of appropriate calcification of bones. The treated metacarpals showed no subperiosteal bone matrix histologically. Our findings indicate that 3MC might have critical effects on the formation of bone both in vivo and in vitro.

  11. Pharmacopuncture for cancer care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Soyeon; Zhang, Xiuyu; Lee, In-Seon; Cho, Seung-Hun; Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Hyangsook

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pharmacopuncture, injection to acupoints with pharmacological medication or herbal medicine, is a new acupuncture therapy widely available in Korea and China for cancer-related symptoms. However, the evidence is yet to be clear. Objective. To determine pharmacopuncture's effectiveness on cancer-related symptoms. Methods. Eleven databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of pharmacopuncture in cancer patients. The Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Results. Twenty-two studies involving 2,459 patients were included. Five trials of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) underwent meta-analysis. Pharmacopuncture significantly relieved severity of CINV compared with control group (3 trials, risk ratio (RR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-1.44). The frequency of CINV was also significantly reduced with pharmacopuncture (2 trials, RR 2.47, 95% CI = 2.12-2.89). Seventeen trials studied various symptoms, and in most studies, pharmacopuncture significantly relieved pain, ileus, hiccup, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms and improved quality of life in various cancer patients. ROB was generally high. Conclusion. It may be suggested with caution that pharmacopuncture may help various symptom relief in cancer patients, but it is hard to draw a firm conclusion due to clinical heterogeneity and high ROB of the included studies, hence warranting further investigation.

  12. An invasive slug exploits an ant-seed dispersal mutualism.

    PubMed

    Meadley Dunphy, Shannon A; Prior, Kirsten M; Frederickson, Megan E

    2016-05-01

    Plant-animal mutualisms, such as seed dispersal, are often vulnerable to disruption by invasive species. Here, we show for the first time how a non-ant invasive species negatively affects seed dispersal by ants. We examined the effects of several animal species that co-occur in a temperate deciduous forest-including native and invasive seed-dispersing ants (Aphaenogaster rudis and Myrmica rubra, respectively), an invasive slug (Arion subfuscus), and native rodents-on a native myrmecochorous plant, Asarum canadense. We experimentally manipulated ant, slug, and rodent access to seed depots and measured seed removal. We also video-recorded depots to determine which other taxa interact with seeds. We found that A. rudis was the main disperser of seeds and that A. subfuscus consumed elaiosomes without dispersing seeds. Rodent visitation was rare, and rodent exclusion had no significant effect on seed or elaiosome removal. We then used data obtained from laboratory and field mesocosm experiments to determine how elaiosome robbing by A. subfuscus affects seed dispersal by A. rudis and M. rubra. We found that elaiosome robbing by slugs reduced seed dispersal by ants, especially in mesocosms with A. rudis, which picks up seeds more slowly than M. rubra. Taken together, our results show that elaiosome robbing by an invasive slug reduces seed dispersal by ants, suggesting that invasive slugs can have profound negative effects on seed dispersal mutualisms.

  13. Significant influence of the boreal summer monsoon flow on the Indian Ocean response during dipole events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Krishnan; Panickal, Swapna

    2010-05-01

    A majority of positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events in the last 50-years were accompanied by enhanced summer-monsoon circulation and above-normal precipitation over central-north India. Given that IODs peak during boreal-autumn following the summer-monsoon season, this study examines the role of the summer-monsoon flow on the Indian Ocean (IO) response using a suite of ocean model experiments and supplementary data-diagnostics. The present results indicate that if the summer-monsoon Hadley-type circulation strengthens during positive-IOD events, then the strong off-equatorial south-easterly winds over the northern flanks of the intensified Australian High can effectively promote upwelling in the south-eastern tropical Indian Ocean and amplify the zonal-gradient of the IO heat-content response. While it is noted that a strong-monsoon cross-equatorial flow by itself may not generate a dipole-like response, a strengthening (weakening) of monsoon easterlies to the south-of-equator during positive-IOD events tends to reinforce (hinder) the zonal-gradient of the upper-ocean heat-content response. The findings show that an intensification of monsoonal-winds during positive-IOD periods produces nonlinear amplification of easterly wind-stress anomalies to the south-of-equator due to the nonlinear dependence of wind-stress on wind-speed. It is noted that such an off-equatorial intensification of easterlies over SH enhances upwelling in the eastern IO off Sumatra-Java; and the thermocline shoaling provides a zonal pressure-gradient which drives anomalous eastward equatorial under-currents (EUC) in the sub-surface. Furthermore, the combination of positive-IOD and stronger-than-normal monsoonal flow favors intensification of shallow transient meridional-overturning circulation in the eastern IO; and enhances the feed of cold subsurface off-equatorial waters to the EUC. References: P. Swapna and R. Krishnan 2008: Geophy. Res. Lett. 35, L14S04, doi: 10.1029/ 2008GL033430 R

  14. Utilizing Nontraditional Data Sources for Near Real-Time Estimation of Transmission Dynamics During the 2015-2016 Colombian Zika Virus Disease Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Santillana, Mauricio; Mekaru, Sumiko R; McGinnis, Denise P; Khan, Kamran; Brownstein, John S

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 40 countries in Central and South America have experienced local vector-born transmission of Zika virus, resulting in nearly 300,000 total reported cases of Zika virus disease to date. Of the cases that have sought care thus far in the region, more than 70,000 have been reported out of Colombia. Objective In this paper, we use nontraditional digital disease surveillance data via HealthMap and Google Trends to develop near real-time estimates for the basic (R0) and observed (Robs) reproductive numbers associated with Zika virus disease in Colombia. We then validate our results against traditional health care-based disease surveillance data. Methods Cumulative reported case counts of Zika virus disease in Colombia were acquired via the HealthMap digital disease surveillance system. Linear smoothing was conducted to adjust the shape of the HealthMap cumulative case curve using Google search data. Traditional surveillance data on Zika virus disease were obtained from weekly Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) epidemiological bulletin publications. The Incidence Decay and Exponential Adjustment (IDEA) model was used to estimate R0 and Robs for both data sources. Results Using the digital (smoothed HealthMap) data, we estimated a mean R0 of 2.56 (range 1.42-3.83) and a mean Robs of 1.80 (range 1.42-2.30). The traditional (INS) data yielded a mean R0 of 4.82 (range 2.34-8.32) and a mean Robs of 2.34 (range 1.60-3.31). Conclusions Although modeling using the traditional (INS) data yielded higher R0 estimates than the digital (smoothed HealthMap) data, modeled ranges for Robs were comparable across both data sources. As a result, the narrow range of possible case projections generated by the traditional (INS) data was largely encompassed by the wider range produced by the digital (smoothed HealthMap) data. Thus, in the absence of traditional surveillance data, digital surveillance data can yield similar estimates for key transmission parameters and

  15. Disposal of Energy by UV-B Sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordlund, Thomas; Krishnan, Rajagopal

    2008-03-01

    Ideal sunscreens absorb dangerous UV light and dispose of the energy safely. ``Safe disposal'' usually means conversion to heat. However, efficient absorption entails a high radiative rate, which implies high energy-transfer and other rates, unless some process intervenes to ``defuse'' the excited state. We studied the excited-state kinetics of three UV-B (290-320 nm) sunscreens by absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence. Excited-state rate analysis suggests that some sunscreens have low radiative-rate ``dark'' states, in addition to normal excited states.* We deduce dark states when sunscreens of high extinction coefficient do not show lifetimes and total emission consistent with such high radiative rates. A high radiative rate, accompanied by efficient fluorescence emission and/or transfer, may be unfavorable for a sunscreen. In spite of its dark excited state, padimate O shows significant re-emission of light in the UV-A (320-400 nm) and energy transfer to a natural component of excised skin, probably collagen. * Krishnan, R. and T.M. Nordlund (2007) J. Fluoresc. DOI 10.1007/s10895-007-0264-3.

  16. The sixth presentation of the Maurice Ewing Medal by the American Geophysical Union and the United States Navy to Manik Talwani for leadership in marine geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeda, Seiya; Talwani, Manik

    Manik Talwani's impact on the geosciences clearly places him among those who deserve to be honored as a Ewing medalist. He has contributed major advances to our understanding of Earth's fundamental characteristics and has provided direction that will help guide geological/geophysical research long into the future.Born in Patiala, India, in 1933, Manik earned bachelor's and master's degrees at Delhi University. In the mid-1950s he moved to the United States and enrolled in Columbia University for his Ph.D. studies. It was the beginning of a long association between Manik and Columbia. When he earned his Ph.D. in 1959, it was already apparent that he was destined to make a significant impact on the geosciences. He has been the recipient of several important awards for his contributions and leadership. These include the first Krishnan Medal in 1965, from his home country, and the Macelwane Award from the American Geophysical Union, in 1967, for his pioneering achievements in the application of marine gravimetry to studies of Earth's crust and upper mantle. Since 1970, Manik has been a professor of geology at Columbia, and for 8 years he served as director of Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory. This evening, for his continued contributions and leadership, Manik is being awarded the Maurice Ewing Medal. He is truly qualified for this distinction, based on his many important original contributions to marine geophysics, ocean technology and instrumentation, and also for his outstanding service to marine science.

  17. Using design methods to provide the care that people want and need.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Kim; Krishnan, Jerry A

    2016-01-01

    Kim Erwin is an Assistant Professor at IIT Institute of Design and trained in user-centered design methods, which put people at the center of any problem space so as to develop solutions that better fit their everyday lives, activities and context. Her expertise is in making complex information easier to understand and use. Her research targets communication tools and methods for collaborative knowledge construction built through shared experiences. Her book, Communicating the New: Methods to shape and accelerate innovation focuses on helping teams explore, build and diffuse critical knowledge inside organizations. Jerry Krishnan is a Professor of Medicine and Public Health, and Associate Vice President for Population Health Sciences at the University of Illinois Hospital & Health Sciences System. He pioneered the use of Analytic Hierarchy Process to elicit the expressed needs of stakeholders for research. He previously served as Chair of the US FDA Pulmonary and Allergy Drugs Advisory Committee and is a Principal Investigator in NIH and Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI)-funded research consortia. He chairs the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Clinical Trials review committee and the PCORI Improving Healthcare Systems merit review panel.

  18. Risk factors and geographical heterogeneity in unintentional home injuries incidence rate: new evidence based on Multiscopo survey in Italy.

    PubMed

    Snidero, Silvia; Rahim, Yousif; Berchialla, Paola; Gregori, Dario

    2007-12-01

    Home injuries together, with road traffic accidents, are estimated to be the third cause of death in Italy (Arokiasamy and Krishnan 1994). However, as in most other countries, in Italy there is a lack of information on home injuries and on how differences in geographical patterns may influence the scope and magnitude of this phenomenon. By analysing a multipurpose large survey (Multiscopo) carried out annually, geographical heterogeneity in home injuries incidence rate can be investigated. The aim of this study is the assessment of possible differences in geographical patterns among the Italian regions making use of a re-analysis of Multiscopo home injury data. The study results show that Italian regions differ greatly in the number of home injuries. The geographical heterogeneity may be due to the unemployment rate and the incidence of poverty that is greater in the Southern and Insular regions than in other zones. Other socio-economic variables such as alcohol consumption can increase the risk of injury in the home. To prevent them it could be useful to organize campaigns aimed at increasing the awareness among people about this problem.

  19. Broad specificity of human phosphoglycerate kinase for antiviral nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Faraj, Abdesslem; Seclaman, Edward; Sommadossi, Jean-Pierre; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Véron, Michel

    2004-11-01

    Nucleoside analogs used in antiviral therapies need to be phosphorylated to their tri-phospho counterparts in order to be active on their cellular target. Human phosphoglycerate kinase (hPGK) was recently reported to participate in the last step of phosphorylation of cytidine L-nucleotide derivatives [Krishnan PGE, Lam W, Dutschman GE, Grill SP, Cheng YC. Novel role of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, a glycolytic enzyme, in the activation of L-nucleoside analogs, a new class of anticancer and antiviral agents. J Biol Chem 2003;278:36726-32]. In the present work, we extended the enzymatic study of human PGK specificity to purine and pyrimidine nucleotide derivatives in both D- and L-configuration. Human PGK demonstrated catalytic efficiencies in the 10(4)-10(5)M(-1)s(-1) range for purine ribo-, deoxyribo- and dideoxyribonucleotide derivatives, either in D- or L-configuration. In contrast, it was poorly active with natural pyrimidine D-nucleotides (less than 10(3)M(-1)s(-1)). Pyrimidine L-enantiomers, which are promising therapeutic analogs against B hepatitis, were 2-25 times better substrates than their D-counterparts. The broad specificity of substrate of human PGK suggests that this enzyme may be involved in the cellular activation of several antiviral nucleoside analogs including dideoxyinosine, acyclovir, L-2'-deoxycytosine and L-2'-deoxythymidine.

  20. Characterization of Sleep in Aplysia californica

    PubMed Central

    Vorster, Albrecht P.A.; Krishnan, Harini C.; Cirelli, Chiara; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To characterize sleep in the marine mollusk, Aplysia californica. Design: Animal behavior and activity were assessed using video recordings to measure activity, resting posture, resting place preference, and behavior after rest deprivation. Latencies for behavioral responses were measured for appetitive and aversive stimuli for animals in the wake and rest states. Setting: Circadian research laboratory for Aplysia. Patients or Participants: A. californica from the Pacific Ocean. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Aplysia rest almost exclusively during the night in a semi-contracted body position with preferential resting locations in the upper corners of their tank. Resting animals demonstrate longer latencies in head orientation and biting in response to a seaweed stimulus and less frequent escape response steps following an aversive salt stimulus applied to the tail compared to awake animals at the same time point. Aplysia exhibit rebound rest the day following rest deprivation during the night, but not after similar handling stimulation during the day. Conclusions: Resting behavior in Aplysia fulfills all invertebrate characteristics of sleep including: (1) a specific sleep body posture, (2) preferred resting location, (3) reversible behavioral quiescence, (4) elevated arousal thresholds for sensory stimuli during sleep, and (5) compensatory sleep rebound after sleep deprivation. Citation: Vorster AP, Krishnan HC, Cirelli C, Lyons LC. Characterization of sleep in Aplysia californica. SLEEP 2014;37(9):1453-1463. PMID:25142567

  1. Intraseasonal Variability of the South Asian Summer Monsoon: Present-day Simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Model HIRHAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, F. S.; Rinke, A.; Dethloff, K.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1950, observations show a robust negative trend of the seasonal rainfall associated with the South Asian summer monsoon over India coinciding with a continuous decrease in surface solar radiation ("dimming") over South Asia due to an increase of local aerosol emissions. On the intraseasonal timescale the summer monsoon fluctuates between periods of enhanced and reduced rainfall. The frequency of occurrence of these active and breaks monsoon phases affects directly the seasonal monsoon rainfall. This study investigates the regional pattern and changes of the South Asian monsoon for the period 1979-2012 using the regional atmospheric model HIRHAM5 with a horizontal resolution of 0.25° forced at the lateral and lower boundaries with ERA-Interim reanalysis data. Despite the dry bias in the mean summer monsoon rainfall over the Indian landmass, the simulated temperature and atmospheric circulation patterns are in agreement with the ERA-Interim reanalysis indicating a realistic representation of important dynamical summer monsoon features. In addition, mechanisms which controls active and break phases within the summer monsoon season are analyzed using daily outgoing longwave radiation model data as an identification tool of monsoon breaks as proposed by Krishnan et al. (2000). Model results reveal an increasing trend of the cumulative monsoon break days of around 1.4 days per year during the last 30 years. The possible link between this increasing of cumulative monsoon break days and the observed decrease of seasonal South Asian monsoon rainfall will be the scope of further investigations.

  2. A Polarized Light Microscopic Study to Comparatively evaluate Four Remineralizing Agents on Enamel viz CPP-ACPF, ReminPro, SHY-NM and Colgate Strong Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ramesh; Bhaskaran, Bibin; Kumar, Suresh V

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To compare and evaluate the remineralizing potential of four commercially available products namely SHY-NM, GC Tooth Mousse Plus, ReminPro and Colgate strong teeth on demineralized human teeth. Materials and methods: The study included 50 extracted premolars having 3 × 3 mm window prepared on the middle third of the tooth, which was then subjected to demineralization for 48 hours at 37°C. Teeth were randomly selected and grouped into five study groups of 10 teeth in each. Each group was treated with respective remineralizing agent and sectioned using hard-tissue microtome. Each section obtained was visualized under polarized light microscope and analyzed using Image J software. Results: The statistically evaluated results revealed that SHY-NM has the most remineralizing potential followed by ReminPro, GC Tooth Mousse Plus and fluoridated toothpaste. Conclusion: Based on the study, the SHY-NM was superior to the GC Tooth Mousse Plus, ReminPro and Colgate strong teeth on demineralized human teeth. How to cite this article: Rajan R, Krishnan R, Bhaskaran B, Kumar SV. A Polarized Light Microscopic Study to Comparatively evaluate Four Remineralizing Agents on Enamel viz CPP-ACPF, ReminPro, SHY-NM and Colgate Strong Teeth. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):42-47. PMID:26124580

  3. Electromagnetically driven, fast opening and closing gas jet valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Elliott, Kristi Wilson; Geddes, C. G. R.; van Mourik, R. A.; Leemans, W. P.; Murphy, H.; Clover, M.

    2011-03-01

    The design and performance are presented of an electromagnetically driven gas valve [M. Krishnan, J. Wright, and T. Ma, Proceedings of the 13th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop, Santa Cruz, CA, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 1086 (AIP, New York, 2008)] that opens in <100μs, closes in <500μs, and can operate at pressures of ˜1000psia to drive supersonic nozzles. Such a valve has applications to laser-plasma accelerators, where the fast opening and closing would allow sharper edges to the flow and also allow higher rep-rate operation without loading the vacuum chamber. The valve action is effected by a flyer plate accelerated by the electromagnetic impulse of a low inductance, spiral wound, strip-line coil driven by a capacitor. Gas flows out of the valve when the seal between this flyer plate and the valve seat is broken. The electromagnetic force greatly exceeds the restoring forces provided by a spring and the gas pressure against the valve seat. Piezoresistive sensor and laser interferometer measurements of flow show that the valve opens in ˜100μs for all pressures up to 800 psia. The closing time is 500μs, set by the spring constant and mass. The prototype valve has been operated with helium at 0.5 Hz and at 500 psia for ˜1 hour at a time with no cooling.

  4. Prediction of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds for the interpretation of data in breath gas analysis6

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Christian; Mochalski, Paweł; Unterkofler, Karl; Agapiou, Agapios; Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Liedl, Klaus R

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a database of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients (λb:a and λf:a) is reported for estimating 1678 volatile organic compounds recently reported to appear in the volatilome of the healthy human. For this purpose, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach was applied and a novel method for Henry’s law constants prediction developed. A random forest model based on Molecular Operating Environment 2D (MOE2D) descriptors based on 2619 literature-reported Henry’s constant values was built. The calculated Henry’s law constants correlate very well (R2test = 0.967) with the available experimental data. Blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients were calculated according to the method proposed by Poulin and Krishnan using the estimated Henry’s constant values. The obtained values correlate reasonably well with the experimentally determined ones for a test set of 90 VOCs (R2 = 0.95). The provided data aim to fill in the literature data gap and further assist the interpretation of results in studies of the human volatilome. PMID:26815030

  5. Activation of 5‐HT2A receptors by TCB‐2 induces recurrent oscillatory burst discharge in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the mPFC in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Spindle, Michael S.; Thomas, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a region of neocortex that plays an integral role in several cognitive processes which are abnormal in schizophrenic patients. As with other cortical regions, large‐bodied layer 5 pyramidal neurons serve as the principle subcortical output of microcircuits of the mPFC. The coexpression of both inhibitory serotonin 5‐HT1A receptors on the axon initial segments, and excitatory 5‐HT2A receptors throughout the somatodendritic compartments, by layer 5 pyramidal neurons allows serotonin to provide potent top–down regulation of input–output relationships within cortical microcircuits. Application of 5‐HT2A agonists has previously been shown to enhance synaptic input to layer 5 pyramidal neurons, as well as increase the gain in neuronal firing rate in response to increasing depolarizing current steps. Using whole‐cell patch‐clamp recordings obtained from layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the mPFC of C57/bl6 mice, the aim of our present study was to investigate the modulation of long‐term spike trains by the selective 5‐HT2A agonist TCB‐2. We found that in the presence of synaptic blockers, TCB‐2 induced recurrent oscillatory bursting (ROB) after 15–20 sec of tonic spiking in 7 of the 14 cells. In those seven cells, ROB discharge was accurately predicted by the presence of a voltage sag in response to a hyperpolarizing current injection. This effect was reversed by 5–10 min of drug washout and ROB discharge was inhibited by both synaptic activity and coapplication of the 5‐HT2A/2C antagonist ketanserin. While the full implications of this work are not yet understood, it may provide important insight into serotonergic modulation of cortical networks. PMID:24844635

  6. SSH-BM-I, a tryptamine derivative, stimulates mineralization in terminal osteoblast differentiation but inhibits osteogenesis of pre-committed progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Yoshikazu; Somei, Masanori; Tsuda, Hiromasa

    2011-01-01

    SSH-BM-I was synthesized from tryptamine by using a newly developed synthetic method, and it has structural similarity to bromomelatonin. Recently, it had been reported that SSH-BM-I increases osteoblasts in scales of gold fish. However, the effect of SSH-BM-I on osteoblast differentiation in mammalian cells has not yet been examined. Therefore, this study examined the effect of SSH-BM-I on osteoblast differentiation in mesenchymal progenitor-like cells and mature osteoblast-like cells. SSH-BM-I enhanced terminal osteoblast differentiation, as indicated by mineralization, which was accompanied by upregulation of the osteogenic marker genes bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OC). However, in mesenchymal progenitor ROB-C26 cultures, no mineralized nodules were observed regardless of SSH-BM-I treatment, although BMP-2 was able to induce nodule formation in these cells. Furthermore, BMP-2-induced nodule formation was suppressed by SSH-BM-I treatment in ROB-C26 cultures. We further investigated the impact of the timing and duration of SSH-BM-I treatment on osteoblast differentiation. The effect of SSH-BM-I treatment on osteoblast differentiation of ROB-C26 in the presence of BMP-2 switches from negative to positive sometime between day 6 and 9, because SSH-BM-I treatment enhanced the formation of mineralized nodules when it was started on day 9, but suppressed nodule formation when it was started at day 6 or earlier. These results suggest that the stimulatory effects of SSH-BM-I on the formation of mineralized nodules depend on the degree of cell differentiation.

  7. Gloss, colour and grip: multifunctional epidermal cell shapes in bee- and bird-pollinated flowers.

    PubMed

    Papiorek, Sarah; Junker, Robert R; Lunau, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and spectral reflectance of flowers pollinated by either bees or birds testing three hypotheses: The first two hypotheses imply that bee-pollinated flowers might benefit from rough surfaces on visually-active parts produced by conical epidermal cells, as they may enhance the colour signal of flowers as well as the grip on flowers for bees. In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging. Moreover, flat petal surfaces in bird-pollinated flowers may hamper grip for bees that do not touch anthers and stigmas while consuming nectar and thus, are considered as nectar thieves. Beside this, the third hypothesis implies that those flower parts which are vulnerable to nectar robbing of bee- as well as bird-pollinated flowers benefit from flat epidermal cells, hampering grip for nectar robbing bees. Our comparative data show in fact that conical epidermal cells are restricted to visually-active parts of bee-pollinated flowers, whereas robbing-sensitive parts of bee-pollinated as well as the entire floral surface of bird-pollinated flowers possess on average flat epidermal cells. However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found. Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower-visitors.

  8. Nectar robbery by a hermit hummingbird: association to floral phenotype and its influence on flowers and network structure.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Dalsgaard, Bo; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies

    2015-07-01

    Interactions between flowers and their visitors span the spectrum from mutualism to antagonism. The literature is rich in studies focusing on mutualism, but nectar robbery has mostly been investigated using phytocentric approaches focused on only a few plant species. To fill this gap, we studied the interactions between a nectar-robbing hermit hummingbird, Phaethornis ruber, and the array of flowers it visits. First, based on a literature review of the interactions involving P. ruber, we characterized the association of floral larceny to floral phenotype. We then experimentally examined the effects of nectar robbing on nectar standing crop and number of visits of the pollinators to the flowers of Canna paniculata. Finally, we asked whether the incorporation of illegitimate interactions into the analysis affects plant-hummingbird network structure. We identified 97 plant species visited by P. ruber and found that P. ruber engaged in floral larceny in almost 30% of these species. Nectar robbery was especially common in flowers with longer corolla. In terms of the effect on C. paniculata, the depletion of nectar due to robbery by P. ruber was associated with decreased visitation rates of legitimate pollinators. At the community level, the inclusion of the illegitimate visits of P. ruber resulted in modifications of how modules within the network were organized, notably giving rise to a new module consisting of P. ruber and mostly robbed flowers. However, although illegitimate visits constituted approximately 9% of all interactions in the network, changes in nestedness, modularity, and network-level specialization were minor. Our results indicate that although a flower robber may have a strong effect on the pollination of a particular plant species, the inclusion of its illegitimate interactions has limited capacity to change overall network structure.

  9. Gloss, Colour and Grip: Multifunctional Epidermal Cell Shapes in Bee- and Bird-Pollinated Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Papiorek, Sarah; Junker, Robert R.; Lunau, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and spectral reflectance of flowers pollinated by either bees or birds testing three hypotheses: The first two hypotheses imply that bee-pollinated flowers might benefit from rough surfaces on visually-active parts produced by conical epidermal cells, as they may enhance the colour signal of flowers as well as the grip on flowers for bees. In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging. Moreover, flat petal surfaces in bird-pollinated flowers may hamper grip for bees that do not touch anthers and stigmas while consuming nectar and thus, are considered as nectar thieves. Beside this, the third hypothesis implies that those flower parts which are vulnerable to nectar robbing of bee- as well as bird-pollinated flowers benefit from flat epidermal cells, hampering grip for nectar robbing bees. Our comparative data show in fact that conical epidermal cells are restricted to visually-active parts of bee-pollinated flowers, whereas robbing-sensitive parts of bee-pollinated as well as the entire floral surface of bird-pollinated flowers possess on average flat epidermal cells. However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found. Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower

  10. Dreaming of Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Ingo

    2016-10-01

    Radiative transfer retrievals have become the standard in modelling of exoplanetary transmission and emission spectra. Analysing currently available observations of exoplanetary atmospheres often invoke large and correlated parameter spaces that can be difficult to map or constrain.To address these issues, we have developed the Tau-REx (tau-retrieval of exoplanets) retrieval and the RobERt spectral recognition algorithms. Tau-REx is a bayesian atmospheric retrieval framework using Nested Sampling and cluster computing to fully map these large correlated parameter spaces. Nonetheless, data volumes can become prohibitively large and we must often select a subset of potential molecular/atomic absorbers in an atmosphere.In the era of open-source, automated and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, such manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is build to address these issues. RobERt is a deep belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognise molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles and compositions. Using these deep neural networks, we work towards retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.In this talk I will discuss how neural networks and Bayesian Nested Sampling can be used to solve highly degenerate spectral retrieval problems and what 'dreaming' neural networks can tell us about atmospheric characteristics.

  11. Distribution of Fos-Like Immunoreactivity, Catecholaminergic and Serotoninergic Neurons Activated by the Laryngeal Chemoreflex in the Medulla Oblongata of Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolu; Guo, Ruichen; Zhao, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    The laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR) induces apnea, glottis closure, bradycardia and hypertension in young and maturing mammals. We examined the distribution of medullary nuclei that are activated by the LCR and used immunofluorescent detection of Fos protein as a cellular marker for neuronal activation to establish that the medullary catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons participate in the modulation of the LCR. The LCR was elicited by the infusion of KCl-HCl solution into the laryngeal lumen of adult rats in the experimental group, whereas the control group received the same surgery but no infusion. In comparison, the number of regions of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) that were activated by the LCR significantly increased in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC), the loose formation of the nucleus ambiguus (AmbL), the rostral ventral respiratory group (RVRG), the ventrolateral reticular complex (VLR), the pre-Bötzinger complex (PrBöt), the Bötzinger complex (Böt), the spinal trigeminal nucleus (SP5), and the raphe obscurus nucleus (ROb) bilaterally from the medulla oblongata. Furthermore, 12.71% of neurons with FLI in the dorsolateral part of the nucleus of the solitary tract (SolDL) showed tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity (TH-ir, catecholaminergic), and 70.87% of neurons with FLI in the ROb were serotoninergic. Our data demonstrated the distribution of medullary nuclei that were activated by the LCR, and further demonstrated that catecholaminergic neurons of the SolDL and serotoninergic neurons of the ROb were activated by the LCR, indicating the potential central pathway of the LCR.

  12. Active Component Responsibility in Reserve Component Pre- and Postmobilization Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    properly documented (Weiss, 2008, and Sanzo, 2008). The USAR established three regional training centers (RTCs), at Fort McCoy , Wisconsin; Fort Hunter...2008. Schuette, Rob, “Regional Training Center-North Standing up at McCoy ,” The Real McCoy , March 14, 2008. As of February 27, 2014: http...Transformation,” Carlisle Barracks, Pa.: U.S. Army War College, April 13, 2010. Witscheber, Loni, “Operation Warrior Trainer Offered at Fort McCoy ,” October

  13. DLA’s Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pilots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-07

    DLA’s Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pilots E2S2 Conference May 7, 2009 Rob Hardison LMI rhardison@lmi.org Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DLA’s Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pilots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...and fuel cells offer potential „green‟ solutions •DLA‟s efforts to measure and improve viability of fuel cells DoD is supporting long term solutions

  14. Autonomous Research Vessels for Adaptive Upper-Ocean Process Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    outlet glacier,  and within meters of large icebergs .   This vehicle  was  specifically  developed  for fjord research, so is small (2...sampling.   As an example,  data from a 1.5 hour mission to study the dynamics of iceberg wakes is shown  below.   During this period, R/V Rob...Sanna, and were  obtainedwithin meters of an unstable   iceberg ; moreover, data were uncontaminated  as shallow as 1 m from the ocean surface

  15. Acidification of Europa's subsurface ocean as a consequence of oxidant delivery.

    PubMed

    Pasek, Matthew A; Greenberg, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Oxidants are formed at the surface of Europa and may be delivered to the subsurface ocean, possibly in great quantities. Whether these substances would be available for biological metabolism is uncertain, because they may react with sulfides and other compounds to generate sulfuric and other acids. If this process has been active on Europa for much of its age, then not only would it rob the ocean of life-supporting oxidants but the subsurface ocean could have a pH of ~2.6, which is so acidic as to present an environmental challenge for life, unless organisms consume or sequester the oxidants fast enough to ameliorate the acidification.

  16. Musical tradition, insurrection, and resurrection: the life and legacy of composer/bassist Charles Mingus.

    PubMed

    St Louis, E K

    1999-01-01

    Charles Mingus was perhaps the foremost straight-ahead jazz upright bassist and composer of his generation, blending the inspirational influences of gospel, jazz improvisation, and art music leanings into a unique style all his own. His demise from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in his fifth decade robbed the world of one of the great creative voices of American music. Aspects of Mingus' life, his career as a bassist, bandleader, and composer, and his neuromuscular illness are discussed, emphasizing his legacy for the disparate fields of jazz and neurology.

  17. Field experiments with transformed plants reveal the sense of floral scents.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Danny; Gase, Klaus; Baldwin, Ian T

    2008-08-29

    Plants use many means to attract pollinators, including visual cues and odor. We investigated how nonpigment floral chemistry influences nectar removal, floral visitation, florivory, rates of outcrossing, and fitness through both male and female functions. We blocked expression of biosynthetic genes of the dominant floral attractant [benzyl acetone (Nachal1)] and nectar repellent [nicotine (Napmt1/2)] in all combinations in the native tobacco Nicotiana attenuata and measured their effects on plants in their native habitat. Both repellent and attractant were required to maximize capsule production and seed siring in emasculated flowers and flower visitation by native pollinators, whereas nicotine reduced florivory and nectar robbing.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Astrometric observations of Phobos (Pasewaldt+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasewaldt, A.; Oberst, J.; Willner, K.; Beisembin, B.; Hoffmann, H.; Matz, K. D.; Roatsch, T.; Michael, G.; Cardesin-Moinelo, A.; Zubarev, A. E.

    2015-04-01

    The data is given in the form of two tables. Each table contains the same set of observations: Data in tablea1.dat has been reduced using MEX navigation orbits and predicted attitude by the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC). tablea2.dat data has been derived using MEX accurate orbits by the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) and measured attitude by the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC). >From 158 astrometric observations 103 were determined by means of both methods, 27 using only control point measurements, and 28 performing only limb fit observations. Hence, each data table contains 261 entries, namely 130 control point measurements and 131 limb fit observations. (2 data files).

  19. FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE WITH VAB IN BACKGROUND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    With the Vehicle Assembly Building looming in the background, Warner Bros.' cast and crew are filming scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 29. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best- selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  20. FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE SEEN FROM VAB ROOF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The filming of scenes for the movie 'Contact' by Warner Bros.' cast and crew at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 29 is captured by cameras on the roof of the Vehicle Assembly Building. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best-selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  1. FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE WITH VAB IN BACKGROUND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    With the Vehicle Assembly Building looming in the background, Warner Bros.' cast and crew are filming scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 30. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best- selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  2. FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Warner Bros.' cast and crew are filming scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 30. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best- selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  3. DIRECTOR/PRODUCER ROBERT ZEMECKIS DURING FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Robert Zemeckis, director/producer, and other Warner Bros. crew members oversee the filming of scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 30. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best-selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  4. FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Warner Bros.' cast and crew are filming scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 29. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best- selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  5. MORIARTY, ZEMECKIS, BURGESS AND OTHERS DURING FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    From left, Bruce Moriarty, first assistant director; Robert Zemeckis, director/producer; Don Burgess, director of photography; and other Warner Bros. crew members oversee the filming of scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 29. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best-selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  6. A Report of Research on Detection of Deception

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-09-15

    skin reflex as the olo indioator: 1, Aouracy of dotootion and the offet of repotition III &xploratory otudios in the dotoution of dooaption with eho 6...on Six, difroint questions were aahad. -and they woro ropeatod fivri timcisq in a cluasi- rtindom order. Tho size of the gnialvjnic skin roflox fo...rrin galvnic skin rorLox t P ~o.LL’,iyvd tho lyinq roesnunes It Is concluded that- (1) tho r,~sics.’ n---y iq rob4 : -10’.ctd. ao of lyin- for a large

  7. United States - Japan Seminar on Quantum Mechanical Aspects of Quantum Electronics Held in Monterey, California on 21-24 July 1987,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    observe this nonadiabatic phase. Possible applications, e.g., to gyroscopes, will be discussed. 1-344-O, -y S. fnP - 69,pii CO /a bL - or S’ ra~ ~ ~~4 P...0: S~rob oco 360O /C) _____ H)IFT 2.’ .in -erC fo rvced a r o tA n c/c rcre Cc v evc r*u*~mIE~ ~~ , I, r N * &/ v. III kL 3 -3147- 6. er ’s vt 2

  8. Fatal and Severe Injury Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Air Force Personnel 1988-1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    stronger than man. –G. K. Chesterton Motor vehicle accidents are the nation‘s most common and costly serious injury producer, and rob the young in...Public Health. 1998;112(5):289-95. 14 Laapotti S, Keskinen E. —Differences in fatal loss-of-control accidents between young male and female drivers... Accident Analysis and Prevention. 1998;30(4):435-42. 15 Doherty ST, Andrey JC, MacGregor C. —The situational risks of young drivers: the influence

  9. Retinoids for treatment of retinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2010-06-01

    Knowledge about retinal photoreceptor signal transduction and the visual cycle required for normal eyesight has increased exponentially over the past decade. Substantial progress in human genetics has facilitated the identification of candidate genes and complex networks underlying inherited retinal diseases. Natural mutations in animal models that mimic human diseases have been characterized and advanced genetic manipulation can now be used to generate small mammalian models of human retinal diseases. Pharmacological repair of defective visual processes in animal models not only validates their involvement in vision, but also provides great promise for the development of improved therapies for millions who are progressing towards blindness or are almost completely robbed of their eyesight.

  10. CTC Sentinel. Volume 9, Issue 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    fallback” option. The particular characteristics of the Libyan landscape and the Islamic State’s limitations there make this unlikely. Nonetheless...has robbed banks of a report- ed total of US$1 billion. It engages in oil sales (both crude smuggled outside the Islamic State’s territory and retail...spoils of war (al-anfâl).”44 Lastly, the Islamic State in Libya may be able to make money from small amounts of oil that it is able to bunker from

  11. Structural approaches to understanding retinal proteins needed for vision

    PubMed Central

    Orban, Tivadar; Jastrzebska, Beata; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an impressive expansion of our knowledge of retinal photoreceptor signal transduction and the regulation of the visual cycle required for normal eyesight. Progress in human genetics and next generation sequencing technologies have revealed the complexity behind many inherited retinal diseases. Structural studies have markedly increased our understanding of the visual process. Moreover, technical innovations and improved methodologies in proteomics, macromolecular crystallization and high resolution imaging at different levels set the scene for even greater advances. Pharmacology combined with structural biology of membrane proteins holds great promise for developing innovative accessible therapies for millions robbed of their sight or progressing toward blindness. PMID:24680428

  12. Accretion Processes in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Martínez-País, Ignacio; Shahbaz, Tariq; Casares Velázquez, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    List of contributors; List of participants; Preface; Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; 1. Accretion disks Henk Spruit; 2. The evolution of binary systems Philipp Podsiadlowski; 3. Accretion onto white dwarfs Brian Warner; 4. Accretion in X-ray binary systems Robert I. Hynes; 5. X-ray binary populations in galaxies Giuseppina Fabbiano; 6. Observational characteristics of accretion onto black holes I Chris Done; 7. Observational characteristics of accretion onto black holes II Rob Fender; 8. Computing black hole accretion John F. Hawley; Appendix: Piazzi Smyth, the Cape of Good Hope, Tenerife and the siting of large telescopes Brian Warner.

  13. Biometry, biometrics, biostatistics, bioinformatics,..., bio-X.

    PubMed

    Molenberghs, Geert

    2005-03-01

    Recent scientific evolutions force us to rethink our profession's position on the scientific map, in relation to our neighboring professions, the ones with which we traditionally have strong collaborative links as well as the newly emerging fields, but also within our own, diverse professional group. We will show that great inspiration can be drawn from our own history, in fact from the early days of the Society. A recent inspiring example has been set by the late Rob Kempton, who died suddenly just months before he was to become President of the International Biometric Society.

  14. From Onions to Shallots: Rewarding Tor Relays with TEARS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-18

    From Onions to Shallots: Rewarding Tor Relays with TEARS Rob Jansen1, Andrew Miller2, Paul Syverson1, and Bryan Ford3 1 U.S. Naval Research... Onions to Shallots: Rewarding Tor Relays with TEARS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...which, as in BRAIDS [15], may be contained within an onion -wrapped message). Thus, with- out needing to interact with the bank, the relay can confirm the

  15. Dealing with innovation and costs in orthopedics: a conversation with Dane Miller. Interview by Lawton R Burns.

    PubMed

    Miller, Dane

    2006-01-01

    Rob Burns talks with Dane Miller, former CEO of Biomet, about challenges posed by new technology in the orthopedic devices area. One key challenge is the rising cost and use of orthopedic devices at a time when providers are facing decreased profitability and reimbursement for orthopedic services. Another challenge is the long-term time horizon needed to gauge product success that contrasts with payers' and providers' short-term horizon. A third challenge is heightened governmental scrutiny of device makers' relationships with orthopedic surgeons. This interview was conducted before Miller left Biomet in March 2006.

  16. The Harmon Memorial Lectures in Military History 1959-1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    the Moros, somehow rob it of its hallow. This achieved, and discretion might have a chance over valor . Knowledge of the Koran and its teachings offered...other men . ,uld see that fine qualities of leadership and valor were appreciated by the Army. He was furious when red tape in the rear areas made...34Back of us stretches a line of men whose acts of valor , of self-sacrifice and of service have been the theme of song and story since long before

  17. Visual Aids and Eye Protection for the Aviator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    pigmentosa patients. Retinitis pigmen- toss robs you of your night vision very quickly. You still can see centrally and in the daytime but very little at...AND VISUAL AIDS by D.H.Brennan CI INTEGRATION OF AVIATOR’S EYE PROTECTION AND VISUAL AIDS by G.TChisum and P.E.Morway C2 PROTECTION FROM RETINAL BURNS...ensure that infra red wavelengths outside the visible band (MOO-1400 nm) are also attenuated to avoid any possibility of retinal burns. Short ultra

  18. Retinoids for Treatment of Retinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about retinal photoreceptor signal transduction and the visual cycle required for normal eyesight has expanded exponentially over the past decade. Substantial progress in human genetics has allowed identification of candidate genes and complex networks underlying inherited retinal diseases. Natural mutations in animal models that mimic human diseases have been characterized and advanced genetic manipulation now permits generation of small mammalian models of human retinal diseases. Pharmacological repair of defective visual processes in animal models not only validates their involvement in vision but also provides great promise for developing improved therapies for the millions that are progressing towards blindness or are almost completely robbed of eyesight. PMID:20435355

  19. COMMITTEES: SQM2004 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    Organising Committee Jean Cleymans (Chairman) Zeblon Vilakazi Roger Fearick Peter Steinberg Rory Adams Bruce Becker Sarah Blyth Gareth de Vaux Heather Gray Mark Horner Nawahl Razak Artur Szostak Spencer Wheaton International Advisory Committee Federico Antinori Tim Hallman John Harris Tetsuo Hatsuda Ulrich Heinz Huan Z Huang Sonja Kabana Volker Koch Rob Lacey Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Maurizio Morando Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Josef Pochodzalla Johann Rafelski Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Georges Stephans Horst Stoecker Herbert Stroebele Thomas Ullrich Orlando Villalobos-Baillie Bill Zajc Joseph Zimanyi

  20. Geomagnetism-Paleomagnetism Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subir K.

    I n response to strong member concerns about the future of geomagnetism, Neil D. Opdyke, President of the Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism Section, has appointed an ad hoc Committee for the Future of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism consisting of Subir K. Banerjee (chair; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis), Joseph Cain (U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colo.) and Rob Van der Voo (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor). The committee seeks, from the membership at large, perceptions of future directions of research, help in identifying a few expanding research areas that show a promise of delivering significant results in the next 5 to 10 years, and guidance in generating a strategy to bring these about.

  1. Optic Neuropathy As the Initial Presenting Sign of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Mugavin, Mark; Mueller, Brett H; Desai, Masoom; Golnik, Karl C

    2017-04-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with painless vision loss for 3 months. She was in custody for allegedly robbing a bank and had recently been diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. She had 20/100 VA OD, a 2+RAPD, and optic atrophy. Extensive diagnostic workup including MRI, Fluorescein Angiography, Infectious Disease Panel, lumbar puncture, and leptomeningeal biopsy were unrevealing. Vision in her right eye declined to NLP and her left eye declined to 20/200 VA. Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Autoimmune Encephalitis was diagnosed based on CSF serology and clinical suspicion. Her clinical course improved as she was treated with corticosteroids and rituximab.

  2. Acquisition of Basic Behaviors through Teleoperation using Robonaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Christina

    2004-01-01

    My area of research is in artificial intelligence and robotics. The major platform of this research is NASA's Robonaut. This humanoid robot is located at the Johnson Space Center. Prior to receiving this grant, I was able to spend two summers in Houston working with the Robonaut team, which is headed by Rob Ambrose. My work centered on teaching Robonaut to grasp a wrench based on data gathered as a human teleoperated the robot. I tried to make the procedure as general as possible so that many different motions could be taught using this method.

  3. Infrared Sensor and Imaging System. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    7, 1729 (1968) (3) Robillard, J., Optics & Laser Technology, 6, 117 (1976) (4) Drude P . Wied, Am. 43, 126 (1891) (5) W. Kuhn, Transaction Faraday Soc...Number 4,751,387 RobWard 1491 Date of Patent: Jun. 14, 1988 (54) [NFRARED IMAGING SYSTEM AND FRINPTN OU ET METHOD FRINPTN OUET 1120093 6/1966 Uited...by the infrared scene and enter. E,-Ae p Aw.a8+ p ) 45 ing the aperture of the infrared imaging system can be evauted considering an element dS of the

  4. Fusion Centers: Securing America’s Heartland From Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    placed a pipe bomb at a Planned Parenthood office in Spokane, WA, and robbed the same branch of the US Bank using an AK-47, a 12-gauge shotgun, a revolver...Specific Recovery Act Plan ” May 15, 2009, 4. 5 received criticism from congressional oversight for costing “$770 million after four years and we...for terrorists to plan new attacks, as policymakers often focus on preventing another 9/11 and fail to realize the threat has morphed.36 Radical

  5. Celebrating 45 years of postgraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Blandy, John; Allen, Mark; Miller, Rob; Linssen, Rebecca

    2011-10-01

    We are delighted to be celebrating 45 years of publication of the British Journal of Hospital Medicine. The first issue was published in October 1966 (see right) and its introductory editorial is reproduced on p. 546-7. Here we have some brief thoughts from Professor John Blandy, one of the original members of the editorial board, from Mark Allen, the publisher who took the journal over from its previous publishers Thomson in 1985, and from Professor Rob Miller and Rebecca Linssen, the current Editor-in-Chief and Editor.

  6. Publication committee meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Publications Committee has oversight responsibility for the entire AGU publications program. It is supported in this activity by the Journals Board, the Books Board, and the Translations Board. The 1982-1984 committee is chaired by Thomas Graedel. Serving with him are David Atlas, Grant Gross, Jurate Landwehr, Peter Molnar, George Reid, and Rob Van der Voo.At its November 3-4 meeting the new committee spent much of its time acquainting its elf with the scope of the program, the current problems, and the potential opportunities. In addition to setting the background against which the work of the next two years would take place, the committee

  7. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-15

    Taiwan to Get Variety of Arms,” Washington Post, April 24, 2001; Neil King Jr., “Bush Defers Sale of Aegis to Taiwan, Will Offer Four Kidd-Class...Interview with PBS, December 10, 2004. 137 President George W. Bush, “Your World with Neil Cavuto,” Fox News, June 8, 2005. 138 The speech was read by a...Representatives Rob Simmons, Lane Evans, Roskoe Bartlett , Chris Smith, John Hostettler, Madeleine Bordallo, Trent Franks, and Jeb Bradley, January 31

  8. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-24

    April 24, 2001; Steven Mufson and Dana Milbank, “Taiwan to Get Variety of Arms,” Washington Post, April 24, 2001; Neil King Jr., “Bush Defers Sale of...George W. Bush, “Your World with Neil Cavuto,” Fox News, June 8, 2005. 146 A DSCA official, Ed Ross, read the speech on September 19, 2005, in San Diego...Representatives Rob Simmons, Lane Evans, Roskoe Bartlett , Chris Smith, John Hostettler, Madeleine Bordallo, Trent Franks, and Jeb Bradley, January 31 and

  9. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-02

    of Arms,” Washington Post, April 24, 2001; Neil King Jr., “Bush Defers Sale of Aegis to Taiwan, Will Offer Four Kidd-Class Destroyers,” Wall Street...Interview with PBS, December 10, 2004. 134 President George W. Bush, “Your World with Neil Cavuto,” Fox News, June 8, 2005. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms...Representatives Rob Simmons, Lane Evans, Roskoe Bartlett , Chris Smith, John Hostettler, Madeleine Bordallo, Trent Franks, and Jeb Bradley, January 31 and

  10. Circumcising the Void: (de)contextualising in Complex Lacanian Psychoanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grave, Dieter

    In contemporary psychoanalysis, the true origin of the science seems to be put aside to get it in vogue with the rest of the scientific framework and psychoanalytical thinking. Although this is a defendable position from which to approach psychoanalysis, it robs it of its core. In this paper, we take the hard-core themes of psychoanalysis such as death and sex, to heart and show how they can be linked to the other sciences, such as the theory of complexity, without censoring or rephrasing the concepts or the language itself.

  11. Deciphering the Adaptive Immune Response to Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Network, Weinstein JN, Collisson EA, Mills GB, Shaw KR, Ozenberger BA, Ellrott K, Shmulevich I, Sander C, Stuart JM. The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer...Ph.D. Final Report Dec 2015 4 W81XWH-12-1-0604 (OC110435) Final Report, Dec 2015 PI: Brad H. Nelson, Ph.D. Co-PIs: Rob Holt, Ph.D., John Webb Ph.D...pilot grant from Canada’s Networks of Centres of Excellence (NCE) program, we are collaborating with Dr. John Babcook at the Centre for Drug Research

  12. The development of e-MERLIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrington, Simon; Beswick, Rob

    2016-06-01

    Deep in the heart of the Cheshire countryside lies Jodrell Bank Observatory, home to the UK's national facility for high-resolution radio astronomy: e-MERLIN, the enhanced Multi-Element Remote-Linked Interferometer Network. In this issue of A&G, the e-MERLIN team highlights some of its cutting-edge experiments, probing fundamental physical processes in our own galaxy, and reaching further out to higher redshift where radio astronomy can investigate cosmic history and evolution. In this first article, Simon Garrington and Rob Beswick explain how e-MERLIN came to be.

  13. HP-41CV Flight Performance Advisory System (FPAS) for the E-2C, E-2B, and C-2A Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    Ron generally contains ma- chine dedicated code for use by the ,rocesslng unit . ROB mar also be used to permanently store program code in no -volatle...weight (no wind condltions). Informal tests in,!lcate this A3A to e about 16 units . 21 Each value may be observed by pressing R/S to proceed to the...21 to 22 units anle of attack. The &OA probe, however, is a pressure differential 1device that Ame sures pressure t two positions on the surface of a

  14. Report on Technical Advisory Services. Fiscal Year 1965

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1965-12-01

    Requesting QVIDCY: USCONAftC Nfoonet. Dr. Smith D ata: Ape 6S I 7-e-- nF LI NTI GRk&dfl~DO ZTAB3 Unnonc-4a JustiCf" i -- Ar311 alid/ or 3 DIVISION NO. I...Dares.- rob-M4at 65 Doas , *npn+’d- 2 12. A reviw was made and draft answer prepared of the Office of Personnel Operations’ position on the new MOS...cycle CT proficiency test. Measures of BCT proficiency ( Physical Combat Proficiency Test. Marksmanship, and ATT 21-2) were collected on a 25% sample from

  15. COMMITTEES: SQM2006 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Organising Committee Kenneth Barish Huan Zhong Huang Joseph Kapusta Grazyna Odyniec Johann Rafelski Charles A Whitten Jr International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin Federico Antinori Tamas Biró Jean Cleymans Lazlo Csernai Tim Hallman Ulrich Heinz Sonja Kabana Rob Lacey Yu-Gang Ma Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Johann Rafelski Hans Ritter Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Wen-Qing Shen Georges Stephans Horst Stöcker Thomas Ullrich Bill Zajc

  16. EDITORIAL: Special section on signal transduction Special section on signal transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartsman, Stanislav

    2012-08-01

    , where a single molecule can participate in multiple types of interactions. Mathematical analysis of these models is discussed in the papers by Del Vecchio [8], Seaton and Krishnan [9], and Hatzimanikatis and colleagues [10]. Finally, all signaling systems are information processing devices. While this point is broadly accepted, there have been only a few attempts to apply information theory to experimental signaling systems. A review by Andre Levchenko and colleagues [11] provides a very clear introduction to information theory and its potential applications to signal transduction in cellular systems. References [1] Félix M-A 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045001 [2] Oron E and Ivanova N 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045002 [3] MacNamara A et al 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045003 [4] Jensen K J and Janes K A 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045004 [5] Zarnitsyna V and Zhu C 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045005 [6] Rubinstein B et al 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045006 [7] Frank T D et al 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045007 [8] Del Vecchio D et al 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045008 [9] Seaton D D and Krishnan J 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045009 [10] Radivojevic A et al 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045010 [11] Rhee A et al 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045011

  17. Quantum chemical study on 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (NTO) and some of its constitutional isomers.

    PubMed

    Türker, Lemi; Atalar, Taner

    2006-10-11

    Presently, certain isomeric compounds of NTO and their tautomers have been investigated by performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and ROB3P86/6-311G(d,p) levels and also ab initio calculations at RHF/6-311G(d,p) level. The optimized geometries, vibrational frequencies, electronic structures and some thermodynamical values for the presently considered NTO isomers have been obtained in their ground states. Also, detonation performances were evaluated by the Kammlet-Jacobs equations, based on the calculated densities and heat of formation values. The homolytic bond dissociation energies (BDEs) (at ROB3P86/6-311G(d,p) level) of NNO(2) and CNO(2) for the molecules were calculated. Moreover, aromatic character of NTO and its isomers and tautomers were investigated by performing NICS calculations using the gauge invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) approach at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/cc-pVDZ levels.

  18. Membrane Stresses Induced by Overproduction of Free Fatty Acids in Escherichia coli.

    SciTech Connect

    Lennen, Rebecca M.; Kruziki, Max A.; Kumar, Kritika; Zinkel, Robert A.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Lipton, Mary S.; Hoover, Spencer W.; Ranatunga, Don Ruwan; Wittkopp, Tyler M.; Marner II, Wesley D.; Pfleger, Brian F.

    2011-11-01

    Microbially produced fatty acids are potential precursors to high energy density biofuels, including alkanes and alkyl ethyl esters by either catalytic conversion of free fatty acids (FFAs) or enzymatic conversions of acyl-acyl carrier protein or acyl-coenzyme A intermediates. Metabolic engineering efforts aimed at overproducing FFAs in Escherichia coli have achieved less than 30% of the maximum theoretical yield on the supplied carbon source. In this work, the viability, morphology, transcript levels, and protein levels of a strain of E. coli that overproduces medium chain length FFAs was compared to an engineered control strain. By early stationary phase, an 85% reduction in viable cell counts and exacerbated loss of inner membrane integrity were observed in the FFA overproducing strain. These effects were enhanced in strains endogenously producing FFAs compared to strains exposed to exogenously fed FFAs. Under two sets of cultivation conditions, long chain unsaturated fatty acid content greatly increased and the expression of genes and proteins required for unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis were significantly decreased. Membrane stresses were further implicated by increased expression of genes and proteins of the phage shock response, the MarA/Rob/SoxS regulon, and the nuo and cyo operons of aerobic respiration. Gene deletion studies confirmed the importance of the phage shock proteins and Rob for maintaining cell viability, however little to no change in FFA titers was observed after 24 h cultivation. The results of this study serve as a baseline for future targeted attempts to improve FFA yields and titers in E. coli.

  19. Trauma experience among homeless female veterans: correlates and impact on housing, clinical, and psychosocial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A; Decker, Suzanne E; Desai, Rani A; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan

    2012-12-01

    This study examined lifetime exposure to traumatic events as reported by 581 homeless female veterans enrolled in a Homeless Women Veterans Program across 11 sites to characterize the types of trauma they experienced; their correlation with baseline characteristics; and their association with housing, clinical outcomes, and psychosocial functioning over a 1-year treatment period. Almost all participants endorsed multiple types and episodes of traumatic events. Among the most common were having someone close experience a serious or life-threatening illness (82%) and rape (67%). Exploratory factor analysis revealed 6 potential trauma categories: being robbed, experiencing accident or disasters, illness or death of others, combat, sexual assault, and physical assault. At baseline, trauma from sexual assault was associated with more days homeless (β = .18, p < .001), trauma from accidents or disasters was associated with poorer physical health (β = -.23, p < .001), and trauma from being robbed was related to greater use of drugs (β = .22, p < .001). Trauma reported at baseline, however, was not predictive of 1-year outcomes, suggesting type and frequency of trauma does not negatively affect the housing gains homeless women veterans can achieve through homeless services.

  20. Dreaming of Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, I. P.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we introduce the RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition) algorithm for the classification of exoplanetary emission spectra. Spectral retrieval of exoplanetary atmospheres frequently requires the preselection of molecular/atomic opacities to be defined by the user. In the era of open-source, automated, and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst-case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is based on deep-belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognize molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles, and compositions. Reconstructions of the learned features, also referred to as the “dreams” of the network, indicate good convergence and an accurate representation of molecular features in the DBN. Using these deep neural networks, we work toward retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data, and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.

  1. Pcsk6 mutant mice exhibit progressive loss of ovarian function, altered gene expression, and formation of ovarian pathology.

    PubMed

    Mujoomdar, Michelle L; Hogan, Laura M; Parlow, Albert F; Nachtigal, Mark W

    2011-03-01

    Bioactivation of precursor proteins by members of the proprotein convertase (PC) family is essential for normal reproduction. The Pcsk6 gene is a member of the PC family that is expressed in numerous ovarian cell types including granulosa cells and oocytes. We hypothesized that loss of PCSK6 would produce adverse effects in the mouse ovary. Mice incapable of expressing PCSK6 (Pcsk6(tm1Rob)) were obtained, and reproductive parameters (serum hormones, whelping interval, estrus cyclicity, and fertility) were compared to Pcsk6(+/+) mice. While Pcsk6(tm1Rob) female mice are fertile, they manifest reduced reproductive capacity at an accelerated rate relative to Pcsk6(+/+) mice. Reproductive senescence is typically reached by 9 months of age and is correlated with loss of estrus cyclicity, elevated serum FSH levels, and gross alterations in ovarian morphology. A wide range of ovarian morphologies were identified encompassing mild, such as an apparent reduction in follicle number, to moderate--ovarian atrophy with a complete absence of follicles--to severe, manifesting as normal ovarian structures replaced by benign ovarian tumors, including tubulostromal adenomas. Targeted gene expression profiling highlighted changes in RNA expression of molecules involved in processes such as steroidogenesis, gonadotropin signaling, transcriptional regulation, autocrine/paracrine signaling, cholesterol handling, and proprotein bioactivation. These results show that PCSK6 activity plays a role in maintaining normal cellular and tissue homeostasis in the ovary.

  2. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  3. The hunter becomes the hunted: when cleptobiotic insects are captured by their target ants.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Carpenter, James M; Corbara, Bruno; Wright, Pamela; Roux, Olivier; Lapierre, Louis M

    2012-04-01

    Here we show that trying to rob prey (cleptobiosis) from a highly specialized predatory ant species is risky. To capture prey, Allomerus decemarticulatus workers build gallery-shaped traps on the stems of their associated myrmecophyte, Hirtella physophora. We wondered whether the frequent presence of immobilized prey on the trap attracted flying cleptoparasites. Nine social wasp species nest in the H. physophora foliage; of the six species studied, only Angiopolybia pallens rob prey from Allomerus colonies. For those H. physophora not sheltering wasps, we noted cleptobiosis by stingless bees (Trigona), social wasps (A. pallens and five Agelaia species), assassin bugs (Reduviidae), and flies. A relationship between the size of the robbers and their rate of capture by ambushing Allomerus workers was established for social wasps; small wasps were easily captured, while the largest never were. Reduviids, which are slow to extract their rostrum from prey, were always captured, while Trigona and flies often escaped. The balance sheet for the ants was positive vis-à-vis the reduviids and four out of the six social wasp species. For the latter, wasps began by cutting up parts of the prey's abdomen and were captured (or abandoned the prey) before the entire abdomen was retrieved so that the total weight of the captured wasps exceeded that of the prey abdomens. For A. pallens, we show that the number of individuals captured during attempts at cleptobiosis increases with the size of the Allomerus' prey.

  4. Electrochemical characterization of Fe-air rechargeable oxide battery in planar solid oxide cell stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qingping; Berger, Cornelius M.; Menzler, Norbert H.; Bram, Martin; Blum, Ludger

    2016-12-01

    Iron-air rechargeable oxide batteries (ROB) comprising solid oxide cells (SOC) as energy converters and Fe/metal-oxide redox couples were characterized using planar SOC stacks. The charge and discharge of the battery correspond to the operations in the electrolysis and fuel cell modes, respectively, but with a stagnant atmosphere consisting of hydrogen and steam. A novel method was employed to establish the stagnant atmosphere for battery testing during normal SOC operation without complicated modification to the test bench and stack/battery concept. Manipulation of the gas compositions during battery operation was not necessary, but the influence of the leakage current from the testing system had to be considered. Batteries incorporating Fe2O3/8YSZ, Fe2O3/CaO and Fe2O3/ZrO2 storage materials were characterized at 800 °C. A maximum charge capacity of 30.4 Ah per layer (with an 80 cm2 active cell area) with ∼0.5 mol Fe was reached with a current of 12 A. The charge capacity lost 11% after ∼130 ROB cycles due to the increased agglomeration of active materials and formation of a dense oxide layer on the surface. The round trip efficiencies of the tested batteries were ≤84% due to the large internal resistance. With state-of-the-art cells, the round trip efficiency can be further improved.

  5. Reagentless optical biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, Karen M.; Goeller, Roy M.; Grace, W. K.; Kolar, Jerome D.; Morrison, Leeland J.; Sweet, Martin R.; Wiig, L. G.; Reed, Scott M.; Lauer, Sabine A.; Little, Kristin M.; Bustos, Gerrie L.; Anderson, Aaron S.; Swanson, Basil I.

    2004-03-01

    Critical to our ability to respond effectively to a biothreat attack is the development of sensitive and specific sensor systems that can easily be used for rapid screening of potential victims for infection due to biothreat agents and detection of pathogens in the environment. To help address these needs, we have developed a Reagentless Optical Biosensor (ROB) based on protein specific assays and waveguide-based evanescent fluorescence excitation. Modeled on host pathogen interactions, the sensor's membrane based assay provides rapid, sensitive detection without the addition of reagents. We report here the development of two waveguide based detection systems: a laboratory sensor test-bed system and a handheld, battery operated, prototype. Evanescent fluorescence excitation using planar optical waveguides provides spatial filtering of background auto-fluorescence found in many natural samples, thereby permitting direct analysis of complex environmental and medical samples. The waveguide based assay is fully self-contained in a small, exchangeable cartridge that is optically coupled to the sensor detection system making ROB simple to use and offering the possibility of inexpensive, disposable sensor elements. Using assays for cholera toxin we compare results using flourimetry of vesicle solutions against results for our waveguide based test-bed and prototype sensor systems.

  6. Progressive supranuclear palsy: neuronal and glial cytoskeletal pathology in the higher order processing autonomic nuclei of the lower brainstem.

    PubMed

    Rüb, U; Del Tredici, K; Schultz, C; de Vos, R A I; Jansen Steur, E N H; Arai, K; Braak, H

    2002-02-01

    The medial and lateral parabrachial nuclei (MPB, LPB), the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (GI), the raphes magnus (RMG) and raphes obscurus nuclei (ROB), as well as the intermediate reticular zone (IRZ) represent pivotal subordinate brainstem centres, all of which control autonomic functions. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and severity of the neuronal and glial cytoskeletal pathology in these six brainstem nuclei from 17 individuals with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The association between the severity of the pathology and the duration of the disease was investigated by means of correlation analysis. The brainstem nuclei in all of the PSP cases were affected by the neuronal cytoskeletal pathology, with the IRZ and GI regularly showing severe involvement, the MPB, RMG, and ROB marked involvement, and the LPB mild involvement. In the six nuclear greys studied, glial cells undergo alterations of their cytoskeleton on an irregular basis, whereby diseased oligodendrocytes predominantly presented as coiled bodies and affected astrocytes as thorn-shaped astrocytes. In all six nuclei, the severity of the neuronal or glial cytoskeletal pathology showed no correlation with the duration of PSP. In view of their functional role, the neuronal pathology in the nuclei studied offers a possible explanation for the autonomic dysfunctions that eventually develop in the course of PSP.

  7. The Pennsylvania Anatomy Act of 1883: Weighing the Roles of Professor William Smith Forbes and Senator William James McKnight.

    PubMed

    Wright, James R

    2016-10-01

    Effective Anatomical Acts transformed medical education and curtailed grave-robbing. William S. Forbes, Demonstrator of Anatomy at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, authored the Pennsylvania Anatomy Act of 1867, but it was ineffective. In December of 1882, Forbes and accomplices were charged with grave-robbing. Forbes was acquitted in early 1883, but his accomplices were all convicted; nevertheless, these events precipitated a strengthened Anatomy Act in 1883. Forbes was crowned the Father of the Pennsylvania Anatomy Act and was revered by the Philadelphia medical community for his personal sacrifices for medical education; they even paid his legal fees. Over the remainder of his life, Forbes received many honors. However, there was a second major player, rural doctor William J. McKnight, a convicted grave-robber and State Senator. The evidence shows that Forbes precipitated the crisis, which was a racial powder keg, and then primarily focused on his trial, while McKnight, creatively working behind the scenes in collaboration with Jefferson, Anatomy Professor William H. Pancoast, used the crisis to draft and pass transformative legislation enabling anatomical dissection at Pennsylvania medical schools. While not minimizing Forbes suffering throughout these events, McKnight should be appropriately recognized for his initiative and contributions, which far exceeded those of Forbes.

  8. DREAMING OF ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Waldmann, I. P.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we introduce the RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition) algorithm for the classification of exoplanetary emission spectra. Spectral retrieval of exoplanetary atmospheres frequently requires the preselection of molecular/atomic opacities to be defined by the user. In the era of open-source, automated, and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst-case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is based on deep-belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognize molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles, and compositions. Reconstructions of the learned features, also referred to as the “dreams” of the network, indicate good convergence and an accurate representation of molecular features in the DBN. Using these deep neural networks, we work toward retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data, and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.

  9. Isolation and structure elucidation of secondary metabolites in Central and South American Calea species and their biochemical systematic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen species of the genus Calea (Family Compositae, Tribe Heliantheae) from Central and northern South America, including the type species for the genus, were investigated chemically to determine their secondary metabolites. The taxa studied were C. leptocephala Blake, C. megacephala Rob, and Greenm., and C. trichotoma B. Smith from Mexico, C. prunifolia Kunth (syn. C. pittieri) from Costa Rica, C. prunifolia Kunth from Panama, C. jamaicensis L. from Jamaica, and the Venezuelan species C. berteriana DC., C. divaricata Benthem, C. oliverii Rob. and Greenm., C. prunifolia Kunth, C. septuplinervia Hieron., C. solidaginea Kunth, and C. subcordata Kunth. The chemical investigation of these Calea species, undertaken as part of biochemical systematic study, has resulted in the isolation of 83 compounds, of which 38 are new natural products. The isolated compounds were represented by a dioxin derivative, 3 benzofuranes, 5 chromenes, 12 flavones, and 62 sesquiterpene lactones. The structures of the new compounds were established by chemical and spectroscopic methods. These methods included MS, IR, UV, and CD, /sup 1/H NMR, /sup 13/C NMR, and single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis.

  10. The hunter becomes the hunted: when cleptobiotic insects are captured by their target ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Carpenter, James M.; Corbara, Bruno; Wright, Pamela; Roux, Olivier; LaPierre, Louis M.

    2012-04-01

    Here we show that trying to rob prey (cleptobiosis) from a highly specialized predatory ant species is risky. To capture prey, Allomerus decemarticulatus workers build gallery-shaped traps on the stems of their associated myrmecophyte, Hirtella physophora. We wondered whether the frequent presence of immobilized prey on the trap attracted flying cleptoparasites. Nine social wasp species nest in the H. physophora foliage; of the six species studied, only Angiopolybia pallens rob prey from Allomerus colonies. For those H. physophora not sheltering wasps, we noted cleptobiosis by stingless bees ( Trigona), social wasps ( A. pallens and five Agelaia species), assassin bugs (Reduviidae), and flies. A relationship between the size of the robbers and their rate of capture by ambushing Allomerus workers was established for social wasps; small wasps were easily captured, while the largest never were. Reduviids, which are slow to extract their rostrum from prey, were always captured, while Trigona and flies often escaped. The balance sheet for the ants was positive vis-à-vis the reduviids and four out of the six social wasp species. For the latter, wasps began by cutting up parts of the prey's abdomen and were captured (or abandoned the prey) before the entire abdomen was retrieved so that the total weight of the captured wasps exceeded that of the prey abdomens. For A. pallens, we show that the number of individuals captured during attempts at cleptobiosis increases with the size of the Allomerus' prey.

  11. Econo-Thermodynamics: The Nature of Economic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimkes, Juergen

    2006-03-01

    Physicists often model economic interactions like collisions of atoms in gases: by interaction one agent gains, the other loses. This leads to a Boltzmann distribution of capital, which has been observed in wealth distributions of different countries. However, economists object: no economic agent will attend a market in which he gets robbed! This conflict may be resolved by writing basic laws of economics into terms of calculus. In these terms the daily struggle for survival of all economic systems turns out to be a Carnot cycle that is driven by energy: heat pumps and economic production depend on oil, GNP and oil consumption run parallel for all countries. Motors and markets are based on the same laws of calculus (macro-economics) and statistics (micro-economics). Economic interactions mean exploiting a third party (nature) and are indeed close to robbing! A baker sells bread to his customers, but the flour comes from nature. Banks sells loans to investors, but the money comes from savers. Econo-thermodynamics is a thrilling new interdisciplinary field.

  12. Response of Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereidae) populations to reduced wastewater discharge in the polluted estuary of Oued Souss, Bay of Agadir, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Alla, A.; Gillet, P.; Deutsch, B.; Moukrim, A.; Bergayou, H.

    2006-12-01

    Field investigations on the population dynamics of Nereis diversicolor were carried out from January 2002 to December 2003 in the estuary of Oued Souss (southwestern Morocco) to determine the changes caused by setting up of a domestic and industrial wastewater purification plant (M'zar) before and after by the end of wastewater discharges in November 2002 on the structure of the ecosystem. Samples of N. diversicolor were collected monthly in the intertidal zone at low tide before (during 2002) and after (during 2003) the end of wastewater discharges. Separation of cohorts using the Algorithm EM method (McLachlan, G.J., Krishnan, T., 1997. The EM algorithm and extensions. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Wiley, New York, 274 pp.) allowed determination of the growth rate (mm day -1) by cohort and the annual production. The data showed significant differences between populations of Nereis diversicolor before and after the end of wastewater discharges. During the wastewater discharge period (2002), the population had a mean annual density of 1992 ind m -2, a mean annual biomass of 75.52 g DW m -2 and an annual secondary production of 141.3 g DW m -2 with a P/ B ratio of 1.87. After the end of discharges (2003), density, biomass and secondary production decreased significantly. The annual averages for these parameters were 740 ind m -2, 14.16 g DW m -2 and 23.83 g DW m -2, respectively, with a P/ B ratio of 1.68. The important decrease observed in density, biomass and secondary production of Nereis diversicolor may be attributed (a) to the environmental changes observed after the end of wastewater discharges in the estuary of Oued Souss, namely the increase of salinity and the decrease of organic matter content, and (b) to the migration of this species towards other areas.

  13. A high level computational study of the CH4/CF4 dimer: how does it compare with the CH4/CH4 and CF4/CF4 dimers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Matthew J.; Mecozzi, Sandro

    2012-04-01

    The interaction within the methane-methane (CH4/CH4), perfluoromethane-perfluoromethane (CF4/CF4) methane-perfluoromethane dimers (CH4/CF4) was calculated using the Hartree-Fock (HF) method, multiple orders of Møller-Plesset perturbation theory [MP2, MP3, MP4(DQ), MP4(SDQ), MP4(SDTQ)], and coupled cluster theory [CCSD, CCSD(T)], as well as the PW91, B97D, and M06-2X density functional theory (DFT) functionals. The basis sets of Dunning and coworkers (aug-cc-pVxZ, x = D, T, Q), Krishnan and coworkers [6-311++G(d,p), 6-311++G(2d,2p)], and Tsuzuki and coworkers [aug(df, pd)-6-311G(d,p)] were used. Basis set superposition error (BSSE) was corrected via the counterpoise method in all cases. Interaction energies obtained with the MP2 method do not fit with the experimental finding that the methane-perfluoromethane system phase separates at 94.5 K. It was not until the CCSD(T) method was considered that the interaction energy of the methane-perfluoromethane dimer (-0.69 kcal mol-1) was found to be intermediate between the methane (-0.51 kcal mol-1) and perfluoromethane (-0.78 kcal mol-1) dimers. This suggests that a perfluoromethane molecule interacts preferentially with another perfluoromethane (by about 0.09 kcal mol-1) than with a methane molecule. At temperatures much lower than the CH4/CF4 critical solution temperature of 94.5 K, this energy difference becomes significant and leads perfluoromethane molecules to associate with themselves, forming a phase separation. The DFT functionals yielded erratic results for the three dimers. Further development of DFT is needed in order to model dispersion interactions in hydrocarbon/perfluorocarbon systems.

  14. A DNA element in the slo gene modulates ethanol tolerance.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Harish R; Li, Xiaolei; Ghezzi, Alfredo; Atkinson, Nigel S

    2016-03-01

    In Drosophila, the slo gene encodes BK-type Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels and is involved in producing rapid functional tolerance to sedation with ethanol. Drosophila are ideal for the study of functional ethanol tolerance because the adult does not acquire metabolic ethanol tolerance (Scholz, Ramond, Singh, & Heberlein, 2000). It has been shown that mutations in slo block the capacity to acquire tolerance, that sedation with ethanol vapor induces slo gene expression in the nervous system, and that transgenic induction of slo can phenocopy tolerance (Cowmeadow, Krishnan, & Atkinson, 2005; Cowmeadow et al., 2006). Here we use ethanol-induced histone acetylation to map a DNA regulatory element in the slo transcriptional control region and functionally test the element for a role in producing ethanol tolerance. Histone acetylation is commonly associated with activating transcription factors. We used the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay to map histone acetylation changes following ethanol sedation to identify an ethanol-responsive DNA element. Ethanol sedation induced an increase in histone acetylation over a 60 n DNA element called 6b, which is situated between the two ethanol-responsive neural promoters of the slo gene. Removal of the 6b element from the endogenous slo gene affected the production of functional ethanol tolerance as assayed in an ethanol-vapor recovery from sedation assay. Removal of element 6b extended the period of functional ethanol tolerance from ∼10 days to more than 21 days after a single ethanol-vapor sedation. This study demonstrates that mapping the position of ethanol-induced histone acetylation is an effective way to identify DNA regulatory elements that help to mediate the response of a gene to ethanol. Using this approach, we identified a DNA element, which is conserved among Drosophila species, and which is important for producing a behaviorally relevant ethanol response.

  15. Relationship between native-state solubility and non-native aggregation of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor: practical implications for protein therapeutic development.

    PubMed

    Banks, Douglas D; Zhang, Jun; Siska, Christine C

    2014-10-06

    Prescreening methods are needed in the biotechnology industry for rapid selection of protein therapeutic candidates and formulations of low aggregation propensity. In recent reports solubility measurements have shown promise as one such method, although the connection between protein solubility and non-native aggregation is not well understood. In the present investigation, recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhGCSF) was used to explore this relationship since it was previously shown to rapidly undergo non-native aggregation/precipitation under physiological conditions in a reaction attenuated by the addition of sucrose [Krishnan, S.; et al. Biochemistry 2002, 41, 6422-6431]. Strong correlations were found between rhGCSF non-native aggregation and both solubility and thermal stability as a function of sucrose concentration. We believe these results make sense in the context of an rhGCSF aggregation mechanism where loss of monomer to insoluble aggregate is limited by association to an observable dimer from a less soluble (and aggregation competent) intermediate species that exists in a temperature sensitive pre-equilibrium with the native monomer. Both solubility and measures of conformational stability report on the position of this equilibrium and therefore the concentration of reactive intermediate. Interestingly, aggregation also correlated with rhGCSF solubility as a function of salting-in concentrations of phosphate since both are dependent on the colloidal stability of the reactive intermediate but not with conformational stability. In lieu of a complete understanding of the aggregation processes that limit protein therapeutic shelf life, these results highlight the potential of using simple solubility measurements as an additional tool in the biotechnology prescreening repertoire.

  16. F3D Image Processing and Analysis for Many - and Multi-core Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    F3D is written in OpenCL, so it achieve[sic] platform-portable parallelism on modern mutli-core CPUs and many-core GPUs. The interface and mechanims to access F3D core are written in Java as a plugin for Fiji/ImageJ to deliver several key image-processing algorithms necessary to remove artifacts from micro-tomography data. The algorithms consist of data parallel aware filters that can efficiently utilizes[sic] resources and can work on out of core datasets and scale efficiently across multiple accelerators. Optimizing for data parallel filters, streaming out of core datasets, and efficient resource and memory and data managements over complex execution sequence of filters greatly expedites any scientific workflow with image processing requirements. F3D performs several different types of 3D image processing operations, such as non-linear filtering using bilateral filtering and/or median filtering and/or morphological operators (MM). F3D gray-level MM operators are one-pass constant time methods that can perform morphological transformations with a line-structuring element oriented in discrete directions. Additionally, MM operators can be applied to gray-scale images, and consist of two parts: (a) a reference shape or structuring element, which is translated over the image, and (b) a mechanism, or operation, that defines the comparisons to be performed between the image and the structuring element. This tool provides a critical component within many complex pipelines such as those for performing automated segmentation of image stacks. F3D is also called a "descendent" of Quant-CT, another software we developed in the past. These two modules are to be integrated in a next version. Further details were reported in: D.M. Ushizima, T. Perciano, H. Krishnan, B. Loring, H. Bale, D. Parkinson, and J. Sethian. Structure recognition from high-resolution images of ceramic composites. IEEE International Conference on Big Data, October 2014.

  17. Extracellular inorganic phosphate regulates gibbon ape leukemia virus receptor-2/phosphate transporter mRNA expression in rat bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Wada, Keinoshin; Mizuno, Morimichi; Komori, Takahide; Tamura, Masato

    2004-01-01

    In mammalian cells, several observations indicate not only that phosphate transport probably regulates local inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration, but also that Pi affects normal cellular metabolism, which in turn regulates apoptosis and the process of mineralization. To elucidate how extracellular Pi regulates cellular functions of pre-osteoblastic cells, we investigated the expression of type III sodium (Na)-dependent Pi transporters in rat bone marrow stromal cells and ROB-C26 pre-osteoblastic cells. The mRNA expression level of gibbon ape leukemia virus receptor (Glvr)-2 was increased by the addition of Pi in rat bone marrow stromal cells, but not in ROB-C26 or normal rat kidney (NRK) cells. In contrast, the level of Glvr-1 mRNA was not altered by the addition of extracellular Pi in these cells. The induction of Glvr-2 mRNA by Pi was inhibited in the presence of cycloheximide (CHX). Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) /extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway inhibitors; U0126 (1.4-diamino-2, 3-dicyano-1, 4-bis [2-amino-phenylthio] butadiene) and PD98059 (2'-Amino-3'-methoxyflavone) inhibited inducible Glvr-2 mRNA expression, but p38 MEK inhibitor SB203580 [4-(4'-fluorophenyl)-2-(4'-methyl-sulfinylphenyl)-5-(4'pyridyl) imidazole] did not inhibit the induction of Glvr-2 mRNA expression, suggesting that extracellular Pi regulates de novo protein synthesis and MEK/ERK activity in rat bone marrow stromal cells, and through these, induction of Glvr-2 mRNA. Although Pi also induced osteopontin mRNA expression in rat bone marrow stromal cells but not in ROB-C26 and NRK cells, changes in cell viability with the addition of Pi were similar in both cell types. These data indicate that extracellular Pi regulates Glvr-2 mRNA expression, provide insights into possible mechanisms whereby Pi may regulate protein phosphorylation, and suggest a potential role for the Pi transporter in rat bone marrow stromal cells.

  18. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Studies of the Human Microbiome (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Rob

    2011-03-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Rob Knight of the University of Colorado gives a presentation on "Spatially and Temporally Resolved Studies of the Human Microbiome" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  19. Performance of an integrated approach for prediction of bond dissociation enthalpies of phenols extracted from ginger and tea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Pham Cam; Chandra, Asit K.; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2013-01-01

    Integration of the (RO)B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p) with the PM6 method into a two-layer ONIOM is found to produce reasonably accurate BDE(O-H)s of phenolic compounds. The chosen ONIOM model contains only two atoms of the breaking bond as the core zone and is able to provide reliable evaluation for BDE(O-H) for phenols and tocopherol. Deviation of calculated values from experiment is ±(1-2) kcal/mol. BDE(O-H) of several curcuminoids and flavanoids extracted from ginger and tea are computed using the proposed model. The BDE(O-H) values of enol curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate are predicted to be 83.3 ± 2.0 and 76.0 ± 2.0 kcal/mol, respectively.

  20. Walking ATMs and the immigration spillover effect: The link between Latino immigration and robbery victimization.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Raymond E; Shihadeh, Edward S

    2015-07-01

    Media reports and prior research suggest that undocumented Latino migrants are disproportionately robbed because they rely on a cash-only economy and they are reluctant to report crimes to law-enforcement (the Walking ATM phenomenon). From this we generate two specific research questions. First, we probe for an immigration spillover effect - defined as increased native and documented Latino robbery victimization due to offenders' inability to distinguish between the statuses of potential victims. Second, we examine the oft-repeated claim that Blacks robbers disproportionately target Latino victims. Using National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data from 282 counties, results show (1) support for an immigration spillover effect but, (2) no support for the claim that Latinos are disproportionately singled out by Black robbers. We discuss the implications of our findings.

  1. Error-corrected quantum annealing with hundreds of qubits.

    PubMed

    Pudenz, Kristen L; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Quantum information processing offers dramatic speedups, yet is susceptible to decoherence, whereby quantum superpositions decay into mutually exclusive classical alternatives, thus robbing quantum computers of their power. This makes the development of quantum error correction an essential aspect of quantum computing. So far, little is known about protection against decoherence for quantum annealing, a computational paradigm aiming to exploit ground-state quantum dynamics to solve optimization problems more rapidly than is possible classically. Here we develop error correction for quantum annealing and experimentally demonstrate it using antiferromagnetic chains with up to 344 superconducting flux qubits in processors that have recently been shown to physically implement programmable quantum annealing. We demonstrate a substantial improvement over the performance of the processors in the absence of error correction. These results pave the way towards large-scale noise-protected adiabatic quantum optimization devices, although a threshold theorem such as has been established in the circuit model of quantum computing remains elusive.

  2. Pro-Nuclear Environmentalism: Should We Learn to Stop Worrying and Love Nuclear Energy?

    PubMed

    van Munster, Rens; Sylvest, Casper

    2015-10-01

    In light of repeated failures to reach political agreement on effective policies to combat climate change, pro-nuclear environmentalists have set out to reverse the traditionally anti-nuclear inclinations of environmentalists. This essay examines the ideological commitments and assumptions of pro-nuclear environmentalism by performing a critical, historical analysis of the nuclear-environment nexus through the prism of documentary film. We focus on the work and career of documentary filmmaker Rob Stone, whose most recent production, Pandora's Promise (PP) (2013), has emerged as a central statement of this creed. PP actively forges a new political imaginary that replaces the apocalyptic image of nuclear fallout with that of catastrophic climate change. In terms of its rhetorical and visual strategies, however, PP also reveals that pro-nuclear environmentalist arguments have a long lineage. A close study of such continuities reveals a number of political implications that call for reflection as well as caution.

  3. Reproductive cloning, genetic engineering and the autonomy of the child: the moral agent and the open future

    PubMed Central

    Mameli, M

    2007-01-01

    Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to the second version, these biotechnologies would undermine autonomy by violating these people's right to an open future. There is no evidence to show that people conceived through cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general be unable to assume responsibility for their actions; there is also no evidence for the claim that cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general rob the child of the possibility to choose from a sufficiently large array of life plans. PMID:17264194

  4. Gear Windage Modeling Progress - Experimental Validation Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Rob; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    In the Subsonics Rotary Wing (SRW) Project being funded for propulsion work at NASA Glenn Research Center, performance of the propulsion system is of high importance. In current rotorcraft drive systems many gearing components operate at high rotational speed (pitch line velocity > 24000 ft/ min). In our testing of high speed helical gear trains at NASA Glenn we have found that the work done on the air - oil mist within the gearbox can become a significant part of the power loss of the system. This loss mechanism is referred to as windage. The effort described in this presentation is to try to understand the variables that affect windage, develop a good experimental data base to validate, the analytical project being conducted at Penn State University by Dr. Rob Kunz under a NASA SRW NRA. The presentation provides an update to the status of these efforts.

  5. The political economy of health policy in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Cook, Cynthia T; Kalu, Kelechi

    2008-03-01

    This paper discusses the health status of Sub-Saharan Africa focusing on infectious and parasitic diseases, HIV/AIDS, maternal and child health, famine, and political instability. Its contention is that Africa is stuck in the second stage of the demographic transition (high birth rate, low death rate) and the first stage of the epidemiological transition (deaths related to pestilence, famine, and war). Africa's lack of sustainable development is attributed to ineffective governmental policy and leadership. The prognosis is that the health and well-being of Africa's most vulnerable population, women and children, will improve when government shifts its attention from external funding and affairs to internal and concentrates on retaining Africa's 'talented tenth'; that the 'brain drain' and political instability has robbed Africa of its most talented young people, medical and science professionals, who are needed to provide primary care and development to a region with a high mortality rate, a low life expectancy, and a low per capita income.

  6. Solar sail Engineering Development Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    Since photons have momentum, a useful force can be obtained by reflecting sunlight off of a large, low mass surface (most likely a very thin metal-coated plastic film) and robbing the light of some of its momentum. A solar sail Engineering Development Mission (EDM) is currently being planned by the World Space Foundation for the purpose of demonstrating and evaluating solar sailing technology and to gain experience in the design and operation of a spacecraft propelled by sunlight. The present plan is for the EDM spacecraft to be launched (sail stowed) in a spin-stabilized configuration into an initial elliptical orbit with an apogee of 36,000 km and a perigee of a few hundred kilometers. The spacecraft will then use its own chemical propulsion system to raise the perigee to at least 1,200 km. The deployed sail will have an area of 880 sq m and generate a solar force of about 0.007 N.

  7. Spasmolytic activity of some plants used by the Otomi Indians of Quéretaro (México) for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Rojas, A; Bah, M; Rojas, J I; Serrano, V; Pacheco, S

    1999-11-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of chloroform-methanol (1:1) extracts derived from Baccharis heterophylla H. B. K (Asteraceae), Desmodium grahami Gray (Leguminosae), Dyssodia pinnata var. pinnata Rob. (Asteraceae), Gentiana spathacea H. B. K. (Gentianaceae), Loeselia mexicana Brand. (Polemoniaceae), Selaginella pallescens Spring. (Selaginellaceae) and Zornia diphylla Pers. (Fabaceae) on the spontaneous contractions of isolated rat ileum. The concentration-response curves and IC50 values were obtained and the respective relaxant potencies were compared with that of the CHCl3-MeOH (1:1) extract of Datura lanosa. The data showed that all the extracts produce a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous ileum contractions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the extracts against pathogenic enterobacteria was tested. The pharmacological actions shown by the extracts of the selected species tend to support ethnomedical use of the plants for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

  8. Kenneth Fitzpatrick Russell: the first reader to the Gordon Craig Library.

    PubMed

    Burke, P F

    1997-08-01

    A review of the life and achievements of Kenneth Fitzpatrick Russell, whose death in his 76th year robbed us of a civilized gentleman who was at the zenith of his creative output, would be a daunting task, if only because of the breadth of his hobbies and interests: art and medical literature; reading; sinology and seal carving; numismatics, medical philately; bookbinding, collecting bookplates; carpentry; metal work, including pewter casting and silversmithing; model ship building and cooking. Yet these various interests were simply a backdrop to his public career at the University of Melbourne and the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, where he laid the foundations of an international reputation as scholar and collector.

  9. Surface-active agents from the group of polyoxyethylated glycerol esters of fatty acids. Part III. Surface activity and solubilizing properties of the products of oxyethylation of lard (Adeps suillus, F.P. VIII) in the equilibrium system in relation to lipophilic therapeutic agents (class II and III of BCS).

    PubMed

    Nachajski, Michał J; Piotrowska, Jowita B; Kołodziejczyk, Michał K; Lukosek, Marek; Zgoda, Marian M

    2013-01-01

    Research was conducted into the solubilization processes of diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen in equilibrium conditions in the environment of aqueous solutions of oxyethylated lard's fractions (Adeps suillus, Polish Pharmacopoeia VIII). The determined thermodynamic (cmc, deltaGm(0)) and hydrodynamic (R0, R(obs), omega, M(eta)) parameters characterizing the micelle of the solubilizer and the adduct demonstrate that lipophilic therapeutic agents are adsorbed in a palisade structure of the micelle due to a topologically created so-called "lipophilic adsorption pocket". This shows that the hydrophilicity of the micelle and the adsorption layer decreases at the phase boundary, which is confirmed by the calculated values of coefficients A(m) and r x (a). The results obtained indicate the possibility of making use of the class of non-ionic surfactants which are not ksenobiotics for the modification of the profile of solid oral dosage forms with lipophilic therapeutic agents from the II class of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS).

  10. Measuring the Impact of Programs that Challenge the Public Stigma of Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Shapiro, Jenessa R.

    2010-01-01

    Public stigma robs people with mental illnesses from rightful opportunities related to work and other important life goals. Advocates have developed anti-stigma programs meant to address the prejudice and discrimination associated with these conditions. Evidence is now needed to make sense of program impact; this paper looks at measurement issues related to stigma change. Community based participatory research is central to this research and includes the involvement of a diverse collection of stakeholders in all phases of evaluation. Investigators should be cautious about measures vis-à-vis social desirability effects and should directed by social validity of targeted audiences. Conceptual domains with some research support that correspond with assessments include behavior, penetration, psychological perspective, knowledge, and physiological/information processes. These issues are summarized as ten recommendations for evaluation of anti-stigma programs. PMID:20674114

  11. Commodity multi-processor systems in the ATLAS level-2 trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Abolins, M.; Blair, R.; Bock, R.; Bogaerts, A.; Dawson, J.; Ermoline, Y.; Hauser, R.; Kugel, A.; Lay, R.; Muller, M.; Noffz, K.-H.; Pope, B.; Schlereth, J.; Werner, P.

    2000-05-23

    Low cost SMP (Symmetric Multi-Processor) systems provide substantial CPU and I/O capacity. These features together with the ease of system integration make them an attractive and cost effective solution for a number of real-time applications in event selection. In ATLAS the authors consider them as intelligent input buffers (active ROB complex), as event flow supervisors or as powerful processing nodes. Measurements of the performance of one off-the-shelf commercial 4-processor PC with two PCI buses, equipped with commercial FPGA based data source cards (microEnable) and running commercial software are presented and mapped on such applications together with a long-term program of work. The SMP systems may be considered as an important building block in future data acquisition systems.

  12. Butterfly pollination and high-contrast visual signals in a low-density distylous plant.

    PubMed

    Borges, Renee M; Gowda, Vinita; Zacharias, Merry

    2003-08-01

    In low-density butterfly-pollinated Mussaenda frondosa (Rubiaceae), flowers attract pollinators at short distances while conspicuous, non-rewarding accessory bracts are detectable at long distances by long-ranging pollinators such as the birdwing butterfly Troides minos that did not detect flower-bearing plants in the absence of these bracts. However, even in the absence of flowers, the white, ultraviolet-absorbing bracts attracted butterflies that visited flowerless plants. Although flower visits by short-ranging territorial butterflies declined significantly on removal of bracts, they did not cease completely. Nectar-robbing carpenter bees and birds did not change their behaviour following bract removal. Bract removal caused a significant decline in fruit set, indicating their importance as visual signals to pollinators.

  13. Medical practice branding using cable television.

    PubMed

    Miaoulis, George; Kissinger, Mark; Sirko-Fiorilli, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Genesis Medical Associates is an independent primary care practice in the suburbs of Pittsburgh. Given competitive pressures, a member of the physician leadership began thinking about the need for the practice to develop an "identity and awareness" program to set the practice apart from the competition. The idea for branding the campaign began when Dr. Rob Potter, Jr., was attending a Pittsburgh Pirates baseball game and a fan said to him, "You're that doctor I see on television" in the nursing home commercial. Triggered by this experience, Potter saw the opportunity to develop an awareness and identity campaign for Genesis. In this article we share the reasons for, the steps taken, and initial results in developing a medical practice branding strategy.

  14. [The medicines intended for internal use in the Formulary of Mons of 1755].

    PubMed

    Plouvier, L

    1999-01-01

    The Formulary of Mons of 1755 was in use but for 14 years. As a matter of fact, it was adopted in flagrant violation of the centralising measures promulgated by the Empress Maria Theresa who had endeavoured to impose on the entire territory of the southern Low Countries the Vienese Dispensarium, a version of which was published in Brussels in 1747. The medicines intended for internal use appearing in the Formulary of Mons are divided into two categories, namely operationes chimicae and compositiones galenicae. The former comprise of formulae alluding, on the one hand, to substances proper to alchemy (such as mercury and antimony), and, on the other, to substances derived form the techniques in current use of alchemy, namely sales, flores, distilled waters, tinctura and spiriti. Among the latter, several categories of mediciens appear prominently: the category of electuaria, loochs and conservae, that of mellitae, syrops, robs and extracts and that of tablets, trochisci, pills and powders. All these are treated therein.

  15. Word Frequency Analysis. MOS: 05C. Skill Levels 1 & 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    PREPARED BY: OPERATIONS DIV, OPPO u.f1Ros FPEferFItCV DISTRIsuTIfle 4#969 UNW4ZE JTFFNS 67,407 Nscr )’/ 74 * 71 o1 /Crrf~rZNATES 7 WC 5 /GPC 6 16c,"-19...ING 67 SLP;RVISIGN.- 62 I’:’ll ’rUcr 61 w/c ei Gpi13. a 61 14ESSAGF An:1pi6 CIRCUIT 6 C CLRPFCCYLV 60 LItF so~rdrr~5 ITEP B St LPFAVISOR 56 T7?SMYSS1CN...Iva 704 -!f vor. i+ 5 ~ , Word F’~m Ay-si ~NOS: 05C Skill Level 2 PREPARED BY: OPERATIONS DIV. OPFO co" of lo* VOWM ATOP ost of 109.1 rob. ead to S

  16. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Gary T.

    2012-04-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Black holes in four dimensions Gary Horowitz; Part II. Five Dimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory: 2. The Gregory-Laflamme instability Ruth Gregory; 3. Final state of Gregory-Laflamme instability Luis Lehner and Frans Pretorius; 4. General black holes in Kaluza-Klein theory Gary Horowitz and Toby Wiseman; Part III. Higher Dimensional Solutions: 5. Myers-Perry black holes Rob Myers; 6. Black rings Roberto Emparan and Harvey Reall; Part IV. General Properties: 7. Constraints on the topology of higher dimensional black holes Greg Galloway; 8. Blackfolds Roberto Emparan; 9. Algebraically special solutions in higher dimensions Harvey Reall; 10. Numerical construction of static and stationary black holes Toby Wiseman; Part V. Advanced Topics: 11. Black holes and branes in supergravity Don Marolf; 12. The gauge/gravity duality Juan Maldacena; 13. The fluid/gravity correspondence Veronika Hubeny, Mukund Rangamani and Shiraz Minwalla; 14. Horizons, holography and condensed matter Sean Hartnoll; Index.

  17. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Studies of the Human Microbiome (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Knight, Rob [University of Colorado

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Rob Knight of the University of Colorado gives a presentation on "Spatially and Temporally Resolved Studies of the Human Microbiome" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  18. Ducted Fan Designs Lead to Potential New Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, aerospace engineers Rob Bulaga and Mike Moshier formed Trek Aerospace Inc., based in Folsom, California, to develop personal air vehicles using a novel ducted fan design. The company relied on Ames Research Center for a great deal of testing, the results of which have provided greater lift, lowered weight, more power, and improved maneuverability. The technology has been applied to three models: the Dragonfly UMR-1, the Springtail EFV, and the OVIWUN, a small-scale version that is for sale through the company's Web site. It is safer than a manned vehicle, and its size makes it relatively difficult for it to damage itself during test flights the way a larger mass, faster craft could.

  19. Discrete Differential Forms: A Novel Methodology for Robust Computational Electromagnetics

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, P; Koning, J; Rieben, R; Stowell, M; White, D A

    2003-01-17

    This is the final report for the LLNL LDRD 01-LW-068. The Principle Investigator was Daniel White of the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC). Collaborators included Paul Castillo and Mark Stowell of CASC, and Ph.D students Joe Koning and Rob Rieben of UC Davis. Some of the simulation results in this report were partially funded by a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency research grant, and the two Ph.D. students were supported by the LLNL Student-Employee Graduate Research Fellow program. We begin with a short Administrative Overview which describes the motivation, scope, and deliverables of this research effort. Then follows the Technical section, which introduces the theory behind our Discrete Differential Forms approach, provides an overview of our FEMSTER C++ class library, and concludes with example simulations.

  20. Potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol in the Mexico City region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Madronich, S.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Decarlo, P. F.; Kleinman, L.; Fast, J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to quantify the contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic vapors (S/IVOC) in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA), their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007) ("ROB") and Grieshop et al. (2009) ("GRI") are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements. The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (3-6 times) with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009), both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. The predicted anthropogenic POA levels are found to agree within 20% with the observed HOA concentrations for both the ROB and GRI simulations, consistent with the interpretation of the emissions inventory by previous studies. The impact of biomass burning POA within the city is underestimated in comparison to the AMS BBOA, presumably due to insufficient nighttime smoldering emissions. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal variability. The

  1. Sterilization and birth control in the shadow of eugenics: married, middle-class women in Alberta, 1930-1960s.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The history of eugenic sterilization connotes draconian images of coerced and involuntary procedures robbing men and women of their reproductive health. While eugenics programs often fit this characterization, there is another, smaller, and less obvious legacy of eugenics that arguably contributed to a more empowering image of reproductive health. Sexual sterilization surgeries as a form of contraception began to gather momentum alongside eugenics programs in the middle of the 20th century and experiences among prairie women serve as an illustrative example. Alberta maintained its eugenics program from 1929 to 1972 and engaged in thousands of eugenic sterilizations, but by the 1940s middle-class married women pressured their Albertan physicians to provide them with sterilization surgeries to control fertility, as a matter of choice. The multiple meanings and motivations behind this surgery introduced a moral quandary for physicians, which encourages medical historians to revisit the history of eugenics and its relationship to the contemporaneous birth control movement.

  2. Low thermal expansion seal ring support

    DOEpatents

    Dewis, David W.; Glezer, Boris

    2000-01-01

    Today, the trend is to increase the temperature of operation of gas turbine engines. To cool the components with compressor discharge air, robs air which could otherwise be used for combustion and creates a less efficient gas turbine engine. The present low thermal expansion sealing ring support system reduces the quantity of cooling air required while maintaining life and longevity of the components. Additionally, the low thermal expansion sealing ring reduces the clearance "C","C'" demanded between the interface between the sealing surface and the tip of the plurality of turbine blades. The sealing ring is supported by a plurality of support members in a manner in which the sealing ring and the plurality of support members independently expand and contract relative to each other and to other gas turbine engine components.

  3. First Results of the TIGRE Chromospheric Activity Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, M.; Hempelmann, A.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results of the stellar activity survey with TIGRE (Telescopio Internacional de Guanajuato, Robótico-Espectroscópico). This long term program was started in August 2013 with the monitoring of a larger number of stars. We aim at measuring the short- and long-term variability of stellar activity for stars of different spectral types and luminosity classes, using indicators of different spectral lines (mainly Ca II S-Index, Ca II IR triplet, H_α and sodium D). A transformation equation of the TIGRE S-Index into the Mount Wilson S-index was derived in order to compare our results to the vast body of existing S-index measurements. Furthermore, the correlation between the S-index and the lines of the Ca II IR triplet has been studied, based on strictly simultaneous observations.

  4. Impact of traumatic events and organizational response. A study of bank robberies.

    PubMed

    Miller-Burke, J; Attridge, M; Fass, P M

    1999-02-01

    This study explored how experiencing a traumatic event in the workplace affects employee physical health, mental health, personal functioning, and work performance. Post-event use of health care services and the effectiveness of critical incident stress debriefing sessions and other coping interventions were also examined. A retrospective self-report methodology and mailed survey were used with 141 employees of 42 different bank branches that had recently been robbed. The results found that most employees had multiple negative consequences from experiencing a bank robbery while at work. Psychological, physical, work, and personal areas were all affected by the robbery. Furthermore, more threatening incidents were associated with more severe consequences. Critical incident stress debriefing interventions delivered after robbery were rated as helpful by 78% of employees who attended. The implications for health care providers and organizations are discussed.

  5. Potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol in the Mexico City region

    SciTech Connect

    Hodzic, A.; Kleinman, L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Madronich, S.; Canagaratna, M. R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Fast, J.

    2010-03-01

    It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to quantify the contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic vapors (S/IVOC) in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA), their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007) ('ROB') and Grieshop et al. (2009) ('GRI') are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements. The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (3–6 times) with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009), both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. The predicted anthropogenic POA levels are found to agree within 20% with the observed HOA concentrations for both the ROB and GRI simulations, consistent with the interpretation of the emissions inventory by previous studies. The impact of biomass burning POA within the city is underestimated in comparison to the AMS BBOA, presumably due to insufficient nighttime smoldering emissions. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal variability. The

  6. Modeling organic aerosols in a megacity: potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hodzic, Alma; Jimenez, Jose L.; Madronich, Sasha; Canagaratna, M. R.; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2010-06-21

    It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of traditional anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors. In this study, the 3D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to quantify the contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic vapors (S/IVOC) in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to explicitly include the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA), their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007) ("ROB") and Grieshop et al. (2009) ("GRI") are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. For the first time, 3D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) data, but also against and oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements. The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (3-6 times) with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009), both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. The predicted anthropogenic POA levels are found to agree within 20% with the observed HOA concentrations for both the ROB and GRI simulations, consistent with the interpretation of the emissions inventory by previous studies. The impact of biomass burning POA within the city is underestimated in comparison to the AMS BBOA, presumably due to insufficient nighttime smoldering emissions. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal variability. The production from anthropogenic and biomass burning

  7. An Evaluation of One- and Three-Parameter Logistic Tailored Testing Procedures for Use with Small Item Pools.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    Educational and Psychological A Measurement, 1969, 29, 23-48. ! .. * . .. , 4. . .., *55. 4 ~~ ~ Or To. nif f1~m I ~ r livy Firsacnqi MW Ctntdr Nivy P...6914 1 S-in D1..ign. C% 92152 I Dr. Rob-’rt G. Smtth - Office of Chief of Niv.Il otveraionq OP-91711 meowWauhtnqton. D-1 2015 ’) I Dr. Aifrel F. Swvilr...iirtic- Titsw~k i UnIv.,rctty nif S-’if’h.-rn ".1l I fo-nf i 221) PIu- it Ion f1Ihg 1) ’p % rt’tnt o~f P.y-11-11 o’!y 1310 S. Sttt St. Lqq Al- -. r:% 9))I

  8. Engine panel seals for hypersonic engine applications: High temperature leakage assessments and flow modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Mutharasan, Rajakkannu; Du, Guang-Wu; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Ko, Frank

    1992-01-01

    A critical mechanical system in advanced hypersonic engines is the panel-edge seal system that seals gaps between the articulating horizontal engine panels and the adjacent engine splitter walls. Significant advancements in seal technology are required to meet the extreme demands placed on the seals, including the simultaneous requirements of low leakage, conformable, high temperature, high pressure, sliding operation. In this investigation, the seal concept design and development of two new seal classes that show promise of meeting these demands will be presented. These seals include the ceramic wafer seal and the braided ceramic rope seal. Presented are key elements of leakage flow models for each of these seal types. Flow models such as these help designers to predict performance-robbing parasitic losses past the seals, and estimate purge coolant flow rates. Comparisons are made between measured and predicted leakage rates over a wide range of engine simulated temperatures and pressures, showing good agreement.

  9. Mechanical defenses of plant extrafloral nectaries against herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Gish, Moshe; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extrafloral nectaries play an important role in plant defense against herbivores by providing nectar rewards that attract ants and other carnivorous insects. However, extrafloral nectaries can themselves be targets of herbivory, in addition to being exploited by nectar-robbing insects that do not provide defensive services. We recently found that the extrafloral nectaries of Vicia faba plants, as well as immediately adjacent tissues, exhibit high concentrations of chemical toxins, apparently as a defense against herbivory. Here we report that the nectary tissues of this plant also exhibit high levels of structural stiffness compared to surrounding tissues, likely due to cell wall lignification and the concentration of calcium oxalate crystals in nectary tissues, which may provide an additional deterrent to herbivore feeding on nectary tissues. PMID:27489584

  10. Coping with paradoxes of risk communication: Observations and suggestions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.B. )

    1993-06-01

    The maturation of the field of risk communication has resulted in several manuals, a National Research Council review, a Society for Risk Analysis subgroup, and critics. Critics Pieter-Jan Stalen and Rob Coppock, and Harry Otway and Brian Wynne, have pointed out that much risk communication is impractical or paradoxical. In this letter, the author supports many of the criticisms of these critics, but also discusses errors and omissions in their viewpoints that he feels will inhibit progress in effective risk communication. Topics discussed are motivations for risk communication, the practicality of advice, the audience for risk communication, credibility, and whose interests are best served by risk communication. The purpose of this essay is therefore to spur further debate on the issue of risk communication. 13 refs.

  11. KSC-04PD-0795

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- On a tour of the KSC Space Life Sciences Lab, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush and NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (at left) listen to Rob Ferl (right), assistant director of the Bio Technology Program, University of Florida (one of the five partners in the SLS Lab). Second from right is U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore. The new lab is a state-of-the- art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida. The tour followed the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Center Director Jim Kennedy and included remarks by OKeefe, Bush, Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman.

  12. The neural antecedents to voluntary action: Response to commentaries

    PubMed Central

    Nachev, Parashkev; Hacker, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience must attend to the conceptual coherence of its hypotheses as well as to their empirical support. Examining the most influential studies of the neural antecedents to voluntary action, our Discussion Paper sought to identify the real-world consequences of neglecting the former in what we argued has been too narrow a pursuit of the latter. Though conceptual in form, our analysis is sharply empirical in its conclusions, revealing what have long been thought to be momentous experimental observations—such as the readiness potential—as the outcome of previously unidentified confounds that rob them of significance. Conversely, we suggested that experimental studies of two-way control, amongst other defining features of the voluntary, have been given less emphasis than the subject demands. Here, we ramify our analysis down the paths identified by others in the commentaries we received. PMID:26001157

  13. Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) reservoir sandstones in the Witch Ground Graben, U. K. North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, S.D. Ltd., Aberdeen ); Mantel, K.A. ); Morton, D.J. ); Riley, L.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Oil-bearing Late Jurassic Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian sandstones of the Sgiath and Piper formations are of major economic importance in the Witch Ground Graben. They form the reservoirs in Scott, which in 1993 will be the largest producing North Sea oil field to come on stream for more than a decade. Together with Scott, the Piper, Saltire, Tartan, Highlander, Petronella, Rob Roy, and Ivanhoe fields contained almost 2 Bbbl of recoverable reserves in these formations. The Sgiath and Piper represent two phases of Late Jurassic transgression and regression, initially represented by paralic deposited sand culminating in a wave-dominated delta sequence. The history of the Sgiath and Piper formations is reviewed and lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic correlations presented to illustrate the distribution of the reservoir sandstones.

  14. Medical humanities and philosophy: is the universe expanding or contracting?

    PubMed

    Stempsey, William E

    2007-12-01

    The question of whether the universe is expanding or contracting serves as a model for current questions facing the medical humanities. The medical humanities might aptly be described as a metamedical multiverse encompassing many separate universes of discourse, the most prominent of which is probably bioethics. Bioethics, however, is increasingly developing into a new interdisciplinary discipline, and threatens to engulf the other medical humanities, robbing them of their own distinctive contributions to metamedicine. The philosophy of medicine considered as a distinct field of study has suffered as a result. Indeed, consensus on whether the philosophy of medicine even constitutes a legitimate field of study is lacking. This paper presents an argument for the importance of a broad conception of the philosophy of medicine and the central role it should play in organizing and interpreting the various fields of study that make up the metamedical multiverse.

  15. CERT TST December 2015 Visit Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Little, Robert Currier; Bailey, Teresa S.; Gamblin, G. Todd; Olinger, Chad Tracy; Pautz, Shawn D.; Williams, Alan B.

    2016-01-25

    The annual PSAAP II TST visit to Texas A&M’s CERT Center was held on December 1-3, 2015. The agenda for the visit is attached. Non-TAMU attendees were: TST Members – Teresa Bailey (LLNL), Todd Gamblin (LLNL), Bob Little (LANL) – Chair, Chad Olinger (LANL), Shawn Pautz (SNL), Alan Williams (SNL);Other Lab staff – Skip Kahler (LANL), Ana Kupresanin (LLNL), and Rob Lowrie (LANL); AST Members – Nelson Hoffman (LANL) and Bob Voigt (Leidos) The TST wishes to express our appreciation to all involved with CERT for the high-quality posters and presentations and for the attention to logistics that enabled a successful visit. We have broken our comments into four sections: (1) Kudos, (2) Recommendations, (3) Feedback on Priorities for April Review, and (4) Follow-Up Activities with Labs.

  16. The Non-linear Saturation of the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Jeffrey; Burns, Keaton; Brown, Ben; Lecoanet, Daniel; Vasil, Geoffrey

    2015-11-01

    The Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke (GSF) instability is an important process in stellar interiors and possibly in exoplanetary atmospheres. While the linear phase of the instability has been explored for nearly fifty years, its non-linear saturation has not been explored in detail. The GSF is a double-diffusive instability in which Rayleigh unstable perturbations are robbed of buoyant stability by thermal diffusion. Here, we will present results from a suite of direct numerical simulations using the Spiegel-Veronis Boussinesq equations in the Dedalus framework. These DNS are designed to explore the behavior of the GSF over a range of Prandtl numbers. In stellar interiors, Pr ~=10-6 , but we are limited by computational resources to much higher values, so instead we will discuss the Pr scaling of transport and mixing. We will also discuss the impact of the Boussinesq approximation in the case where large aspect ration perturbations exceed a scale height.

  17. In-plate protein crystallization, in situ ligand soaking and X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    le Maire, Albane; Gelin, Muriel; Pochet, Sylvie; Hoh, François; Pirocchi, Michel; Guichou, Jean François; Ferrer, Jean Luc; Labesse, Gilles

    2011-09-01

    X-ray crystallography is now a recognized technique for ligand screening, especially for fragment-based drug design. However, protein crystal handling is still tedious and limits further automation. An alternative method for the solution of crystal structures of proteins in complex with small ligands is proposed. Crystallization drops are directly exposed to an X-ray beam after cocrystallization or soaking with the desired ligands. The use of dedicated plates in connection with an optimal parametrization of the G-rob robot allows efficient data collection. Three proteins currently under study in our laboratory for ligand screening by X-ray crystallography were used as validation test cases. The protein crystals belonged to different space groups, including a challenging monoclinic case. The resulting diffraction data can lead to clear ligand recognition, including indication of alternating conformations. These results demonstrate a possible method for automation of ligand screening by X-ray crystallography.

  18. Is neural Darwinism Darwinism?

    PubMed

    van Belle, T

    1997-01-01

    Neural Darwinism is a theory of cognition developed by Gerald Edelman along with George Reeke and Olaf Sporns at Rockefeller University. As its name suggests, neural Darwinism is modeled after biological Darwinism, and its authors assert that the two processes are strongly analogous. both operate on variation in a population, amplifying the more adaptive individuals. However, from a computational perspective, neural Darwinism is quite different from other models of natural selection, such as genetic algorithms. The individuals of neural Darwinism do not replicate, thus robbing the process of the capacity to explore new solutions over time and ultimately reducing it to a random search. Because neural Darwinism does not have the computational power of a truly Darwinian process, it is misleading to label it as such. to illustrate this disparity in adaptive power, one of Edelman's early computer experiments, Darwin I, is revisited, and it is shown that adding replication greatly improves the adaptive power of the system.

  19. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  20. Structure of Vibrio cholerae ToxT reveals a mechanism for fatty acid regulation of virulence genes

    SciTech Connect

    Lowden, Michael J.; Skorupski, Karen; Pellegrini, Maria; Chiorazzo, Michael G.; Taylor, Ronald K.; Kull, F. Jon

    2010-03-04

    Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. In order for V. cholerae to cause disease, it must produce two virulence factors, the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT), whose expression is controlled by a transcriptional cascade culminating with the expression of the AraC-family regulator, ToxT. We have solved the 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of ToxT, which reveals folds in the N- and C-terminal domains that share a number of features in common with AraC, MarA, and Rob as well as the unexpected presence of a buried 16-carbon fatty acid, cis-palmitoleate. The finding that cis-palmitoleic acid reduces TCP and CT expression in V. cholerae and prevents ToxT from binding to DNA in vitro provides a direct link between the host environment of V. cholerae and regulation of virulence gene expression.

  1. Higher-Order Mixed Finite Element Methods for Time Domain Electromagnetics

    SciTech Connect

    White, D; Stowell, M; Koning, J; Rieben, R; Fisher, A; Champagne, N; Madsen, N

    2004-02-06

    This is the final report for LDRD 01-ERD-005. The Principal Investigator was Niel Madsen of the Defense Sciences Engineering Division (DSED). Collaborators included Daniel White, Joe Koning and Nathan Champagne of DSED, Mark Stowell of Center for Applications Development and Software Engineering (CADSE), and Ph.D. students Rob Rieben and Aaron Fisher at the UC Davis Department of Applied Science. It should be noted that the students were partially supported by the LLNL Student-Employee Graduate Research Fellow program. We begin with an Introduction which provides background and motivation for this research effort. Section II contains high-level description of our Approach, and Section III summarizes our key research Accomplishments. A description of the Software deliverables is provided in Section IV, and Section V includes simulation Validation and Results. It should be noted we do not get into the mathematical details in this report, rather these can be found in our publications which are listed in Section III.

  2. Using Spirituality to Cope with Early Stage Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Grando, Victoria T.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) robs persons living with this disease of their independence and self-esteem, which can lead to depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Understanding how people with early stage AD cope is a critical step to enhance their adaptive abilities and ultimately improve their quality of life. This qualitative study describes how individuals with early stage AD use spirituality to cope with the losses of self-esteem, independence, and social interaction that they face. The purposive sample for this focused ethnography study consisted of 15 participants living at home in central Arkansas. Holding onto faith, seeking reassurance and hope, and staying connected were the global themes. Personal faith, prayer, connection to church, and family support enhanced the ability for people with early stage AD to keep a positive attitude as they face living with Alzheimer’s. PMID:19282270

  3. Reproductive cloning, genetic engineering and the autonomy of the child: the moral agent and the open future.

    PubMed

    Mameli, M

    2007-02-01

    Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to the second version, these biotechnologies would undermine autonomy by violating these people's right to an open future. There is no evidence to show that people conceived through cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general be unable to assume responsibility for their actions; there is also no evidence for the claim that cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general rob the child of the possibility to choose from a sufficiently large array of life plans.

  4. Unskilled and unaware of it: how difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments.

    PubMed

    Kruger, J; Dunning, D

    1999-12-01

    People tend to hold overly favorable views of their abilities in many social and intellectual domains. The authors suggest that this overestimation occurs, in part, because people who are unskilled in these domains suffer a dual burden: Not only do these people reach erroneous conclusions and make unfortunate choices, but their incompetence robs them of the metacognitive ability to realize it. Across 4 studies, the authors found that participants scoring in the bottom quartile on tests of humor, grammar, and logic grossly overestimated their test performance and ability. Although their test scores put them in the 12th percentile, they estimated themselves to be in the 62nd. Several analyses linked this miscalibration to deficits in metacognitive skill, or the capacity to distinguish accuracy from error. Paradoxically, improving the skills of participants, and thus increasing their metacognitive competence, helped them recognize the limitations of their abilities.

  5. Patient's jewelry stolen as she rests in the ED.

    PubMed

    2007-12-01

    In a hospital ED in Rhode Island, a 96-year-old patient was robbed of her jewelry while she rested in her room. The thief was dressed in scrubs. Identification badges are only one way of keeping unwanted intruders out and your patients' belongings safe. Other suggestions: Have different groups of staff members, i.e., ED doctors and nurses, wear color-coded scrubs that distinguish them from other hospital personnel. If your staff see a strangely dressed person or someone who looks lost or like they don't fit in, they should question them about their identity. Create protocols for the removal and safekeeping of patients' jewelry that cover several different scenarios.

  6. Instilling hope and respecting patient autonomy: reconciling apparently conflicting duties.

    PubMed

    Beste, Jennifer

    2005-06-01

    In contemporary American medical practice, certain physicians are critical and wary of the current emphasis on patient autonomy in medicine, questioning whether it really serves the complex needs of severely ill patients. Physicians such as Eric Cassell and Thomas Duffy argue that the duty of beneficence should override the duty to respect autonomy when conflicts arise in clinical situations. After evaluating their claim that severe illness robs patients of their autonomy, I will argue that this perceived conflict between beneficence and autonomy is ill-conceived, resting on misperceptions about both the capacity for autonomy and the meaning of hope. Considering insights on hope from phenomenologist Gabriel Marcel and theologian William Lynch, as well as drawing upon a case study involving a bone marrow patient, I claim that respecting and nurturing patients' capacity for autonomy is a necessary condition for acting beneficently and fostering authentic hope.

  7. Neurodegeneration and Identity.

    PubMed

    Strohminger, Nina; Nichols, Shaun

    2015-09-01

    There is a widespread notion, both within the sciences and among the general public, that mental deterioration can rob individuals of their identity. Yet there have been no systematic investigations of what types of cognitive damage lead people to appear to no longer be themselves. We measured perceived identity change in patients with three kinds of neurodegenerative disease: frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Structural equation models revealed that injury to the moral faculty plays the primary role in identity discontinuity. Other cognitive deficits, including amnesia, have no measurable impact on identity persistence. Accordingly, frontotemporal dementia has the greatest effect on perceived identity, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has the least. We further demonstrated that perceived identity change fully mediates the impact of neurodegenerative disease on relationship deterioration between patient and caregiver. Our results mark a departure from theories that ground personal identity in memory, distinctiveness, dispositional emotion, or global mental function.

  8. Comparison of Pollen Transfer Dynamics by Multiple Floral Visitors: Experiments with Pollen and Fluorescent Dye

    PubMed Central

    ADLER, LYNN S.; IRWIN, REBECCA E.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Most plant species are visited by a diversity of floral visitors. Pollen transfer of the four most common pollinating bee species and one nectar-robbing bee of the distylous plant Gelsemium sempervirens were compared. • Methods Naturally occurring pollen loads carried by the common floral visitor species of G. sempervirens were compared. In addition, dyed pollen donor flowers and sequences of four emasculated recipient flowers in field cages were used to estimate pollen transfer, and the utility of fluorescent dye powder as an analogue for pollen transfer was determined. • Key Results Xylocopa virginica, Osmia lignaria and Habropoda laboriosa carried the most G. sempervirens pollen on their bodies, followed by Bombus bimaculatus and Apis mellifera. However, B. bimaculatus, O. lignaria and H. laboriosa transferred significantly more pollen than A. mellifera. Nectar-robbing X. virginica transferred the least pollen, even when visiting legitimately. Dye particles were strongly correlated with pollen grains on a stigma, and therefore provide a good analogue for pollen in this system. The ratio of pollen : dye across stigmas was not affected by bee species or interactions between bee species and floral morphology. However, dye transfer was more sensitive than pollen transfer to differences in floral morphology. • Conclusions The results from this study add to a growing body of literature highlighting that floral visitors vary in pollination effectiveness, and that visitors carrying the most pollen on their bodies may not always be the most efficient at depositing pollen on stigmas. Understanding the magnitude of variability in pollinator quality is one important factor for predicting how different pollinator taxa may influence the evolution of floral traits. PMID:16299005

  9. NDA via gamma-ray active and passive computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Decman, D.J.; Martz, H.E.; Roberson, G.P.; Johansson, E.

    1996-10-01

    Gamma-ray-based computed tomography (CT) requires that two different measurements be made on a closed waste container. [MAR92 and ROB94] When the results from these two measurements are combined, it becomes possible to identify and quantify all detectable gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes within a container. All measurements are made in a tomographic manner, i.e., the container is moved sequentially through well- known and accurately reproducible translation, rotation, and elevation positions in order to obtain gamma-ray data that is reconstructed by computer into images that represent waste contents. [ROB94] The two measurements modes are called active (A) and passive (P) CT. In the ACT mode, a collimated gamma-ray source external to the waste container emits multiple, mono-energetic gamma rays that pass through the container and are detected on the opposite side. The attenuated gamma-rays transmitted are measured as a function of both energy and position of the container. Thus, container contents are `mapped` via the measured amount of attenuation suffered at each gamma-ray energy. In effect, a three dimensional (3D) image of gamma- ray attenuation versus waste content is obtained. In the PCT measurement mode, the external radioactive source is shuttered turned- off, and the waste container, is moved through similar positions used for the ACT measurements. However, this time the radiation detectors record any gamma-rays emitted by radioactive sources on the inside of the waste container. Thus, internal radioactive content is mapped or 3D-imaged in the same tomographic manner as the attenuating matrix materials were in the ACT measurement mode.

  10. Patients’ online access to their electronic health records and linked online services: a systematic review in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Mold, Freda; de Lusignan, Simon; Sheikh, Aziz; Majeed, Azeem; Wyatt, Jeremy C; Quinn, Tom; Cavill, Mary; Franco, Christina; Chauhan, Umesh; Blakey, Hannah; Kataria, Neha; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Ellis, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    Background Online access to medical records by patients can potentially enhance provision of patient-centred care and improve satisfaction. However, online access and services may also prove to be an additional burden for the healthcare provider. Aim To assess the impact of providing patients with access to their general practice electronic health records (EHR) and other EHR-linked online services on the provision, quality, and safety of health care. Design and setting A systematic review was conducted that focused on all studies about online record access and transactional services in primary care. Method Data sources included MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EPOC, DARE, King’s Fund, Nuffield Health, PsycINFO, OpenGrey (1999–2012). The literature was independently screened against detailed inclusion and exclusion criteria; independent dual data extraction was conducted, the risk of bias (RoB) assessed, and a narrative synthesis of the evidence conducted. Results A total of 176 studies were identified, 17 of which were randomised controlled trials, cohort, or cluster studies. Patients reported improved satisfaction with online access and services compared with standard provision, improved self-care, and better communication and engagement with clinicians. Safety improvements were patient-led through identifying medication errors and facilitating more use of preventive services. Provision of online record access and services resulted in a moderate increase of e-mail, no change on telephone contact, but there were variable effects on face-to-face contact. However, other tasks were necessary to sustain these services, which impacted on clinician time. There were no reports of harm or breaches in privacy. Conclusion While the RoB scores suggest many of the studies were of low quality, patients using online services reported increased convenience and satisfaction. These services positively impacted on patient safety, although there were variations of

  11. Model of transcriptional activation by MarA in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wall, Michael E; Markowitz, David A; Rosner, Judah L; Martin, Robert G

    2009-12-01

    The AraC family transcription factor MarA activates approximately 40 genes (the marA/soxS/rob regulon) of the Escherichia coli chromosome resulting in different levels of resistance to a wide array of antibiotics and to superoxides. Activation of marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters occurs in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA; however, the order of activation does not parallel the strength of MarA binding to promoter sequences. To understand this lack of correspondence, we developed a computational model of transcriptional activation in which a transcription factor either increases or decreases RNA polymerase binding, and either accelerates or retards post-binding events associated with transcription initiation. We used the model to analyze data characterizing MarA regulation of promoter activity. The model clearly explains the lack of correspondence between the order of activation and the MarA-DNA affinity and indicates that the order of activation can only be predicted using information about the strength of the full MarA-polymerase-DNA interaction. The analysis further suggests that MarA can activate without increasing polymerase binding and that activation can even involve a decrease in polymerase binding, which is opposite to the textbook model of activation by recruitment. These findings are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. We find that activation involving decreased polymerase binding yields lower latency in gene regulation and therefore might confer a competitive advantage to cells. Our model yields insights into requirements for predicting the order of activation of a regulon and enables us to suggest that activation might involve a decrease in polymerase binding which we expect to be an important theme of gene regulation in E. coli and beyond.

  12. Membrane Stresses Induced by Overproduction of Free Fatty Acids in Escherichia coli▿†

    PubMed Central

    Lennen, Rebecca M.; Kruziki, Max A.; Kumar, Kritika; Zinkel, Robert A.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Lipton, Mary S.; Hoover, Spencer W.; Ranatunga, Don R.; Wittkopp, Tyler M.; Marner, Wesley D.; Pfleger, Brian F.

    2011-01-01

    Microbially produced fatty acids are potential precursors to high-energy-density biofuels, including alkanes and alkyl ethyl esters, by either catalytic conversion of free fatty acids (FFAs) or enzymatic conversion of acyl-acyl carrier protein or acyl-coenzyme A intermediates. Metabolic engineering efforts aimed at overproducing FFAs in Escherichia coli have achieved less than 30% of the maximum theoretical yield on the supplied carbon source. In this work, the viability, morphology, transcript levels, and protein levels of a strain of E. coli that overproduces medium-chain-length FFAs was compared to an engineered control strain. By early stationary phase, an 85% reduction in viable cell counts and exacerbated loss of inner membrane integrity were observed in the FFA-overproducing strain. These effects were enhanced in strains endogenously producing FFAs compared to strains exposed to exogenously fed FFAs. Under two sets of cultivation conditions, long-chain unsaturated fatty acid content greatly increased, and the expression of genes and proteins required for unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis were significantly decreased. Membrane stresses were further implicated by increased expression of genes and proteins of the phage shock response, the MarA/Rob/SoxS regulon, and the nuo and cyo operons of aerobic respiration. Gene deletion studies confirmed the importance of the phage shock proteins and Rob for maintaining cell viability; however, little to no change in FFA titer was observed after 24 h of cultivation. The results of this study serve as a baseline for future targeted attempts to improve FFA yields and titers in E. coli. PMID:21948837

  13. Model of transcriptional activation by MarA in escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Michael E; Rosner, Judah L; Martin, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    The AraC family transcription factor MarA activates approximately 40 genes (the marA/soxS/rob regulon) of the Escherichia coli chromosome resulting in different levels of resistance to a wide array of antibiotics and to superoxides. Activation of marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters occurs in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA; however, the order of activation does not parallel the strength of MarA binding to promoter sequences. To understand this lack of correspondence, we developed a computational model of transcriptional activation in which a transcription factor either increases or decreases RNA polymerase binding, and either accelerates or retards post-binding events associated with transcription initiation. We used the model to analyze data characterizing MarA regulation of promoter activity. The model clearly explains the lack of correspondence between the order of activation and the MarA-DNA affinity and indicates that the order of activation can only be predicted using information about the strength of the full MarA-polymerase-DNA interaction. The analysis further suggests that MarA can activate without increasing polymerase binding and that activation can even involve a decrease in polymerase binding, which is opposite to the textbook model of activation by recruitment. These findings are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. We find that activation involving decreased polymerase binding yields lower latency in gene regulation and therefore might confer a competitive advantage to cells. Our model yields insights into requirements for predicting the order of activation of a regulon and enables us to suggest that activation might involve a decrease in polymerase binding which we expect to be an important theme of gene regulation in E. coli and beyond.

  14. Nectar alkaloids decrease pollination and female reproduction in a native plant.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lynn S; Irwin, Rebecca E

    2012-04-01

    The evolution of floral traits may be shaped by a community of floral visitors that affect plant fitness, including pollinators and floral antagonists. The role of nectar in attracting pollinators has been extensively studied, but its effects on floral antagonists are less understood. Furthermore, the composition of non-sugar nectar components, such as secondary compounds, may affect plant reproduction via changes in both pollinator and floral antagonist behavior. We manipulated the nectar alkaloid gelsemine in wild plants of the native perennial vine Gelsemium sempervirens. We crossed nectar gelsemine manipulations with a hand-pollination treatment, allowing us to determine the effect of both the trait and the interaction on plant female reproduction. We measured pollen deposition, pollen removal, and nectar robbing to assess whether gelsemine altered the behavior of mutualists and antagonists. High nectar gelsemine reduced conspecific pollen receipt by nearly half and also reduced the proportion of conspecific pollen grains received, but had no effect on nectar robbing. Although high nectar gelsemine reduced pollen removal, an estimate of male reproduction, by one-third, this effect was not statistically significant. Fruit set was limited by pollen receipt. However, this effect varied across sites such that the sites that were most pollen-limited were also the sites where nectar alkaloids had the least effect on pollen receipt, resulting in no significant effect of nectar alkaloids on fruit set. Finally, high nectar gelsemine significantly reduced seed weight; however, this effect was mediated by a mechanism other than pollen limitation. Taken together, our work suggests that nectar alkaloids are more costly than beneficial in our system, and that relatively small-scale spatial variation in trait effects and interactions could determine the selective impacts of traits such as nectar composition.

  15. Early probiotics to prevent childhood metabolic syndrome: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Haribalakrishna; Patole, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a systematic review of studies on early probiotic supplementation to prevent childhood metabolic syndrome (MS). METHODS: Using the Cochrane systematic review strategy we searched PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and the conference proceedings of the Pediatric American Society meetings and trial registries in December 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non RCTs of probiotic supplementation to the mother and/or infant for a minimum duration of 4 wk were selected. Of these, studies that reported on MS or its components (obesity, raised blood pressure, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia) in children between 2-19 years were to be eligible for inclusion in the review. Risk of bias (ROB) in selected RCTs and quality assessment of non-RCT studies were to be assessed by the Cochrane ROB assessment table and New Castle Ottawa scale. RESULTS: There were no studies on early probiotic administration for prevention of childhood MS (CMS). Follow up studies of two placebo controlled RCTs (n = 233) reported on the effects of early probiotics on one or more components of MS in children aged 2-19 years. Meta-analysis of those two studies could not be performed due to differences in the patient population, type of outcomes studied and the timing of their assessment. Assessment of childhood metabolic outcomes was not the primary objective of these studies. The first study that assessed the effects of prenatal and postnatal supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on body mass index till 10 years, did not report a significant benefit. In the second study, Lactobacillus paracasei 19 was supplemented to healthy term infants from 4-13 mo. No significant effect on body mass index, body composition or metabolic markers was detected. CONCLUSION: Current evidence on early probiotic administration to prevent CMS is inadequate. Gaps in knowledge need to be addressed before large RCTs can be planned. PMID:26413489

  16. The 2012 Transit of Venus for Cytherean Atmospheric Studies and as an Exoplanet Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, G.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Reardon, K. P.; Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.; Dantowitz, R.; Willson, R.; Kopp, G.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Sterling, A.; Scherrer, P.; Schou, J.; Golub, L.; Reeves, K.

    2012-10-01

    We worked to assemble as complete a dataset as possible for the Cytherean atmosphere in collaboration with Venus Express in situ and to provide an analog of spectral and total irradiance exoplanet measurements. From Haleakala, the whole transit was visible in coronal skies; our B images showed the evolution of the visibility of Venus's atmosphere and of the black-drop effect, as part of the Venus Twilight Experiment's 9 coronagraphs distributed worldwide with BVRI. We imaged the Cytherean atmosphere over two minutes before first contact, with subarcsecond resolution, with the coronagraph and a separate refractor. The IBIS imaging spectrometer at Sacramento Peak Observatory at H-alpha and carbon-dioxide also provided us high-resolution imaging. The NST of Big Bear Solar Observatory also provided high-resolution vacuum observations of the Cytherean atmosphere and black drop evolution. Our liaison with UH's Mees Solar Observatory scientists provided magneto-optical imaging at calcium and potassium. Spaceborne observations included the Solar Dynamics Observatory's AIA and HMI, and the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) and X-ray Telescope (XRT) on Hinode, and total-solar-irradiance measurements with ACRIMSAT and SORCE/TIM, to characterize the event as an exoplanet-transit analog. Our expedition was sponsored by the Committee for Research and Exploration/National Geographic Society. Some of the funds for the carbon-dioxide filter for IBIS were provided by NASA through AAS's Small Research Grant Program. We thank Rob Lucas, Aram Friedman, and Eric Pilger '82 for assistance with Haleakala observing, Rob Ratkowski of Haleakala Amateur Astronomers for assistance with equipment and with the site, Stan Truitt for the loan of his Paramount ME, and Steve Bisque/Software Bisque for TheSky X controller. We thank Joseph Gangestad '06 of Aerospace Corp., a veteran of our 2004 expedition, for assistance at Big Bear. We thank the Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory and

  17. Genetic control of conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Kabrawala, Shail; Fox, Emily P; Nobile, Clarissa J; Johnson, Alexander D; Bennett, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans can stochastically switch between two phenotypes, white and opaque. Opaque cells are the sexually competent form of C. albicans and therefore undergo efficient polarized growth and mating in the presence of pheromone. In contrast, white cells cannot mate, but are induced - under a specialized set of conditions - to form biofilms in response to pheromone. In this work, we compare the genetic regulation of such "pheromone-stimulated" biofilms with that of "conventional" C. albicans biofilms. In particular, we examined a network of six transcriptional regulators (Bcr1, Brg1, Efg1, Tec1, Ndt80, and Rob1) that mediate conventional biofilm formation for their potential roles in pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation. We show that four of the six transcription factors (Bcr1, Brg1, Rob1, and Tec1) promote formation of both conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilms, indicating they play general roles in cell cohesion and biofilm development. In addition, we identify the master transcriptional regulator of pheromone-stimulated biofilms as C. albicans Cph1, ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste12. Cph1 regulates mating in C. albicans opaque cells, and here we show that Cph1 is also essential for pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in white cells. In contrast, Cph1 is dispensable for the formation of conventional biofilms. The regulation of pheromone- stimulated biofilm formation was further investigated by transcriptional profiling and genetic analyses. These studies identified 196 genes that are induced by pheromone signaling during biofilm formation. One of these genes, HGC1, is shown to be required for both conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation. Taken together, these observations compare and contrast the regulation of conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in C. albicans, and demonstrate that Cph1 is required for the latter, but not the former.

  18. An evaluation of Z-transform algorithms for identifying subject-specific abnormalities in neuroimaging data.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Andrew R; Dodd, Andrew B; Ling, Josef M; Wertz, Christopher J; Shaff, Nicholas A; Bedrick, Edward J; Viamonte, Carlo

    2017-03-20

    The need for algorithms that capture subject-specific abnormalities (SSA) in neuroimaging data is increasingly recognized across many neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the effects of initial distributional properties (e.g., normal versus non-normally distributed data), sample size, and typical preprocessing steps (spatial normalization, blurring kernel and minimal cluster requirements) on SSA remain poorly understood. The current study evaluated the performance of several commonly used z-transform algorithms [leave-one-out (LOO); independent sample (IDS); Enhanced Z-score Microstructural Assessment of Pathology (EZ-MAP); distribution-corrected z-scores (DisCo-Z); and robust z-scores (ROB-Z)] for identifying SSA using simulated and diffusion tensor imaging data from healthy controls (N = 50). Results indicated that all methods (LOO, IDS, EZ-MAP and DisCo-Z) with the exception of the ROB-Z eliminated spurious differences that are present across artificially created groups following a standard z-transform. However, LOO and IDS consistently overestimated the true number of extrema (i.e., SSA) across all sample sizes and distributions. The EZ-MAP and DisCo-Z algorithms more accurately estimated extrema across most distributions and sample sizes, with the exception of skewed distributions. DTI results indicated that registration algorithm (linear versus non-linear) and blurring kernel size differentially affected the number of extrema in positive versus negative tails. Increasing the blurring kernel size increased the number of extrema, although this effect was much more prominent when a minimum cluster volume was applied to the data. In summary, current results highlight the need to statistically compare the frequency of SSA in control samples or to develop appropriate confidence intervals for patient data.

  19. Factors associated with relapse in adult patients discharged from the emergency department following acute asthma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jesse; Arrotta, Nicholas; Villa-Roel, Cristina; Dennett, Liz; Rowe, Brian H

    2017-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) with asthma exacerbations will relapse within 4 weeks. This systematic review summarises the evidence regarding relapses and factors associated with relapse in adult patients discharged from EDs after being treated for acute asthma. Following a registered protocol, comprehensive literature searches were conducted. Studies tracking outcomes for adults after ED management and discharge were included if they involved adjusted analyses. Methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS) and the Risk of Bias (RoB) Tool. Results were summarised using medians and IQRs or mean and SD, as appropriate. 178 articles underwent full-text review and 10 studies, of various methodologies, involving 32 923 patients were included. The majority of the studies were of high quality according to NOS and RoB Tool. Relapse proportions were 8±3%, 12±4% and 14±6% at 1, 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Female sex was the most commonly reported and statistically significant factor associated with an increased risk of relapse within 4 weeks of ED discharge for acute asthma. Other factors significantly associated with relapse were past healthcare usage and previous inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) usage. A median of 17% of patients who are discharged from the ED will relapse within the first 4 weeks. Factors such as female sex, past healthcare usage and ICS use at presentation were commonly and significantly associated with relapse occurrence. Identifying patients with these features could provide clinicians with guidance during their ED discharge decision-making. PMID:28176972

  20. Spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for urban soil contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Kopel, Daniella

    2014-05-01

    Urbanization has become one of the major forces of change around the globe. Land use transformation, especially urbanization has the most profound influences of human activities because it affects so many of the planet's physical and biological systems. Land use changes directly impact the ability of the earth to continue to provide ecological services to human society and the other occupants of the ecosystems. The urban process gradually degrades and transforms agricultural and natural ecosystems into built environments. The urban environment includes cities, suburbs, peri-urban areas and towns. Urban ecosystems are highly heterogeneous due to the variety of land covers and land purposes. Thus, the choices on managing the extent and arranging the land cover patches (e.g., lawns) assist to shape the emergent structure and function of the urban ecosystems. As a result of ecological conditions and current management status the urban soils show substantial spatial heterogeneity. Whereas, adverse effects of pollutants on ecosystems have been demonstrated, one important need for environmental impact assessment have been defined as maintenance of long-term monitoring systems, which can enable to improve monitoring, modelling and assessment of various stressors in agriculture environment. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy across visible-near- short- mid- and long- wave infrared (0.4-14μm) has the potential to meet this demand. Relationships between spectral reflectance and soil properties, such as grain size distribution, moisture, iron oxides, carbonate content, and organic matter, have already been established in many studies (Krishnan et al. 1980, Ben-Dor and Banin 1995, Jarmer et al. 2008, Richter et al. 2009). The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic tool for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos and other anthropogenic contaminants in urban soil using spectroscopy

  1. Use of Cooking Fuels and Cataract in a Population-Based Study: The India Eye Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    Ravilla, Thulasiraj D.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Ravindran, Ravilla D.; Vashist, Praveen; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Maraini, Giovanni; Chakravarthy, Usha; Fletcher, Astrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Biomass cooking fuels are commonly used in Indian households, especially by the poorest socioeconomic groups. Cataract is highly prevalent in India and the major cause of vision loss. The evidence on biomass fuels and cataract is limited. Objectives: To examine the association of biomass cooking fuels with cataract and type of cataract. Methods: We conducted a population-based study in north and south India using randomly sampled clusters to identify people ≥ 60 years old. Participants were interviewed and asked about cooking fuel use, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and attended hospital for digital lens imaging (graded using the Lens Opacity Classification System III), anthropometry, and blood collection. Years of use of biomass fuels were estimated and transformed to a standardized normal distribution. Results: Of the 7,518 people sampled, 94% were interviewed and 83% of these attended the hospital. Sex modified the association between years of biomass fuel use and cataract; the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a 1-SD increase in years of biomass fuel use and nuclear cataract was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.23) for men and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.48) for women, p interaction = 0.07. Kerosene use was low (10%). Among women, kerosene use was associated with nuclear (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.97) and posterior subcapsular cataract (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.64). There was no association among men. Conclusions: Our results provide robust evidence for the association of biomass fuels with cataract for women but not for men. Our finding for kerosene and cataract among women is novel and requires confirmation in other studies. Citation: Ravilla TD, Gupta S, Ravindran RD, Vashist P, Krishnan T, Maraini G, Chakravarthy U, Fletcher AE. 2016. Use of cooking fuels and cataract in a population-based study: the India Eye Disease Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1857–1862; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP193 PMID:27227523

  2. Impact of Bisphosphonate on Orthodontic tooth movement and osteoclastic count: An Animal Study

    PubMed Central

    Venkataramana, V; Chidambaram, S; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Goud, E V Soma Shekara; Arafath, Mohammed; Krishnan, Santhana

    2014-01-01

    Background : The aim of the current study is to examine the effect of systemically administered BP-Pamidronate, on Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM) along with osteoclastic quantification in New Zealand white rabbits. Materials & Methods : Twenty rabbits used in the study, were equally divided into 2 groups ; Group-1 as Control & Group-2 as Experimental. A sentalloy NITI closed coil spring (GAC International, USA) of 100 gram force, ligated between the lower first molar and the anterior most incisors of the rabbit has served as orthodontic force element. The BP- Pamidronate was administered at the dosage of 1.5 mg/kg body intra-peritonially, on the 1st, 7th and 14th day of the experiment. On the 21st day both group of animals were sacrificed, mandibles were dissected. The formed diastema between the 1st and 2nd molar was measured on the dissected mandibles using standard metric scale, which is considered as the OTM in the mesial direction. Next, the alveolar bone regions along with intact mesial surfaces were processed for histological investigation (osteoclastic count). Results : The student ‘t’ test has been done to compare the mean values of molar tooth movement and osteoclastic count. Parameter :1 molar tooth movement has shown a significant difference between the control (3.750 ± 0.548 mm) and the experimental group (3.050 ± 0.556 mm) with calculated ‘p’ value (p-value <0.05) is significant at 0.0110 level. Parameter : 2 osteoclastic count has shown a significant difference between the control (13.335000 ± 0.735856 per square mm.) and the experimental group (11.426900 ± 1.49369 per square mm) calculated ‘p’ value (p-value <0.05) is significant at 0.003 level. Conclusion : The molar tooth movement and the osteoclastic count were significantly reduced in BP – Pamidronate administered animals than non-drug recipients. How to cite the article: Venkataramana V, Chidambaram S, Reddy BV, Goud EV, Arafath M, Krishnan S. Impact of Bisphosphonate on

  3. A fully automated method for quantifying and localizing white matter hyperintensities on MR images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minjie; Rosano, Caterina; Butters, Meryl; Whyte, Ellen; Nable, Megan; Crooks, Ryan; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Reynolds, Charles F; Aizenstein, Howard J

    2006-12-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH), commonly found on T2-weighted FLAIR brain MR images in the elderly, are associated with a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and late-life depression. Previous MRI studies of WMHs have primarily relied on the subjective and global (i.e., full-brain) ratings of WMH grade. In the current study we implement and validate an automated method for quantifying and localizing WMHs. We adapt a fuzzy-connected algorithm to automate the segmentation of WMHs and use a demons-based image registration to automate the anatomic localization of the WMHs using the Johns Hopkins University White Matter Atlas. The method is validated using the brain MR images acquired from eleven elderly subjects with late-onset late-life depression (LLD) and eight elderly controls. This dataset was chosen because LLD subjects are known to have significant WMH burden. The volumes of WMH identified in our automated method are compared with the accepted gold standard (manual ratings). A significant correlation of the automated method and the manual ratings is found (P<0.0001), thus demonstrating similar WMH quantifications of both methods. As has been shown in other studies (e.g. [Taylor, W.D., MacFall, J.R., Steffens, D.C., Payne, M.E., Provenzale, J.M., Krishnan, K.R., 2003. Localization of age-associated white matter hyperintensities in late-life depression. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 27 (3), 539-544.]), we found there was a significantly greater WMH burden in the LLD subjects versus the controls for both the manual and automated method. The effect size was greater for the automated method, suggesting that it is a more specific measure. Additionally, we describe the anatomic localization of the WMHs in LLD subjects as well as in the control subjects, and detect the regions of interest (ROIs) specific for the WMH burden of LLD patients. Given the emergence of large Neuro

  4. Effects of Fluoride Varnish on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Badjatia, Rini G; Thanveer, K; Krishnan, Ajith CG

    2017-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans count in saliva among 12-year-old school children. Materials and methods A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fluoride varnish on S. mutans count in saliva among 12-year-old school children. A total of 42 school-going children attending schools in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India, were divided into two groups. Group I was treated with fluoride varnish and group II received no treatment. Assessment of S. mutans was carried out at baseline and 3 to 6 months postfluoride varnish application. Friedman analysis of variance test and post hoc test were applied to detect statistically significant differences between baseline, 3 to 6 months of fluoride varnish application, and also between groups I and II. Results The mean number of salivary S. mutans value found in case group at baseline, 3 to 6 months was 31.23 ± 1.119, 9.27 ± 0.852, and 9.39 ± 0.908 × 104 colony-forming unit CFU/mL respectively. The difference in S. mutans count from baseline to 3 to 6 months was highly statistically significant (p = 0.000), but the difference from 3 to 6 months was not statistically significant (p = 0.142). In control group, the mean S. mutans value found at baseline, 3 to 6 months was 30.63 ± 1.436, 31.23 ± 1.351, and 31.40 ± 1.374 × 104 CFU/mL respectively. The differences between these values were not statistically significant (p = 0.11). Conclusion Statistically significant reduction in S. mutans count in saliva was seen 3 to 6 months after fluoride varnish application. How to cite this article Badjatia S, Badjatia RG, Thanveer K, Krishnan ACG. Effects of Fluoride Varnish on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):62-66. PMID:28377658

  5. PREFACE: Acceleration and radiation generation in space and laboratory plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, R.; Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1994-01-01

    and radiation generation in plasmas. The next section includes state-of-the-art papers on laboratory accelerators driven by lasers (Nakajima et al., Shukla, Johnson et al.), microwaves (Nishida et al., Bogomolov et al.) and by particle beams (Ogata et al.). Also in this section are theoretical papers presenting new work on synchrotron like oscillations in plasma waves (Fedele) and two types of laboratory radiation sources, FEL's (Marshall et al.) and ionization fronts (Lai et al.), and Frantzeskakis et al. described the Hamiltonian analysis of a slow-wave autonomous cyclotron buncher. Section 3 contains papers on astrophysical plasmas, with the general presentations of Colgate and Krishnan. Kazanas and Krishnan address active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Thielheim discusses general acceleration mech anisms in rotating magnetized systems. Asseo discussed Langmuir solitons in pulsars and Blackman et al. treat magnetic reconnection relativistically. Su et al. analyze the possibility of plasma wave excitation and particle acceleration by neu trinos from supernovae. Dogiel et al. on cosmic ray scattering by MHD fluctuations. The papers in Section 4 treat fusion plasmas (Dendy et al. and Lashmore-Davies et al.). Section 5, space plasmas, includes papers on acceleration processes in the magnetosphere (Anagnostopoulos and Marshall et al.) and the sun (Barletta et al.). It is evident from the Workshop and the papers collected here that this is indeed a rich field of investigations and that both the natural and laboratory plasma communities can benefit from the cross-fertilization of ideas between them. We wish to thank the authors and attendees for their contributions to the success of this workshop, Dr Philip Debenham and Dr David Sutter of the U.S. D.o.E. and Dr Charles Roberson of the U.S. O.N.R. for their financial support (Grants DE-FGO3-93ER40776 and N00014-93-1-0814), and the ECC Twinning Grant SC1*-CT92-0773. We appreciate the considerable local support from Mr Glegles and

  6. The Effectiveness of Conservative Management for Acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) II: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, Sayeed; Madi, Mohammad; Rushton, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of conservative management (except drug therapy) for acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) II. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) using a pre-defined protocol. Two independent reviewers searched information sources, decided eligibility of studies, and assessed risk of bias (RoB) of included trials. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by the other. A third reviewer mediated any disagreements throughout. Qualitative trial and RoB data were summarised descriptively. Quantitative syntheses were conducted across trials for comparable interventions, outcome measures and assessment points. Meta-analyses compared effect sizes with random effects, using STATA version 12. Data Sources PEDro, Medline, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library with manual searching in key journals, reference lists, British National Bibliography for Report Literature, Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information & Exchange, and National Technical Information Service were searched from inception to 15th April 2015. Active researchers in the field were contacted to determine relevant studies. Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies RCTs evaluating acute (<4 weeks) WADII, any conservative intervention, with outcome measures important to the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health. Results Fifteen RCTs all assessed as high RoB (n=1676 participants) across 9 countries were included. Meta-analyses enabled 4 intervention comparisons: conservative versus standard/control, active versus passive, behavioural versus standard/control, and early versus late. Conservative intervention was more effective for pain reduction at 6 months (95%CI: -20.14 to -3.38) and 1-3 years (-25.44 to -3.19), and improvement in cervical mobility in the horizontal plane at <3 months (0.43 to 5.60) compared with standard/control intervention. Active intervention was effective

  7. Modeling organic aerosols in a megacity: potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Madronich, S.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Decarlo, P. F.; Kleinman, L.; Fast, J.

    2010-06-01

    It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to estimate the potential contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic precursors (S/IVOC) in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA), their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007) ("ROB") and Grieshop et al. (2009) ("GRI") are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements. The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (2-4 times) with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009), both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal variability. The predicted production from anthropogenic and biomass burning S/IVOC represents 40-60% of the total measured SOA at the surface during the day and is somewhat larger than that from commonly measured aromatic VOCs, especially at the T1 site at the edge of the city. The SOA production from the continued multi-generation S/IVOC oxidation products continues actively downwind. Similar

  8. Modeling organic aerosols in a megacity: Potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hodzic, A.; Kleinman, L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Madronich, S.; Canagaratna, M. R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Fast, J.

    2010-06-01

    It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to estimate the potential contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic precursors (S/IVOC) in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA), their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007) ('ROB') and Grieshop et al. (2009) ('GRI') are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements. The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (2-4 times) with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009), both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal variability. The predicted production from anthropogenic and biomass burning S/IVOC represents 40-60% of the total measured SOA at the surface during the day and is somewhat larger than that from commonly measured aromatic VOCs, especially at the T1 site at the edge of the city. The SOA production from the continued multi-generation S/IVOC oxidation products continues actively downwind. Similar

  9. Dietary protein and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation.

    PubMed

    Shams-White, Marissa M; Chung, Mei; Du, Mengxi; Fu, Zhuxuan; Insogna, Karl L; Karlsen, Micaela C; LeBoff, Meryl S; Shapses, Sue A; Sackey, Joachim; Wallace, Taylor C; Weaver, Connie M

    2017-04-12

    Background: Considerable attention has recently focused on dietary protein's role in the mature skeleton, prompted partly by an interest in nonpharmacologic approaches to maintain skeletal health in adult life.Objective: The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effects of dietary protein intake alone and with calcium with or without vitamin D (Ca±D) on bone health measures in adults.Design: Searches across 5 databases were conducted through October 2016 including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies examining 1) the effects of "high versus low" protein intake or 2) dietary protein's synergistic effect with Ca±D intake on bone health outcomes. Two investigators independently conducted abstract and full-text screenings, data extractions, and risk of bias (ROB) assessments. Strength of evidence was rated by group consensus. Random-effects meta-analyses for outcomes with ≥4 RCTs were performed.Results: Sixteen RCTs and 20 prospective cohort studies were included in the systematic review. Overall ROB was medium. Moderate evidence suggested that higher protein intake may have a protective effect on lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD) compared with lower protein intake (net percentage change: 0.87%; 95% CI: 0.18%, 1.56%; I(2): 0%; n = 4) but no effect on total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN), or total body BMD or bone biomarkers. Limited evidence did not support an effect of protein with Ca±D on LS BMD, TH BMD, or forearm fractures; there was insufficient evidence for FN BMD and overall fractures.Conclusions: Current evidence shows no adverse effects of higher protein intakes. Although there were positive trends on BMD at most bone sites, only the LS showed moderate evidence to support benefits of higher protein intake. Studies were heterogeneous, and confounding could not be excluded. High-quality, long-term studies are needed to clarify dietary protein's role in bone health. This trial was

  10. Characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle that were healthy or treated for bovine respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Cassidy L.; Alexander, Trevor W.; Hendrick, Steve; McAllister, Tim A.

    2014-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the principal bacterial pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). As an opportunistic pathogen, M. haemolytica is also frequently isolated from the respiratory tract of healthy cattle. This study examined the characteristics of M. haemolytica collected using deep nasal swabs from healthy cattle (n = 49) and cattle diagnosed with BRD (n = 41). Isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyped, and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen isolates for virulence [leukotoxin C (lktC), putative adhesin (ahs), outer-membrane lipoprotein (gs60), O-sialoglycoprotease (gcp), transferring-binding protein B (tbpB) and UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-2-epimerase (nmaA)] and antimicrobial resistance [tet(H), blaROB-1, erm(X), erm(42), msr(E)-mph(E) and aphA-1] genes. Isolates were genetically diverse but in three instances, M. haemolytica with the same pulsotype, resistance phenotype, and genotype were collected from cattle with BRD. This occurred once between cattle located in two different feedlots, once between cattle in the same feedlot, but in different pens, and once among cattle from the same feedlot in the same pen. Isolates from healthy cattle were primarily serotype 2 (75.5%) while those from individuals with BRD were serotype 1 (70.7%) or 6 (19.5%). Resistance to at least one antibiotic occurred more frequently (P < 0.001) in M. haemolytica collected from cattle with BRD (37%) compared with those that were healthy (2%). Overall, tetracycline resistance (18%) was the most prevalent resistant phenotype. All tetracycline-resistant M. haemolytica encoded tet(H). Ampicillin resistance (6%) and neomycin resistance (15%) were detected and corresponded to the presence of the blaROB-1 and aphA-1 genes, respectively. Tilmicosin resistance (6%) was also detected, but the resistance genes responsible were not identified. The virulence genes lktC, ahs, gs60, and gcp

  11. Effect of solar radio bursts on GNSS signal reception over Europe for the period 1999-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bergeot, Nicolas; Marqué, Christophe; Aerts, Wim; Bruyninx, Carine

    2015-04-01

    Intense solar radio bursts (SRB) emitted at L-band frequencies can affect the carrier-to-noise C/N0 ratio of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals by increasing the background noise. Such space weather events can consequently decrease the quality of GNSS-based results especially for kinematic high-precision positioning. It is thus important to develop a method capable to detect such events in near real time on a wide area. For this purpose, the ROB-IONO software was adapted for analysing the effect of SRB on the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN). First, S1 and S2 raw data extracted from RINEX files were converted into the C/N0 unit (dB.Hz) taking into account manufacturer corrections. Then, the differences (ΔC/N0) between all these C/N0observables and their medians of the 7 previous satellite ground track repeat cycles, i.e. their normal quiet state, were computed. The mean of all these well-calibrated ΔC/N0values from different GNSS receivers and satellites offer at each epoch a reliable metric to detect and quantify the impact of a SRB. We investigated the degradation of GPS and GLONASS C/N0 on the entire EPN during 10 intense SRBs occurring at daylight over Europe between 1999 and 2013. The analysis shows that: (1) GPS and GLONASS ΔC/N0 agree at the 0.1±0.2dB.Hz level; (2) The standard deviation of the mean ΔC/N0of the EPN GNSS receivers is below 1dB.Hz 96% of the time, and below 0.6dB.Hz 76% of the time; (3) maximum ΔC/N0 degradation occurs at the epoch of maximum solar peak flux delivered by the solar ground observatories; (4) C/N0 degradation becomes larger with increasing solar zenithal angle. Consequently, the ROB-IONO software is capable to detect the degradation of GNSS signal reception over Europe due to SRBs. In addition, by taking advantage of the increasing number of EPN stations delivering C/N0 data since 2005, even less intense SRB events can now be detected. Finally, the developed method can be completely applied in near

  12. Novel Applications of Peroxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rob, Abdul; Ball, Andrew S.; Tuncer, Munir; Wilson, Michael T.

    1997-02-01

    . Warhol, M. J.; Heitz, P. U. Lab. Invest. 1992, 67, 263-269. 9. Pergande, M.; Jung, K. Clin. Chem. 1993, 39, 1885-1890. 10. Allain, C. C; Poon, L. S.; Chan, C. S. G; Richmond, W.; Fu, P. C. Clin. Chem. 1974, 20, 470-475. 11. Rob, A; Ball, A. S.; Tuncer, M; Wilson, M. T. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 1995, 23, 507. 12. Rob, A.; Ball, A. S.; Tuncer, M.; Jones, G. D.; Taylor, P. D; Wilson, M. T. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 1996, 24, 455.

  13. Towards a first detailed reconstruction of sunspot information over the last 150 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, Laure; Clette, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    With four centuries of solar evolution, the International Sunspot Number (SSN) forms the longest solar time series currently available. It provides an essential reference for understanding and quantifying how the solar output has varied over decades and centuries and thus for assessing the variations of the main natural forcing on the Earth climate. For such a quantitative use, this unique time-series must be closely monitored for any possible biases and drifts. This is the main objective of the Sunspot Workshops organized jointly by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) since 2010. Here, we will report about some recent outcomes of past workshops, like diagnostics of scaling errors and their proposed corrections, or the recent disagreement between the sunspot sumber and other solar indices like the 10.7cm radio flux. Our most recent analyses indicate that while part of this divergence may be due to a calibration drift in the SSN, it also results from an intrinsic change in the global magnetic parameters of sunspots and solar active regions, suggesting a possible transition to a new activity regime. Going beyond the SSN series, in the framework of the SOTERIA, TOSCA and SOLID projects, we produced a survey of all existing catalogs providing detailed sunspot information and we also located different primary solar images and drawing collections that can be exploitable to complement the existing catalogs (COMESEP project). These are first steps towards the construction of a multi-parametric time series of multiple sunspot group properties over at least the last 150 years, allowing to reconstruct and extend the current 1-D SSN series. By bringing new spatial, morphological and evolutionary information, such a data set should bring major advances for the modeling of the solar dynamo and solar irradiance. We will present here the current status of this work. The catalog now extends over the last 3 cycles (Lefevre & Clette 2011

  14. Climate change impact on groundwater levels in the Guarani Aquifer outcrop zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, D. D.; Wendland, E.

    2013-12-01

    The unsustainable use of groundwater in many countries might cause water availability restrictions in the future. Such issue is likely to worsen due to predicted climate changes for the incoming decades. As numerous studies suggest, aquifers recharge rates will be affected as a result of climate change. The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is one of the most important transboundary aquifer in the world, providing drinkable water for millions of people in four South American countries (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay). Considering the GAS relevance and how its recharge rates might be altered by climatic conditions anomalies, the objective of this work is to assess possible climate changes impacts on groundwater levels in this aquifer outcrop zone. Global Climate Models' (GCM) outputs were used as inputs in a transient flux groundwater model created using the software SPA (Simulation of Process in Aquifers), enabling groundwater table fluctuation to be evaluated under distinct climatic scenarios. Six monitoring wells, located in a representative basin (Ribeirão da Onça basin) inside a GAS outcrop zone (ROB), provided water table measurements between 2004 and 2011 to calibrate the groundwater model. Using observed climatic data, a water budget method was applied to estimate recharge in different types of land uses. Statistically downscaled future climate scenarios were used as inputs for that same recharge model, which provided data for running SPA under those scenarios. The results show that most of the GCMs used here predict temperature arises over 275,15 K and major monthly rainfall mean changes to take place in the dry season. During wet seasons, those means might experience around 50% decrease. The transient model results indicate that water table variations, derived from around 70% of the climate scenarios, would vary below those measured between 2004 and 2011. Among the thirteen GCMs considered in this work, only four of them predicted more extreme

  15. Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent imaging during robotic operations.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Antonio Luiz de Vasconcellos; Schraibman, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The intraoperative identification of certain anatomical structures because they are small or visually occult may be challenging. The development of minimally invasive surgery brought additional difficulties to identify these structures due to the lack of complete tactile sensitivity. A number of different forms of intraoperative mapping have been tried. Recently, the near-infrared fluorescence imaging technology with indocyanine green has been added to robotic platforms. In addition, this technology has been tested in several types of operations, and has advantages such as safety, low cost and good results. Disadvantages are linked to contrast distribution in certain clinical scenarios. The intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent imaging is new and promising addition to robotic surgery. Several reports show the utility of this technology in several different procedures. The ideal dose, time and site for dye injection are not well defined. No high quality evidence-based comparative studies and long-term follow-up outcomes have been published so far. Initial results, however, are good and safe. RESUMO A identificação intraoperatória de certas estruturas anatômicas, por seu tamanho ou por elas serem ocultas à visão, pode ser desafiadora. O desenvolvimento da cirurgia minimamente invasiva trouxe dificuldades adicionais, pela falta da sensibilidade tátil completa. Diversas formas de detecção intraoperatória destas estruturas têm sido tentadas. Recentemente, a tecnologia de fluorescência infravermelha com verde de indocianina foi associada às plataformas robóticas. Além disso, essa tecnologia tem sido testada em uma variedade de cirurgias, e suas vantagens parecem estar ligadas a baixo custo, segurança e bons resultados. As desvantagens estão associadas à má distribuição do contraste em determinados cenários. A imagem intraoperatória por fluorescência infravermelha é uma nova e promissora adição à cirurgia robótica. Diversas séries mostram

  16. Momentum and energy dependent resolution function of the ARCS neutron chopper spectrometer at high momentum transfer: Comparing simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, S. O.; Lin, J. Y. Y.; Abernathy, D. L.; Azuah, R. T.

    2016-11-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering at high momentum transfers (i.e. Q ≥ 20 A ˚), commonly known as deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS), provides direct observation of the momentum distribution of light atoms, making it a powerful probe for studying single-particle motions in liquids and solids. The quantitative analysis of DINS data requires an accurate knowledge of the instrument resolution function Ri(Q , E) at each momentum Q and energy transfer E, where the label i indicates whether the resolution was experimentally observed i = obs or simulated i=sim. Here, we describe two independent methods for determining the total resolution function Ri(Q , E) of the ARCS neutron instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The first method uses experimental data from an archetypical system (liquid 4He) studied with DINS, which are then numerically deconvoluted using its previously determined intrinsic scattering function to yield Robs(Q , E). The second approach uses accurate Monte Carlo simulations of the ARCS spectrometer, which account for all instrument contributions, coupled to a representative scattering kernel to reproduce the experimentally observed response S(Q , E). Using a delta function as scattering kernel, the simulation yields a resolution function Rsim(Q , E) with comparable lineshape and features as Robs(Q , E), but somewhat narrower due to the ideal nature of the model. Using each of these two Ri(Q , E) separately, we extract characteristic parameters of liquid 4He such as the intrinsic linewidth α2 (which sets the atomic kinetic energy < K > ∼α2) in the normal liquid and the Bose-Einstein condensate parameter n0 in the superfluid phase. The extracted α2 values agree well with previous measurements at saturated vapor pressure (SVP) as well as at elevated pressure (24 bars) within experimental precision, independent of which Ri(Q , y) is used to analyze the data. The actual observed n0 values at each Q vary little

  17. Characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle that were healthy or treated for bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Klima, Cassidy L; Alexander, Trevor W; Hendrick, Steve; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the principal bacterial pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). As an opportunistic pathogen, M. haemolytica is also frequently isolated from the respiratory tract of healthy cattle. This study examined the characteristics of M. haemolytica collected using deep nasal swabs from healthy cattle (n = 49) and cattle diagnosed with BRD (n = 41). Isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyped, and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen isolates for virulence [leukotoxin C (lktC), putative adhesin (ahs), outer-membrane lipoprotein (gs60), O-sialoglycoprotease (gcp), transferring-binding protein B (tbpB) and UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-2-epimerase (nmaA)] and antimicrobial resistance [tet(H), bla ROB-1, erm(X), erm(42), msr(E)-mph(E) and aphA-1] genes. Isolates were genetically diverse but in three instances, M. haemolytica with the same pulsotype, resistance phenotype, and genotype were collected from cattle with BRD. This occurred once between cattle located in two different feedlots, once between cattle in the same feedlot, but in different pens, and once among cattle from the same feedlot in the same pen. Isolates from healthy cattle were primarily serotype 2 (75.5%) while those from individuals with BRD were serotype 1 (70.7%) or 6 (19.5%). Resistance to at least one antibiotic occurred more frequently (P < 0.001) in M. haemolytica collected from cattle with BRD (37%) compared with those that were healthy (2%). Overall, tetracycline resistance (18%) was the most prevalent resistant phenotype. All tetracycline-resistant M. haemolytica encoded tet(H). Ampicillin resistance (6%) and neomycin resistance (15%) were detected and corresponded to the presence of the bla ROB-1 and aphA-1 genes, respectively. Tilmicosin resistance (6%) was also detected, but the resistance genes responsible were not identified. The virulence genes lktC, ahs, gs60, and

  18. Three 2012 Transits of Venus: From Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, G.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Edelman, E.; Reardon, K.; Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.; Dantowitz, R.; Silverstone, M. D.; Ehrenreich, D.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Nicholson, P. D.; Willson, R. C.; Kopp, G. A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Sterling, A. C.; Scherrer, P. H.; Schou, J.; Golub, L.; McCauley, P.; Reeves, K.

    2013-01-01

    We observed the 2012 June 6/5 transit seen from Earth (E/ToV), simultaneously with Venus Express and several other spacecraft not only to study the Cytherean atmosphere but also to provide an exoplanet-transit analog. From Haleakala, the whole transit was visible in coronal skies; among our instruments was one of the world-wide Venus Twilight Experiment's nine coronagraphs. Venus's atmosphere became visible before first contact. SacPeak/IBIS provided high-resolution images at Hα/carbon-dioxide. Big Bear's NST also provided high-resolution observations of the Cytherean atmosphere and black-drop evolution. Our liaison with UH's Mees Solar Observatory scientists provided magneto-optical imaging at calcium and potassium. Solar Dynamics Observatory's AIA and HMI, and the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) and X-ray Telescope (XRT) on Hinode, and total-solar-irradiance measurements with ACRIMSAT and SORCE/TIM, were used to observe the event as an exoplanet-transit analog. On September 20, we imaged Jupiter for 14 Hubble Space Telescope orbits, centered on a 10-hour ToV visible from Jupiter (J/ToV), as an exoplanet-transit analog in our own solar system, using Jupiter as an integrating sphere. Imaging was good, although much work remains to determine if we can detect the expected 0.01% solar irradiance decrease at Jupiter and the even slighter differential effect between our violet and near-infrared filters caused by Venus's atmosphere. We also give a first report on our currently planned December 21 Cassini UVIS observations of a transit of Venus from Saturn (S/ToV). Our E/ToV expedition was sponsored by the Committee for Research and Exploration/National Geographic Society; supplemented: NASA/AAS's Small Research Grant Program. We thank Rob Ratkowski, Stan Truitt, Rob Lucas, Aram Friedman, and Eric Pilger '82 at Haleakala, and Joseph Gangestad '06 at Big Bear for assistance, and Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab and Hinode science and operations teams for support

  19. Transit Observations of Venus's Atmosphere in 2012 from Terrestrial and Space Telescopes as Exoplanet Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, G.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Penn, M. J.; Jaeggli, S. A.; Galayda, E.; Reardon, K. P.; Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.; Ehrenreich, D.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Nicholson, P. D.; Dantowitz, R.

    2013-06-01

    We extensively observed the 8 June 2012 transit of Venus from several sites on Earth; we provide this interim status report about this and about two subsequent ToVs observed from space. From Haleakala Obs., we observed the entire June transit over almost 7 h with a coronagraph of the Venus Twilight Experiment B filter) and with a RED Epic camera to compare with simultaneous data from ESA's Venus Express, to study the Cytherean mesosphere; from Kitt Peak, we have near-IR spectropolarimetry at 1.6 µm from the aureole and during the disk crossing that compare well with carbon dioxide spectral models; from Sac Peak/IBIS we have high-resolution imaging of the Cytherean aureole for 22 min, starting even before 1st contact; from Big Bear, we have high-resolution imaging of Venus's atmosphere and the black-drop effect through 2nd contact; and we had 8 other coronagraphs around the world. For the Sept 21 ToV as seen from Jupiter, we had 14 orbits of HST to use Jupiter's clouds as a reflecting surface to search for an 0.01% diminution in light and a differential drop that would result from Venus's atmosphere by observing in both IR/UV, for which we have 170 HST exposures. As of this writing, preliminary data reduction indicates that variations in Jovian clouds and the two periods of Jupiter's rotation will be too great to allow extraction of the transit signal. For the December 20 ToV as seen from Saturn, we had 22 hours of observing time with VIMS on Cassini, for which we are looking for a signal of the 10-hr transit in total solar irradiance and of Venus's atmosphere in IR as an exoplanet-transit analog. Our Maui & Sac Peak expedition was sponsored by National Geographic Society's Committee for Research and Exploration; HST data reduction by NASA: HST-GO-13067. Some of the funds for the carbon dioxide filter for Sac Peak provided by NASA through AAS's Small Research Grant Program. We thank Rob Ratkowski of Haleakala Amateur Astronomers; Rob Lucas, Aram Friedman, Eric

  20. Explaining the variability of Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI): deconvolution of variability related to Light Use Efficiency and Canopy attributes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlier, Elodie; Hmimina, Gabriel; Dufrêne, Eric; Soudani, Kamel

    2014-05-01

    . 1992. A narrow-waveband spectral index that tracks diurnal changes in photosynthetic efficiency. Remote Sensing of Environment 41, 35-44. Garbulsky MF, Peñuelas J, Gamon J, Inoue Y, Filella I. 2011. The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and the remote sensing of leaf, canopy and ecosystem radiation use efficiencies: A review and meta-analysis. Remote Sensing of Environment 115, 281-297. Hilker T, Coops NC, Hall FG, Black TA, Wulder MA, Nesic Z, Krishnan P. 2008. Separating physiologically and directionally induced changes in PRI using BRDF models. Remote Sensing of Environment 112, 2777-2788. Hmimina G, Dufrêne E, Soudani K. 2014. Relationship between PRI and leaf ecophysiological and biochemical parameters under two different water statuses: toward a rapid and efficient correction method using real-time measurements. Plant, Cell & Environment 37, 2, 473-487. Nakaji T, Oguma H, Fujinuma Y. 2006. Seasonal changes in the relationship between photochemical reflectance index and photosynthetic light use efficiency of Japanese larch needles. International Journal of Remote Sensing 27, 493-509. Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran P, Munehiro M, Omasa K. 2012. Relationships between the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and plant pigment indices at different leaf growth stages. Photosynthesis Research 113, 261-271.

  1. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 2008 Numerical Relativity Data Analysis Meeting, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA, 11-14 August 2008 Proceedings of the 2008 Numerical Relativity Data Analysis Meeting, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA, 11-14 August 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Patrick; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2009-06-01

    many of the highlights of the meeting. These include an article that summarizes the NINJA project, a collaboration between data analysts and numerical relativists that is testing data analysis pipelines on numerical relativity waveforms buried in simulated detector noise. In addition, there are several technical papers concerning the results of team efforts involved in NINJA. Also included is a review of the status of black-hole simulations, updates on black-hole and neutron-star sources of gravitational waves, accuracy tests of gravitational waveforms, binary parameter estimation methods, updates on searches using analytic and phenomenological waveforms, and a road map to the advanced LIGO detectors. The conference organizers would like to acknowledge the financial support of the National Science Foundation under grant number PHY-0838740, and support from Syracuse University. We thank the local organizing committee of Duncan Brown, Penny Davis and Joshua Smith as well as the other members of the scientific organizing committee of Duncan Brown (Syracuse University), Sascha Husa (AEI), Badri Krishnan (AEI) and Harald Pfeiffer (CITA) for putting together an exciting conference. We also thank the editorial staff of the journal Classical and Quantum Gravity, especially Adam Day, Suzanne Prescott, and Joseph Tennant for their assistance, support, and patience in preparing this issue. Finally, we would like to thank the participants of NRDA2008 for making this conference so vital and energizing. The next NRDA meeting will be held at the Albert Einstein Institute in Potsdam, Germany 6-9 July 2009. We look forward to new collaborations, and to the continued blurring of the lines between our communities as we explore the interface of numerical relativity and data analysis. Patrick Sutton, Cardiff University and Deirdre Shoemaker, Georgia Institute of Technology Guest Editors

  2. Native bee diversity and pollen foraging specificity in cultivated highbush blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium corymbosum) in Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Zachary; Ginsberg, Howard; Alm, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    We identified 41 species of native bees from a total of 1,083 specimens collected at cultivated highbush blueberry plantings throughout Rhode Island in 2014 and 2015. Andrena spp., Bombus spp., and Xylocopa virginica (L.) were collected most often. Bombus griseocollis (DeGeer), B. impatiens Cresson, B. bimaculatus Cresson, B. perplexus Cresson, and Andrena vicina Smith collected the largest mean numbers of blueberry pollen tetrads. The largest mean percent blueberry pollen loads were carried by the miner bees Andrena bradleyi Viereck (91%), A. carolina Viereck (90%), and Colletes validus Cresson (87%). The largest mean total pollen grain loads were carried by B. griseocollis (549,844), B. impatiens (389,558), X. virginica (233,500), and B. bimaculatus (193,132). Xylocopa virginica was the fourth and fifth most commonly collected bee species in 2014 and 2015, respectively. They exhibit nectar robbing and females carried relatively low blueberry pollen loads (mean 33%). Overall, we found 10 species of bees to be the primary pollinators of blueberries in Rhode Island.

  3. Bribery and Its Ethical Implications for Aid Workers in the Developing World.

    PubMed

    Remer, J Scott

    2017-02-01

    Bribery is a complicated, multi-dimensional issue. Upon first glance, most westerners would immediately condemn it as an underhanded, unfair means of gaining an advantage in a competitive or legal situation, and so it is in virtually every case in the westernized world. However, the issue becomes much more complicated in the international context, particularly in developing nations, where giving and accepting bribes is often normal and expected. This paper serves to inform ethical decision-making in situations where the "right choice" is unclear with regards to bribery, primarily for individuals performing aid work in foreign countries with corrupt officials and police officers. In such contexts, a simple offering of food, money, or a small trinket may make the difference between a person being able to accomplish meaningful, life-changing work for the local populace or having that work significantly slowed at best and being thrown out of the country, robbed, or imprisoned in worse cases. The larger scale bribery issues in international business and the laws pertaining to them are also discussed.

  4. The impact of an alcohol harm reduction intervention on interpersonal violence and engagement in sex work among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya: Results from a randomized controlled trial*

    PubMed Central

    Parcesepe, Angela M.; L'Engle, Kelly L.; Martin, Sandra L.; Green, Sherri; Sinkele, William; Suchindran, Chirayath; Speizer, Ilene S.; Mwarogo, Peter; Kingola, Nzioki

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate whether an alcohol harm reduction intervention was associated with reduced interpersonal violence or engagement in sex work among female sex workers (FSWs) in Mombasa, Kenya. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting HIV prevention drop-in centers in Mombasa, Kenya. Participants 818 women 18 or older in Mombasa who visited HIV prevention drop-in centers, were moderate-risk drinkers and engaged in transactional sex in past six months (410 and 408 in intervention and control arms, respectively). Intervention 6 session alcohol harm reduction intervention. Comparator 6 session non-alcohol related nutrition intervention. Measurements In-person interviews were conducted at enrollment, immediately post-intervention and 6-months post-intervention. General linear mixed models examined associations between intervention assignment and recent violence (physical violence, verbal abuse, and being robbed in the past 30 days) from paying and non-paying sex partners and engagement in sex work in the past 30 days. Findings The alcohol intervention was associated with statistically significant decreases in physical violence from paying partners at 6 months post-intervention and verbal abuse from paying partners immediately post-intervention and 6-months post-intervention. Those assigned to the alcohol intervention had significantly reduced odds of engaging in sex work immediately post-intervention and 6-months post-intervention. Conclusions The alcohol intervention was associated with reductions in some forms of violence and with reductions in engagement in sex work among FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. PMID:26872880

  5. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-06-15

    Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1-89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1-34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m(2). The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11-12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures.

  6. Victimization experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Hyde, Janet S

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis quantitatively compiled the results of studies from 1992 to 2009 to determine the prevalence and types of victimization experienced by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Based on the results of three searches, 386 studies were retrieved and coded. Comparisons were made across all LGB individuals (138 studies), between LGB and heterosexual individuals (65 studies), and between LGB females and males (53 studies), with over 500,000 participants. Multiple types of victimization were coded, including discrimination, physical assault, and school victimization. Findings revealed that for LGB individuals, reports of victimization experiences were substantial (e.g., 55% experienced verbal harassment, and 41% experienced discrimination) and some types have increased since a 1992 review, while others have decreased. LGB individuals experienced greater rates of victimization than heterosexual individuals (range: d = .04-.58). LGB males experienced some types of victimization more than LGB females (e.g., weapon assault and being robbed) but, overall, the gender differences were small. It can be concluded that LGB individuals still experience a substantial amount of victimization. Implications for research methods are discussed, including recommendations for sampling and measurement of victimization. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Sex Research for the following free supplemental resource(s): Supplementary Tables. These tables are referred to in the text of this article as "Table S1," "Table S2," etc.].

  7. Precision instrument placement using a 4-DOF robot with integrated fiducials for minimally invasive interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Roland; Lin, Ralph; Cheng, Peng; Kronreif, Gernot; Kornfeld, Martin; Lindisch, David; Wood, Bradford J.; Viswanathan, Anand; Cleary, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    Minimally invasive procedures are increasingly attractive to patients and medical personnel because they can reduce operative trauma, recovery times, and overall costs. However, during these procedures, the physician has a very limited view of the interventional field and the exact position of surgical instruments. We present an image-guided platform for precision placement of surgical instruments based upon a small four degree-of-freedom robot (B-RobII; ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, Vienna, Austria). This platform includes a custom instrument guide with an integrated spiral fiducial pattern as the robot's end-effector, and it uses intra-operative computed tomography (CT) to register the robot to the patient directly before the intervention. The physician can then use a graphical user interface (GUI) to select a path for percutaneous access, and the robot will automatically align the instrument guide along this path. Potential anatomical targets include the liver, kidney, prostate, and spine. This paper describes the robotic platform, workflow, software, and algorithms used by the system. To demonstrate the algorithmic accuracy and suitability of the custom instrument guide, we also present results from experiments as well as estimates of the maximum error between target and instrument tip.

  8. Classification of underwater targets from autonomous underwater vehicle sampled bistatic acoustic scattered fields.

    PubMed

    Fischell, Erin M; Schmidt, Henrik

    2015-12-01

    One of the long term goals of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) minehunting is to have multiple inexpensive AUVs in a harbor autonomously classify hazards. Existing acoustic methods for target classification using AUV-based sensing, such as sidescan and synthetic aperture sonar, require an expensive payload on each outfitted vehicle and post-processing and/or image interpretation. A vehicle payload and machine learning classification methodology using bistatic angle dependence of target scattering amplitudes between a fixed acoustic source and target has been developed for onboard, fully autonomous classification with lower cost-per-vehicle. To achieve the high-quality, densely sampled three-dimensional (3D) bistatic scattering data required by this research, vehicle sampling behaviors and an acoustic payload for precision timed data acquisition with a 16 element nose array were demonstrated. 3D bistatic scattered field data were collected by an AUV around spherical and cylindrical targets insonified by a 7-9 kHz fixed source. The collected data were compared to simulated scattering models. Classification and confidence estimation were shown for the sphere versus cylinder case on the resulting real and simulated bistatic amplitude data. The final models were used for classification of simulated targets in real time in the LAMSS MOOS-IvP simulation package [M. Benjamin, H. Schmidt, P. Newman, and J. Leonard, J. Field Rob. 27, 834-875 (2010)].

  9. A nurse clinician's approach to knife crime prevention.

    PubMed

    England, Rachel; Jackson, Rob

    This article outlines a new and creative contribution to knife crime prevention by an emergency nurse clinician and an initial evaluation of its effectiveness. The 'knife crime prevention programme' is delivered to young people aged 11-16 years by one of the authors, Rob Jackson, an emergency nurse clinician at Liverpool University Hospital; the aim is to educate young people about the medical consequences of knife injury. A group of 140 students and 17 teachers responded to a questionnaire evaluating the effectiveness of the session delivered to four schools in Liverpool. Students and teachers positively rated the session, with the combination of the nurse clinician's knowledge and expertise and photographs and depictions of knife crime as a unique and impacting approach to knife crime prevention. It is suggested that the nurse clinician and other experienced health professionals have an important contribution to make in preventive approaches to knife crime. Further evaluation of the knife crime prevention programme will be conducted by the authors.

  10. Optimized Algorithms for Prediction Within Robotic Tele-Operative Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney A.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Allan, Mark B.; SunSpiral, Vytas

    2010-01-01

    Robonaut, the humanoid robot developed at the Dexterous Robotics Labo ratory at NASA Johnson Space Center serves as a testbed for human-rob ot collaboration research and development efforts. One of the recent efforts investigates how adjustable autonomy can provide for a safe a nd more effective completion of manipulation-based tasks. A predictiv e algorithm developed in previous work was deployed as part of a soft ware interface that can be used for long-distance tele-operation. In this work, Hidden Markov Models (HMM?s) were trained on data recorded during tele-operation of basic tasks. In this paper we provide the d etails of this algorithm, how to improve upon the methods via optimization, and also present viable alternatives to the original algorithmi c approach. We show that all of the algorithms presented can be optim ized to meet the specifications of the metrics shown as being useful for measuring the performance of the predictive methods. 1

  11. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves

    PubMed Central

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential. PMID:27144150

  12. Multiple mechanisms underlie displacement of solitary Hawaiian Hymenoptera by an invasive social wasp.

    PubMed

    Wilson, E E; Holway, D A

    2010-11-01

    Variation in invasion success may result from the divergent evolutionary histories of introduced species compared to those of native taxa. The vulnerability of native biotas to ecological disruption may be especially great on oceanic islands invaded by continental species with unique ecological traits. In part because Hawaii lacks native eusocial insects, social invaders may threaten endemic taxa that are ecologically similar but solitary. Using a combination of field manipulations, molecular analyses, physiological data, and behavioral assays, we identify the mechanisms underlying the displacement of two genera of native solitary Hymenoptera in Hawaii by a social continental invader, the western yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica). Experimental removal of V. pensylvanica colonies resulted in increased densities of native Hymenoptera. Endemic Hylaeus bees directly suffer through predation by yellowjackets, and perhaps as a consequence, avoid floral resources occupied by V. pensylvanica. Native Nesodynerus wasps also avoid V. pensylvanica but are negatively affected by yellowjackets not through predation, but through exploitative competition for caterpillar prey. Displacement of native solitary Hymenoptera may be heightened by the ability of V. pensylvanica to prey upon and scavenge honey bees and to rob their honey stores, resources unavailable to endemic bees and wasps because of their specialized niches. Our study provides a unique example of an ecologically generalized social invader that restructures native assemblages of solitary Hymenoptera by interacting with endemic taxa on multiple trophic levels.

  13. Analysis of continuous GPS measurements from southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willis, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Several years of continuous data have been collected at remote bedrock Global Positioning System (GPS) sites in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Annual to sub-annual variations are observed in the position time-series. An atmospheric pressure loading (APL) effect is calculated from pressure field anomalies supplied by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model loading an elastic Earth model. The predicted APL signal has a moderate correlation with the vertical position time-series at McMurdo, Ross Island (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) station MCM4), produced using a global solution. In contrast, a local solution in which MCM4 is the fiducial site generates a vertical time series for a remote site in Victoria Land (Cape Roberts, ROB4) which exhibits a low, inverse correlation with the predicted atmospheric pressure loading signal. If, in the future, known and well modeled geophysical loads can be separated from the time-series, then local hydrological loading, of interest for glaciological and climate applications, can potentially be extracted from the GPS time-series.

  14. Striving to Reduce Vulnerability:Lessons from the Poor Community Livelihoodsin the Jakarta Bay Facing High Risk of Rapid Urbanization and Climate Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayati, D.; Delinom, R. M.; Abdurachim, A. Y.; Dalimunthe, S.; Haba, J.; Pawitan, H.

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses water-food issues in relation to how livelihoods of the poor community in Jakarta Bayarein high risk ofrapid urbanization and climate changes. As a part of the capital city of Indonesia, this area has experienced rapid increase in populationand extensive developments causing significant increase in the built up area. This city is unable to keep with demand on sewers, water and solid waste management, leading to settlement with concentrated slum pockets areas and widespread of flooding. The community is mostly poor people of productive group, live with urban pressure in fragile home and livelihoods.The situation becomes much worse due to the impact of climate change with flooding as the greatest climate and disaster risk. With lack of basic services, coastal water inundation (BanjirRob)commonly occursand floods the community housing areaswithout patternanymore. The community has lack of fresh and clean water sources and facedeconomic problem, particularly significant reduction of fishing activities. Coastal reclamation and water pollution from nearby industries are blamed as the main reason for these problems. Strategies therefore have to be developed, especially increasing community awareness and preparedness, and poverty alleviation, to sustain their livelihoods in this high risk urban area.

  15. Dye pack injury causing third-degree burns.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Robert L; Smith, Howard G

    2008-01-01

    A 42-year-old African-American male patient allegedly robbed a community bank. Upon leaving the bank a dye pack device detonated causing full thickness burn to the left thigh as well as second-degree burns to areas of his left leg, right leg, penis, and scrotum. The patient underwent surgical debridement and grafting of the left thigh burn wound. He had 100% graft take, and was discharged into the care of the Federal Bureau of Investigation awaiting trial for bank robbery. Security dye packs are stacks of currency bills, which are sewn together with a hollow chamber containing tear gas, smoke devices, or a dye and can be bent or folded. No previous reports of burn injuries secondary to dye packs have been reported in the literature. Of interest, however, personal injury lawsuits on the part of the accused have been tried in the court system. The continued evolution of theft, law enforcement, and antipersonnel devices underscores the importance that burn care providers be made aware of the mechanisms of action and injury associated with these devices.

  16. "What do these women want?": Feminist responses to Feminine Forever, 1963-1980.

    PubMed

    Houck, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    In 1963, Brooklyn gynecologist Robert A. Wilson and his wife, Thelma, published a paper in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society arguing that untreated menopause robbed women of their femininity and ruined the quality of their lives. In 1966 Robert Wilson published a best-selling book, Feminine Forever, in which he maintained that menopause was an estrogen-deficiency disease that should be treated with estrogen replacement therapy to prevent the otherwise inevitable "living decay." This paper explores the issues raised by the convergence of Wilson's campaign and the emergence of the women's movement. Between 1963 and 1980, feminists did not respond with one voice to Wilson's ideas: at first, some embraced them as a boon for aging women, while others resisted regarding female aging as pathological. In 1975, studies linking ERT and endometrial cancer challenged the wisdom of routine hormone therapy; this shifted the tenor of the feminist discussion, but it did not create a consensus about the meaning of menopause or its treatment. Nevertheless, the feminist discussion of menopause revealed a larger women's health agenda-namely, the unyielding belief that women should retain control of their bodies and participate fully in the decision-making efforts regarding their health. By controlling their bodies, all women, whether feminist or not, could ultimately control their lives.

  17. Pollination in Jacaranda rugosa (Bignoniaceae): euglossine pollinators, nectar robbers and low fruit set.

    PubMed

    Milet-Pinheiro, P; Schlindwein, C

    2009-03-01

    Nectar robbers access floral nectar in illegitimate flower visits without, in general, performing a pollination service. Nevertheless, their effect on fruit set can be indirectly positive if the nectar removal causes an incremental increase in the frequency of legitimate flower visits of effective pollinators, especially in obligate outcrossers. We studied pollination and the effect of nectar robbers on the reproductive fitness of Jacaranda rugosa, an endemic shrub of the National Park of Catimbau, in the Caatinga of Pernambuco, Brazil. Xenogamous J. rugosa flowers continuously produced nectar during the day at a rate of 1 mul.h(-1). Female and male Euglossa melanotricha were the main pollinators. Early morning flower visits substantially contributed to fruit set because stigmas with open lobes were almost absent in the afternoon. Ninety-nine per cent of the flowers showed damage caused by nectar robbers. Artificial addition of sugar water prolonged the duration of flower visits of legitimate flower visitors. Removal of nectar, simulating the impact of nectar robbers, resulted in shorter flower visits of euglossine bees. While flower visits of nectar-robbing carpenter bees (Xylocopa frontalis, X. grisescens, X. ordinaria) produced only a longitudinal slit in the corolla tube in the region of the nectar chamber, worker bees of Trigona spinipes damaged the gynoecium in 92% of the flowers. This explains the outstandingly low fruit set (1.5%) of J. rugosa in the National Park of Catimbau.

  18. Three-month pattern of road traffic injuries at a Kenyan level 4 hospital

    PubMed Central

    Matheka, Duncan Mwangangi; Kitonyi, Mercy Nzilani; Alkizim, Faraj Omar

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injuries continue to exert a huge burden on the health care system in Kenya. Few studies on the pattern of road traffic injuries have been conducted in Kenya. We therefore carried out a retrospective study to determine the pattern of road traffic injuries seen in a public hospital in Naivasha district, Kenya. A retrospective study on surgical patients admitted at Naivasha District Hospital over a three month period was carried out. Eighty two percent of all patients injured in the crashes were men, and eighty percent were aged between 20-49 years. Most of the patients sustained lower limb injuries (41.5%) followed by head injuries (35.4%). Thirty one percent were pedestrians, 27.7% cyclists, 24.6% passengers and 16.9% motor vehicle drivers at the time of injury. Road traffic crashes are a growing pandemic, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Efforts need to be taken to prevent injuries, long term complications and loss of lives that are robbing communities off loved ones, bread winners and productive manpower. PMID:26090036

  19. Professional Ethics for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K. B.

    2005-05-01

    There is a growing recognition that professional ethics is an important topic for all professional scientists, especially physical scientists. Situations at the National Laboratories have dramatically proven this point. Professional ethics is usually only considered important for the health sciences and the legal and medical professions. However, certain aspects of the day to day work of professional astronomers can be impacted by ethical issues. Examples include refereeing scientific papers, serving on grant panels or telescope allocation committees, submitting grant proposals, providing proper references in publications, proposals or talks and even writing recommendation letters for job candidates or serving on search committees. This session will feature several speakers on a variety of topics and provide time for questions and answers from the audience. Confirmed speakers include: Kate Kirby, Director Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics - Professional Ethics in the Physical Sciences: An Overview Rob Kennicutt, Astrophysical Journal Editor - Ethical Issues for Publishing Astronomers Peggy Fischer, Office of the NSF Inspector General - Professional Ethics from the NSF Inspector General's Point of View

  20. Forensic features of a fatal Datura poisoning case during a robbery.

    PubMed

    Le Garff, E; Delannoy, Y; Mesli, V; Hédouin, V; Tournel, G

    2016-04-01

    Datura poisonings have been previously described but remain rare in forensic practice. Here, we present a homicide case involving Datura poisoning, which occurred during a robbery. Toxicological results were obtained by second autopsy performed after one previous autopsy and full body embalmment. A 35-year-old man presented with severe stomach and digestive pain, became unconscious and ultimately died during a trip in Asia. A first autopsy conducted in Asia revealed no trauma, intoxication or pathology. The corpse was embalmed with methanol/formalin. A second autopsy was performed in France, and toxicology samples were collected. Scopolamine, atropine, and hyoscyamine were found in the vitreous humor, in addition to methanol. Police investigators questioned the local travel guide, who admitted to having added Datura to a drink to stun and rob his victim. The victim's death was attributed to disordered heart rhythm due to severe anticholinergic syndrome following fatal Datura intoxication. This is a recent case of a rare homicide involving Datura that highlights general information on Datura and discusses forensic interpretation after a previous autopsy and body embalmment.

  1. Cellular models and therapies for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Forest, David L.; Johnson, Lincoln V.; Clegg, Dennis O.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex neurodegenerative visual disorder that causes profound physical and psychosocial effects. Visual impairment in AMD is caused by the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells and the light-sensitive photoreceptor cells that they support. There is currently no effective treatment for the most common form of this disease (dry AMD). A new approach to treating AMD involves the transplantation of RPE cells derived from either human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. Multiple clinical trials are being initiated using a variety of cell therapies. Although many animal models are available for AMD research, most do not recapitulate all aspects of the disease, hampering progress. However, the use of cultured RPE cells in AMD research is well established and, indeed, some of the more recently described RPE-based models show promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms of AMD and for screening drug candidates. Here, we discuss innovative cell-culture models of AMD and emerging stem-cell-based therapies for the treatment of this vision-robbing disease. PMID:26035859

  2. Geometry, analysis, and computation in mathematics and applied sciences. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kusner, R.B.; Hoffman, D.A.; Norman, P.; Pedit, F.; Whitaker, N.; Oliver, D.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1993, the GANG laboratory has been co-directed by David Hoffman, Rob Kusner and Peter Norman. A great deal of mathematical research has been carried out here by them and by GANG faculty members Franz Pedit and Nate Whitaker. Also new communication tools, such as the GANG Webserver have been developed. GANG has trained and supported nearly a dozen graduate students, and at least half as many undergrads in REU projects.The GANG Seminar continues to thrive, making Amherst a site for short and long term visitors to come to work with the GANG. Some of the highlights of recent or ongoing research at GANG include: CMC surfaces, minimal surfaces, fluid dynamics, harmonic maps, isometric immersions, knot energies, foam structures, high dimensional soap film singularities, elastic curves and surfaces, self-similar curvature evolution, integrable systems and theta functions, fully nonlinear geometric PDE, geometric chemistry and biology. This report is divided into the following sections: (1) geometric variational problems; (2) soliton geometry; (3) embedded minimal surfaces; (4) numerical fluid dynamics and mathematical modeling; (5) GANG graphics and mathematical software; (6) description of the computational and visual analysis facility; and (7) research by undergraduates and GANG graduate seminar.

  3. Disability Life Writing and the Problem of Dependency in The Autobiography of Gaby Brimmer.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    Independence was a core value of the movement for disability rights. People with disabilities did not have to be dependent, advocates claimed; they were robbed of autonomy by poverty, social prejudice, and architectural barriers. Recently, critics have noted that the emphasis on independence equates personhood with autonomy, reason, and self-awareness, thereby excluding those who are incapable of self-determination. The stigma of dependency is communicated to caregivers whose work is devalued and undercompensated. These values are echoed in the life writing of people with disabilities, which tends to present a singular narrative voice, even when the author requires assistance in the physical or intellectual work of composition. The 1979 Mexican memoir-testimonio Gaby Brimmer, collaboratively authored by the acclaimed journalist Elena Poniatowska, Brimmer, her mother, and her paid caregiver is a notable exception. Consisting of interwoven dialogue among its three informants, Gaby Brimmer enacts dependency at the level of form, while exploring the challenges and opportunities of interdependence in societies that devalue the giving and receiving of care.

  4. Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) pupae: a timeline of external morphological development and a new age and PMI estimation tool.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katherine; Thorne, Alan; Harvey, Michelle

    2015-07-01

    The minimum postmortem interval (PMI(min)) is commonly estimated using calliphorid larvae, for which there are established age estimation methods based on morphological and development data. Despite the increased duration and sedentary nature of the pupal stage of the blowfly, morphological age estimation methods are poorly documented and infrequently used for PMI determination. The aim of this study was to develop a timeline of metamorphosis, focusing on the development of external morphology (within the puparium), to provide a means of age and PMI estimation for Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) pupae. Under controlled conditions, 1,494 pupae were reared and sampled at regular time intervals. After puparium removal, observations of 23 external metamorphic developments were correlated to age in accumulated degree hours (ADH). Two age estimation methods were developed based on (1) the combination of possible age ranges observed for each characteristic and (2) regression analyses to generate age estimation equations employing all 23 characteristics observed and a subset of ten characteristics most significantly correlated with age. Blind sample analysis indicated that, using the combination of both methods, pupal age could be estimated to within ±500 ADH with 95% reliability.

  5. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves.

    PubMed

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential.

  6. Protective effect of salidroside against bone loss via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α pathway-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Qu, Ye; Jin, Xin; Guo, Xiao Qin; Wang, Yue; Qi, Lin; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Peng; Li, Ling Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α plays a critical role in coupling angiogenesis with osteogenesis during bone development and regeneration. Salidroside (SAL) has shown anti-hypoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. However, the possible roles of SAL in the prevention of hypoxia-induced osteoporosis have remained unknown. Two osteoblast cell lines, MG-63 and ROB, were employed to evaluate the effects of SAL on cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation and mineralization in vitro. Rats subjected to ovariectomy-induced bone loss were treated with SAL in vivo. Our results showed that pre-treatment with SAL markedly attenuated the hypoxia-induced reductions in cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation and mineralization. SAL down-regulated HIF-1α expression and inhibited its translocation; however, SAL increased its transcriptional activity and, consequently, up-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In vivo studies further demonstrated that SAL caused decreases in the mineral, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and BGP concentrations in the blood of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Moreover, SAL improved the trabecular bone microarchitecture and increased bone mineral density in the distal femur. Additionally, SAL administration partially ameliorated this hypoxia via the HIF-1α-VEGF signalling pathway. Our results indicate that SAL prevents bone loss by enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis and that these effects are associated with the activation of HIF-1α signalling. PMID:27558909

  7. Using archetypes and transitions theory to help patients move from active treatment to survivorship.

    PubMed

    Rancour, Patrice

    2008-12-01

    Nurses historically have used the medical model to assess and intervene when individuals move transitionally into and out of the role of patients with cancer. Although assessing for clinical depression or other medical model designations is appropriate, using this as the sole model for helping patients with cancer emerge from their illness experiences and into the role of survivorship may rob them of the opportunity to actively use the illness for spiritual growth and self-actualization. The transition process is classified into three distinct stages: endings, the neutral zone, and beginnings. Each is characterized by its own unique qualities and challenges. Jungian metaphors and archetypes also can be used to evoke powerful images that help survivors find depth of meaning in their suffering and enhance healing. Nurses often are in ideal positions to create such healing experiences by helping survivors recognize "shadow" emotional experiences stemming from the recovery process, accepting the emotions as normal transitional phenomena, and using them to develop compassion for others. Individuals, therefore, are presented with opportunities to imagine newly emerging life purposes that far exceed their identification as survivors.

  8. Multispectral imaging: a review of its technical aspects and applications in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, J R

    2014-01-01

    The field of anatomic pathology has changed significantly over the last decades and, as a result of the technological developments in molecular pathology and genetics, has had increasing pressures put on it to become quantitative and to provide more information about protein expression on a cellular level in tissue sections. Multispectral imaging (MSI) has a long history as an advanced imaging modality and has been used for over a decade now in pathology to improve quantitative accuracy, enable the analysis of multicolor immunohistochemistry, and drastically reduce the impact of contrast-robbing tissue autofluorescence common in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. When combined with advanced software for the automated segmentation of different tissue morphologies (eg, tumor vs stroma) and cellular and subcellular segmentation, MSI can enable the per-cell quantitation of many markers simultaneously. This article covers the role that MSI has played in anatomic pathology in the analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, discusses the technological aspects of why MSI has been adopted, and provides a review of the literature of the application of MSI in anatomic pathology.

  9. Drugs involved in drug-facilitated crimes--part II: Drugs of abuse, prescription and over-the-counter medications. A review.

    PubMed

    Shbair, M K S; Eljabour, S; Bassyoni, I; Lhermitte, M

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, there has been a notable increase in the number of reports of drug-facilitated crimes. Usually, individuals report that they were robbed or assaulted while incapacitated by drugs. Most often, these cases have involved drugs that have the ability to produce an effect that leaves the victim in a semiconscious or unconscious state. It is reasonable to assume that the purpose of drug-induced incapacitation is probably largely unchanged with time. This covers the full range of property offences (particularly theft) and crimes against the person (often sexual assault). What have changed are the drugs themselves: the number; type; their accessibility; effects and detection. This review describes the different aspects related to the involvement and use of drugs of abuse, as well as prescription and over-the counter medications in drug-facilitated crimes, which may help people working in this field to expand their knowledge in order to better understand the nature of these crimes or offences.

  10. Anatomy's use of unclaimed bodies: reasons against continued dependence on an ethically dubious practice.

    PubMed

    Jones, D Gareth; Whitaker, Maja I

    2012-03-01

    The use of unclaimed bodies has been one of the distinguishing features of the anatomy profession since the passing of nineteenth century legislation aimed at solving the problem of grave robbing. Only in more recent years has the use of bequeathed bodies supplanted dependence upon unclaimed bodies in many (but not all) countries. We argue that this dependence has opened the profession to a range of questionable ethical practices. Starting with contraventions of the early Anatomy Acts, we trace the manner in which the legitimacy of using unclaimed bodies has exposed vulnerable groups to dissection without their consent. These groups have included the impoverished, the mentally ill, African Americans, slaves, and stigmatized groups during the Nazi era. Unfortunately, ethical constraints have not been imposed on the use of unclaimed bodies. The major public plastination exhibitions of recent years invite us to revisit these issues, even though some like Body Worlds claim to use bequeathed bodies. The widespread use of unclaimed bodies in institutional settings has lent to these public exhibitions a modicum of legitimacy that is needed even when donated bodies are employed. This is because the notion of donation has changed as demonstrated by consideration of the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence. We conclude that anatomists should cease using unclaimed bodies. Difficult as this will be in some cultures, the challenge for anatomists is to establish relationships of trust with their local communities and show how body donation can assist both the community and the profession.

  11. Workplace Homicides Among U.S. Women: The Role of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Tiesman, Hope M.; Gurka, Kelly K.; Konda, Srinivas; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Amandus, Harlan E.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue with serious consequences for the workplace. Workplace homicides occurring to U.S. women over a 6-year period, including those perpetrated by an intimate partner, are described. METHODS Workplace homicides among U.S. women from 2003 to 2008 were categorized into type I (criminal intent), type II (customer/client), type III (co-worker), or type IV (personal relations) events using the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. Fatality rates were calculated and compared among workplace violence (WPV) types, occupations, and characteristics including location of homicide, type of workplace, time of day, and weapon used. RESULTS Between 2003 and 2008, 648 women were feloniously killed on the job. The leading cause of workplace homicide for U.S. women was criminal intent, such as robbing a store (n = 212; 39%), followed by homicides perpetrated by a personal relation (n= 181; 33%). The majority of these personal relations were intimate partners (n = 142; 78%). Over half of workplace homicides perpetrated by intimate partners occurred in parking lots and public buildings (n = 91; 51%). CONCLUSIONS A large percentage of homicides occurring to women at work are perpetrated by intimate partners. WPV prevention programs should incorporate strategies to prevent and respond to IPV. PMID:22463843

  12. Native Bee Diversity and Pollen Foraging Specificity in Cultivated Highbush Blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium corymbosum) in Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Scott, Zachary; Ginsberg, Howard S; Alm, Steven R

    2016-12-01

    We identified 41 species of native bees from a total of 1,083 specimens collected at cultivated highbush blueberry plantings throughout Rhode Island in 2014 and 2015. Andrena spp., Bombus spp., and Xylocopa virginica (L.) were collected most often. Bombus griseocollis (DeGeer), B. impatiens Cresson, B. bimaculatus Cresson, B. perplexus Cresson, and Andrena vicina Smith collected the largest mean numbers of blueberry pollen tetrads. The largest mean percent blueberry pollen loads were carried by the miner bees Andrena bradleyi Viereck (91%), A. carolina Viereck (90%), and Colletes validus Cresson (87%). The largest mean total pollen grain loads were carried by B. griseocollis (549,844), B. impatiens (389,558), X. virginica (233,500), and B. bimaculatus (193,132). Xylocopa virginica was the fourth and fifth most commonly collected bee species in 2014 and 2015, respectively. They exhibit nectar robbing and females carried relatively low blueberry pollen loads (mean 33%). Overall, we found 10 species of bees to be the primary pollinators of blueberries in Rhode Island.

  13. Native Bee Diversity and Pollen Foraging Specificity in Cultivated Highbush Blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium corymbosum) in Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Scott, Zachary; Ginsberg, Howard S; Alm, Steven R

    2016-10-15

    We identified 41 species of native bees from a total of 1,083 specimens collected at cultivated highbush blueberry plantings throughout Rhode Island in 2014 and 2015. Andrena spp., Bombus spp., and Xylocopa virginica (L.) were collected most often. Bombus griseocollis (DeGeer), B. impatiens Cresson, B. bimaculatus Cresson, B. perplexus Cresson, and Andrena vicina Smith collected the largest mean numbers of blueberry pollen tetrads. The largest mean percent blueberry pollen loads were carried by the miner bees Andrena bradleyi Viereck (91%), A. carolina Viereck (90%), and Colletes validus Cresson (87%). The largest mean total pollen grain loads were carried by B. griseocollis (549,844), B. impatiens (389,558), X. virginica (233,500), and B. bimaculatus (193,132). Xylocopa virginica was the fourth and fifth most commonly collected bee species in 2014 and 2015, respectively. They exhibit nectar robbing and females carried relatively low blueberry pollen loads (mean 33%). Overall, we found 10 species of bees to be the primary pollinators of blueberries in Rhode Island.

  14. Seismic Response of a Deep Underground Geologic Repository for Nuclear Waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, P.E.

    1998-11-02

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep underground nuclear waste repository certified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ,(EPA) to store transuranic defense-related waste contaminated by small amounts of radioactive materials. Located at a depth of about 655 meters below the surface, the facility is sited in southeastern New Mexico, about 40 Department of Energy underground facilities, waste disposal. kilometers east of the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The U.S. (DOE) managed the design and construction of the surface and and remains responsible for operation and closure following The managing and operating contractor for the DOE at the WIPP, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, maintains two rechmiant seismic monitoring systems located at the surface and in the underground. This report discusses two earthquakes detected by the seismic monitoring system, one a duratior magnitude 5.0 (Md) event located approximately 60 km east-southeast of the facility, and another a body-wave magnitude 5.6 (rob) event that occurred approximately 260 kilometers to the south-southeast.

  15. Marine and land active-source seismic imaging of mid-Miocene to Holocene-aged faulting near geothermal prospects at Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G.; Driscoll, N.; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R.; Louie, J.; Pullammanappallil, S.

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie Kell, Graham Kent, Neal Driscoll, Robert Karlin, Rob Baskin, John Louie, and Satish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic imaging of mid-Miocene to Holocene-aged faulting near geothermal prospects at Pyramid Lake, Nevada: Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, 35, 7 pp. Preprint at http://crack.seismo.unr.edu/geothermal/Eisses-GRCpaper-sm.pdf The Pyramid Lake fault zone lies within a vitally important area of the northern Walker Lane where not only can transtension can be studied through a complex arrangement of strike-slip and normal faults but also geothermal activity can be examined in the extensional regime for productivity. This study used advanced and economical seismic methods in attempt to develop the Paiute Tribe’s geothermal reservoir and to expand upon the tectonics and earthquake hazard knowledge of the area. 500 line-kilometers of marine CHIRP data were collected on Pyramid Lake combined with 27 kilometers of vibrator seismic on-land data from the northwest side of the basin were collected in 2010 that highlighted two distinct phases of faulting. Preliminary results suggest that the geothermal fluids in the area are controlled by the late Pleistoceneto Holocene-aged faults and not through the mid-Miocene-aged conduits as originally hypothesized.

  16. Angelman Syndrome Caused by Chromosomal Rearrangements: A Case Report of 46,XX,+der(13)t(13;15)(q14.1;q12)mat,-15 with an Atypical Phenotype and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Niida, Yo; Sato, Hitoshi; Ozaki, Mamoru; Itoh, Masatsune; Ikeno, Kanju; Takase, Etsuko

    2016-01-01

    Less than 1% of the cases with Angelman syndrome (AS) are caused by chromosomal rearrangements. This category of AS is not well defined and may manifest atypical phenotypes. Here, we report a girl with AS due to der(13)t(13;15)(q14.1;q12)mat. SNP array detected the precise deletion/duplication points and the parental origin of the 15q deletion. Multicolor FISH confirmed a balanced translocation t(13;15)(q14.1;q12) in her mother. Her facial appearance showed some features of dup(13)(pter→q14). Also, she lacked the most characteristic and unique behavioral symptoms of AS, i.e., frequent laughter, happy demeanor, and easy excitability. A review of the literature indicated that AS cases caused by chromosomal rearrangements can be classified into 2 major categories and 4 groups. The first category is paternal uniparental disomy 15, which is subdivided into isodisomy by de novo rob(15;15) and heterodisomy caused by paternal translocation. The second category is the deletion of the AS locus due to maternal reciprocal translocation, which is subdivided into 2 groups associated with partial monosomy by 3:1 segregation and partial trisomy by adjacent-2 segregation. Classification into these categories facilitates the understanding of the mechanisms of chromosomal rearrangements and helps in accurate diagnosis and genetic counseling of these rare forms of AS.

  17. Recent activities of the FP7-ESPaCE consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuillot, W.; Lainey, V.; Dehant, V.; Arlot, J.-E.; Gurvits, , L.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Rosenblatt, P.; Marty, J. C.; Vermeersen, B.; Bauer, S.; De Cuyper, J.-P.; Dirkx, D.; Hestroffer, D.; Kudryashova, M.; Meunier, L. E.; Pasewaldt, A.; Rambaux, N.; Robert, V.; Tajeddine, R.; Willner, K.

    2014-12-01

    The consortium ESPaCE (European Satellite Partnership for Computing Ephemerides) is composed of seven European institutes: IMCCE ((Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Ephémérides, Paris Obs.), ROB (Royal Observatory of Belgium), TUB (Technical University of Berlin), JIVE (Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe), TUD (Delft University of Technology), French space agency (CNES) in France and German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Germany. The objective of this FP7 European project is to provide new accurate ephemerides of natural satellites and spacecraft. For this goal many astrometric data issued from ground-based observations as well as from space observations have been analyzed and reduced. On the other hand new technologies applied to the positioning of spacecraft are also studied. The ESPaCE project addresses also data related to gravity and shape modeling, control point network and rotational parameters of natural satellites. The accuracy improvement of these ephemerides makes them a powerful tool for the analysis of space missions or the preparation of future missions, or for the determination of some physical parameters.

  18. Secondary stem anatomy and uses of four drought-deciduous species of a tropical dry forest in México.

    PubMed

    Isaias, Alejandra Quintanar; Velázquez Núñez, Mariana; Solares Arenas, Fortunato; de la Paz Pérez Olvera, Carmen; Torre-Blanco, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Wood and bark anatomy and histochemistry of Acacia bilimekii Humb. & Bonpl., Acacia cochliacantha Mcbride, Conzatia nultiflora (Rob) Stand. and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. are described from stem samples collected in a tropical dry forest (Morelos, Mexico). Enzyme activities were tested in tangential, radial and transverse cuts of fresh material. Histochemistry and stem anatomy were studied on similar cuts previously softened in a solution of water-glicerol-PEG. Our results show that the anatomical patterns of bark and wood, as well as the histochemical patterns and specific gravity, are influenced by water accessibility and climate; these patterns could guarantee mechanical and anti-infection strategies to support extreme conditions. Enzyme cytochemistry reveals biochemical activities probably related to lipid utilization routes for the lignification processes and for synthesis of extractives; these results suggest that the formation and maturation of woody tissue is very active at the beginning of the rainy season. These species are widely used by the local population. Traditional uses include firewood, dead and live fences, fodder, construction, supporting stakes, handcrafts, farming tools, extraction of tanning products, and medicine. There is no relationship between use and abundance. Alternative uses are proposed according to a density index.

  19. Proteomics: how to control highly dynamic patterns of millions of molecules and interpret changes correctly?

    PubMed

    Schrattenholz, André

    2004-09-01

    "Proteomics" is essentially protein analysis and, until recently, could be described as an umbrella for a set of technology and bioinformatic platforms aimed at the comprehensive molecular description of the actual protein complement of a given sample. Today, it is typically associated with systems biology. In this context, powerful new technologies for differential complexity reduction promise to solve some of the most pressing problems in drug development. The resulting analytical challenges of unprecedented complexity are emerging as one of the last frontiers of molecular biology. Considerable progress has been made in characterizing rapid post-translational protein modifications in highly complex molecular signatures as key disease-related biomarkers from experimental model systems or clinical samples.: Section Editors: Wolfgang Fischer, Rob Hooft, and Michael Walker Identifying a potential protein drug target within a cell is a major challenge in modern drug discovery; techniques for screening the proteome are, therefore, an important tool. Major difficulties for target identification include the separation of proteins and their detection. The latest developments in techniques that master these challenges, such as SDS-PAGE and liquid chromatography in combination with isotopic labeling and staining techniques, are highlighted in this review. The authors evaluate the applicability of these approaches for specific tasks.

  20. A program to study the Earth's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GP President-Elect Ron Merrill has appointed a steering committee to develop a new initiative for a program to study the earth's magnetic field. In addition to Merrill, who will serve as chair, and Kenneth Verosub (University of California, Davis) who will be vice-chair, the committee includes George Backus (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.), Ned Benton (University of Colorado, Boulder), Rob Coe (University of California, Santa Cruz), and Dennis Kent (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.). The objective of the new program would be to develop a better description of the behavior of the geomagnetic field on all time scales and to use this description to increase our understanding of the physical processes that govern the generation of the geomagnetic field. The program would have three areas of emphasis: the present and recent field and its secular variation, the paleo-field and its variation on various time scales, and the core processes that produce the field.

  1. 57Fe Mössbauer, SEM/EDX, p-XRF and μ-XRF studies on a Dutch painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, R.; Schmidt, H.-J.; Costa, B. F. O.; Blumers, M.; Sansano, A.; Rull, F.; Wengerowsky, D.; Nürnberger, F.; Maier, H. J.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Renz, F.

    2016-12-01

    The painting of a rich Jewish merchant "Bildnis eines jüdischen Kaufmanns" from the Netherlands is dated presumably to the 16th century. After a vivid historical background, i.e. robbed by the Nazis by order of Hermann Göring, it was recently discovered on an Austrian flea market. Different analysis methods were combined to identify the time of the production of this historically interesting looted art. Non-destructive MIMOS II Fe-57 Mössbauer spectroscopy was utilised for mesurements in selected spots. This mainly revealed haematite ( α-Fe2O3) in the red curtain. In spots of the brown jacket Mössbauer spectra indicated the presence of mainly Iron(III) in super-paramagnetic oxide or oxide-hydroxide. Consecutively SEM measurements revealed a restoration by partly over-painting. The elementary composition of the pigments was examined by a portable-X-ray fluorescence. μ-XRF analysis for element distribution at different areas was performed. The look into a crack showed Zinc-white at the bottom of the crack. Traces of Titanium-white could be found within some locations on the surface of the painting. In terms of provenance of the artwork, the presence of Zink-white suggests that the painting was painted around the 19th century. Titanium-white indicates a reconstruction during the 20th century, approximately between 1917 and 1958.

  2. Culture and genetic screening in Africa.

    PubMed

    Jegede, Ayodele S

    2009-12-01

    Africa is a continent in transition amidst a revival of cultural practices. Over previous years the continent was robbed of the benefits of medical advances by unfounded cultural practices surrounding its cultural heritage. In a fast moving field like genetic screening, discussions of social and policy aspects frequently need to take place at an early stage to avoid the dilemma encountered by Western medicine. This paper, examines the potential challenges to genetic screening in Africa. It discusses how cultural practices may affect genetic screening. It views genomics science as a culture which is trying to diffuse into another one. It argues that understanding the existing culture will help the diffusion process. The paper emphasizes the importance of genetic screening for Africa, by assessing the current level of burden of diseases in the continent and shows its role in reducing disease prevalence. The paper identifies and discusses the cultural challenges that are likely to confront genetic screening on the continent, such as the worldview, rituals and taboos, polygyny, culture of son preference and so on. It also discusses cultural practices that may promote the science such as inheritance practices, spouse selection practices and naming patterns. Factors driving the cultural challenges are identified and discussed, such as socialization process, patriarchy, gender, belief system and so on. Finally, the paper discusses the way forward and highlights the ethical considerations of doing genetic screening on the continent. However, the paper also recognizes that African culture is not monolithic and therefore makes a case for exceptions.

  3. Monitoring within non-native ungulate exclosures documents the inherent size of Crocanthemum greenei (Cistaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Tyler M.; Catalano, Amy E.; Guilliams, C. Matt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Crocanthemum greenei (B.L.Rob.) Sorrie (Cistaceae), a perennial sub-shrub, was measured as part of a demographic monitoring effort on Santa Catalina Island, California, USA (hereafter, Catalina). Introduced ungulate browsers remain present on Catalina. Consequently, many palatable plant taxa on the island are subject to and putatively limited by top-down browsing forces. Historically, introduced ungulates have also been present on each island throughout the range of Crocanthemum greenei. Habitat conservation work, resulting in the construction of ungulate exclosures on Catalina, has now allowed us to measure individuals in their mature, non-browsed form. The published value for Crocanthemum greenei stem (height) is usually 15–30 cm. While the original description hints at a greater potential size, recent descriptions appear to be influenced by observations made during the decades when plants would have been impacted by introduced ungulate herbivores. Here we present stem measurements of 81 adult individuals, with a median of 49 cm and an interquartile range of 42–56 cm. These measurements suggest an expanded stem (height) range of 15–60 cm better describes the taxon and shed light on the historical impacts of invasive ungulates across the islands and those continuing on Catalina. PMID:27829795

  4. Constitutional abnormalities of chromosome 21 predispose to iAMP21-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christine J; Schwab, Claire

    2016-03-01

    In addition to Down syndrome, individuals with other constitutional abnormalities of chromosome 21 have an increased risk of developing childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Specifically, carriers of the Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes 15 and 21, rob(15;21) (q10; q10)c, have ∼2,700 increased risk of developing ALL with iAMP21 (intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21). In these patients, chromosome 15 as well as chromosome 21 is involved in the formation of iAMP21, referred to here as der(21)(15;21). Individuals with constitutional ring chromosomes involving chromosome 21, r(21)c, are also predisposed to iAMP21-ALL, involving the same series of mutational processes as seen in sporadic- and der(21)(15;21)-iAMP21 ALL. Evidence is accumulating that the dicentric nature of the Robertsonian and ring chromosome is the initiating factor in the formation of the complex iAMP21 structure. Unravelling these intriguing predispositions to iAMP21-ALL may provide insight into how other complex rearrangements arise in cancer.

  5. Sampling and Complementarity Effects of Plant Diversity on Resource Use Increases the Invasion Resistance of Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dan H.; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Wei Z.; Yuan, Yue; Li, Bin; Wang, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Although plant diversity is postulated to resist invasion, studies have not provided consistent results, most of which were ascribed to the influences of other covariate environmental factors. Methodology/Principal Findings To explore the mechanisms by which plant diversity influences community invasibility, an experiment was conducted involving grassland sites varying in their species richness (one, two, four, eight, and sixteen species). Light interception efficiency and soil resources (total N, total P, and water content) were measured. The number of species, biomass, and the number of seedlings of the invading species decreased significantly with species richness. The presence of Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch. ex Trev. and Mosla dianthera (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxburgh) Maxim. significantly increased the resistance of the communities to invasion. A structural equation model showed that the richness of planted species had no direct and significant effect on invasion. Light interception efficiency had a negative effect on the invasion whereas soil water content had a positive effect. In monocultures, Antenoron filiforme (Thunb.) Rob. et Vaut. showed the highest light interception efficiency and P. scabiosaefolia recorded the lowest soil water content. With increased planted-species richness, a greater percentage of pots showed light use efficiency higher than that of A. filiforme and a lower soil water content than that in P. scabiosaefolia. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study suggest that plant diversity confers resistance to invasion, which is mainly ascribed to the sampling effect of particular species and the complementarity effect among species on resources use. PMID:26556713

  6. Light Microsopy Module, International Space Station Premier Automated Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Brown, Daniel F.; O'Toole, Martin A.; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Abbot-Hearn, Amber Ashley; Atherton, Arthur Johnson; Beltram, Alexander; Bozioney, Christopher M.; Brinkman, John Michael; Chestney, Louis S.; Czernec, Richard P.; Dial, William B.; Dombrosky, Deena M.; Eustace, John G.; Reid, Ryan James; Reinke, Sharon A.; Rogers, Christopher R.; Samrani, Joseph T.; Shumway, Steven Scott; Smith, Teresa Ann; Stroh, James R.; Storck, Jennifer L.; Werner, Christopher Raymond; Wilkinson, Myron A.; Zoldak, John T.; Grant, Nechelle M.; Loucks, Brian C.; Plastow, Richard A.; Pestak, Mark W.; Fletcher, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began science operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2015, if all goes as planned, five experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with a manual sample base -3 (ACE-M-3), [2] the Advanced Colloids Experiment with a Heated Base -1 (ACE-H-1), [3] (ACE-H-2), [4] the Advanced Plant Experiment -03 (APEX-03), and [5] the Microchannel Diffusion Experiment (MDE). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] New York University: Paul Chaikin, Andrew Hollingsworth, and Stefano Sacanna, [2] University of Pennsylvania: Arjun Yodh and Matthew Gratale, [3] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al., [4] from the University of Florida and CASIS: Anna-Lisa Paul and Rob Ferl, and [5] from the Methodist Hospital Research Institute from CASIS: Alessandro Grattoni and Giancarlo Canavese.

  7. Sleeping Beauty: Kleine–Levin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mudgal, Soumiya; Jiloha, R. C.; Kandpal, Manish; Das, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS) alias sleeping beauty syndrome, is a rare sleep disorder. Clinically presenting as episodes of hypersomnolence, behavioral and cognitive disturbances, hyperphagia and hypersexuality. KLS may have an idiopathic onset or may be precipitated by neurological event or infection. Until date, no definite underlying cause is established and neither there are any definitive management guidelines. It remains a diagnosis of exclusion after other psychiatric and neurological causes have been ruled out. Coloring of presentation with behavioral and mood elements makes it important for a psychiatrist to be well-informed about the condition to avoid the erroneous diagnosis. KLS is a devastating illness, which robs the patient of time, experiences, and relationships. An early diagnosis and effective management can help patient escape from the morbidity caused by this disorder. Armodafinil and oxcarbamazepine have found to be effective in two of the case. The emphasis of this report is to add to the existing clinical knowledge of neurologists, psychiatrists and physicians. In the future, research is needed on genetic etiology and management of this disorder. PMID:25316944

  8. Computer animation of Phanerozoic plate motions

    SciTech Connect

    Scotese, C.R. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Since 1985, the PALEOMAP Project, in collaboration with research groups both in the US and abroad, has assembled a digital model that describes global plate motions during the last 600 million years. In this paper the authors present a series of computer animations that dynamically illustrates the movement of continents and terranes, and the evolution of the ocean basins since the breakup of the late Precambrian supercontinent. These animations depict the motion of the plates from both equatorial and polar perspectives. Mesozoic and Cenozoic plate tectonic reconstructions are based on a synthesis of linear magnetic anomalies, fracture zone locations, intracontinental rifts, collision and thrust belts, and zones of strike-slip. Paleozoic plate reconstructions, though more speculative, are based on evidence of past subduction, continental collision, and inferred sea floor spreading. The relative longitudinal positions of the continents during the Paleozoic and the width of intervening oceans have been adjusted to best explain changing biogeographic and paleoclimatic patterns. A new paleomagnetic/hot spot reference frame has been constructed that combines paleomagnetic data compiled by Rob Van der Voo (1992) with inferred motion relative to a fixed frame of hot spots. Using probable Early Mesozoic and Paleozoic hot spot tracks on the major continents, the authors have extended plate motions relative to the hot spot reference frame back to 400 million years.

  9. In Search for Sustainable Coastal Management: A Case Study of Semarang, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi, Sudharto P.

    2017-02-01

    As a coastal town, Semarang is currently facing environmental problems such as flood, tidal flood (locally called rob), coastal abrasion, emerging land, land subsidence and sea water intrusion. These phenomena severely affect to citizen, community and corporate, disrupting day to day activities, threatening people’s health, causing economics’ burden and reducing property value. Government policies in dealing with these problem are focused on its phenomena such as normalizing river for flood and building polder systems for tidal flood. Impacted people have been implementing various initiatives. People in Tanah Mas Estate set up collective efforts to reduce tidal flood by building pumping system project, while people in Kampong Tambaklorok conduct a regular mutual assistance in cleaning of waste and sedimentation, rehabilitating of local drainages and dikes, reconstructing of local streets and also maintaining of pumping system. People in Mangunharjo, the district of Tugu build a coastal belt and cultivate mangrove. Various government and local initiatives have been effective in dealing with flood and tidal flood temporarily. More comprehensive approaches and focused on the sources of problems are required to achieve sustainable coastal management.

  10. Dynamic Obstacle Avoidance Using Bayesian Occupancy Filter and Approximate Inference

    PubMed Central

    Llamazares, Ángel; Ivan, Vladimir; Molinos, Eduardo; Ocaña, Manuel; Vijayakumar, Sethu

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to solve the problem of dynamic obstacle avoidance for a mobile platform by using the stochastic optimal control framework to compute paths that are optimal in terms of safety and energy efficiency under constraints. We propose a three-dimensional extension of the Bayesian Occupancy Filter (BOF) (Coué et al. Int. J. Rob. Res. 2006, 25, 19–30) to deal with the noise in the sensor data, improving the perception stage. We reduce the computational cost of the perception stage by estimating the velocity of each obstacle using optical flow tracking and blob filtering. While several obstacle avoidance systems have been presented in the literature addressing safety and optimality of the robot motion separately, we have applied the approximate inference framework to this problem to combine multiple goals, constraints and priors in a structured way. It is important to remark that the problem involves obstacles that can be moving, therefore classical techniques based on reactive control are not optimal from the point of view of energy consumption. Some experimental results, including comparisons against classical algorithms that highlight the advantages are presented. PMID:23529117

  11. Retinal optical coherence tomography at 1 μm with dynamic focus control and axial motion tracking.

    PubMed

    Cua, Michelle; Lee, Sujin; Miao, Dongkai; Ju, Myeong Jin; Mackenzie, Paul J; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2016-02-01

    High-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal imaging is important to noninvasively visualize the various retinal structures to aid in better understanding of the pathogenesis of vision-robbing diseases. However, conventional OCT systems have a trade-off between lateral resolution and depth-of-focus. In this report, we present the development of a focus-stacking OCT system with automatic focus optimization for high-resolution, extended-focal-range clinical retinal imaging by incorporating a variable-focus liquid lens into the sample arm optics. Retinal layer tracking and selection was performed using a graphics processing unit accelerated processing platform for focus optimization, providing real-time layer-specific en face visualization. After optimization, multiple volumes focused at different depths were acquired, registered, and stitched together to yield a single, high-resolution focus-stacked dataset. Using this system, we show high-resolution images of the retina and optic nerve head, from which we extracted clinically relevant parameters such as the nerve fiber layer thickness and lamina cribrosa microarchitecture.

  12. Cellular model studies of brain-mediated phototherapy on Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ling; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Hu, Bina; Li, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Yong-Qing

    2008-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is now the most common neurodegenerative disease. Despite approval of several drugs for AD, the disease continues to rob millions of their memories and their lives. We have studied the cellular models of brain-mediated phototherapy on AD, and the studies will be reviewed in this paper. Genetic studies have shown that dysfunction of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) or tau is sufficient to cause AD. Aβ or Aβ induced redox stress induced neuron apoptosis might be as a cellular model of AD. We found red light at 640+/-15 nm from light emitting diode array (RLED640) might inhibit Aβ 25-35 induced PC12 cell apoptosis, which is mediated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and it might inhibit hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced differentiated PC12 cell (dPC12) apoptosis, which is mediated by tyrosine hydroxylase. There is rhythm dysfunction in AD. We found low intensity 810 nm laser irradiation might rehabilitate TNF-alpha induced inhibition of clock gen expression of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Our studies provide a foundation for photobiomodulation on brain to rehabilitate AD.

  13. Nestling diets and provisioning rates of sympatric Golden-fronted and Ladder-backed Woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Evonne L.; Boal, Clint W.; Glasscock, Selma N.

    2013-01-01

    We examined comparative food use and provisioning of Golden-fronted (Melanerpes aurifrons) and Ladder-backed (Picoides scalaris) woodpeckers at the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, in San Patricio County, Texas. We combined video surveillance and direct observations to monitor provisioning rates and identify items delivered by adult woodpeckers to nestlings. We collected 328 hours of data at Ladder-backed Woodpecker nest cavities and 230 hours of data at Golden-fronted Woodpecker nest cavities. Ladder-backed Woodpecker nestling diets consisted of 100% animal matter, comprised of invertebrate larvae (99%) and invertebrate adults (< 1%). Diets of Golden-fronted Woodpecker nestlings were also high in animal matter (77%) with more invertebrate adults (55%) and fewer invertebrate larvae (27%), but also included vegetable matter (16%). Morisita's measure of overlap suggested a relatively low dietary overlap of 31% between nestlings of these two sympatric woodpecker species. Foraging methods used by these species may explain their low dietary overlap and facilitate their coexistence.

  14. Microbial infections in a declining wild turkey population in Texas (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    A survey was conducted at 5 locations in Texas for avian pathogens that might adversely affect wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) productivity and survival. At 1 site, the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Refuge (WWR), turkeys have declined precipitously in recent years. During the winters of 1983-85, 442 wild turkeys were caught with cannon and drop nets, 161 of these on WWR. Blood samples were drawn for serologic evaluation, and cloacal and tracheal swabs were collected for isolation attempts. Salmonella spp. bacteria, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and avian influenza virus (AIV) were not detected in any samples tested. Serologic tests for antibodies to NDV and AIV also were negative. Many mycoplasma isolates were recovered from turkeys from every location. Characterization of these isolates indicated that several species were present. None were species typically associated with mycoplasmosis in domestic turkeys, such as Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), M. meleagridis (MM), or M. synoviae (MS), although antibodies to these pathogens were detected in turkeys at every location sampled. There was no evidence to link any of these disease causing agents to the decline observed in the population of wild turkeys on the WWR.

  15. Preliminary Thoughts on Introducing Structs to SIDL/Babel: White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, T W

    2004-01-08

    In the past 6 months, there has been increased interest in adding something analogous to C structs to the SIDL language and the Babel language interoperability tool [2, 6]. In particular, Rob Armstrong, of the Common Component Architecture [4], said the lack of structs ''is an oft-cited reason that people can't use Babel.'' Because the interest is high and lack of structs is a barrier to Babel adoption, we must carefully consider the current work around, the motivations for structs, the implications of adding structs, and the alternatives for structs in SIDL/Babel. This document provides the background necessary for a discussion of structs in SIDL/Babel. For the purposes of this document, I am going to call the potential new language feature a SIDL struct. The SIDL struct is analogous to a C struct, a Pascal record, or a Fortran 90 (F90) derived data type. It is a collection of data with no methods or behavior associated with it. Each element of the collection has a name and a type. SIDL structs allow for data abstraction, but they do not provide data hiding. All data is public in a SIDL struct.

  16. Performances of nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis membranes for desalination: characterization and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boussouga, Y. A.; Lhassani, A.

    2017-03-01

    The nanofiltration and the reverse osmosis processes are the most common techniques for the desalination of water contaminated by an excess of salts. In this present study, we were interested in the characterization of commercial, composite and asymmetric membranes of nanofiltration (NF90, NF270) and low pressure reverse osmosis (BW30LE). The two types of characterization that we opted for our study: (i) characterization of electrical proprieties, in terms of the surface charge of various membranes studied by the measurement of the streaming potential, (ii) hydrodynamic characterization in terms of hydraulic permeability with pure water, mass transfer and phenomenological parameters for each system membrane/salt using hydrodynamic approaches. The irreversible thermodynamics allowed us to model the observed retention Robs of salts (NaCl and Na2SO4) for the different membranes studied, to understand and to predict a good filtration with a membrane. A study was conducted on the type of mass transfer for each system membrane/salt: convection and diffusion. The results showed that all tested membranes are negatively charged for the solutions at neutral pH, this is explained by their material composition. The results also showed competitiveness between the different types of membranes. In view of that the NF remains effective in terms of selective retention with less energy consumption than LPRO.

  17. Use and mis-use of supplementary material in science publications.

    PubMed

    Pop, Mihai; Salzberg, Steven L

    2015-11-03

    Supplementary material is a ubiquitous feature of scientific articles, particularly in journals that limit the length of the articles. While the judicious use of supplementary material can improve the readability of scientific articles, its excessive use threatens the scientific review process and by extension the integrity of the scientific literature. In many cases supplementary material today is so extensive that it is reviewed superficially or not at all. Furthermore, citations buried within supplementary files rob other scientists of recognition of their contribution to the scientific record. These issues are exacerbated by the lack of guidance on the use of supplementary information from the journals to authors and reviewers. We propose that the removal of artificial length restrictions plus the use of interactive features made possible by modern electronic media can help to alleviate these problems. Many journals, in fact, have already removed article length limitations (as is the case for BMC Bioinformatics and other BioMed Central journals). We hope that the issues raised in our article will encourage publishers and scientists to work together towards a better use of supplementary information in scientific publishing.

  18. Molecular characterization of de novo secondary trisomy 13

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, L.G.; McCaskill, C.; Han, Jin-Yeong; Choo, K.H.A.; Cutillo, D.M.; Donnenfeld, A.E.; Weiss, L.; Van Dyke, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    Unbalanced Robertsonian translocations are a significant cause of mental retardation and fetal wastage. The majority of homologous rearrangements of chromosome 21 in Down syndrome have been shown to be isochromosomes. Aside from chromosome 21, very little is known about other acrocentric homologous rearrangements. In this study, four cases of de novo secondary trisomy 13 are presented. FISH using alpha-satellite sequences, rDNA, and a pTRI-6 satellite I sequence specific to the short arm of chromosome 13 showed all four rearrangements to be dicentric an apparently devoid of ribosomal genes. Three of four rearrangements retained the pTRI-6 satellite I sequence. Case 1 was the exception, showing a deletion of this sequence in the rearrangement, although both parental chromosomes 13 had strong positive hybridization signals. Eleven microsatellite markers from chromosome 13 were also used to characterize the rearrangements. Of the four possible outcomes, one maternal Robertsonian translocation, two paternal isochromosomes, and one maternal isochromosomes were observed. A double recombination was observed in the maternally derived rob(13q13q). No recombination events were detected in any isochromosome. The parental origins and molecular chromosomal structure of these cases are compared with previous studies of de novo acrocentric rearrangements. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Official crime data versus collaborative crime mapping at a Brazilian city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, P. L.; Jesus, E. G. V.; Sant'Ana, R. M. S.; Martins, C.; Delgado, J. P. M.; Fernandes, V. O.

    2014-11-01

    In July of 2013 a group of undergraduate students from the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, published a collaborative web map called "Where I Was Robbed". Their initial efforts in publicizing their web map were restricted to announce it at a local radio as a tool of social interest. In two months the map had almost 10.000 reports, 155 reports per day and people from more the 350 cities had already reported a crime. The present study consists in an investigation about this collaborative web map spatial correlation to official robbery data registered at the Secretary of Public Safety database, for the city of Salvador, Bahia. Kernel density estimator combined with map algebra was used to the investigation. Spatial correlations with official robbery data for the city of Salvador were not found initially, but after standardizing collaborative data and mining official registers, both data pointed at very similar areas as the main hot spots for pedestrian robbery. Both areas are located at two of the most economical active areas of the city, although web map crimes reports were more concentrated in an area with higher income population. This results and discussions indicates that this collaborative application is been used mainly by mid class and upper class parcel of the city population, but can still provide significant information on public safety priority areas. Therefore, extended divulgation, on local papers, radio and TV, of the collaborative crime map application and partnership with official agencies are strongly recommended.

  20. A flow visualization study of single-arm sculling movement emulating cephalopod thrust generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakidi, Asimina; Gnanamanickam, Ebenezer P.; Tsakiris, Dimitris P.; Ekaterinaris, John A.

    2014-11-01

    In addition to jet propulsion, octopuses use arm-swimming motion as an effective means of generating bursts of thrust, for hunting, defense, or escape. The individual role of their arms, acting as thrust generators during this motion, is still under investigation, in view of an increasing robotic interest for alternative modes of propulsion, inspired by the octopus. Computational studies have revealed that thrust generation is associated with complex vortical flow patterns in the wake of the moving arm, however further experimental validation is required. Using the hydrogen bubble technique, we studied the flow disturbance around a single octopus-like robotic arm, undergoing two-stroke sculling movements in quiescent fluid. Although simplified, sculling profiles have been found to adequately capture the fundamental kinematics of the octopus arm-swimming behavior. In fact, variation of the sculling parameters alters considerably the generation of forward thrust. Flow visualization revealed the generation of complex vortical structures around both rigid and compliant arms. Increased disturbance was evident near the tip, particularly at the transitional phase between recovery and power strokes. These results are in good qualitative agreement with computational and robotic studies. Work funded by the ESF-GSRT HYDRO-ROB Project PE7(281).