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Sample records for kromit-e nahiye khoy

  1. PTt path in metamorphic rocks of the Khoy region (northwest Iran) and their tectonic significance for Cretaceous Tertiary continental collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, H.; Moinevaziri, H.; Mohajjel, M.; Yagobpoor, A.

    2006-06-01

    Metamorphic rocks in the Khoy region are exposed between obducted ophiolites to the southwest and sedimentary rocks of Precambrian-Paleozoic age to the northeast. The Qom formation (Oligocene-Miocene) with a basal conglomerate transgressively overlies all of these rocks. The metamorphic rocks consist of both metasediments and metabasites. The metasediments are micaschist, garnet-staurolite schist and garnet-staurolite sillimanite schist with some meta-arkose, marble and quartzite. The metabasites are metamorphosed to greenschist and amphibolite facies from a basaltic and gabbroic protolith of tholeiitic and calc-alkaline rocks. Geothermobarometry based on the equivalence of minerals stability and their paragenesis in these rocks and microprobe analyses by several different methods indicate that metamorphism occurred in a temperature range between 450 and 680 °C at 5.5 and 7.5 kb pressure. Rims of minerals reveal a considerable decrease of pressure (<2 kb) and insignificant decrease of temperature. The PTt path of this metamorphism is normal. The MFG line passes above the triple junction of Al 2SiO 5 polymorphs, and the average geothermal gradient during metamorphism was from 27 to 37 °C/km, which is more concordant with the temperature regime of collision zones. We infer that crustal thickening during post-Cretaceous (possibly Eocene) collision of the Arabian plate and the Azerbaijan-Albourz block was the main factor that caused the metamorphism in the studied area.

  2. The Effects of Processing Instruction and Traditional Instruction on Iranian EFL Learners' Writing Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashemnezhad, Hossein; Zangalani, Sanaz Khalili

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the effects of processing instruction and traditional instruction on Iranian EFL learners' writing ability. Thirty participants who were non-randomly selected out of 63 Intermediate EFL learners, taking English courses in a language institute in Khoy-Iran, participated in this quasi-experimental…

  3. The Neo-Tethyan subduction zone(s,?) in Azerbaijan, NW Iran: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechmann, Anna; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Faridi, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Azerbaijan in NW Iran, and in particular the Khoy ophiolitic complex, require more detailed documentation to integrate them as elements of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. They are attributed to multiple accretion and collision after subduction and closure of the Tethys Ocean and related seaways. We are interested in the pre- to syn-collisional relationships between the ophiolitic, arc and other magmatic units. This work investigates to what extent single or multiple collisions and orogeny have shaped the NW Iranian Plateau. In particular, we want to understand the changes in deformation style within the collision zone and the effects of several possibly coeval events such as closure of two suture zones separated by an arc and possibly followed by slab break-off(s). Fieldwork focused on sampling the different magmatic rock units to specify the structural record and the structural relationships between the various lithological units. Cretaceous to Quaternary, regionally distributed magmatic rocks were collected to have good resolution of their changes in space and time. Petrological, geochemical and isotope studies will characterize magmatic rocks and their sources. Major and trace element geochemistry of mantle and crustal suites of the Khoy ophiolitic complex help to constrain the tectonic setting. Two complexes were defined on the basis of K-Ar dating (Khalatbari-Jafari et al., 2004). An older, probably subducted ophiolite of Triassic-Jurassic age and a younger non-metamorphic ophiolite of Late Cretaceous age. Fossil-bearing sediments provide stratigraphic ages of important contacts. Preliminary results are present in form of bulk rock and trace element chemistry of ultramafic and mafic rocks of the Khoy ophiolite(s, ?) and offer a first possibility to compare the data with already existing publications. Additionally, petrological studies of various magmatic rocks present first products for a starting discussion on the geodynamic evolution of the NW part of

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life and its Determinants Among Women With Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Didarloo, Alireza; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a chronic and threatening condition. However, there are controversies on the factors affecting the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with diabetes. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate HRQOL and its determinants among females with type II diabetes referred to Diabetes Clinic of Khoy city, Northwest of Iran. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 352 eligible females with diabetes referring to Diabetes Clinic of Khoy. The study data were collected using a three-part instrument including a socio-demographic questionnaire, a questionnaire to assess patients’ knowledge on diabetes and the world health organization’s quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Based on descriptive and inferential statistics, analyses were conducted using frequency, independent samples t–test, correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results The total mean score of QOL was 58.02 ± 17.63. The lowest and the highest mean scores were observed in physical health and social relationship domains (53.84 ± 17.09) and (65.08 ± 14.87), respectively. The regression models revealed that age, education, duration of disease, and family income were significantly associated with all areas of quality of life (P < 0.05). The results also revealed that co-morbidity was significantly correlated with the overall quality of life and the physical health domain (P < 0.01). Conclusions The mean score of quality of life (QOL) in females with diabetes was far from desirable condition. These findings can help physicians and healthcare providers to design suitable interventions to improve the patients QOL. PMID:27331054

  5. Final assembly of Gondwana along its northern margin: Revising the suture geometry based on evidence from the Iranian-Turkish Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali Ashtiani, Rezvaneh; Hassanzadeh, Jamshid; Schmitt, Axel K.; Rahgoshay, Mohammad; Sobel, Edward

    2016-04-01

    The existing reconstructions of Gondwana suffer from uncertainties about its northern extensions due to the episodic separation of rifted blocks and their accretion to the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt during the Phanerozoic times. Using new data and the published information we synthesize an Ediacaran (630-542 Ma) thickened continental belt whose fragments are now dispersed in a 2300-km-long NW-SE trending zone within the Iranian-Turkish Plateau. The belt is characterized by Barrovian and high-P metamorphic associations which include metasediments, orthogenisses and metabasites with amphibolite to eclogite grade rocks. Three metamorphic complexes in the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone of Iran (Zayanderud, Dorud-Azna, and Khoy) and one complex in Turkey (the Menderes Massif) are correlated based on similar rock compositions and U-Pb zircon ages. Metabasites are shown to be largely derived from tholeiitic magmas displaying continental basalt affinity. Orthogneisses are calcalkaline and reveal arc-like trace element geochemistry. Magmatic crystallization ages throughout the belt lie entirely in the Ediacaran Period range: 560-586 Ma (Zayanderud), 588-608 Ma (Dorud-Azna), 550-595 Ma (Khoy), and 552-570 Ma (Menderes). Recognition of this orogenic belt within the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone begs the question of which way the Menderes eclogitic terrain was connected to the known Pan-African orogenic belts, e.g., the East African orogen. There are various paleogeographic suggestions for this part of Gondwana at the end of the Precambrian time which can be tested using our compiled dataset. A recent scheme assumes that the connection of the Menderes eclogitic terrain and the East African orogen was through the Arabian Peninsula. The thick Phanerozoic cover precludes any easy testing of the crystalline basement of the Arabian plate for the presence of similar rock associations. Our data favors the alternative connecting path via a roughly E-W-trending orogen (in present

  6. Psychosocial Correlates of Dietary Behaviour in Type 2 Diabetic Women, Using a Behaviour Change Theory

    PubMed Central

    Shojaeizadeh, D.; asl, R. Gharaaghaji; Niknami, S.; Khorami, A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The study evaluated the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), along with self-efficacy to predict dietary behaviour in a group of Iranian women with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 352 diabetic women referred to Khoy Diabetes Clinic, Iran, were selected and given a self-administered survey to assess eating behaviour, using the extended TRA constructs. Bivariate correlations and Enter regression analyses of the extended TRA model were performed with SPSS software. Overall, the proposed model explained 31.6% of variance of behavioural intention and 21.5% of variance of dietary behaviour. Among the model constructs, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions and dietary practice. In addition to the model variables, visit intervals of patients and source of obtaining information about diabetes from sociodemographic factors were also associated with dietary behaviours of the diabetics. This research has highlighted the relative importance of the extended TRA constructs upon behavioural intention and subsequent behaviour. Therefore, use of the present research model in designing educational interventions to increase adherence to dietary behaviours among diabetic patients was recommended and emphasized. PMID:25076670

  7. Psychosocial correlates of dietary behaviour in type 2 diabetic women, using a behaviour change theory.

    PubMed

    Didarloo, A; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji Asl, R; Niknami, S; Khorami, A

    2014-06-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), along with self-efficacy to predict dietary behaviour in a group of Iranian women with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 352 diabetic women referred to Khoy Diabetes Clinic, Iran, were selected and given a self-administered survey to assess eating behaviour, using the extended TRA constructs. Bivariate correlations and Enter regression analyses of the extended TRA model were performed with SPSS software. Overall, the proposed model explained 31.6% of variance of behavioural intention and 21.5% of variance of dietary behaviour. Among the model constructs, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions and dietary practice. In addition to the model variables, visit intervals of patients and source of obtaining information about diabetes from sociodemographic factors were also associated with dietary behaviours of the diabetics. This research has highlighted the relative importance of the extended TRA constructs upon behavioural intention and subsequent behaviour. Therefore, use of the present research model in designing educational interventions to increase adherence to dietary behaviours among diabetic patients was recommended and emphasized. PMID:25076670

  8. Evaluation of thermal comfort conditions in Ourmieh Lake, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farajzadeh, Hassan; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Research in developing countries concerning the relationship of weather and climate conditions with tourism shows a high importance not only because of financial aspects but also an important part of the region's tourism resource base. Monthly mean air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, vapor pressure, wind velocity, and cloud cover for the period 1985-2005 data collected from four meteorological stations Tabriz, Maragheh, Orumieh, and Khoy were selected. The purpose of this study is to determine the most suitable months for human thermal comfort in Ourmieh Lake, a salt sea in the northwest of Iran. To achieve this, the cooling power and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) calculated by the RayMan model and the Climate Tourism/Transfer Information Scheme (CTIS) were used. The results based on cooling power indicate that the most favorable period for tourism, sporting, and recreational activities in Ourmieh Lake is between June and October and based on PET between June to September. In addition, the CTIS shows a detailed quantification of the relevant climate-tourism factors.

  9. Psychosocial correlates of dietary behaviour in type 2 diabetic women, using a behaviour change theory.

    PubMed

    Didarloo, A; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji Asl, R; Niknami, S; Khorami, A

    2014-06-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), along with self-efficacy to predict dietary behaviour in a group of Iranian women with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 352 diabetic women referred to Khoy Diabetes Clinic, Iran, were selected and given a self-administered survey to assess eating behaviour, using the extended TRA constructs. Bivariate correlations and Enter regression analyses of the extended TRA model were performed with SPSS software. Overall, the proposed model explained 31.6% of variance of behavioural intention and 21.5% of variance of dietary behaviour. Among the model constructs, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions and dietary practice. In addition to the model variables, visit intervals of patients and source of obtaining information about diabetes from sociodemographic factors were also associated with dietary behaviours of the diabetics. This research has highlighted the relative importance of the extended TRA constructs upon behavioural intention and subsequent behaviour. Therefore, use of the present research model in designing educational interventions to increase adherence to dietary behaviours among diabetic patients was recommended and emphasized.

  10. Ophiolites of Iran: Keys to understanding the tectonic evolution of SW Asia: (II) Mesozoic ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Stern, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Iran is a mosaic of continental terranes of Cadomian (520-600 Ma) age, stitched together along sutures decorated by Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolites. Here we present the current understanding of the Mesozoic (and rare Cenozoic) ophiolites of Iran for the international geoscientific audience. We summarize field, chemical and geochronological data from the literature and our own unpublished data. Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran are mostly Cretaceous in age and are related to the Neotethys and associated backarc basins on the S flank of Eurasia. These ophiolites can be subdivided into five belts: 1. Late Cretaceous Zagros outer belt ophiolites (ZOB) along the Main Zagros Thrust including Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Maku-Khoy-Salmas ophiolites in NW Iran as well as Kermanshah-Kurdistan, Neyriz and Esfandagheh (Haji Abad) ophiolites, also Late Cretaceous-Eocene ophiolites along the Iraq-Iran border; 2. Late Cretaceous Zagros inner belt ophiolites (ZIB) including Nain, Dehshir, Shahr-e-Babak and Balvard-Baft ophiolites along the southern periphery of the Central Iranian block and bending north into it; 3. Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Sabzevar-Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolites of NE Iran; 4. Early to Late Cretaceous Birjand-Nehbandan-Tchehel-Kureh ophiolites in eastern Iran between the Lut and Afghan blocks; and 5. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous Makran ophiolites of SE Iran including Kahnuj ophiolites. Most Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran show supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signatures, indicating that SW Asia was a site of plate convergence during Late Mesozoic time, but also include a significant proportion showing ocean-island basalt affinities, perhaps indicating the involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  11. Hydrogeochemistry of seasonal variation of Urmia Salt Lake, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Samad

    2006-01-01

    Urmia Lake has been designated as an international park by the United Nations. The lake occupies a 5700 km2 depression in northwestern Iran. Thirteen permanent rivers flow into the lake. Water level in the lake has been decreased 3.5 m in the last decade due to a shortage of precipitation and progressively dry climate. Geologically the lake basin is considered to be a graben of tectonic origin. Na, K, Ca, Li and Mg are the main cations with Cl, SO4, and HCO3 as the main anions. F & Br are the other main elements in the lake. A causeway crossing the lake is under construction, which may affect the lake's annual geochemistry. The main object of this project is mainly to consider the potential of K-mineral production along with ongoing salt production. Seven hundred and four samples were taken and partially analyzed for the main cations and anions. Surface water (0.5 m. depth) was analyzed for Na, K, Mg, Ca, Br and Li, and averaged 87.118 g/lit, 1.48 g/lit, 4.82 g/lit, 4.54 g/lit, 1.19 ppm and 12.7 ppm respectively for the western half of the lake. Sodium ranged between 84 to 91.2 g/lit, and showed higher concentrations in the south than in the north. This unexpected result may be caused by shallower depth in the south and a higher net evaporation effect. Calcium ranged between 4.2 to 5 g/lit, apparently slightly higher in the north. K is higher in the south, possibly due to rivers entering from south that may carry slightly higher K in solution. In the middle-range samples (0.5–5 m.), K averaged 1.43 g/lit and ranged from 1.40 to 1.46 g/lit. At this intermediate depth the distribution of K is clearly higher to the south of the causeway that is currently under construction. It is not clear whether this increase is the effect of the causeway or the effect of the salty Aji-Chay River to the east, and the Khoy salt domes to the north of the lake. At depth (5 m–10 m), K averaged 1.48 g/lit and ranged from 1.4 to 1.49 g/lit, differing only in the second decimal from

  12. Recognition of Intermediate Crust (IC), its construction and its distinctive epeirogenic behaviour: an exciting new tool for plate kinematic analysis (PKA) of the Arctic margins and western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, M. F.

    2012-04-01

    blocking the hydrothermal cooling, this must inhibit magnetic anomaly formation and prolong magmagenesis to give a thicker-than-oceanic mafic crust, which I have called Intermediate Crust (IC) [8, 9], to distinguish it from Mature Continental Crust (MCC). Seismologically, IC basement must look deceptively like that assigned to stretched MCC. For thermodynamic reasons [8, 9] the hydrous content of deep MCC and of deeply subducted UHP crustal slices gives them a big thermal epeirogenic sensitivity which IC lacks. The NE Atlantic offers an example of this distinction. Structurally, the MCC of Greenland and Norway must have been intimately juxtaposed by the Scandian collision, so it was concluded [9] that the crust of the Greenland-Norway continental shelves must mostly be IC of post-Scandian (early Devonian?) age, a character confirmed by their lack of epeirogenic response to laterally conducted heat from the opening N Atlantic, although drainage systems in Norway proper clearly show it. Geometrically, this separation appears to have changed direction sharply, the second and bigger stage also involving separation of Svalbard from near Tromsø, where it had provided northward continuation of a complete Caledonian transect, so it has an IC implication for much of the Barents Sea area (bar the Bjørnøya block). Moving quickly round to the NE side of Baltica, we can begin to trace the separative motions of the Novaya Zemlya - Pay Khoy (NZPK) strip of less-mature MCC, transverse to the Timanian belt, and the associated evolution of the Pechora basin system. In places, faulted IC/MCC epeirogenic contrasts seem to define the size and direction of the IC-generating separation with remarkable precision. A crucial opening-up of this analysis is provided by realizing that the Polar Ural stretch is not MCC, but is merely the huge 585 Ma Voykar-Synya ophiolite, with its metamorphics, resting on a now-crumpled boundary between IC of very different ages. For further understanding we need

  13. Recognition of Intermediate Crust (IC), its construction and its distinctive epeirogenic behaviour: an exciting new tool for plate kinematic analysis (PKA) of the Arctic margins and western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, M. F.

    2012-04-01

    blocking the hydrothermal cooling, this must inhibit magnetic anomaly formation and prolong magmagenesis to give a thicker-than-oceanic mafic crust, which I have called Intermediate Crust (IC) [8, 9], to distinguish it from Mature Continental Crust (MCC). Seismologically, IC basement must look deceptively like that assigned to stretched MCC. For thermodynamic reasons [8, 9] the hydrous content of deep MCC and of deeply subducted UHP crustal slices gives them a big thermal epeirogenic sensitivity which IC lacks. The NE Atlantic offers an example of this distinction. Structurally, the MCC of Greenland and Norway must have been intimately juxtaposed by the Scandian collision, so it was concluded [9] that the crust of the Greenland-Norway continental shelves must mostly be IC of post-Scandian (early Devonian?) age, a character confirmed by their lack of epeirogenic response to laterally conducted heat from the opening N Atlantic, although drainage systems in Norway proper clearly show it. Geometrically, this separation appears to have changed direction sharply, the second and bigger stage also involving separation of Svalbard from near Tromsø, where it had provided northward continuation of a complete Caledonian transect, so it has an IC implication for much of the Barents Sea area (bar the Bjørnøya block). Moving quickly round to the NE side of Baltica, we can begin to trace the separative motions of the Novaya Zemlya - Pay Khoy (NZPK) strip of less-mature MCC, transverse to the Timanian belt, and the associated evolution of the Pechora basin system. In places, faulted IC/MCC epeirogenic contrasts seem to define the size and direction of the IC-generating separation with remarkable precision. A crucial opening-up of this analysis is provided by realizing that the Polar Ural stretch is not MCC, but is merely the huge 585 Ma Voykar-Synya ophiolite, with its metamorphics, resting on a now-crumpled boundary between IC of very different ages. For further understanding we need