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Sample records for krp1 sarcosin promotes

  1. Krp1 (Sarcosin) promotes lateral fusion of myofibril assembly intermediates in cultured mouse cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Cynthia C.; Connelly, Patricia S.; Daniels, Mathew P.; Horowits, Robert

    2008-03-10

    Krp1, also called sarcosin, is a cardiac and skeletal muscle kelch repeat protein hypothesized to promote the assembly of myofibrils, the contractile organelles of striated muscles, through interaction with N-RAP and actin. To elucidate its role, endogenous Krp1 was studied in primary embryonic mouse cardiomyocytes. While immunofluorescence showed punctate Krp1 distribution throughout the cell, detergent extraction revealed a significant pool of Krp1 associated with cytoskeletal elements. Reduction of Krp1 expression with siRNA resulted in specific inhibition of myofibril accumulation with no effect on cell spreading. Immunostaining analysis and electron microscopy revealed that cardiomyocytes lacking Krp1 contained sarcomeric proteins with longitudinal periodicities similar to mature myofibrils, but fibrils remained thin and separated. These thin myofibrils were degraded by a scission mechanism distinct from the myofibril disassembly pathway observed during cell division in the developing heart. The data are consistent with a model in which Krp1 promotes lateral fusion of adjacent thin fibrils into mature, wide myofibrils and contribute insight into mechanisms of myofibrillogenesis and disassembly.

  2. The Role of Sarcosine Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Progression12

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Amjad P; Rajendiran, Thekkelnaycke M; Ateeq, Bushra; Asangani, Irfan A; Athanikar, Jyoti N; Yocum, Anastasia K; Mehra, Rohit; Siddiqui, Javed; Palapattu, Ganesh; Wei, John T; Michailidis, George; Sreekumar, Arun; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomic profiling of prostate cancer (PCa) progression identified markedly elevated levels of sarcosine (N-methyl glycine) in metastatic PCa and modest but significant elevation of the metabolite in PCa urine. Here, we examine the role of key enzymes associated with sarcosine metabolism in PCa progression. Consistent with our earlier report, sarcosine levels were significantly elevated in PCa urine sediments compared to controls, with a modest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.71. In addition, the expression of sarcosine biosynthetic enzyme, glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT), was elevated in PCa tissues, while sarcosine dehydrogenase (SARDH) and pipecolic acid oxidase (PIPOX), which metabolize sarcosine, were reduced in prostate tumors. Consistent with this, GNMT promoted the oncogenic potential of prostate cells by facilitating sarcosine production, while SARDH and PIPOX reduced the oncogenic potential of prostate cells by metabolizing sarcosine. Accordingly, addition of sarcosine, but not glycine or alanine, induced invasion and intravasation in an in vivo PCa model. In contrast, GNMT knockdown or SARDH overexpression in PCa xenografts inhibited tumor growth. Taken together, these studies substantiate the role of sarcosine in PCa progression. PMID:23633921

  3. The role of sarcosine metabolism in prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amjad P; Rajendiran, Thekkelnaycke M; Ateeq, Bushra; Asangani, Irfan A; Athanikar, Jyoti N; Yocum, Anastasia K; Mehra, Rohit; Siddiqui, Javed; Palapattu, Ganesh; Wei, John T; Michailidis, George; Sreekumar, Arun; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2013-05-01

    Metabolomic profiling of prostate cancer (PCa) progression identified markedly elevated levels of sarcosine (N-methyl glycine) in metastatic PCa and modest but significant elevation of the metabolite in PCa urine. Here, we examine the role of key enzymes associated with sarcosine metabolism in PCa progression. Consistent with our earlier report, sarcosine levels were significantly elevated in PCa urine sediments compared to controls, with a modest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.71. In addition, the expression of sarcosine biosynthetic enzyme, glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT), was elevated in PCa tissues, while sarcosine dehydrogenase (SARDH) and pipecolic acid oxidase (PIPOX), which metabolize sarcosine, were reduced in prostate tumors. Consistent with this, GNMT promoted the oncogenic potential of prostate cells by facilitating sarcosine production, while SARDH and PIPOX reduced the oncogenic potential of prostate cells by metabolizing sarcosine. Accordingly, addition of sarcosine, but not glycine or alanine, induced invasion and intravasation in an in vivo PCa model. In contrast, GNMT knockdown or SARDH overexpression in PCa xenografts inhibited tumor growth. Taken together, these studies substantiate the role of sarcosine in PCa progression. PMID:23633921

  4. Sarcosine sarcosinium trifluoroacetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, A. M.; Ghazaryan, V. V.; Giester, G.; Fleck, M.

    2016-07-01

    We report the synthesis of a new salt in the system sarcosine - trifluoroacetic acid - water, namely sarcosine sarcosinium trifluoroacetate, whose structure contains a dimeric cation formed by an O-H···O hydrogen bond with an O···O distance equal to 2.528(2) Å. This is the first example among salts of amino acids with dimeric cation that contains the trifluoroacetate anion. Vibrational spectra of this crystal and previously known sarcosinium trifluoroacetate crystal have been studied. Peculiarities of the dimeric cation have been compared with other known salts of sarcosine with dimeric cations.

  5. Sarcosine Catabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Transcriptionally Regulated by SouR

    PubMed Central

    Willsey, Graham G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sarcosine (N-methylglycine) is present in many environments inhabited by pseudomonads and is likely most often encountered as an intermediate in the metabolism of choline, carnitine, creatine, and glyphosate. While the enzymology of sarcosine metabolism has been relatively well studied in bacteria, the regulatory mechanisms governing catabolism have remained largely unknown. We previously determined that the sarcosine-catabolic (sox) operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is induced by the AraC family regulator GbdR in response to glycine betaine and dimethylglycine. However, induction of these genes was still observed in response to sarcosine in a gbdR deletion mutant, indicating that an independent sarcosine-responsive transcription factor also acted at this locus. Our goal in this study was to identify and characterize this regulator. Using a transposon-based genetic screen, we identified PA4184, or SouR (sarcosine oxidation and utilization regulator), as the sarcosine-responsive regulator of the sox operon, with tight induction specificity for sarcosine. The souR gene is required for appreciable growth on sarcosine as a carbon and nitrogen source. We also characterized the transcriptome response to sarcosine governed by SouR using microarray analyses and performed electrophoretic mobility shift assays to identify promoters directly regulated by the transcription factor. Finally, we characterized PA3630, or GfnR (glutathione-dependent formaldehyde neutralization regulator), as the regulator of the glutathione-dependent formaldehyde detoxification system in P. aeruginosa that is expressed in response to formaldehyde released during the catabolism of sarcosine. This study expands our understanding of sarcosine metabolic regulation in bacteria through the identification and characterization of the first known sarcosine-responsive transcriptional regulator. IMPORTANCE The Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome encodes many diverse metabolic pathways, yet the specific

  6. Transport and metabolism of sarcosine in hypersarcosinemic and normal phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Glorieux, Francis H.; Scriver, Charles R.; Delvin, Edgard; Mohyuddin, Fazl

    1971-01-01

    An adolescent male proband with hypersarcosinemia was discovered incidentally in a French-Canadian family; no specific disease was associated with the trait. The hypersarcosinemia is not diminished by dietary folic acid even in pharmacologic doses (30 mg/day). The normal absence of sarcosine dehydrogenase in cultured human skin fibroblasts and in leukocytes was confirmed, thus eliminating these tissues as useful sources for further investigation of mutant sarcosinemic phenotypes and genotypes. The response in plasma of sarcosine and glycine, after sarcosine loading, distinguished the normal subject from the subjects who were presumably homozygous and heterozygous for the hypersarcosinemia allele. Sarcosine clearance from plasma was delayed greatly (t½, 6.1 hr) in the presumed homozygote and slightly (t½, 2.2 hr) in the presumed heterozygote, while plasma glycine remained constant in the former and rose in the latter. Normal subjects clear sarcosine from plasma rapidly (t½, 1.6 hr) while their plasma glycine trend is downward. The phenotypic responses suggest that hypersarcosinemia is an autosomal recessive trait in this pedigree. Renal tubular transport of sarcosine was normal in the proband even though he presumably lacked the sarcosine oxidation which should normally occur in kidney. Sarcosine catabolism is thus not important for its own renal uptake. Sarcosine interacts with proline and glycine during its absorption in vivo. Studies in vitro in rat kidney showed that sarcosine transport is mediated, saturable, and energy dependent. Sarcosine has no apparent transport system of its own; it uses the low Km transport systems for L-proline and glycine to a minor extent and a high Km system shared by these substances for the major uptake at concentrations encountered in hypersarcosinemia. Intracellular sarcosine at high concentration will exchange with glycine on one of these systems, which may explain a paradoxical improvement in renal transport of glycine after

  7. Sox transcription in sarcosine utilization is controlled by Sigma(54) and SoxR in Bacillus thuringiensis HD73.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qi; Liu, Chunxia; Wang, Bo; Yang, Min; Wu, Jianbo; Zhang, Jie; Song, Fuping

    2016-01-01

    Sarcosine oxidase catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of sarcosine to yield glycine, formaldehyde, and hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we analyzed the transcription and regulation of the sox locus, including the sarcosine oxidase-encoding genes in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). RT-PCR analysis revealed that the sox locus forms two opposing transcriptional units: soxB (soxB/E/F/G/H/I) and soxR (soxR/C/D/A). The typical -12/-24 consensus sequence was located 15 bp and 12 bp from the transcriptional start site (TSS) of soxB and soxC, respectively. Promoter-lacZ fusion assays showed that the soxB promoter is controlled by the Sigma(54) factor and is activated by the Sigma(54)-dependent transcriptional regulator SoxR. SoxR also inhibits its own expression. Expression from the PsoxCR promoter, which is responsible for the transcription of soxC, soxD, and soxA, is Sigma(54)-dependent and requires SoxR. An 11-bp inverted repeat sequence was identified as SoxR binding site upstream of the soxB TSS. Purified SoxR specifically bound a DNA fragment containing this region. Mutation or deletion of this sequence abolished the transcriptional activities of soxB and soxC. Thus, SoxR binds to the same sequence to activate the transcription of soxB and soxC. Sarcosine utilization was abolished in soxB and soxR mutants, suggesting that the sox locus is essential for sarcosine utilization. PMID:27404799

  8. Sox transcription in sarcosine utilization is controlled by Sigma54 and SoxR in Bacillus thuringiensis HD73

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Qi; Liu, Chunxia; Wang, Bo; Yang, Min; Wu, Jianbo; Zhang, Jie; Song, Fuping

    2016-01-01

    Sarcosine oxidase catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of sarcosine to yield glycine, formaldehyde, and hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we analyzed the transcription and regulation of the sox locus, including the sarcosine oxidase-encoding genes in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). RT-PCR analysis revealed that the sox locus forms two opposing transcriptional units: soxB (soxB/E/F/G/H/I) and soxR (soxR/C/D/A). The typical −12/−24 consensus sequence was located 15 bp and 12 bp from the transcriptional start site (TSS) of soxB and soxC, respectively. Promoter-lacZ fusion assays showed that the soxB promoter is controlled by the Sigma54 factor and is activated by the Sigma54-dependent transcriptional regulator SoxR. SoxR also inhibits its own expression. Expression from the PsoxCR promoter, which is responsible for the transcription of soxC, soxD, and soxA, is Sigma54-dependent and requires SoxR. An 11-bp inverted repeat sequence was identified as SoxR binding site upstream of the soxB TSS. Purified SoxR specifically bound a DNA fragment containing this region. Mutation or deletion of this sequence abolished the transcriptional activities of soxB and soxC. Thus, SoxR binds to the same sequence to activate the transcription of soxB and soxC. Sarcosine utilization was abolished in soxB and soxR mutants, suggesting that the sox locus is essential for sarcosine utilization. PMID:27404799

  9. Partial enzymatic elimination and quantification of sarcosine from alanine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Burton, Casey; Gamagedara, Sanjeewa; Ma, Yinfa

    2013-04-01

    Since sarcosine and D,L-alanine co-elute on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns and the tandem mass spectrometer cannot differentiate them due to equivalent parent and fragment ions, derivatization is often required for analysis of sarcosine in LC/MS systems. This study offers an alternative to derivatization by employing partial elimination of sarcosine by enzymatic oxidation. The decrease in apparent concentration from the traditionally merged sarcosine-alanine peak associated with the enzymatic elimination has been shown to be proportional to the total sarcosine present (R(2) = 0.9999), allowing for determinations of urinary sarcosine. Sarcosine oxidase was shown to eliminate only sarcosine in the presence of D,L-alanine, and was consequently used as the selective enzyme. This newly developed technique has a method detection limit of 1 μg/L (parts per billion) with a linear range of 3 ppb-1 mg/L (parts per million) in urine matrices. The method was further validated through spiked recoveries of real urine samples, as well as the analysis of 35 real urine samples. The average recoveries for low, middle, and high sarcosine concentration spikes were 111.7, 90.8, and 90.1 %, respectively. In conclusion, this simple enzymatic approach coupled with HPLC/MS/MS is able to resolve sarcosine from D,L-alanine leading to underivatized quantification of sarcosine.

  10. Interactions of aminomethylphosphonic acid and sarcosine with montmorillonite interlayer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennig, Amanda; Slutter, Annette; Tribe, Lorena

    The smectite clay, montmorillonite, can be found in many soils throughout the world. In addition to its importance in agriculture and soil remediation, montmorillonite has extensive applications in industry both in its natural form and as a component of composite materials. The adsorptive properties of montmorillonite have been explored in relation to its interactions with the common herbicide glyphosate. This herbicide, when exposed to microorganisms in the soil is degraded, forming two products: aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and sarcosine. The atomic-level interactions of these compounds with the montmorillonite interlayer surfaces are studied here using molecular mechanics. The final outcomes of these calculations are analyzed in terms of the proximity of the montmorillonite surface to the moieties of the degradation products. The phosphonate moiety was found to be the most important source of interactions for AMPA, while for sarcosine there was an even distribution between the amino and carboxylic moieties, and Na+ ion mediated surface complexes.0

  11. Two forms of sarcosine sarcosinium hydrogen L-tartrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, M.; Ghazaryan, V. V.; Petrosyan, A. M.

    2013-08-01

    In the system sarcosine + L-tartaric acid + H2O we identified several new phases in addition to the previously known species sarcosinium hydrogen L-tartrate (I). Two of them (phases (II) and (III)) were obtained in the form of single crystals. Their crystal and molecular structures were determined. Both phases (II) and (III) have 2:1 composition and contain a zwitter-ionic sarcosine, a sarcosinium cation, and a hydrogen L-tartrate anion in the asymmetric unit and crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group P212121). In the structure of (II), the sarcosinium cation forms a strong Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond (O⋯O distance equals 2.4553(15) Å) with the carboxylate group of the hydrogen L-tartrate anion, while the carboxyl group of the hydrogen L-tartrate anion forms an Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond (O⋯O distance equals 2.5065(14) Å) with the carboxylate group of sarcosine zwitter-ion. In the structure of (III) there are dimeric sarcosine sarcosinium cations with an O⋯O distance equal to 2.512(3) Å, while the hydrogen L-tartrate anions form hydrogen bonded usual infinite chains with O⋯O distances equal to 2.510(2) Å between carboxyl and carboxylate groups. Vibrational spectra (infrared and Raman) of (I), (II), (III) are shown and discussed on the basis of their structures. In addition, one more phase (IV) was identified by its infrared spectrum without structure determination.

  12. Adding Sarcosine to Antipsychotic Treatment in Patients with Stable Schizophrenia Changes the Concentrations of Neuronal and Glial Metabolites in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Podgórski, Michał; Kałużyńska, Olga; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka; Grzelak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The glutamatergic system is a key point in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Sarcosine (N-methylglycine) is an exogenous amino acid that acts as a glycine transporter inhibitor. It modulates glutamatergic transmission by increasing glycine concentration around NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptors. In patients with schizophrenia, the function of the glutamatergic system in the prefrontal cortex is impaired, which may promote negative and cognitive symptoms. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy is a non-invasive imaging method enabling the evaluation of brain metabolite concentration, which can be applied to assess pharmacologically induced changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a six-month course of sarcosine therapy on the concentration of metabolites (NAA, N-acetylaspartate; Glx, complex of glutamate, glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); mI, myo-inositol; Cr, creatine; Cho, choline) in the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with stable schizophrenia. Fifty patients with schizophrenia, treated with constant antipsychotics doses, in stable clinical condition were randomly assigned to administration of sarcosine (25 patients) or placebo (25 patients) for six months. Metabolite concentrations in DLPFC were assessed with 1.5 Tesla 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Clinical symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The first spectroscopy revealed no differences in metabolite concentrations between groups. After six months, NAA/Cho, mI/Cr and mI/Cho ratios in the left DLPFC were significantly higher in the sarcosine than the placebo group. In the sarcosine group, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, mI/Cr, mI/Cho ratios also significantly increased compared to baseline values. In the placebo group, only the NAA/Cr ratio increased. The addition of sarcosine to antipsychotic therapy for six months increased markers of neurons viability (NAA) and neurogilal activity (mI) with simultaneous improvement

  13. A reproducible and high-throughput HPLC/MS method to separate sarcosine from α- and β-alanine and to quantify sarcosine in human serum and urine.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Tamra E; Fox, Stephen D; Issaq, Haleem J; Xu, Xia; Chu, Lisa W; Veenstra, Timothy D; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-07-15

    While sarcosine was recently identified as a potential urine biomarker for prostate cancer, further studies have cast doubt on its utility to diagnose this condition. The inconsistent results may be due to the fact that alanine and sarcosine coelute on an HPLC reversed-phase column and the mass spectrometer cannot differentiate between the two isomers, since the same parent/product ions are generally used to measure them. In this study, we developed a high-throughput liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method that resolves sarcosine from alanine isomers, allowing its accurate quantification in human serum and urine. Assay reproducibility was determined using the coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in serum aliquots from 10 subjects and urine aliquots from 20 subjects across multiple analytic runs. Paired serum/urine samples from 42 subjects were used to evaluate sarcosine serum/urine correlation. Both urine and serum assays gave high sensitivity (limit of quantitation of 5 ng/mL) and reproducibility (serum assay, intra- and interassay CVs < 3% and ICCs > 99%; urine assay, intra-assay CV = 7.7% and ICC = 98.2% and interassay CV = 12.3% and ICC = 94.2%). In conclusion, this high-throughput LC-MS method is able to resolve sarcosine from α- and β-alanine and is useful for quantifying sarcosine in serum and urine samples.

  14. Paramagnetic Nanoparticles as a Platform for FRET-Based Sarcosine Picomolar Detection

    PubMed Central

    Heger, Zbynek; Cernei, Natalia; Krizkova, Sona; Masarik, Michal; Kopel, Pavel; Hodek, Petr; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we describe an ultrasensitive specific biosensing system for detection of sarcosine as a potential biomarker of prostate carcinoma based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The FRET biosensor employs anti-sarcosine antibodies immobilized on paramagnetic nanoparticles surface for specific antigen binding. Successful binding of sarcosine leads to assembly of a sandwich construct composed of anti-sarcosine antibodies keeping the Förster distance (Ro) of FRET pair in required proximity. The detection is based on spectral overlap between gold-functionalized green fluorescent protein and antibodies@quantum dots bioconjugate (λex 400 nm). The saturation curve of sarcosine based on FRET efficiency (F604/F510 ratio) was tested within linear dynamic range from 5 to 50 nM with detection limit down to 50 pM. Assembled biosensor was then successfully employed for sarcosine quantification in prostatic cell lines (PC3, 22Rv1, PNT1A), and urinary samples of prostate adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:25746688

  15. An organic indicator functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite-based colorimetric assay for the detection of sarcosine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhonghua; Yin, Bo; Wang, Hui; Li, Mengqian; Rao, Honghong; Liu, Xiuhui; Zhou, Xinbin; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2016-03-01

    Rapid detection of sarcosine is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of disease. We report here a simple yet sensitive colorimetric nanocomposite platform for rapid detection of sarcosine in alkaline media. The approach exploited the benefits of a rapid color-producing reaction between an organic indicator, 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid sodium salt (NQS), and the analyte of sarcosine species as well as the good catalytic ability of graphene oxide (GO) to the formation of highly colored products due to its good water dispersibility, extremely large surface area and facile surface modification. As a result, a NQS functionalized GO nanocomposite through π-π stacking has been demonstrated to be useful as a highly efficient catalyst system for the selective and sensitive colorimetric determination of sarcosine by providing a nanocomposite-amplified colorimetric response. Meanwhile, the strategy offered excellent selectivity toward sarcosine species against other amino acids as well as a satisfying detection limit of 0.73 μM. More importantly, by using an electrochemical method, a credible sensing mechanism of GO nanocomposite-based colorimetric platform for a special analyte determination can be easily verified and elucidated, which also provides an attractive alternative to conventional characterization strategies.Rapid detection of sarcosine is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of disease. We report here a simple yet sensitive colorimetric nanocomposite platform for rapid detection of sarcosine in alkaline media. The approach exploited the benefits of a rapid color-producing reaction between an organic indicator, 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid sodium salt (NQS), and the analyte of sarcosine species as well as the good catalytic ability of graphene oxide (GO) to the formation of highly colored products due to its good water dispersibility, extremely large surface area and facile surface modification. As a result, a NQS

  16. Hypomania after augmenting venlafaxine and olanzapine with sarcosine in a patient with schizophrenia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Szyburska, Justyna; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Kałużyńska, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Dysfunction of the glutamatergic system plays an important and well-established role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Agents with glutamatergic properties such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor coagonists (ie, glycine, D-cycloserine) and glycine transporter type 1 inhibitors (eg, sarcosine, bitopertin) are investigated in schizophrenia with special focus on negative and cognitive symptomatology. In this article, we describe a case of a 34-year-old woman with diagnosis of schizophrenia with persistent moderate negative and cognitive symptoms, a participant of the Polish Sarcosine Study (PULSAR) treated with olanzapine (25 mg per day) and venlafaxine (75 mg per day). During ten weeks of sarcosine administration (2 g per day) the patient's activity and mood improved, but in the following 2 weeks, the patient reported decreased need for sleep, elevated mood, libido and general activity. We diagnosed drug-induced hypomania and recommended decreasing the daily dose of venlafaxine to 37.5 mg per day, which resulted in normalization of mood and activity in about 1 week. After this change, activity and mood remained stable and better than before adding sarcosine, and subsequent depressive symptoms were not noted. We describe here the second case report where sarcosine induced important affect changes when added to antidepressive and antipsychotic treatment, which supports the hypothesis of clinically important glutamate-serotonin interaction. PMID:25784808

  17. Potentiometric sensor fabrication having 2D sarcosine memories and analytical features.

    PubMed

    Özkütük, Ebru Birlik; Diltemiz, Sibel Emir; Avcı, Şeyma; Uğurağ, Deniz; Aykanat, Rabia Berna; Ersöz, Arzu; Say, Rıdvan

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method based on novel molecular imprinted polymeric sensor has been developed and validated for the determination of prostate cancer metabolite biomarker. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been synthesized by emulsion polymerization, using sarcosine as template molecule, methacryloylamido histidine (MAH) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linking agent. The performance of the developed sarcosine sensor has been evaluated, and the results have indicated that a sensitive potentiometric sensor has been fabricated. The sarcosine sensor has showed high-selectivity, shorter response time (<2min), wider linear range (10(-2)-10(-6)mM), lower detection limit (1.35×10(-7)mM), and satisfactory long-term stability (>5.5months). PMID:27612708

  18. Sarcosine treatment for oppositional defiant disorder symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children.

    PubMed

    Tzang, Ruu-Fen; Chang, Yue-Cune; Tsai, Guochuan E; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Methylphenidate, a stimulant that activates dopaminergic and noradrenergic function, is an important agent in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sarcosine, a glycine transporter-1 inhibitor, may also play a role in treating ADHD by modulating the glutamatergic neurotransmission system through activating N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptors. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of sarcosine in treating children with ADHD. We conducted a six-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The primary outcome measures were those on the Inattention, Hyperactivity/impulsivity, and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) subscales of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale. Efficacy and safety were measured bi-weekly. A total of 116 children with ADHD were enrolled. Among them, 48 (83%) of the 58 sarcosine recipients and 44 (76%) of the 58 placebo recipients returned for the first post-treatment visit. The missing data values were imputed by the last observation carry forward method. From a multiple linear regression analysis, using the generalized estimating equation approach, and an intention to treat analysis, the efficacy of sarcosine marginally surpassed that of placebo at weeks 2, 4, and 6, with p-values=0.01, 0.026, and 0.012, respectively, although only for ODD symptoms. Treatment of ADHD by sarcosine (0.03 g/kg/day) was well tolerated. Sarcosine could possibly be a novel agent for managing ODD symptoms in the context of ADHD. However, future larger-scale studies are warranted to optimize its dosage.

  19. Two grams of sarcosine in schizophrenia - is it too much? A potential role of glutamate-serotonin interaction.

    PubMed

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Szyburska, Justyna; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Dysfunction of the glutamatergic system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Therefore, glutamatergic agents such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor co-agonists (ie, glycine, D-cycloserine) and glycine transporter type 1 inhibitors (eg, sarcosine) are studied for their efficacy in ameliorating negative and cognitive symptomatology in patients with schizophrenia. We report the case of a 23-year-old schizophrenic patient treated with quetiapine and citalopram, who was offered concomitant sarcosine treatment. After obtaining an informed consent, we started administration of 2 g of sarcosine per day to treat persistent negative and cognitive symptoms. The patient's activity and mood improved within 2 weeks, but in the following 2 weeks the patient reported increased drive, activity, libido, unpleasant inner tension, and irritability. We ruled out hypomania and decided to decrease the daily dose of sarcosine to 1 g, which resulted in reduction of drive and irritability. Activity and mood improved compared with his state before adding sarcosine. We suggest a sarcosine dose between 1 g and 2 g per day with an initial dose of 2 g, but if side effects occur, the dose should be decreased to 1 g per day. We would like to emphasize the clinically important glutamate-serotonin interaction during concomitant use of sarcosine, citalopram, and quetiapine in our patient, which may lead to serious discomfort. PMID:24523591

  20. Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Ming-Huan; Chung, Shiang-Sheng; Stoker, Astrid K.; Markou, Athina; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2012-12-01

    Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ► Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ► Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ► Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ► Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene

  1. MMP-9 Serum Levels in Schizophrenic Patients during Treatment Augmentation with Sarcosine (Results of the PULSAR Study)

    PubMed Central

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Kałużyńska, Olga; Szyburska, Justyna; Wysokiński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Find changes in matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) levels during augmentation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine and a relationship between schizophrenia symptoms severity and initial level of MMP-9. Method: Fifty-eight patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms participated in a six-month prospective RCT (randomized controlled trial). The patients received two grams of sarcosine (n = 28) or placebo (n = 30) daily. At the beginning, after six weeks and after six months MMP-9 levels were measured. Severity of symptomatology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Results: MMP-9 serum levels were stable after six weeks and six months in both groups. We noted improvement in negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score in sarcosine group compared to placebo; however, there was no correlations between serum MMP-9 concentrations and PANSS scores in all assessments. Initial serum MMP-9 concentrations cannot be used as an improvement predictor acquired during sarcosine augmentation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that either MMP-9 is not involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent mechanism of sarcosine action in terms of clinical parameters or sarcosine induced changes in peripheral MMP-9 concentrations cannot be detected in blood assessments. PMID:27409603

  2. Monopeptide versus Monopeptoid: Insights on Structure and Hydration of Aqueous Alanine and Sarcosine via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Uejio, Janel S.; Schwartz, Craig P.; Duffin, Andrew M.; England, Alice; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2009-11-19

    Despite the obvious significance, the aqueous interactions of peptides remain incompletely understood. Their synthetic analogues called peptoids (poly-N-substituted glycines), have recently emerged as a promising biomimetic material, particularly due to their robust secondary structure and resistance to denaturation. We describe comparative near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy studies of aqueous sarcosine, the simplest peptoid, and alanine, its peptide isomer, interpreted by density functional theory calculations. The sarcosine nitrogen K-edge spectrum is blue-shifted with respect to that of alanine, in agreement with our calculations; we conclude that this shift results primarily from the methyl group substitution on the nitrogen of sarcosine. Our calculations indicate that the nitrogen K-edge spectrum of alanine differs significantly between dehydrated and hydrated scenarios, while that of the sarcosine zwitterion is less affected by hydration. In contrast, the computed sarcosine spectrum is greatly impacted by conformational variations, while the alanine spectrum is not. This relates to a predicted solvent dependence for alanine, as compared to sarcosine. Additionally, we show the theoretical nitrogen K-edge spectra to be sensitive to the degree of hydration, indicating that experimental X-ray spectroscopy may be able to distinguish between bulk and partial hydration, such as found in confined environments near proteins and in reverse micelles.

  3. Kinetics of the reversible reaction of CO2(aq) and HCO3(-) with sarcosine salt in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qunyang; Fang, Mengxiang; Yu, Hai; Maeder, Marcel

    2012-10-25

    Aqueous sarcosine salts are fast carbon dioxide (CO(2)) absorbents suitable for use in postcombustion CO(2) capture in coal-fired power plants. We have developed a detailed reaction scheme including all the reactions in the sarcosine-CO(2)-water system. All unknown rate and equilibrium constants were obtained by global data fitting. We investigated the temperature-dependent rate and equilibrium constants of the reaction between aqueous CO(2) and sarcosine using stopped-flow spectrophotometry, by following the pH changes over the wavelength range 400-700 nm via coupling to pH indicators. The corresponding rate and equilibrium constants ranged from 15.0 to 45.0 °C and were analyzed in terms of Arrhenius, Eyring, and van't Hoff relationships. The rate constant for the reaction between CO(2) and sarcosine to form the carbamate at 25.0 °C is 18.6(6) × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), which is very high for an acyclic amine; its activation enthalpy is 59(1) kJ mol(-1) and the entropy is 33(4) J mol(-1) K(-1). In addition, we investigated the slow reaction between bicarbonate and sarcosine using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and report the corresponding rate and equilibrium constants at 25.0 °C. This rate constant is 5.9 × 10(-3) M(-1) s(-1).

  4. Analysis of water channels by molecular dynamics simulation of heterotetrameric sarcosine oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Go; Nakajima, Daisuke; Hiroshima, Akinori; Suzuki, Haruo; Yoneda, Shigetaka

    2015-01-01

    A precise 100-ns molecular dynamics simulation in aquo was performed for the heterotetrameric sarcosine oxidase bound with a substrate analogue, dimethylglycine. The spatial region including the protein was divided into small rectangular cells. The average number of the water molecules locating within each cell was calculated based on the simulation trajectory. The clusters of the cells filled with water molecules were used to determine the water channels. The narrowness of the channels, the average hydropathy indices of the residues of the channels, and the number of migration events of water molecules through the channels were consistent with the selective transport hypothesis whereby tunnel T3 is the pathway for the exit of the iminium intermediate of the enzyme reaction. PMID:27493862

  5. Preparation, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activities of Bimetallic Complexes of Sarcosine with Zn(II) and Sn(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Arafat, Yasir; Ali, Saqib; Shahzadi, Saira; Shahid, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Heterobimetallic complexes of Zn(II) and Sn(IV) with sarcosine have been synthesized at room temperature under stirring conditions by the reaction of sarcosine and zinc acetate in 2 : 1 molar ratio followed by the stepwise addition of CS2 and organotin(IV) halides, where R = Me, n-Bu, and Ph. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and NMR (1H, 13C) spectroscopy. IR data showed that the ligand acts in a bidentate manner. NMR data revealed the four coordinate geometry in solution state. In vitro antimicrobial activities data showed that complexes (3) and (4) were effective against bacterial and fungal strains with few exceptions. PMID:24235910

  6. Brillouin scattering study of the ferroelectric phase transition in tris-sarcosine calcium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikita, Tomoyuki; Schnackenberg, Paul; Schmidt, V. Hugo

    1985-01-01

    Brillouin spectra from longitudinal phonons in ferroelectric tris-sarcosine calcium chloride propagating along [100], [010], and [001] have been measured as functions of temperature. Large anomalies were found in the Brillouin shift and linewidth in the [100] and [001] phonons. These anomalies are interpreted as arising from the linear coupling of the polarization and the phonons. From the temperature where the linewidth is maximum, the relaxation time of the polarization fluctuations is estimated to be τ=3.1×10-12/(Tc-T) sec, where Tc is the ferroelectric transition temperature. We also observed anomalies in Brillouin shift and linewidth of the [010] phonons which propagate along the ferroelectric b axis. These anomalies are interpreted as coming from electro- strictive coupling. The energy-relaxation time was estimated to be τE=2.5×10-10/(T-Tc) sec in the paraelectric phase and τE=1.0×10-9/(Tc-T) sec in the ferroelectric phase, by comparing our Brillouin results with those of the ultrasonic measurements.

  7. Preconcentration of cobalt with N-(dithiocarboxy)sarcosine and amberlite xad-4 resin.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Y; Mori, N

    1986-02-01

    Cobalt reacts with N-(dithiocarboxy)sarcosine (DTCS) to form a 1:3 Co:DTCS complex which is so stable that after its formation no decomposition occurs even in 4M hydrochloric acid. The complex is sorbed on a column of Amberlite XAD-4 copolymer from an acidic solution and eluted with 10 ml of a 1:1:3 v v mixture of 1.0M ammonia solution (pH = 9), 0.1M EDTA and methanol. The absorbance of the eluted chelate is measured at 320 nm against water ( = 2.15 x 10(4) l.mole(-1).cm(-1)). The recovery of cobalt from 1 litre of tap-water or sea-water is quantitative. The effect of diverse ions can be eliminated by the addition of EDTA after chelation of the cobalt. The copper complex with DTCS is partly sorbed on the column because of its slow rate of decomposition by EDTA, but most of the copper chelate sorbed can be eluted with hydrochloric acid and any co-eluted with the cobalt chelate can be completely decomposed by heating the eluate. Cobalt enrichment factors of at least 100 are obtained, so the method is applicable to the determination of cobalt at the ng ml level.

  8. Prostate tumor attenuation in the nu/nu murine model due to anti-sarcosine antibodies in folate-targeted liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Heger, Zbynek; Polanska, Hana; Merlos Rodrigo, Miguel Angel; Guran, Roman; Kulich, Pavel; Kopel, Pavel; Masarik, Michal; Eckschlager, Tomas; Stiborova, Marie; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we describe the preparation of liposomes with folate-targeting properties for the encapsulation of anti-sarcosine antibodies (antisarAbs@LIP) and sarcosine (sar@LIP). The competitive inhibitory effects of exogenously added folic acid supported the role of folate targeting in liposome internalization. We examined the effects of repeated administration on mice PC-3 xenografts. Sar@LIP treatment significantly increased tumor volume and weight compared to controls treated with empty liposomes. Moreover, antisarAbs@LIP administration exhibited a mild antitumor effect. We also identified differences in gene expression patterns post-treatment. Furthermore, Sar@LIP treatment resulted in decreased amounts of tumor zinc ions and total metallothioneins. Examination of the spatial distribution across the tumor sections revealed a sarcosine-related decline of the MT1X isoform within the marginal regions but an elevation after antisarAbs@LIP administration. Our exploratory results demonstrate the importance of sarcosine as an oncometabolite in PCa. Moreover, we have shown that sarcosine can be a potential target for anticancer strategies in management of PCa. PMID:27646588

  9. Prostate tumor attenuation in the nu/nu murine model due to anti-sarcosine antibodies in folate-targeted liposomes.

    PubMed

    Heger, Zbynek; Polanska, Hana; Merlos Rodrigo, Miguel Angel; Guran, Roman; Kulich, Pavel; Kopel, Pavel; Masarik, Michal; Eckschlager, Tomas; Stiborova, Marie; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we describe the preparation of liposomes with folate-targeting properties for the encapsulation of anti-sarcosine antibodies (antisarAbs@LIP) and sarcosine (sar@LIP). The competitive inhibitory effects of exogenously added folic acid supported the role of folate targeting in liposome internalization. We examined the effects of repeated administration on mice PC-3 xenografts. Sar@LIP treatment significantly increased tumor volume and weight compared to controls treated with empty liposomes. Moreover, antisarAbs@LIP administration exhibited a mild antitumor effect. We also identified differences in gene expression patterns post-treatment. Furthermore, Sar@LIP treatment resulted in decreased amounts of tumor zinc ions and total metallothioneins. Examination of the spatial distribution across the tumor sections revealed a sarcosine-related decline of the MT1X isoform within the marginal regions but an elevation after antisarAbs@LIP administration. Our exploratory results demonstrate the importance of sarcosine as an oncometabolite in PCa. Moreover, we have shown that sarcosine can be a potential target for anticancer strategies in management of PCa. PMID:27646588

  10. Use of crude extract of lentil plant (Lens culinaris Medikus) in peroxidase-based analyses: fast kinetic determination of hydrogen peroxide and sarcosine in urine.

    PubMed

    Pérez Galende, Patricia; Manzano Muñoz, Teresa; Roig, Manuel G; García de María, Cándido

    2012-11-01

    Peroxidase-catalysed reactions are used in a wide variety of analytical applications, most of them based on the final quantification of hydrogen peroxide. Clinical tests for glucose, cholesterol, creatine, creatinine or uric acid in blood or urine and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for pesticides, hepatitis or acquired immune deficiency syndrome are good examples of such applications. The most widely used and commercially available peroxidase for biotechnological processes and analytical applications is horseradish peroxidase followed, although in much lower proportion, by soybean peroxidase. The high commercial interest in peroxidases has led to the search for new sources of these enzymes. This work describes the analytical use of lentil plant peroxidase (LPP), which is a new peroxidase extracted from lentil plants (Lens culinaris Medikus); an abundant post-harvest agricultural waste in the area of Castilla y León (Spain). A procedure for the quantification of hydrogen peroxide in urine is first proposed using crude extract of lentil plant instead of the purified enzyme. This procedure is then applied to the determination of sarcosine; a natural amino acid that has attracted considerable interest in clinical diagnostics since urinary sarcosine was proposed and later questioned as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Under the action of sarcosine oxidase, sarcosine is oxidized by molecular oxygen to give glycine, formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide that is quantified according to the previously proposed procedure. The limit of detection for both hydrogen peroxide and sarcosine is around 5 × 10(-7) M. In the determination of sarcosine, the high selectivity of the overall enzymatic reaction, the simple sample treatment and instrumentation, the high-sample throughput and the use of LPP in the plant extract instead of the purified enzyme provide a rapid and inexpensive procedure with characteristics very suitable for routine analysis in a clinical laboratory.

  11. AMPA Receptor-mTOR Activation is Required for the Antidepressant-Like Effects of Sarcosine during the Forced Swim Test in Rats: Insertion of AMPA Receptor may Play a Role.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuang-Ti; Tsai, Mang-Hung; Wu, Ching-Hsiang; Jou, Ming-Jia; Wei, I-Hua; Huang, Chih-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Sarcosine, an endogenous amino acid, is a competitive inhibitor of the type I glycine transporter and an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) coagonist. Recently, we found that sarcosine, an NMDAR enhancer, can improve depression-related behaviors in rodents and humans. This result differs from previous studies, which have reported antidepressant effects of NMDAR antagonists. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic response of sarcosine remain unknown. This study examines the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor (AMPAR) activation, which are involved in the antidepressant-like effects of several glutamatergic system modulators. The effects of sarcosine in a forced swim test (FST) and the expression levels of phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins were examined in the absence or presence of mTOR and AMPAR inhibitors. In addition, the influence of sarcosine on AMPAR trafficking was determined by analyzing the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit GluR1 at the PKA site (often considered an indicator for GluR1 membrane insertion in neurons). A single injection of sarcosine exhibited antidepressant-like effects in rats in the FST and rapidly activated the mTOR signaling pathway, which were significantly blocked by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or the AMPAR inhibitor 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX) pretreatment. Moreover, NBQX pretreatment eliminated the ability of sarcosine to stimulate the phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins. Furthermore, GluR1 phosphorylation at its PKA site was significantly increased after an acute in vivo sarcosine treatment. The results demonstrated that sarcosine exerts antidepressant-like effects by enhancing AMPAR-mTOR signaling pathway activity and facilitating AMPAR membrane insertion. Highlights-A single injection of sarcosine rapidly exerted antidepressant-like effects with a concomitant increase in the activation of the mammalian

  12. One-pot glovebox-free synthesis, characterization, and self-assembly of novel amphiphilic poly(sarcosine-b-caprolactone) diblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Cui, Saide; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Qiguo; Wu, Wenzhuo; Liu, Jingjing; Wu, Hao; Chen, Cheng; Guo, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Novel amphiphilic polypeptoid-polyester diblock copolymers based on poly(sarcosine) (PSar) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) are synthesized by a one-pot glovebox-free approach. In this method, sarcosine N-carboxy anhydride (Sar-NCA) is firstly polymerized in the presence of benzylamine under N(2) flow, then the resulting poly(sarcosine) is used in situ as the macro-initiator for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone using tin(II) octanoate as a catalyst. The degree of poly-merization of each block is controlled by various feed ratios of monomer/initiator. The diblock copolymers with controlled molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distributions (Đ(M) < 1.2) are characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and size-exclusion chromatography. The self-assembly behavior of PSar-b-PCL in water is investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy. DLS results reveal that the diblock copolymers associate into nanoparticles with average hydrodynamic diameters (D(H)) around 100 nm in water, which may be used as drug delivery carriers.

  13. One-pot glovebox-free synthesis, characterization, and self-assembly of novel amphiphilic poly(sarcosine-b-caprolactone) diblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Cui, Saide; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Qiguo; Wu, Wenzhuo; Liu, Jingjing; Wu, Hao; Chen, Cheng; Guo, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Novel amphiphilic polypeptoid-polyester diblock copolymers based on poly(sarcosine) (PSar) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) are synthesized by a one-pot glovebox-free approach. In this method, sarcosine N-carboxy anhydride (Sar-NCA) is firstly polymerized in the presence of benzylamine under N(2) flow, then the resulting poly(sarcosine) is used in situ as the macro-initiator for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone using tin(II) octanoate as a catalyst. The degree of poly-merization of each block is controlled by various feed ratios of monomer/initiator. The diblock copolymers with controlled molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distributions (Đ(M) < 1.2) are characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and size-exclusion chromatography. The self-assembly behavior of PSar-b-PCL in water is investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy. DLS results reveal that the diblock copolymers associate into nanoparticles with average hydrodynamic diameters (D(H)) around 100 nm in water, which may be used as drug delivery carriers. PMID:25283643

  14. Supplementation of Antipsychotic Treatment with the Amino Acid Sarcosine Influences Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Parameters in Left Frontal White Matter in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Podgórski, Michał; Kałużyńska, Olga; Gawlik-Kotelnicka, Oliwia; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka; Grzelak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of the glutamatergic system, the main stimulating system in the brain, has a major role in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The frontal white matter (WM) is partially composed of axons from glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and glia with glutamatergic receptors. The natural amino acid sarcosine, a component of a normal diet, inhibits the glycine type 1 transporter, increasing the glycine level. Thus, it modulates glutamatergic transmission through the glutamatergic ionotropic NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor, which requires glycine as a co-agonist. To evaluate the concentrations of brain metabolites (NAA, N-acetylaspartate; Glx, complex of glutamate, glutamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); mI, myo-inositol; Cr, creatine; Cho, choline) in the left frontal WM, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy was used. Twenty-five patients randomly chosen from a group of fifty with stable schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR) and dominant negative symptoms, who were receiving antipsychotic therapy, were administered 2 g of sarcosine daily for six months. The remaining 25 patients received placebo. Assignment was double blinded. 1H-NMR spectroscopy (1.5 T) was performed twice: before and after the intervention. NAA, Glx and mI were evaluated as Cr and Cho ratios. All patients were also assessed twice with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results were compared between groups and in two time points in each group. The sarcosine group demonstrated a significant decrease in WM Glx/Cr and Glx/Cho ratios compared to controls after six months of therapy. In the experimental group, the final NAA/Cr ratio significantly increased and Glx/Cr ratio significantly decreased compared to baseline values. Improvement in the PANSS scores was significant only in the sarcosine group. In patients with schizophrenia, sarcosine augmentation can reverse the negative effect of glutamatergic system overstimulation, with a simultaneous beneficial increase of NAA

  15. Supplementation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine – GlyT1 inhibitor – causes changes of glutamatergic (1)NMR spectroscopy parameters in the left hippocampus in patients with stable schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Podgórski, Michał; Kałużyńska, Olga; Gawlik-Kotelnicka, Oliwia; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka; Grzelak, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Glutamatergic system, the main stimulating system of the brain, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Hippocampus, a structure crucial for memory and cognitive functions and rich in glutamatergic neurons, is a natural object of interest in studies on psychoses. Sarcosine, a glycine transporter (GlyT-1) inhibitor influences the function of NMDA receptor and glutamate-dependent transmission. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of sarcosine on metabolism parameters in the left hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia. Assessments were performed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy (1.5T). Fifty patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR), with dominant negative symptoms, in stable clinical condition and stable antipsychotics doses were treated either with sarcosine (n=25) or placebo (n=25). Spectroscopic parameters were evaluated within groups and between two groups before and after 6-month intervention. All patients were also assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). In the sarcosine group, after 6-month treatment, we found significant decrease in hippocampal Glx/Cr (Glx-complex of glutamate, glutamine and GABA, Cr-creatine) and Glx/Cho (Cho-choline), while N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol (mI), Cr and Cho parameters remained stable along the study and also did not differ significantly between both groups. This is the first study showing that a pharmacological intervention in schizophrenia, particularly augmentation of the antypsychotic treatment with sarcosine, may reverse the pathological increase in glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus. The results confirm involvement of glutamatergic system in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and demonstrate beneficial effects of GlyT-1 inhibitor on the metabolism in the hippocampus and symptoms of schizophrenia.

  16. Development of a Highly Specific IgM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Bartonella henselae Using Refined N-Lauroyl-Sarcosine-Insoluble Proteins for Serodiagnosis of Cat Scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Otsuyama, Ken-Ichiro; Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Kondou, Kaori; Yanagihara, Masashi; Tokuda, Nobuko; Shirasawa, Bungo; Ichihara, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    The conventional anti-Bartonella henselaeIgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM-ELISA) methods for diagnosing cat scratch disease (CSD) remain poor in both sensitivity and specificity. We sought to develop an IgM-ELISA with improved accuracy in the serodiagnosis of CSD by exploring the antigens that are most suitable for an ELISA. We prepared 5 different protein antigens: antigen I (sonicatedB. henselaewhole-cell antigen), antigen II (N-lauroyl-sarcosine-insoluble antigen), antigen III (processed sarcosine-soluble antigen), and antigen IV and antigen V (sarcosine-insoluble and sarcosine-soluble antigens refined by DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow ion-exchange chromatography). The IgM antibodies in the sera of 47 patients with clinically suspected CSD (24 definite, 23 suspected) and of 85 healthy individuals were examined by ELISAs using the 5 antigens, and the results were compared with those of an IgM indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IgM-IFA). In a reference panel, which consisted of 5 positive and 5 negative sera, antigen I and antigen III failed to distinguish between the two statuses, whereas the other three antigens succeeded in distinguishing between them. When the cutoff value was set at the 98th percentile of the ELISA index for healthy individuals, the sensitivity of IgM-IFA for the 24 cases of definite CSD was 54%, whereas the sensitivities of the IgM-ELISAs with antigen II, IV, and V were 75%, 83%, and 75%, respectively. The sensitivities of these three IgM-ELISAs for all 47 of the clinically suspected cases were 49%, 64%, and 51%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity of IgM-IFA was 28%. These results indicate that the refined sarcosine-insoluble proteins (antigen IV), which possessed the highest specificity among the 5 antigens, are the most appropriate for developing an IgM-ELISA for the highly specific serodiagnosis of CSD.

  17. Endogenous Abscisic Acid Promotes Hypocotyl Growth and Affects Endoreduplication during Dark-Induced Growth in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Humplík, Jan F.; Bergougnoux, Véronique; Jandová, Michaela; Šimura, Jan; Pěnčík, Aleš; Tomanec, Ondřej; Rolčík, Jakub; Novák, Ondřej; Fellner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Dark-induced growth (skotomorphogenesis) is primarily characterized by rapid elongation of the hypocotyl. We have studied the role of abscisic acid (ABA) during the development of young tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings. We observed that ABA deficiency caused a reduction in hypocotyl growth at the level of cell elongation and that the growth in ABA-deficient plants could be improved by treatment with exogenous ABA, through which the plants show a concentration dependent response. In addition, ABA accumulated in dark-grown tomato seedlings that grew rapidly, whereas seedlings grown under blue light exhibited low growth rates and accumulated less ABA. We demonstrated that ABA promotes DNA endoreduplication by enhancing the expression of the genes encoding inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases SlKRP1 and SlKRP3 and by reducing cytokinin levels. These data were supported by the expression analysis of the genes which encode enzymes involved in ABA and CK metabolism. Our results show that ABA is essential for the process of hypocotyl elongation and that appropriate control of the endogenous level of ABA is required in order to drive the growth of etiolated seedlings. PMID:25695830

  18. Creatine is a scavenger for methylglyoxal under physiological conditions via formation of N-(4-methyl-5-oxo-1-imidazolin-2-yl)sarcosine (MG-HCr).

    PubMed

    Löbner, Jürgen; Degen, Julia; Henle, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Following incubation of methylglyoxal and creatine under physiological conditions, N-(4-methyl-5-oxo-1-imidazolin-2-yl)sarcosine (MG-HCr) was isolated and identified by NMR and mass spectrometry. Due to its rapid formation, MG-HCr represents a specific product following "scavenging" of methylglyoxal by creatine. Using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, MG-HCr was analyzed in urine samples of healthy volunteers. Daily MG-HCr excretion of nonvegetarians ranged from 0.35 to 3.84 μmol/24 h urine (median: 0.90 μmol/24 h urine) and of vegetarians from 0.11 to 0.31 μmol/24 h urine (median: 0.19 μmol/24 h urine), indicating that formation of MG-HCr in vivo is influenced by the dietary intake of creatine. The trapping of methylglyoxal by creatine may delay the formation of advanced glycation compounds in vivo and, therefore, could be of special importance in situations in which the body has to deal with pathophysiologically increased amounts of dicarbonyl compounds ("carbonyl stress"), for instance in diabetic patients.

  19. The sprout inhibitor 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene induces the expression of the cell cycle inhibitors KRP1 and KRP2 in potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suppression of sprout growth is critical for the long-term storage of potato tubers. 1,4-dimethylenapthlene (DMN) is a new class of sprout control agent but the metabolic mode of action for this compound has yet to be elucidated. Changes in transcriptional profiles of potato tubers treated with ...

  20. PROMOTING RESILIENCE.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Eric; Barker, Gillian; Lindo, Zoë; Dieleman, Catherine; Dussault, Antoine C

    2015-06-01

    Broadening contingents of ecologists and environmental scientists have recently begun to promote ecological resilience both as a conceptual framework and as a practical goal. As some critics have noted, this growing interest has brought with it a multiplication of notions of ecological resilience. This paper reviews how and why the notion of ecological resilience has been adopted, used, and defended in ecology since its introduction by C. S. Holling in 1973. We highlight the many faces of ecological resilience, but unlike other reviewers who see these as disunified and confused, we interpret ecological resilience as an evolving, multidimensional, theoretical concept unified by its role in guiding practical response to ecological and environmental challenges. This perspective informs a review of some of the factors often recognized as favoring resilience (structural and response diversity, functional redundancy, modularity, and spatial heterogeneity); we show how the roles and relationships of these factors can be clarified by considering them in the theoretical framework of Complex Adaptive Systems (CASs).

  1. Developing a Promotional Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  2. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice. PMID:18372870

  3. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice.

  4. High expression Zymomonas promoters

    DOEpatents

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Tao, Luan; Zhang, Yuying; Caimi, Perry G.; McCole, Laura : Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Franden, Mary Ann

    2011-08-02

    Identified are mutants of the promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, which direct improved expression levels of operably linked heterologous nucleic acids. These are high expression promoters useful for expression of chimeric genes in Zymomonas, Zymobacter, and other related bacteria.

  5. Health Promotion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, Cheryl

    The Health Promotion Program began with establishment of a one-credit course in health promotion and wellness and the training of family practice residents at the Mountain Area Health Education Center to serve as lab leaders in the course. The course later became part of the university's general education requirements. In addition, a health…

  6. Minimizing Promotion Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, LuAnn W.; McGrath, Loraine

    1983-01-01

    Nursing administrators can minimize promotion trauma and its unnecessary cost by building awareness of the transition process, clarifying roles and expectations, and attending to the promoted employee's needs. This article will help nursing administrators develop a concept of manager care combined with programs for orientation of new managers,…

  7. 77 FR 47820 - Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints ACTION: Proposed... concerning invention promoters and responses from the invention promoters to these complaints. An individual may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter to the USPTO, which will forward the...

  8. Promoting People's Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with communication in rural areas to promote participation in development programs. Suggests that success of such programs depends on continued government policy in favor of citizen participation in agricultural and rural development. (SK)

  9. [Health promotion. Concept development].

    PubMed

    Sito, A; Berkowska, M

    2000-01-01

    The development of health promotion in theory and practice is presented-from the Ottawa Charter in 1986, to the community based health promotion programmes, as the vision for the 21 Century. The historical mile stones in the process of change and the conceptualisation of health promotion are discussed with reference to the World WHO Conferences and documents from these conferences. These events and documents have been vital as guidelines for member countries, both for implementation of community based programmes, as well as for healthy public policy and for training, especially concerning evaluation. The paper also discusses the main trends in research; definitions of principal concepts are highlighted, concerning planning, implementation and evaluation of health promotion programmes.

  10. Promoting Your Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  11. Promoting Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Winker, Margaret A.; Ferris, Lorraine E.

    2015-01-01

    The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA) is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME). The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.

  12. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes.

  13. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091

  14. [Growth promoting antimicrobials].

    PubMed

    Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J A

    1999-06-19

    The committee 'Growth promoting antimicrobials' of the Health Council of the Netherlands in 1998 advised immediate prohibition of all growth promoting antimicrobials related to human drugs and decrease of use of other growth promoting antimicrobials during the next three years in Europe. It is clear that frequent use of antibiotics is associated with development of resistance by selection in animals (and man), but it is not proven that this is an explanation of resistance in the human community. We know only little about the mechanisms and conditions of transfer of bacteria to man. Other questions raised are: what about the resulting possible increase of therapeutic application of antibiotics in animals, how to handle the increase of dung, nitrogen and phosphate in the environment and how farmers can survive with a decrease in income, sometimes by as much as 50%? Although many will feel sympathy for the report and its recommendations, implementing them will be difficult and possibly premature. PMID:10416481

  15. Preventing Injuries, Promoting Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Betsy

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneously promoting a safe learning environment that encourages students to express their creative voices while exploring the rudiments of dance technique can be difficult. This article discusses how the author has learned to do it effectively by employing a few simple classroom strategies. To prevent injuries during class, the author offers…

  16. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  17. Promoting Continuing Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Gayle A.

    This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and disadvantages of…

  18. Dynamics of Promotion Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rix, Elizabeth Ann

    This study attempted to identify the criteria educational administrators use when selecting individuals for promotion. Researchers compared "operative criteria" (those actually used) with "posted criteria" (those espoused). Interviews were conducted with 92 school administrators. Brown's Form PROM, derived from Kelly's role construct repertory…

  19. Promoting La Cultura Hispana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Launched in 1985 at Arizona State University, the Hispanic Research Center's (HRC) efforts to promote Latino and Chicano art and issues have flourished in recent years. In 2004, the HRC hosted the Arizona International Latina/o Arts Festival in collaboration with the Mesa Southwest Museum. The HRC has also founded a mentoring institute for…

  20. Health Promotion Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Curie, Carrie J.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Katz, Richard B.; Sherk, Joseph L.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four areas from the prevention science field, including: promoting healthy behavior; preventing substance abuse; preventing high-risk sexual behaviors; and preventing child abuse and sexual abuse. Recommendations are made regarding strategies for implementing empirically validated programs, supplementing school programs with ecological…

  1. The promotion of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Tuluhungwa, R R; Yung, W

    1979-01-01

    To reverse the current trend of a significant decline worldwide in breast feeding means reeducation of medical and health personnel as well as the general public. Programs to promote breast feeding require the commitment of governments, with support from various ministries including health, education, labor, community development and judiciary. Examples of what 3 developing countries--Jamaica, Colombia and Thailand--are doing to promote breast feeding are reported. A large scale breast feeding campaign was launched in Jamaica in October 1977. The 3 phases of the campaign were: 1) preliminary surveys and research and motivation of professional, voluntary and extension groups through training seminars, panel discussions, and meetings; 2) promotion of breast feeding via mass media and motivation of target groups by trained personnel; and 3) evaluation of the campaign. A survey undertaken in 1978 showed that the breast feeding messages had achieved the desired effect--more mothers practiced breast feeding. In Colombia the breast feeding campaign emphasized non-formal education through the use of games and pictures. A game is used which is usually initiated by a health worker in the waiting room of a health center and involves the mothers, the general public, and sometimes the professional personnel. Through reading and interpreting rhymed breast feeding messages, the participants exchange opinions and experiences. Before starting a campaign to encourage low-income urban and semi-urban mothers to breast feed, the National Food and Nutrition Committee of Thailand pretested slogans and posters designed for the promotion of breast feeding. Posters develpoed in accordance with the suggestions made by the women were tested among 126 pregnant and lactating women. The Committee decided which picture to print for low-income and rural audiences and which to print for middle-class audiences. PMID:12336781

  2. Bicycle Promotion Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, G. A.

    1981-03-09

    The objective of this Bicycle Promotion Plan is to outline a set of recommendations and supporting strategies for implementation by the US DOE toward increased use of the bicycle for energy conservation. The recommendations are designed in such a way as to function in concert with: (1) bicycle programs administered by other Federal government agencies; and (2) related programs and activities already sponsored by DOE. The approach to preparation of the Plan involved a review of all current and planned bicycle promotion programs at the Federal level as well as a review of the array of lierature on the subject. The UniWorld project staff also interacted with several DOE program offices, in order to determine the extent to which they might appropriately contribute to the implementation of bicycle promotional efforts. A synthesis of all the information gathered was published in January of 1981 as a part of the project (The Bicycle Program Review). Based upon this information and an examination of the barriers to bicycle use identified by bicycle transportation specialists in the field, UniWorld developed a series of the most potentially effective recommendations and program strategies for implementation by DOE. The recommendations address activities that could be undertaken in conjunction with existing DOE programs, new developments that might be considered to fulfill critical needs in the field, and interagency efforts that DOE could play a role in.

  3. Promoter propagation in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Matus-Garcia, Mariana; Nijveen, Harm; van Passel, Mark W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptional activation or ‘rewiring’ of silent genes is an important, yet poorly understood, phenomenon in prokaryotic genomes. Anecdotal evidence coming from experimental evolution studies in bacterial systems has shown the promptness of adaptation upon appropriate selective pressure. In many cases, a partial or complete promoter is mobilized to silent genes from elsewhere in the genome. We term hereafter such recruited regulatory sequences as Putative Mobile Promoters (PMPs) and we hypothesize they have a large impact on rapid adaptation of novel or cryptic functions. Querying all publicly available prokaryotic genomes (1362) uncovered >4000 families of highly conserved PMPs (50 to 100 long with ≥80% nt identity) in 1043 genomes from 424 different genera. The genomes with the largest number of PMP families are Anabaena variabilis (28 families), Geobacter uraniireducens (27 families) and Cyanothece PCC7424 (25 families). Family size varied from 2 to 93 homologous promoters (in Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus). Some PMPs are present in particular species, but some are conserved across distant genera. The identified PMPs represent a conservative dataset of very recent or conserved events of mobilization of non-coding DNA and thus they constitute evidence of an extensive reservoir of recyclable regulatory sequences for rapid transcriptional rewiring. PMID:22933716

  4. The dynamics of mobile promoters: Enhanced stability in promoter regions.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Mahnaz; Wahl, Lindi M

    2016-10-21

    Mobile promoters are emerging as a new class of mobile genetic elements, first identified by examining prokaryote genome sequences, and more recently confirmed by experimental observations in bacteria. Recent datasets have identified over 40,000 putative mobile promoters in sequenced prokaryote genomes, however only one-third of these are in regions of the genome directly upstream from coding sequences, that is, in promoter regions. The presence of many promoter sequences in non-promoter regions is unexplained. Here we develop a general mathematical model for the dynamics of mobile promoters, extending previous work to capture the dynamics both within and outside promoter regions. From this general model, we apply rigorous model selection techniques to identify which parameters are statistically justified in describing the available mobile promoter data, and find best-fit values of these parameters. Our results suggest that high rates of horizontal gene transfer maintain the population of mobile promoters in promoter regions, and that once established at these sites, mobile promoters are rarely lost, but are commonly copied to other genomic regions. In contrast, mobile promoter copies in non-promoter regions are more numerous and more volatile, experiencing substantially higher rates of duplication, loss and diversification. PMID:27460588

  5. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  6. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-01

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer.

  7. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-01

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer. PMID:26959472

  8. [Evaluation of health promotion programmes].

    PubMed

    Berkowska, M; Sito, A

    2000-01-01

    The paper contains a review of definitions of evaluation and discusses the need to evaluate health promotion programmes. The classification of types of evaluation is presented. It is aimed to create a common language of communication between evaluation and the common understanding of terms. The relation between evaluation of health promotion programmes and quality assurance, best practice and evidence based health promotion are discussed.

  9. Health promotion and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Golas, Kathleen

    2013-09-01

    Opiate dependency is a medical disorder that requires treatment intervention. Primary health care not only entails treatment of illness but also involves disease prevention and health promotion. Based on Pender's revised Health Promotion Model, a descriptive study comparing the health promoting behaviors/practices in abusing and recovering opiate-dependent drug users is analyzed. Using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, a comparative descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental design study was conducted to identify key health-promoting behaviors in recovering opiate-dependent drug users. Prevention strategy recommendations are discussed, along with future research recommendations.

  10. Promoting adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kristina Berg

    2007-10-01

    The aim is to discuss why paediatricians should be involved in adolescent health care and provide youth-friendly-health-services. Global epidemiological data on morbidity and mortality demonstrate that much of ill health in the short and long run are connected to adolescent behaviour and in theory available for prevention. Young people seemingly lose their heads and do not consider dangers. Recent research on brain development provides us with an understanding how this may have a biological base. Also psychology has long taught us how adolescents use experimental behaviours as means to satisfy developmental needs and explore identity. Prevention and health promotion are areas of research where much more needs to be done. There is also a lack of venues for publishing even excellent studies in this field.

  11. Tryptophan promotes charitable donating

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2014-01-01

    The link between serotonin (5-HT) and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP), the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others. PMID:25566132

  12. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... promotion, and publicity to advance the image and sales of, and demand for, dairy products generally. ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and...

  13. Network modularity promotes cooperation.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-05-01

    Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported.

  14. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating. PMID:19519674

  15. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  16. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  17. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  18. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  19. Health-promoting schools: an opportunity for oral health promotion.

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Stella Y. L.; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M.; Borutta, Annerose

    2005-01-01

    Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated framework and appropriate methodologies for the evaluation of school oral health projects is emphasized. PMID:16211159

  20. Good Teaching Promotes Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, John E.; Thompson, Carolyn

    1980-01-01

    Enumerates teaching strategies designed to promote high student retention in developmental courses, which: (1) help develop effective working relationships between student and teacher; (2) assure effective classroom management; (3) promote student involvement in the learning process; and (4) help the instructor recognize his/her own professional…

  1. Promoting Creativity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses creativity in young children and what teachers can do to support and promote it. Topics addressed in the paper include: (1) teacher interest in promoting creativity; (2) defining creativity; (3) creativity in the socioemotional domain; (4) the relationship between creativity and empathy for others; (4) bibliotherapy; (5)…

  2. Promoting Reading in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Vincent, Ed.

    With the intention of illuminating the many obstacles involved with literacy promotion in the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America, the authors of the 10 articles in this collection share their knowledge and experience of literacy promotion in the developing world--including the unique challenges faced by those who publish, print,…

  3. Insurance Incentives for Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosokawa, Michael C.

    1984-01-01

    To reduce the cost of reimbursements, many insurance companies have begun to use insurance incentives as a way to motivate individuals to participate in health promotion activities. Traditional health education, research and demonstration, and policy-premium incentives are methods of health promotion used by life and health insurance companies.…

  4. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    DOEpatents

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  5. Nutritional Recommendation Should Promote Sustainability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)

  6. 7 CFR 1260.122 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1260.122 Section 1260.122 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.122 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including...

  7. Promoter-associated RNAs and promoter-targeted RNAs.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bing-Xue; Ma, Jin-Xia

    2012-09-01

    The world of RNAs is much more complex than previously thought, and has rapidly emerged as one of the most actively researched topics in the life sciences. Recently, two findings in this field were reported and given special attention: promoter-associated RNAs (paRNAs), a novel class of RNAs with numerous potential functions; and promoter-targeted RNA-induced transcriptional gene regulation, a new regulatory mechanism to control transcription. In this review, we summarize the studies in these two areas, and outline the current understanding with respect to the potential biological functions of paRNAs, and the molecular mechanisms of promoter-targeted RNA-induced transcriptional gene silencing and activation. Additionally, we seek to integrate these two areas, as paRNAs may have potential biological links with promoter-targeted RNA-induced transcriptional gene regulation. Finally, we will discuss the significance of identifying paRNAs and the possible use of promoter-targeted RNAs in gene regulation and therapy.

  8. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research... promotion, and publicity to advance the image and sales of, and demand for, dairy products generally....

  9. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research... promotion, and publicity to advance the image and sales of, and demand for, dairy products generally....

  10. Creating and Promoting a Natural History Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belben, Cathy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the value of developing and promoting a natural history library by school library media specialists. Topics include benefits to students; promoting outdoor education; recommended reading for high school students; using technology; and other aids to promote outdoor education. (LRW)

  11. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research... promotion, and publicity to advance the image and sales of, and demand for, dairy products generally....

  12. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.16... popcorn....

  13. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.16... popcorn....

  14. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.16... popcorn....

  15. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.16... popcorn....

  16. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.16... popcorn....

  17. DNA signals at isoform promoters

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhiming; Xiong, Yuanyan; Dai, Xianhua

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional heterogeneity is extensive in the genome, and most genes express variable transcript isoforms. However, whether variable transcript isoforms of one gene are regulated by common promoter elements remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated whether isoform promoters of one gene have separated DNA signals for transcription and translation initiation. We found that TATA box and nucleosome-disfavored DNA sequences are prevalent in distinct transcript isoform promoters of one gene. These DNA signals are conserved among species. Transcript isoform has a RNA-determined unstructured region around its start site. We found that these DNA/RNA features facilitate isoform transcription and translation. These results suggest a DNA-encoded mechanism by which transcript isoform is generated. PMID:27353836

  18. AAHD's Health Promotion and Wellness, Part 2: Health Promotion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article is part 2 of a 4-part series on "Health Promotion and Wellness" from the American Association on Health and Disability (AAHD). According to the U.S. Census Bureau, more than 54 million people--one in five Americans--have a disability, and these Americans are more likely to report: (1) Being in poorer overall health; (2) Having less…

  19. Promoting certification: the chapter's role.

    PubMed

    Staul, Luann

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses focuses on providing nurses with expert knowledge to promote delivery of excellent, safe, quality care to acutely and critically ill patients and their families. Chapters consist of professional leaders in a community who carry on the mission work of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses at the local level. Chapters can emphasize the value of certification and continuing education, because they offer a wide spectrum of opportunities to meet the learning and developmental needs of nurses as they advance in their professional careers. This article will highlight strategies that can be implemented by local chapters to facilitate and promote certification.

  20. When Promoting Democracy Is Counterproductive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esfandiari, Haleh; Litwak, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    The United States has begun a $75-million program to promote democracy by supporting Iranian nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). That program, coupled with loose talk about regime change from members of Congress, commentators close to the administration, and individuals within the administration, has fed a sense of vulnerability and paranoia…

  1. Mutual Benefits in Promoting Bequests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Charles W., III

    1979-01-01

    Encouragement of wills and bequests is the backbone of a good planned giving program. Methods of promotion, types of will gifts, tax aspects, identification of potential donors, a simple bequest program, program evaluation, and the need for continuity and patience are discussed. (MLW)

  2. Professional Preparation in Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Charles E.; Fisher, Shirley P.

    1992-01-01

    Colleges and universities must develop curricula to prepare health promotion specialists to work with persons of all ages. Program core should include self-care, consumer awareness, nutrition, weight control, stress management, and substance abuse. Health and physical educators should learn to facilitate change of negative health behaviors into…

  3. Promoting Metacognition in Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Carol W.

    2013-01-01

    Metacognition is a type of thinking in which learners think about their own cognitive processes. Because it transcends disciplines and grade levels, metacognition is useful in many educational settings and can be transferred from the music classroom to other subject areas. Music educators can promote metacognition by designing and implementing…

  4. Health Promotion: A Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert, Ed.; Kickbusch, Ilona, Ed.

    Health promotion redirects thinking about health by: reasserting its social and political aspects; ensuring the people the power to define their own health concerns; and placing health more clearly in the context of other aims in life. This compilation of 41 articles in 8 sections attempts to document this process of redirection of thought. The…

  5. Teachers Promoting Student Mathematical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Mary; Yankelewitz, Dina; Maher, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    During an informal, after-school, math program, a group of middle school students worked collaboratively on open-ended problems. The students co-constructed arguments, provided justifications for their solutions, and engaged in mathematical reasoning. This paper describes the specific teacher moves that promoted this phenomenon. The findings of…

  6. University Festival Promotes STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quagliata, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    STEM education is argued as an essential ingredient in preparing our children for careers of the future. This study describes a university festival that includes the promotion of STEM-related career interests in young people among its goals. A total of 203 participants between the age of 7 and 17 completed both pre-event and post-event surveys. In…

  7. Promoting Intellectual Growth in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M; McLoughlin, Caven S.

    2002-01-01

    Article discusses problems associated with promoting intellectual growth in adulthood. Defines characteristics of intelligent behavior as incorporating individual attainment of Resources, Intimacy, Competence, and Health (RICH). Presents the RICH theory as a way to define and address the goals of intelligent enhancement. (JDM)

  8. Using Data to Promote Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shum, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Data plays a starring role in promoting educational equity, and data-driven decision making begins with good state policies. With the recent passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) and a proposed federal rule to address racial disproportionality in special education, states will shoulder increased responsibility for eliminating…

  9. Promoting SETI in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Alan

    2013-10-01

    MEETING REPORT What does the UK presently do in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence and what are the plans for the future? Alan Penny reports on a meeting of UK academics active in SETI, held as sessions in the recent National Astronomy Meeting in Scotland - and the formation of the UK SETI Research Network to promote UK academic work.

  10. Advertising and Sales Promotion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 4-unit, 1-year marketing education course in advertising and sales promotion offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. The preface contains a rationale for the development of the course, a course description, course objectives, a list of the instructional units of the course, and a list of the…

  11. Promoting Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djietror, Beauty B. K.; Okai, Edward; Kwapong, Olivia A. T. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive education is critical for nation building. The government of Ghana has put in measures for promoting inclusion from basic through to tertiary level of education. Some of these measures include expansion of school facilities, implementation of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE); the change of policy on girls who drop…

  12. Promoting physical activity in schools.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, N

    1993-10-01

    Neil Armstrong, director of the Coronary Prevention in Children Project, argues for a comprehensive programme for promoting children's physical activity. The project's survey of adult coronary risk factors in British children revealed a worryingly low level of physical activity among British schoolchildren. Schools are ideally placed to encourage children to take physical exercise, he writes, but parental role models also play an important part.

  13. Developing and promoting managerial talent.

    PubMed

    Adams-Ender, C L

    1990-03-01

    1. Developing and promoting managerial talent through the use of power and influence, mentoring, and empowerment is essential for seizing opportunities to successfully meet nursing challenges. 2. Power is the ability to affect outcomes, whereas influence is the process of modifying behavior. 3. Mentoring has several advantages: reduction of employee turnover; cultivation of talented employees; and maintenance of organizational goals and traditions.

  14. Health promotion for older Americans.

    PubMed

    Heckler, M M

    1985-01-01

    As American lifespans increase, there is greater concern for the quality of those longer lives. The Department of Health and Human Services, through its many component agencies, has inaugurated a major initiative to promote health and fitness among older Americans to improve life quality and to reduce health care costs. The older population is a fertile ground for such an initiative, because studies indicate that the elderly are extremely health-conscious and very willing to adopt habits that will maintain good health. Investigation disclosed six target areas of concentration at which the health promotion initiative could be aimed: fitness-exercise, nutrition, safe and proper use of drugs and alcohol, accident prevention, other preventive services, and smoking cessation. The initiative includes cooperative programs with States; dissemination of printed information; nutritious meals for the elderly; a Food and Drug Administration consumer education program; Centers for Disease Control programs on accident prevention; a special task force to deal with Alzheimer's disease; and, in cooperation with states, a media campaign of health promotion for the elderly. At least three national health and senior citizens organizations are working closely with HHS agencies on the initiative. A separate Department effort involves the encouragement of fast-growing health maintenance organizations to promote health and prevention for their Medicare members and the persuasion of Medicare beneficiaries generally to seek second medical or surgical opinions. State and local government and the private sector, responding to Department initiatives, have also been developing programs for the aging. Their interest and participation ensures that special health promotion and disease prevention efforts directed toward elderly Americans will continue and proliferate.

  15. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the...

  16. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the...

  17. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  18. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  19. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  20. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  1. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  2. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  3. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  4. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  5. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  6. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  7. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  8. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  9. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  10. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  11. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  12. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  13. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the...

  14. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the...

  15. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the...

  16. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  17. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  18. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  19. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  20. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  1. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  2. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  3. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  4. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  5. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  6. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly. PMID:25802916

  7. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  8. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region.

  9. Promoting physical activity in schools.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, N

    1993-10-01

    Neil Armstrong, director of the Coronary Prevention in Children Project, argues for a comprehensive programme for promoting children's physical activity. The project's survey of adult coronary risk factors in British children revealed a worryingly low level of physical activity among British schoolchildren. Schools are ideally placed to encourage children to take physical exercise, he writes, but parental role models also play an important part. PMID:8244725

  10. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region. PMID:18372876

  11. Incentives to promote family planning

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293

  12. Promoting residencies to pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Knapp, K K

    1991-08-01

    A program for promoting pharmacy residency training to pharmacy students at the University of the Pacific (UOP) is described. A residency club was started in 1982 to increase UOP students' interest in residency training and to provide them with relevant information. Some students needed to be convinced that residencies were primarily educational rather than staffing experiences. Students were made aware of pharmacists' practice in specialty areas, for which residency training is needed, and were taught how to prepare themselves for selection for residencies. The club was formed to encourage mutual support among the students, which would be less likely to occur if residencies were promoted only through work with individual students. Club meetings provide information about available residencies, the application process, and the value of residency training to a career in pharmacy. Students are taught how to prepare curricula vitae, how to interview, and how to select programs to which to apply. Applications for residencies increased. Although the rate of acceptance was low at first, it was expected to increase as more UOP students demonstrated their interest in and qualification for residency training. The promotion of residencies as part of a balanced career planning and placement program for pharmacy students is encouraged.

  13. Promotion to professor: a career development resource.

    PubMed

    Sanfey, Hilary

    2010-10-01

    By the time a faculty member is being considered for promotion to full professor, he/she will be about 10 years out of residency training and will almost certainly have prior experience with the academic promotion process. The preparation for promotion to full professor should begin soon after the promotion to associate professor. This is a time to reassess opportunities, resources, skills, and career goals. The timing of the promotion to full professor is usually less rigid than the timeframe for promotion at lower ranks, but schools vary in this regard.

  14. Gibberellins promote flowering of arabidopsis by activating the LEAFY promoter

    PubMed Central

    Blazquez, MA; Green, R; Nilsson, O; Sussman, MR; Weigel, D

    1998-01-01

    The gibberellin class of plant hormones has been implicated in the control of flowering in several species. In Arabidopsis, severe reduction of endogenous gibberellins delays flowering in long days and prevents flowering in short days. We have investigated how the differential effects of gibberellins on flowering correlate with expression of LEAFY, a floral meristem identity gene. We have found that the failure of gibberellin-deficient ga1-3 mutants to flower in short days was paralleled by the absence of LEAFY promoter induction. A causal connection between these two events was confirmed by the ability of a constitutively expressed LEAFY transgene to restore flowering to ga1-3 mutants in short days. In contrast to short days, impairment of gibberellin biosynthesis caused merely a reduction of LEAFY expression when plants were grown in long days or with sucrose in the dark. As a first step toward identifying other small molecules that might regulate flowering, we have developed a rapid in vitro assay for LEAFY promoter activity. PMID:9596637

  15. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    PubMed

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  16. Breastfeeding promotion: the right start.

    PubMed

    Huffman, S

    1989-09-01

    A survey in Guatemala revealed that 50% of physicians did not know that breast milk provides protection against diarrhea or that it is also an important food after the 1st 6 months of life. Some countries (Indonesia, Thailand, Panama, and the US) have successfully trained health workers in the advantages of breast feeding, but not all training programs have incorporated techniques to help mothers to breast feed, e.g., how to prevent engorgement. Health workers need to show mothers the positioning of the infant which aids breast feeding. Further, some infants do not want to suck or suck ineffectively. Moreover many hospitals need to change their method of managing childbirth. Hospital workers should encourage immediate physical contact between mothers and babies after birth which facilitates breast feeding and babies are more likely to receive the protective colostrum. Similarly they should promote rooming in of newborns with their mothers. In addition, health workers should minimize analgesic use. They should also promote exclusive breast feeding and not give any glucose water or other supplements to newborns which, in addition to other reasons, sends the message that supplemental feedings are fine when indeed they contribute to diarrhea. Moreover, in oral rehydration therapy (ORT) units, oral rehydration solution (ORS) should be spoonfed to diarrhea patients and not given in bottles so mothers will not conclude that the medical community approves of bottle use. Health workers should encourage mothers to spoon feed ORS at home as well. Further, ORT units and inpatient intravenous units should encourage mothers to stay with their infants. Pediatricians should lead the way in promoting breast feeding.

  17. Nonpharmacologic techniques for promoting sleep.

    PubMed

    Cole, Roger J

    2005-04-01

    Athletes could benefit from simple, self-administered, nonpharmacologic techniques for promoting sleep onset. A wealth of physiologic evidence and limited clinical data support several potential methods that might be conveniently applied at or near bedtime. These include inverted posture, skin warming/core cooling, motor relaxation, sensory withdrawal/masking, breathing techniques, and cognitive relaxation. Each holds promise as a possible element of a comprehensive sleep management program, but all need further investigation to confirm their efficacy or to determine optimal methods of application. PMID:15892928

  18. Promoting Racial Equality in the Nursing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foolchand, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Equality in nursing education and the profession can be promoted in the following ways: a working policy on racism and equal opportunities; curriculum content that explores stereotypes, values, attitudes, and prejudices; and multicultural health research, education, and promotion. (SK)

  19. 7 CFR 1208.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions... raspberries to the general public and the food industry for the purpose of improving the competitive...

  20. 7 CFR 1208.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions... raspberries to the general public and the food industry for the purpose of improving the competitive...

  1. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising....

  2. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising....

  3. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising....

  4. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising....

  5. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising....

  6. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... action, including paid advertising and public relations that presents a favorable image for honey...

  7. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... action, including paid advertising and public relations that presents a favorable image for honey...

  8. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... action, including paid advertising and public relations that presents a favorable image for honey...

  9. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.22... service merchandising, taken to present a favorable image for porcine animals, pork, or pork products...

  10. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.22... service merchandising, taken to present a favorable image for porcine animals, pork, or pork products...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term..., and any activity designed to communicate to consumers, importers, processors, wholesalers, retailers, government officials, or other information relating to the positive attributes of soybeans or...

  12. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... action, including paid advertising and public relations that presents a favorable image for honey...

  13. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.22... service merchandising, taken to present a favorable image for porcine animals, pork, or pork products...

  14. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.22... service merchandising, taken to present a favorable image for porcine animals, pork, or pork products...

  15. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.22... service merchandising, taken to present a favorable image for porcine animals, pork, or pork products...

  16. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and the... States and abroad and stimulating the sale of blueberries. This includes paid advertising and...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the United States. This includes paid advertising and public relations. ... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  18. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  19. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  20. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  1. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term..., to enhance the image or desirability of soybeans or soybean products in domestic and foreign...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term..., to enhance the image or desirability of soybeans or soybean products in domestic and foreign...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term..., to enhance the image or desirability of soybeans or soybean products in domestic and foreign...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term..., to enhance the image or desirability of soybeans or soybean products in domestic and foreign...

  6. 21 CFR 314.550 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional materials. 314.550 Section 314.550... Serious or Life-Threatening Illnesses § 314.550 Promotional materials. For drug products being considered... the agency for consideration during the preapproval review period copies of all promotional...

  7. 21 CFR 314.640 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional materials. 314.640 Section 314.640... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.640 Promotional materials. For drug products being... materials, including promotional labeling as well as advertisements, intended for dissemination...

  8. 29 CFR 541.503 - Promotion work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often performed by persons who make sales, which may or may not be exempt outside sales work, depending upon...

  9. 29 CFR 541.503 - Promotion work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often performed by persons who make sales, which may or may not be exempt outside sales work, depending upon...

  10. 29 CFR 541.503 - Promotion work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often performed by persons who make sales, which may or may not be exempt outside sales work, depending upon...

  11. 29 CFR 541.503 - Promotion work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often performed by persons who make sales, which may or may not be exempt outside sales work, depending upon...

  12. 29 CFR 541.503 - Promotion work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often performed by persons who make sales, which may or may not be exempt outside sales work, depending upon...

  13. 17 CFR 33.8 - Promotional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Promotional material. 33.8... DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.8 Promotional material. Each futures commission... promotional material it provides, directly or indirectly, to option customers as well as the true source...

  14. 17 CFR 33.8 - Promotional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Promotional material. 33.8... DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.8 Promotional material. Each futures commission... promotional material it provides, directly or indirectly, to option customers as well as the true source...

  15. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.20 Promotion. “Promotion” means...

  16. Tea polyphenols for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2007-07-26

    People have been consuming brewed tea from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant for almost 50 centuries. Although health benefits have been attributed to tea, especially green tea consumption since the beginning of its history, scientific investigations of this beverage and its constituents have been underway for less than three decades. Currently, tea, in the form of green or black tea, next to water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. In vitro and animal studies provide strong evidence that polyphenols derived from tea may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Among all tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin-3-gallate has been shown to be responsible for much of the health promoting ability of green tea. Tea and tea preparations have been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis in a variety of animal models of carcinogenesis. However, with increasing interest in the health promoting properties of tea and a significant rise in scientific investigation, this review covers recent findings on the medicinal properties and health benefits of tea with special reference to cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:17655876

  17. Neuritin 1 promotes neuronal migration.

    PubMed

    Zito, Arianna; Cartelli, Daniele; Cappelletti, Graziella; Cariboni, Anna; Andrews, William; Parnavelas, John; Poletti, Angelo; Galbiati, Mariarita

    2014-01-01

    Neuritin 1 (Nrn1 or cpg15-1) is an activity-dependent protein involved in synaptic plasticity during brain development, a process that relies upon neuronal migration. By analyzing Nrn1 expression, we found that it is highly expressed in a mouse model of migrating immortalized neurons (GN11 cells), but not in a mouse model of non-migrating neurons (GT1-7 cells). We thus hypothesized that Nrn1 might control neuronal migration. By using complementary assays, as Boyden's microchemotaxis, scratch-wounding and live cell imaging, we found that GN11 cell migration is enhanced when Nrn1 is overexpressed and decreased when Nrn1 is silenced. The effects of Nrn1 in promoting neuronal migration have been then confirmed ex vivo, on rat cortical interneurons, by Boyden chamber assays and focal electroporation of acute embryonic brain slices. Furthermore, we found that Nrn1 level modulation affects GN11 cell morphology. The process is also paralleled by Nrn1-induced α-tubulin post-translational modifications, a well-recognized marker of microtubule stability. Altogether, the data demonstrate a novel function of Nrn1 in promoting migration of neuronal cells and indicate that Nrn1 levels impact on microtubule stability. PMID:23212301

  18. Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ather; Katz, David L.

    2015-01-01

    As a discipline, preventive medicine has traditionally been described to encompass primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The fields of preventive medicine and public health share the objectives of promoting general health, preventing disease, and applying epidemiologic techniques to these goals. This paper discusses a conceptual approach between the overlap and potential synergies of integrative medicine principles and practices with preventive medicine in the context of these levels of prevention, acknowledging the relative deficiency of research on the effectiveness of practice-based integrative care. One goal of integrative medicine is to make the widest array of appropriate options available to patients, ultimately blurring the boundaries between conventional and complementary medicine. Both disciplines should be subject to rigorous scientific inquiry so that interventions that are efficacious and effective are systematically distinguished from those that are not. Furthermore, principles of preventive medicine can be infused into prevalent practices in complementary and integrative medicine, promoting public health in the context of more-responsible practices. The case is made that an integrative preventive approach involves the responsible use of science with responsiveness to the needs of patients that persist when conclusive data are exhausted, providing a framework to make clinical decisions among integrative therapies. PMID:26477898

  19. Do online gossipers promote brands?

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Shintaro; Rubio, Natalia; Campo, Sara

    2013-02-01

    Online gossip has been recognized as small talk on social networking sites (SNSs) that influences consumer behavior, but little attention has been paid to its role. This study makes three theoretical predictions: (a) propensity to gossip online leads to greater information value, entertainment value, and friendship value; (b) upon exposure to a high-involvement product, online gossipers are more willing to spread such information through electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in search of prestige or fame as a knowledge expert; and (c) this tendency will be more pronounced when they are connected with strong ties (rather than weak ties) and belong to a large network (rather than a small network). An experimental survey was conducted with a scenario method. In total, 818 general consumers participated in the survey. A multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) provides empirical support for prediction (1). With regard to predictions (2) and (3), a series of three-way and two-way between-subjective ANOVAs were performed. When a high-involvement product is promoted, gossipers, rather than nongossipers, are more willing to participate in eWOM on an SNS. Furthermore, a significant interaction effect indicates that online gossipers' willingness to particiapte in eWOM would be more pronounced if they belonged to a large network rather than a small network. However, when a low-involvement product is promoted, no interaction effect is found between online gossip and network size. In closing, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, while important limitations are recognized.

  20. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads. PMID:12345946

  1. Prooxidant states and tumor promotion

    SciTech Connect

    Cerutti, P.A.

    1985-01-25

    There is convincing evidence that cellular prooxidant states--that is, increased concentrations of active oxygen and organic peroxides and radicals--can promote initiated cells to neoplastic growth. Prooxidant states can be caused by different classes of agents, including hyperbaric oxygen, radiation, xenobiotic metabolites and Fenton-type reagents, modulators of the cytochrome P-450 electron-transport chain, peroxisome proliferators, inhibitors of the antioxidant defense, and membrane-active agents. Many of these agents are promoters or complete carcinogens. They cause chromosomal damage by indirect action, but the role of this damage in carcinogenesis remains unclear. Prooxidant states can be prevented or suppressed by the enzymes of the cellular antioxidant defense and low molecular weight scavenger molecules, and many antioxidants are antipromoters and anticarcinogens. Finally, prooxidant states may modulate the expression of a family of prooxidant genes, which are related to cell growth and differentiation, by inducing alterations in DNA structure or by epigenetic mechanisms, for example, by polyadenosine diphosphate-ribosylation of chromosomal proteins.

  2. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads.

  3. Synthetic promoter design for new microbial chassis

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, James; Love, John

    2016-01-01

    The judicious choice of promoter to drive gene expression remains one of the most important considerations for synthetic biology applications. Constitutive promoter sequences isolated from nature are often used in laboratory settings or small-scale commercial production streams, but unconventional microbial chassis for new synthetic biology applications require well-characterized, robust and orthogonal promoters. This review provides an overview of the opportunities and challenges for synthetic promoter discovery and design, including molecular methodologies, such as saturation mutagenesis of flanking regions and mutagenesis by error-prone PCR, as well as the less familiar use of computational and statistical analyses for de novo promoter design. PMID:27284035

  4. Promoting Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.

  5. NEDDylation promotes stress granule assembly

    PubMed Central

    Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly. PMID:27381497

  6. Health Promotion in Small Business

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Kira; Stinson, Kaylan; Scott, Kenneth; Tenney, Liliana; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the evidence regarding the adoption and efficacy of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs) in small businesses. Methods Peer-reviewed research articles were identified from a database search. Included articles were published before July 2013, described a study that used an experimental or quasiexperimental design and either assessed adoption of WHPPs or conducted interventions in businesses with fewer than 500 employees. A review team scored the study’s rigor using the WHO-adapted GRADEprofiler “quality of evidence” criteria. Results Of the 84 retrieved articles, 19 met study inclusion criteria. Of these, only two met criteria for high rigor. Conclusions Fewer small businesses adopt WHPPs compared with large businesses. Two high-rigor studies found that employees were healthier postintervention. Higher quality research is needed to better understand why small businesses rarely adopt wellness programs and to demonstrate the value of such programs. PMID:24905421

  7. Do online gossipers promote brands?

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Shintaro; Rubio, Natalia; Campo, Sara

    2013-02-01

    Online gossip has been recognized as small talk on social networking sites (SNSs) that influences consumer behavior, but little attention has been paid to its role. This study makes three theoretical predictions: (a) propensity to gossip online leads to greater information value, entertainment value, and friendship value; (b) upon exposure to a high-involvement product, online gossipers are more willing to spread such information through electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in search of prestige or fame as a knowledge expert; and (c) this tendency will be more pronounced when they are connected with strong ties (rather than weak ties) and belong to a large network (rather than a small network). An experimental survey was conducted with a scenario method. In total, 818 general consumers participated in the survey. A multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) provides empirical support for prediction (1). With regard to predictions (2) and (3), a series of three-way and two-way between-subjective ANOVAs were performed. When a high-involvement product is promoted, gossipers, rather than nongossipers, are more willing to participate in eWOM on an SNS. Furthermore, a significant interaction effect indicates that online gossipers' willingness to particiapte in eWOM would be more pronounced if they belonged to a large network rather than a small network. However, when a low-involvement product is promoted, no interaction effect is found between online gossip and network size. In closing, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, while important limitations are recognized. PMID:23276259

  8. Preconception care: promoting reproductive planning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Preconception care recognizes that many adolescent girls and young women will be thrust into motherhood without the knowledge, skills or support they need. Sixty million adolescents give birth each year worldwide, even though pregnancy in adolescence has mortality rates at least twice as high as pregnancy in women aged 20-29 years. Reproductive planning and contraceptive use can prevent unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually-transmitted infections in adolescent girls and women. Smaller families also mean better nutrition and development opportunities, yet 222 million couples continue to lack access to modern contraception. Method A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Comprehensive interventions can prevent first pregnancy in adolescence by 15% and repeat adolescent pregnancy by 37%. Such interventions should address underlying social and community factors, include sexual and reproductive health services, contraceptive provision; personal development programs and emphasizes completion of education. Appropriate birth spacing (18-24 months from birth to next pregnancy compared to short intervals <6 months) can significantly lower maternal mortality, preterm births, stillbirths, low birth weight and early neonatal deaths. Conclusion Improving adolescent health and preventing adolescent pregnancy; and promotion of birth spacing through increasing correct and consistent use of effective contraception are fundamental to preconception care. Promoting reproductive planning on a wider scale is closely interlinked with the

  9. Health promotion and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  10. Do Online Gossipers Promote Brands?

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Natalia; Campo, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Online gossip has been recognized as small talk on social networking sites (SNSs) that influences consumer behavior, but little attention has been paid to its role. This study makes three theoretical predictions: (a) propensity to gossip online leads to greater information value, entertainment value, and friendship value; (b) upon exposure to a high-involvement product, online gossipers are more willing to spread such information through electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in search of prestige or fame as a knowledge expert; and (c) this tendency will be more pronounced when they are connected with strong ties (rather than weak ties) and belong to a large network (rather than a small network). An experimental survey was conducted with a scenario method. In total, 818 general consumers participated in the survey. A multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) provides empirical support for prediction (1). With regard to predictions (2) and (3), a series of three-way and two-way between-subjective ANOVAs were performed. When a high-involvement product is promoted, gossipers, rather than nongossipers, are more willing to participate in eWOM on an SNS. Furthermore, a significant interaction effect indicates that online gossipers' willingness to particiapte in eWOM would be more pronounced if they belonged to a large network rather than a small network. However, when a low-involvement product is promoted, no interaction effect is found between online gossip and network size. In closing, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, while important limitations are recognized. PMID:23276259

  11. Promoter-associated noncoding RNA from the CCND1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Xiangting; Arai, Shigeki; Kurokawa, Riki

    2012-01-01

    More than 90% of the human genome have been found to be transcribed and most of the transcripts are noncoding (nc) RNAs (Willingham et al., Science 309:1570-1573, 2005; ENCODE-consortium, Science 306:636-640, 2004; Carninci et al., Science 309:1559-1563, 2005; Bertone et al., Science 306:2242-2246, 2004). Studies on ncRNAs have been radically progressed mainly regarding microRNAs, piRNAs, siRNAs, and related small ncRNAs of which length are relatively short nucleotides (Fire et al., Nature 391:806-811, 1998; Filipowicz et al., Nat Rev Genet 9:102-114, 2008; Lau et al., Science 313:363-367, 2006; Brennecke et al., Science 322:1387-1392, 2008; Siomi and Siomi, Nature 457:396-404, 2009). These small RNAs play roles in regulation of translation and gene silencing while long ncRNAs with length more than 200 nucleotides have been emerging and turn out to be involved in regulation of transcription (Kapranov et al., Science 316:1484-1488, 2007; Ponting et al., Cell 136:629-641, 2009; Kurokawa et al., RNA Biol 6:233-236, 2009). Recently, we have identified novel, long ncRNAs bearing capability of repression of transcription (Wang et al., Nature 454:126-130, 2008).RNA-binding protein, translocated in liposarcoma (TLS), binds CREB-binding protein CBP/adenovirus p300 and inhibits their histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activities (Wang et al., Nature 454:126-130, 2008). The HAT inhibitory activity of TLS requires specific binding of RNA. The systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment experiments with randomized sequences revealed that TLS specifically recognizes RNA oligonucleotides containing GGUG as a consensus sequence although the GGUG sequence is not an absolute requirement for the TLS binding (Lerga et al., J Biol Chem 276:6807-6816, 2001). TLS is specifically recruited to the CBP/p300-associated binding sites of the cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) and the cyclin E1 gene (CCNE1) promoters (Wang et al., Nature 454:126-130, 2008; Impey et al., Cell 119:1041-1054, 2004

  12. Insights into the control of geminiviral promoters.

    PubMed

    Borah, B K; Zarreen, F; Baruah, G; Dasgupta, I

    2016-08-01

    Geminiviruses constitute one of the largest groups of plant viruses, having characteristic twinned geminate particles encapsidating small circular single-stranded DNA molecules. Geminiviral promoters are generally located within the intergenic region, although promoters have also been detected within the genes. Similarly, the geminivirus-associated betasatellite also harbours a promoter element for driving the expression of its only ORF. These regulatory elements of geminiviral and satellite origins have been subject of great interest to develop heterologous gene expression modules. Geminiviral promoter and regulatory elements show a complex regulation that is mediated by several host as well as viral proteins. Here, the structural and functional features of geminiviral and satellite promoters are discussed along with their regulation by plant and viral proteins. Although generalization in many cases is difficult and demands further studies, a pattern is seen to emerge on the regulation of the promoters. PMID:27183330

  13. Canadian wetland policy promotes conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Rubec, C.

    1992-11-01

    With the recent adoption of The Federal Policy on Wetland Conservation, the Government of Canada has firmly stated that wetland conservation will become a fundamental aspect of federal government decision-making in all federal government programs and institutions. The policy focuses on the sustainable, wise use of wetland areas on federal lands (about 29% of Canada`s wetland base) as well as wetlands, such as national parks, under direct federal authority. The federal government of Canada is promoting a nonregulatory, cooperative approach to achieve the following goals: Maintain the benefits derived from wetlands throughout Canada; Achieve no net loss of wetland functions on federal lands and waters; Enhance and rehabilitate wetlands in areas where the continuing loss or degradation of wetlands or their functions have reached critical levels; Recognize wetland functions in resource planning, management, and economic decision-making with regard to all federal programs, policies, and activities; Secure wetlands of significance to Canadians; and, Recognize sound, sustainable management practices in sectors such as forestry and agriculture that make a positive contribution to wetlands conservation while also achieving wise use of wetland resources.

  14. Promoting innovation in pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bier, Dennis M

    2010-01-01

    Truly impactful innovation can only be recognized in retrospect. Moreover, almost by definition, developing algorithmic paths on roadmaps for innovation are likely to be unsuccessful because innovators do not generally follow established routes. Nonetheless, environments can be established within Departments of Pediatrics that promote innovating thinking. The environmental factors necessary to do so include: (1) demand that academic Pediatrics Departments function in an aggressively scholarly mode; (2) capture the most fundamental science in postnatal developmental biology; (3) focus education and training on the boundaries of our knowledge, rather than the almost exclusive attention to what we think we already know; (4) devote mentoring, time and resources to only the most compelling unanswered questions in the pediatric sciences, including nutrition; (5) accept only systematic, evidence-based answers to clinical questions; (6) if systematic, evidence-based data are not available, design the proper studies to get them; (7) prize questioning the answers to further move beyond the knowledge limit; (8) support the principle that experiments in children will be required to convincingly answer clinical questions important to children, and (9) establish the multicenter resources in pediatric scientist training, clinical study design and implementation, and laboratory and instrument technologies required to answer today's questions with tomorrow's methods.

  15. Analyzing Synthetic Promoters Using Arabidopsis Protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Stracke, Ralf; Thiedig, Katharina; Kuhlmann, Melanie; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a transient protoplast co-transfection method that can be used to quantitatively study in vivo the activity and function of promoters and promoter elements (reporters), and their induction or repression by transcription factors (effectors), stresses, hormones, or metabolites. A detailed protocol for carrying out transient co-transfection assays with Arabidopsis At7 protoplasts and calculating the promoter activity is provided. PMID:27557761

  16. Improved vector for promoter screening in lactococci.

    PubMed Central

    Bojovic, B; Djordjevic, G; Topisirovic, L

    1991-01-01

    Fragments of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NP45 chromosomal DNA provided promoter activity in Escherichia coli when cloned into the promoter probe vector pGKV210. Only 13% of these recombinant plasmids promoted detectable cat-86 activity when transferred to L. lactis, i.e., expressed chloramphenicol resistance. In these promoter-containing versions of pGKV210, the cat-86 gene specifies chloramphenicol-inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression. This could be a limiting factor for cloning of promoters with lower activity in L. lactis. Therefore, we have constructed a new promoter probe vector, pBV5030, with the mutated version of the cat-86 gene, which is constitutively expressed when transcriptionally activated by the insertion of a promoter. We found that in L. lactis IL1403 the constitutively expressed cat-86 gene (on a pBV5030 derivative) has four times higher activity than the inducible version of the same gene (on a pGKV210 derivative) when both have the same promoter inserted upstream of the cat-86 gene. These results suggest that plasmid pBV5030 could be a more efficient vector for the cloning of promoters from lactococci. PMID:1901705

  17. WHO Health Promotion Glossary: new terms.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ben J; Tang, Kwok Cho; Nutbeam, Don

    2006-12-01

    The WHO Health Promotion Glossary was written to facilitate understanding, communication and cooperation among those engaged in health promotion at the local, regional, national and global levels. Two editions of the Glossary have been released, the first in 1986 and the second in 1998, and continued revision of the document is necessary to promote consensus regarding meanings and to take account of developments in thinking and practice. In this update 10 new terms that are to be included in the Glossary are presented. Criteria for the inclusion of terms in the Glossary are that they differentiate health promotion from other health concepts, or have a specific application or meaning when used in relation to health promotion. The terms defined here are: burden of disease; capacity building; evidence-based health promotion; global health; health impact assessment; needs assessment; self-efficacy; social marketing; sustainable health promotion strategies, and; wellness. WHO will continue to periodically update the Health Promotion Glossary to ensure its relevance to the international health promotion community.

  18. Fitness and health promotion in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B R; Wagner, D I

    1990-01-01

    Health promotion efforts in Japan are progressing much as they are in the United States. However, as Japan has different health problems and a different business culture, health promotion efforts in Japan differ from those in the United States. This paper will examine the major causes of death in Japan, prevalent lifestyle problems, cultural differences, types of health promotion programs which are offered, and program effectiveness. By making comparisons between two culturally different countries health promotion professionals will be able to understand their own programs better and develop new ideas for future programming efforts.

  19. An Engineered Strong Promoter for Streptomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weishan; Li, Xiao; Wang, Juan; Xiang, Sihai; Feng, Xiaozhou

    2013-01-01

    Well-characterized promoters are essential tools for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. In Streptomyces coelicolor, the native kasOp is a temporally expressed promoter strictly controlled by two regulators, ScbR and ScbR2. In this work, first, kasOp was engineered to remove a common binding site of ScbR and ScbR2 upstream of its core region, thus generating a stronger promoter, kasOp3. Second, another ScbR binding site internal to the kasOp3 core promoter region was abolished by random mutation and screening of the mutant library to obtain the strongest promoter, kasOp* (where the asterisk is used to distinguish the engineered promoter from the native promoter). The activities of kasOp* were compared with those of two known strong promoters, ermEp* and SF14p, in three Streptomyces species. kasOp* showed the highest activity at the transcription and protein levels in all three hosts. Furthermore, relative to ermEp* and SF14p, kasOp* was shown to confer the highest actinorhodin production level when used to drive the expression of actII-ORF4 in S. coelicolor. Therefore, kasOp* is a simple and well-defined strong promoter useful for gene overexpression in streptomycetes. PMID:23686264

  20. 7 CFR 1160.111 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... means any program utilizing public relations, advertising or other means devoted to educating consumers... demand for fluid milk products. (b) Advertising, which means any advertising or promotion...

  1. WHO Health Promotion Glossary: new terms.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ben J; Tang, Kwok Cho; Nutbeam, Don

    2006-12-01

    The WHO Health Promotion Glossary was written to facilitate understanding, communication and cooperation among those engaged in health promotion at the local, regional, national and global levels. Two editions of the Glossary have been released, the first in 1986 and the second in 1998, and continued revision of the document is necessary to promote consensus regarding meanings and to take account of developments in thinking and practice. In this update 10 new terms that are to be included in the Glossary are presented. Criteria for the inclusion of terms in the Glossary are that they differentiate health promotion from other health concepts, or have a specific application or meaning when used in relation to health promotion. The terms defined here are: burden of disease; capacity building; evidence-based health promotion; global health; health impact assessment; needs assessment; self-efficacy; social marketing; sustainable health promotion strategies, and; wellness. WHO will continue to periodically update the Health Promotion Glossary to ensure its relevance to the international health promotion community. PMID:16963461

  2. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  3. Promoting people's health: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Heitkamp, P

    1998-01-01

    Promoting health underlines the right of each individual to the highest attainable standard of health. It stresses the importance of the participation of people and recognizes different sociocultural values and beliefs that are prevalent throughout the world. Working on health development has a sustainable effect only when done comprehensively: personal development, community development, organizational development, and political development. The international conferences that have marked the way of health promotion have been goal posts of an energetic movement to strengthen health worldwide. The Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion has been a worldwide source of guidance for health promotion through its five strategies: building health policy, creating supportive elements, strengthening community action, developing personal skills, and reorienting health services. Moreover, the Jakarta Declaration on "Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century" identifies five priorities in the next millennium: 1) promote social responsibility for health; 2) increase investments for health development; 3) consolidate and expand partnerships for health; 4) increase community capacity and empower the individual in matters of health; and 5) secure an infrastructure for health promotion. Increasing the investment in health development calls for the need to find new mechanisms for funding as well as reorienting existing resources towards health promotion and health education.

  4. Identifying Opinion Leaders to Promote Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Thomas W.; Pumpuang, Patchareeya

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews 10 techniques used to identify opinion leaders to promote behavior change. Opinion leaders can act as gatekeepers for interventions, help change social norms, and accelerate behavior change. Few studies document the manner in which opinion leaders are identified, recruited, and trained to promote health. The authors categorize…

  5. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business promotions....

  6. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Business promotions....

  7. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business promotions....

  8. 27 CFR 6.96 - Consumer promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer promotions. 6.96 Section 6.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.96 Consumer promotions. (a) Coupons. The act by an industry member of furnishing to...

  9. Promoting Healthy Body Image in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akos, Patrick; Levitt, Dana Heller

    2002-01-01

    Provides advice for school counselors on promoting healthy body image among middle school students. Interventions for the promotion of healthy body image at individual, group, and systemic levels can offer students a protective factor for common disruptions associated with puberty and the transition into middle school. Outlines issues for…

  10. 27 CFR 6.96 - Consumer promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consumer promotions. 6.96 Section 6.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.96 Consumer promotions. (a) Coupons. The act by an industry member of furnishing to...

  11. 27 CFR 6.96 - Consumer promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consumer promotions. 6.96 Section 6.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.96 Consumer promotions. (a) Coupons. The act by an industry member of furnishing to...

  12. 27 CFR 6.96 - Consumer promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consumer promotions. 6.96 Section 6.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.96 Consumer promotions. (a) Coupons. The act by an industry member of furnishing to...

  13. 27 CFR 6.96 - Consumer promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consumer promotions. 6.96 Section 6.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.96 Consumer promotions. (a) Coupons. The act by an industry member of furnishing to...

  14. The Grade Retention/Social Promotion Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    1985-01-01

    This publication focuses on the retention/promotion debate regarding failing and low-achieving students. An introductory essay describes the inherent limitation in the research done on this issue--the impossibility of obtaining an appropriate control group--and suggests that the retention/promotion quandary can best be resolved by accommodating…

  15. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use...

  16. The double jeopardy of sales promotions.

    PubMed

    Jones, J P

    1990-01-01

    The maturing of most consumer markets in the United States has put great pressure on manufacturers in their search for growth. They have concentrated on building sales and expanding share proportions in the stagnant markets with devices like niche products, product extensions, mergers, and international ventures. They have shifted emphasis to sales promotions at the expense of advertising. But promotions, when you come right down to it, mean price reductions. Trade promotions are almost always rebates, and consumer promotions are usually temporary price reductions or coupons. The cost in reduced profit, demonstrated mathematically through calculations of price elasticity, is severe. Besides, when the promotion is over, the manufacturer has not moved forward an inch in shoring up the brand franchise. Promotions bring volatile demand, whereas the producer seeks stable demand. By sustaining a brand image and building customer loyalty, on the other hand, theme advertising can stabilize demand. Moreover, this type of advertising is less likely than promotion is to invite destructive competitive retaliation. Calculation of the advertising elasticity of a brand indicates that sometimes even modest sales increases can produce healthy profit improvement. In a well-planned marketing campaign, there is often good reason to include trade or consumer promotion--to counter a leading competitor's moves, for example. But there is no point in carrying out wild swings at rivals in a struggle for market share. Mathematical techniques can aid the efficiency of marketing planning and put on a more rational basis the decision on where to put the dollars.

  17. Promoting Transformative Learning through Reading Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoggan, Chad; Cranton, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This article is a report on research into the role of fiction in promoting transformative learning in higher education settings. Participants were 131 undergraduate and graduate students from two universities in the United States. To determine the type of learning promoted by reading fiction, we performed qualitative analyses on participants'…

  18. Marketing and Promotion of Library Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Julie

    As librarians we should be actively marketing and promoting our library services. This paper aims to demystify marketing for librarians. Practical solutions are provided on how to implement a marketing strategy, with particular emphasis on the value of using electronic information resources. It also shows the link between promoting library services and raising the profile of the library.

  19. The double jeopardy of sales promotions.

    PubMed

    Jones, J P

    1990-01-01

    The maturing of most consumer markets in the United States has put great pressure on manufacturers in their search for growth. They have concentrated on building sales and expanding share proportions in the stagnant markets with devices like niche products, product extensions, mergers, and international ventures. They have shifted emphasis to sales promotions at the expense of advertising. But promotions, when you come right down to it, mean price reductions. Trade promotions are almost always rebates, and consumer promotions are usually temporary price reductions or coupons. The cost in reduced profit, demonstrated mathematically through calculations of price elasticity, is severe. Besides, when the promotion is over, the manufacturer has not moved forward an inch in shoring up the brand franchise. Promotions bring volatile demand, whereas the producer seeks stable demand. By sustaining a brand image and building customer loyalty, on the other hand, theme advertising can stabilize demand. Moreover, this type of advertising is less likely than promotion is to invite destructive competitive retaliation. Calculation of the advertising elasticity of a brand indicates that sometimes even modest sales increases can produce healthy profit improvement. In a well-planned marketing campaign, there is often good reason to include trade or consumer promotion--to counter a leading competitor's moves, for example. But there is no point in carrying out wild swings at rivals in a struggle for market share. Mathematical techniques can aid the efficiency of marketing planning and put on a more rational basis the decision on where to put the dollars. PMID:10113338

  20. Promotion in Call Centres: Opportunities and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjup, Maria Tatiana; Valverde, Mireia; Ryan, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of jobs in call centres by focusing on the opportunities for promotion in this sector. More specifically, the research questions focus on discovering whether promotion is common practise in the call centre sector and on identifying the factors that affect this.…

  1. Activities for Engaging Schools in Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardi, Mohammad; Burbank, Andrea; Choi, Wayne; Chow, Lawrence; Jang, Wesley; Roccamatisi, Dawn; Timberley-Berg, Tonia; Sanghera, Mandeep; Zhang, Margaret; Macnab, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe activities used to initiate health promotion in the school setting. Design/Methodology/Approach: Description of successful pilot Health Promoting School (HPS) initiatives in Canada and Uganda and the validated measures central to each program. Evaluation methodologies: quantitative data from the…

  2. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business promotions....

  3. Promoting Tech Schools within Your Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a number of promotional events and practices that the author's school engages in. The author hopes that his school's experiences will serve as an inspiration and useful model for other "Tech Directions" readers. There are many methods for successfully promoting one's tech program. Two key strategies are: (1) Connect in…

  4. Media Characteristics in Promoting Management Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Dick

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of direct media employed for promoting marketing, service and sales management conferences and institutes was analyzed. Direct mail was the preferred media for program promotion for business clientele. Three enrollment tables illustrate the effectiveness of different media by program area and course type. (EM)

  5. Promoting Learning. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Kate

    This document is intended to help adult educators in the United Kingdom promote learning. The guide presents practical advice, case studies, and tips for undertaking and implementing effective promotional work. Sections 1 through 11 discuss the following topics: recognizing the increasing need for lifelong learning; the rationale for campaigns…

  6. Individual and Organizational Correlates of Promotion Refusal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campion, Michael A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined employees' reasons for refusing seniority-based promotions. Age, female sex, and number of employees in the department related positively to promotion refusal, while years of education and pay showed a negative relationship. Suggests potential explanations relate to stress avoidance, perceived inabilities, and equity theory. (Author)

  7. Health Promoting Schools: A New Zealand Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Penni

    2008-01-01

    In the last 20 years the health promoting schools movement has gained momentum internationally. Without strong national leadership and direction its development in New Zealand has been ad hoc and sporadic. However, as the evidence supporting the role of health promoting schools in contributing to students' health and academic outcomes becomes more…

  8. Linking Core Promoter Classes to Circadian Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Westermark, Pål O.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in transcription are generated by rhythmic abundances and DNA binding activities of transcription factors. Propagation of rhythms to transcriptional initiation involves the core promoter, its chromatin state, and the basal transcription machinery. Here, I characterize core promoters and chromatin states of genes transcribed in a circadian manner in mouse liver and in Drosophila. It is shown that the core promoter is a critical determinant of circadian mRNA expression in both species. A distinct core promoter class, strong circadian promoters (SCPs), is identified in mouse liver but not Drosophila. SCPs are defined by specific core promoter features, and are shown to drive circadian transcriptional activities with both high averages and high amplitudes. Data analysis and mathematical modeling further provided evidence for rhythmic regulation of both polymerase II recruitment and pause release at SCPs. The analysis provides a comprehensive and systematic view of core promoters and their link to circadian mRNA expression in mouse and Drosophila, and thus reveals a crucial role for the core promoter in regulated, dynamic transcription. PMID:27504829

  9. School Worksite Health Promotion: An Interdependent Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Danny J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined the relationship between social support, barriers, locus of control, and involvement of school health promotion team members in school health promotion activities. Subjects perceived greater support for implementing CPR/first aid, alcohol/drug programs, and speeches on health topics and lower support for healthy snacks, advisory groups,…

  10. Health-Promoting Behaviours in Conservatoire Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreutz, Gunter; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on health-promoting behaviours in students from two conservatoires, the Royal Northern College of Music (RNCM, Manchester, UK; n =199) and the Royal College of Music (RCM, London, UK; n = 74). The research questions concern (a) the levels and types of health-promoting behaviours among performance students and (b) the association…

  11. Carbon source dependent promoters in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Weinhandl, Katrin; Winkler, Margit; Glieder, Anton; Camattari, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Budding yeasts are important expression hosts for the production of recombinant proteins.The choice of the right promoter is a crucial point for efficient gene expression, as most regulations take place at the transcriptional level. A wide and constantly increasing range of inducible, derepressed and constitutive promoters have been applied for gene expression in yeasts in the past; their different behaviours were a reflection of the different needs of individual processes.Within this review we summarize the majority of the large available set of carbon source dependent promoters for protein expression in yeasts, either induced or derepressed by the particular carbon source provided. We examined the most common derepressed promoters for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts, and described carbon source inducible promoters and promoters induced by non-sugar carbon sources. A special focus is given to promoters that are activated as soon as glucose is depleted, since such promoters can be very effective and offer an uncomplicated and scalable cultivation procedure.

  12. Promoting Relationships and Eliminating Violence in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The Promoting Relationships and Eliminating Violence Network (PREVNet) involves Canadian researchers and national organizations working to promote healthy relationships and prevent bullying. In this paper, we provide the rationale for establishing PREVNet, a description of the work of the network, and an assessment of the success of PREVNet.…

  13. How should vasectomy be promoted in Guatemala?

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Kincaid, D L

    1988-01-01

    In the article "Evaluation of a Communications Program to Increase Adoption of Vasectomy in Guatemala" by J.T. Bertrand et al (Stud Fam Plann 1987 Nov/Dec), the authors conclude that the use of a male promoter alone was 4 times more cost-effective in increasing the number of vasectomies than the use of radio alone because the costs of the radio program were 4 times higher. This conclusion is questionable for several reasons. 1) The district where the promoter was used alone was twice as large as the radio-only district. 2) In one of the promoter-only districts the same promoter worked throughout the program, but in the other, 3 different promoters had to be recruited and trained, due to high personnel turnover. 3) The initial costs of a radio program may be higher, but 1 program can be broadcast in all districts with little or no extra cost, whereas the costs of a promoter would have to be multiplied by the number of districts. 4) Although the promoter and the radio program produced approximately equal numbers of vasectomies, the radio messages reached over 70% of the people surveyed. Thus, on a national basis, radio broadcasts would be far more cost-effective than the use of salaried promoters in each district.

  14. Characterization of Intrinsic Properties of Promoters

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Accurate characterization of promoter behavior is essential for the rational design of functional synthetic transcription networks such as logic gates and oscillators. However, transcription rates observed from promoters can vary significantly depending on the growth rate of host cells and the experimental and genetic contexts of the measurement. Furthermore, in vivo measurement methods must accommodate variation in translation, protein folding, and maturation rates of reporter proteins, as well as metabolic load. The external factors affecting transcription activity may be considered to be extrinsic, and the goal of characterization should be to obtain quantitative measures of the intrinsic characteristics of promoters. We have developed a promoter characterization method that is based on a mathematical model for cell growth and reporter gene expression and exploits multiple in vivo measurements to compensate for variation due to extrinsic factors. First, we used optical density and fluorescent reporter gene measurements to account for the effect of differing cell growth rates. Second, we compared the output of reporter genes to that of a control promoter using concurrent dual-channel fluorescence measurements. This allowed us to derive a quantitative promoter characteristic (ρ) that provides a robust measure of the intrinsic properties of a promoter, relative to the control. We imposed different extrinsic factors on growing cells, altering carbon source and adding bacteriostatic agents, and demonstrated that the use of ρ values reduced the fraction of variance due to extrinsic factors from 78% to less than 4%. This is a simple and reliable method to quantitatively describe promoter properties. PMID:26436725

  15. 17 CFR 33.8 - Promotional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 33.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.8 Promotional material. Each futures commission... promotional material it provides, directly or indirectly, to option customers as well as the true source...

  16. 7 CFR 1214.18 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.18... favorable image of Christmas trees to the general public with the intent of improving the perception...

  17. 7 CFR 1214.18 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.18... favorable image of Christmas trees to the general public with the intent of improving the perception...

  18. 7 CFR 1214.18 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.18... favorable image of Christmas trees to the general public with the intent of improving the perception...

  19. Promoting School Connectedness through Whole School Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Fiona; Stewart, Donald; Patterson, Carla

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to demonstrate the contribution of whole school approaches embodied by the health-promoting school approach, to the promotion of school connectedness, defined as the cohesiveness between diverse groups in the school community, including students, families, school staff and the wider…

  20. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing osmolyte glycine betaine synthesizing enzymes from halophilic methanogen promote tolerance to drought and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shu-Jung; Lai, Mei-Chin; Lee, Ren-Jye; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Yen, Hungchen Emilie

    2014-07-01

    Glycine betaine (betaine) has the highest cellular osmoprotective efficiency which does not accumulate in most glycophytes. The biosynthetic pathway for betaine in higher plants is derived from the oxidation of low-accumulating metabolite choline that limiting the ability of most plants to produce betaine. Halophilic methanoarchaeon Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF1(T) is a model anaerobic methanogen to study the acclimation of water-deficit stresses which de novo synthesize betaine by the stepwise methylation of glycine, catalyzed by glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase (GSMT) and sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase. In this report, genes encoding these betaine biosynthesizing enzymes, Mpgsmt and Mpsdmt, were introduced into Arabidopsis. The homozygous Mpgsmt (G), Mpsdmt (S), and their cross, Mpgsmt and Mpsdmt (G × S) plants showed increased accumulation of betaine. Water loss from detached leaves was slower in G, S, and G × S lines than wild-type (WT). Pot-grown transgenic plants showed better growth than WT after 9 days of withholding water or irrigating with 300 mM NaCl. G, S, G × S lines also maintained higher relative water content and photosystem II activity than WT under salt stress. This suggests heterologously expressed Mpgsmt and Mpsdmt could enhance tolerance to drought and salt stress in Arabidopsis. We also found a twofold increase in quaternary ammonium compounds in salt-stressed leaves of G lines, presumably due to the activation of GSMT activity by high salinity. This study demonstrates that introducing stress-activated enzymes is a way of avoiding the divergence of primary metabolites under normal growing conditions, while also providing protection in stressful environments. PMID:24803410

  1. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  2. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes.

    PubMed

    Santoyo, Gustavo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma del Carmen; Glick, Bernard R

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial endophytes ubiquitously colonize the internal tissues of plants, being found in nearly every plant worldwide. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development. Similar to rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria, endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria can act to facilitate plant growth in agriculture, horticulture and silviculture as well as in strategies for environmental cleanup (i.e., phytoremediation). Genome comparisons between bacterial endophytes and the genomes of rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria are starting to unveil potential genetic factors involved in an endophytic lifestyle, which should facilitate a better understanding of the functioning of bacterial endophytes.

  3. Promoting Health in Early Childhood Environments: A Health-Promotion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…

  4. Structure of vaccinia virus early promoters.

    PubMed

    Davison, A J; Moss, B

    1989-12-20

    Functional elements of a vaccinia virus early promoter were characterized by making a complete set of single nucleotide substitutions, as well as more complex mutations, and assaying their effects on gene expression. Synthetic oligonucleotides, based primarily on the sequence of the 7.5-kD early promoter, were inserted into a plasmid vector containing the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli flanked by sequences from the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of vaccinia virus. The lacZ gene, under control of the synthetic promoter, was introduced into the vaccinia virus genome at the TK locus by homologous recombination, and each of the 331 different recombinant viruses thus obtained was assayed for beta-galactosidase expression. The relative amounts and precise 5' ends of lacZ mRNAs specified by a subset of the recombinants were determined by primer extension. Many promoters were tested for their ability to direct specific transcription in vitro. A generally good correlation was noted between measurements of promoter strength estimated by beta-galactosidase expression, primer extension of in vivo mRNA and transcription in vitro. A relatively simple picture emerged from the analysis. The early promoter consists of a 16 base-pair critical region, in which most single nucleotide substitutions have a major effect on expression, separated by 11 base-pairs of a less critical T-rich sequence from a seven base-pair region within which initiation with a purine usually occurs. For the critical region of the 7.5-kD promoter, AAAAgTaGAAAataTA, any substitution of an upper-case nucleotide reduced expression, usually drastically, whereas certain substitutions of lower-case nucleotides maintained or significantly enhanced expression. On the basis of this analysis, the wide range of activities of natural promoters could be attributed to the presence of one or more non-optimal nucleotides in the critical region. Moreover, single nucleotide substitutions in such promoters had the predicted enhancing

  5. Corynebacterium glutamicum promoters: a practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Pátek, Miroslav; Holátko, Jiří; Busche, Tobias; Kalinowski, Jörn; Nešvera, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Transcription initiation is the key step in gene expression in bacteria, and it is therefore studied for both theoretical and practical reasons. Promoters, the traffic lights of transcription initiation, are used as construction elements in biotechnological efforts to coordinate ‘green waves’ in the metabolic pathways leading to the desired metabolites. Detailed analyses of Corynebacterium glutamicum promoters have already provided large amounts of data on their structures, regulatory mechanisms and practical capabilities in metabolic engineering. In this minireview the main aspects of promoter studies, the methods developed for their analysis and their practical use in C. glutamicum are discussed. These include definitions of the consensus sequences of the distinct promoter classes, promoter localization and characterization, activity measurements, the functions of transcriptional regulators and examples of practical uses of constitutive, inducible and modified promoters in biotechnology. The implications of the introduction of novel techniques, such as in vitro transcription and RNA sequencing, to C. glutamicum promoter studies are outlined. PMID:23305350

  6. Analysis of E. coli promoter sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Harley, C B; Reynolds, R P

    1987-01-01

    We have compiled and analyzed 263 promoters with known transcriptional start points for E. coli genes. Promoter elements (-35 hexamer, -10 hexamer, and spacing between these regions) were aligned by a program which selects the arrangement consistent with the start point and statistically most homologous to a reference list of promoters. The initial reference list was that of Hawley and McClure (Nucl. Acids Res. 11, 2237-2255, 1983). Alignment of the complete list was used for reference until successive analyses did not alter the structure of the list. In the final compilation, all bases in the -35 (TTGACA) and -10 (TATAAT) hexamers were highly conserved, 92% of promoters had inter-region spacing of 17 +/- 1 bp, and 75% of the uniquely defined start points initiated 7 +/- 1 bases downstream of the -10 region. The consensus sequence of promoters with inter-region spacing of 16, 17 or 18 bp did not differ. This compilation and analysis should be useful for studies of promoter structure and function and for programs which identify potential promoter sequences. PMID:3550697

  7. [Prediction of Promoter Motifs in Virophages].

    PubMed

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhou, Xuewen; Pan, Yingjie; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-07-01

    Virophages have crucial roles in ecosystems and are the transport vectors of genetic materials. To shed light on regulation and control mechanisms in virophage--host systems as well as evolution between virophages and their hosts, the promoter motifs of virophages were predicted on the upstream regions of start codons using an analytical tool for prediction of promoter motifs: Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation. Seventeen potential promoter motifs were identified based on the E-value, location, number and length of promoters in genomes. Sputnik and zamilon motif 2 with AT-rich regions were distributed widely on genomes, suggesting that these motifs may be associated with regulation of the expression of various genes. Motifs containing the TCTA box were predicted to be late promoter motif in mavirus; motifs containing the ATCT box were the potential late promoter motif in the Ace Lake mavirus . AT-rich regions were identified on motif 2 in the Organic Lake virophage, motif 3 in Yellowstone Lake virophage (YSLV)1 and 2, motif 1 in YSLV3, and motif 1 and 2 in YSLV4, respectively. AT-rich regions were distributed widely on the genomes of virophages. All of these motifs may be promoter motifs of virophages. Our results provide insights into further exploration of temporal expression of genes in virophages as well as associations between virophages and giant viruses. PMID:26524912

  8. Development of an efficient bi-directional promoter with tripartite enhancer employing three viral promoters.

    PubMed

    Patro, Sunita; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2013-02-10

    We have developed a novel bi-directional promoter (FsFfCBD) by placing two heterogeneous core-promoters from the Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsCP, -69 to +31) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CCP, -89 to +1) respectively on upstream (5') and downstream (3') ends of a tri-hybrid enhancer (FsEFfECE), in reverse orientation. The FsEFfECE domain encompasses three heterologous enhancer fragments from Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsE, 101 bp, -70 to -170), Figwort mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter (FfE, 196 bp, -249 to -54) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CE, 254 bp, -343 to -90). The bi-directional nature of the FsFfCBD promoter (coupled to GFP and GUS) was established both in transient systems (onion epidermal cells and tobacco protoplasts) and transgenic plant (Nicotiana tabacum samsun NN) by monitoring the simultaneous expression of GFP and GUS employing fluorescence (for GFP) and biochemical (for GUS) based assays. In transgenic plants, the FsFfCBD promoter was found to be 6.8 and 2.5 times stronger than two parent promoters; Fs and FfC respectively. The bi-directional compound promoter FsFfCBD, composed of three heterologous enhancers with enhanced activity could become a valuable additional tool for efficient plant metabolic engineering and molecular pharming. PMID:23183382

  9. Development of an efficient bi-directional promoter with tripartite enhancer employing three viral promoters.

    PubMed

    Patro, Sunita; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2013-02-10

    We have developed a novel bi-directional promoter (FsFfCBD) by placing two heterogeneous core-promoters from the Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsCP, -69 to +31) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CCP, -89 to +1) respectively on upstream (5') and downstream (3') ends of a tri-hybrid enhancer (FsEFfECE), in reverse orientation. The FsEFfECE domain encompasses three heterologous enhancer fragments from Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsE, 101 bp, -70 to -170), Figwort mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter (FfE, 196 bp, -249 to -54) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CE, 254 bp, -343 to -90). The bi-directional nature of the FsFfCBD promoter (coupled to GFP and GUS) was established both in transient systems (onion epidermal cells and tobacco protoplasts) and transgenic plant (Nicotiana tabacum samsun NN) by monitoring the simultaneous expression of GFP and GUS employing fluorescence (for GFP) and biochemical (for GUS) based assays. In transgenic plants, the FsFfCBD promoter was found to be 6.8 and 2.5 times stronger than two parent promoters; Fs and FfC respectively. The bi-directional compound promoter FsFfCBD, composed of three heterologous enhancers with enhanced activity could become a valuable additional tool for efficient plant metabolic engineering and molecular pharming.

  10. The impact of the distance-dependent promotional effect on the promotion cost sharing decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Gwo-Ji; Wang, Shih-Yen; Yeh, Yingchieh

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the promotion cost sharing decision between a supplier and a retailer. The customer demand is affected by both national and local promotional effects while the local promotional effect on a customer is dependent on the distance between the retailer and this customer. We propose a continuous approximation approach to modelling the sum of the customer demand in the whole market area served by the retailer. A model is provided to help managers decide on the retail price, the local advertising expenditure, the national advertising expenditure, and the supplier participation rate, with consideration of the influence of distance on the promotional effect. We also find that the supplier's promotion cost sharing rate increases as the market size increases or the influence of distance on the promotional effect decreases. A numerical example is given to show that the nature of distance-dependent promotional effect has a significant impact on the decisions and profits.

  11. Solar cooking in India--Promotion aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Devadas, R.P.; Rajagopal, L.S.

    1992-12-31

    The author describes efforts to promote the use of solar cookers in India. The advantages of the cookers are presented followed by a description of solar cooking research, education activities, and government programs to promote use of solar energy. Major constraints to solar use are discussed and these include a range of situations: adapting cookers for various types of food preparation; safety factors in leaving cookers outside; weather problems; and expense of equipment. The author concludes with a list of recommendations to promote more efficient use of non-conventional energy sources.

  12. A decision theoretical approach for diffusion promotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fei; Liu, Yun

    2009-09-01

    In order to maximize cost efficiency from scarce marketing resources, marketers are facing the problem of which group of consumers to target for promotions. We propose to use a decision theoretical approach to model this strategic situation. According to one promotion model that we develop, marketers balance between probabilities of successful persuasion and the expected profits on a diffusion scale, before making their decisions. In the other promotion model, the cost for identifying influence information is considered, and marketers are allowed to ignore individual heterogeneity. We apply the proposed approach to two threshold influence models, evaluate the utility of each promotion action, and provide discussions about the best strategy. Our results show that efforts for targeting influentials or easily influenced people might be redundant under some conditions.

  13. Ethical dilemmas in workplace health promotion.

    PubMed

    Allegrante, J P; Sloan, R P

    1986-05-01

    In less than a decade, workplace health promotion programs designed to promote employee health and help reduce the high cost of health insurance premiums paid by business and industry have proliferated. Notwithstanding the latent benefits and cost savings that corporate management expects to gain from the investment in such programs, it is argued that workplace health promotion is not without potential misuse and that its goals and methods ought not to be above ethical scrutiny. Drawing on earlier work, we discuss how workplace health promotion may pose ethical problems related to social justice, protection of privacy, and social control. The attendant moral dilemmas for the professional whose responsibility it is to develop and implement such programs are also presented.

  14. Promoting Physical Activity among Underserved Populations.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Linke, Sarah; Muñoz, Mario; Pekmezi, Dori; Ainsworth, Cole; Cano, Mayra; Williams, Victoria; Marcus, Bess H; Larsen, Britta A

    2016-01-01

    Underserved populations, including racial/ethnic minorities, individuals with low socioeconomic status, and individuals with physical disabilities, are less likely to engage in sufficient moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and are thus at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These populations face unique challenges to engaging in MVPA. Learning how to overcome these challenges is a necessary first step in achieving health equity through health promotion research. In this review of the literature, we discuss issues and strategies that have been used to promote MVPA among individuals from underserved populations, focusing on recruitment, intervention delivery, and the use of technology in interventions. Physical activity promotion research among these vulnerable populations is scarce. Nevertheless, there is preliminary evidence of efficacy in the use of certain recruitment and intervention strategies including tailoring, cultural adaptation, incorporation of new technologies, and multilevel and community-based approaches for physical activity promotion among different underserved populations. PMID:27399827

  15. Developing health promoting practices: a transformative process.

    PubMed

    Hartrick, G

    1998-01-01

    For health care professionals to successfully make the transition from disease care to health promotion requires a reorientation of how such professionals think and behave in their practice. This paper describes a multidisciplinary team's transition from disease care to health promotion. The research was conducted to learn what is involved in developing health promotion practices and the major changes practitioners experience as they shift from disease care to health promotion. A large, acute care institution and public health agency collaborated to address the needs of families and children with asthma, allergies, and eczema, with the goal of changing the focus from inpatient care to ambulatory or community-based care. A team of 5 nurses, 1 physiotherapist, 1 respiratory technologist, and 1 nutritionist was formed to undertake the initiative. PMID:9805341

  16. Promoted Combustion Test Propagation Rate Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borstorff, J.; Jones, P.; Lowery, F.

    2002-01-01

    Combustion propagation rate data were examined for potential use in benchmarking a thermal model of the Promoted Combustion Test (PCT), and also for potential use in measuring the repeatability of PCT results.

  17. The Causes and Costs of Promotion Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Lu Ann W.; McGrath, Loraine G.

    1983-01-01

    Minimizing the stress that nurses experience after a promotion requires an understanding of the factors associated with moving up the managerial ladder. Knowing these factors, nursing administrators can plan their programs to support their managers in transition. (SSH)

  18. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22... activities are designed to improve the competitive position and stimulate sales of Hass avocados in...

  19. Reviewing health promotion in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Dean

    2007-04-01

    The [World Health Organisation, 2000. Nurse and Midwives for Health: A WHO European Strategy for Nursing and Midwifery Education. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen] European Strategy for Nursing and Midwifery Education calls for the explicit inclusion and application of health promotion in all nursing curricula. Prior to this strategy, and subsequently, studies have explored the nature and extent of health promotion in nursing education. This article extensively reviews this body of literature. Overall, the literature, both included in this review and its supporting discussion, presents a picture suggesting that the call for effective inclusion of health promotion has in many cases gone unheeded. The literature also identifies that the educational delivery of broader elements of health promotion is muted in comparison to the 'traditional' constructs of health education. Considerations for wider reform, born out of the literature, are presented.

  20. Worksite health promotion programs in college settings

    PubMed Central

    Hill-Mey, Patricia E.; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Merrill, Ray M.; Reel, Justine; Hyatt-Neville, Beverly; Richardson, Glenn E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the multifaceted nature and benefits of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs), with emphasis on the college setting. An assessment of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted of articles published since 2000. Several search engines were accessed and selected key words were used. Most studies examining WHPPs have focused on return on investment and productivity. Research that targets the softer side-benefits of health promotion programs in the workplace is less available. Although the college setting offers some advantages for implementing health promotion programs. They may also have unique challenges due to their large and diverse employee population. There is little research to show the effectiveness and unique challenges of college-based health promotion programs. PMID:25861657

  1. Dynamic health promotion for the geriatric population.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Anne J; Tomkowiak, John M

    2004-01-01

    The documents Healthy People 2000 and its update, Healthy People 2010, have helped focus national attention on the neglected areas of disease prevention and health promotion and maintenance. Despite increasing awareness and the proliferation of research that demonstrates the effectiveness of a healthy lifestyle for disease prevention, patients and healthcare professionals continue to struggle with an effective approach to effecting healthy lifestyle strategies. The inclusion of health promotion goals into care plans seldom is enough to create positive behavioral changes in a patient. Understanding what motivates an older individual to adopt healthy habits and what behavioral change process the individual must take to be successful is a key starting point for the rehabilitation nurse dedicated to the promotion of health and wellness. The transtheoretical model of change (TTM) is an approach that can be used to create an atmosphere for the adoption of healthy lifestyle practices, and assist in the behavioral change process necessary to promote older adults' success in this endeavor.

  2. Health promotion: challenges revealed in successful practices

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Kênia Lara; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; Silva, Paloma Morais; Rodrigues, Andreza Trevenzoli

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine successful practices of health promotion in health, education, culture, welfare and sport, leisure, identifying the elements of success and challenges in the field. METHODS A qualitative study with data obtained from in-depth analysis that included participant observation, interviews with managers, coordinators, professionals and participants from 29 practices reported as successful for promoting health in six municipalities of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. The variables of the study were concept, dimension, dissemination and ease of access, identified in practices guided by content analysis. RESULTS The results indicate a conceptual and methodological uncertainty about health promotion as evidenced by conflicting objects and contradictory purposes. The practices differ in size, coverage and ease of access, determined by inter-sector coordination and political and financial investment. CONCLUSIONS We identified challenges to health promotion focusing on vulnerable populations, limits to financing and intersectoral partnerships. PMID:24789640

  3. Promoting consumer empowerment through entrepreneurship: a proposal.

    PubMed

    Prince, Jonathan D

    2007-01-01

    In order to promote life control, this proposal suggests strategies to help people who use community mental health services to access small loans or "microcredit" for entrepreneurship in self-help groups.

  4. Studies on the mechanism of skin tumor promotion: evidence for several stages in promotion. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Slaga, T.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Nelson, K.; Gleason, G.L.

    1980-06-01

    The effects of nonpromoting and weakly promoting diterpenes on skin tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) were investigated. When phorbol and phorbol 12,13-diacetate (both nonpromoting) were given simultaneously with TPA after 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DMBA) initiation in female mice, they had no effect on TPA promotion. However, the nonpromoter 4-O-methyl-TPA and the weak promoter mezerein were found to inhibit TPA promotion in a dose-dependent manner when given simultaneously with TPA. Because mezerein was found to be an effective inhibitor of TPA promotion when given simultaneously and because it induces many biological responses similar to those to TPA, the capacity of mezerein to act as an incomplete promoter in a two-stage promotion protocol was also investigated. The results suggest that although mezerein by itself is a weak promotor and mimics TPA in many biochemical and morphological effects it is a potent second-stage promoter in a two-stage promotion regimen.

  5. 7 CFR 1205.333 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1205.333 Section 1205.333... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Research and Promotion § 1205.333 Research and promotion. The...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.333 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1205.333 Section 1205.333... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Research and Promotion § 1205.333 Research and promotion. The...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.333 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1205.333 Section 1205.333... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Research and Promotion § 1205.333 Research and promotion. The...

  8. Nurses and Teachers: Partnerships for Green Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendall, Marguerite C.; Lidstone, John; Fleming, MaryLou; Domocol, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Background: The term "green health promotion" is given to health promotion underpinned by the principles of ecological health and sustainability. Green health promotion is supported philosophically by global health promotion documents such as the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the ecological public health movement. Green…

  9. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and...

  10. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval...

  11. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval...

  12. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval...

  13. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval...

  14. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  15. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  17. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  18. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  19. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval...

  20. Good practice models for public workplace health promotion projects in Austria: promoting mental health.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Nathalie T; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Großschädl, Franziska; Sprenger, Martin; Rohrauer-Näf, Gerlinde; Ropin, Klaus; Martinel, Evelyn; Dorner, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Promoting mental health is a central public health issue since the Jakarta statement in 1997. In Austria, the nationwide organisation for health promotion is the 'Fonds Gesundes Österreich' (FGÖ), which has been established in 1998. The FGÖ funds and supports workplace health promotion projects; therefore, it co-operates with the Austrian Network on Workplace Health Promotion. In 2011, among others, two Austrian companies were honoured as best practice models for promoting mental health in the project 'Work. In tune with life. Move Europe'. One of their central key success factors are the provision of equal opportunities, engagement, their focus on overall health as well as the implementation of behavioural and environmental preventive measures. Since mental health problems in the population are still rising, public health promotion projects which orientate on the best practice models have to be established in Austria. PMID:24327008

  1. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners.

    PubMed

    Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254

  2. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Andrew E.; Evans, Alexandra E.

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254

  3. Development of a promoter shutoff system in Aspergillus oryzae using a sorbitol-sensitive promoter.

    PubMed

    Oda, Ken; Terado, Shiho; Toyoura, Rieko; Fukuda, Hisashi; Kawauchi, Moriyuki; Iwashita, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Promoter shutoff is a general method for analyzing essential genes, but in the fungus Aspergillus oryzae, no tightly repressed promoters have been reported. To overcome the current limitations of conditional promoters, we examined sorbitol- and galactose-responsive genes using microarrays to identify regulatable genes with only minor physiological and genetic effects. We identified two sorbitol-induced genes (designated as sorA and sorB), cloned their promoters, and built a regulated egfp and brlA expression system. Growth medium-dependent enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) fluorescence and conidiation were confirmed for egfp and brlA under the control of their respective promoters. We also used this shutoff system to regulate the essential rhoA, which demonstrated the expected growth inhibition under repressed growth conditions. Our new sorbitol promoter shutoff system developed can serve as a valuable new tool for essential gene analyses of filamentous fungi.

  4. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners.

    PubMed

    Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning.

  5. Rice tissue-specific promoters and condition-dependent promoters for effective translational application.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hee-Jeong; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2015-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important staple food crops for more than half of the world's population. The demand is increasing for food security because of population growth and environmental challenges triggered by climate changes. This scenario has led to more interest in developing crops with greater productivity and sustainability. The process of genetic transformation, a major tool for crop improvement, utilizes promoters as one of its key elements. Those promoters are generally divided into three types: constitutive, spatiotemporal, and condition-dependent. Transcriptional control of a constitutive promoter often leads to reduced plant growth, due to a negative effect of accumulated molecules during cellular functions or energy consumption. To maximize the effect of a transgene on transgenic plants, it is better to use condition-dependent or tissue-specific promoters. However, until now, those types have not been as widely applied in crop biotechnology. In this review, we introduce and discuss four groups of tissue-specific promoters (50 promoters in total) and six groups of condition-dependent promoters (27 promoters). These promoters can be utilized to fine-tune desirable agronomic traits and develop crops with tolerance to various stresses, enhanced nutritional value, and advanced productivity. PMID:25882130

  6. Genome-wide analysis of alternative promoters of human genes using a custom promoter tiling array

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Gregory AC; Wu, Jiejun; Yan, Pearlly; Plass, Christoph; Huang, Tim HM; Davuluri, Ramana V

    2008-01-01

    Background Independent lines of evidence suggested that a large fraction of human genes possess multiple promoters driving gene expression from distinct transcription start sites. Understanding which promoter is employed in which cellular context is required to unravel gene regulatory networks within the cell. Results We have developed a custom microarray platform that tiles roughly 35,000 alternative putative promoters from nearly 7,000 genes in the human genome. To demonstrate the utility of this array platform, we have analyzed the patterns of promoter usage in 17β-estradiol (E2)-treated and untreated MCF7 cells and show widespread usage of alternative promoters. Most intriguingly, we show that the downstream promoter in E2-sensitive multiple promoter genes tends to be very close to the 3'-terminus of the gene, suggesting exotic mechanisms of expression regulation in these genes. Conclusion The usage of alternative promoters greatly multiplies the transcriptional complexity available within the human genome. The fact that many of these promoters are incapable of driving the synthesis of a meaningful protein-encoding transcript further complicates the story. PMID:18655706

  7. Efficient chimeric plant promoters derived from plant infecting viral promoter sequences.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Sefali; Ranjan, Rajiv; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we developed a set of three chimeric/hybrid promoters namely FSgt-PFlt, PFlt-UAS-2X and MSgt-PFlt incorporating different important domains of Figwort Mosaic Virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FSgt, -270 to -60), Mirabilis Mosaic Virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (MSgt, -306 to -125) and Peanut Chlorotic Streak Caulimovirus full-length transcript promoter (PFlt-, -353 to +24 and PFlt-UAS, -353 to -49). We demonstrated that these chimeric/hybrid promoters can drive the expression of reporter genes in different plant species including tobacco, Arabidopsis, petunia, tomato and spinach. FSgt-PFlt, PFlt-UAS-2X and MSgt-PFlt promoters showed 4.2, 1.5 and 1.2 times stronger GUS activities compared to the activity of the CaMV35S promoter, respectively, in tobacco protoplasts. Protoplast-derived recombinant promoter driven GFP showed enhanced accumulation compared to that obtained under the CaMV35S promoter. FSgt-PFlt, PFlt-UAS-2X and MSgt-PFlt promoters showed 3.0, 1.3 and 1.0 times stronger activities than the activity of the CaMV35S² (a modified version of the CaMV35S promoter with double enhancer domain) promoter, respectively, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, var. Samsun NN). Alongside, we observed a fair correlation between recombinant promoter-driven GUS accumulation with the corresponding uidA-mRNA level in transgenic tobacco. Histochemical (X-gluc) staining of whole transgenic seedlings and fluorescence images of ImaGene Green™ treated floral parts expressing the GUS under the control of recombinant promoters also support above findings. Furthermore, we confirmed that these chimeric promoters are inducible in the presence of 150 μM salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Taken altogether, we propose that SA/ABA inducible chimeric/recombinant promoters could be used for strong expression of gene(s) of interest in crop plants.

  8. 75 FR 20991 - NACEPT Subcommittee on Promoting Environmental Stewardship

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... AGENCY NACEPT Subcommittee on Promoting Environmental Stewardship AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., EPA gives notice of a meeting of the NACEPT Subcommittee on Promoting Environmental Stewardship. The purpose of the Subcommittee on Promoting Environmental Stewardship (SPES) of the National Advisory...

  9. 75 FR 12231 - NACEPT Subcommittee on Promoting Environmental Stewardship

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... AGENCY NACEPT Subcommittee on Promoting Environmental Stewardship AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Stewardship. The purpose of the Subcommittee on Promoting Environmental Stewardship (SPES) of the National... Protection Agency on how to promote environmental stewardship practices that encompass all...

  10. [Novel bidirectional promoter from human genome].

    PubMed

    Orekhova, A S; Sverdlova, P S; Spirin, P V; Leonova, O G; Popenko, V I; Prasolov, V S; Rubtsov, P M

    2011-01-01

    In human and other mammalian genomes a number of closely linked gene pairs transcribed in opposite directions are found. According to bioinformatic analysis up to 10% of human genes are arranged in this way. In present work the fragment of human genome was cloned that separates genes localized at 2p13.1 and oriented "head-to-head", coding for hypothetical proteins with unknown functions--CCDC (Coiled Coil Domain Containing) 142 and TTC (TetraTricopeptide repeat Containing) 31. Intergenic CCDC142-TTC31 region overlaps with CpG-island and contains a number of potential binding sites for transcription factors. This fragment functions as bidirectional promoter in the system ofluciferase reporter gene expression upon transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. The vectors containing genes of two fluorescent proteins--green (EGFP) and red (DsRed2) in opposite orientations separated by the fragment of CCDC142-TTC31 intergenic region were constructed. In HEK293 cells transfected with these vectors simultaneous expression of two fluorescent proteins is observed. Truncated versions of intergenic region were obtained and their promoter activity measured. Minimal promoter fragment contains elements Inr, BRE, DPE characteristic for TATA-less promoters. Thus, from the human genome the novel bidirectional promoter was cloned that can be used for simultaneous constitutive expression of two genes in human cells.

  11. Pharmaceutical promotion and GP prescription behaviour.

    PubMed

    Windmeijer, Frank; de Laat, Eric; Douven, Rudy; Mot, Esther

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically analyse the responses by general practitioners to promotional activities for ethical drugs by pharmaceutical companies. Promotion can be beneficial as a means of providing information, but it can also be harmful in the sense that it lowers price sensitivity of doctors and it merely is a means of maintaining market share, even when cheaper, therapeutically equivalent drugs are available. A model is estimated that includes interactions of promotion expenditures and prices and that explicitly exploits the panel structure of the data, allowing for drug specific effects and dynamic adjustments, or habit persistence. The data used are aggregate monthly GP prescriptions per drug together with monthly outlays on drug promotion for the period 1994-1999 for 11 therapeutic markets, covering more than half of the total prescription drug market in the Netherlands. Identification of price effects is aided by the introduction of the Pharmaceutical Prices Act, which established that Dutch drugs prices became a weighted average of the prices in surrounding countries after June 1996. We conclude that GP drug price sensitivity is small, but adversely affected by promotion. Ltd.

  12. Health promotion research: dilemmas and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Koelen, M; Vaandrager, L; Colomer, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To analyse dilemmas and challenges in health promotion research, and to generate ideas for future development.
METHOD—The analysis is based on authors' experiences in working in the field of research and action in health promotion and on experiences of others as found in literature.
RESULTS—The assumptions underlying scientific research as based in the biomedical design are difficult to meet in community-based health promotion research. Dilemmas are identified in relation to the possibility of defining the independent and dependent variables beforehand and the intermingling of these variables (the intervention and outcome dilemma), the difficulty in quantifying the desired outcomes (the number dilemma), and the problem of diffusion of the programme to the control group (the control group dilemma).
CONCLUSION—Research in health promotion has specific reasons to reconsider the approach towards research, the selection of outcome variables, and research techniques. Strategies and methods to make activities and their outcomes clear are discussed and criteria to judge confidence and applicability of research findings are presented.


Keywords: health promotion research; research dilemmas; research challenges PMID:11238581

  13. [Novel bidirectional promoter from human genome].

    PubMed

    Orekhova, A S; Sverdlova, P S; Spirin, P V; Leonova, O G; Popenko, V I; Prasolov, V S; Rubtsov, P M

    2011-01-01

    In human and other mammalian genomes a number of closely linked gene pairs transcribed in opposite directions are found. According to bioinformatic analysis up to 10% of human genes are arranged in this way. In present work the fragment of human genome was cloned that separates genes localized at 2p13.1 and oriented "head-to-head", coding for hypothetical proteins with unknown functions--CCDC (Coiled Coil Domain Containing) 142 and TTC (TetraTricopeptide repeat Containing) 31. Intergenic CCDC142-TTC31 region overlaps with CpG-island and contains a number of potential binding sites for transcription factors. This fragment functions as bidirectional promoter in the system ofluciferase reporter gene expression upon transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. The vectors containing genes of two fluorescent proteins--green (EGFP) and red (DsRed2) in opposite orientations separated by the fragment of CCDC142-TTC31 intergenic region were constructed. In HEK293 cells transfected with these vectors simultaneous expression of two fluorescent proteins is observed. Truncated versions of intergenic region were obtained and their promoter activity measured. Minimal promoter fragment contains elements Inr, BRE, DPE characteristic for TATA-less promoters. Thus, from the human genome the novel bidirectional promoter was cloned that can be used for simultaneous constitutive expression of two genes in human cells. PMID:21790010

  14. Localization and regulation of bacteriophage Mu promoters

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, S.F. ); Howe, M.M. )

    1989-06-01

    Mu promoters active during the lytic cycle were located by isolating RNA at various times after induction of Mu prophages, radiolabeling it by capping in vitro, and hybridizing it to Mu DNA fragments on Southern blots. Signals were detected from four new promoters in addition to the previously characterized P{sub e} (early), P{sub cM} (repressor), and P{sub mom} (late) promoters. A major signal upstream of C was first observed at 12 min and intensified thereafter with RNA from cts and C amber but not replication-defective prophages; these characteristics indicate that this signal arises from a middle promoter, which we designate P{sub m}. With 20- and 40-min RNA, four additional major signals originated in the C-lys, F-G-I, N-P, and com-mom regions. These signals were missing with RNA from C amber and replication-defective prophages and therefore reflected the activity of late promoters, one of which we presume was P{sub mom}. Uninduced lysogens showed weak signals from five regions, one from the early regulatory region, three between genes B and lys, and one near the late genes K, L, and M. The first of these probably resulted from P{sub cM} activity; the others remain to be identified.

  15. Use of sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (sarkosyl) in viable real-time PCR for enumeration of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Gill, Colin O; Yang, Xianqin

    2014-03-01

    The cell membranes of inactivated Escherichia coli are not always permeable to propidium monoazide (PMA). This limits the use of PMA real-time PCR (PMA-qPCR) for quantification of DNA from only viable cells for enumeration of E. coli. The aim of this study was to develop PMA-qPCR procedures for E. coli with improved selectivity for viable cells. E. coli inactivated by incubation at 52°C were treated with 12 detergents before PMA treatment, and DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. Treatment with each of the 12 detergents and PMA increased the cycle threshold (Ct) values for heat inactivated E. coli suspensions. The greatest increase, of 10.68 Ct was obtained with sarkosyl. Treatment with sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) increased the Ct value by 8.99 Ct. Treatment with sarkosyl or NaDC of 16 heat treated 5-strain cocktails of verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) increased the mean Ct values by 8.15 or 6.82 Ct, respectively. Those mean values were significantly (p<0.05) different. When used to enumerate viable E. coli in suspensions treated with lactic acid or in mixtures of viable E. coli and E. coli inactivated by peroxyacetic acid, the slopes relating the Ct values from sarkosyl treated samples to the numbers of viable E. coli were 2.24 and 2.47, respectively, with regression coefficient values ≥0.85. The findings show that sarkosyl was more effective than NaDC for dissipation of PMA-barrier properties of membranes of inactivated E. coli cells. Viable E. coli in mixtures of viable E. coli and E. coli inactivated by heat, lactic acid or peroxyacetic acid could be reliably enumerated by sarkosyl PMA-qPCR. PMID:24445114

  16. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rama, A. R.; Aguilera, A.; Melguizo, C.; Caba, O.; Prados, J.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment. PMID:26648599

  17. Initiatives and resources to promote antimicrobial stewardship.

    PubMed

    Paño-Pardo, José Ramón; Campos, José; Natera Kindelán, Clara; Ramos, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    The development of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) requires institutional support. However, obtaining sufficient institutional support is often a complex task that requires convincing the hospital's managers of the benefits of these programs. Additionally, in the design and implementation of an ASP, antimicrobial stewardship (AS) leaders need tools for diverse purposes, such as measuring antimicrobial consumption, education and training and designing protocols. In this review we provide useful information for AS promoters to facilitate the task of designing and implementing an ASP. First, we summarize information about various institutions that promote AS and include evidence that supports the need for and benefits of these programs. Then, several campaigns promoting AS are described. Finally, online resources for professionals dealing with AS are briefly summarized.

  18. Pharmacological repression of PPARγ promotes osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Marciano, David P; Kuruvilla, Dana S; Boregowda, Siddaraju V; Asteian, Alice; Hughes, Travis S; Garcia-Ordonez, Ruben; Corzo, Cesar A; Khan, Tanya M; Novick, Scott J; Park, HaJeung; Kojetin, Douglas J; Phinney, Donald G; Bruning, John B; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Griffin, Patrick R

    2015-06-12

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is the master regulator of adipogenesis and the pharmacological target of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of insulin sensitizers. Activation of PPARγ by TZDs promotes adipogenesis at the expense of osteoblast formation, contributing to their associated adverse effects on bone. Recently, we reported the development of PPARγ antagonist SR1664, designed to block the obesity-induced phosphorylation of serine 273 (S273) in the absence of classical agonism, to derive insulin-sensitizing efficacy with improved therapeutic index. Here we identify the structural mechanism by which SR1664 actively antagonizes PPARγ, and extend these findings to develop the inverse agonist SR2595. Treatment of isolated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with SR2595 promotes induction of osteogenic differentiation. Together these results identify the structural determinants of ligand-mediated PPARγ repression, and suggest a therapeutic approach to promote bone formation.

  19. Pharmacological Repression of PPARγ Promotes Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marciano, David P.; Kuruvilla, Dana S.; Boregowda, Siddaraju V.; Asteian, Alice; Hughes, Travis S.; Garcia-Ordonez, Ruben; Corzo, Cesar A.; Khan, Tanya M.; Novick, Scott J.; Park, HaJeung; Kojetin, Douglas J.; Phinney, Donald G.; Bruning, John B.; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is the master regulator of adipogenesis and the pharmacological target of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of insulin sensitizers. Activation of PPARγ by TZDs promotes adipogenesis at the expense of osteoblast formation, contributing to their associated adverse effects on bone. Recently we reported the development of PPARγ antagonist SR1664, designed to block the obesity induced phosphorylation of serine 273 (S273) in the absence of classical agonism, to derive insulin sensitizing efficacy with improved therapeutic index. Here we identify the structural mechanism by which SR1664 actively antagonizes PPARγ, and extend these findings to develop the inverse agonist SR2595. Treatment of isolated bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with SR2595 promotes induction of osteogenic differentiation. Together these results identify the structural determinants of ligand mediated PPARγ repression, and suggest a therapeutic approach to promote bone formation. PMID:26068133

  20. Universal light-switchable gene promoter system

    DOEpatents

    Quail, Peter H.; Huq, Enamul; Tepperman, James; Sato, Sae

    2005-02-22

    An artificial promoter system that can be fused upstream of any desired gene enabling reversible induction or repression of the expression of the gene at will in any suitable host cell or organisms by light is described. The design of the system is such that a molecule of the plant photoreceptor phytochrome is targeted to the specific DNA binding site in the promoter by a protein domain that is fused to the phytochrome and that specifically recognizes this binding site. This bound phytochrome, upon activation by light, recruits a second fusion protein consisting of a protein that binds to phytochrome only upon light activation and a transcriptional activation domain that activates expression of the gene downstream of the promoter.

  1. Does workplace health promotion decrease medical claims?

    PubMed

    Wheat, J R; Graney, M J; Shachtman, R H; Ginn, G L; Patrick, D L; Hulka, B S

    1992-01-01

    We examined the relationship between workplace health promotion and medical claims in 38 textile plants, considering also the effects of demographic and contextual variables (i.e., average worker age, sex ratio, racial composition, plant product, and access to medical services). Number of claims per worker varied threefold among plants but was independent of plant workforce's sex ratio, racial composition, and access to medical services. Worker age predicted claims; in a linear regression model, age, sex, race, plant product, and access explained 23% of variance in claims. Health promotion was also related to claims, and its inclusion in the model (with interaction terms involving plant product) explained 54% of variance in claims, with the deletion of race, sex, and access from the reduced model. We concluded that effective health promotion must address the contexts of different types of plant product.

  2. Promotional literature: how do we critically appraise?

    PubMed

    Shetty, V V; Karve, A V

    2008-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of new and generic drugs coming into the market. The busy practitioner obtains the information from various sources, of which promotional literature forms an important source. The promotional literature provided by the pharmaceutical companies cannot be entirely relied upon; moreover, very few physicians are equipped with the skills of critically appraising it. The new drug should be relevant to the clinician's practice in terms of population studied, the disease and the need for new treatment. The methodology of the study should be carefully judged to determine the authenticity of the evidence. The new drug should be preferred over the existing one if it offers clear advantages in terms of safety, tolerability, efficacy and price. Critical appraisal of promotional literature can provide valuable information to the busy physician to practice evidence-based medicine. PMID:18626173

  3. [Health promotion in the Pankararu indigenous community].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jonas Welton Barros; Aquino, Jael Maria; Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to know how the Pankararu indigenous perceive their health situation and identify actions they prioritize as necessary to promote health in their community. Qualitative research, in which the declarations collected were subjected to the technique of analyzing the Collective Subject Discourse. It was identified that in the indigenous perception, as the health status of their community, there is a lack of general assistance, and a lack of professionals to assist them meeting their needs. In relation to actions that the Indigenous prioritize as necessary to promote the health of their community, it was highlighted provision of health unit with trained professionals and access to health education actions. It was, thus, proposed an overhaul of the organizations and establishments of the subsystems in promoting indigenous health. PMID:23032334

  4. Alternative promoters of gene MAGE4a

    SciTech Connect

    De Plaen, E.; Naerhuyzen, B.; De Smet, C.

    1997-03-01

    Gene MAGE-4 (HGMW-approved symbol MAGE4) is expressed in several types of tumors, but not in normal tissues, except testis and placenta. The 5{prime} end of this gene contains eight homologous exons spread over a 5.8-kb region. These exons are alternatively spliced to a unique second exon and a unique third exon, which encodes a protein of 317 amino acids. The analysis of transcripts found in testis, placenta, and a sarcoma cell line showed that each of the alternative first exons is used in at least one of these tissues. Various regions of the promoter of the fifth alternative exon (1.5) were cloned in a luciferase reporter plasmid, and the constructs were transfected in a sarcoma cell line that expresses MAGE-4. Two Ets motifs located between positions -70 and -29 relative to the transcription start site were found to drive 55% of the promoter activity. A region containing an Sp1 consensus binding site located upstream of the two Ets motifs was found to be responsible for 44% of the transcriptional activity. MAGE-4a promoters 1.4 and 1.6, which also contain the Sp1 and the two Ets binding motifs, supported a level of transcription comparable to that of promoter 1.5, whereas promoter 1.1, which contains only one Ets binding site, was sixfold less active. In line with observations made with gene MAGE-1 (HGMW-approved symbol MAGE1), we found that promoter 1.5 stimulated a high level of transcription in a melanoma cell line that does not express MAGE-4. This suggests that the tumor-specific expression of MAGE genes is not determined by the presence of specific transcription factors. 26 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Beyond Grade Retention and Social Promotion: Promoting the Social and Academic Competence of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Pletcher, Sarah M. W.; Graydon, Kelly; Schnurr, Britton L.; Nickerson, Amanda B.; Kundert, Deborah K.

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, amidst the current context emphasizing educational standards and accountability, the practice of grade retention has increased. The call for an end to social promotion has generated a variety of recommendations and legislation regarding promotion policies. This context has served as a catalyst for numerous debates regarding…

  6. Streamlining Appointment, Promotion, and Tenure Procedures to Promote Early-Career Faculty Success.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon B; Hollerbach, Ann; Donato, Annemarie Sipkes; Edlund, Barbara J; Atz, Teresa; Kelechi, Teresa J

    2016-01-01

    A critical component of the progression of a successful academic career is being promoted in rank. Early-career faculty are required to have an understanding of appointment, promotion, and tenure (APT) guidelines, but many factors often impede this understanding, thwarting a smooth and planned promotion pathway for professional advancement. This article outlines the steps taken by an APT committee to improve the promotion process from instructor to assistant professor. Six sigma's DMAIC improvement model was selected as the guiding operational framework to remove variation in the promotion process. After faculty handbook revisions were made, several checklists developed, and a process review rubric was implemented; recently promoted faculty were surveyed on satisfaction with the process. Faculty opinions captured in the survey suggest increased transparency in the process and perceived support offered by the APT committee. Positive outcomes include a strengthened faculty support framework, streamlined promotion processes, and improved faculty satisfaction. Changes to the APT processes resulted in an unambiguous and standardized pathway for successful promotion. PMID:27649591

  7. Conceptualizing Parental Autonomy Support: Adolescent Perceptions of Promotion of Independence versus Promotion of Volitional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc; Beyers, Wim; Ryan, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    In current research on parenting, 2 ways of conceptualizing perceived parental autonomy support can be distinguished. Parental autonomy support can be defined in terms of promotion of independence (PI) or in terms of promotion of volitional functioning (PVF). This study aimed to establish the empirical distinctiveness of both conceptualizations…

  8. Patient Education and Health Promotion: Clinical Health Promotion--The Conceptual Link.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraher, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Presents a model linking health promotion, health education, and patient education. The bases for distinctions between health education, patient education, and clinical health promotion are examined. The linking elements of the model are patient role, relationships adopted, and focus of the encounter; i.e., disease process vs. disease management.…

  9. A Menagerie of Promotional Characters: Promoting Food to Children through Food Packaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; Innes-Hughes, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which (1) promotional characters are used on food packaging for healthful and less-healthful food and (2) different companies use this persuasive marketing strategy. Design: Cross-sectional supermarket audit of all food and beverages featuring promotional characters on the packaging. Setting: Three Australian…

  10. 22-Oxocholestanes as plant growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Zeferino-Diaz, Reyna; Hilario-Martinez, J Ciciolil; Rodriguez-Acosta, Maricela; Sandoval-Ramirez, Jesus; Fernandez-Herrera, Maria A

    2015-06-01

    The spirostanic steroidal side-chain of diosgenin and hecogenin was modified to produce 22-oxocholestane derivatives. This type of side-chain was obtained in good yields through a straightforward four-step pathway. These compounds show potent brassinosteroid-like growth promoting activity evaluated via the rice lamina joint inclination bioassay. This is the first report of steroidal skeletons bearing the 22-oxocholestane side-chain and preserving the basic structure (A-D rings) from their corresponding parent compounds acting as plant growth promoters.

  11. 22-Oxocholestanes as plant growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Zeferino-Diaz, Reyna; Hilario-Martinez, J Ciciolil; Rodriguez-Acosta, Maricela; Sandoval-Ramirez, Jesus; Fernandez-Herrera, Maria A

    2015-06-01

    The spirostanic steroidal side-chain of diosgenin and hecogenin was modified to produce 22-oxocholestane derivatives. This type of side-chain was obtained in good yields through a straightforward four-step pathway. These compounds show potent brassinosteroid-like growth promoting activity evaluated via the rice lamina joint inclination bioassay. This is the first report of steroidal skeletons bearing the 22-oxocholestane side-chain and preserving the basic structure (A-D rings) from their corresponding parent compounds acting as plant growth promoters. PMID:25795152

  12. A liberal arts health promotion course.

    PubMed

    McClary, C; Pyeritz, E; Bruce, W; Henshaw, E

    1992-09-01

    With a grant from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, the University of North Carolina at Asheville and the Mountain Area Health Education Center established a campus health promotion program that also trained family practice residents in health promotion skills. The heart of the program was a 3-credit course that emphasized stress management, aerobic conditioning, interpersonal relationship skills, and nutrition. Follow-ups after 2 years revealed that 90% of the students who responded said the course had had some lasting effect on their lives.

  13. Strengthen Context To Enhance Health Promotion Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofian, Neal; Newton, Daniel; DeClaire, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Highlights one strategy to improve health promotion delivery and generate better outcomes by creating "Microcultures of Meaning" (MOMs), which are intended to provide a context to help people learn and take action. The issue introduces key theoretical concepts associated with the MOM methodology, describes the scientific rationale, discusses…

  14. Building Community for Effective Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.; Engstrom, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Health promotion on campuses has two audiences or targets: individuals and the community. Through strategies of leadership, consensus development, and community service, college and university communities cannot only change social norms, but more critically, found and nurture a flexible, gentle network of caring and connectedness that pulls people…

  15. Why We Need to Stop Promoting Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollard, Mindy Miner

    2009-01-01

    Book displays have always been an important part of the library field. However, despite all the time and effort, children do not read them. In this article, the author stresses the need to stop promoting reading. Instead, she encourages library media specialists to help children find reading material they will be eager to read.

  16. Collaborative Leadership for Promoting Effective School Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Bennat; And Others

    1994-01-01

    When initiating major structural change in schools, collaboration among educators, community members, and business persons is vital. This publication describes the efforts of the Ysleta (Texas) Independent School District, which successfully used collaboration to promote effective school change. Within the district, the Del Valle High School has…

  17. 12 CFR 4.64 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Comptroller for Resource Management, engages in promotion and outreach activities designed to identify MWOBs and IDOBs capable of providing goods and services needed by the OCC, to facilitate interaction between... that community. The Outreach Program is designed to facilitate OCC's participation in...

  18. Our Foundation: Understanding and Promoting Youth Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Carrie

    2001-01-01

    Examines how libraries can encourage and increase youth access to information. Discusses the role of the school library media center; law, illegal information, and censorship; parental rights; information policy; and promoting youth access before a challenge occurs in the library. (AEF)

  19. Promoting Physical Activity in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Joel; Lindsay, Elizabeth A.; Wilson, Douglas M.C.

    1991-01-01

    The principle barriers preventing health care professionals from promoting physical activity include an incomplete understanding of the evidence linking physical activity and health, difficulty in translating research findings into a feasible and efficacious clinical intervention, resistance to adopting a preventive orientation, and concerns about the risks of physical activity. Low level activities likely provide benefit with little risk. PMID:21229089

  20. A Rural Citizens Health Promotion Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Mary; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a health promotion demonstration project which addressed the health problem of hypertension, as related to variables of excercise, weight, blood pressure measurement and reduction, medication compliance, and nutritional practices. Participants (N=18) were senior citizens who were associated with a small, rural, predominantly…

  1. Environmental Health Promotion: Progress and Future Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Shobha; Dearry, Allen

    2004-01-01

    Health promotion seeks to provide practitioners of medicine and public health as well as members of the public with the information, resources, and tools that they can use to improve health and well-being. This goal is consonant with that of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), namely, to improve public health outcomes via research,…

  2. Mental Health Promotion Education in Multicultural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanlou, Nazilla

    2003-01-01

    A mental health promotion perspective provides a system-based understanding of relationships between culture and health. Educating nurses for multicultural practice should adopt an interdisciplinary approach that fosters critical awareness of diverse influences on mental health and their intersections. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)

  3. Promoting Dignity: The Ethical Dimension of Health.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, David R

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the limitations of a strict scientific account of the causes of unhealthy behaviors, based on the standards promoted in evidence-based medicine, where randomized controlled trials are seen to provide the gold standard for establishing the validity of different explanations. The article critiques this account based on its disputed assumption that human free will does not exist, and thus, human autonomy and moral responsibility are an illusion. By denying human autonomy, the naturalistic paradigm also denies the possibility of human dignity. In contrast, the article describes and explains a humanistic account of human agency where human beings are characterized by the capacity to choose how to live their lives based on values that matter. Based on this humanistic framework, the article explains why dignity is an essential dimension of human health and well-being and describes key research challenges in moving the field of health promotion in a more humanistic direction. The article concludes with the recommendation to expand the goal of health promotion beyond physical fitness and to reorient the methods of research toward articulating values that matter and promoting human dignity. PMID:26861794

  4. Marketing and Promoting Literacy with Webinars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2012-01-01

    This report offers practical suggestions for literacy practitioners and program administrators on how to use webinar and webcasting technologies to promote and market literacy. The report is divided into sections on how to use webinars for learners, for staff and volunteers and to engage the general community. A checklist of tips to use on the day…

  5. Using "Prediction" to Promote Mathematical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ok-Kyeong; Kasmer, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces prediction as a useful tool to promote mathematical reasoning. First, the article addresses prediction expectations in state standards and gives examples. It also provides a classroom example and activities to illustrate what prediction can look like and how it can serve as a building block for the development of students'…

  6. Promotion and resignation in employee networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jia; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Linyan; Wan, Xue-Song; Yu, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Enterprises have put more and more emphasis on data analysis so as to obtain effective management advices. Managers and researchers are trying to dig out the major factors that lead to employees' promotion and resignation. Most previous analyses are based on questionnaire survey, which usually consists of a small fraction of samples and contains biases caused by psychological defense. In this paper, we successfully collect a data set consisting of all the employees' work-related interactions (action network, AN for short) and online social connections (social network, SN for short) of a company, which inspires us to reveal the correlations between structural features and employees' career development, namely promotion and resignation. Through statistical analysis, we show that the structural features of both AN and SN are correlated and predictive to employees' promotion and resignation, and the AN has higher correlation and predictability. More specifically, the in-degree in AN is the most relevant indicator for promotion, while the k-shell index in AN and in-degree in SN are both very predictive to resignation. Our results provide a novel and actionable understanding of enterprise management and suggest that to enhance the interplays among employees, no matter work-related or social interplays, can be helpful to reduce staffs' turnover risk.

  7. Puppets Promoting Engagement and Talk in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Shirley; Naylor, Stuart; Keogh, Brenda; Maloney, Jane; Downing, Brigid

    2008-01-01

    Research into classroom interactions has shown that talk that promotes reasoning can help children in their learning of science. Such talk can only be generated when teachers are willing to take a dialogic approach that is stimulating and provides opportunities for children to articulate their ideas. This research set out to determine whether the…

  8. Promoting Workplace Literacy and Basic Skills Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A.; Ott, Joyce; Wilson, Kathleen

    This document is intended to help literacy practitioners and others in South Carolina promote workplace literacy and basic skills development programs. The introduction examines the following topics: South Carolina's current workforce and its outlook; the definitions of literacy and workplace literacy; the need for workplace literacy and basic…

  9. Promotion of Efficient Use of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Misuriello; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-01-25

    The Department of Energy funded the Alliance to Save Energy to promote the efficient use of energy under a multiyear cooperative agreement. This funding allowed the Alliance to be innovative and flexible in its program development, and to initiate and enhance projects it would otherwise not have been able to pursue. The program period was 1999 through 2004. The mission of the Alliance to Save Energy is to promote energy efficiency domestically and worldwide. The Alliance followed this mission by working closely with consumers, government, policy makers, and energy efficient product and service providers. The projects that were initiated by the Alliance included communication and consumer education, policy analysis and research, the promotion of interaction among the energy efficiency industry, and international energy efficiency programs. The funding from the Department of Energy allowed the Alliance to study new issues in energy efficiency, draw public attention to those issues, and create targeted programs, such as the Efficient Windows Collaborative or the Green Schools program, which now function on their own to promote energy efficiency in important areas.

  10. Promoting Sex Education for a Healthy Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaitsev, G. K.; Zaitsev, A. G.

    2006-01-01

    The increased rates of deviations in sexual behavior among young people and the number of divorces among young married families provide evidence of the urgent relevance of valeological/health-promoting sex education for the young people of Russia. This article discusses scientific and practical experience from the implementation of program…

  11. Promoting Geographic Information System Usage across Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Shaun; Kinikin, Janae

    2004-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss how they implemented and promoted Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at Weber State University (WSU), a four-year public institution with two campuses. GIS is a type of computer system made of hardware, software, and data that allows the mapping of spatially related layers that have a common…

  12. Promoting Transfer by Grounding Complex Systems Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Wilensky, Uri

    2008-01-01

    Understanding scientific phenomena in terms of complex systems principles is both scientifically and pedagogically important. Situations from different disciplines of science are often governed by the same principle, and so promoting knowledge transfer across disciplines makes valuable cross-fertilization and scientific unification possible.…

  13. Promoting Learning for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastergeorge, Ann M.

    2007-01-01

    Many schools may not be fully prepared to provide the learning environments required by the growing number of autistic children. It is imperative for school administrators and educators to be aware of factors that promote and facilitate learning for students diagnosed with autism, each of whom requires special education services in order to reach…

  14. Promoting Reading and Writing in Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister

    1997-01-01

    Notes Head Start's obligation to promote literacy skills; presents pertinent strategies: (1) encourage families to talk with and read to children; (2) read to children every day; (3) create a print-rich environment; and (4) infuse reading and writing activities throughout the curriculum. Discusses importance of focusing on language and literacy…

  15. Promoting the Priorities of Practitioner Research Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    One of the aims of the Library and Information Science Research Coalition is to promote library and information science practitioner research. Successfully meeting this aim should result in greater use of the existing knowledge base and the creation of new knowledge on Library and Information Science (LIS) practice. LIS practitioner engagement in…

  16. Parent Involvement, Business Partnerships Promote Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Danny D.

    1994-01-01

    To tap the resources, knowledge, and expertise of parents, a West Virginia middle school initiated a parent-involvement program in fall 1992. The parents created their own program, the Red Apple Corps, which planned and promoted a back-to-school day, a birthday bulletin board, a tutoring program, a school pride award, and the school newspaper.…

  17. School Health Promotion and Teacher Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jourdan, Didier; Simar, Carine; Deasy, Christine; Carvalho, Graça S.; McNamara, Patricia Mannix

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Health and education are inextricably linked. Health promotion sits somewhat uncomfortably within schools, often remaining a marginal aspect of teachers' work. The purpose of this paper is to examine the compatibility of an HP-initiative with teacher professional identity. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research design was…

  18. A Typology of Relapse Promoting Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul

    Outcome data on smoking cessation has emphasized that most people have difficulty not in quitting smoking, but in maintaining cessation. An attempt was made to develop a more meaningful typology of relapse-promoting situations using a sample of 183 exsmokers who called a telephone hotline seeking help to stay away from cigarettes. Two higher order…

  19. Promoting Active Lifestyles--A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Deb; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of articles that address the theme of promoting active lifestyles through education. Some topics are facilities and equipment, how fear plays a part in limiting participation in physical activity, working with disabled as well as aging persons, the use of water activities, and instructor accountability. (GLR)

  20. Promoting the Department within the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Gustav W.

    In the face of declining college enrollment and increased budget cuts, the speech communication department at the University of Nebraska devised a successful strategy to preserve and promote itself within the university. Outside authorities were selected for a department review committee. At the graduate level, the areas of concentration were…

  1. Health Promoting Schools: Initiatives in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…

  2. 20 Ways To Promote Phonemic Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Angela; Conderman, Greg

    2002-01-01

    This article presents 20 activities to promote phonemic awareness in students, including teaching nursery rhymes, playing the "I Spy" game using initial sounds of words, creating a sound box, having students sort picture cards based on initial sounds, playing phoneme deletion games, and having students clap and count syllables. (Contains 4…

  3. Health promotion and health for all.

    PubMed

    Samiel, S

    2000-01-01

    The recognition that health is intimately related to economic status, education, physical living conditions, culture, history, issues of gender and human rights, the level of peace and safety, and the life people live, is not entirely new. The health sector has been making its way towards this position for a very long time. The literature describes recognition of the connection between living conditions and health status from the early 19th century. To ensure that people live in societies that create health, there is a need to first recognize the following: that there are multiple and diverse forces within society which create or undermine health; and that most of the factors which are essential for a healthy community reside outside the formal health sector. Action to create healthy societies with healthy people then must tap multiple power sources and involve broad collaboration and alliances. The health promotion strategies of the Caribbean Health Promotion Charter and the Ottawa Charter are outlined. Some of these strategies include the establishment of public policies on health, creation of supportive environments, empowerment of communities through community action, promotion of personal health skills, reorientation of health services, and the need to create alliances. The health promotion is an approach, which respects people's rights to healthy living and is based on the recognition that health is the result of an interconnection between all aspects of life. The strategy can best be achieved through full participation of the various sectors, interest groups and communities in a society. PMID:12322459

  4. Symposium Promotes Technological Literacy through STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havice, Bill; Marshall, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a symposium which promotes technological literacy through science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The three-day symposium titled, "The Anderson, Oconee, Pickens Symposium on Teaching and Learning STEM Standards for the 21st Century," was held August 4-6, 2008 at the Tri-County Technical College (TCTC)…

  5. Developing Partnerships to Promote Local Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters-Bayer, Ann; van Veldhuizen, Laurens; Wettasinha, Chesha; Wongtschowski, Mariana

    2004-01-01

    Local innovation in agriculture and natural resource management is the process through which individuals or groups discover or develop new and better ways of managing resources, building on and expanding the boundaries of their existing knowledge. Prolinnova (Promoting Local Innovation) is a NGO-led global partnership programme that is being built…

  6. Management Strategies for Promoting Teacher Collective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Eric C. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to validate a theoretical model for developing teacher collective learning by using a quasi-experimental design, and explores the management strategies that would provide a school administrator practical steps to effectively promote collective learning in the school organization. Twenty aided secondary schools in Hong Kong were…

  7. Reflection a neglected art in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul

    2007-10-01

    Evaluation and quality assurance have, over time, become the bedrock of health promotion practice in ensuring effectiveness and efficiency of programme planning and delivery. There has been less emphasis, however, on formal recognition of the contribution of the personal characteristics and perspectives of those who plan and deliver programmes and to the more subtle underlying effects of prevailing societal and professional norms. This paper seeks to highlight the neglect of formal reflection as a key professional skill in professional health promotion practice. It outlines key theories underpinning the development of the concepts of reflection and reflective practice. The role of reflection in critical health education as it contributes to critical consciousness raising is highlighted through its contribution to the empowerment of change agents in a societal change context. A conceptual typology of reflective practice is described which provides a flexible structure with which professionals can reflect on the role of self, the context and the process of health promotion programme planning. Its use is illustrated from the author's published work in health promotion which is related to prevention of workplace violence. PMID:17071850

  8. Physical Activity Promotion and School Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Jackson, Allen W.; Payne, V. Gregory

    1999-01-01

    This report examines school physical education (PE) and how it can be an important part of the national physical activity promotion effort. Section 1 introduces the issue of youth activity and PE, noting that schools and universities must reintroduce daily, quality physical activity as a key component of comprehensive education. Section 2…

  9. Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, Roseville. Food and Nutrition Service.

    "Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work" is a Minnesota program based on the USDA's Team Nutrition program. The program's goal is to improve the health of children through school meals and nutrition education. This is accomplished by empowering schools to serve meals meeting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and motivating children in…

  10. Worksite Health Promotion. Special Reference Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostby, Jan M.

    This bibliography is a selection of citations dealing with various aspects of worksite health promotion. The first section contains general interest publications found in popular newspapers and magazines. The second section contains citations and abstracts taken from the Food and Nutrition Information Center. This section includes reference…

  11. Promoting Reasoning through the Magic V Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Leicha A.; Widjaja, Wanty; Loong, Esther Yook-Kin; Vale, Colleen; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reasoning in mathematics plays a critical role in developing mathematical understandings. In this article, Bragg, Loong, Widjaja, Vale & Herbert explore an adaptation of the Magic V Task and how it was used in several classrooms to promote and develop reasoning skills.

  12. Novel proteinase inhibitor promotes resistance to insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) and its protein are identified in response to insect feeding on B. vulgaris seedlings. BvSTI is cloned into an expression vector with constitutive promoter and transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plants to assess BvSTI’s ability to ...

  13. Entomology: Promoting Creativity in the Science Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcay, Behiye B.

    2013-01-01

    A class activity has been designed to help fourth grade students to identify basic insect features as a means of promoting student creativity while making an imaginary insect model. The 5Es (Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend [or Elaborate], and Evaluate) learning cycle teaching model is used. The 5Es approach allows students to work in small…

  14. Health Promotion by Social Cognitive Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandura, Albert

    2004-01-01

    This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior,…

  15. Pediatric Interventions To Promote Picture Book Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needlman, Robert; And Others

    Pediatricians can play a role in promoting family literacy. Boston City Hospital has developed a model program that integrates family literacy into pediatric primary care, and has designed a program of research to evaluate its effects. The program has three components. In the waiting room, volunteers model for parents how to listen, question,…

  16. Waging a Battle to Promote Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Suzanne Liacos

    2010-01-01

    As advocates for reading, librarians cannot help but love a reading program. In this article, the author talks about the Battle of the Books, a reading enrichment program that had been in place since 1996. Battle of the Books promotes reading among middle school students by offering interesting books and a trivia-type competition. The author…

  17. Diversity ? Inclusion: Promoting Integration in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    I argue that enrollment of a diverse student body is but a pragmatic first step toward the broader social goal of inclusion and ask whether motives for campus diversification are aligned with pedagogic goals. I address this question by focusing on inclusion, namely, organizational strategies and practices that promote meaningful social and…

  18. Health Promotion and the Costs of Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Alan H.

    1989-01-01

    As industry, individuals, and insurance providers realize the benefits of disease prevention, the demand for information and services will grow. Health promotion activities should be tapered to individual needs and resource requirements of the institution planning the program. Programs should include screening procedures to identify underlying…

  19. Promoting Dignity: The Ethical Dimension of Health.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, David R

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the limitations of a strict scientific account of the causes of unhealthy behaviors, based on the standards promoted in evidence-based medicine, where randomized controlled trials are seen to provide the gold standard for establishing the validity of different explanations. The article critiques this account based on its disputed assumption that human free will does not exist, and thus, human autonomy and moral responsibility are an illusion. By denying human autonomy, the naturalistic paradigm also denies the possibility of human dignity. In contrast, the article describes and explains a humanistic account of human agency where human beings are characterized by the capacity to choose how to live their lives based on values that matter. Based on this humanistic framework, the article explains why dignity is an essential dimension of human health and well-being and describes key research challenges in moving the field of health promotion in a more humanistic direction. The article concludes with the recommendation to expand the goal of health promotion beyond physical fitness and to reorient the methods of research toward articulating values that matter and promoting human dignity.

  20. Promoting Systems Thinking through Biology Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riess, Werner; Mischo, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    This study's goal was to analyze various teaching approaches within the context of natural science lessons, especially in biology. The main focus of the paper lies on the effectiveness of different teaching methods in promoting systems thinking in the field of Education for Sustainable Development. The following methods were incorporated into the…

  1. Promoting Vocational Education and Your Individual Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Mary Sweeney

    This manual contains information that vocational education teachers and directors can use to promote their individual programs and also the merits of vocational education. Information is organized into five specific areas: (l) internal network--the school; (2) external network--community support systems; (3) advisory board committees; (4) fairs,…

  2. Promoting Conceptual Understanding via Adaptive Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jacob P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of a scalable concept map based navigation system for a digital textbook. A literature review has been conducted to identify possible methods to promote conceptual understanding in the context of a digital textbook, and these hypothesized solutions will be evaluated through…

  3. Promoting Mental Model Building in Astronomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ian; Barker, Miles; Jones, Alister

    2003-01-01

    While astronomy has recently re-emerged in many science curricula, there remain unresolved teaching and learning difficulties peculiar to astronomy education. This paper argues that mental model building, the core process in astronomy itself, should be reflected in astronomy education. Also, this crucial skill may promote a better understanding of…

  4. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  5. "Concreteness Fading" Promotes Transfer of Mathematical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Nicole M.; Fyfe, Emily R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that educators should avoid concrete instantiations when the goal is to promote transfer. However, concrete instantiations may benefit transfer in the long run, particularly if they are "faded" into more abstract instantiations. Undergraduates were randomly assigned to learn a mathematical concept in one of three…

  6. Promoting Diversity in Early Child Care Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Michal; Kankesan, Tharsni; Zhang, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Preschool-aged children are aware of differences in the race and abilities of the people around them. Given this awareness it is important to promote children's acceptance of diversity in the preschool period. The goals of this study were to assess the extent to which child care centres provide diversity instruction through classroom activities,…

  7. Promoting maternal health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Seipel, M M

    1992-08-01

    Most maternal deaths are preventable, yet more than 500,000 women die annually worldwide. However, the risk of maternal mortality is unevenly distributed; 99 percent of all maternal deaths occur in developing countries. This article examines the causes of this disparity and suggests several recommendations for social workers to promote maternal health in developing countries. PMID:1526599

  8. Health Promoting Schools: Consensus, Strategies, and Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Gagnon, Faith A.; Stewart, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011 colloquium at the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study where 40 people from five continents came together to share their global and regional experience surrounding…

  9. Method for promoting Michael addition reactions

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Pankaj V.; Vietti, David E.; Whitman, David William

    2010-09-21

    Homogeneously dispersed solid reaction promoters having an average particle size from 0.01 .mu.m to 500 .mu.m are disclosed for preparing curable mixtures of at least one Michael donor and at least one Michael acceptor. The resulting curable mixtures are useful as coatings, adhesives, sealants and elastomers.

  10. [Gender sensitive health promotion and prevention].

    PubMed

    Kolip, P

    2008-01-01

    Numerous gender differences in health-related behaviour are relevant in the planning of health promotion and prevention. More men than women consume amounts of alcohol that are a risk to their health. Tobacco consumption has fallen slightly among men but has risen among women. Women eat more healthy food. Man behave risky in leisure time and traffic, thus their mortality rates due to accidents are much higher, especially in young age groups. The epidemiological data lead to the conclusion that gender sensitive health promotion and prevention is necessary. Gender mainstreaming is declared as the main strategy to enhance gender equity in health. The paper focuses on the public health action cycle and demonstrates that at each step gender mainstreaming improves the quality of intervention. To implement gender mainstreaming in health promotion and prevention, a process of sensitization has to be initialized. An instrument is presented that supports this process at the foundation "Health Promotion Switzerland". A short description of some examples of gender adequate interventions is given at the end of the paper.

  11. [Promotion of healthy lifestyles among shift workers].

    PubMed

    Morreale, R; Ghiglioni, G; Bregoli, B; Corli, M

    2006-01-01

    A group of 50 shift workers were subjected to a programme of physical activity and balanced diet. The aim of this study was to promote a healthy lifestyle thus helping to prevent cardiovascular diseases, stress and to reduce alcohol and smoking habits.

  12. Promoting Civil Discourse in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnie, Billie F.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers are responsible for what happens in their classrooms, and promoting civil discourse should be among their top priorities. Not only should they model civil speech and behavior, but they also should establish clear boundaries for students, create a climate that nourishes courteous exchange, and help students build vocabularies that enable…

  13. 7 CFR 1280.118 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... information and public relations with emphasis on new marketing strategies, to present a favorable image of U... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion. 1280.118 Section 1280.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  14. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  15. Promoting Integrity through Standards of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komives, Susan R.; Arminio, Jan

    2011-01-01

    For over 30 years, the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) has developed and promulgated standards of practice for quality programs and services. The standards are designed intentionally to promote student learning and developmental outcomes through a self-assessment process. CAS has coalesced professional…

  16. Promoting wellness of peer providers through coaching.

    PubMed

    Brice, George H; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Gill, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Peer wellness coaching is workforce innovation that empowers individuals with mental and substance use disorders to achieve recovery. This article briefly describes how this approach can help peer providers develop self-care skills to improve job tenure and promote satisfaction. Promising results of this new approach are presented.

  17. MERIT RATING FOR SALARY INCREASES AND PROMOTIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOLIN, JOHN G.; MUIR, JOHN W.

    DEMANDS FOR QUALITY EDUCATION HAVE EMPHASIZED THE NEED FOR OBJECTIVE MERIT RATING OF TEACHERS FOR PROMOTION AND SALARY INCREASES. THE STUDY REVIEWS MERIT-RATING LITERATURE, ANALYZES RATING SCALES AND PROCEDURES, AND MAKES RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING MERIT PROGRAMS. THE WRITERS CONCLUDE THAT A COMBINATION OF SUPERORDINATE, PEER,…

  18. Perspective Taking Promotes Action Understanding and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Martin Hard, Bridgette; Tversky, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    People often learn actions by watching others. The authors propose and test the hypothesis that perspective taking promotes encoding a hierarchical representation of an actor's goals and subgoals-a key process for observational learning. Observers segmented videos of an object assembly task into coarse and fine action units. They described what…

  19. Promoting Technology in the Media Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    Media specialists are now in charge of computers, printers, software programs and every other technological advancement, as technology have become an important aspect of education. The key points to be kept in mind while promoting technology in the media center are stated.

  20. Promoting clinical scholarship through scholarly writing.

    PubMed

    Pullen, R L; Reed, K E; Oslar, K S

    2001-01-01

    To promote clinical scholarship, critical thinking, problem-solving ability, and effective writing and research skills in their students, faculty replaced their major care plan with a capstone scholarly paper. The authors discuss how faculty, who serve as mentors, guide their students through the development of the scholarly paper.

  1. Psychosocial environment: a health promotion model.

    PubMed

    Kar, S B

    1983-01-01

    This article presents a multidimensional model of psychosocial determinants of health behavior for health promotion research and policy analysis. Frequently, health promotion focuses almost exclusively on intrapsychic determinants and on individual level behavior. Based upon Field Theory and attitude theories, this proposed model holds that in populations with comparable sociodemographic and biological status (exogenous variables) a health behavior is a function of direct and interaction effects of five key intrapsychic and external variables. These are: behavioral intentions, social support, accessibility of means for action, personal autonomy, and action situation. Empirical tests with cross-cultural studies in Venezuela, Kenya, and the Philippines provide substantial support for the model. The findings suggest that while health promotion strategies should deal with intrapsychic determinants of behavior, key extrapsychic factors (such as social support, quality and accessibility of health care measures, and situational factors) all have direct and independent effects on health behavior as well. Health promotion research and interventions which aim exclusively at intrapsychic determinants would thus have rather limited overall value. The article discusses key research and policy implications of the model presented.

  2. Promotion of School Children's Invention in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    In the late 1980s an American newspaper reported that by one measure--the number of patents cited by successive inventors--Japan overtook the United States in the number of inventions produced during the 1970s. The reasons for this are not clear, but educational efforts promoting creative behaviors in school children are probably essential and…

  3. Promoting Student Engagement in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundick, Matthew J.; Quaglia, Russell J.; Corso, Michael J.; Haywood, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Much progress has been made toward a greater understanding of student engagement and its role in promoting a host of desirable outcomes, including academic outcomes such as higher achievement and reduced dropout, as well as various well-being and life outcomes. Nonetheless, disengagement in our schools is widespread. This may…

  4. Survivin promoter polymorphism and cervical carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Borbély, A A; Murvai, M; Szarka, K; Kónya, J; Gergely, L; Hernádi, Z; Veress, G

    2007-01-01

    Background Survivin, a novel member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family, plays an important role in cell cycle regulation. A common polymorphism at the survivin gene promoter (G/C at position 31) was shown to be correlated with survivin gene expression in cancer cell lines. Aim To investigate whether this polymorphism could be involved in the development of human papillomavirus (HPV)‐associated cervical carcinoma. Methods Survivin promoter polymorphism was detected in patients with cervical cancer, in patients with equivocal cytological atypia and in a control population using polymerase chain reaction (PCR‐restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and PCR‐single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. HPV was typed in patients with cervical cancer and cytological atypia using PCR‐RFLP. Results No statistically significant differences were found in the genotype distributions of the survivin promoter variants among our study groups. Conclusions The survivin promoter polymorphism at position 31 may not represent an increased risk for the development of cervical cancer, at least in the population studied here. PMID:16714396

  5. Using the Internet To Promote Your Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of camps having a World Wide Web site and tips for choosing a Web provider. Offers recommendations for creating a Web page, including determining a goal, outlining content, choosing a graphic style and colors, testing the Web design, and promoting the Web site in camp brochures. Includes sample Web sites and Web resources.…

  6. Promoting Self-Expression in Classroom Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraldi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Self-expression is a key concept for sociological studies on childhood since it is the cue for children's self-socialization and agency. Hence promoting children's agency and social participation requires their self-expression to be facilitated in their interaction with adults. The analysis in this article of a set of interactions in Italian…

  7. Alternatives to Social Promotion and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Studies indicate that retention negatively impacts students' behavior, attitude, and attendance, but it is still practiced in schools around the country. Social promotion undermines students' futures when they fail to develop critical study and job-related skills; however, it too is still practiced in many schools throughout the United…

  8. CREG1 promotes angiogenesis and neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chenghui; Fang, Pu; Zhang, Huimin; Tao, Jie; Tian, Xiaoxiang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Mingyu; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Hong; Han, Yaling

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis has long been considered as an important strategy for ischemic injury. It has been reported that cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG1) promotes human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, migration, and protects endothelial cell (EC) from apoptosis. However, its potential effect on angiogenesis remains undefined. In the present study, we investigated the role and mechanisms of CREG1 in promoting angiogenesis. We found that adenovirus-transduced CREG1 expression in HUVECs increases EC tube formation in matrigel and promotes neovascularization in matrigel plugs grafted into wild type mice. In addition, adenoviral CREG1 expression enhances filopodia formation, which is accompanied by increased expression of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and activation of its downstream effector Cdc42. Hindlimb perfusion was significantly reduced after femoral artery ligation in CREG1 heterozygous knockout mice. Finally, adenoviral CREG1 was injected intramuscularly in gastrochemius and partially restores ischemic hindlimb perfusion. Our results demonstrated that CREG1 increases EC filopodia formation and vascular assembly via ILK-Cdc42 activation and promotes neovascularization, which might be a therapeutic target for ischemic injury. PMID:24896341

  9. Characteristics of a strong promoter from figwort mosaic virus: comparison with the analogous 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus and the regulated mannopine synthase promoter.

    PubMed

    Sanger, M; Daubert, S; Goodman, R M

    1990-03-01

    A segment of DNA from the genome of figwort mosaic virus (FMV) strain M3 possesses promoter activity when tested in electroporated protoplasts from, and transgenic plants of, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc. The 1.1 kb DNA segment, designated the '34S' promoter, is derived from a position on the FMV genome comparable to the position on the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) genome containing the 35S promoter. The 34S and 35S promoters show approximately 63% nucleotide homology in the TATA, CCACT, and -18 to +1 domains, but in sequences further upstream the homology drops below 50%. Promoter activities were estimated using beta-glucuronidase and neomycin phosphotransferase II reporter gene systems. The activity of the 34S promoter segment approximates that of the 35S promoter in both protoplast transient expression assays and in stably transformed tobacco plants. Truncation of 5' sequences from the 34S promoter indicates that promoter strength depends upon DNA sequences located several hundred nucleotides upstream from the TATA box. In leaf tissue the 34S promoter is 20-fold more active than the mannopine synthase (MAS) promoter from Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA. The 34S promoter lacks the root-specific and wound-stimulated expression of the MAS promoter, showing relatively uniform root, stem, leaf, and floral activities.

  10. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  11. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  12. Solving the Problem of Promoting Distance Library Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyss, Paul Alan

    2007-01-01

    Promoting services is a conundrum for any organization. This is especially true for an academic library promoting distance library services. Systems thinking, process mapping, team learning, and diffusion of information practices offer ways of thinking about promoting services that help those involved find novel ways to approach promoting distance…

  13. Transcriptional directionality of the human insulin-degrading enzyme promoter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lang; Wang, Pan; Ding, Qingyang; Wang, Zhao

    2013-10-01

    Unidirectional promoters dominate among mammalian genomes. However, the mechanism through which the transcriptional directionality of promoters is accomplished remains to be clarified. Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a ubiquitously expressed zinc metalloprotease, whose promoter contains a CpG island. We previously showed that the basal promoter region of mouse IDE has bidirectional transcriptional activity, but an upstream promoter element blocks its antisense transcription. Therefore, we wonder whether the human IDE promoter contains an analogous element. Similarly, the basal promoter region of human IDE (-102 ~ +173 and -196 ~ +173 relative to the transcription start site) showed bidirectional transcriptional activity. However, the region from -348 to +173 could only be transcribed from the normal orientation, implying that an upstream promoter element between -348 and -196 blocks the antisense transcription of the human IDE promoter. Through promoter deletion and mutagenesis analysis, we mapped this element precisely and found that the upstream promoter element locates between -318 and -304. Furthermore, the transcription-blocking elements in the mouse and human IDE promoters inhibited the transcription of the SV40 promoter when put downstream of it. In conclusion, we identify an upstream promoter element which blocks the antisense transcription of the human IDE promoter. Our studies are helpful to clarify the transcriptional directionality of promoters.

  14. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of...

  15. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of...

  16. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of...

  17. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the...

  18. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the...

  19. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301...

  20. SALES PROMOTION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUBIN, ALAN J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A BASIC COURSE IN SALES PROMOTION IS DESIGNED FOR NOT LESS THAN FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) ASPECTS OF SALES PROMOTION, (2) SALES PROMOTION TECHNIQUES, (3) NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING, (4) WINDOW AND INTERIOR DISPLAY PRINCIPLES, AND (5) SELECTED PROMOTIONAL MEDIA AND DEVICES. POSSIBLE TEACHERS INCLUDE A SALES PROMOTION…

  1. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of...

  2. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of...

  3. Institutional Barriers and Strategies to Health Promotion: Perspectives and Experiences of Cape Verdean Women Health Promoters

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Health promoters are critical resources in improving health care access and in providing culturally-responsive health education and interventions to members of medically underserved communities. Little is known about the barriers that impede their health-promoting practices and the strategies used to overcome these barriers. Methods In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Cape Verdean women health promoters to examine their perspectives on barriers and strategies to health promotion. Results Findings revealed how their health promotion practice is influenced by a host of institutional barriers, including insufficient program funding, restrictive institutional policies, and a lack of culturally and linguistically appropriate health resources. Adaptive and resistant strategies used to counterbalance these barriers included forming supportive internal and external alliances, having a good mentor, and “making noise.” Discussion A complete and effective model of health promotion must embrace not only individual-level factors, but also macro-level factors, thus emphasizing the need for institutional change to enhance health-promoting practices. PMID:18307042

  4. Classification of Promoters Based on the Combination of Core Promoter Elements Exhibits Different Histone Modification Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Natsume-Kitatani, Yayoi; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Four different histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4; two subunits each) constitute a histone octamer, around which DNA wraps to form histone-DNA complexes called nucleosomes. Amino acid residues in each histone are occasionally modified, resulting in several biological effects, including differential regulation of transcription. Core promoters that encompass the transcription start site have well-conserved DNA motifs, including the initiator (Inr), TATA box, and DPE, which are collectively called the core promoter elements (CPEs). In this study, we systematically studied the associations between the CPEs and histone modifications by integrating the Drosophila Core Promoter Database and time-series ChIP-seq data for histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K27ac, and H3K27me3) during development in Drosophila melanogaster via the modENCODE project. We classified 96 core promoters into four groups based on the presence or absence of the TATA box or DPE, calculated the histone modification ratio at the core promoter region, and transcribed region for each core promoter. We found that the histone modifications in TATA-less groups were static during development and that the core promoters could be clearly divided into three types: i) core promoters with continuous active marks (H3K4me3 and H3K27ac), ii) core promoters with a continuous inactive mark (H3K27me3) and occasional active marks, and iii) core promoters with occasional histone modifications. Linear regression analysis and non-linear regression by random forest showed that the TATA-containing groups included core promoters without histone modifications, for which the measured RNA expression values were not predictable accurately from the histone modification status. DPE-containing groups had a higher relative frequency of H3K27me3 in both the core promoter region and transcribed region. In summary, our analysis showed that there was a systematic link between the existence of the CPEs and the dynamics, frequency and influence

  5. The Realities of Management Promotion. An Investigation of Factors Influencing the Promotion of Managers in Three Major Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruderman, Marian N.; Ohlott, Patricia J.

    Promotions, particularly management promotions, play an important role in organizations. Despite their importance for both individuals and organizations, little is known about how and why most promotions occur. This publication presents findings of a study that examined 64 promotions that occurred in three Fortune 500 companies from 1986-89. The…

  6. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency

  7. Cloning of a marine cyanobacterial promoter for foreign gene expression using a promoter probe vector

    SciTech Connect

    Sode, Koji; Hatano, Naoaki; Tatara, Masahiro

    1996-06-01

    A marine cyanobacterial promoter was cloned to allow efficient foreign gene expression. This was carried out using chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) as a marker protein. For rapid and simple measurement of CAT activity, a method based on a fluorescently labeled substrate was improved by utilizing HPLC equipped with a flow-through fluorescent spectrophotometer. This method was used in conjunction with a newly constructed promoter probe vector. Cyanobacterial transformants, harboring plasmid containing a cloned 2-kbp marine cyanobacterial genomic fragment, showed a 10-fold higher CAT activity, compared with that achieved using the kanamycin-resistant gene promoter. From the sequence analysis of the cloned fragment, a putative promoter region was found. 20 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. [New chance for health promotion law. Summary of the article "New chance for health promotion law"].

    PubMed

    Hajen, L

    2006-01-01

    At the end of the last term of legislation the health promotion law which had passed Parliament (Bundestag) finally failed as it was not agreed upon by the States (Länder). The complex interrelation between federal level, states and social insurance organisations was neglected. The coalition of Christian Democrats and Social Democrats which was formed in autumn 2005 has agreed to launch a health promotion law, but precise statements to contentious issues are missing.

  9. Survey of health promotion organisational arrangements and levels of service for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Jones, K E; Brockway, C R; Atkinson, R E

    1995-01-01

    This study was promoted by the Executive Committee of the Association of Directors of Public Health when faced with the need to examine the organisation of and quantify health promotion arrangements in the Health Districts of England and Wales, resulting from the concerns of many of the members of the Association. These concerns were based on the views that health promotion is a key purchasing function of the District Health Authorities and must be appropriately and effectively structured and adequately resourced if the requirements of The Health of The Nation are to be fulfilled. There are many aspects to health promotion work and the delivery of health promotion services which will need addressing in the new commissioning environment of the NHS. A need was recognised for up-to-date data about health promotion services to inform a necessary debate about future arrangements, since it appeared that organisational change was being driven by influences unconnected with the possibly most appropriate structure of health promotion departments and which relate to a contemporary view of health promotion. Reducing the size and cutting the cost of commissioning authorities was perceived as one of the most important influences. A postal questionnaire survey to all Health District and Regional Health Authorities in England and Wales was conducted covering questions about the present organisational arrangements and levels of service, and soliciting the opinions of those canvassed. A total of 185 District and Regional Health Authorities, effectively reduced to 171 because of mergers, was sent questionnaires, of which 141 were completed and returned, giving a response rate of 82.5%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Promoters of Escherichia coli versus Promoter Islands: Function and Structure Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Panyukov, Valeriy V.; Ozoline, Olga N.

    2013-01-01

    Expression of bacterial genes takes place under the control of RNA polymerase with exchangeable σ-subunits and multiple transcription factors. A typical promoter region contains one or several overlapping promoters. In the latter case promoters have the same or different σ-specificity and are often subjected to different regulatory stimuli. Genes, transcribed from multiple promoters, have on average higher expression levels. However, recently in the genome of Escherichia coli we found 78 regions with an extremely large number of potential transcription start points (promoter islands, PIs). It was shown that all PIs interact with RNA polymerase in vivo and are able to form transcriptionally competent open complexes both in vitro and in vivo but their transcriptional activity measured by oligonucleotide microarrays was very low, if any. Here we confirmed transcriptional defectiveness of PIs by analyzing the 5′-end specific RNA-seq data, but showed their ability to produce short oligos (9–14 bases). This combination of functional properties indicated a deliberate suppression of transcriptional activity within PIs. According to our data this suppression may be due to a specific conformation of the DNA double helix, which provides an ideal platform for interaction with both RNA polymerase and the histone-like nucleoid protein H-NS. The genomic DNA of E.coli contains therefore several dozen sites optimized by evolution for staying in a heterochromatin-like state. Since almost all promoter islands are associated with horizontally acquired genes, we offer them as specific components of bacterial evolution involved in acquisition of foreign genetic material by turning off the expression of toxic or useless aliens or by providing optimal promoter for beneficial genes. The putative molecular mechanism underlying the appearance of promoter islands within recipient genomes is discussed. PMID:23717391

  11. Shear stress-induced transcriptional regulation via hybrid promoters as a potential tool for promoting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Michal; Barac, Yaron D; Yahav, Hava; Wolfovitz, Efrat; Einav, Shmuel; Resnick, Nitzan; Binah, Ofer

    2009-01-01

    Among the key effects of fluid shear stress on vascular endothelial cells is modulation of gene expression. Promoter sequences termed shear stress response elements (SSREs) mediate the responsiveness of endothelial genes to shear stress. While previous studies showed that shear stress responsiveness is mediated by a single SSRE, these endogenous promoters often encode for multiple SSREs. Moreover, hybrid promoters encoding a single SSRE rarely respond to shear stress at the same magnitude as the endogenous promoter. Thus, to better understand the interplay between the various SSREs, and between SSREs and endothelial-specific sequences (ESS), we generated a series of constructs regulated by SSREs cassettes alone, or in combination with ESS, and tested their response to shear stress and endothelial specific expression. Among these constructs, the most responsive promoter (NR1/2) encoded a combination of two GAGACC/SSREs, the Sp1/Egr1 sequence, as well as a TPA response element (TRE). This construct was four- to five-fold more responsive to shear stress than a promoter encoding a single SSRE. The expression of constructs containing other SSRE combinations was unaffected or suppressed by shear stress. Addition of ESS derived from the Tie2 promoter, either 5' or 3' to NR1/2 resulted in shear stress transcriptional suppression, yet retained endothelial specific expression. Thus, the combination and localization order of the various SSREs in a single promoter is crucial in determining the pattern and degree of shear stress responsiveness. These shear stress responsive cassettes may prove beneficial in our attempt to time the expression of an endothelial transgene in the vasculature.

  12. Promoting healthy ageing: the importance of lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nicola

    The UK has a rapidly ageing population with increased healthcare needs. While the population can, on the whole, look forward to longer years of good health, many people will be living with one or more chronic conditions. However, modifiable lifestyle, such as a healthy diet and physical activity, can encourage healthy ageing and improve the quality of life of older people. Nurses are ideally placed to provide advice on nutrition and physical activity to older people in an effort to reduce the burden of age-related disease. This is likely to require new ways of working, with nurses being trained to recognise opportunities for health promotion with older patients, as well as how to plan for and conduct health promotion so that it becomes integral to practice. PMID:21287926

  13. Promoted Combustion Test Data Re-Examined

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michelle; Jeffers, Nathan; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Promoted combustion testing of metallic materials has been performed by NASA since the mid-1980s to determine the burn resistance of materials in oxygen-enriched environments. As the technolo gy has advanced, the method of interpreting, presenting, and applying the promoted combustion data has advanced as well. Recently NASA changed the bum criterion from 15 cm (6 in.) to 3 cm (1.2 in.). This new burn criterion was adopted for ASTM G 124, Standard Test Method for Determining the Combustion Behavior- of Metallic Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres. Its effect on the test data and the latest method to display the test data will be discussed. Two specific examples that illustrate how this new criterion affects the burn/no-bum thresholds of metal alloys will also be presented.

  14. Cu(II) Promotes Amyloid Pore Formation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hangyu; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Stanciu, Lia A

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease. There is controversy in the field over the question of which species of the aggregates, fibrils or protofibrils, are toxic. Moreover, compelling evidence suggested the exposure to heavy metals to be a risk of PD. Nevertheless, the mechanism of metal ions in promoting PD remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the structural basis of Cu(II) induced aggregation of α-synuclein. Using transmission electron microscopy experiments, Cu(II) was found to promote in vitro aggregation of α-synuclein by facilitating annular protofibril formation rather than fibril formation. Furthermore, neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils accompanied by considerable decrease of β-sheet content. These results strongly support the hypothesis that annular protofibrils are the toxic species, rather than fibrils, thereby inspiring us to search novel therapeutic strategies for the suppression of the toxic annular protofibril formation. PMID:26129772

  15. [The transversality and health promotion schools].

    PubMed

    Gavidia Catalán, V

    2001-01-01

    The following article shows the evolution of the schools contribution to the Health Education of children and young people. Moving on from the traditional concept of health, today, Health Education has a general and global meaning, which encompasses all of the physical, psychological and social aspects of health. These aspects define the characteristics of the "Healthy School". The need to broach the "transversal subject" offers schools the possibility of developing "transversality" in the Health Education. Finally, the concept of promoting health defines, together with the other subjects, that which we understand by "the heath promotion schools", which attempts to progress the full integration of schools in the society in which they are located. PMID:11833260

  16. Moonlight project promotes energy-saving technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, A.

    1986-01-01

    In promoting energy saving, development of energy conservation technologies aimed at raising energy efficiency in the fields of energy conversion, its transportation, its storage, and its consumption is considered, along with enactment of legal actions urging rational use of energies and implementation of an enlightenment campaign for energy conservation to play a crucial role. Under the Moonlight Project, technical development is at present being centered around the following six pillars: (1) large scale energy saving technology; (2) pioneering and fundamental energy saving technology; (3) international cooperative research project; (4) research and survey of energy saving technology; (5) energy saving technology development by private industry; and (6) promotion of energy saving through standardization. Heat pumps, magnetohydrodynamic generators and fuel cells are discussed.

  17. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  18. National news. Indonesia. Promoting ARH awareness.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    Limited availability of IEC materials is hindering efforts to promote adolescent reproductive health in Indonesia. This, in turn, reflects a lack of awareness on the part of policy makers and community leaders about the importance of interventions directed at young people. Two ongoing United Nations Population Fund projects seek to promote awareness of adolescent reproductive health needs in Jakarta, Yogyakarta, West Java, Bali, Lampung, and Riau. A coalition of governmental and nongovernmental agencies has been established to implement the project. By project end in 1999, government agencies and nongovernmental organizations are expected to have incorporated youth-oriented activities into their overall programming and formulated relevant policy guidelines. Another project (Strengthening Strategies to Improve Adolescent Reproductive Health through Materials Development), implemented by the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association, is focusing on the development and distribution of reproductive health materials for specific target audiences.

  19. Cu(II) promotes amyloid pore formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hangyu; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Stanciu, Lia A

    2015-08-14

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease. There is controversy in the field over the question of which species of the aggregates, fibrils or protofibrils, are toxic. Moreover, compelling evidence suggested the exposure to heavy metals to be a risk of PD. Nevertheless, the mechanism of metal ions in promoting PD remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the structural basis of Cu(II) induced aggregation of α-synuclein. Using transmission electron microscopy experiments, Cu(II) was found to promote in vitro aggregation of α-synuclein by facilitating annular protofibril formation rather than fibril formation. Furthermore, neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils accompanied by considerable decrease of β-sheet content. These results strongly support the hypothesis that annular protofibrils are the toxic species, rather than fibrils, thereby inspiring us to search novel therapeutic strategies for the suppression of the toxic annular protofibril formation.

  20. Promoted Combustion Test Data Re-Examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Michelle; Jeffers, Nathan; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2010-09-01

    Promoted combustion testing of metallic materials has been performed by NASA since the mid-1980s to determine the burn resistance of materials in oxygen-enriched environments. As the technology has advanced, the method of interpreting, presenting, and applying the promoted combustion data has advanced as well. Recently NASA changed the burn criterion from 15 cm(6 in.) to 3 cm(1.2 in.). This new burn criterion was adopted for American Society for Testing and Materials(ASTM) G124, Standard Test Method for Determining the Combustion Behavior of Metallic Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres. Its effect on the test data and the latest method to display the test data will be discussed. Two specific examples that illustrate how this new criterion affects the burn/no-burn thresholds of metal alloys will also be presented.

  1. Promoting healthy ageing: the importance of lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nicola

    The UK has a rapidly ageing population with increased healthcare needs. While the population can, on the whole, look forward to longer years of good health, many people will be living with one or more chronic conditions. However, modifiable lifestyle, such as a healthy diet and physical activity, can encourage healthy ageing and improve the quality of life of older people. Nurses are ideally placed to provide advice on nutrition and physical activity to older people in an effort to reduce the burden of age-related disease. This is likely to require new ways of working, with nurses being trained to recognise opportunities for health promotion with older patients, as well as how to plan for and conduct health promotion so that it becomes integral to practice.

  2. [Active aging promotion and education for health].

    PubMed

    Aparicio Alonso, Concepción

    2004-01-01

    Some years ago, the phenomenon of demographic aging started an intense debate about its supposed negatives effects on the economic progress of a population. Health advances and improved living conditions have gradually increased the health level the elderly have, embellishing the initial perspectives; the elderly live more years but, moreover, they have a better quality of life. For the WHO, to favor an active aging process presents a challenge, avoiding incapacities and dependencies, the real causes of the increase in social-health costs. Following the guidelines established by the II World Assembly on Aging, last year our country passed the Action Plan for Elderly People 2003-2007; this plan contemplates as one of its objectives "Promote the autonomy and the full and active participation by the elderly people in the community" and points out that the strategy to achieve this objective consists in "pushing the measures which Promote Health".

  3. Health Promoting Hospitals Model in Iran

    PubMed Central

    YAGHOUBI, Maryam; JAVADI, Marzieh; BAHADORI, Mohammadkarim; RAVANGARD, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hospitals are the central entity of each health care system and Health Promoting Hospitals (HPH) was launched by WHO in 1988. However, there has not been any accurate and detailed model for establishing a HPH in Iran up to now. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors affecting the establishment of a health promoting hospital in Iran using factor analysis method. Methods: This applied, cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Iran in four steps. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used for determining factors affecting the establishment of a HPH. Results: Society (0.97) and Policy (0.74) had the highest regression weights (effects) and management had the lowest one. Conclusion: Community assessment was the most important dimension of proposed conceptual model for establishing a HPH. PMID:27141499

  4. Drug promotion: the Third World revisited.

    PubMed

    Silverman, M; Lee, P R; Lydecker, M

    1986-01-01

    In 1973 and 1980 surveys, much of the promotion of prescription drugs in the Third World was found to be marked by gross exaggeration of clinical claims and glossing over of possible serious or fatal adverse reactions. In an expanded survey of the information distributed in 1984 to physicians in the United States, the United Kingdom, and 28 developing nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, striking changes were noted. Many of the pharmaceutical firms were found to be showing more restraint in limiting their claims in the Third World to those which can be supported by scientific evidence, and far more willingness to disclose serious hazards. The companies discarding a double standard in drug promotion have apparently not suffered any significant loss of profits. There is, however, evident need for further improvement by both multinational and domestic companies. The present study covered 1069 products representing 63 drug entities and fixed combinations, marketed by 303 companies.

  5. Toward a post-Charter health promotion.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald

    2011-12-01

    The past 25 years have seen enormous shifts in the environmental, political, economic and social landscapes that condition people's abilities to be healthy. Climate change is now a reality. China, India, Brazil and other 'developing' countries are emerging as new axes of political and economic power. Global capitalism has become increasingly predatory and crisis ridden, a result of unregulated and irresponsible greed of unimaginable scale. The elite response has been the increased erosion of the health and other social protection policies of redistribution that characterized the first-world run-up to the Ottawa Charter. These new realities challenge health promoters in ways unforeseen a quarter century ago. It is imperative that local determinants of health, to which health promoters give their attention, be traced to broader, even global levels of determinants. Support for groups acting at these levels should become a fundamental practice tenet. So, too, should advocacy for the social state, in which progressive taxation and hefty social investment blunt the health inequalities created by unfettered markets. As environmental and economic insecurities and inequalities increase in many of the world's countries, so does the risk of xenophobia and conflict. The roots of racism are complex; but weeding them out becomes another health promotion practice of the new millennium. There are some hopeful signs of health promoting political change, much of it emanating now from countries in the global South; but the threat of a return to health behaviourism in the face of the new global pandemic of chronic disease is real and must be confronted.

  6. Promoting Institutional Change Through Bias Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Carnes, Molly; Devine, Patricia G.; Isaac, Carol; Manwell, Linda Baier; Ford, Cecelia E.; Byars-Winston, Angela; Fine, Eve; Sheridan, Jennifer Thurik

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation and others conclude that institutional transformation is required to ensure equal opportunities for the participation and advancement of men and women in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Such transformation requires changing the habitual attitudes and behaviors of faculty. Approaching implicit bias as a remediable habit, we present the theoretical basis and conceptual model underpinning an educational intervention to promote bias literacy among university faculty as a step toward institutional transformation regarding gender equity. We describe the development and implementation of a Bias Literacy Workshop in detail so others can replicate or adapt it to their setting. Of the 220 (167 faculty and 53 nonfaculty) attendees from the initial 17 departments/divisions offered this workshop, all 180 who completed a written evaluation found the workshop at least “somewhat useful” and 74% found it “very useful.” Over 68% indicated increased knowledge of the workshop material. Of the 186 participants who wrote a commitment to engage in new activities to promote gender equity, 87% incorporated specific workshop content. Twenty-four participants were interviewed 4–6 months after attending the workshop; 75% of these not only demonstrated increased bias awareness, but described plans to change—or had actually changed—behaviors because of the workshop. Based on our sample of faculty from a Midwestern university, we conclude that at least one third of STEMM faculty who are invited will attend a 2.5-hr Bias Literacy Workshop, that nearly all will find it useful, and that most will complete a written commitment to promoting gender equity. These findings suggest that this educational intervention may effectively promote institutional change regarding gender equity. PMID:22822416

  7. Promoting better care for stigmatised patients.

    PubMed

    Pottle, Jessica; Marotta, Jill

    2014-12-31

    This article discusses the role of nurses and nurse leaders in the prevention and resolution of patient stigmatisation. The multiple nurse, patient and environmental factors that contribute to difficulties in nurse-patient interactions are outlined. The antecedents and consequences of patient stigmatisation are discussed and leadership strategies for counteracting and preventing patient stigmatisation are explored. The reader is encouraged to reflect on the role of patient stigmatisation in nursing practice and consider ways to promote better care of stigmatised patients. PMID:25515484

  8. The Conundrum of Online Prescription Drug Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Wanasika, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses pertinent issues from Hyosun Kim’s paper on online prescription drug promotion. The study is well-designed and the findings highlight some of the consequences of the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) decision to deregulate online advertising of prescription drugs. While Kim’s findings confirm some of the early concerns, they also provide a perspective of implementation challenges in the ever-changing technological environment. PMID:27285519

  9. Low income, inequality and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, C

    Drawing on reports and statistics that demonstrate the link between health and low income, this article explains how low income can act as a key health hazard and set off a domino effect involving other health hazards such as substandard housing, pollution and poor social support systems. The author argues that we have still some way to go to put a poverty perspective on strategies to promote positive health.

  10. Management strategies for promoting successful breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Bear, K; Tigges, B B

    1993-06-01

    Clinicians can promote a successful breastfeeding experience by providing support, anticipatory guidance and practical information. This article presents the components of early follow-up and guidelines for assessment. Management strategies for common problems are discussed, such as nipple soreness, cracked nipples, plugged ducts and mastitis, insufficient infant weight gain, perceived inadequacy of milk supply, breast-milk jaundice, sexual adjustment and failure at breastfeeding. Breastfeeding guidelines for employed mothers and adoptive mothers are indicated. PMID:8341432

  11. Antimony promoted bismuth cerium molybdate catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Brazdil, J.F.; Glaeser, L.C.; Grasselli, R.K.

    1990-05-01

    This patent describes an improvement in antimony-promoted bismuth cerium molybdate whereby the tendency of the catalyst to lose efectiveness over time is significantly reduced. This patent describes new catalysts which are also useful in other oxidation-type reactions such as the oxidation of acrolein and methacrolein to produce the corresponding unsaturated aldehydes and acids and the oxydehydrogenation of various olefins such as isoamylenes to produce the corresponding diolefins such as isoprene.

  12. Promoting Successful Cognitive Aging: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Daffner, Kirk R.

    2010-01-01

    Promoting successful cognitive aging is a topic of major importance to individuals and the field of public health. This review presents a coherent framework not only for evaluating factors, protective activities, and enhancing agents that have already been proposed, but also ones that will be put forward in the future. The promotion of successful cognitive aging involves the dual goals of preventing loss of information processing capacity and cognitive reserve, and enhancing brain capacity and cognitive reserve. Four major lines of evidence are available for evaluating whether a proposed factor promotes successful cognitive aging: 1) epidemiologic/cohort studies; 2) animal/basic science studies; 3) human “proof-of-concept” studies; and 4) human intervention studies. Each line of evidence has advantages and limitations that will be discussed. Through illustrative examples, we trace the ways in which each method informs us about the potential value of several proposed factors. Currently, lines of converging evidence allow the strongest case to be made for physical and cognitively stimulating activities. Although epidemiological data seem to favor the use of statins to lower the risk of dementia, more definitive recommendations await further randomized controlled studies. There is presently no clear evidence that antioxidants or Ginkgo biloba promote successful cognitive aging. The impact of resveratrol, fish oil, and a long list of other proposed agents needs to be determined. Clinicians remain well-positioned to identify and aggressively treat vascular risk factors, diabetes, sleep disorders, and other conditions that may reduce brain capacity, and to encourage activities that can build cognitive reserve. PMID:20308777

  13. Greasing the palm: can collectivism promote bribery?

    PubMed

    Mazar, Nina; Aggarwal, Pankaj

    2011-07-01

    Why are there national differences in the propensity to bribe? To investigate this question, we conducted a correlational study with cross-national data and a laboratory experiment. We found a significant effect of the degree of collectivism versus individualism present in a national culture on the propensity to offer bribes to international business partners. Furthermore, the effect was mediated by individuals' sense of responsibility for their actions. Together, these results suggest that collectivism promotes bribery through lower perceived responsibility for one's actions.

  14. Promoting health literacy with orofacial myofunctional patients.

    PubMed

    Reed, Hope C

    2007-11-01

    The definition of health literacy is provided along with information substantiating its importance. Focused initiatives, the consequences of poor health literacy, and at-risk populations are briefly discussed. The focus of this article is the application of health literacy principles to the discipline of orofacial myology and how the promotion of health literacy facilitates positive growth for patients, orfacial myologists, and the professions. The article concludes with a vision for a health literate society. PMID:18942479

  15. Promoting research integrity in the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Tony

    2015-04-01

    Conducting research in a responsible manner in compliance with codes of research integrity is essential. The geosciences, as with all other areas of research endeavour, has its fair share of misconduct cases and causes celebres. As research becomes more global, more collaborative and more cross-disciplinary, the need for all concerned to work to the same high standards becomes imperative. Modern technology makes it far easier to 'cut and paste', to use Photoshop to manipulate imagery to falsify results at the same time as making research easier and more meaningful. So we need to promote the highest standards of research integrity and the responsible conduct of research. While ultimately, responsibility for misconduct rests with the individual, institutions and the academic research system have to take steps to alleviate the pressure on researchers and promote good practice through training programmes and mentoring. The role of the World Conferences on Research Integrity in promoting the importance of research integrity and statements about good practice will be presented and the need for training and mentoring programmes will be discussed

  16. Stress promotes Arabidopsis - Piriformospora indica interaction.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Khabat; Dorcheh, Sedigheh Karimi; Monajembashi, Shamci; Westermann, Martin; Reichelt, Michael; Falkenberg, Daniela; Hemmerich, Peter; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots and promotes plant performance, growth and resistance/tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress. Here we demonstrate that the benefits for the plant increase when the two partners are co-cultivated under stress (limited access to nutrient, exposure to heavy metals and salt, light and osmotic stress, pathogen infection). Moreover, physical contact between P. indica and Arabidopsis roots is necessary for optimal growth promotion, and chemical communication cannot replace the physical contact. Lower nutrient availability down-regulates and higher nutrient availability up-regulates the plant defense system including the expression of pathogenesis-related genes in roots. High light, osmotic and salt stresses support the beneficial interaction between the plant and the fungus. P. indica reduces stomata closure and H2O2 production after Alternaria brassicae infection in leaves and suppresses the defense-related accumulation of the phytohormone jasmonic acid. Thus, shifting the growth conditions toward a stress promotes the mutualistic interaction, while optimal supply with nutrients or low stress diminishes the benefits for the plant in the symbiosis. PMID:27167761

  17. Promotion of responsible drinking in hotels.

    PubMed

    McLean, S; Wood, L J; Montgomery, I M; Davidson, J; Jones, M E

    1994-01-01

    This study reports on an intervention programme to promote responsible drinking in hotels. The licensees of eight hotels agreed to participate in a trial of measures designed to assist patrons to avoid drink-driving, and seven other hotels were used as controls. The interventions acceptable to licensees comprised commercial-quality promotional material with the theme "0.05 Know Your Limits", and a breath analysis machine and poster on its use. Patrons leaving the hotels on Thursday, Friday and Saturday nights were interviewed and breath-tested. Although the intervention material had been seen by one-third of patrons in the intervention hotels, there was no significant difference between them and control hotel patrons in either median BAC or the proportion who were going to drive with BAC over the legal limit. There was poor compliance by hotels with the intervention procedures, indicating that a major impediment to the implementation and evaluation of programmes to promote responsible drinking is a lack of motivation by many licensees, despite support by some licensees and the Australian Hotels Association.

  18. Do remittances promote financial development in Africa?

    PubMed

    Karikari, Nana Kwasi; Mensah, Sam; Harvey, Simon K

    2016-01-01

    The paper seeks to establish whether or not remittances promoted financial developments and explore the traceable causality between remittances and financial developments in some countries in Africa. We examine the association between remittances received and how they affect the availability of credit to private sector, bank deposits intermediated by financial institutions and money supply. We also question whether the development in the financial sector causes higher levels or otherwise of remittances received. This paper uses data on remittance flows to 50 developing countries in Africa from 1990 to 2011 to explore the nexus. The study uses fixed effects and random effect estimations as well as Vector Error Correction Model method on the panel data. The study shows that remittances promote certain aspects of financial development to some extent and better financial system foster receipts of remittances. The effect of causality is seen in the short run and not in the long-run. The study alludes to literature that remittances could promote financial development in the short run and the development of the financial sector helps increase the propensity to remit via formal channels.

  19. Do remittances promote financial development in Africa?

    PubMed

    Karikari, Nana Kwasi; Mensah, Sam; Harvey, Simon K

    2016-01-01

    The paper seeks to establish whether or not remittances promoted financial developments and explore the traceable causality between remittances and financial developments in some countries in Africa. We examine the association between remittances received and how they affect the availability of credit to private sector, bank deposits intermediated by financial institutions and money supply. We also question whether the development in the financial sector causes higher levels or otherwise of remittances received. This paper uses data on remittance flows to 50 developing countries in Africa from 1990 to 2011 to explore the nexus. The study uses fixed effects and random effect estimations as well as Vector Error Correction Model method on the panel data. The study shows that remittances promote certain aspects of financial development to some extent and better financial system foster receipts of remittances. The effect of causality is seen in the short run and not in the long-run. The study alludes to literature that remittances could promote financial development in the short run and the development of the financial sector helps increase the propensity to remit via formal channels. PMID:27398284

  20. Cu(II) promotes amyloid pore formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hangyu; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2015-08-14

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease. There is controversy in the field over the question of which species of the aggregates, fibrils or protofibrils, are toxic. Moreover, compelling evidence suggested the exposure to heavy metals to be a risk of PD. Nevertheless, the mechanism of metal ions in promoting PD remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the structural basis of Cu(II) induced aggregation of α-synuclein. Using transmission electron microscopy experiments, Cu(II) was found to promote in vitro aggregation of α-synuclein by facilitating annular protofibril formation rather than fibril formation. Furthermore, neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils accompanied by considerable decrease of β-sheet content. These results strongly support the hypothesis that annular protofibrils are the toxic species, rather than fibrils, thereby inspiring us to search novel therapeutic strategies for the suppression of the toxic annular protofibril formation. - Highlights: • Cu(II) promoted the annular protofibril formation of α-synuclein in vitro. • Cu(II) postponed the in vitro fibrillization of α-synuclein. • Neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils.

  1. Health promotion: private voluntary organisations in action.

    PubMed

    Arnold, J P

    1998-01-01

    Since the country's independence in 1947, India has come a long way in its efforts to improve health services. One initiative taken by the Government is the involvement of private voluntary organizations (PVOs) in the health promotion activity. Several grant-in-aid schemes have been initiated, whereby PVOs obtain government funding for the provision of services and the promotion of health and family welfare activities. The US Agency for International Development has supported the government in this endeavor. Keeping these in mind, Tamil Nadu Voluntary Health Association, a state-level association of voluntary health organizations such as hospitals, dispensaries and community-based health organizations, worked out a proposal for support and collaboration with the Government of India. This association aims to promote health through networking and coordinating with voluntary organizations, strengthening of nongovernmental organization activities, collection and dissemination of relevant information, lobbying, campaigning and liaisoning for health issues. This article highlights the experience of the Association in conceiving and carrying out its proposal/project. In particular, it describes the planning and implementation of the Integrated Project for Development of Primary Health Care and Women's Welfare in Tamil Nadu as well as the achievements of the project. The main goal of this project is to coordinate with various levels of health services to improve the health status of rural Tamil Nadu. PMID:12349576

  2. Peer Interventions to Promote Health: Conceptual Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Simoni, Jane M.; Franks, Julie C.; Lehavot, Keren; Yard, Samantha S.

    2013-01-01

    Peers have intervened to promote health since ancient times, yet few attempts have been made to describe theoretically their role and their interventions. After a brief overview of the history and variety of peer-based health interventions, a 4-part definition of peer interveners is presented here with a consideration of the dimensions of their involvement in health promotion. Then, a 2-step process is proposed as a means of conceptualizing peer interventions to promote health. Step 1 involves establishing a theoretical framework for the intervention’s main focus (i.e., education, social support, social norms, self-efficacy, and patient advocacy), and Step 2 involves identifying a theory that justifies the use of peers and might explain their impact. As examples, the following might be referred to: theoretical perspectives from the mutual support group and self-help literature, social cognitive and social learning theories, the social support literature, social comparison theory, social network approaches, and empowerment models. PMID:21729015

  3. A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body. We find that few genes are truly ‘housekeeping’, whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles. TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved. Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs. The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses. The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research. PMID:24670764

  4. Brassinosteroids promote Arabidopsis pollen germination and growth.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Frank; Schmalzl, Christina; Englhart, Maria; Bircheneder, Martin; Sprunck, Stefanie

    2014-09-01

    Pollen tubes are among the fastest tip-growing plant cells and represent an excellent experimental system for studying the dynamics and spatiotemporal control of polarized cell growth. However, investigating pollen tube tip growth in the model plant Arabidopsis remains difficult because in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth rates are highly variable and largely different from those observed in pistils, most likely due to growth-promoting properties of the female reproductive tract. We found that in vitro grown Arabidopsis pollen respond to brassinosteroid (BR) in a dose-dependent manner. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth increased nine- and fivefold, respectively, when media were supplemented with 10 µM epibrassinolide (epiBL), resulting in growth kinetics more similar to growth in vivo. Expression analyses show that the promoter of one of the key enzymes in BR biosynthesis, CYP90A1/CPD, is highly active in the cells of the reproductive tract that form the pathway for pollen tubes from the stigma to the ovules. Pollen tubes grew significantly shorter through the reproductive tract of a cyp90a1 mutant compared to the wild type, or to a BR perception mutant. Our results show that epiBL promotes pollen germination and tube growth in vitro and suggest that the cells of the reproductive tract provide BR compounds to stimulate pollen tube growth.

  5. Regulation of Internal Promoters in a Zinc-Responsive Operon Is Influenced by Transcription from Upstream Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Mauro; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Camargo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    In the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 (also known as Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120), a zinc-responsive operon (all4725-all4721) has been described, which contains 4 distinct promoters. The two most upstream ones bind Zur with high affinity, whereas the other two do not or do so with a very low affinity. In this paper, a detailed characterization of the four promoters is presented, showing that all four were induced by metal depletion, and they were constitutively derepressed in a zur mutant, despite the two downstream promoters not being direct targets for this regulator. Crucially, induction by metal depletion of the two downstream promoters was abrogated when transcription initiated at the upstream promoters was interrupted by a polar insertion midway in the operon. In contrast, insertion of a nitrogen-responsive promoter at a roughly similar position provoked the two downstream promoters to adopt a regulatory pattern mimicking that of the inserted promoter. Thus, regulation of the two downstream promoters is apparently influenced by transcription from promoters upstream. Evidence is presented indicating that the activity of the two downstream promoters is kept basal in Anabaena by repression. A regulatory model compatible with these results is proposed, where promoters controlled by repression in bacterial operons may be subjected to a hierarchical regulation depending on their position in the operon. According to this model, internal promoters may respond to stimuli governing the activity of promoters upstream by an indirect regulation and to specific stimuli by a direct regulation. PMID:23316045

  6. High-throughput functional comparison of promoter and enhancer activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thomas A; Jones, Richard D; Snavely, Andrew R; Pfenning, Andreas R; Kirchner, Rory; Hemberg, Martin; Gray, Jesse M

    2016-08-01

    Promoters initiate RNA synthesis, and enhancers stimulate promoter activity. Whether promoter and enhancer activities are encoded distinctly in DNA sequences is unknown. We measured the enhancer and promoter activities of thousands of DNA fragments transduced into mouse neurons. We focused on genomic loci bound by the neuronal activity-regulated coactivator CREBBP, and we measured enhancer and promoter activities both before and after neuronal activation. We find that the same sequences typically encode both enhancer and promoter activities. However, gene promoters generate more promoter activity than distal enhancers, despite generating similar enhancer activity. Surprisingly, the greater promoter activity of gene promoters is not due to conventional core promoter elements or splicing signals. Instead, we find that particular transcription factor binding motifs are intrinsically biased toward the generation of promoter activity, whereas others are not. Although the specific biases we observe may be dependent on experimental or cellular context, our results suggest that gene promoters are distinguished from distal enhancers by specific complements of transcriptional activators. PMID:27311442

  7. Sorption and mineral-promoted transformation of synthetic hormone growth promoters in soil systems.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shen; Kolodziej, Edward P; Cwiertny, David M

    2014-12-24

    This work examines the fate of synthetic growth promoters (trenbolone acetate, melengestrol acetate, and zeranol) in sterilized soil systems, focusing on their sorption to organic matter and propensity for mineral-promoted reactions. In organic-rich soil matrices (e.g., Pahokee Peat), the extent and reversibility of sorption did not generally correlate with compound hydrophobicity (e.g., K(ow) values), suggesting that specific binding interactions (e.g., potentially hydrogen bonding through C17 hydroxyl groups for the trenbolone and melengestrol families) can also contribute to uptake. In soils with lower organic carbon contents (1-5.9% OC), evidence supports sorption occurring in parallel with surface reaction on inorganic mineral phases. Subsequent experiments with pure mineral phases representative of those naturally abundant in soil (e.g., iron, silica, and manganese oxides) suggest that growth promoters are prone to mineral-promoted oxidation, hydrolysis, and/or nucleophilic (e.g., H2O or OH(-)) addition reactions. Although reaction products remain unidentified, this study shows that synthetic growth promoters can undergo abiotic transformation in soil systems, a previously unidentified fate pathway with implications for their persistence and ecosystem effects in the subsurface.

  8. Promoting safe motherhood in rural India.

    PubMed

    Maclean, G

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies some activities performed to promote safe motherhood in rural India. Nurses from a voluntary organization in Hyderabad, India, trained women's groups from 32 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh state over 3 days in 1996 in maternal and child care, health and family welfare, gender issues, sanitation, leadership, literacy, negotiating skills, and health monitoring. The women were encouraged to perform health activities in their villages. In October 1996, a Conference of Women celebrated the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, with women's groups reporting on health activities in specific villages. Each women's group had its own banner. Every woman wore a conference delegate badge. One woman's group was rewarded for making the most significant progress. Participants included women from 29 villages and auxiliary nurse-midwives. For some women, this was the first time away from home. Conference delegates toured the primary health center facilities at Shamirpet and met with staff. The aim was to reduce fear and reluctance to use the services and to promote awareness of available health care. Most villages in India rely on auxiliary nurse-midwives for maternal and child health care. Promotion of safe motherhood requires close cooperation between the auxiliary nurse-midwifes and women's groups. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India is introducing in-service training to improve the clinical skills of auxiliary nurse-midwives in eight states. The nurse-midwives use adapted and new educational material from WHO's safe motherhood midwifery training modules. A workshop was used to introduce the new modules and to propose teaching methods for senior project staff. The five modules include a trainers' manual of educational methods. PMID:12321357

  9. KSHV Rta Promoter Specification and Viral Reactivation.

    PubMed

    Guito, Jonathan; Lukac, David M

    2012-01-01

    Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens whose biological success depends upon replication and packaging of viral genomes, and transmission of progeny viruses to new hosts. The biological success of herpesviruses is enhanced by their ability to reproduce their genomes without producing progeny viruses or killing the host cells, a process called latency. Latency permits a herpesvirus to remain undetected in its animal host for decades while maintaining the potential to reactivate, or switch, to a productive life cycle when host conditions are conducive to generating viral progeny. Direct interactions between many host and viral molecules are implicated in controlling herpesviral reactivation, suggesting complex biological networks that control the decision. One viral protein that is necessary and sufficient to switch latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) into the lytic infection cycle is called K-Rta. K-Rta is a transcriptional activator that specifies promoters by binding DNA directly and interacting with cellular proteins. Among these cellular proteins, binding of K-Rta to RBP-Jk is essential for viral reactivation. In contrast to the canonical model for Notch signaling, RBP-Jk is not uniformly and constitutively bound to the latent KSHV genome, but rather is recruited to DNA by interactions with K-Rta. Stimulation of RBP-Jk DNA binding requires high affinity binding of Rta to repetitive and palindromic "CANT DNA repeats" in promoters, and formation of ternary complexes with RBP-Jk. However, while K-Rta expression is necessary for initiating KSHV reactivation, K-Rta's role as the switch is inefficient. Many factors modulate K-Rta's function, suggesting that KSHV reactivation can be significantly regulated post-Rta expression and challenging the notion that herpesviral reactivation is bistable. This review analyzes rapidly evolving research on KSHV K-Rta to consider the role of K-Rta promoter specification in regulating the progression of KSHV

  10. Promoting safe motherhood in rural India.

    PubMed

    Maclean, G

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies some activities performed to promote safe motherhood in rural India. Nurses from a voluntary organization in Hyderabad, India, trained women's groups from 32 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh state over 3 days in 1996 in maternal and child care, health and family welfare, gender issues, sanitation, leadership, literacy, negotiating skills, and health monitoring. The women were encouraged to perform health activities in their villages. In October 1996, a Conference of Women celebrated the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, with women's groups reporting on health activities in specific villages. Each women's group had its own banner. Every woman wore a conference delegate badge. One woman's group was rewarded for making the most significant progress. Participants included women from 29 villages and auxiliary nurse-midwives. For some women, this was the first time away from home. Conference delegates toured the primary health center facilities at Shamirpet and met with staff. The aim was to reduce fear and reluctance to use the services and to promote awareness of available health care. Most villages in India rely on auxiliary nurse-midwives for maternal and child health care. Promotion of safe motherhood requires close cooperation between the auxiliary nurse-midwifes and women's groups. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India is introducing in-service training to improve the clinical skills of auxiliary nurse-midwives in eight states. The nurse-midwives use adapted and new educational material from WHO's safe motherhood midwifery training modules. A workshop was used to introduce the new modules and to propose teaching methods for senior project staff. The five modules include a trainers' manual of educational methods.

  11. Living conditions and health promotion strategies.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, P J

    2001-03-01

    The paper assesses the empirical evidence concerning the interface between living conditions and health status provided by a number of case studies of urban regeneration in London, and Brighton and Hove. These studies were carried out in the theoretical framework provided by the Cost-effectiveness in Housing Investment programme that has been seeking since 1993 to identify and measure additional 'exported' costs to services such as health, education and policing which derive from poor living conditions. A chronological study of the 'health gain' associated with the Central Stepney Single Regeneration Budget improvement to two run-down estates indicates that a seven-fold health improvement in the rate of 'illness days' experienced has taken place over a four-year period (1996-2000). This 7:1 differential was identical to that found in the synoptic comparison of illness days, and some health and policing costs, between the Stepney area and an area of improved housing in Paddington carried out in 1996. The paper presents an exploratory attempt to list and categorise in various ways the exported costs associated with poor living conditions and offers some preliminary assessment of their measurability. Finally, a number of health promoting strategies that should be borne in mind when carrying out urban renewal programmes are discussed. It is argued that the provision of satisfactory housing is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition to promote good health. Attention must also be paid to community development, especially of 'organic' activities, the quality of services especially in relation to benefits, access to healthy food, crime reduction and, critically, the promotion of jobs and the reduction of poverty.

  12. [Mental health mainstreaming: promotion and recovery].

    PubMed

    Chang, Chueh; Hsieh, Chia-Jung

    2014-02-01

    Mental health is a human right and fundamental to good personal health. Developing, planning, and implementing mental health programs is a key part of health policies worldwide. This paper uses the perspective of "mental health mainstreaming" to define mental health and explore its relationship with mental illness and psychiatric disease. Further, we apply this perspective to Taiwan's three-tiered community mental illness prevention strategy as a reference for mental health promotion and rehabilitation programs in hopes that all healthcare providers help facilitate holistic community health. PMID:24519340

  13. Social marketing: consumer focused health promotion.

    PubMed

    Blair, J E

    1995-10-01

    1. Social marketing provides a theoretical basis to increase awareness of preventable health conditions and to increase participation in wellness programs. 2. The philosophy of social marketing underscores the necessity to be aware of and responsive to the consumer's perception of needs. 3. Social marketing is distinguished by its emphasis on "non-tangible" products such as ideas, attitudes, and lifestyle changes. 4. "Marketing mix" is a social marketing strategy that intertwines elements of product, price, place, and promotion to satisfy needs and wants of consumers. PMID:7575787

  14. A Lewis acid-promoted Pinner reaction

    PubMed Central

    Pfaff, Dominik; Nemecek, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Summary Carbonitriles and alcohols react in a Lewis acid-promoted Pinner reaction to carboxylic esters. Best results are obtained with two equivalents of trimethylsilyl triflate as Lewis acid. Good yields are achieved with primary alcohols and aliphatic or benzylic carbonitriles, but the straightforward synthesis of acrylates and benzoates starting with acrylonitrile and benzonitrile, respectively, is similarly possible. Phenols are not acylated under these reaction conditions. The method has been used for the first total synthesis of the natural product monaspilosin. In the reaction of benzyl alcohols variable amounts of amides are formed in a Ritter-type side reaction. PMID:23946857

  15. Social marketing: consumer focused health promotion.

    PubMed

    Blair, J E

    1995-10-01

    1. Social marketing provides a theoretical basis to increase awareness of preventable health conditions and to increase participation in wellness programs. 2. The philosophy of social marketing underscores the necessity to be aware of and responsive to the consumer's perception of needs. 3. Social marketing is distinguished by its emphasis on "non-tangible" products such as ideas, attitudes, and lifestyle changes. 4. "Marketing mix" is a social marketing strategy that intertwines elements of product, price, place, and promotion to satisfy needs and wants of consumers.

  16. Health-promoting effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Yasuo; MIYOSHI, Noriyuki; ISEMURA, Mamoru

    2012-01-01

    Green tea is manufactured from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis Theaceae and has been regarded to possess anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, and anti-viral effects. Many of the beneficial effects of green tea are related to the activities of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea catechins. For about 20 years, we have engaged in studies to reveal the biological activities and action mechanisms of green tea and EGCG. This review summarizes several lines of evidence to indicate the health-promoting properties of green tea mainly based on our own experimental findings. PMID:22450537

  17. Greasing the palm: can collectivism promote bribery?

    PubMed

    Mazar, Nina; Aggarwal, Pankaj

    2011-07-01

    Why are there national differences in the propensity to bribe? To investigate this question, we conducted a correlational study with cross-national data and a laboratory experiment. We found a significant effect of the degree of collectivism versus individualism present in a national culture on the propensity to offer bribes to international business partners. Furthermore, the effect was mediated by individuals' sense of responsibility for their actions. Together, these results suggest that collectivism promotes bribery through lower perceived responsibility for one's actions. PMID:21685379

  18. Promoting interaction amongst autistic adolescents using robots.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sandra; Santos, Cristina; Soares, Filomena; Ferreira, Manuel; Moreira, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    Most autistic people present some difficulties in developing social behavior, living in their own world. The intent of this study is to improve the social life of adolescents with both autism and mental impairment, with a main focus on promoting their social interaction and communication. An experiment designed to call for the adolescents' attention and enforce their collaboration is described; in it a LEGO MindStorm robot behaves as a mediator/promotor of this interaction. Further, sensory motor coordination and accuracy skills of the adolescents are also slightly explored. Four scenarios were envisaged. Results are described showing the outcomes of the experiment.

  19. Promoting Spontaneous Second Harmonic Generation through Organogelation.

    PubMed

    Marco, A Belén; Aparicio, Fátima; Faour, Lara; Iliopoulos, Konstantinos; Morille, Yohann; Allain, Magali; Franco, Santiago; Andreu, Raquel; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Gindre, Denis; Canevet, David; Sallé, Marc

    2016-07-27

    An organogelator based on the Disperse Red nonlinear optical chromophore was synthesized according to a simple and efficient three-step procedure. The supramolecular gel organization leads to xerogels which display a spontaneous second harmonic generation (SHG) response without any need for preprocessing, and this SHG activity appears to be stable over several months. These findings, based on an intrinsic structural approach, are supported by favorable intermolecular supramolecular interactions, which promote a locally non-centrosymmetric NLO-active organization. This is in sharp contrast with most materials designed for SHG purposes, which generally require the use of expensive or heavy-to-handle external techniques for managing the dipoles' alignment. PMID:27415660

  20. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... marketing, distribution, consumption, or efficient production of hazelnuts. The Board may also provide for... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their...

  1. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... marketing, distribution, consumption, or efficient production of hazelnuts. The Board may also provide for... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their...

  2. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... marketing, distribution, consumption, or efficient production of hazelnuts. The Board may also provide for... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their...

  3. Insulators form gene loops by interacting with promoters in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Erokhin, Maksim; Davydova, Anna; Kyrchanova, Olga; Parshikov, Alexander; Georgiev, Pavel; Chetverina, Darya

    2011-09-01

    Chromatin insulators are regulatory elements involved in the modulation of enhancer-promoter communication. The 1A2 and Wari insulators are located immediately downstream of the Drosophila yellow and white genes, respectively. Using an assay based on the yeast GAL4 activator, we have found that both insulators are able to interact with their target promoters in transgenic lines, forming gene loops. The existence of an insulator-promoter loop is confirmed by the fact that insulator proteins could be detected on the promoter only in the presence of an insulator in the transgene. The upstream promoter regions, which are required for long-distance stimulation by enhancers, are not essential for promoter-insulator interactions. Both insulators support basal activity of the yellow and white promoters in eyes. Thus, the ability of insulators to interact with promoters might play an important role in the regulation of basal gene transcription.

  4. PromoterPlot: a graphical display of promoter similarities by pattern recognition

    PubMed Central

    Di Cara, Alessandro; Schmidt, Karsten; Hemmings, Brian A.; Oakeley, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    PromoterPlot () is a web-based tool for simplifying the display and processing of transcription factor searches using either the commercial or free TransFac distributions. The input sequence is a TransFac search (public version) or FASTA/Affymetrix IDs (local install). It uses an intuitive pattern recognition algorithm for finding similarities between groups of promoters by dividing transcription factor predictions into conserved triplet models. To minimize the number of false-positive models, it can optionally exclude factors that are known to be unexpressed or inactive in the cells being studied based on microarray or proteomic expression data. The program will also estimate the likelihood of finding a pattern by chance based on the frequency observed in a control set of mammalian promoters we obtained from Genomatix. The results are stored as an interactive SVG web page on our server. PMID:15980503

  5. Complementarity among plant growth promoting traits in rhizospheric bacterial communities promotes plant growth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mangal; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Soni, Sumit K; Singh, Rakshapal; Verma, Rajesh K; Kalra, Alok

    2015-10-27

    An assessment of roles of rhizospheric microbial diversity in plant growth is helpful in understanding plant-microbe interactions. Using random combinations of rhizospheric bacterial species at different richness levels, we analysed the contribution of species richness, compositions, interactions and identity on soil microbial respiration and plant biomass. We showed that bacterial inoculation in plant rhizosphere enhanced microbial respiration and plant biomass with complementary relationships among bacterial species. Plant growth was found to increase linearly with inoculation of rhizospheric bacterial communities with increasing levels of species or plant growth promoting trait diversity. However, inoculation of diverse bacterial communities having single plant growth promoting trait, i.e., nitrogen fixation could not enhance plant growth over inoculation of single bacteria. Our results indicate that bacterial diversity in rhizosphere affect ecosystem functioning through complementary relationship among plant growth promoting traits and may play significant roles in delivering microbial services to plants.

  6. Complementarity among plant growth promoting traits in rhizospheric bacterial communities promotes plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mangal; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Soni, Sumit K.; Singh, Rakshapal; Verma, Rajesh K.; Kalra, Alok

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of roles of rhizospheric microbial diversity in plant growth is helpful in understanding plant-microbe interactions. Using random combinations of rhizospheric bacterial species at different richness levels, we analysed the contribution of species richness, compositions, interactions and identity on soil microbial respiration and plant biomass. We showed that bacterial inoculation in plant rhizosphere enhanced microbial respiration and plant biomass with complementary relationships among bacterial species. Plant growth was found to increase linearly with inoculation of rhizospheric bacterial communities with increasing levels of species or plant growth promoting trait diversity. However, inoculation of diverse bacterial communities having single plant growth promoting trait, i.e., nitrogen fixation could not enhance plant growth over inoculation of single bacteria. Our results indicate that bacterial diversity in rhizosphere affect ecosystem functioning through complementary relationship among plant growth promoting traits and may play significant roles in delivering microbial services to plants. PMID:26503744

  7. Un-health promotion: results of a survey of alcohol promotion on television.

    PubMed

    Barton, R; Godfrey, S

    1988-06-01

    To estimate how widely and to whom alcoholic drinks are promoted 1258 television advertisements were studied over a 10 week period that included the Christmas and New Year holidays in 1986-7. A total of 156 advertisements (12%) promoted alcohol, and this percentage increased significantly over the holiday period to 17%. These advertisements were longer than those advertising other products, and just over half (56%) occupied the first position in commercial breaks. During sports programmes and between the hours of 1800 and 1900 there was an increase in the number of advertisements for alcohol, but there was no difference before and after 2100. It was found that the extent and influence of the promotion of alcohol were great and that such advertising is seen by many children and adolescents.

  8. Generation of an Artificial Double Promoter for Protein Expression in Bacillus subtilis through a Promoter Trap System

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingming; Zhang, Weiwei; Ji, Shengyue; Cao, Pinghua; Chen, Yulin; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is an attractive host for production of recombinant proteins. Promoters and expression plasmid backbones have direct impacts on the efficiency of gene expression. To screen and isolate strong promoters, a promoter trap vector pShuttleF was developed in this study. Using the vector, approximately 1000 colonies containing likely promoters from Bacillus licheniformis genomic DNA were obtained. Amongst them, pShuttle-09 exhibited the highest β-Gal activities in both Escherichia coli and B. subtilis. The activity of pShuttle-09 in B. subtilis was eight times of that of the P43 promoter, a commonly used strong promoter for B. subtilis. A sequence analysis showed that pShuttle-09 contained PluxS and truncated luxS in-frame fused with the reporter gene as well as another fragment upstream of PluxS containing a putative promoter. This putative promoter was a hybrid promoter and its β-Gal activity was higher than PluxS. Reconstructing the hybrid promoter from pShuttle-09 to PlapS further improved the β-Gal production by 60%. The usefulness of our promoter trap system is likely due to random shuffling and recombination of DNA fragments and adoption of a rapid and high-throughput screening. Thus, our data provide additional evidence to support the concept of using a promoter trap system to create new promoters. PMID:23409173

  9. 5 CFR 335.103 - Agency promotion programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... origin, nondisqualifying physical handicap, or age, and shall be based solely on job-related criteria. (2... made a matter of record and career ladders must be documented in the promotion plan); (ii) A promotion... competitive promotion action. (vii) Appointments of career SES appointees with competitive...

  10. Marketing: Giveaways that Give Back--Marketing with Promotional Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2006-01-01

    In marketing one's library wares, an effective publicity strategy is to use promotional giveaway materials, mainly personalized items that promote one's resources and services. As with any marketing effort, it is important to be clear about the promotional initiative and whom librarians are attempting to reach. This author emphasizes that…

  11. 46 CFR 80.30 - Promotional literature or advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Promotional literature or advertising. 80.30 Section 80... SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.30 Promotional literature or advertising. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, all promotional literature or advertising in or over any...

  12. 46 CFR 80.30 - Promotional literature or advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Promotional literature or advertising. 80.30 Section 80... SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.30 Promotional literature or advertising. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, all promotional literature or advertising in or over any...

  13. 46 CFR 80.30 - Promotional literature or advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Promotional literature or advertising. 80.30 Section 80... SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.30 Promotional literature or advertising. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, all promotional literature or advertising in or over any...

  14. 46 CFR 80.30 - Promotional literature or advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Promotional literature or advertising. 80.30 Section 80... SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.30 Promotional literature or advertising. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, all promotional literature or advertising in or over any...

  15. 46 CFR 80.30 - Promotional literature or advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Promotional literature or advertising. 80.30 Section 80... SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.30 Promotional literature or advertising. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, all promotional literature or advertising in or over any...

  16. 7 CFR 982.64 - Creditable promotion and advertising reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creditable promotion and advertising reports. 982.64... promotion and advertising reports. Each handler shall file such reports of creditable promotion including paid advertising conducted pursuant to § 982.58 as recommended by the Board and approved by...

  17. 21 CFR 530.4 - Advertising and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising and promotion. 530.4 Section 530.4... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.4 Advertising and promotion. Nothing in this part shall be construed as permitting the advertising or promotion...

  18. 48 CFR 215.371-2 - Promote competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Promote competition. 215....371-2 Promote competition. Except as provided in sections 215.371-4 and 215.371-5, if only one offer... the requirements document should be revised in order to promote more competition (see FAR 6.502(b)...

  19. 48 CFR 215.371-2 - Promote competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Promote competition. 215....371-2 Promote competition. Except as provided in sections 215.371-4 and 215.371-5, if only one offer... the requirements document should be revised in order to promote more competition (see FAR 6.502(b)...

  20. 48 CFR 215.371-2 - Promote competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Promote competition. 215....371-2 Promote competition. Except as provided in sections 215.371-4 and 215.371-5, if only one offer... the requirements document should be revised in order to promote more competition (see FAR 6.502(b)...