Lechmann, Anna; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Mohammadi, Ali; Faridi, Mohammad
The tectonic assemblage at the junction of the Bitlis-Zagros and Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zones is exposed in the region of the Khoy Ophiolitic Complex, in the Azerbaijan Province of NW Iran. We present new petrography, major and trace element analyses, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data of mantle and crustal suites together with field observations and stratigraphic ages obtained from foraminifera-bearing sediments. Ultramafic rocks crop out as mappable (km-scale) continuous units with fault bounded contacts to neighbouring lithologies and as blocks (m-scale) within an olistostrome. They vary from fresh lherzolite, harzburgite and dunite tectonites with primary mantle structures to completely serpentinized and metasomatized (with metamorphic olivine) samples. Rodingite dikes with MORB-REE signatures are common. Gabbros, also with MORB signature, occur only in small volumes. Pillow basalts have either a MORB or a calc-alkaline signature depending on sample location. First results show that the Khoy Ophiolitic Complex formed during the Jurassic (152-159 Ma) and came in a supra-subduction position, with calc-alkaline magmatism showing negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies, in Albian (105-109 Ma) times. Heavy minerals including Cr-spinel and serpentine within the turbidites of the region indicate that the ophiolites were being eroded as early as the Late Cretaceous. An Early Miocene olistostrome, containing blocks of the ophiolitic sequences unconformably covers the ophiolitic complex and the Late-Cretaceous to Eocene turbiditic sequences. A tuff layer dated at 43 Ma within a fine-grained and thin-bedded sandstone block within the olistostrome witnesses continuing volcanic activity in Eocene times. The Khoy Ophiolite compares well with the Inner Zagros and North Makran ophiolites, recording Jurassic extension in the Iranian continental margin followed by Late Cretaceous subduction. This work is supported by SNF Research Grant (project 200021_153124/1).
Thurmond, A. K.; Abdel-Salam, M.; Yin, Z.; Hassanipak, A.; Ghazi, A. M.
The Khoy ophiolite in northwestern Iran, along the Turkish border, represents a remnant of oceanic lithosphere formed in the Mesozoic Neotethys. This northwest-southeast trending ophiolite complex consists, from northeast to southwest of a well-defined basal metamorphic zone, peridotites (mainly harzburgites and dunites) and serpentinized peridotites, gabbros, dikes, and extensive amount of pillowand massive basalts and basaltic andesite. The associated sedimentary rocks include a variety of late Cretaceous deep- and shallow-marine rock. These include pelagic fossiliferous carbonates which are mixed with pillow basalts and the basaltic andesites as interlayers or exotic blocks. Also present are extensive units of radiolarian chert which are interbedded within the basalts and basaltic andesites. Analysis of the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery covering the Khoy ophiolite and published geological maps allowed us to distinguish between different rocks types and interpret regional structures. ASTER has three bands (1 to 3) in the Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR), six bands (4 to 9) in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) and 5 bands (10 to 14) in the Thermal Infrared (TIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. We used 3-2-1, and 7-3-1 ASTER false-color images and 4/7-3/4-2/1 ASTER band-ratio image for this study. The complex is divided into three NW-trending, SW-verging nappes. Upper serpentinized ultramafic rocks and lower amphibolites forming an allochthon with will-developed klippes of ultramafic rocks dominate the northeastern nappe. This nappe is thrust across shelf sediments dominated by limestones of late Cretaceous age that occupy the region to the northeast of the Khoy ophiolite complex. Superimposition of ENE-trending folds on the nappe structures produced domical structures that eroded to form tectonic widows where the amphiolites are exposed within the ultramafic rocks. The central nappe is an allochthon made up
Mohseni Aref, Mohammad; Çakir, Ziyadin; Karimzadeh, Sadra
The Khoy fault is part of a long right lateral strike slip fault that runs in NW-SE direction between Çaldıran in eastern Turkey and Tabriz in northwest of Iran within the Turkish-Iranian plateau that accommodates the plate convergence between Eurasia and Arabia. It connects the North Tabriz Fault (NTF) with the Gailatu-Siah Chesmeh and Çaldiran faults, and thus is named here the Çaldiran-Tabriz fault (CTF). The CTF, unlike the North and East Anatolian faults to the west, does not have a clear morphological expression in the topography along much of it length. Active fault maps show a distributed deformation zone. Nevertheless, it has produced several devastating large earthquakes both recently (e.g., Ms 7.3, 1976 Çaldiran earthquake), and historical times (e.g., Ms > 7, 1721 and 1780 Tabriz earthquakes).The recent double earthquakes (Mw 6.5 and 6.2) of August 11th, 2012 in Ahar-Varzaghan area 40-45 km north of the NTF manifest the seismic activity of the region. Recent geodetic studies using GPS InSAR suggest 9±2 mm/yr of slip rate for the NTF, which is significantly higher than geologically determined slip rates (e.g., 2-4 mm/yr). In this study, we use InSAR data acquired from 2003 and 2010 on a descending orbit track of ENVISAT satellite, across the Khoy fault zone, which is the north-western continuation of the NTF north of the Urmia Lake. We use the Stanford method of persistent scatter interferometry (StaMPS) technique to overcome the decorelation problem with time and over large areas. The line of sight velocity field we obtained clearly delineates the shear zone that trends NW-SW aligning with the NTF. We project the mean line of sigh velocity field derived by InSAR time series onto fault parallel horizontal velocity field, assumed that vertical offset rate of the Khoy fault is negligible. Single screw dislocation models in elastic half-space model were applied along the fault zone to estimate slip rate, locking depth and fault location within 95
Nouri.Gharahasanlou, Ali; Mokhtarei, Ashkan; Khodayarei, Aliasqar; Ataei, Mohammad
Evaluating and analyzing the risk in the mining industry is a new approach for improving the machinery performance. Reliability, safety, and maintenance management based on the risk analysis can enhance the overall availability and utilization of the mining technological systems. This study investigates the failure occurrence probability of the crushing and mixing bed hall department at Azarabadegan Khoy cement plant by using fault tree analysis (FTA) method. The results of the analysis in 200 h operating interval show that the probability of failure occurrence for crushing, conveyor systems, crushing and mixing bed hall department is 73, 64, and 95 percent respectively and the conveyor belt subsystem found as the most probable system for failure. Finally, maintenance as a method of control and prevent the occurrence of failure is proposed. PMID:26779433
Nouri Gharahasanlou, Ali; Mokhtarei, Ashkan; Khodayarei, Aliasqar; Ataei, Mohammad
Evaluating and analyzing the risk in the mining industry is a new approach for improving the machinery performance. Reliability, safety, and maintenance management based on the risk analysis can enhance the overall availability and utilization of the mining technological systems. This study investigates the failure occurrence probability of the crushing and mixing bed hall department at Azarabadegan Khoy cement plant by using fault tree analysis (FTA) method. The results of the analysis in 200 h operating interval show that the probability of failure occurrence for crushing, conveyor systems, crushing and mixing bed hall department is 73, 64, and 95 percent respectively and the conveyor belt subsystem found as the most probable system for failure. Finally, maintenance as a method of control and prevent the occurrence of failure is proposed.
Azizi, H.; Moinevaziri, H.; Mohajjel, M.; Yagobpoor, A.
Metamorphic rocks in the Khoy region are exposed between obducted ophiolites to the southwest and sedimentary rocks of Precambrian-Paleozoic age to the northeast. The Qom formation (Oligocene-Miocene) with a basal conglomerate transgressively overlies all of these rocks. The metamorphic rocks consist of both metasediments and metabasites. The metasediments are micaschist, garnet-staurolite schist and garnet-staurolite sillimanite schist with some meta-arkose, marble and quartzite. The metabasites are metamorphosed to greenschist and amphibolite facies from a basaltic and gabbroic protolith of tholeiitic and calc-alkaline rocks. Geothermobarometry based on the equivalence of minerals stability and their paragenesis in these rocks and microprobe analyses by several different methods indicate that metamorphism occurred in a temperature range between 450 and 680 °C at 5.5 and 7.5 kb pressure. Rims of minerals reveal a considerable decrease of pressure (<2 kb) and insignificant decrease of temperature. The PTt path of this metamorphism is normal. The MFG line passes above the triple junction of Al 2SiO 5 polymorphs, and the average geothermal gradient during metamorphism was from 27 to 37 °C/km, which is more concordant with the temperature regime of collision zones. We infer that crustal thickening during post-Cretaceous (possibly Eocene) collision of the Arabian plate and the Azerbaijan-Albourz block was the main factor that caused the metamorphism in the studied area.
Zaeimnia, Fatemeh; Arai, Shoji; Mirmohammadi, Mirsaleh
We report a new occurrence of preiswerkite, a rare Na- and Al-rich trioctahedral mica (Na-analog of eastonite), from a high-Al (Cr# of chromite 0.4) chromitite pod of the Khoy meta-ophiolite in northwestern Iran. The preiswerkite is euhedral and associated with Ca-Cr-Al-garnet, clinochlore, titanite, and calcite. Preiswerkite and associated minerals fill cavities in the chromitite pod and are absent in the surrounding peridotites. The preiswerkite-rich aggregate is possibly representative of aqueous fluid supplied to the mantle section of the Khoy ophiolite. Peraluminous conditions, which are indispensable for preiswerkite formation, were established only in the pool of fluid trapped by the high-Al chromitite. The fluid and preiswerkite precipitates were isolated from the peridotite by the chromitite capsule. The Na-rich fluid was a precursor of the serpentinization fluid. The fluid is an analog of the fluid released from the subducting slab, which can precipitate jadeite under high-pressure conditions.
Babaie, H. A.; Khalatbari Jafari, M.; Moslempour, M. E.
We discuss the geochemical patterns and tectonomagmatic setting of the extrusive sequences in the Khoy, Kermanshah, Fannuj, Nosratabad, Dehshir, south and north Fariman, and Sabzevar ophiolite massifs of Iran. These sequences include pillow lava, sheet flow, hyaloclastite, hyaloclastic breccia, and interbeds of chert and pelagic limestone with Late Cretaceous micro fauna. The Khoy, north Fariman, and Sabzevar massifs also include Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene supra-ophiolitic volcanic and volcano-sedimentary rocks that formed in a trough near the extrusive sequence. The Khoy pillow lava displays T-MORB characteristics but no chemical contribution from the components released from the subducted slab. On the other hand, the diabase dikes that cut the Khoy extrusive sequence show signatures of subduction zone magmatism and contribution from the melt released through the partial melting of the subducted slab. While lava in the Harsin (Kermanshah) extrusive sequence in west Iran displays E-MORB and P-MORB characteristics, the pillows in the Fannuj, north Fariman, Dehshir, and Sabzevar extrusive sequences indicate the contribution of both fluids and melt from the subducted slab. The Nosratabad and south Fariman ophiolites also show evidence for either melt or fluids, respectively. Partial melting of the subducted slab sedimentary cover may have formed the acidic pillow lava and sheet flow in the Fannuj and Nosratabad extrusive sequence, respectively. Some pillows in the Nosratabad, Sabzevar, north Fariman, and to a lesser extent, Dehshir extrusive sequence display the OIB geochemical characteristics. Mantle plumes or asthenospheric flow that probably moved up through weak zones of the subducted slab may have affected the partial melting of the mantle wedge above the slab. The combined OIB and supra-subduction characteristics suggest the role of the roll-back of the subducted slab in the magmatism of the northeast Iranian ophiolites. The clear MORB-like geochemical
Lechmann, Anna; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Faridi, Mohammad
Azerbaijan in NW Iran, and in particular the Khoy ophiolitic complex, require more detailed documentation to integrate them as elements of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. They are attributed to multiple accretion and collision after subduction and closure of the Tethys Ocean and related seaways. We are interested in the pre- to syn-collisional relationships between the ophiolitic, arc and other magmatic units. This work investigates to what extent single or multiple collisions and orogeny have shaped the NW Iranian Plateau. In particular, we want to understand the changes in deformation style within the collision zone and the effects of several possibly coeval events such as closure of two suture zones separated by an arc and possibly followed by slab break-off(s). Fieldwork focused on sampling the different magmatic rock units to specify the structural record and the structural relationships between the various lithological units. Cretaceous to Quaternary, regionally distributed magmatic rocks were collected to have good resolution of their changes in space and time. Petrological, geochemical and isotope studies will characterize magmatic rocks and their sources. Major and trace element geochemistry of mantle and crustal suites of the Khoy ophiolitic complex help to constrain the tectonic setting. Two complexes were defined on the basis of K-Ar dating (Khalatbari-Jafari et al., 2004). An older, probably subducted ophiolite of Triassic-Jurassic age and a younger non-metamorphic ophiolite of Late Cretaceous age. Fossil-bearing sediments provide stratigraphic ages of important contacts. Preliminary results are present in form of bulk rock and trace element chemistry of ultramafic and mafic rocks of the Khoy ophiolite(s, ?) and offer a first possibility to compare the data with already existing publications. Additionally, petrological studies of various magmatic rocks present first products for a starting discussion on the geodynamic evolution of the NW part of
Didarloo, Alireza; Alizadeh, Mohammad
Background Diabetes is a chronic and threatening condition. However, there are controversies on the factors affecting the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with diabetes. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate HRQOL and its determinants among females with type II diabetes referred to Diabetes Clinic of Khoy city, Northwest of Iran. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 352 eligible females with diabetes referring to Diabetes Clinic of Khoy. The study data were collected using a three-part instrument including a socio-demographic questionnaire, a questionnaire to assess patients’ knowledge on diabetes and the world health organization’s quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Based on descriptive and inferential statistics, analyses were conducted using frequency, independent samples t–test, correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results The total mean score of QOL was 58.02 ± 17.63. The lowest and the highest mean scores were observed in physical health and social relationship domains (53.84 ± 17.09) and (65.08 ± 14.87), respectively. The regression models revealed that age, education, duration of disease, and family income were significantly associated with all areas of quality of life (P < 0.05). The results also revealed that co-morbidity was significantly correlated with the overall quality of life and the physical health domain (P < 0.01). Conclusions The mean score of quality of life (QOL) in females with diabetes was far from desirable condition. These findings can help physicians and healthcare providers to design suitable interventions to improve the patients QOL. PMID:27331054
Shojaeizadeh, D.; asl, R. Gharaaghaji; Niknami, S.; Khorami, A.
ABSTRACT The study evaluated the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), along with self-efficacy to predict dietary behaviour in a group of Iranian women with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 352 diabetic women referred to Khoy Diabetes Clinic, Iran, were selected and given a self-administered survey to assess eating behaviour, using the extended TRA constructs. Bivariate correlations and Enter regression analyses of the extended TRA model were performed with SPSS software. Overall, the proposed model explained 31.6% of variance of behavioural intention and 21.5% of variance of dietary behaviour. Among the model constructs, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions and dietary practice. In addition to the model variables, visit intervals of patients and source of obtaining information about diabetes from sociodemographic factors were also associated with dietary behaviours of the diabetics. This research has highlighted the relative importance of the extended TRA constructs upon behavioural intention and subsequent behaviour. Therefore, use of the present research model in designing educational interventions to increase adherence to dietary behaviours among diabetic patients was recommended and emphasized. PMID:25076670
Farajzadeh, Hassan; Matzarakis, Andreas
Research in developing countries concerning the relationship of weather and climate conditions with tourism shows a high importance not only because of financial aspects but also an important part of the region's tourism resource base. Monthly mean air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, vapor pressure, wind velocity, and cloud cover for the period 1985-2005 data collected from four meteorological stations Tabriz, Maragheh, Orumieh, and Khoy were selected. The purpose of this study is to determine the most suitable months for human thermal comfort in Ourmieh Lake, a salt sea in the northwest of Iran. To achieve this, the cooling power and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) calculated by the RayMan model and the Climate Tourism/Transfer Information Scheme (CTIS) were used. The results based on cooling power indicate that the most favorable period for tourism, sporting, and recreational activities in Ourmieh Lake is between June and October and based on PET between June to September. In addition, the CTIS shows a detailed quantification of the relevant climate-tourism factors.
Soleimani, Farzaneh; Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali
Introduction Sleep is referred a regular, recurring and easily revocable state of organism which is characterized by relative immobility and significant increase in response threshold to environmental stimuli. Sleep disorders are common among haemodialysis patients. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sleep hygiene education on sleep quality in haemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods This study is a randomized controlled clinical trial. The participants of this study were 60 haemodialysis patients admitted to the Dialysis Center of Shahid Ayatollah Madani Hospital of Khoy, affiliated with the Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Sampling was done randomly and the partcipants were randomly divided into intervention group (30 patients) and control group (30 patients). Sleep quality of participants was measured before and after the intervention by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Training process for sleep hygiene behaviours was presented to the participants face-to-face. The data were analysed using SPSS 16. Results A significant difference in the mean (standard deviation) score for PSQI (p<0.001) was observed before and after intervention in the intervention group, while in the control group, the difference was not significant (p=0.704), In addition, a significant difference was observed in the mean (standard deviation) score for PSQI between the two, intervention and control groups after the educational intervention (p=0.034). Conclusion Sleep hygiene education, alongside other appro-aches, is a low-cost, accessible and practical method which can be implemented within a short period of time. PMID:28208884
Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Stern, Robert J.
Iran is a mosaic of continental terranes of Cadomian (520-600 Ma) age, stitched together along sutures decorated by Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolites. Here we present the current understanding of the Mesozoic (and rare Cenozoic) ophiolites of Iran for the international geoscientific audience. We summarize field, chemical and geochronological data from the literature and our own unpublished data. Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran are mostly Cretaceous in age and are related to the Neotethys and associated backarc basins on the S flank of Eurasia. These ophiolites can be subdivided into five belts: 1. Late Cretaceous Zagros outer belt ophiolites (ZOB) along the Main Zagros Thrust including Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Maku-Khoy-Salmas ophiolites in NW Iran as well as Kermanshah-Kurdistan, Neyriz and Esfandagheh (Haji Abad) ophiolites, also Late Cretaceous-Eocene ophiolites along the Iraq-Iran border; 2. Late Cretaceous Zagros inner belt ophiolites (ZIB) including Nain, Dehshir, Shahr-e-Babak and Balvard-Baft ophiolites along the southern periphery of the Central Iranian block and bending north into it; 3. Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Sabzevar-Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolites of NE Iran; 4. Early to Late Cretaceous Birjand-Nehbandan-Tchehel-Kureh ophiolites in eastern Iran between the Lut and Afghan blocks; and 5. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous Makran ophiolites of SE Iran including Kahnuj ophiolites. Most Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran show supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signatures, indicating that SW Asia was a site of plate convergence during Late Mesozoic time, but also include a significant proportion showing ocean-island basalt affinities, perhaps indicating the involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle.
Mohammadi, Ali; Lechmann, Anna; Burg, Jean-Pierre
Turbidites in the Azerbaijan Province, Northwest Iran, represent an accretionary wedge formed in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Tethys. Two types of turbiditic sequences are identified: (1) Pyroclastic turbidites are mostly in the south and in the west and (2) terrigenous turbidites in the east of the study area. We determined the provenance, the sandstone framework and the heavy mineral assemblages of Late Cretaceous-Eocene deep marine sandstones. Geochronological and geochemical study including LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and in-situ Hf isotopic compositions of detrital zircons are also presented. 300-400 point counts following the Gazzi-Dikinson method in each thin section of 13 sandstones define litharenites and feldspathic litharenites. Sandstone framework compositions reveal a continental magmatic arc as main source of detritus. 200-300 heavy mineral grains were identified and counted in 12 samples. Heavy mineral suites include (1) ultra-stable minerals (zircon, monazite, tourmaline, rutile and sphene) in terrigenous turbidites, derived from granitic continental crust sources, (2) metastable minerals delivered from variable metamorphic-grade source rocks (epidote group, garnet, staurolite, chloritoid, andalusite, glaucophane), (3) pyroxene-rich source in the pyroclastic sandstone and (4) chromian-spinel from ultrabasic rocks. Heavy mineral assemblages confirm a continental magmatic arc source and Cr-spinel reveal ultramafic rocks, likely ophiolite, as a subsidiary source. Glaucophane in only one sample indicates high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks in the detrital source areas. The first appearance of Cr-spinel in Late Cretaceous sandstones indicates that erosion of ophiolites (most probably the nearby Khoy ophiolite) occurred at that time. The euhedral to anhedral shape of detrital zircon crystals suggests short transport distances from source to sink. This imply that the magmatic arc was located in the proximity of the study area.
Didarloo, A R; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji Asl, R; Habibzadeh, H; Niknami, Sh; Pourali, R
Continuous performing of diabetes self-care behaviors was shown to be an effective strategy to control diabetes and to prevent or reduce its- related complications. This study aimed to investigate predictors of self-care behavior based on the extended theory of reasoned action by self efficacy (ETRA) among women with type 2 diabetes in Iran. A sample of 352 women with type 2 diabetes, referring to a Diabetes Clinic in Khoy, Iran using the nonprobability sampling was enrolled. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the variables of interest (diabetes knowledge, personal beliefs, subjective norm, self-efficacy and behavioral intention along with self- care behaviors). Reliability and validity of the instruments using Cronbach's alpha coefficients (the values of them were more than 0.70) and a panel of experts were tested. A statistical significant correlation existed between independent constructs of proposed model and modelrelated dependent constructs, as ETRA model along with its related external factors explained 41.5% of variance of intentions and 25.3% of variance of actual behavior. Among constructs of model, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions among women with type 2 diabetes, as it lonely explained 31.3% of variance of intentions and 11.4% of variance of self-care behavior. The high ability of the extended theory of reasoned action with self-efficacy in forecasting and explaining diabetes mellitus self management can be a base for educational intervention. So to improve diabetes self management behavior and to control the disease, use of educational interventions based on proposed model is suggested.
Abashev, Victor V.; Metelkin, Dmitry V.; Mikhaltsov, Nikolay E.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.
New paleomagnetic data for Novaya Zemlya archipelago were obtained by processing the samples collection gathered during the 2014 field season. The paleomagnetic directions and paleomagnetic poles were determined from the Paleozoic sedimentary complexes located on the Southern Island (Upper Permian) and the Northern Island (Lower and Upper Devonian, Upper Carboniferous) of the archipelago. Positive fold and reversal tests indicate that the isolated paleomagnetic directions correspond to the primary magnetization components. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole are in good agreement with poles obtained earlier in the 1980s by E.L. Gurevich and I.A. Pogarskaya. Considering the confidence ovals, the paleomagnetic poles obtained for the sites of the Northern Island are located close to the corresponding path segment of the APWP of Europe. This means that at least since the early Devonian, the northern part of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago had a position that was close to its current position relatively to the Arctic margin of Europe and has not undergone significant shifts or rotations. However, the upper Permian paleomagnetic pole for the Southern Island is very different from the corresponding part of the European APWP. We are considering this pole position within a model, involving significant intraplate movement between the structures of the European and Siberian tectonic provinces until the Late Cretaceous. The sinistral strike-slips inferred by the model could have caused or were accompanying the opening of the Mesozoic rift system in Western Siberia. This event has reached its maximum within the South Kara basin and resulted in the north-westward (in geographic coordinates) displacement of the southern part of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago in relation to the Arctic margin of Europe and in the deformation of the Pay-Khoy-Novaya Zemlya margin, which caused its modern curved form. The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant No. 14-37-00030 and the
Petrov, Oleg; Smelror, Morten; Shokalsky, Sergey; Morozov, Andrey; Kashubin, Sergey; Grikurov, Garrik; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny
A new tectonic map of the Arctic (TeMAr) at 1:5 M scale is a part of the international Atlas of Geological Maps of the Circumpolar Arctic, which is being compiled under the aegis of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). Compilation of the TeMAr was initiated in 2009 after the publication of base maps of the Atlas - geological map (geological survey of Canada) and magnetic and gravity maps (geological survey of Norway) - with the use of a wide range of bathymetric, geophysical, geological, isotope and geochronological data, including new dated seabed samples and new bedrock samples obtained during recent field studies on the Arctic territory. Making use of these data in the map legend employing tectonic settings enabled correlation of various onshore and offshore fragments of the map. The map reflects Arctic regions' tectonic structure, which consists principally of orogenic belts of the Neoproterozoic to the Late Mesozoic age, platform and basin sediments that overlie them and rift structures formed in part as a consequence of seafloor spreading in the North East Atlantic. Furthermore, many structures are traced from the land throughout shelf regions and into deepwater parts of the Arctic Ocean and show a tendency to become younger northwards toward the Canada Basin. For example, collisional structures of South Ural were formed in the Late Carboniferous, those in the Middle Urals in the Permian, and those of Polar Ural, Pay-Khoy and Novaya Zemlya in the Late Permian and Triassic. The Triassic traps of Eastern and Western Siberia were followed by Cretaceous basalts of the High Arctic large igneous province (HALIP). Cenozoic rifting and subsequent spreading (ca. 56 Ma) was caused by the propagation of sea-floor spreading in the North East Atlantic penetration into the Central Arctic along the Gakkel Ridge
the Paleouralian ocean. The second Paleozoic episode was marked by an eruption of trachytes and carbonatites and is dated between 435 and 455 Ma. The younger complex is Devonian in age and is traced along the western slope of the Urals to Pay-Khoy and Novaya Zemlya. They belong to the LIP called Kola-Dnieper. The last but not the least are the Lower Triassic flood basalts and dykes traced from the easternmost parts of the Southern and Middle Urals to the western margin of the Polar Urals.
Urmia Lake has been designated as an international park by the United Nations. The lake occupies a 5700 km2 depression in northwestern Iran. Thirteen permanent rivers flow into the lake. Water level in the lake has been decreased 3.5 m in the last decade due to a shortage of precipitation and progressively dry climate. Geologically the lake basin is considered to be a graben of tectonic origin. Na, K, Ca, Li and Mg are the main cations with Cl, SO4, and HCO3 as the main anions. F & Br are the other main elements in the lake. A causeway crossing the lake is under construction, which may affect the lake's annual geochemistry. The main object of this project is mainly to consider the potential of K-mineral production along with ongoing salt production. Seven hundred and four samples were taken and partially analyzed for the main cations and anions. Surface water (0.5 m. depth) was analyzed for Na, K, Mg, Ca, Br and Li, and averaged 87.118 g/lit, 1.48 g/lit, 4.82 g/lit, 4.54 g/lit, 1.19 ppm and 12.7 ppm respectively for the western half of the lake. Sodium ranged between 84 to 91.2 g/lit, and showed higher concentrations in the south than in the north. This unexpected result may be caused by shallower depth in the south and a higher net evaporation effect. Calcium ranged between 4.2 to 5 g/lit, apparently slightly higher in the north. K is higher in the south, possibly due to rivers entering from south that may carry slightly higher K in solution. In the middle-range samples (0.5–5 m.), K averaged 1.43 g/lit and ranged from 1.40 to 1.46 g/lit. At this intermediate depth the distribution of K is clearly higher to the south of the causeway that is currently under construction. It is not clear whether this increase is the effect of the causeway or the effect of the salty Aji-Chay River to the east, and the Khoy salt domes to the north of the lake. At depth (5 m–10 m), K averaged 1.48 g/lit and ranged from 1.4 to 1.49 g/lit, differing only in the second decimal from
Osmaston, M. F.
blocking the hydrothermal cooling, this must inhibit magnetic anomaly formation and prolong magmagenesis to give a thicker-than-oceanic mafic crust, which I have called Intermediate Crust (IC) [8, 9], to distinguish it from Mature Continental Crust (MCC). Seismologically, IC basement must look deceptively like that assigned to stretched MCC. For thermodynamic reasons [8, 9] the hydrous content of deep MCC and of deeply subducted UHP crustal slices gives them a big thermal epeirogenic sensitivity which IC lacks. The NE Atlantic offers an example of this distinction. Structurally, the MCC of Greenland and Norway must have been intimately juxtaposed by the Scandian collision, so it was concluded  that the crust of the Greenland-Norway continental shelves must mostly be IC of post-Scandian (early Devonian?) age, a character confirmed by their lack of epeirogenic response to laterally conducted heat from the opening N Atlantic, although drainage systems in Norway proper clearly show it. Geometrically, this separation appears to have changed direction sharply, the second and bigger stage also involving separation of Svalbard from near Tromsø, where it had provided northward continuation of a complete Caledonian transect, so it has an IC implication for much of the Barents Sea area (bar the Bjørnøya block). Moving quickly round to the NE side of Baltica, we can begin to trace the separative motions of the Novaya Zemlya - Pay Khoy (NZPK) strip of less-mature MCC, transverse to the Timanian belt, and the associated evolution of the Pechora basin system. In places, faulted IC/MCC epeirogenic contrasts seem to define the size and direction of the IC-generating separation with remarkable precision. A crucial opening-up of this analysis is provided by realizing that the Polar Ural stretch is not MCC, but is merely the huge 585 Ma Voykar-Synya ophiolite, with its metamorphics, resting on a now-crumpled boundary between IC of very different ages. For further understanding we need