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Sample records for krypton 85 target

  1. Update and improvement of the global krypton-85 emission inventory.

    PubMed

    Ahlswede, Jochen; Hebel, Simon; Ross, J Ole; Schoetter, Robert; Kalinowski, Martin B

    2013-01-01

    Krypton-85 is mainly produced in nuclear reactors by fission of uranium and plutonium and released during chopping and dissolution of spent fuel rods in nuclear reprocessing facilities. As noble gas it is suited as a passive tracer for evaluation of atmospheric transport models. Furthermore, research is ongoing to assess its quality as an indicator for clandestine reprocessing activities. This paper continues previous efforts to compile a comprehensive historic emission inventory for krypton-85. Reprocessing facilities are the by far largest emitters of krypton-85. Information on sources and calculations used to derive the annual krypton-85 emission is provided for all known reprocessing facilities in the world. In addition, the emission characteristics of two plants, Tokai (Japan) and La Hague (France), are analysed in detail using emission data with high temporal resolution. Other types of krypton-85 sources are power reactors, naval reactors and isotope production facilities. These sources contribute only little or negligible amounts of krypton-85 compared to the large reprocessing facilities. Taking the decay of krypton-85 into account, the global atmospheric inventory is estimated to about 5500 PBq at the end of 2009. The correctness if the inventory has been proven by meteorological simulations and its error is assumed to be in the range of a few percent. PMID:22858641

  2. Update and improvement of the global krypton-85 emission inventory.

    PubMed

    Ahlswede, Jochen; Hebel, Simon; Ross, J Ole; Schoetter, Robert; Kalinowski, Martin B

    2013-01-01

    Krypton-85 is mainly produced in nuclear reactors by fission of uranium and plutonium and released during chopping and dissolution of spent fuel rods in nuclear reprocessing facilities. As noble gas it is suited as a passive tracer for evaluation of atmospheric transport models. Furthermore, research is ongoing to assess its quality as an indicator for clandestine reprocessing activities. This paper continues previous efforts to compile a comprehensive historic emission inventory for krypton-85. Reprocessing facilities are the by far largest emitters of krypton-85. Information on sources and calculations used to derive the annual krypton-85 emission is provided for all known reprocessing facilities in the world. In addition, the emission characteristics of two plants, Tokai (Japan) and La Hague (France), are analysed in detail using emission data with high temporal resolution. Other types of krypton-85 sources are power reactors, naval reactors and isotope production facilities. These sources contribute only little or negligible amounts of krypton-85 compared to the large reprocessing facilities. Taking the decay of krypton-85 into account, the global atmospheric inventory is estimated to about 5500 PBq at the end of 2009. The correctness if the inventory has been proven by meteorological simulations and its error is assumed to be in the range of a few percent.

  3. Partitioning of krypton-85 in liquid scintillation cocktail

    SciTech Connect

    Hohorst, F.A.; Sherlock, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    Krypton is one of the noble gases. As such, it forms compounds only with exceptionally strong oxidizing agents. The concentration of krypton in air is 1.139 parts per million by volume. In general, its behavior is best described as that of an ideal gas. Krypton-85 is the longest lived of the common radioactive noble gases with a half life of 10.72 years. Gamma radiation at 513.990 keV has an intensity of only 0.434%. Most decay is {beta}{sup -} emission with a maximum energy of 687.0 keV and an average energy of 251.4 keV. The analytical chemistry of krypton-85 is driven by these factors. High concentrations may be gamma counted directly. Low levels are typically determined by more sensitive techniques such as liquid scintillation counting (LSC) where detection limits on the order of 1 picocurie (pCi) are routinely achieved. For a 5 standard cubic centimeter (scc) sample, this represents a concentration of 0.2 pCi/scc, well below the DOE Air Immersion Derived Concentration Guideline (G) of 3 pCi/scc. As a gas, krypton in a sealed LSC vial distributes itself between the liquid phase and the gas phase. Some past work has used gamma counting at levels many orders of magnitude greater than those now achievable by LSC to study the distribution of krypton. This effect is of interest in the analytical chemistry of krypton-85 because geometrical considerations influence how much of the material in the gas phase decays generating particles which then impact the liquid phase where they may be counted.

  4. Analysis of krypton-85 and krypton-81 in a few liters of air.

    PubMed

    Tu, Le-Yi; Yang, Guo-Min; Cheng, Cun-Feng; Liu, Gu-Liang; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Hu, Shui-Ming

    2014-04-15

    Long-lived radioactive krypton isotopes, (81)Kr (t1/2 = 229,000 year) and (85)Kr (t1/2 = 10.76 year), are ideal tracers. (81)Kr is cosmogenic and can be used for dating groundwater beyond the (14)C age. (85)Kr is a fission product and can be applied in atmospheric studies, nuclear safety inspections, and dating young groundwater. It has long been a challenge to analyze radio-krypton in small samples, in which the total number of such isotopes can be as low as 1 × 10(5). This work presents a system developed to analyze (81)Kr and (85)Kr from a few liters of air samples. A separation system based on cryogenic distillation and gas chromatographic separation is used to extract krypton gas with an efficiency of over 90% from air samples of 1-50 L. (85)Kr/Kr and (81)Kr/Kr ratios in krypton gases are determined from single-atom counting using a laser-based atom trap. In order to test the performance of the system, we have analyzed various samples collected from ambient air and extracted from groundwater, with a minimum size of 1 L. The system can be applied to analyze (81)Kr and (85)Kr in environmental samples including air, groundwater, and ices.

  5. Analysis of krypton-85 and krypton-81 in a few liters of air.

    PubMed

    Tu, Le-Yi; Yang, Guo-Min; Cheng, Cun-Feng; Liu, Gu-Liang; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Hu, Shui-Ming

    2014-04-15

    Long-lived radioactive krypton isotopes, (81)Kr (t1/2 = 229,000 year) and (85)Kr (t1/2 = 10.76 year), are ideal tracers. (81)Kr is cosmogenic and can be used for dating groundwater beyond the (14)C age. (85)Kr is a fission product and can be applied in atmospheric studies, nuclear safety inspections, and dating young groundwater. It has long been a challenge to analyze radio-krypton in small samples, in which the total number of such isotopes can be as low as 1 × 10(5). This work presents a system developed to analyze (81)Kr and (85)Kr from a few liters of air samples. A separation system based on cryogenic distillation and gas chromatographic separation is used to extract krypton gas with an efficiency of over 90% from air samples of 1-50 L. (85)Kr/Kr and (81)Kr/Kr ratios in krypton gases are determined from single-atom counting using a laser-based atom trap. In order to test the performance of the system, we have analyzed various samples collected from ambient air and extracted from groundwater, with a minimum size of 1 L. The system can be applied to analyze (81)Kr and (85)Kr in environmental samples including air, groundwater, and ices. PMID:24641193

  6. 10 CFR 30.19 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or..., krypton-85, or promethium-147. (a) Except for persons who manufacture, process, produce, or initially transfer for sale or distribution self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or...

  7. 10 CFR 30.19 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or..., krypton-85, or promethium-147. (a) Except for persons who manufacture, process, produce, or initially transfer for sale or distribution self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or...

  8. 10 CFR 30.19 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or..., krypton-85, or promethium-147. (a) Except for persons who manufacture, process, produce, or initially transfer for sale or distribution self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or...

  9. 10 CFR 30.19 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or..., krypton-85, or promethium-147. (a) Except for persons who manufacture, process, produce, or initially transfer for sale or distribution self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or...

  10. 10 CFR 30.19 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or..., krypton-85, or promethium-147. (a) Except for persons who manufacture, process, produce, or initially transfer for sale or distribution self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or...

  11. Krypton-85 hydrofracture engineering feasibility and safety evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.; Muller, M.E.; Pan, P.Y.

    1981-07-01

    Engineering studies have been made to determine the hazards associated with the disposal of /sup 85/Kr using the hydrofracture process. To assess the hazards, an effort has been made to identify the equipment required to entrain and dissolve the noble gas into the grout stream at hydrofracture pressure (up to 350 bar). Off-the-shelf or slightly modified equipment has been identified for safe and effective compression and gas-grout mixing. Each monthly injection disposes of 1.6 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of /sup 85/Kr. By connecting only one gas cylinder to the injection system at a time, the maximum amount of krypton likely to be released as a result of equipment failure is limited to 128,000 Ci. An evaluation by Los Alamos Technical Associates shows that releasing this amount of gas in less than one hour under worst-case meteorological conditions through a 30-m stack would result in a whole-body dose of 170 millirem at a distance of 1 km from the facility. A krypton collection and recovery system can further reduce this dose to 17 millirem; increasing the distance to the site boundary to 3 km can also reduce the dose by a factor of ten. Lung and skin dose estimates are 1.6 and 120 times the whole-body dose, respectively. These are all worst-case values; releases under more typical conditions would result in a significantly lower dose. No insurmountable safety or engineering problems have been identified.

  12. 10 CFR 32.22 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or... containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license to manufacture, process, produce... self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147, or to initially transfer...

  13. 10 CFR 32.22 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or... containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license to manufacture, process, produce... self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147, or to initially transfer...

  14. 10 CFR 32.22 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or... containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license to manufacture, process, produce... self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147, or to initially transfer...

  15. 10 CFR 32.22 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or... containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license to manufacture, process, produce... self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147, or to initially transfer...

  16. Variability of atmospheric krypton-85 activity concentrations observed close to the ITCZ in the southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, A; Schlosser, C; Ross, J O; Sartorius, H; Schmid, S

    2014-01-01

    Krypton-85 activity concentrations in surface air have been measured at Darwin, which is located in northern Australia and is influenced by seasonal monsoonal activity. Measurements between August 2007 and May 2010 covered three wet seasons. The mean activity concentration of krypton-85 measured during this period was 1.31±0.02Bqm(-3). A linear model fitted to the average monthly data, using month and monsoon as predictors, shows that krypton-85 activity concentration measured during the sampling period has declined by 0.01Bqm(-3) per year. Although there is no statistically significant difference in mean activity concentration of krypton-85 between wet and dry season, the model implies that activity concentration is higher by about 0.015Bqm(-3) during months influenced by the monsoon when a north westerly flow prevails. Backward dispersion runs using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model Hysplit4 highlight possible source regions during an active monsoon located deep in the northern hemisphere, and include reprocessing facilities in Japan and India. However, the contribution of these facilities to krypton-85 activity concentrations in Darwin would be less than 0.003Bqm(-3).

  17. Materials screening tests for the krypton-85 storage development program. Final report. [Nitronic 50; 4130 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, P.K.

    1981-04-01

    The results of a materials testing program for krypton-85 storage techniques are reported. Corrosion and stress corrosion tests were performed on a variety of materials including AISI 4130, Type 316 SS, Type 304 SS, Type 310 SS, Nitronic 50, and alloy A286. Test environments were high-purity liquid rubidium, liquid rubidium contaminated with oxygen, and rubidium hydroxide. Oxygen and water contaminations in liquid rubidium were found to greatly increase both general and localized corrosion of the materials tested. For the HPGSCs (high-pressure gas storage cylinders), the oxygen plus water content of krypton-85 gas should be less than 100 ppM. Alloy A286, Type 304 SS, and AISI 4130 have been eliminated as candidate materials due to their susceptibility to general corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Type 316 SS and Nitronic 50 may survive the HPGSC environment, but more tests are needed. The same comments apply to the BGHPV (balanced-gas high-pressure vessel). In addition, Type 310 SS should be evaluated along with Nitronic 50 and Type 316 SS. 33 figures, 12 tables.

  18. California GAMA Special Study. Development of a Capability for the Analysis of Krypton-85 in Groundwater Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, Ate; Bibby, Richard K.; Moran, Jean E.; Singleton, Michael J.; Esser, Bradley K.

    2015-06-01

    A capability for the analysis of krypton-85 (85Kr) in groundwater samples was developed at LLNL. Samples are collected by extracting gas from 2000-4000 L of groundwater at the well, yielding approximately 0.2 cm3 STP krypton. Sample collection takes 1 to 4 hours. Krypton is purified in the laboratory using a combination of molecular sieve and activated charcoal traps, and transferred to a liquid scintillation vial. The 85Kr activity is measured by liquid scintillation on a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counter from PerkinElmer. The detection limit for a typical 0.2 cm3Kr sample size is 11% of the present day activity in air, corresponding to the decay corrected activity in air in 1987. The typical measurement uncertainty is below 10% for recently recharged samples. Six groundwater samples were collected, purified and counted. 85Kr was not detected in any of the samples counted at LLNL. 85Kr was detected by the low level counting laboratory of Bern University in all samples between 1.5 and 6.6 decays per minute per cm3 krypton, corresponding to decay corrected activities in air between 1971 and 1985. The new capability is an excellent complement to tritium-helium, expanding the existing suite of age dating tools available to the GAMA program (35S, 3H/3He, 14C and radiogenic helium). 85Kr can replace 3H/3He in settings where 3H/3He ages are impossible to determine (for example where terrigenic helium overwhelms tritiogenic helium) and provides additional insight into travel time distributions in complex mixed groundwater systems.

  19. Computer-controlled on-line gamma analysis for krypton-85

    SciTech Connect

    Canuette, R.P.

    1980-03-01

    /sup 85/Kr will be evolved from spent nuclear fuel during both the voloxidation and dissolution processes, so a reliable method for on-line analysis of /sup 85/Kr in the off-gas system is needed. Tritium, /sup 14/C, and /sup 129/I were trapped, and the activity of /sup 85/Kr was then measured using a Li-drifted Ge detector. Equipment used to carry out this analysis is described; the PET computer is used. The /sup 85/Kr evolution rate was correlated with the fuel dissolution rate; the close correlation permits one to monitor the fuel dissolution process. 11 figures. (DLC)

  20. APPARENT 85KRYPTON AGES OF GROUNDWATER WITHIN THE ROYAL WATERSHED, MAINE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    85Kr activities were determined in 264 domestic and municipal wells from 2002-2004 in the Royal watershed (361 km2), Maine. Gas extraction for 85Kr from wells was effected directly via a well-head methodology permitting efficient widespread analys...

  1. Krypton-85 health risk assessment for a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mellinger, P.J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1984-08-01

    The risks involved in the routine release of /sup 85/Kr from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations to the environment were compared to those resulting from the capture and storage of /sup 85/Kr. Instead of releasing the /sup 85/Kr to the environment when fuel is reprocessed, it can be captured, immobilized and stored. Two alternative methods of capturing /sup 85/Kr (cryogenic distillation and fluorocarbon absorption) and one method of immobilizing the captured gas (ion implantation/sputtering) were theoretically incorporated into a representative fuel reprocessing plant, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, even though there are no known plans to start up this facility. Given the uncertainties in the models used to generate lifetime risk numbers (0.02 to 0.027 radiation induced fatal cancers expected in the occupational workforce and 0.017 fatal cancers in the general population), the differences in total risks for the three situations, (i.e., no-capture and two-capture alternatives) cannot be considered meaningful. It is possible that no risks would occur from any of the three situations. There is certainly no reason to conclude that risks from /sup 85/Kr routinely released to the environment are greater than those that would result from the other two situations considered. Present regulations mandate recovery and disposal of /sup 85/Kr from the off gases of a facility reprocessing spent fuel from commercial sources. Because of the lack of a clear-cut indication that recovery woud be beneficial, it does not seem prudent to burden the facilities with a requirement for /sup 85/Kr recovery, at least until operating experience demonstrates the incentive. The probable high aging of the early fuel to be processed and the higher dose resulting from the release of the unregulated /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C also encourage delaying implementation of the /sup 85/Kr recovery in the early plants.

  2. Method for separating krypton isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.T.

    1980-10-28

    Methods and apparatus for separating krypton isotopes utilizing low temperature selective infrared excitation of 85krypton difluoride in an isotopic compound mixture. Multiphoton ir excitation and uv excitation techniques are used, as well as cryogenic matrix isolation and inert buffer gas isolation techniques.

  3. Design documentation: Krypton encapsulation preconceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, D.A.

    1994-10-01

    US EPA regulations limit the release of Krypton-85 to the environment from commercial facilities after January 1, 1983. In order to comply with these regulations, Krypton-85, which would be released during reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel, must be collected and stored. Technology currently exists for separation of krypton from other inert gases, and for its storage as a compressed gas in steel cylinders. The requirements, which would be imposed for 100-year storage of Krypton-85, have led to development of processes for encapsulation of krypton within a stable solid matrix. The objective of this effort was to provide preconceptual engineering designs, technical evaluations, and life cycle costing data for comparison of two alternate candidate processes for encapsulation of Krypton-85. This report has been prepared by The Ralph M. Parsons Company for the US Department of Energy.

  4. A study of the atmospheric dispersion of a high release of krypton-85 above a complex coastal terrain, comparison with the predictions of Gaussian models (Briggs, Doury, ADMS4).

    PubMed

    Leroy, C; Maro, D; Hébert, D; Solier, L; Rozet, M; Le Cavelier, S; Connan, O

    2010-11-01

    Atmospheric releases of krypton-85, from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at the AREVA NC facility at La Hague (France), were used to test Gaussian models of dispersion. In 2001-2002, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) studied the atmospheric dispersion of 15 releases, using krypton-85 as a tracer for plumes emitted from two 100-m-high stacks. Krypton-85 is a chemically inert radionuclide. Krypton-85 air concentration measurements were performed on the ground in the downwind direction, at distances between 0.36 and 3.3 km from the release, by neutral or slightly unstable atmospheric conditions. The standard deviation for the horizontal dispersion of the plume and the Atmospheric Transfer Coefficient (ATC) were determined from these measurements. The experimental results were compared with calculations using first generation (Doury, Briggs) and second generation (ADMS 4.0) Gaussian models. The ADMS 4.0 model was used in two configurations; one takes account of the effect of the built-up area, and the other the effect of the roughness of the surface on the plume dispersion. Only the Briggs model correctly reproduced the measured values for the width of the plume, whereas the ADMS 4.0 model overestimated it and the Doury model underestimated it. The agreement of the models with measured values of the ATC varied according to distance from the release point. For distances less than 2 km from the release point, the ADMS 4.0 model achieved the best agreement between model and measurement; beyond this distance, the best agreement was achieved by the Briggs and Doury models.

  5. Mycobacterial antigen 85 complex (Ag85) as a target for ficolins and mannose-binding lectin.

    PubMed

    Świerzko, Anna S; Bartłomiejczyk, Marcin A; Brzostek, Anna; Łukasiewicz, Jolanta; Michalski, Mateusz; Dziadek, Jarosław; Cedzyński, Maciej

    2016-06-01

    The pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) able to activate complement via the lectin pathway are suspected to be involved in the interaction between pathogenic Mycobacteria and the host immune response. Recently, we have found strong interactions between 25 and 35kDa mycobacterial cell fractions and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins. Here we demonstrate that two biologically important mycobacterial structures, mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) and the antigen 85 (Ag85) complex, induce activation of the lectin pathway of complement. The strong interaction of recombinant MBL with purified ManLAM was confirmed, but no binding of recombinant ficolins (ficolin-1, -2, -3) with this structure was observed. Interestingly, all PRMs tested reacted with the mycobacterial antigen 85 (Ag85) complex. Based on the use of specific inhibitors (mannan for MBL, acetylated bovine serum albumin for ficolin-1 and -2, Hafnia alvei PCM 1200 lipopolysaccharide for ficolin-3), we concluded that carbohydrate-recognition (MBL) and fibrinogen-like domains (ficolins) were involved in these interactions. Our results indicate that the mycobacterial antigen 85 complex is a target for ficolins and MBL. Furthermore, those PRMs also bound to fibronectin and therefore might influence the Ag85 complex-dependent interaction of Mycobacterium with the extracellular matrix. PMID:27141819

  6. Detection of residual krypton in xenon gas for WIMP dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobi, Attila

    2011-04-01

    The next generation of WIMP dark matter searches using liquid xenon as a target medium will require unprecedented rejection of residual krypton contamination. Krypton contains the beta emitting isotope 85 Kr, with a relative abundance of about 10-11 (85 Kr /nat Kr), and this beta decay can be an important source of background for these experiments. Krypton is typically present in commercially produced xenon at the level of tens of parts-per-billion, about four orders of magnitude too large for present day dark matter experiments such as XENON, LUX, and XMASS. Additional processing via gas chromatography and distillation are used to separate krypton from xenon, but measuring the remaining krypton level at the part-per-trillion (ppt) level is challenging. Recently we have developed a highly sensitive and simple technique to measure residual krypton contamination in xenon gas using an RGA mass spectrometer and a liquid nitrogen cold trap. We describe here the results of our calibration experiments to determine the ultimate limit of detection of the method, and we discuss the implications for the next generation of WIMP dark matter experiments. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  7. Near-field krypton-85 measurements in stable meteorological conditions around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant: estimation of atmospheric transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Connan, O; Solier, L; Hébert, D; Maro, D; Lamotte, M; Voiseux, C; Laguionie, P; Cazimajou, O; Le Cavelier, S; Godinot, C; Morillon, M; Thomas, L; Percot, S

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the near-field dispersion of (85)Kr around the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague (AREVA NC La Hague - France) under stable meteorological conditions. Twenty-two (85)Kr night-time experimental campaigns were carried out at distances of up to 4 km from the release source. Although the operational Gaussian models predict for these meteorological conditions a distance to plume touchdown of several kilometers, we almost systematically observed a marked ground signal at distances of 0.5-4 km. The calculated atmospheric transfer coefficients (ATC) show values (1) higher than those observed under neutral conditions, (2) much higher than those proposed by the operational models, and (3) higher than those used in the impact assessments.

  8. Near-field krypton-85 measurements in stable meteorological conditions around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant: estimation of atmospheric transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Connan, O; Solier, L; Hébert, D; Maro, D; Lamotte, M; Voiseux, C; Laguionie, P; Cazimajou, O; Le Cavelier, S; Godinot, C; Morillon, M; Thomas, L; Percot, S

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the near-field dispersion of (85)Kr around the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague (AREVA NC La Hague - France) under stable meteorological conditions. Twenty-two (85)Kr night-time experimental campaigns were carried out at distances of up to 4 km from the release source. Although the operational Gaussian models predict for these meteorological conditions a distance to plume touchdown of several kilometers, we almost systematically observed a marked ground signal at distances of 0.5-4 km. The calculated atmospheric transfer coefficients (ATC) show values (1) higher than those observed under neutral conditions, (2) much higher than those proposed by the operational models, and (3) higher than those used in the impact assessments. PMID:25078471

  9. 40 CFR 156.85 - Non-target organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (4) If either accident history or field studies demonstrate that the use of the pesticide may result... 156.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Environmental Hazard and Precautionary Statements §...

  10. 40 CFR 156.85 - Non-target organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (4) If either accident history or field studies demonstrate that the use of the pesticide may result... 156.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Environmental Hazard and Precautionary Statements §...

  11. High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of multicharged argon and krypton ions using a laser-produced x-ray source with a gas-puff target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnik, Andrzej; Dyakin, Vladimir M.; Faenov, Anatoly Y.; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Jarocki, Roman; Nilsen, Joseph; Osterheld, Albert L.; Skobelev, Igor Y.; Szczurek, Miroslaw

    1997-10-01

    A hot and dense plasma can be produced by high-power laser irradiation of a high-pressure gas puff target. The plasma emits strong x-ray radiation in low photon-energy range (soft x-rays and XUV radiation) and is considered to be used as a debrisless laser-produced x-ray source. It was shown that the laser-irradiated gas puff plasma is an ideal source for the high-resolution spectroscopic studies of complex spectra of the multicharged ions. This paper reports our investigations of x-ray spectra of heliumlike argon and neonlike krypton ions. The gas puff targets were created with the use of a specially designed high-pressure solenoid valve operating at a backing pressure up to 15 at and quipped with a sonic-type circular nozzle of 0.5 mm in diameter. Parameters of the gas puff targets were measured using x-ray shadowgraphy and laser interferometry. To irradiate the gas puff targets we have used a Nd:glass laser, which generates 10 J pulses in 1 ns FWHM. The laser beam was focused onto the gas puff target perpendicularly in respect to the flow of gas using an aspherical lens. The diameter of a laser beam in the focus were about 100 micrometers , what ensured the radiation power density to be of order of 1014 W/cm2. To measure x-ray spectra emitted by a laser-irradiated gas puff target we have used a simple focusing crystal spectrographs with a mica crystal curved into a spherical surface of radius R equals 100 mm. The spectra were recorded on Kodak RAR 2495 x-ray commercial film. The high resolving power of the spectrograph of about (lambda) /(Delta) (lambda) equals 10000 permitted high-precision wavelength spectral measurements. The measured x-ray spectra have the small spectra width of the observed lines associated with the low expansion velocity of the laser- irradiated gas puff plasma. Dielectronic sodiumlike satellites to neonlike krypton resonance lines have measured for the first time. High-resolution spectra of heliumlike argon were also obtained. The

  12. Krypton oxides under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Lata, Pawel M.

    2016-01-01

    Under high pressure, krypton, one of the most inert elements is predicted to become sufficiently reactive to form a new class of krypton compounds; krypton oxides. Using modern ab-initio evolutionary algorithms in combination with Density Functional Theory, we predict the existence of several thermodynamically stable Kr/O species at elevated pressures. In particular, our calculations indicate that at approx. 300 GPa the monoxide, KrO, should form spontaneously and remain thermo- and dynamically stable with respect to constituent elements and higher oxides. The monoxide is predicted to form non-molecular crystals with short Kr-O contacts, typical for genuine chemical bonds. PMID:26830129

  13. Krypton oxides under pressure.

    PubMed

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Lata, Pawel M

    2016-02-02

    Under high pressure, krypton, one of the most inert elements is predicted to become sufficiently reactive to form a new class of krypton compounds; krypton oxides. Using modern ab-initio evolutionary algorithms in combination with Density Functional Theory, we predict the existence of several thermodynamically stable Kr/O species at elevated pressures. In particular, our calculations indicate that at approx. 300 GPa the monoxide, KrO, should form spontaneously and remain thermo- and dynamically stable with respect to constituent elements and higher oxides. The monoxide is predicted to form non-molecular crystals with short Kr-O contacts, typical for genuine chemical bonds.

  14. Krypton oxides under pressure.

    PubMed

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Lata, Pawel M

    2016-01-01

    Under high pressure, krypton, one of the most inert elements is predicted to become sufficiently reactive to form a new class of krypton compounds; krypton oxides. Using modern ab-initio evolutionary algorithms in combination with Density Functional Theory, we predict the existence of several thermodynamically stable Kr/O species at elevated pressures. In particular, our calculations indicate that at approx. 300 GPa the monoxide, KrO, should form spontaneously and remain thermo- and dynamically stable with respect to constituent elements and higher oxides. The monoxide is predicted to form non-molecular crystals with short Kr-O contacts, typical for genuine chemical bonds. PMID:26830129

  15. Model Calculations of Continuous-Wave Laser Ionization of Krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Bret D. Cannon

    1999-07-27

    This report describes modeling of a scheme that uses continuous-wave (CW) lasers to ionize selected isotopes of krypton with high isotopic selectivity. The models predict that combining this ionization scheme with mass spectrometric measurement of the resulting ions can be the basis for ultra-sensitive methods to measure {sup 85}Kr in the presence of a 10{sup 11} excess of the stable krypton isotopes. Two experimental setups are considered in this model: the first setup is for krypton as a static gas, the second is for krypton in an atomic beam. In the static gas experiment, for a total krypton press of 10{sup {minus}4} torr and 10 W of power in the cavity, the model predicts a total krypton ion current of 4.6 x 10{sup 8} s{sup {minus}1} and for a {sup 85}Kr/Kr of 10{sup {minus}11} a {sup 85}Kr ion current of 3.5 s{sup {minus}1} or about 10,000 per hour. The atomic beam setup allowed higher isotopic selectivity; the model predicts a {sup 85}Kr ion current of 18 s{sup {minus}1} or 65,000 per hour.

  16. Krypton Difluoride: Preparation and Handling.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, D R

    1963-09-20

    Krypton difluoride was prepared by irradiation of krypton and fluorine in an electron beam (1.5 Mev) at -150 degrees C. The compound is a white crystalline solid, stable only at temperatures below about -30 degrees C. PMID:17751791

  17. Solid state storage of radioactive krypton in a silica matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, G.L.; Lytle, J.M.; Gray, W.J.; Wheeler, K.R.

    1980-12-01

    The feasibility of loading a low density SiO/sub 2/ glass with krypton for storage of radioactive /sup 85/Kr has been demonstrated by studies using non-radioactive krypton. A 96% SiO/sub 2/ glass with 28% porosity was heated at an elevated pressure of Kr gas to a temperature of 850 to 900/sup 0/C and held at that temperature to sinter the glass-krypton composite to a density of about 2 g/cm/sup 3/. A krypton content of 30 cm/sup 3/ of Kr(STP)/cm/sup 3/ of glass has been demonstrated when loading pressures of 140 MPa are used. Krypton release rates from the glass are lower than reported for any other waste form considered currently. At 420/sup 0/C a diffusion parameter, D/r/sub 0//sup 2/, of 8.66 x 10/sup -13/ min/sup -1/ was determined which leads to a total release of 0.7% of the krypton in 10 years. Release rates increase moderately with increasing temperature up to 600/sup 0/C and increase rapidly above 600/sup 0/C. The lower loading pressures (about 40 MPa) may appear to yield a more favorable product from the point of view of krypton release than the high pressures. Advantages and disadvantages of the technique are given in the conclusions section.

  18. Krypton ion thruster performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Williams, George J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary data were obtained from a 30 cm ion thruster operating on krypton propellant over the input power range of 0.4-5.5 kW. The data are presented, and compared and contrasted to those obtained with xenon propellant over the same input power envelope. Typical krypton thruster efficiency was 70 percent at a specific impulse of approximately 5000 s, with a maximum demonstrated thrust-to-power ratio of approximately 42 mN/kW at 2090 s specific impulse and 1580 watts input power. Critical thruster performance and component lifetime issues were evaluated. Order-of-magnitude power throttling was demonstrated using a simplified power-throttling strategy.

  19. Krypton Ion Thruster Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Williams, George J.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary data were obtained from a 30 cm ion thruster operating on krypton propellant over the input power range of 0.4 to 5.5 kW. The data presented are compared and contrasted to the data obtained with xenon propellant over the same input power envelope. Typical krypton thruster efficiency was 70 percent at a specific impulse of approximately 5000 s, with a maximum demonstrated thrust to power ratio of approximately 42 mN/kW at 2090 s specific impulse and 1580 watts input power. Critical thruster performance and component lifetime issues were evaluated. Order of magnitude power throttling was demonstrated using a simplified power-throttling strategy.

  20. An atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) system for measuring ultra-low contamination by krypton in xenon dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tae Hyun

    The XENON dark matter experiment aims to detect hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) scattering off nuclei within its liquid xenon (LXe) target. The trace 85Kr in the xenon target undergoes beta-decay with a 687 keV end point and 10.8 year halflife, which contributes background events and limits the sensitivity of the experiment. In order to achieve the desired sensitivity, the contamination by krypton is reduced to the part per trillion (ppt) level by cryogenic distillation. The conventional methods are not well suited for measuring the krypton contamination at such a low level. In this work, we have developed an atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) device to detect the ultra-low krypton concentration in the xenon target. This project was proposed to the National Science Foundation (NSF) as a Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) development [Aprile and Zelevinsky, 2009] and is funded by NSF and Columbia University. The ATTA method, originally developed at Argonne National Laboratory, uses standard laser cooling and trapping techniques, and counts single trapped atoms. Since the isotopic abundance of 85Kr in nature is 1.5 x 10-11, the 85Kr/Xe level is expected to be ˜10-23, which is beyond the capability of our method. Thus we detect the most abundant (57%) isotope 84Kr, and infer the 85Kr contamination from their known abundances. To avoid contamination by krypton, the setup is tested and optimized with 40 Ar which has a similar cooling wavelength to 84Kr. Two main challenges in this experiment are to obtain a trapping efficiency high enough to detect krypton impurities at the ppt level, and to achieve the resolution to discriminate single atoms. The device is specially designed and adjusted to meet these challenges. After achieving these criteria with argon gas, we precisely characterize the efficiency of the system using Kr-Xe mixtures with known ratios, and find that ˜90 minutes are required to trap one 84Kr atom at the 1-ppt Kr

  1. Discovery of the krypton isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Heim, M.; Fritsch, A.; Schuh, A.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-07-15

    Thirty-two krypton isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  2. MAD phasing with krypton.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A; Ellis, P; Kresge, N; Soltis, S M

    2001-02-01

    Experiments demonstrating the feasibility of Kr-edge MAD on frozen crystals as a routine method for structure determination are reported. Approximately 50% of protein crystals can be successfully derivatized by pressurization with the noble gases xenon or krypton. While Xe has produced many useful derivatives for MIR phasing over the last several years, the Xe edges (K edge = 34.6 keV, L(I) = 5.5 keV) are not easily accessible for MAD studies. As the Kr K edge (14.3 keV) is accessible on most MAD beamlines, Kr derivatization provides the additional opportunity to conduct a MAD experiment and obtain phases using only a single crystal. This paper describes the phasing of two proteins using Kr MAD: the 17 kDa Fe protein myoglobin (Mb) from sperm whale (Physeter catodon) and an 18 kDa protein (SP18) from green abalone (Haliotis fulgens). Three-wavelength data were collected at SSRL beamline 9-2 from crystals of Mb and SP18 incubated in 2.76 MPa of Kr gas for 2 min, depressurized and then flash-frozen in a stream of nitrogen gas at 100 K. MAD phases were calculated using the program SHARP and the resulting density improved with wARP. The final maps for both Mb and SP18 were of excellent quality.

  3. Differential responses of targeted lung redox enzymes to rat exposure to 60 or 85% oxygen.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhuohui; Roerig, David L; Clough, Anne V; Audi, Said H

    2011-07-01

    Rat exposure to 60% O(2) (hyper-60) or 85% O(2) (hyper-85) for 7 days confers susceptibility or tolerance, respectively, of the otherwise lethal effects of exposure to 100% O(2). The objective of this study was to determine whether activities of the antioxidant cytosolic enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and mitochondrial complex III are differentially altered in hyper-60 and hyper-85 lungs. Duroquinone (DQ), an NQO1 substrate, or its hydroquinone (DQH(2)), a complex III substrate, was infused into the arterial inflow of isolated, perfused lungs, and the venous efflux rates of DQH(2) and DQ were measured. Based on inhibitor effects and kinetic modeling, capacities of NQO1-mediated DQ reduction (V(max1)) and complex III-mediated DQH(2) oxidation (V(max2)) increased by ∼140 and ∼180% in hyper-85 lungs, respectively, compared with rates in lungs of rats exposed to room air (normoxic). In hyper-60 lungs, V(max1) increased by ∼80%, with no effect on V(max2). Additional studies revealed that mitochondrial complex I activity in hyper-60 and hyper-85 lung tissue homogenates was ∼50% lower than in normoxic lung homogenates, whereas mitochondrial complex IV activity was ∼90% higher in only hyper-85 lung tissue homogenates. Thus NQO1 activity increased in both hyper-60 and hyper-85 lungs, whereas complex III activity increased in hyper-85 lungs only. This increase, along with the increase in complex IV activity, may counter the effects the depression in complex I activity might have on tissue mitochondrial function and/or reactive oxygen species production and may be important to the tolerance of 100% O(2) observed in hyper-85 rats.

  4. The demise of Comet 85P/Boethin, the first EPOXI mission target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meech, K. J.; Kleyna, J.; Hainaut, O. R.; Lowry, S. C.; Fuse, T.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Chesley, S.; Yeomans, D. K.; Fernández, Y.; Lisse, C.; Reach, W.; Bauer, J. M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Pittichová, J.; Christensen, E.; Osip, D.; Brink, T.; Mateo, M.; Motta, V.; Challis, P.; Holman, M.; Ferrín, I.

    2013-02-01

    Comet 85P/Boethin was selected as the original comet target for the Deep Impact extended mission, EPOXI. Because this comet had been only observed at two apparitions in 1975 and 1986 and consequently had a large ephemeris error, an early intense recovery effort similar to that of 1P/Halley was undertaken beginning in 2005 using the ESO Very Large Telescopes (VLTs) in a distant comet program. These were challenging observations because of the low galactic latitude, and an error ellipse (the line of variations) that was larger than the CCD FOV, and the comet was not seen. Dedicated recovery observing time was awarded on the Subaru telescope in April and May 2006, and June 2007, in addition to time on the VLT and Canada-France-Hawaii telescopes during July-August 2007 with wide field mosaics and mosaicing techniques. The limiting V magnitudes from these observing runs ranged between 25.7 and 27.3 and again the comet was not seen in the individual nights. A new image processing technique was developed to stack images over extended runs and runs after distorting them to account for dilations and rotations in the line of variations using modifications of the world coordinate system. A candidate at V ˜ 27.3 was found in the CFHT data along the LOV, 2.5' west of the nominal ephemeris position. The EPOXI mission was unwilling to re-target the spacecraft without a confirmation. Additional time was secured using the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Gemini South 8-m telescope, the Clay and Baade (Magellan 6.5 m), CTIO 4 m, and SOAR 4 m telescopes during 2007 September and October A composite image made by stacking the new data showed no plausible candidate nucleus to a limiting magnitude of V = 28.5, corresponding to a nucleus radius between 0.1 and 0.2 km (assuming an albedo of 0.04). The comet was declared lost, presumably having disintegrated. Searches in the WISE data set revealed no debris trail, but no constraints on the possible time of disruption can be made. NASA

  5. Excitation rate and background measurements during LIF studies on krypton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, C. A.; Cannon, B. D.; Wacker, J. F.

    1993-04-01

    The Krypton Isotope Laser Analysis (KILA) method is being developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to measure Kr-85 concentrations in small air samples. The technique uses high-resolution lasers to excite individual isotopes of krypton specifically to induce Kr-85 to fluorescence for detection by optical means. Production of krypton metastables via two-photon excitation to the 2p(sub 6) state has been shown to be 0.15% efficient in 0.13 mTorr of krypton--sufficiently high to demonstrate overall feasibility of the KILA method. Since this goal was met, focus has been directed toward development of a working vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) fluorescence detection system and toward understanding the VUV background. This report describes the progress made in these two areas. The second step of the KILA process is to optically pump all except the Kr-85 isotopes from the metastable state back to the ground state using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The rate of this process and the VUV background afterward will determine the sensitivity and selectivity of the KILA approach. De-excitation of the metastable population was accomplished via one-photon absorption of a continuous-wave (c-w) laser to the 2p(sub 8) energy level. Non-isotopically selective de-excitation rates as high as 5 x 10(exp 5)/sec have been measured, yielding a signal-to-background ratio of g reater than 10(exp 6). The lifetime of the metastables is 1.2 msec in 200 mTorr of neon--much longer than the time required to de-excite krypton metastables and to detect fluorescence produced by Kr-85. After attaining these high de-excitation rates, a gated VUV detection system was built with a dynamic range large enough to measure a small background following de-excitation of large metastable populations. Future experiments will focus on reducing the background level by another 2-3 orders of magnitude and perfecting the isotopically selective de-excitation technique with known samples.

  6. Excitation rate and background measurements during LIF studies on krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, C.A.; Cannon, B.D.; Wacker, J.F.

    1993-04-01

    The Krypton Isotope Laser Analysis (KILA) method is being developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to measure {sup 85}Kr concentrations in small air samples. The technique uses high-resolution lasers to excite individual isotopes of krypton specifically to induce {sup 85}Kr to fluorescence for detection by optical means. Production of krypton metastables via two-photon excitation to the 2p{sub 6} state has been shown to be 0.15% efficient in 0.13 mTorr of krypton--sufficiently high to demonstrate overall feasibility of the KILA method. Since this goal was met, focus has been directed toward development of a working vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) fluorescence detection system and toward understanding the VUV background. This report describes the progress made in these two areas. The second step of the KILA process is to optically pump all except the {sup 85}Kr isotopes from the metastable state back to the ground state using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The rate of this process and the VUV background afterward will determine the sensitivity and selectivity of the KILA approach. De-excitation of the metastable population was accomplished via one-photon absorption of a continuous-wave (c-w) laser to the 2p{sub 8} energy level. Non-isotopically selective de-excitation rates as high as 5 {times} 10{sup 5} sec{sup {minus}1} have been measured, yielding a signal-to-background ratio of >10{sup 6}. The lifetime of the metastables is 1.2 msec in 200 mTorr of neon--much longer than the time required to de-excite krypton metastables and to detect fluorescence produced by {sup 85}Kr. After attaining these high de-excitation rates, a gated VUV detection system was built with a dynamic range large enough to measure a small background following de-excitation of large metastable populations. Future experiments will focus on reducing the background level by another 2--3 orders of magnitude and perfecting the isotopically selective de-excitation technique with known samples.

  7. Excitation rate and background measurements during LIF studies on krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, C.A.; Cannon, B.D.; Wacker, J.F.

    1993-04-01

    The Krypton Isotope Laser Analysis (KILA) method is being developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to measure [sup 85]Kr concentrations in small air samples. The technique uses high-resolution lasers to excite individual isotopes of krypton specifically to induce [sup 85]Kr to fluorescence for detection by optical means. Production of krypton metastables via two-photon excitation to the 2p[sub 6] state has been shown to be 0.15% efficient in 0.13 mTorr of krypton--sufficiently high to demonstrate overall feasibility of the KILA method. Since this goal was met, focus has been directed toward development of a working vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) fluorescence detection system and toward understanding the VUV background. This report describes the progress made in these two areas. The second step of the KILA process is to optically pump all except the [sup 85]Kr isotopes from the metastable state back to the ground state using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The rate of this process and the VUV background afterward will determine the sensitivity and selectivity of the KILA approach. De-excitation of the metastable population was accomplished via one-photon absorption of a continuous-wave (c-w) laser to the 2p[sub 8] energy level. Non-isotopically selective de-excitation rates as high as 5 [times] 10[sup 5] sec[sup [minus]1] have been measured, yielding a signal-to-background ratio of >10[sup 6]. The lifetime of the metastables is 1.2 msec in 200 mTorr of neon--much longer than the time required to de-excite krypton metastables and to detect fluorescence produced by [sup 85]Kr. After attaining these high de-excitation rates, a gated VUV detection system was built with a dynamic range large enough to measure a small background following de-excitation of large metastable populations. Future experiments will focus on reducing the background level by another 2--3 orders of magnitude and perfecting the isotopically selective de-excitation technique with known samples.

  8. Low-energy positron interactions with krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Makochekanwa, C.; Machacek, J. R.; Jones, A. C. L.; Caradonna, P.; Slaughter, D. S.; McEachran, R. P.; Sullivan, J. P.; Buckman, S. J.; Bellm, S.; Lohmann, B.; Fursa, D. V.; Bray, I.; Mueller, D.W.; Stauffer, A. D.; Hoshino, M.

    2011-03-15

    Cross sections for positron scattering from krypton have been measured with an energy resolution of {approx}60 meV over the energy range 0.5-60 eV. Absolute values of the grand total ({sigma}{sub GT}), positronium formation ({sigma}{sub Ps}), and grand total minus positronium formation ({sigma}{sub GT}-{sigma}{sub Ps},) cross sections are presented. Theoretical estimations of {sigma}{sub GT} and {sigma}{sub GT}-{sigma}{sub Ps} are also performed for this target using the convergent close-coupling method and the relativistic optical potential approach. We also provide experimental and theoretical results for elastic differential cross sections, for selected energies both below and above the Ps threshold. Where available, the present results are compared to both experimental and theoretical values from the literature.

  9. Atom Trap, Krypton-81, and Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian

    2003-10-01

    We are developing the Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) method for the analysis of two long-lived rare krypton isotopes, ^81Kr (t_1/2=2.3 × 10^5 years, I.A. ˜ 10-13) and ^85Kr (t_1/2=10.8 years, I.A. ˜ 10-11). ^81Kr analyses can be used to determine the ages of old ice and groundwater in a range (5 × 10^4 - 2 × 10^6 years) beyond the reach of radio-carbon dating; Analyses of ^85Kr , a fission product of uranium and plutonium, can serve as a means to help verify compliance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. In ATTA, individual atoms of the desired isotope are selectively captured into a laser trap and detected by observing the fluorescence of trapped atoms. The first application of ATTA is dating the ancient groundwater of the Nubian Aquifer underneath the Western Desert of Egypt. This is one of the largest aquifers in the world. The residence time of its water are of great interest in fundamental geology as well as for utilitarian reasons. This work marks the beginning of a useful tool in Earth sciences. * This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Nuclear Physics, under contract W-31-109-ENG-38.

  10. Adsorption of polar molecules on krypton clusters.

    PubMed

    Rosso, A; Pokapanich, W; Ohrwall, G; Svensson, S; Björneholm, O; Tchaplyguine, M

    2007-08-28

    The formation process of binary clusters has been studied using synchrotron based core level photoelectron spectroscopy. Free neutral krypton clusters have been produced by adiabatic expansion and doped with chloromethane molecules using the pickup technique. The comparison between the integrated intensities, linewidths, and level shifts of the cluster features of pure krypton and of chloromethane-krypton clusters has been used to obtain information about the cluster geometry. We have shown that most of the chloromethane molecules remain on the surface of the clusters.

  11. Krypton gas cylinders as a source of radiation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Helmut W; Bielefeld, Tom; Hettwig, Bernd

    2010-07-01

    A standard 40 foot shipping container with a cargo of pressurized krypton gas in 159 steel cylinders, which had triggered a radiation alarm, was investigated to address radiation safety and illicit nuclear trafficking concerns. The investigation included contamination and dose rate measurements as well as in situ high resolution gamma spectroscopy. The dose rate measurements gave a maximum value of 0.07 microSv h(-1) above background (0.08 to 0.11 microSv h(-1)) on the cylinder surface and no detectable increase above background at distances of 1 m and higher. Contamination monitor readings showed a similar relative increase (plus 8 cpm) above background (about 12 cpm) to the dose rate readings. Quantitative gamma spectroscopy revealed a contamination of the gas with 85Kr at a level of 3.5 x 10(5) Bq kg(-1). This value was found to be consistent with analytical and numerical estimates based on current data for atmospheric 85Kr, which is captured from ambient air together with stable krypton during the production process. This incident demonstrates an apparent lack of radiation-related knowledge by those who handle krypton gas, as well as by border control personnel and emergency responders. We therefore propose to improve labeling and documentation standards for such shipments. This effort may be facilitated by introducing the new category of "technically enhanced artificial radioactive material," or "TEARM" (similar to the existing "naturally occurring radioactive material" or "NORM" and "technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material" or "TENORM" categories).

  12. Krypton based adsorption type cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Schember, Helene (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Krypton and monolithic porous carbon such as Saran carbon are used respectively as the sorbate and sorbent of an absorption type refrigerator to improve refrigeration efficiency and operational longevity.

  13. Krypton based adsorption type cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Schember, Helene R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Krypton and a monolithic porous carbon such as Saran carbon are used respectively as the sorbate and sorbent of an adsorption type refrigerator to improve refrigeration efficiency and operational longevity.

  14. Krypton tagging velocimetry of an underexpanded jet.

    PubMed

    Parziale, N J; Smith, M S; Marineau, E C

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present the excitation/emission strategy, experimental setup, and results of an implementation of krypton tagging velocimetry (KTV). KTV is performed as follows: (i) seed a base flow with krypton; (ii) photosynthesize metastable krypton atoms with a frequency-doubled dye laser to form the tagged tracer; (iii) record the translation of the tagged metastable krypton by imaging the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) that is produced with an additional dye laser. The principle strength of KTV, relative to other tagging velocimetry techniques, is the use of a chemically inert tracer. KTV results are presented for an underexpanded jet of three mixtures of varying Kr/N2 concentration. It is demonstrated that KTV can be used in gas mixtures of relatively low krypton mole fraction (0.5% Kr/99.5% N2), and the KTV data from that experiment are found to be in good agreement with an empirical fit found in the literature. We find that KTV is useful to perform instantaneous velocity measurements with metastable krypton as a chemically inert, dilute, long-lifetime tracer in gas-phase flows.

  15. Krypton tagging velocimetry of an underexpanded jet.

    PubMed

    Parziale, N J; Smith, M S; Marineau, E C

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present the excitation/emission strategy, experimental setup, and results of an implementation of krypton tagging velocimetry (KTV). KTV is performed as follows: (i) seed a base flow with krypton; (ii) photosynthesize metastable krypton atoms with a frequency-doubled dye laser to form the tagged tracer; (iii) record the translation of the tagged metastable krypton by imaging the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) that is produced with an additional dye laser. The principle strength of KTV, relative to other tagging velocimetry techniques, is the use of a chemically inert tracer. KTV results are presented for an underexpanded jet of three mixtures of varying Kr/N2 concentration. It is demonstrated that KTV can be used in gas mixtures of relatively low krypton mole fraction (0.5% Kr/99.5% N2), and the KTV data from that experiment are found to be in good agreement with an empirical fit found in the literature. We find that KTV is useful to perform instantaneous velocity measurements with metastable krypton as a chemically inert, dilute, long-lifetime tracer in gas-phase flows. PMID:26192670

  16. Preferential site occupancy observed in coexpanded argon-krypton clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Lundwall, M.; Bergersen, H.; Lindblad, A.; Oehrwall, G.; Svensson, S.; Bjoerneholm, O.; Tchaplyguine, M.

    2006-10-15

    Free heterogeneous argon-krypton clusters have been produced by coexpansion and investigated by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. By examining cluster surface and bulk binding energy shifts, relative intensities, and peak widths, we show that in the mixed argon-krypton clusters the krypton atoms favor the bulk and argon atoms are pushed to the surface. Furthermore, we show that krypton atoms in the surface layer occupy high-coordination sites and that heterogeneous argon-krypton clusters produced by coexpansion show the same surface structure as argon host clusters doped with krypton. These observations are supported by site-dependent calculations of chemical shifts.

  17. Design and construction of a cryogenic distillation device for removal of krypton for liquid xenon dark matter detectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhou; Bao, Lei; Hao, Xihuan; Ju, Yonglin

    2014-01-01

    Liquid xenon (Xe) is one of the commendable detecting media for the dark matter detections. However, the small content of radioactive krypton-85 ((85)Kr) always exists in the commercial xenon products. An efficient cryogenic distillation system to remove this krypton (Kr) from commercial xenon products has been specifically designed, developed, and constructed in order to meet the requirements of the dark matter experiments with high- sensitivity and low-background. The content of krypton in regular commercial xenon products can be reduced from 10(-9) to 10(-12), with 99% xenon collection efficiency at maximum flow rate of 5 kg/h (15SLPM). The purified xenon gases produced by this distillation system can be used as the detecting media in the project of Panda X, which is the first dark matter detector developed in China.

  18. The atmosphere of Mars - Detection of krypton and xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Biemann, K.; Biller, J. E.; Lafleur, A. L.; Rushneck, D. R.; Howarth, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Krypton and xenon have been discovered in the Martian atmosphere with the mass spectrometer on the second Viking lander. Krypton is more abundant than xenon. The relative abundances of the krypton isotopes appear normal, but the ratio of xenon-129 to xenon-132 is enhanced on Mars relative to the terrestrial value for this ratio. Some possible implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Formation of actinide hexafluorides at ambient temperatures with krypton difluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Asprey, L.B.; Eller, P.G.; Kinkead, S.A.

    1986-02-27

    A second low-temperature agent, krypton difluoride, for generating volatile plutonium hexafluoride is reported (dioxygen difluoride is the only other reported agent). Plutonium hexafluoride is formed at ambient or lower temperature by the treatment of various solid substrates with krypton difluoride. Volatilization of uranium and neptunium from solid substrates using gaseous krypton difluoride is also reported for the first time. The formation of actinide hexafluorides has been confirmed for the reaction of krypton difluoride in anhydrous HF with UO/sub 2/ and with uranium and neptunium fluorides at ambient temperatures. Treatment of americium dioxide with krypton difluoride did not yield americium hexafluoride under the conditions studied. 15 references, 2 figures.

  20. Dielectronic recombination and resonant transfer excitation processes for helium-like krypton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao-Li; Qu, Yi-Zhi; Zhang, Song-Bin; Zhang, Yu

    2012-10-01

    The relativistic configuration interaction method is employed to calculate the dielectronic recombination (DR) cross sections of helium-like krypton via the 1s2lnl' (n = 2, 3, ..., 15) resonances. Then, the resonant transfer excitation (RTE) processes of Kr34+ colliding with H, He, H2, and CHx (x = 0-4) targets are investigated under the impulse approximation. The needed Compton profiles of targets are obtained from the Hartree—Fock wave functions. The RTE cross sections are strongly dependent on DR resonant energies and strengths, and the electron momentum distributions of the target. For H2 and H targets, the ratio of their RTE cross sections changes from 1.85 for the 1s2l2l' to 1.88 for other resonances, which demonstrates the weak molecular effects on the Compton profiles of H2. For CHx (x = 0-4) targets, the main contribution to the RTE cross section comes from the carbon atom since carbon carries 6 electrons; as the number of hydrogen increases in CHx, the RTE cross section almost increases by the same value, displaying the strong separate atom character for the hydrogen. However, further comparison of the individual orbital contributions of C(2p, 2s, 1s) and CH4(1t2, 2a1, 1a1) to the RTE cross sections shows that the molecular effects induce differences of about 25.1%, 19.9%, and 0.2% between 2p-1t2, 2s-2a1, and 1s-1a1 orbitals, respectively.

  1. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Krypton Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofer, Richard R.; Peterson, Peter Y.; Jacobson, David T.; Manzella, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The krypton-fueled Hall thruster offers the possibility of high-specific impulse and long lifetime. NASA's series of Hall thrusters have demonstrated krypton efficiencies only 5 - 15% less than xenon. Larger thrusters have smaller differences in efficiency. Plasma measurements have demonstrated that efficiency is reduced due to a decrease in mass utilization. Current efforts are considering the implications of these results, and how design changes can be made to increase the efficiency of krypton Hall thrusters.

  2. A purity monitor for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, P. N.; Kotov, K. Yu.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Snopkov, R. G.; Rogozin, A. I.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present a purity monitor for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter. A new method is suggested based on the usage of a short pulse of a gas discharge as a source of ultraviolet radiation for the photoproduction of electrons in a drift cell of the monitor. This paper describes the design of the monitor, the results of experiments with gaseous and liquid krypton, as well as the experience of using the developed device in the process of krypton purification for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter.

  3. [Ventilation studies of the lung with krypton-81m].

    PubMed

    Klopper, J F; van Heerden, P D; Baard, W P

    1981-08-01

    During a 2-year study period it was found that krypton-81m was useful in routine clinical practice. During this period 1563 technetium-99m perfusion studies and 807 krypton-81m ventilation studies were performed. A distinct advantage of krypton-81m was the ease with which multiple views could be obtained. These views could be directly compared with those of preceding perfusion studies. However, interruptions in the regular supply of rubidium-81/krypton-81m generators affected 17,1% of perfusion studies and xenon-127 should be a suitable substitute for these periods.

  4. Estimation of neutron-induced spallation yields of krypton isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karol, Paul J.; Tobin, Michael J.; Shibata, Seiichi

    1983-10-01

    A procedure is outlined for estimating cross sections for neutron-induced spallation products relative to those for proton-induced reactions. When combined with known proton spallation systematics, it is demonstrated that cumulative yields for cosmogenically-important stable 84Kr and 86Kr isotopes are ~1.4 and ~2.8 times greater, respectively, for incident neutrons compared to protons at 0.2<=E<=3.0 GeV for nearby medium mass targets. Yields for lighter kryptons are relatively insensitive to the identity of the incident nucleon. NUCLEAR REACTIONS (n, spallation), 0.2<=En<=3.0 GeV, stable Kr product yield estimates from proton spallation systematics.

  5. Ultra-Sensitive Collinear Fast Ion Beam Trace Detection of {sup 85}Kr

    SciTech Connect

    Lioubimov, V.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.; Belic, M.; Lassen, J.; Iimura, H.; Li, X.

    2009-03-17

    A novel scheme of collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy for the detection of the long lived rare isotope {sup 85}Kr by observing the optical hyperfine structure spectrum is presented. The technique utilizes cascade two-step excitation to pump metastable krypton atoms to a high-lying Rydberg level. The present work on krypton was motivated by the fact that {sup 85}Kr is a major tracer gas for exploring the reservoir structure of large oil fields. {sup 85}Kr detection in ambient air is also of importance for monitoring nuclear activities on a world wide scale. The technique has been successfully applied to stable krypton isotopes and to {sup 85}Kr. The selectivity is at the one part in 10{sup 10} level and the sensitivity at a few hundred ions/s.

  6. Maximum Proton Energy above 85 MeV from the Relativistic Interaction of Laser Pulses with Micrometer Thick CH_{2} Targets.

    PubMed

    Wagner, F; Deppert, O; Brabetz, C; Fiala, P; Kleinschmidt, A; Poth, P; Schanz, V A; Tebartz, A; Zielbauer, B; Roth, M; Stöhlker, T; Bagnoud, V

    2016-05-20

    We present a study of laser-driven ion acceleration with micrometer and submicrometer thick plastic targets. Using laser pulses with high temporal contrast and an intensity of the order of 10^{20}  W/cm^{2} we observe proton beams with cutoff energies in excess of 85 MeV and particle numbers of 10^{9} in an energy bin of 1 MeV around this maximum. We show that applying the target normal sheath acceleration mechanism with submicrometer thick targets is a very robust way to achieve such high ion energies and particle fluxes. Our results are backed with 2D particle in cell simulations furthermore predicting cutoff energies above 200 MeV for acceleration based on relativistic transparency. This predicted regime can be probed after a few technically feasible adjustments of the laser and target parameters.

  7. Maximum Proton Energy above 85 MeV from the Relativistic Interaction of Laser Pulses with Micrometer Thick CH2 Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.; Deppert, O.; Brabetz, C.; Fiala, P.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Poth, P.; Schanz, V. A.; Tebartz, A.; Zielbauer, B.; Roth, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Bagnoud, V.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study of laser-driven ion acceleration with micrometer and submicrometer thick plastic targets. Using laser pulses with high temporal contrast and an intensity of the order of 1020 W /cm2 we observe proton beams with cutoff energies in excess of 85 MeV and particle numbers of 109 in an energy bin of 1 MeV around this maximum. We show that applying the target normal sheath acceleration mechanism with submicrometer thick targets is a very robust way to achieve such high ion energies and particle fluxes. Our results are backed with 2D particle in cell simulations furthermore predicting cutoff energies above 200 MeV for acceleration based on relativistic transparency. This predicted regime can be probed after a few technically feasible adjustments of the laser and target parameters.

  8. Krypton and argon laser photocoagulation effects in subretinal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chino, K; Ohki, R; Noyori, K

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that krypton laser photocoagulation was more effective in the treatment of macular diseases than argon laser. Furthermore, it could perform photocoagulation more effectively in some lesions with subretinal hemorrhage, because the krypton laser beam was poorly absorbed by hemoglobin. In the present experiment, hemorrhagic retinal detachment was produced in monkey eyes with Q-switched Nd-YAG laser, and 4 weeks later photocoagulation was performed with krypton and argon lasers to compare the differences in the effects of these two lasers. When the subretinal hemorrhage and a heavy coagulation effect was produced in the detached retina, but no coagulation effects were observed in the choroid. Krypton laser beam could go through the hemorrhage and certain coagulation effects were observed in the choroid and the detached retina. It is suggested that krypton laser photocoagulation is more effective in the lesions behind subretinal hemorrhages than photocoagulation with argon laser.

  9. Solubilities of krypton and xenon in dichlorodifluoromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, J.H.; Shockley, W.E.; Greene, C.W.

    1984-07-01

    The solubility behavior of krypton and xenon in dichlorodifluoromethane was investigated for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in support of the fluorocarbon absorption process. The solubility data derived from solute radioisotopes had uncertainties of approx. 0.1%. Values for Henry's law constants were initially determined under equilibrium conditions at infinite solute dilution. Based on these results, the study was extended to finite solute concentrations. Nonidealities in the two binary systems were expressed as gas phase fugacity coefficients for each solute at 10/sup 0/ intervals over the range -30 to +50/sup 0/C. 22 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Polarization measurement of dielectronic recombination transitions in highly charged krypton ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Chintan; Jörg, Holger; Bernitt, Sven; Dobrodey, Stepan; Steinbrügge, René; Beilmann, Christian; Amaro, Pedro; Hu, Zhimin; Weber, Sebastian; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey; Crespo López-Urrutia, José R.; Tashenov, Stanislav

    2015-10-01

    We report linear polarization measurements of x rays emitted due to dielectronic recombination into highly charged krypton ions. The ions in the He-like through O-like charge states were populated in an electron-beam ion trap with the electron-beam energy adjusted to recombination resonances in order to produce K α x rays. The x rays were detected with a newly developed Compton polarimeter using a beryllium scattering target and 12 silicon x-ray detector diodes sampling the azimuthal distribution of the scattered x rays. The extracted degrees of linear polarization of several dielectronic recombination transitions agree with results of relativistic distorted-wave calculations. We also demonstrate a high sensitivity of the polarization to the Breit interaction, which is remarkable for a medium-Z element like krypton. The experimental results can be used for polarization diagnostics of hot astrophysical and laboratory fusion plasmas.

  11. Effective expansion of forkhead box P3⁺ regulatory T cells via early secreted antigenic target 6 and antigen 85 complex B from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying-E; Du, Zhong-Ren; Cai, Ying-Mu; Peng, Wen-Guang; Zheng, Gao-Zhe; Zheng, Geng-Long; Wu, Li-Biao; Li, Ke

    2015-04-01

    The expansion of CD4+ CD25+ forkhead box (FOX)P3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells has been observed in patients with Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis; however, the mechanism of expansion remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the early secreted antigenic target 6(ESAT‑6) and antigen 85 complex B (Ag85B) from M. tuberculosis on Treg cell expansion. To investigate the sensitivity of peripheral blood cultures to the M. tuberculosis ESAT‑6 and Ag85B antigens, the proportion of circulating CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ Treg cells was determined using flow cytometry and the levels of FOXP3 mRNA were determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA levels of FOXP3 and the proportion of circulating CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ Treg cells were increased in multiplicitous drug‑resistant tuberculosis patients compared with those in healthy controls and patients with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) (P<0.001). The mycobacterial antigens ESAT‑6 and Ag85B increased the expansion of the CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ Treg cells and the mRNA levels of FOXP3 in healthy controls and LTBI patients compared with the effect of Bacillus Calmette‑Guerin (P<0.05). Additionally, the mRNA levels of FOXP3 were elevated in the LTBI patients following stimulations with the mycobacterial antigens (P=0.012). Therefore, the M. tuberculosis antigens ESAT‑6 and Ag85B induced CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ Treg‑cell expansion, particularly in patients with LTBI. These findings indicated that CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ Treg cells may have a primary role in the failure of the host immune system to eradicate M. tuberculosis.

  12. Solubility of krypton, xenon and radon in polycarbonates. Application for measurement of their radioactive isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressyanov, D.; Mitev, K.; Dimitrova, I.; Georgiev, S.

    2011-02-01

    Bisphenol-A polycarbonates have a high absorption ability for noble gases that can be employed for sampling and measurement of radioactive isotopes of these gases. In this report the solubility of krypton, xenon and radon in the specified polycarbonates is determined by measurement of 85Kr, 133Xe and 222Rn absorbed in polycarbonate specimens. The found solubility is used to develop a general methodology for measurement of radioactive noble gases in air and water. The methodology is tested in pilot measurements of 133Xe in air under real conditions. The results demonstrate sufficient potential for practical applications.

  13. A Distant Planet: Finding Superman's Krypton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, B.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, Neil deGrasse Tyson made headlines when he appeared in a Superman comic book and pinpointed a real planet (located in Corvus) that matched the description of Superman's homeworld, the fictional planet of Krypton. This story tracked all over the world. Why? I will look at the figure of Superman, whose backstory—orphan from an exploding planet—is somehow known by everyone from the age of eight on. I will look at how specific astronomical phenomena (in the sky and in the news) may have inspired Superman's young teenaged creators in the 1930s to create this iconic modern myth—a myth, like many, grounded in astronomy. My goal is to show that comics—which we normally think of as juvenile, throwaway entertainment— actually tried to base themselves (and certainly were inspired by) actual astronomical events in the thirties and forties, made more accessible to the public by new scientific explanations, including a real supernova that may have inspired the destruction of Krypton.

  14. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    N. R. Soelberg; J. D. Law; T. G. Garn; M. Greenhalgh; R. T. Jubin; P. Thallapally; D. M. Strachan

    2013-08-01

    The removal of volatile radionuclides generated during used nuclear fuel reprocessing in the US is almost certain to be necessary for the licensing of a reprocessing facility in the US. Various control technologies have been developed, tested, or used over the past 50 years for control of volatile radionuclide emissions from used fuel reprocessing plants. The US DOE has sponsored, since 2009, an Off-gas Sigma Team to perform research and development focused on the most pressing volatile radionuclide control and immobilization problems. In this paper, we focus on the control requirements and methodologies for 85Kr and 129I. Numerous candidate technologies have been studied and developed at laboratory and pilot-plant scales in an effort to meet the need for high iodine control efficiency and to advance alternatives to cryogenic separations for krypton control. Several of these show promising results. Iodine decontamination factors as high as 105, iodine loading capacities, and other adsorption parameters including adsorption rates have been demonstrated under some conditions for both silver zeolite (AgZ) and Ag-functionalized aerogel. Sorbents, including an engineered form of AgZ and selected metal organic framework materials (MOFs), have been successfully demonstrated to capture Kr and Xe without the need for separations at cryogenic temperatures.

  15. Photoassociative Spectroscopy of Ultracold Argon and Krypton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, M. K.; Williams, W. D.; Sukenik, C. I.

    2016-05-01

    We report on photoassociative spectroscopy experiments performed separately on ultracold 40 Ar and ultracold 84 Kr with the spectroscopy laser tuned around the trapping transition for each species (ns[ 3 / 2 ] 2 --> np[ 5 / 2 ] 3 where n = 4 for argon and n = 5 for krypton). Previous studies in argon observed several discrete features in the spectrum that have now been positively identified as arising from otherwise undetectable frequency sidebands on the spectroscopy laser and not from molecular structure. Spectra have been taken over a range of laser intensities and show a broad (several GHz) signature of single photon photo-association, but with no individual vibrational levels resolved. We will discuss our results and compare our spectra to those obtained in ultracold, noble gas photoassociative spectroscopy experiments conducted by other groups in recent years. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation, Award, No. PHY-0855290.

  16. The liquid krypton calorimeter of NA48: First operation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, F.

    1998-02-01

    The first technical run of the complete NA48 experimental apparatus took place in 1996. The first operation results of the full size liquid Krypton electromagnetic calorimeter as energy resolution and π 0 mass resolution are presented in this paper.

  17. Stress enhanced diffusion of krypton ions in polycrystalline titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Nsengiyumva, S.; Raji, A. T.; Rivière, J. P.; Britton, D. T.; Härting, M.

    2014-07-14

    An experimental investigation on the mutual influence of pre-existing residual stress and point defect following ion implantation is presented. The study has been carried out using polycrystalline titanium samples energetically implanted with krypton ions at different fluences. Ion beam analysis was used to determine the concentration profile of the injected krypton ions, while synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been used for stress determination. Ion beam analysis and synchrotron X-ray diffraction stress profile measurements of the implanted titanium samples show a clear evidence of stress-enhanced diffusion of krypton ions in titanium. It is further observed that for the titanium samples implanted at low fluence, ion implantation modifies the pre-existing residual stress through the introduction of point and open volume defects. The stress fields resulting from the ion implantation act to drift the krypton inclusions towards the surface of titanium.

  18. High-energy krypton fluoride lasers for inertial fusion.

    PubMed

    Obenschain, Stephen; Lehmberg, Robert; Kehne, David; Hegeler, Frank; Wolford, Matthew; Sethian, John; Weaver, James; Karasik, Max

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion researchers have realized since the 1970s that the deep UV light from excimer lasers would be an advantage as a driver for robust high-performance capsule implosions for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Most of this research has centered on the krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser. In this article we review the advantages of the KrF laser for direct-drive ICF, the history of high-energy KrF laser development, and the present state of the art and describe a development path to the performance needed for laser fusion and its energy application. We include descriptions of the architecture and performance of the multi-kilojoule Nike KrF laser-target facility and the 700 J Electra high-repetition-rate KrF laser that were developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. Nike and Electra are the most advanced KrF lasers for inertial fusion research and energy applications.

  19. High-energy krypton fluoride lasers for inertial fusion.

    PubMed

    Obenschain, Stephen; Lehmberg, Robert; Kehne, David; Hegeler, Frank; Wolford, Matthew; Sethian, John; Weaver, James; Karasik, Max

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion researchers have realized since the 1970s that the deep UV light from excimer lasers would be an advantage as a driver for robust high-performance capsule implosions for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Most of this research has centered on the krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser. In this article we review the advantages of the KrF laser for direct-drive ICF, the history of high-energy KrF laser development, and the present state of the art and describe a development path to the performance needed for laser fusion and its energy application. We include descriptions of the architecture and performance of the multi-kilojoule Nike KrF laser-target facility and the 700 J Electra high-repetition-rate KrF laser that were developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. Nike and Electra are the most advanced KrF lasers for inertial fusion research and energy applications. PMID:26560597

  20. Development of an improved detector for krypton-81 and other noble-gas isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.S.

    1988-08-25

    Phase 1 studies focused on the annealing (transient melting) of silicon and germanium targets with a krypton-fluoride (KrF) excimer laser. A suitable target of a semiconducting material--as a means of storing noble gas atoms--is a key component of a device called the RISTRON for counting isotopes of a noble gas. A means for isotopic selective counting of atoms such as 39Ar for ocean water circulation studies and 81Kr for groundwater and ice-cap dating would be of considerable interest to earth scientists. In the RISTRON, ions are created by resonance ionization of neutral krypton atoms released from one of the targets by pulsed laser melting, and these ions are implanted in a second target after isotopic enrichment. The studies evaluated the space charge or plasma effects created as an undesirable by-product of the annealing of a semiconductor with a pulsed excimer laser. The studies showed that the space charge produced when either silicon or germanium is annealed with a KrF laser can be removed with modest electric fields in less than one microsecond.

  1. Angular distribution of Auger electrons due to 3d-shell ionization of krypton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for electron impact ionization of krypton due to ejection of a 3rd shell electron have been calculated using screened hydrogenic and Hartree-Slater wave functions for target atom. While the total ionization cross sections in the two approximations are within 10% of each other, the Auger electron angular distribution, related to cross sections for specific magnetic quantum numbers of the 3rd electrons, is widely different in the two approximations. The angular distribution due to Hartree-Slater approximation is in excellent agreement with measurement. The physical reason for the discrepancies in the two approximations is explained.

  2. Angular distribution of Auger electrons due to 3d-shell impact ionization of krypton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for electron impact ionization of krypton due to ejection of a 3d-shell electron have been calculated using screened hydrogenic and Hartree-Slater wavefunctions for the target atom. While the total ionization cross sections in the two approximations are within 10% of each other, the Auger electron angular distribution, related to cross sections for specific magnetic quantum numbers of the 3d electrons, are widely different in the two approximations. The angular distribution due to the Hartree-Slater approximation is in excellent agreement with measurement. The physical reason for the discrepancies in the two approximations is explained.

  3. Kinetic modelling of krypton fluoride laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jancaitis, K.S.

    1983-11-01

    A kinetic model has been developed for the KrF* rare gas halide laser system, specifically for electron-beam pumped mixtures of krypton, fluorine, and either helium or argon. The excitation produced in the laser gas by the e-beam was calculated numerically using an algorithm checked by comparing the predicted ionization yields in the pure rare gases with their experimental values. The excitation of the laser media by multi-kilovolt x-rays was also modeled and shown to be similar to that produced by high energy electrons. A system of equations describing the transfer of the initial gas excitation into the laser upper level was assembled using reaction rate constants from both experiment and theory. A one-dimensional treatment of the interaction of the laser radiation with the gas was formulated which considered spontaneous and stimulated emission and absorption. The predictions of this model were in good agreement with the fluorescence signals and gain and absorption measured experimentally.

  4. The Liquid Krypton Hugoniot at Megabar Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Seth; Magyar, Rudy J.; Mattsson, Ann E.; Hanson, David L.; Mattsson, Thomas R.

    2011-06-01

    Krypton is an ideal candidate to study multi-Mbar pressure effects on elements with filled-shell electron configurations. Few experimental data on Kr at high pressures exist, however, with prior Hugoniot data limited to below 1 Mbar. Similar to liquid xenon, the current Kr equation of state (EOS) models agree with the data and each other below 1 Mbar, but diverge with increasing pressure. We examine the liquid Kr Hugoniot up to 8 Mbar by using density functional theory (DFT) methods and by performing shock compression experiments on the Sandia Z - accelerator. Our initial DFT Kr Hugoniot calculations indicated the standard PAW potential is inadequate at the high pressures and temperatures occurring under strong shock compression. A new Kr PAW potential was constructed giving improved scattering properties of the atom at high energies. The Z Hugoniot measurements above 1 Mbar validated the DFT results and the pseudo-potential. The DFT and Z results suggest that the current EOS models require some modifications. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Photon W value for krypton in the M-shell transition region.

    PubMed

    Saito, N; Suzuki, I H

    2001-09-01

    Absolute W values for krypton have been measured for incident X rays with energies in the range of 85 to 1000 eV, using monochromatic synchrotron radiation and a multiple-electrode ion chamber technique that yields the absolute intensity of the X-ray beam and the photoabsorption cross section. To improve the purity of the incident X rays, the electron storage ring was operated at an energy lower than the normal mode, and thin filters were used. The W values are derived from the measured photon intensity and photoabsorption cross section, using the mean charges of the residual ions obtained in previous work. A considerable oscillation of the W values with the photon energy was found in the region near the krypton 3d electron ionization edge. The results are discussed and compared with data in the literature for low-energy electrons and with the calculations from a model that includes multiple photoionization effects related to inner-shell ionization.

  6. Nuclear reactions in Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnier, S.; Lavielle, B.; Simonoff, M.; Simonoff, G. N.

    1982-09-01

    Excitation functions of all stable or long-lived krypton isotopes were measured or estimated for incident protons and neutrons in Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr targets. Experimental data concern mostly Y and Zr targets bombarded with 0.059 to 24 GeV protons. The products 78-86Kr, 74As, 75Se, 83,84,86Rb, 85Sr, 88Y, 88,95Zr, and 92Nbm were measured using high-sensitivity mass spectrometry and nondestructive γ counting. Lighter products such as 38,39,42Ar and 12 radioactive isotopes from 7Be to 65Zn were also measured in some cases and their cross sections are given in an appendix. Most excitation functions pass through a maximum between 0.4 and 0.8 GeV, and the peak energy could depend on the ΔA value. The results, combined with a general survey of nuclear reactions in Ga to Nb targets, permitted the development of new systematics leading to the calculation of spallation-produced Kr isotopes in the moon bombarded with galactic and solar cosmic rays. Compared to cosmogenic krypton measured in nine well-documented lunar samples, 83Kr is predicted with a precision better than 33% (1σ) and the production ratios iKr/83Kr are predicted to better than 25%. It is concluded that the cosmogenic ratios 86Kr/83Kr and 81Kr/83Kr are dependent on the main target element concentrations. This should be taken into account in strontium-rich samples when calculating exposure ages of extraterrestrial materials. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 89Y and Zr, (p, spallation) E=0.059-24 GeV; measured σ(E) for 78-86Kr and 12 radioactive products. Systematics of p- and n-induced reactions in Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr. Cosmogenic krypton.

  7. Determination of the separation efficiencies of a single-stage cryogenic distillation setup to remove krypton out of xenon by using a 83mKr tracer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, S.; Brown, E.; Cristescu, I.; Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Lebeda, O.; Murra, M.; Weinheimer, C.

    2015-11-01

    The separation of krypton and xenon is of particular importance for the field of direct dark matter search with liquid xenon detectors. The intrinsic contamination of the xenon with radioactive 85Kr makes a significant background for these kinds of low count-rate experiments and has to be removed beforehand. This can be achieved by cryogenic distillation, a technique widely used in industry, using the different vapor pressures of krypton and xenon. In this paper, we present an investigation on the separation performance of a single stage distillation system using a radioactive 83mKr-tracer method. The separation characteristics under different operation conditions are determined for very low concentrations of krypton in xenon at the level of 83mKr/Xe = 1.9 ṡ 10-15, demonstrating, that cryogenic distillation in this regime is working. The observed separation is in agreement with the expectation from the different volatilities of krypton and xenon. This cryogenic distillation station is the first step on the way to a multi-stage cryogenic distillation column for the next generation of direct dark matter experiment XENON1T.

  8. Determination of the separation efficiencies of a single-stage cryogenic distillation setup to remove krypton out of xenon by using a (83m)Kr tracer method.

    PubMed

    Rosendahl, S; Brown, E; Cristescu, I; Fieguth, A; Huhmann, C; Lebeda, O; Murra, M; Weinheimer, C

    2015-11-01

    The separation of krypton and xenon is of particular importance for the field of direct dark matter search with liquid xenon detectors. The intrinsic contamination of the xenon with radioactive (85)Kr makes a significant background for these kinds of low count-rate experiments and has to be removed beforehand. This can be achieved by cryogenic distillation, a technique widely used in industry, using the different vapor pressures of krypton and xenon. In this paper, we present an investigation on the separation performance of a single stage distillation system using a radioactive (83m)Kr-tracer method. The separation characteristics under different operation conditions are determined for very low concentrations of krypton in xenon at the level of (83m)Kr/Xe = 1.9 ⋅ 10(-15), demonstrating, that cryogenic distillation in this regime is working. The observed separation is in agreement with the expectation from the different volatilities of krypton and xenon. This cryogenic distillation station is the first step on the way to a multi-stage cryogenic distillation column for the next generation of direct dark matter experiment XENON1T.

  9. Determination of the separation efficiencies of a single-stage cryogenic distillation setup to remove krypton out of xenon by using a (83m)Kr tracer method.

    PubMed

    Rosendahl, S; Brown, E; Cristescu, I; Fieguth, A; Huhmann, C; Lebeda, O; Murra, M; Weinheimer, C

    2015-11-01

    The separation of krypton and xenon is of particular importance for the field of direct dark matter search with liquid xenon detectors. The intrinsic contamination of the xenon with radioactive (85)Kr makes a significant background for these kinds of low count-rate experiments and has to be removed beforehand. This can be achieved by cryogenic distillation, a technique widely used in industry, using the different vapor pressures of krypton and xenon. In this paper, we present an investigation on the separation performance of a single stage distillation system using a radioactive (83m)Kr-tracer method. The separation characteristics under different operation conditions are determined for very low concentrations of krypton in xenon at the level of (83m)Kr/Xe = 1.9 ⋅ 10(-15), demonstrating, that cryogenic distillation in this regime is working. The observed separation is in agreement with the expectation from the different volatilities of krypton and xenon. This cryogenic distillation station is the first step on the way to a multi-stage cryogenic distillation column for the next generation of direct dark matter experiment XENON1T. PMID:26628169

  10. Krypton red laser photocoagulation of the ocular fundus. 1982.

    PubMed

    Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Shakin, Jeffrey L

    2012-02-01

    The theoretical rationale, the histopathologic evidence, and the preliminary clinical studies related to krypton red laser (KRL) photocoagulation of the ocular fundus are reviewed. The authors report on their experience with currently available laser systems using this wavelength (647.1 nm) for photocoagulation of retinal vascular proliferative diseases and chorioretinal diseases associated with exudative manifestations. A histopathologic and clinical comparison of argon blue-green laser (ABGL), the pure argon green laser (AGL), and the krypton yellow laser (KYL), with reference to photocoagulation treatment of the ocular fundus is also discussed.

  11. Krypton and xenon in the atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Hoffman, J. H.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The paper reports a determination by the Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer of upper limits to the concentration of krypton and xenon along with most of their isotopes in the atmosphere of Venus. The upper limit to the krypton mixing ratio is estimated at 47 ppb, with a very conservative estimate at 69 ppb. The probable upper limit to the sum of the mixing ratios of the isotopes Xe-128, Xe-129, Xe-130, Xe-131, and Xe-132 is 40 ppb by volume, with a very conservative upper limit three times this large.

  12. Preferential site occupancy of krypton atoms on free argon-cluster surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lundwall, M; Lindblad, A; Bergersen, H; Rander, T; Ohrwall, G; Tchaplyguine, M; Svensson, S; Björneholm, O

    2006-07-01

    Argon clusters have been doped with krypton atoms in a pick-up setup and investigated by means of ultraviolet and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS and XPS). The width of the krypton surface feature in the XPS spectra from mixed krypton/argon clusters has been studied and found to be narrower than in the case of homogeneous krypton clusters. By considering known spectral broadening mechanisms of the cluster features and the electron binding energy shift of the cluster surface feature relative to the atomic signal, we conclude that krypton ad-atoms preferentially occupy high-coordination surface sites on the argon host-cluster.

  13. Neutron capture time scale of the s-process, estimated from s-process krypton in a meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuda, J.-I.; Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.

    1980-01-01

    A krypton fraction enriched in s-process isotopes was extracted from a mineral fraction of the Murchison C2 chondrite. The (Kr-86)/(Kr-84) ratio is enhanced by 6 standard deviations, showing that significant amounts of Kr-86 were made in the s-process, despite the short, 10.8 yr beta-decay half-life of its precursor, Kr-85. Judging from this sample, the mean neutron capture time in the s-process was on the order of 5-100 yr for nuclei with cross sections of 125 mb.

  14. Crystal Structure of Krypton Difluoride at -80{degrees}C.

    PubMed

    Burbank, R D; Falconer, W E; Sunder, W A

    1972-12-22

    Krypton difluoride is tetragonal, space group P4(2)/ mnm, with two linear molecules per unit cell aligned in planes perpendicular to the tetrad axes. The alignment alternates by 90 degrees between successive planes. The kryptonfluorine bond distance is 1.89 +/- 0.02 angstroms. PMID:17792123

  15. Energy of the quasi-free electron in supercritical krypton near the critical point.

    PubMed

    Li, Luxi; Evans, C M; Findley, G L

    2005-12-01

    Field ionization measurements of high-n CH(3)I and C(2)H(5)I Rydberg states doped into krypton are presented as a function of krypton number density along the critical isotherm. These data exhibit a decrease in the krypton-induced shift of the dopant ionization energy near the critical point. This change in shift is modeled to within +/-0.2% of experiment using a theory that accounts for the polarization of krypton by the dopant ion, the polarization of krypton by the quasi-free electron that arises from field ionization of the dopant, and the zero point kinetic energy of the free electron. The overall decrease in the shift of the dopant ionization energy near the critical point of krypton, which is a factor of 2 larger than that observed in argon, is dominated by the increase in the zero point kinetic energy of the quasi-free electron.

  16. Rotational spectrum and internal dynamics of tetrahydrofuran-krypton.

    PubMed

    Gou, Qian; Feng, Gang; Evangelisti, Luca; Maris, Assimo; Marchini, Marianna; Velino, Biagio; Caminati, Walther

    2012-01-16

    The rotational spectrum of the tetrahydrofuran-krypton van der Waals complex has been investigated by pulsed-jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The spectra of the (84)Kr and (86)Kr isotopologues have been assigned and the krypton atom is located nearly over the oxygen atom, almost perpendicular to the COC plane. Each rotational transition is split into two component lines due to, according to the observed Coriolis coupling term between the tunneling states, the residual pseudorotational effects of the ring in the complex. The splitting between the two vibrational sublevels is 87.462(2) and 87.062(2) MHz for the (84)Kr and (86)Kr isotopologues, respectively. These splittings have been used to determine the barrier to inversion, B(2) = 67 cm(-1). The dissociation energy has been estimated to be 3.7 kJ  mol(-1) from centrifugal distortion effects.

  17. An efficient magneto-optical trap of metastable krypton atoms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C-F; Jiang, W; Yang, G-M; Sun, Y-R; Pan, H; Gao, Y; Liu, A-W; Hu, S-M

    2010-12-01

    We report a magneto-optical trap of metastable krypton atoms with a trap loading rate of 3×10(11) atoms/s and a trap capture efficiency of 3×10(-5). The system starts with an atomic beam of metastable krypton produced in a liquid-nitrogen cooled, radio-frequency driven discharge. The metastable beam flux emerging from the discharge is 1.5×10(14) atoms/s/sr. The flux in the forward direction is enhanced by a factor of 156 with transverse laser cooling. The atoms are then slowed inside a Zeeman slower before captured by a magneto-optic trap. The trap efficiency can be further improved, possibly to the 10(-2) level, by gas recirculation. Such an atom trap is useful in trace analysis applications where available sample size is limited.

  18. Mobility of electrons in supercritical krypton: Role of density fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Masaru; Holroyd, Richard A.; Preses, Jack M.

    2007-07-01

    Excess electrons were generated in supercritical krypton by means of pulsed x-ray irradiation, and the electron transport phenomena were studied. Electron signals immediately after a 30ps pulse showed a distinctive feature characteristic of the presence of the Ramsauer-Townsend minimum in the momentum transfer cross section. The dependence of the drift velocity vD on field strength was found to be concave upward in the low field region and then to go through a maximum with increasing field strength, which is also typical of the presence of a minimum in the scattering cross section at an intermediate field strength. A minimum in the electron mobility was observed at about one-half the critical density. The acoustical phonon scattering model, which successfully explained the mobility change in this density region in supercritical xenon, was again found to account for the mobility in supercritical krypton.

  19. Dust Particle Growth in a Sputtering Discharge with Krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Tawidian, H.; Mikikian, M.; Lecas, T.; Boufendi, L.

    2011-11-29

    Dust particles are grown in the PKE chamber by sputtering materials. The sputtering efficiency and the gas phase reactions can be affected by the gas type and particularly by the ion mass. Due to the presence of growing dust particles, the huge loss of electrons can trigger many instabilities in the plasma. These instabilities, the growth kinetics and the structure of the dust cloud, are compared by using two different gases: argon and krypton.

  20. Auger decay of 3p-ionized krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Jonauskas, V.; Kucas, S.; Karazija, R.

    2011-11-15

    A theoretical study of Auger cascades during the decay of 3p{sub 1/2} and 3p{sub 3/2} vacancies in krypton has been performed by level-by-level calculations using a wide configuration interaction basis. Auger spectra for all steps of the cascades are presented and are compared with the existing experimental data. Good agreement of our results with the branching ratios of ions measured by a coincidence technique is obtained.

  1. Electron impact excitation of autoionising states of krypton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S. K.; Trajmar, S.

    1978-01-01

    Energy-loss spectra of krypton in the region between 21 and 29 eV have been obtained at electron impact energies of 30, 60 and 100 eV. For each energy, the angular distribution of intensities has been measured at 5, 10 and 15 deg scattering angles. Assignments of spectral features found in this region are suggested and a comparison is made with previous measurements.

  2. Accurate ab initio potential for the krypton dimer and transport properties of the low-density krypton gas.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Jonathan M; Song, Bo; Patkowski, Konrad; Wang, Xiaopo

    2015-05-28

    A new highly accurate potential energy curve for the krypton dimer was constructed using coupled-cluster calculations up to the singles, doubles, triples, and perturbative quadruples level, including corrections for core-core and core-valence correlation and for relativistic effects. The ab initio data points were fitted to an analytic potential which was used to compute the most important transport properties of the krypton gas. The viscosity, thermal conductivity, self-diffusion coefficient, and thermal diffusion factor were calculated by the kinetic theory at low density and temperatures from 116 to 5000 K. The comparisons with literature experimental data as well as with values from other pair potentials indicate that our new potential is superior to all previous ones. The transport property values computed in this work are recommended as standard values over the complete temperature range.

  3. Accurate ab initio potential for the krypton dimer and transport properties of the low-density krypton gas.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Jonathan M; Song, Bo; Patkowski, Konrad; Wang, Xiaopo

    2015-05-28

    A new highly accurate potential energy curve for the krypton dimer was constructed using coupled-cluster calculations up to the singles, doubles, triples, and perturbative quadruples level, including corrections for core-core and core-valence correlation and for relativistic effects. The ab initio data points were fitted to an analytic potential which was used to compute the most important transport properties of the krypton gas. The viscosity, thermal conductivity, self-diffusion coefficient, and thermal diffusion factor were calculated by the kinetic theory at low density and temperatures from 116 to 5000 K. The comparisons with literature experimental data as well as with values from other pair potentials indicate that our new potential is superior to all previous ones. The transport property values computed in this work are recommended as standard values over the complete temperature range. PMID:26026447

  4. Applications developed for byproduct /sup 85/Kr and tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Remini, W.C.; Case, F.N.; Haff, K.W.; Tiegs, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radionuclides, krypton-85 and tritium, both of which are gases under ordinary conditions, are used in many applications in industries and by the military forces. Krypton-85 is produced during the fissioning of uranium and is released during the dissolution of spent-fuel elements. It is a chemically inert gas that emits 0.695-MeV beta rays and a small yield of 0.54-MeV gammas over a half life of 10.3 years. Much of the /sup 85/Kr currently produced is released to the atmosphere; however, large-scale reprocessing of fuel will require collection of the gas and storage as a waste product. An alternative to storage is utilization, and since the chemical and radiation characteristics of /sup 85/Kr make this radionuclide a relatively low hazard from the standpoint of contamination and biological significance, a number of uses have been developed. Tritium is produced as a byproduct of the nuclear-weapons program, and it has a half life of 12.33 years. It has a 0.01861-MeV beta emission and no gamma emission. The absence of a gamma-ray energy eliminates the need for external shielding of the devices utilizing tritium, thus making them easily transportable. Many of the applications require only small quantities of /sup 85/Kr or tritium; however, these uses are important to the technology base of the nation. A significant development that has the potential for beneficial utilization of large quantities of /sup 85/Kr and of tritium involves their use in the production of low-level lighting devices. Since these lights are free from external fuel supplies, have a long half life (> 10 years), are maintenance-free, reliable, and easily deployed, both military and civilian airfield-lighting applications are being studied.

  5. Internal plasma potential measurements of a Hall thruster using xenon and krypton propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Linnell, Jesse A.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2006-09-15

    For krypton to become a realistic option for Hall thruster operation, it is necessary to understand the performance gap between xenon and krypton and what can be done to reduce it. A floating emissive probe is used with the Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory's High-speed Axial Reciprocating Probe system to map the internal plasma potential structure of the NASA-173Mv1 Hall thruster [R. R. Hofer, R. S. Jankovsky, and A. D. Gallimore, J. Propulsion Power 22, 721 (2006); and ibid.22, 732 (2006)] using xenon and krypton propellant. Measurements are taken for both propellants at discharge voltages of 500 and 600 V. Electron temperatures and electric fields are also reported. The acceleration zone and equipotential lines are found to be strongly linked to the magnetic-field lines. The electrostatic plasma lens of the NASA-173Mv1 Hall thruster strongly focuses the xenon ions toward the center of the discharge channel, whereas the krypton ions are defocused. Krypton is also found to have a longer acceleration zone than the xenon cases. These results explain the large beam divergence observed with krypton operation. Krypton and xenon have similar maximum electron temperatures and similar lengths of the high electron temperature zone, although the high electron temperature zone is located farther downstream in the krypton case.

  6. Fundus photocoagulation with the argon and krypton lasers: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Peyman, G A; Li, M; Yoneya, S; Goldberg, M F; Raichand, M

    1981-07-01

    Photocoagulation of the monkey fundus with an argon-krypton laser photocoagulator was performed. Lesions produced by argon and krypton wavelengths were compared at various power settings, spot sizes, and exposure durations. At low energy levels argon laser lesions appeared clinically stronger than those produced by the krypton mode. Lesions in the foveal area produced with the argon laser demonstrated more extensive microscopic damage to the inner retinal layers than did those produced with the krypton laser. Histologically, both modalities affected the outer layers of the retina. However, the krypton wavelength affected more of the choriocapillaries and the larger choroidal vessels than the argon wavelengths. Conversely, argon laser coagulation of the retinal vessels damaged the perivascular tissue in the nerve fiber layer more than the krypton laser did. Rupture of Bruch's membrane and choroidal hemorrhage occurred frequently with the krypton laser at low energy levels when a small spot size and a short coagulation time were used. Both complications were less likely to occur with argon burns at similar dosage parameters. By choosing larger spot sizes and longer coagulation times for the krypton laser, these complications were prevented.

  7. E85 Optimized Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Stanley

    2011-12-31

    A 5.0L V8 twin-turbocharged direct injection engine was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of assessing the fuel economy and performance in the F-Series pickup of the Dual Fuel engine concept and of an E85 optimized FFV engine. Additionally, production 3.5L gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) EcoBoost engines were converted to Dual Fuel capability and used to evaluate the cold start emissions and fuel system robustness of the Dual Fuel engine concept. Project objectives were: to develop a roadmap to demonstrate a minimized fuel economy penalty for an F-Series FFV truck with a highly boosted, high compression ratio spark ignition engine optimized to run with ethanol fuel blends up to E85; to reduce FTP 75 energy consumption by 15% - 20% compared to an equally powered vehicle with a current production gasoline engine; and to meet ULEV emissions, with a stretch target of ULEV II / Tier II Bin 4. All project objectives were met or exceeded.

  8. [Effect of krypton-containing gas mixture on Japanese quail embryo development].

    PubMed

    Kussmaul', A R; Gur'eva, T S; Dadasheva, O A; Pavlov, N B; Pavlov, B N

    2008-01-01

    Investigated were effects of gas mixture with up to 3.0 kgs/cm2 of krypton on the embryonic development of domesticated Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica dom.). Results demonstrated absence of a serious krypton effect on Japanese quail embryos. Development of embryos proceeded in due course; morphometrically the experimental embryos were essentially similar to controls. It should be noted that despite exposure to acute hypoxic hypoxia during the initial 12 hours of development in the krypton-containing gas mixture, viability of quail embryos was high enough which can be ascribed to the krypton protective action. Besides, an additional experiment showed that krypton partial pressure of 5-5.5 kgs/cm2 produces the narcotic effect on adult Japanese quails.

  9. Determination of the separation efficiencies of a single-stage cryogenic distillation setup to remove krypton out of xenon by using a {sup 83m}Kr tracer method

    SciTech Connect

    Rosendahl, S. Brown, E.; Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Murra, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Cristescu, I.; Lebeda, O.

    2015-11-15

    The separation of krypton and xenon is of particular importance for the field of direct dark matter search with liquid xenon detectors. The intrinsic contamination of the xenon with radioactive {sup 85}Kr makes a significant background for these kinds of low count-rate experiments and has to be removed beforehand. This can be achieved by cryogenic distillation, a technique widely used in industry, using the different vapor pressures of krypton and xenon. In this paper, we present an investigation on the separation performance of a single stage distillation system using a radioactive {sup 83m}Kr-tracer method. The separation characteristics under different operation conditions are determined for very low concentrations of krypton in xenon at the level of {sup 83m}Kr/Xe = 1.9 ⋅ 10{sup −15}, demonstrating, that cryogenic distillation in this regime is working. The observed separation is in agreement with the expectation from the different volatilities of krypton and xenon. This cryogenic distillation station is the first step on the way to a multi-stage cryogenic distillation column for the next generation of direct dark matter experiment XENON1T.

  10. Experimental Investigation of Continuous-Wave Laser Ionization of Krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Bret D.; Shannon, Robert F.

    2001-10-30

    This report describes experimental investigations of a method that uses continuous-wave (CW) lasers to ionize selected isotopes of krypton with high isotopic selectivity. The experiments show that the ionization rate is at least a factor of 100 lower than calculated with our model that has been described in a previous report. This discrepancy may be due to a much smaller excitation cross section that expected based on previous work and/or the aberrations in the ultraviolet beam used for the first step in the excitation. Additional problems with damage to mirrors, alignment instabilities, and manufacturers halting production of key products make this approach not worth further development at this time

  11. Energy of the quasifree electron in argon and krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, C.M.; Findley, G.L.

    2005-08-15

    Field ionization measurements of CH{sub 3}I and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}I dopant high-n molecular Rydberg states in argon and krypton perturbers are presented as a function of perturber number density along various isotherms up to the density of the triple point liquid. Using these data, a new local Wigner-Seitz model for the density-dependent energy V{sub 0}({rho}{sub P}) of a quasifree electron in argon and krypton is developed. This model, which contains only one adjustable parameter, uses a local Wigner-Seitz radius derived from the local number density rather than from the bulk number density, includes a statistical mechanical calculation of both the ion/medium polarization energy and the electron/medium polarization energy, and includes the thermal kinetic energy of the quasifree electron. Using this model, V{sub 0}({rho}{sub P}) and the perturber-induced energy shift of the dopant ionization potential {delta}{sub D}({rho}{sub P}) are calculated to within {+-}0.1% of experiment. Previously reported V{sub 0}({rho}{sub P}) data for xenon are also shown to be interpretable within this new model.

  12. Supershort avalanche electron beam in SF6 and krypton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Gu, Jianwei; Baksht, Evgeni Kh.; Beloplotov, Dmitry V.; Burachenko, Alexander G.; Yan, Ping; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Shao, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Runaway electrons play an important role in the avalanche formation in nanosecond- and subnanosecond- pulse discharges. In this paper, characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) generated at the subnanosecond and nanosecond breakdown in sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 ) in an inhomogeneous electric field were studied. One pulser operated at negative polarity with voltage pulse amplitude of ˜130 kV and rise time of 0.3 ns. The other pulser operated at negative polarity with voltage pulse amplitude of 70 kV and rise time of ˜1.6 ns . SAEB parameters in SF6 are compared with those obtained in krypton (Kr), nitrogen (N2 ), air, and mixtures of SF6 with krypton or nitrogen. Experimental results showed that SAEB currents appeared during the rise-time of the voltage pulse for both pulsers. Moreover, amplitudes of the SAEB current in SF6 and Kr approximately ranged from several to tens of milliamps at atmospheric pressure, which were smaller than those in N2 and air (ranging from hundreds of milliamps to several amperes). Furthermore, the concentration of SF6 additive could significantly reduce the SAEB current in N2-SF6 mixture, but it slightly affected the SAEB current in Kr -SF6 mixture because of the atomic/molecular ionization cross section of the gas had a much greater impact on the SAEB current rather than the electronegativity.

  13. Computational modeling of Krypton Gas Puffs on Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Jones, B.; Hansen, S. B.; Lamppa, D. C.; Jobe, M. R. L.; Strizic, T.; Cuneo, M. E.

    2013-10-01

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (~20 MA, ~100 ns) on the Z generator are able to produce high-intensity K-shell radiation. Experiments are underway to produce Krypton K-shell emission at ~13 keV, although efficiently radiating at these high photon energies represents a significant challenge. This necessitates the careful design and optimization of the distribution of gas in these loads. To facilitate this we hydro-dynamically model the flow of gas out of the nozzle, before imploding that mass distribution using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). Modeled gas profiles have been validated against 2-dimensional interferometric measurements of the gas distribution from these nozzles, and MHD calculations are validated against power, yield, spectral and imaging diagnostics of previous gas puff implosions on Z. This approach enables us to iterate between modeling the implosion and modeling gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiative output from this combined system. Guided by our implosion calculations we have redesigned the gas nozzle to better optimize Krypton K-shell output and the evaluation of these designs is the subject of ongoing experiments. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories, a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. s-process studies - Xenon and krypton isotopic abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.; Ward, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    We propose an analysis of the s-process contributions to the isotopes of xenon and krypton. The object is to aid studies of the possibility that meteorites may contain gas that was carried in presolar grains that were grown in stellar ejecta and that were not degassed prior to incorporation into parent bodies. That model suggests routine interstellar fractionation of s-isotopes from r-isotopes owing to differential incorporation into dust. We show that a deficiency of s-process nuclei cannot yield details of Xe-X, but the gross similarities are strong enough to lead one to think that such a deficiency may play a role in a more complicated explanation. We predict the existence of an s-rich complement somewhere if fractional separation of this type has played a role in Xe-X. We show that the analogous decomposition of krypton is more uncertain, and we call for measurements of neutron-capture cross sections to alleviate these uncertainties.

  15. E85 Dispenser Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.; Johnson, C.; Sears, T.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-12-01

    This study reviews E85 dispensing infrastructure advances and issues and evaluates the geographic concentration of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), E85 stations, ethanol production facilities, and E85 suppliers. Costs, space, financial incentives, and barriers to adding E85 fueling equipment at existing stations are also assessed. This study found that E85 is increasingly available in the U.S. in half of the states; however, the other half have minimal or no E85 fueling options. Despite these gains, E85 is only available at 1% of U.S. gasoline stations. Ethanol production reached 9.5 billion gallons in 2008, but less than 1% is consumed as E85. FFVs have not reached a significant concentration in any county, metropolitan area, or state.

  16. Experiments on the absorption of argon and krypton laser by blood.

    PubMed

    Folk, J C; Shortt, S G; Kleiber, P D

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the absorption by and transmission through blood of argon blue-green (ABG) and green (AG) and krypton red (KR) laser light. Krypton was transmitted better through intact erythrocytes than argon. The difference between krypton and argon was greater if the erythrocytes contained oxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) than deoxygenated Hb. None of the wavelengths penetrated well a confluent blood specimen only 4 cells thick. Branch retinal vein occlusions were created in monkeys causing scattered areas of retinal hemorrhage. Argon burns placed in areas of retinal hemorrhage caused much inner or full thickness retinal damage. Krypton passed through the inner retinal hemorrhage without causing damage and created a burn at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium and inner choroid. Preretinal hemorrhages were created in rabbits by perforating Bruch's membrane with a high intensity krypton burn. Argon burns placed over the preretinal hemorrhages were absorbed much more than krypton burns. Neither argon or krypton however could penetrate even moderately thick preretinal hemorrhages to cause an underlying retinal burn.

  17. The NA62 Liquid Krypton calorimeter readout architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccucci, A.; Fantechi, R.; Farthouat, P.; Ryjov, V.; De Simone, N.; Venditti, S.

    2016-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at the CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator studies the ultra-rare decays of charged kaons. The high-resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) electromagnetic calorimeter of the former NA48 experiment [2] is a key component of the experiment photon-veto system. The new LKr readout system comprises 14,000 14-bit ADC acquisition channels, 432× 1 Gbit Ethernet data request and readout links routed by 28× 10 Gbit network switches to the experiment computer farm, and timing, trigger and control (TTC) distribution system. This paper presents the architecture of the LKr readout and TTC systems, the overall performance and the first successfully collected experiment physics data.

  18. Structures of small mixed krypton-xenon clusters.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Masanari; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Rühl, Eckart

    2012-06-21

    Structures of small mixed krypton-xenon clusters of different compositions with an average size of 30-37 atoms are investigated. The Kr 3d(5/2) and Xe 4d(5/2) surface core level shifts and photoelectron intensities originating from corner, edge, and face/bulk sites are analyzed by using soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Structural models are derived from these experiments, which are confirmed by theoretical simulation taking induced dipole interactions into account. It is found that one or two small Xe cores are partly embedded in the surface of the Kr clusters. These may grow and merge leading to a phase separation between the two rare gas moieties in mixed clusters with increasing the Xe content.

  19. Investigation of many-body forces in krypton and xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Salacuse, J.J.; Egelstaff, P.A.

    1988-10-15

    The simplicity of the state dependence at relatively high temperatures ofthe many-body potential contribution to the pressure and energy has been pointed out previously (J. Ram and P. A. Egelstaff, J. Phys. Chem. Liq. 14, 29 (1984); A. Teitsima and P. A. Egelstaff, Phys. Rev. A 21, 367 (1980)). In this paper, we investigate how far these many-body potential terms may be represented by simple models in the case of krypton on the 423-, 273-, 190-, and 150-K isotherms, and xenon on the 170-, 210-, and 270-K isotherms. At the higher temperatures the best agreement is found for the mean-field type of theory, and some consequences are pointed out. On the lower isotherms a state point is found where the many-body energy vanishes, and large departures from mean-field behavior are observed. This is attributed to the influence of short-ranged many-body forces.

  20. Sheath oscillation characteristics and effect on near-wall conduction in a krypton Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fengkui Kong, Lingyi; Li, Chenliang; Yang, Haiwei; Li, Wei

    2014-11-15

    Despite its affordability, the krypton Hall-effect thruster in applications always had problems in regard to performance. The reason for this degradation is studied from the perspective of the near-wall conductivity of electrons. Using the particle-in-cell method, the sheath oscillation characteristics and its effect on near-wall conduction are compared in the krypton and xenon Hall-effect thrusters both with wall material composed of BNSiO{sub 2}. Comparing these two thrusters, the sheath in the krypton-plasma thruster will oscillate at low electron temperatures. The near-wall conduction current is only produced by collisions between electrons and wall, thereby causing a deficiency in the channel current. The sheath displays spatial oscillations only at high electron temperature; electrons are then reflected to produce the non-oscillation conduction current needed for the krypton-plasma thruster. However, it is accompanied with intensified oscillations.

  1. ATTA-3: a State-of-the-Art Instrument for Radio-Krypton Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.; Zappala, J. C.; Bailey, K.; Lu, Z.; Müller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    The ATTA-3 instrument at Argonne has recently enabled routine Kr-81 dating. The instrument is based on Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA), a novel laser based atom counting technique that allows detection of long lived noble gas radioisotopes (Kr-81, Kr-85 and Ar-39) with extremely low abundance (1E-16 to 1E-10). At the center of the instrument is a magneto-optical trap (MOT), which traps and counts only the atoms of the desired isotope. This unique feature makes ATTA free of interference from any other isotopes or molecular species. For Kr-81 dating in the age range of 150 - 1,500 kyr, the required sample size is 5 - 10 micro-L STP of krypton gas, which can be extracted from approximately 100 - 200 kg of water or 40 - 80 kg of ice. Several recent developments in our lab may lead to further improvements to the current ATTA-3 apparatus: 1) The isotopic abundance ratio between the unknown, rare isotope (either Kr-81 or Kr-85) and the stable, abundant isotope (Kr-83) is measured. Here the stable isotope serves as a control isotope. A new method has been developed that allows more accurate measurements of the control isotope Kr-83. Combined with the ability to measure the rare Kr-81 and Kr-85 isotopes, this scheme allows ATTA-3 to directly determine 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios without other supplemental measurements, to reduce the overall uncertainties of the measured isotope ratios, and also to improve the long term stability of the system. 2) The current capacity of the ATTA-3 instrument is about 120 samples per year. The throughput is mainly limited by the so called 'memory effect', which is caused by the residual samples trapped in the system after each measurement. These residual samples are gradually released in subsequent measurements, causing cross-sample contaminations. In order to mitigate this problem, we wash the system with a xenon discharge for about 36 hours between measurements. This practice limits the overall sample processing speed. Preliminary

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROGEN MORDENITE SORBENT FOR THE CAPTURE OF KRYPTON FROM USED NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING OFF-GAS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell Greenhalgh; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law

    2014-04-01

    A novel new sorbent for the separation of krypton from off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A hydrogen mordenite powder was successfully incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder and formed into spherical beads. The engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area and microporosity indicative of mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for krypton adsorption capacities utilizing thermal swing operations achieving capacities of 100 mmol of krypton per kilogram of sorbent at a temperature of 191 K. A krypton adsorption isotherm was also obtained at 191 K with varying krypton feed gas concentrations. Adsorption/desorption cycling effects were also evaluated with results indicating that the sorbent experienced no decrease in krypton capacity throughout testing.

  3. [Effects of xenon and krypton-containing breathing mixtures on clinical and biochemical blood indices in animals].

    PubMed

    Kussmaul', A R; Bogacheva, M A; Shkurat, T P; Pavlov, B N

    2007-01-01

    Effects of 24-hr breathing air mixtures containing xenon (XBM) and krypton (KBM) were compared in terms of hormonal status, and blood biochemical indices and morphology in laboratory animals. Some changes observed in blood and hormone indices could be a nonspecific adaptive response. Hence, we should elicit whether these effects are quickly reversible or long. For several indices krypton was a more favorable factor than xenon. However, some of its effects invite to delve into effects of different krypton concentrations on organism.

  4. 40 CFR 85.2205-85.2206 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 85.2205-85.2206 Section 85.2205-85.2206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... §§ 85.2205-85.2206...

  5. Updated SINDA '85/FLUINT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullimore, Brent; Ring, Steve

    1992-01-01

    SINDA '85/FLUINT system enables analysis of mutual influences of thermal and fluid aspects of physical systems. Program enables simulation of nonuniform heating and facilitates mathematical modeling of thin-walled heat exchangers. Written in FORTRAN.

  6. STS-85 Commander Curtis Brown arrives at SLF for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-85 Commander Curtis L. Brown, Jr., arrives at the Shuttle Landing Facility for his mission's Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. The liftoff of STS-85 is targeted for August 7, 1997.

  7. STS-85 Pilot Kent Rominger arrives at SLF for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-85 Pilot Kent V. Rominger arrives at the Shuttle Landing Facility for his mission's Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. The liftoff of STS-85 is targeted for August 7, 1997.

  8. Modified effective range analysis of electron scattering from krypton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedus, Kamil

    2014-10-01

    The elastic cross sections for electron scattering on krypton from zero energy up to 10 eV have been analyzed by the modified effective range method. A simple model based on the analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation with the polarization potential using explicitly determined scattering phase shifts for the three lowest partial waves describes the elastic differential, integral and momentum transfer cross sections up to the energy threshold of the first inelastic process well. In detail, the contribution of the long-range polarization potential to the scattering phase shift is exactly expressed, while the contribution of the short-range effects is modelled by simple quadratic expressions (the effective range expansions). The effective range parameters are determined empirically by comparison with the latest experimental differential cross sections. Presently, the calculated integral and momentum transfer cross sections are validated against numerous electron scattering experiments and the most recent quantum-mechanical theories. To complete the picture, the two-term Boltzmann analysis is employed to determine the electron transport coefficients; the agreement with the electron swarm experimental data is found to be very good.

  9. Detection of tobacco smoke deposition by hyperpolarized krypton-83 MRI.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Zackary I; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Stupic, Karl F; Wooten, Jan B; Repine, John E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Despite the importance of the tobacco smoke particulate matter in the lungs to the etiology of pulmonary disease in cigarette smokers, little is currently known about the spatial distribution of particle deposition or the persistence of the resulting deposits in humans, and no satisfactory technique currently exists to directly observe tobacco smoke condensate in airways. In this proof-of-principle work, hyperpolarized (hp) 83Kr MRI and NMR spectroscopy are introduced as probes for tobacco smoke deposition in porous media. A reduction in the hp-83Kr longitudinal (T1) relaxation of up to 95% under near-ambient humidity, pressure and temperature conditions was observed when the krypton gas was brought into contact with surfaces that had been exposed to cigarette smoke. This smoke-induced acceleration of the 83Kr self-relaxation was observed for model glass surfaces that, in some experiments, were coated with bovine lung surfactant extract. However, a similar effect was not observed with hp-(129)Xe indicating that the 83Kr sensitivity to smoke deposition was not caused by paramagnetic species but rather by quadrupolar relaxation due to high adsorption affinity for the smoke deposits. The 83Kr T1 differences between smoke-treated and untreated surfaces were sufficient to produce a strong contrast in variable flip angle FLASH hp-83Kr MRI, suggesting that hp-83Kr may be a promising contrast agent for in vivo pulmonary MRI.

  10. Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models

    SciTech Connect

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2013-04-28

    Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr{sup +} + Kr and Kr{sup 2+} + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr{sup +} + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr {yields} Kr{sup +} + Kr{sup +} reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 A{sup 2} with an exception near 70-80 eV.

  11. Thermal beam of metastable krypton atoms produced by optical excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.; Hu, S.-M.; Bailey, K.; Davis, A. M.; Dunford, R. W.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2007-02-15

    A room-temperature beam of krypton atoms in the metastable 5s[3/2]{sub 2} level is demonstrated via an optical excitation method. A Kr-discharge lamp is used to produce vacuum ultraviolet photons at 124 nm for the first-step excitation from the ground level 4p{sup 6} {sup 1}S{sub 0} to the 5s[3/2]{sub 1} level. An 819 nm Ti:sapphire laser is used for the second-step excitation from 5s[3/2]{sub 1} to 5s[3/2]{sub 2} followed by a spontaneous decay to the 5s[3/2]{sub 2} metastable level. A metastable atomic beam with an angular flux density of 3x10{sup 14} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} is achieved at the total gas flow rate of 0.01 cm{sup 3}/s at STP (or 3x10{sup 17} at./s). The dependences of the flux on the gas flow rate, laser power, and lamp parameters are investigated.

  12. First Detection of Krypton and Xenon in a White Dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Klaus; Rauch, Thomas; Ringat, Ellen; Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the first detection of the noble gases krypton (Z = 36) and xenon (54) in a white dwarf. About 20 KrVI-VII and Xe VI-VII lines were discovered in the ultraviolet spectrum of the hot DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289. The observations, performed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, also reveal highly ionized photospheric lines from other trans-iron group elements, namely Ga (31), Ge (32), As (33), Se (34), Mo (42), Sn (50), Te (52), and I (53), from which gallium and molybdenum are new discoveries in white dwarfs, too. For Kr and Xe, we performed an NLTE analysis and derived mass fractions of log Kr = -4.3 plus or minus 0.5 and log Xe = -4.2 plus or minus 0.6, corresponding to an enrichment by factors of 450 and 3800, respectively, relative to the Sun. The origin of the large overabundances is unclear. We discuss the roles of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the-precursor star and radiation-driven diffusion. It is possible that diffusion is insignificant and thaI the observed metal abundances constrain the evolutionary history of the star. Its hydrogen deficiency may be the consequence of a late helium-shell nash or a binary white dwarf merger.

  13. FIRST DETECTION OF KRYPTON AND XENON IN A WHITE DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, Klaus; Rauch, Thomas; Ringat, Ellen; Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2012-07-01

    We report on the first detection of the noble gases krypton (Z = 36) and xenon (54) in a white dwarf. About 20 Kr VI- VII and Xe VI- VII lines were discovered in the ultraviolet spectrum of the hot DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289. The observations, performed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, also reveal highly ionized photospheric lines from other trans-iron group elements, namely Ga (31), Ge (32), As (33), Se (34), Mo (42), Sn (50), Te (52), and I (53), from which gallium and molybdenum are new discoveries in white dwarfs, too. For Kr and Xe, we performed an NLTE analysis and derived mass fractions of log Kr = -4.3 {+-} 0.5 and log Xe = -4.2 {+-} 0.6, corresponding to an enrichment by factors of 450 and 3800, respectively, relative to the Sun. The origin of the large overabundances is unclear. We discuss the roles of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the precursor star and radiation-driven diffusion. It is possible that diffusion is insignificant and that the observed metal abundances constrain the evolutionary history of the star. Its hydrogen deficiency may be the consequence of a late helium-shell flash or a binary white dwarf merger.

  14. Anomalous Oxygen and Krypton Abundances in Interstellar Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar H2 absorption toward a sample of stars observed with the HST STIS spectrograph as part of the ISM SNAP Survey. This Survey was designed to produce a database of high quality, high resolution W spectra from which interstellar gas-phase elemental abundances could be derived for large portions of the Galaxy. In particular, oxygen and krypton were chosen as excellent tracers for measuring the homogeneity of the interstellar gas due to their weak depletion into dust grains. The gas-phase 0 and Kr abundances relative to total hydrogen column density had previously been shown with HST GHRS measurements to be essentially constant in the local Milky Way. One of the main motivations of the ISM SNAP Survey was to determine if this constancy held at greater distances and in denser sightlines (where depletion into dust could be a possibility). The initial ISM SNAP STIS observations indicated a number of sightlines with unusual 0 and Kr abundances relative to the measured H I column densities. Since the appropriate benchmark for accurate abundance comparisons is the total hydrogen column density (H I plus H2), FUSE observations of interstellar H2 were carried out in these sightlines in order to determine if they represent cases of true abundance anomalies.

  15. 10 CFR 32.22 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the product and changes in chemical and physical form that may occur during the useful life of the... distributed in the product annually. (ix) The expected useful life of the product. (x) The proposed method of...) meet the criteria of that paragraph. (xv) Quality control procedures to be followed in the...

  16. Krypton separation from ambient air for application in collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Tarek; Strohaber, James; Nava, Ricardo; Kolomenskii, Alexandre; Thonnard, Norbert; Schuessler, Hans A

    2012-07-01

    A portable apparatus for the separation of krypton from environmental air samples was tested. The apparatus is based on the cryogenic trapping of gases at liquid nitrogen temperature followed by controlled releases at higher temperatures. The setup consists of a liquid nitrogen trap for the removal of H(2)O and CO(2), followed by charcoal-filled coils that sequentially collect and release krypton and other gases providing four stages of gas chromatography to achieve separation and purification of krypton from mainly N(2), O(2), and Ar. Residual reactive gases remaining after the final stage of chromatography are removed with a hot Ti sponge getter. A thermal conductivity detector is used to monitor the characteristic elution times of the various components of condensed gases in the traps during step-wise warming of the traps from liquid nitrogen temperatures to 0 °C, and then to 100 °C. This allows optimizing the switching times of the valves between the stages of gas chromatography so that mainly krypton is selected and loaded to the next stage while exhausting the other gases using a He carrier. A krypton separation efficiency of ~80 % was determined using a quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  17. First krypton-81 dating of glacial ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severinghaus, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    A long-held dream of glaciologists has been the direct radiometric dating of ancient glacial ice. Carbon-14 is unfortunately complicated by in-situ cosmogenic production of this isotope from cosmic ray spallation on oxygen nuclei in the ice. Krypton-81 is an ideal tracer in several ways: it has no anthropogenic sources, is made in the atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation on stable krypton nuclei, and it has a half-life of 229 kyr, which is a useful age range for ancient glacial ice samples. However, the abundance of krypton-81 is dauntingly low. Recent analytical advances by a team of physicists at Argonne National Labs has now made it possible to measure practical quantities of ice (50 kg) by Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA), a technique using lasers to cool krypton-81 atoms to absolute zero and trap them, enabling accurate counting of single atoms. The precision attained by this technique approaches 0.5%, implying an age accuracy of about 1000 yr for samples from the last interglacial period. Here we show that krypton-81 dating has been successfully applied for the first time, to an outcrop of ancient ice dating from the last interglacial period (125 kyr BP) at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica, which is independently dated using methane and d18O of atmospheric oxygen for stratigraphic matching to well-dated Chinese speleothem records.

  18. 32.8-nm X-ray laser produced in a krypton cluster jet

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, E P; Vinokhodov, A Yu

    2013-12-31

    We have interpreted the well-known experimental quantum yield data for a 32.8-nm X-ray laser operating at the 3d{sup 9}4d (J = 0) – 3d{sup 9}4p (J = 1) transition of Kr{sup 8+} with the use of gaseous krypton or a krypton cluster jet. Proceeding from our model we propose a novel scheme for the 32.8-nm laser produced in a krypton cluster jet. The quantum yield is shown to saturate for a plasma length of ∼300 μm, a krypton ion density n{sub Kr} ∼ (4 – 9) × 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, and an electron temperature Te ∼ 5000 eV. In this case, the energy conversion coefficient amounts to ∼5 × 10{sup -3} of the pump pulse energy. We propose the experimental setup for producing a highefficiency subpicosecond X-ray laser in a krypton cluster jet. (lasers)

  19. Krypton red laser photocoagulation in selected cases of central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Slusher, M M

    1986-01-01

    Krypton red laser photocoagulation was carried out in 15 eyes with chronic, uncomplicated monocular central serous chorioretinopathy. All patients had vocations requiring excellent binocular vision, and could not work effectively with their current visual acuity. Krypton red was selected as the most suitable photocoagulative source, given the nature of the disease, the tissue-selectiveness of krypton red laser on the retinal pigment epithelium, and the relative inability of the macular luteal pigment and capillary beds of the inner retinal layers to absorb the red wavelength. Visual acuity improved in all 15 eyes, and to at least 20/30 (6/9) in 12 eyes (80%). The visible effects of krypton red laser photocoagulation on the retinal pigment epithelium were minimal and, although nine eyes had had focal leaks within 100 microns of the foveal avascular zone and 12 eyes had been photocoagulated within the maculopapillar bundle, no adverse clinical effects were observed. In carefully selected cases, then, krypton red laser photocoagulation appears to be suitable and safe for the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy in a tissue-specific manner.

  20. Regional comparison of technetium-99m DTPA aerosol and radioactive gas ventilation (xenon and krypton) studies in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanna, L.; Alderson, P.O.; Waxman, A.D.; Berman, D.S.; Brachman, M.B.; Kroop, S.A.; Goldsmith, M.; Tanasescu, D.E.

    1986-09-01

    The regional distribution of (99mTc)DTPA aerosol was compared with that of /sup 133/Xe (n = 30) and krypton (n = 24) in a group of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. All patients had an aerosol study using a recently available commercial generator system, a ventilation study with one of the gases, and perfusion imaging. Regional information was assessed visually on xenon, krypton, and aerosol studies independently by considering each lung as three equal-sized zones. In addition, gas ventilation findings peripheral to regions of aerosol turbulence (hot spots) were evaluated. Only 64% of the zones were in complete agreement on xenon and aerosol. Most of the discordance between xenon and aerosol was accounted for by minor degrees of /sup 133/Xe washout retention in zones that appeared normal in the aerosol study. An agreement rate of 85% was noted between 81mKr and aerosol regionally. The regions of discordance between aerosol and gas studies, however, usually were associated with unimpressive perfusion defects that did not change the scintigraphic probability for pulmonary embolism in any patient. Regarding zones of aerosol hyperdeposition, 76% had associated washout abnormalities on xenon; however, there was no correlation between the presence of these abnormalities or perfusion abnormalities. The results confirm the high sensitivity of /sup 133/Xe washout imaging, but suggest that radioaerosol imaging will detect most parenchymal abnormalities associated with perfusion defects of significance.

  1. Energy transport in plasmas produced by a high brightness krypton fluoride laser focused to a line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hadithi, Y.; Tallents, G. J.; Zhang, J.; Key, M. H.; Norreys, P. A.; Kodama, R.

    1994-05-01

    A high brightness krypton fluoride Raman laser (wavelength 0.268 μm) generating 0.3 TW, 12 ps pulses with 20 μrad beam divergence and a prepulse of less than 10-10 has been focused to produce a 10 μm wide line focus (irradiances ˜0.8-4×1015 W cm-2) on plastic targets with a diagnostic sodium fluoride (NaF) layer buried within the target. Axial and lateral transport of energy has been measured by analysis of x-ray images of the line focus and from x-ray spectra emitted by the layer of NaF with varying overlay thicknesses. It is shown that the ratio of the distance between the critical density surface and the ablation surface to the laser focal width controls lateral transport in a similar manner as for previous spot focus experiments. The measured axial energy transport is compared to medusa [J. P. Christiansen, D. E. T. F. Ashby, and K. V. Roberts, Comput. Phys. Commun. 7, 271 (1974)] one-dimensional hydrodynamic code simulations with an average atom post-processor for predicting spectral line intensities. An energy absorption of ˜10% in the code gives agreement with the experimental axial penetration. Various measured line ratios of hydrogen- and helium-like Na and F are investigated as temperature diagnostics in the NaF layer using the ration [R. W. Lee, B. L. Whitten, and R. E. Strout, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 32, 91 (1984)] code.

  2. Development of Atmospheric Air 85Kr Monitoring Methodology on the Territory of the USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yury

    2014-05-01

    Highly sensitive, low-background and high-performance method of beta-radioactivity measurements of the gas samples was developed in mid-eighties at Khlopin Radium institute. This method was based on the use of the serial automated installation for liquid scintillation measurements and special scintillating cells. Cells were equipped with the gas valve, and their internal surface were covered by a thin layer of organic scintillator. This method found was successfully was applied for 85Kr activity measurements in atmospheric krypton samples and for 85Kr concentration measurements in atmospheric air. For the first time, method developed for 85Kr activity measurements, was practically tested in May - June, 1986, while studying radioactive pollution characteristics in the air basin of Russia and Ukraine after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Thus for sampling of atmospheric krypton the industrial krypton-xenon mix manufactured at air-separating plants, located in the cities of Cherepovets, Lipetsk, Krivoi Rog and Enakiyevo was used. In the end of April and in the first half of May it was determined that 1,5-fold excess concentrations of 85Kr in atmospheric air were observed in atmospheric air of considerable part of the European territory of Russia and Ukraine During the period from 1987 to 1991 this method was used for monitoring of 85Kr on the territory of the former USSR in the air basin of Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Industrial krypton-xenon mix manufactured at 14 large air-separating plants was also used for sampling. Six of them were situated in Russia (Novomoskovsk, Lipetsk, Cherepovets, Chelyabinsk, Nizhni Tagil, Orsk). Seven - in Ukraine (Enakiyevo, Kommunarsk, Krivoi Rog, Makeyevka, Mariupol, Severodonetsk, Dneprodzerzhinsk). One plant was situated in Temirtau, in Kazakhstan. The analysis indicated that in Krivoi Rog; Dneprozhzerzhinsk; Severodonetsk; Makeyevka; Mariupol; Enakiyevo; Kommunarsk; Novomoskovsk and Cherepovets the average 85Kr concentration in

  3. Krypton Adsorption on Zeolite-Templated Carbon and Anomalous Surface Thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Murialdo, Maxwell; Stadie, Nicholas P; Ahn, Channing C; Fultz, Brent

    2015-07-28

    Krypton adsorption was measured at eight temperatures between 253 and 433 K on a zeolite-templated carbon and two commercial carbons. The data were fitted using a generalized Langmuir isotherm model and thermodynamic properties were extracted. Differing from that on commercial carbons, krypton adsorption on the zeolite-templated carbon is accompanied by an increasing isosteric enthalpy of adsorption, rising by up to 1.4 kJ mol(-1) as a function of coverage. This increase is a result of enhanced adsorbate-adsorbate interactions promoted by the ordered, nanostructured surface of the adsorbent. An assessment of the strength and nature of these adsorbate-adsorbate interactions is made by comparing the measured isosteric enthalpies of adsorption (and other thermodynamic quantities) to fundamental metrics of intermolecular interactions of krypton and other common gases.

  4. Thermodynamic study of krypton adsorbed on graphite using a statistical physics treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Yahia, M.; Aouaini, F.; Hachicha, M. A.; Knani, S.; Khalfaoui, M.; Ben Lamine, A.

    2013-06-01

    New theoretical expressions for the adsorption isotherm of krypton on exfoliated graphite at 77.3 K were established. The establishment of these new expressions is based on the statistical physics formalism and some working hypotheses. This method allowed the estimation of the physico-chemical parameters in the theoretical models. The parameters intervening in the adsorption process were deduced directly from the experimental adsorption isotherm by numerical simulation. Our objective in this modeling approach is to select an adequate model that presents a high correlation with the experimental curve. We introduce three parameters affecting the adsorption process, namely, the density of krypton receptor sites NM, the number of molecules per site and the krypton adsorption energy. Then, we apply the appropriate model to calculate the thermodynamics functions, such as the entropy, the free enthalpy and the internal energy, that govern the adsorption mechanism.

  5. Equation of state of dense neon and krypton plasmas in the partial ionization regime

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Q. F. Zheng, J.; Gu, Y. J.; Li, Z. G.

    2015-12-15

    The compression behaviors of dense neon and krypton plasmas over a wide pressure-temperature range are investigated by self-consistent fluid variational theory. The ionization degree and equation of state of dense neon and krypton are calculated in the density-temperature range of 0.01–10 g/cm{sup 3} and 4–50 kK. A region of thermodynamic instability is found which is related to the plasma phase transition. The calculated shock adiabat and principal Hugoniot of liquid krypton are in good agreement with available experimental data. The predicted results of shock-compressed liquid neon are presented, which provide a guide for dynamical experiments or numerical first-principle calculations aimed at studying the compression properties of liquid neon in the partial ionization regime.

  6. Elastic electron scattering in krypton in the energy range from 5 to 10 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Linert, Ireneusz; Mielewska, Brygida; Zubek, Mariusz; King, George C.

    2010-01-15

    Differential cross sections for elastic electron scattering in krypton have been measured at the energies of 5,7.5, and 10 eV over the scattering angle range from 30 deg. to 180 deg. The measurements for backward scattering employed the magnetic angle-changing technique. These differential cross sections have been integrated to yield the elastic integral and momentum transfer cross sections at the above energies. These new results are compared with the most recent measurements and calculations of the respective cross sections in krypton. The dependence of the differential cross sections on atomic polarizability of the heavier rare gas atoms argon, krypton, and xenon has also been investigated over the electron energy range 5-30 eV and for forward, backward, and intermediate scattering angles.

  7. Krypton Adsorption on Zeolite-Templated Carbon and Anomalous Surface Thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Murialdo, Maxwell; Stadie, Nicholas P; Ahn, Channing C; Fultz, Brent

    2015-07-28

    Krypton adsorption was measured at eight temperatures between 253 and 433 K on a zeolite-templated carbon and two commercial carbons. The data were fitted using a generalized Langmuir isotherm model and thermodynamic properties were extracted. Differing from that on commercial carbons, krypton adsorption on the zeolite-templated carbon is accompanied by an increasing isosteric enthalpy of adsorption, rising by up to 1.4 kJ mol(-1) as a function of coverage. This increase is a result of enhanced adsorbate-adsorbate interactions promoted by the ordered, nanostructured surface of the adsorbent. An assessment of the strength and nature of these adsorbate-adsorbate interactions is made by comparing the measured isosteric enthalpies of adsorption (and other thermodynamic quantities) to fundamental metrics of intermolecular interactions of krypton and other common gases. PMID:26136159

  8. Molecular dynamics study of diffusion of krypton in water at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Dipendra; Adhikari, N. P.

    2016-04-01

    Molecular dynamics study of diffusion of two krypton atoms in 300 SPC/E water molecules at temperatures 293, 303, 313, 323 and 333 K has been carried out. Self-diffusion coefficient of krypton and water along with their mutual diffusion coefficients are estimated. Self-diffusion coefficient for krypton is calculated by using Mean Square Displacement (MSD) method and Velocity Autocorrelation (VACF) method, while that for water is calculated by using MSD method only. The mutual diffusion coefficient is estimated by using the Darken’s relation. The diffusion coefficients are found to follow the Arrhenius behavior. The structural properties of the system have been estimated by the study of solute-solute, solvent-solvent, and solute-solvent Radial Distribution Function (RDF).

  9. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  10. STS-85 Crew Arrival for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Mission STS-85 crew arrives at the Shuttle Landing Facility for their mission's Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. They are (from left): Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; Payload Commander N. Jan Davis; Mission Specialist Robert L. Curbeam; Commander Curtis L. Brown, Jr.; Pilot Kent V. Rominger; and Payload Specialist Bjarni V. Tryggvason. The liftoff for STS-85 is targeted for August 7, 1997.

  11. Continuous determination of regional myocardial blood flow with intracoronary krypton-81m in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Remme, W J; Krauss, X H; van Hoogenhuyze, D C; Cox, P H; Storm, C J; Kruyssen, D A

    1985-09-01

    Pacing-induced changes in regional coronary flow were studied continuously with krypton-81m by intracoronary infusion in 25 patients: 21 with 50% or greater diameter narrowing of 1 or more left coronary arteries (group I) and 4 with less than 50% diameter reduction of a left coronary artery (group II). No changes occurred in group II. In group I, krypton-81m perfusion decreased progressively in all areas with more than 70% diameter narrowing, with a simultaneous increase in normal regions. At the end of pacing during angina, krypton-81m perfusion was reduced to 81 +/- 4% of control in areas with 71 to 90% diameter reduction (n = 8) and to 69 +/- 6% in areas with more than 90% diameter narrowing (n = 15). In contrast, in regions with 50 to 70% diameter reduction changes were variable (decrease in 4 regions, increase in 2 and an unchanged distribution in 1 region). Krypton-81m perfusion decreased early, before general signs of ischemia in areas with more than 90% diameter reduction, whereas this decrease occurred later in regions with 71 to 90% diameter narrowing, concurrently with ST-segment changes but before anginal pain. Although all signs of ischemia had disappeared between 2 and 5 minutes after pacing, changes in krypton-81m distribution persisted in most areas for 5 to 15 minutes after pacing. It is concluded that the functional significance of coronary arterial narrowing can be assessed with a continuous intracoronary infusion of krypton-81m. Changes in regional distribution persisted after cessation of pacing-induced ischemia, indicating an ongoing decrease in regional myocardial blood flow.

  12. Self-Associating Behavior of Acetone in Liquid Krypton.

    PubMed

    De Beuckeleer, Liene I; Herrebout, Wouter A

    2016-02-18

    Acetone molecules are inclined to self-associate through dipole-dipole interactions because of their large dipole moment. Infrared spectroscopy of compounds dissolved in liquid noble gases supported by high level ab initio calculations allows investigating the self-associating behavior and determining the thermodynamical properties. In this study, infrared spectra of various concentrations of acetone dissolved in liquid krypton are recorded at constant temperature. Overlapping monomer and dimer spectra are separated by analyzing the obtained data sets with numerical methods based on least-squares fitting. Although acetone is known to self-associate, only a few spectral features have been presented in literature before. In this study, the application of new numerical approaches succeeds in resolving overlapping spectra and allows observing isolated acetone dimer absorption bands for the complete mid infrared spectrum. By use of data sets of spectra recorded at temperatures between 134 and 142 K, the experimental standard dimerization enthalpy was determined to be -10.8 kJ mol(-1). MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ calculations predicted a stacked and planar dimer geometry of which the stacked geometry is more stable. Combining MP2 energies and single point corrections involving CCSD(T) calculations and complete basis set extrapolations based on the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ equilibrium geometry lead to complexation energy of -28.4 kJ mol(-1) for the stacked geometry and -15.1 kJ mol(-1) for the planar geometry. The corresponding values for the complexation enthalpies in solution, obtained by combining these values with corrections for thermal and solvent influences are -13.7 and -5.8 kJ mol(-1).

  13. Self-Associating Behavior of Acetone in Liquid Krypton.

    PubMed

    De Beuckeleer, Liene I; Herrebout, Wouter A

    2016-02-18

    Acetone molecules are inclined to self-associate through dipole-dipole interactions because of their large dipole moment. Infrared spectroscopy of compounds dissolved in liquid noble gases supported by high level ab initio calculations allows investigating the self-associating behavior and determining the thermodynamical properties. In this study, infrared spectra of various concentrations of acetone dissolved in liquid krypton are recorded at constant temperature. Overlapping monomer and dimer spectra are separated by analyzing the obtained data sets with numerical methods based on least-squares fitting. Although acetone is known to self-associate, only a few spectral features have been presented in literature before. In this study, the application of new numerical approaches succeeds in resolving overlapping spectra and allows observing isolated acetone dimer absorption bands for the complete mid infrared spectrum. By use of data sets of spectra recorded at temperatures between 134 and 142 K, the experimental standard dimerization enthalpy was determined to be -10.8 kJ mol(-1). MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ calculations predicted a stacked and planar dimer geometry of which the stacked geometry is more stable. Combining MP2 energies and single point corrections involving CCSD(T) calculations and complete basis set extrapolations based on the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ equilibrium geometry lead to complexation energy of -28.4 kJ mol(-1) for the stacked geometry and -15.1 kJ mol(-1) for the planar geometry. The corresponding values for the complexation enthalpies in solution, obtained by combining these values with corrections for thermal and solvent influences are -13.7 and -5.8 kJ mol(-1). PMID:26805773

  14. Wavelengths and lifetimes of transitions in highly-ionized krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, H.G.; Dunford, R.W.; Gemmel, D.S.

    1995-08-01

    We began a program to test relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations in 3-, 4-, and 5- electron systems by making precision wavelength and lifetime measurements. This is an extension of previous work at ATLAS in which we obtained precision lifetime and wavelength measurements in one- and two-electron systems. We are starting by making accurate wavelength and lifetime measurements of the spectra of multielectron krypton in the far ultraviolet region, at wavelengths of 50 to 400 {Angstrom}. Although there was considerable theoretical progress in this area recently, little accurate data exists for ions above Z=18, except for the wavelengths of the lithium-like transitions. Our spectra are taken using a beam-foil chamber coupled to a 2.2-m McPherson grazing incidence monochromator. This system was upgraded recently to provide efficient light collection and to take advantage of the time structure of ATLAS. The exit slits of the monochromator were replaced by a position-sensitive channel plate with high spatial and time resolution. The channel plate is mounted on a movable chariot on the Rowland circle of the monochromator. The chariot can be translated along the circle, and it can be rotated about a tangent point of the circle. This latter movement allows us to optimize resolution and efficiency depending on the needs of the experiment. Backgrounds due to electrons, neutrons, gamma rays, and dark count from the detector are greatly reduced using a time window (1-2 ns) triggered from the ATLAS beam pulse structure (82 ns pulse separation).

  15. Emission in argon and krypton at 147 nm excited by runaway-electron-induced diffusion discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimov, Gennadii N; Krylov, B E; Lomaev, Mikhail I; Rybka, D V; Tarasenko, Viktor F

    2010-05-26

    Plasma emission of a pulsed diffuse discharge produced at increased pressures due to the preionisation of the gap by runaway electrons is studied in argon, krypton, and xenon. Nanosecond voltage pulses with the amplitude {approx}220 kV were applied to the discharge gap. It is shown that the presence of xenon ({approx}0.01%) in argon and krypton leads to the emergence of high-power narrowband radiation at awavelength of 147 nm. It is assumed that this radiation belongs to the bands of heteronuclear molecules Xe*Ar and Xe*Kr.

  16. Purely-long-range krypton molecules in singly and doubly excited binding potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Z. S.; Harmon, A.; Banister, J.; Norman, R.; Hoogeboom-Pot, K.; Walhout, M.

    2010-01-15

    Diatomic potentials for krypton are computed and also probed experimentally. For a probe-laser wavelength near 811 nm, several strong dipole-dipole interactions produce purely-long-range potential wells in the singly excited manifold of (s+p) potentials and in the doubly excited manifold of (p+p) and (s+d) potentials. Evidence of resonant photoassociation into bound states of these potential wells is observed in the emission of ions and ultraviolet photons from a magneto-optically trapped krypton cloud.

  17. Deactivation of krypton atoms in the metastable 5s({sup 3}P{sub 2}) state in collisions with krypton and argon atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zayarnyi, D A; L'dov, A Yu; Kholin, I V

    2009-09-30

    The collision deactivation of the metastable 5s[3/2]{sub 2}{sup o}({sup 3}P{sub 2}) state of krypton atoms is studied by the absorption probe method in electron-beam-excited high-pressure Ar-Kr mixtures with a low krypton content. The rate constants of plasma-chemical reactions Kr* + Kr + Ar {yields} Kr{sub 2}* + Ar [(4.1{+-}0.4)x10{sup -33} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}] and Kr* + 2Ar {yields} ArKr* + Ar (less than 10{sup -35} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}) are measured for the first time and the rate constant of the reaction Kr* + Ar {yields} products + Ar [(3.8{+-}0.4)x10{sup -15} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}] is refined. (active media)

  18. 40 CFR 85.2205-85.2206 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 85.2205-85.2206 Section 85.2205-85.2206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short...

  19. 40 CFR 85.2205-85.2206 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 85.2205-85.2206 Section 85.2205-85.2206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short...

  20. 40 CFR 85.2226-85.2228 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 85.2226-85.2228 Section 85.2226-85.2228 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short...

  1. 40 CFR 85.2205-85.2206 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 85.2205-85.2206 Section 85.2205-85.2206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short...

  2. Quenching of the resonance 5s({sup 3}P{sub 1}) state of krypton atoms in collisions with krypton and helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zayarnyi, D A; L'dov, A Yu; Kholin, I V

    2014-11-30

    The processes of collision quenching of the resonance 5s[3/2]{sub 1}{sup o}({sup 3}P{sub 1}) state of the krypton atom are studied by the absorption probe method in electron-beam-excited high-pressure He – Kr mixtures with a low content of krypton. The rate constants of plasmochemical reactions Kr* + Kr + He → Kr*{sub 2} + He [(4.21 ± 0.42) × 10{sup -33} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}], Kr* + 2He → HeKr* + He [(4.5 ± 1.2) × 10{sup -36} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}] and Kr* + He → products + He [(2.21 ± 0.22) × 10{sup -15} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}] are measured for the first time. The rate constants of similar reactions are refined for krypton in the metastable 5s[3/2]{sub 2}{sup o} ({sup 3}P{sub 2}) state. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  3. Computational modeling of Krypton Gas Puffs on Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Christopher

    2014-10-01

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (~20 MA, ~100 ns) on the Z generator of Sandia National Laboratories are able to produce high-intensity K-shell radiation. Experiments are currently underway to produce Krypton K-shell emission at ~13 keV, from double annular shell gas puffs imploded from a 12 cm diameter onto a central gas jet. Efficiently radiating at these high photon energies represents a significant challenge which necessitates the careful design and optimization of the gas distribution. To facilitate this we hydro-dynamically model the gas flow out of the nozzle, before imploding that mass distribution using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). We present details of how modeled gas profiles are validated against 2-dimensional interferometric measurements of the initial gas distribution, and MHD calculations are validated against power, yield, spectral and imaging diagnostics of the experiments. This approach has enabled us to iterate between modeling the implosion and gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiative output from this combined system. Guided by our implosion calculations we have designed and implemented gas profiles that help mitigate disruption from Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor implosion instabilities, while preserving sufficient kinetic energy to thermalize to the high temperatures required for K-shell emission. Predicted increases in yield from introducing a relief feature into the inner gas nozzle to create a radially increasing density distribution were recovered in experiment. K-shell yield is predicted to further increase by the introduction of an on-axis gas jet, although the mass of this jet must be carefully selected with respect to the delivered current to avoid reducing the yield. For Kr gas puffs the predicted K-shell yield increase from addition of a light central jet was realized in the experiments, considerably increasing the yield over previous results. Further confidence in our

  4. In situ measurement of atmospheric krypton and xenon on Mars with Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, P. G.; Malespin, C. A.; Franz, H. B.; Pepin, R. O.; Trainer, M. G.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Atreya, S. K.; Freissinet, C.; Jones, J. H.; Manning, H.; Owen, T.; Pavlov, A. A.; Wiens, R. C.; Wong, M. H.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2016-11-01

    Mars Science Laboratory's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation has measured all of the stable isotopes of the heavy noble gases krypton and xenon in the martian atmosphere, in situ, from the Curiosity Rover at Gale Crater, Mars. Previous knowledge of martian atmospheric krypton and xenon isotope ratios has been based upon a combination of the Viking mission's krypton and xenon detections and measurements of noble gas isotope ratios in martian meteorites. However, the meteorite measurements reveal an impure mixture of atmospheric, mantle, and spallation contributions. The xenon and krypton isotopic measurements reported here include the complete set of stable isotopes, unmeasured by Viking. The new results generally agree with Mars meteorite measurements but also provide a unique opportunity to identify various non-atmospheric heavy noble gas components in the meteorites. Kr isotopic measurements define a solar-like atmospheric composition, but deviating from the solar wind pattern at 80Kr and 82Kr in a manner consistent with contributions originating from neutron capture in Br. The Xe measurements suggest an intriguing possibility that isotopes lighter than 132Xe have been enriched to varying degrees by spallation and neutron capture products degassed to the atmosphere from the regolith, and a model is constructed to explore this possibility. Such a spallation component, however, is not apparent in atmospheric Xe trapped in the glassy phases of martian meteorites.

  5. Effective and accurate approach for modeling of commensurate-incommensurate transition in krypton monolayer on graphite.

    PubMed

    Ustinov, E A

    2014-10-01

    Commensurate-incommensurate (C-IC) transition of krypton molecular layer on graphite received much attention in recent decades in theoretical and experimental researches. However, there still exists a possibility of generalization of the phenomenon from thermodynamic viewpoint on the basis of accurate molecular simulation. Recently, a new technique was developed for analysis of two-dimensional (2D) phase transitions in systems involving a crystalline phase, which is based on accounting for the effect of temperature and the chemical potential on the lattice constant of the 2D layer using the Gibbs-Duhem equation [E. A. Ustinov, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 074706 (2014)]. The technique has allowed for determination of phase diagrams of 2D argon layers on the uniform surface and in slit pores. This paper extends the developed methodology on systems accounting for the periodic modulation of the substrate potential. The main advantage of the developed approach is that it provides highly accurate evaluation of the chemical potential of crystalline layers, which allows reliable determination of temperature and other parameters of various 2D phase transitions. Applicability of the methodology is demonstrated on the krypton-graphite system. Analysis of phase diagram of the krypton molecular layer, thermodynamic functions of coexisting phases, and a method of prediction of adsorption isotherms is considered accounting for a compression of the graphite due to the krypton-carbon interaction. The temperature and heat of C-IC transition has been reliably determined for the gas-solid and solid-solid system.

  6. Development of Krypton Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence for Supersonic Flow Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Ross; Combs, Chris; Clemens, Noel

    2013-11-01

    Experimental work is presented on the development of krypton planar laser-induced fluorescence as a tracer in supersonic flows. Fluorescent tracers commonly used in compressible flowfields, such as nitric oxide, acetone, and toluene, have notable disadvantages when used in specific flow conditions that can include tracer condensation, reactivity, and general toxicity. Krypton, a noble gas, is immune to these deleterious effects over a much broader range of conditions including combustion environments. For these studies, the 5p[3/2]2 <-- 4p61S0 electronic transition of krypton, accessible via two-photon absorption, is excited using a tunable sum-frequency generation (SFG) system set at the peak of the atomic absorption line around 214.7 nm. Data is presented on the fluorescence lifetimes and collisional quenching cross-sections over a broad range of conditions for krypton-air mixtures. The technique is demonstrated in a Mach 3 hypermixing flowfield to showcase its utility in a complex compressible and turbulent flow environment. This work is supported by NASA and the NSF.

  7. Simultaneous krypton PLIF, LII and PIV measurements in a sooting non-premixed jet flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, Oliver; Burns, Ross; Clemens, Noel

    2012-11-01

    Simultaneous krypton planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF), laser induced incandescence (LII) and stereoscopic PIV measurements are made in a sooting jet flame for the first time. Krypton is seeded into the jet stream to provide a conserved scalar marker from which mixture fraction can be inferred. 2% krypton is seeded into a non-premixed ethylene/nitrogen jet flame with a cold jet Reynolds number based on bulk velocity of 5100. An electronic transition is accessed through a two photon excitation using an incident 214.7 nm light sheet, producing fluorescence at 760 nm. This fluorescence is spectrally isolated from the flame's bulk luminescence and PAH fluorescence. The fluorescence signal can then be converted to mixture fraction by measuring the relative krypton quenching rates of the various species present in the flame core and making use of a flamelet-based chemical state relationship. This technique is used simultaneously with LII, which will provide the soot volume fraction, and stereoscopic PIV which will provide all three velocity components in a plane. It will thus be possible to observe the influence of the velocity field on the formation and transport of soot, and the evolution of mixture fraction, and its effect on soot formation, within the sooting jet flame.

  8. The refractive index of krypton for lambda in the closed interval 168-288 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. L.; Parkinson, W. H.; Huber, M. C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The index of refraction of krypton has been measured at 27 wavelengths between and including 168 and 288 nm. The probable error of each measurement is plus or minus 0.1%. Our results are compared with other measurements. Our data are about 3.8% smaller than those of Abjean et al.

  9. Effective and accurate approach for modeling of commensurate-incommensurate transition in krypton monolayer on graphite.

    PubMed

    Ustinov, E A

    2014-10-01

    Commensurate-incommensurate (C-IC) transition of krypton molecular layer on graphite received much attention in recent decades in theoretical and experimental researches. However, there still exists a possibility of generalization of the phenomenon from thermodynamic viewpoint on the basis of accurate molecular simulation. Recently, a new technique was developed for analysis of two-dimensional (2D) phase transitions in systems involving a crystalline phase, which is based on accounting for the effect of temperature and the chemical potential on the lattice constant of the 2D layer using the Gibbs-Duhem equation [E. A. Ustinov, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 074706 (2014)]. The technique has allowed for determination of phase diagrams of 2D argon layers on the uniform surface and in slit pores. This paper extends the developed methodology on systems accounting for the periodic modulation of the substrate potential. The main advantage of the developed approach is that it provides highly accurate evaluation of the chemical potential of crystalline layers, which allows reliable determination of temperature and other parameters of various 2D phase transitions. Applicability of the methodology is demonstrated on the krypton-graphite system. Analysis of phase diagram of the krypton molecular layer, thermodynamic functions of coexisting phases, and a method of prediction of adsorption isotherms is considered accounting for a compression of the graphite due to the krypton-carbon interaction. The temperature and heat of C-IC transition has been reliably determined for the gas-solid and solid-solid system. PMID:25296827

  10. Right ventricular ejection fraction measured by first-pass intravenous krypton-81m: reproducibility and comparison with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Wong, D F; Natarajan, T K; Summer, W; Tibbits, P A; Beck, T; Koller, D; Kasecamp, W; Lamb, J; Olynyk, J; Philp, M S

    1985-11-01

    Study of the effects of various diseases and therapeutic manipulation of pulmonary vascular resistance on the right ventricle has been restricted by methodologic limitations. The radioactive gas in solution, krypton-81m was used to study the right ventricle and the technique was compared with a technetium-99m method. In 22 subjects, first-pass krypton-81m right ventricular ejection fraction, acquired both in list mode and electrocardiogram-gated frame mode, correlated well (r = 0.81 and 0.86, respectively, p less than 0.01) with that determined by technetium-99m first-pass studies over a broad range of ventricular function. The reproducibility of the technique was excellent (r = 0.84 and 0.95 for each acquisition mode, respectively). Krypton-81m first-pass studies provide accurate and reproducible estimates of right ventricular function. Use of krypton allows multiple measurements, with or without perturbations, over a short period of time.

  11. State-of-the-art ab initio potential energy curve for the krypton atom pair and thermophysical properties of dilute krypton gas.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Benjamin; Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vogel, Eckhard

    2016-03-21

    A new reference krypton-krypton interatomic potential energy curve was developed by means of quantum-chemical ab initio calculations for 36 interatomic separations. Highly accurate values for the interaction energies at the complete basis set limit were obtained using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations as well as t-aug-cc-pV5Z and t-aug-cc-pV6Z basis sets including mid-bond functions, with the 6Z basis set being newly constructed for this study. Higher orders of coupled-cluster terms were considered in a successive scheme up to full quadruple excitations. Core-core and core-valence correlation effects were included. Furthermore, relativistic effects were studied not only at a scalar relativistic level using second-order direct perturbation theory, but also utilizing full four-component and Gaunt-effect computations. An analytical pair potential function was fitted to the interaction energies, which is characterized by a depth of 200.88 K with an estimated standard uncertainty of 0.51 K. Thermophysical properties of low-density krypton were calculated for temperatures up to 5000 K. Second and third virial coefficients were obtained from statistical thermodynamics. Viscosity and thermal conductivity as well as the self-diffusion coefficient were computed using the kinetic theory of gases. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data and with results for other pair potential functions from the literature, especially with those calculated from the recently developed ab initio potential of Waldrop et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204307 (2015)]. Highly accurate experimental viscosity data indicate that both the present ab initio pair potential and the one of Waldrop et al. can be regarded as reference potentials, even though the quantum-chemical methods and basis sets differ. However, the uncertainties of the present potential and of the derived properties are estimated to be considerably lower. PMID:27004873

  12. State-of-the-art ab initio potential energy curve for the krypton atom pair and thermophysical properties of dilute krypton gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Benjamin; Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vogel, Eckhard

    2016-03-01

    A new reference krypton-krypton interatomic potential energy curve was developed by means of quantum-chemical ab initio calculations for 36 interatomic separations. Highly accurate values for the interaction energies at the complete basis set limit were obtained using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations as well as t-aug-cc-pV5Z and t-aug-cc-pV6Z basis sets including mid-bond functions, with the 6Z basis set being newly constructed for this study. Higher orders of coupled-cluster terms were considered in a successive scheme up to full quadruple excitations. Core-core and core-valence correlation effects were included. Furthermore, relativistic effects were studied not only at a scalar relativistic level using second-order direct perturbation theory, but also utilizing full four-component and Gaunt-effect computations. An analytical pair potential function was fitted to the interaction energies, which is characterized by a depth of 200.88 K with an estimated standard uncertainty of 0.51 K. Thermophysical properties of low-density krypton were calculated for temperatures up to 5000 K. Second and third virial coefficients were obtained from statistical thermodynamics. Viscosity and thermal conductivity as well as the self-diffusion coefficient were computed using the kinetic theory of gases. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data and with results for other pair potential functions from the literature, especially with those calculated from the recently developed ab initio potential of Waldrop et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204307 (2015)]. Highly accurate experimental viscosity data indicate that both the present ab initio pair potential and the one of Waldrop et al. can be regarded as reference potentials, even though the quantum-chemical methods and basis sets differ. However, the uncertainties of the present potential and of the derived properties are estimated to be considerably lower.

  13. State-of-the-art ab initio potential energy curve for the krypton atom pair and thermophysical properties of dilute krypton gas.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Benjamin; Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vogel, Eckhard

    2016-03-21

    A new reference krypton-krypton interatomic potential energy curve was developed by means of quantum-chemical ab initio calculations for 36 interatomic separations. Highly accurate values for the interaction energies at the complete basis set limit were obtained using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations as well as t-aug-cc-pV5Z and t-aug-cc-pV6Z basis sets including mid-bond functions, with the 6Z basis set being newly constructed for this study. Higher orders of coupled-cluster terms were considered in a successive scheme up to full quadruple excitations. Core-core and core-valence correlation effects were included. Furthermore, relativistic effects were studied not only at a scalar relativistic level using second-order direct perturbation theory, but also utilizing full four-component and Gaunt-effect computations. An analytical pair potential function was fitted to the interaction energies, which is characterized by a depth of 200.88 K with an estimated standard uncertainty of 0.51 K. Thermophysical properties of low-density krypton were calculated for temperatures up to 5000 K. Second and third virial coefficients were obtained from statistical thermodynamics. Viscosity and thermal conductivity as well as the self-diffusion coefficient were computed using the kinetic theory of gases. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data and with results for other pair potential functions from the literature, especially with those calculated from the recently developed ab initio potential of Waldrop et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204307 (2015)]. Highly accurate experimental viscosity data indicate that both the present ab initio pair potential and the one of Waldrop et al. can be regarded as reference potentials, even though the quantum-chemical methods and basis sets differ. However, the uncertainties of the present potential and of the derived properties are estimated to be considerably lower.

  14. An interim evaluation of the thermal stability of Cu--Y--/sup 85/Kr sputter deposits and plans for evantual disposal

    SciTech Connect

    McClanahan, E.D.; Bradley, E.R.

    1988-04-01

    A pilot process was developed and demonstrated for trapping and storing /sup 85/Kr from the dissolver off-gas stream of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Ions produced in a low-pressure krypton discharge are implanted on the inner wall of a krypton trapping storage device (KTSD). Objectives were to measure the release of /sup 85/Kr implanted in a copper--yttrium alloy, outline the characterization work to be performed on the Cu/endash/Y/endash//sup 85/Kr waste form, and identify the options available for disposing of the remaining /sup 85/Kr. Release rates were obtained from periodic measurements of the krypton released from both radioactive and nonradioactive krypton-loaded KTSDs. Sampling is expected to continue as long as the extrapolated release rates remain acceptable for a period not to exceed one half-life (/approximately/10 y). Seven tests were performed on a nonradioactive KTSD at 180 to 450/degree/C. Three KTSDs loaded with 80 to 150 Ci of /sup 85/Kr stored at 150, 250, and 350/degree/C were sampled four times each. Proposed post-elevated-temperature storage characterization of the Cu/endash/Y/endash//sup 85/Kr waste form is outlined. Both radioactive and nonradioactive test specimens stored below 350/degree/C showed release rates less than 0.1%y/sup /minus/1/. Release rates for the radioactive specimens were obtained for storage periods of 1.6, 1.1, and 0.4 y at 150, 250 and 350/degree/C. The nonradioactive specimen has been held at temperatures between 180 and 450/degree/C, but mainly at 350/degree/C for a total storage time of 2.1 y. Tests should continue for a period not exceeding 10 y, and then the remaining Cu/endash/Y/endash//sup 85/Kr waste form should be evaluated to better predict the overall stability. Three options for the disposal of the remaining /sup 85/Kr. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Analysis of 85Kr: a comparison at the 10-14 level using micro-liter samples

    PubMed Central

    Yang, G. -M.; Cheng, C. -F.; Jiang, W.; Lu, Z. -T.; Purtschert, R.; Sun, Y. -R.; Tu, L. -Y.; Hu, S. -M.

    2013-01-01

    The isotopic abundance of 85Kr in the atmosphere, currently at the level of 10−11, has increased by orders of magnitude since the dawn of nuclear age. With a half-life of 10.76 years, 85Kr is of great interest as tracers for environmental samples such as air, groundwater and ice. Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) is an emerging method for the analysis of rare krypton isotopes at isotopic abundance levels as low as 10−14 using krypton gas samples of a few micro-liters. Both the reliability and reproducibility of the method are examined in the present study by an inter-comparison among different instruments. The 85Kr/Kr ratios of 12 samples, in the range of 10−13 to 10−10, are measured independently in three laboratories: a low-level counting laboratory in Bern, Switzerland, and two ATTA laboratories, one in Hefei, China, and another in Argonne, USA. The results are in agreement at the precision level of 5%. PMID:23549244

  16. Hyperpolarized krypton-83 as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Cleveland, Zackary I; Stupic, Karl F; Basaraba, Randall J; Meersmann, Thomas

    2005-12-20

    For the first time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hyperpolarized (hp) krypton-83 (83Kr) has become available. The relaxation of the nuclear spin of 83Kr atoms (I = 9/2) is driven by quadrupolar interactions during brief adsorption periods on surrounding material interfaces. Experiments in model systems reveal that the longitudinal relaxation of hp 83Kr gas strongly depends on the chemical composition of the materials. The relaxation-weighted contrast in hp 83Kr MRI allows for the distinction between hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The feasibility of hp 83Kr MRI of airways is tested in canine lung tissue by using krypton gas with natural abundance isotopic distribution. Additionally, the influence of magnetic field strength and the presence of a breathable concentration of molecular oxygen on longitudinal relaxation are investigated.

  17. AA stacking, tribological and electronic properties of double-layer graphene with krypton spacer.

    PubMed

    Popov, Andrey M; Lebedeva, Irina V; Knizhnik, Andrey A; Lozovik, Yurii E; Potapkin, Boris V; Poklonski, Nikolai A; Siahlo, Andrei I; Vyrko, Sergey A

    2013-10-21

    Structural, energetic, and tribological characteristics of double-layer graphene with commensurate and incommensurate krypton spacers of nearly monolayer coverage are studied within the van der Waals-corrected density functional theory. It is shown that when the spacer is in the commensurate phase, the graphene layers have the AA stacking. For this phase, the barriers to relative in-plane translational and rotational motion and the shear mode frequency of the graphene layers are calculated. For the incommensurate phase, both of the barriers are found to be negligibly small. A considerable change of tunneling conductance between the graphene layers separated by the commensurate krypton spacer at their relative subangstrom displacement is revealed by the use of the Bardeen method. The possibility of nanoelectromechanical systems based on the studied tribological and electronic properties of the considered heterostructures is discussed.

  18. Photochemistry of the ozone-water complex in cryogenic neon, argon, and krypton matrixes.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Masashi; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Kawai, Akio; Shibuya, Kazuhiko

    2013-12-12

    The photochemistry of ozone-water complexes and the wavelength dependence of the reactions were studied by matrix isolation FTIR spectrometry in neon, argon, and krypton matrixes. Hydrogen peroxide was formed upon the irradiation of UV light below 355 nm. Quantitative analyses of the reactant and product were performed to evaluate the matrix cage effect of the photoreaction. In argon and krypton matrixes, a bimolecular O((1)D) + H2O → H2O2 reaction was found to occur to form hydrogen peroxide, where the O((1)D) atom generated by the photolysis of ozone diffused in the cryogenic solids to encounter water. In a neon matrix, hydrogen peroxide was generated through intracage photoreaction of the ozone-water complex, indicating that a neon matrix medium is most appropriate to study the photochemistry of the ozone-water complex.

  19. Demonstrate the removal efficiency and capacity of MOF materials for krypton recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.

    2013-08-23

    Metal organic framework materials (MOFs) were developed and tested in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal of xenon (Xe) and krypton (Kr) from gaseous products of nuclear fuel reprocessing unit operations. Two metal organic framework structures were investigated in greater detail to demonstrate the removal efficiency and capacity of MOF materials for krypton recovery. Our two bed breakthrough measurements on NiDOBDC and FMOFCu indicate these materials can capture and separate parts per million levels of Xe and Kr from air. The removal efficiency and adsorption capacity for Kr on these two MOFs were further increased upon removal of Xe upfront.

  20. S-process krypton of variable isotopic composition in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Urlich; Begemann, Friedrich; Yang, Yongmann; Epstein, Samuel

    1988-01-01

    Data are reported which, for the first time, permit the derivation of the full isotopic spectrum of s-process krypton with reasonable precision. It is shown that this s-Kr in a residue from the Murchison meteorite did not originate in one single s-process but rather is a mixture of contributions from stellar environments where the density of free neutrons was not the same. The astrophysical conditions under which this krypton was produced were distinct from those that have been invoked to explain the solar system s-process abundance. Similar to the C-13-rich carbon component in an aliquot of the same residue, the s-process Kr from different astrophysical sites has retained its identity during the accumulation and subsequent history of the meteorite.

  1. Photochemical method for the separation of mixtures of xenon and krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, T.; Geosling, C.E.

    1984-05-01

    This invention relates generally to processes for the separation of noble gases and more specifically to processes for the separation of xenon from a gaseous mixture containing krypton. Fluorine is added to the mixture and the resulting mixture then irradiated with light of about 250-370 nm to form crystals of xenon difluoride. The unreacted gases are removed and the remaining crystals are decomposed, typically by thermal means, to yield xenon and fluorine gas. The xenon gas may be easily isolated by conventional means from the fluorine gas. Krypton may also be easily isolated from the remaining gases by conventional means. The process is particularly applicable to the treatment of off gases from a nuclear reactor or reprocessing plant.

  2. High-Power Krypton Hall Thruster Technology Being Developed for Nuclear-Powered Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.; Manzella, David H.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been performing research and development of moderate specific impulse, xenon-fueled, high-power Hall thrusters for potential solar electric propulsion applications. These applications include Mars missions, reusable tugs for low-Earth-orbit to geosynchronous-Earth-orbit transportation, and missions that require transportation to libration points. This research and development effort resulted in the design and fabrication of the NASA-457M Hall thruster that has been tested at input powers up to 95 kW. During project year 2003, NASA established Project Prometheus to develop technology in the areas of nuclear power and propulsion, which are enabling for deep-space science missions. One of the Project-Prometheus-sponsored Nuclear Propulsion Research tasks is to investigate alternate propellants for high-power Hall thruster electric propulsion. The motivation for alternate propellants includes the disadvantageous cost and availability of xenon propellant for extremely large scale, xenon-fueled propulsion systems and the potential system performance benefits of using alternate propellants. The alternate propellant krypton was investigated because of its low cost relative to xenon. Krypton propellant also has potential performance benefits for deep-space missions because the theoretical specific impulse for a given voltage is 20 percent higher than for xenon because of krypton's lower molecular weight. During project year 2003, the performance of the high-power NASA-457M Hall thruster was measured using krypton as the propellant at power levels ranging from 6.4 to 72.5 kW. The thrust produced ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 N at a discharge specific impulse up to 4500 sec.

  3. Measurement of the K?2/K?1 ratio in heliumlike krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P; Gu, M F; Brown, G V; Chen, H; Kelley, R; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Smith, A J; Thorn, D B

    2008-08-25

    We report the measurement of the K{beta}{sub 2}/K{beta}{sub 1} ratio of He-like krypton using the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The energy of these lines are about 15 keV, which is twice as high as the energy of such lines measured before. A comparison with theoretical predictions shows poor agreement, concerning the trend uncovered earlier where the measured result is considerably larger than predicted.

  4. X-ray fluorescence and absorption analysis of krypton in irradiated nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, Claude; Mieszczynski, Cyprian; Borca, Camelia; Grolimund, Daniel; Martin, Matthias; Bertsch, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    The analysis of krypton in irradiated uranium dioxide fuel has been successfully achieved by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption. The present study focuses on the analytical challenge of sample and sub-sample production to perform the analysis with the restricted conditions dictated by the radioprotection regulations. It deals also with all potential interferences that could affect the quality of the measurement in fluorescence as well as in absorption mode. The impacts of all dissolved gases in the fuel matrix are accounted for the analytical result quantification. The krypton atomic environment is ruled by the presence of xenon. Other gases such as residual argon and traces of helium or hydrogen are negligible. The results are given in term of density for krypton (∼3 nm-3) and xenon (∼20 nm-3). The presence of dissolved, interstitial and nano-phases are discussed together with other analytical techniques that could be applied to gain information on fission gas behaviour in nuclear fuels.

  5. Quenching of krypton atoms in the metastable 5s ({sup 3}P{sub 2}) state in collisions with krypton and helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zayarnyi, D A; L'dov, A Yu; Kholin, I V

    2013-08-31

    We have used the absorption probe method to study the processes of collisional quenching of the metastable 5s [3/2]{sup o}{sub 2}({sup 3}P{sub 2}) state of the krypton atom in electron-beam-excited high-pressure He – Kr mixtures with a low content of krypton. The rate constants of plasma-chemical reactions Kr* + Kr + He → Kr*{sub 2}+He [(2.88 ± 0.29) × 10{sup -33} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}], Kr* + 2He → HeKr* + He [(4.6 ± 1.3) × 10{sup -36} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}] and Kr* + He → products + He [(1.51 ± 0.15) × 10{sup -15} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}] are measured for the first time. The rate constants of similar reactions in the Ar – Kr mixture are refined. (active media)

  6. Comparison in the analytical performance between krypton and argon glow discharge plasmas as the excitation source for atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2009-04-01

    The emission characteristics of ionic lines of nickel, cobalt, and vanadium were investigated when argon or krypton was employed as the plasma gas in glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. A dc Grimm-style lamp was employed as the excitation source. Detection limits of the ionic lines in each iron-matrix alloy sample were compared between the krypton and the argon plasmas. Particular intense ionic lines were observed in the emission spectra as a function of the discharge gas (krypton or argon), such as the Co II 258.033 nm for krypton and the Co II 231.707 nm for argon. The explanation for this is that collisions with the plasma gases dominantly populate particular excited levels of cobalt ion, which can receive the internal energy from each gas ion selectively, for example, the 3d(7)4p (3)G(5) (6.0201 eV) for krypton and the 3d(7)4p (3)G(4) (8.0779 eV) for argon. In the determination of nickel as well as cobalt in iron-matrix samples, more sensitive ionic lines could be found in the krypton plasma rather than the argon plasma. Detection limits in the krypton plasma were 0.0039 mass% Ni for the Ni II 230.299-nm line and 0.002 mass% Co for the Co II 258.033-nm line. However, in the determination of vanadium, the argon plasma had better analytical performance, giving a detection limit of 0.0023 mass% V for the V II 309.310-nm line.

  7. Liquid xenon purification, de-radonation (and de-kryptonation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pocar, Andrea

    2015-08-17

    Liquid xenon detectors are at the forefront of rare event physics, including searches for neutrino-less double beta decay and WIMP dark matter. The xenon for these experiments needs to be purified from chemical impurities such as electronegative atoms and molecules, which absorb ionization electrons, and VUV (178 nm) scintillation light-absorbing chemical species. In addition, superb purification from radioactive impurities is required. Particularly challenging are radioactive noble isotopes ({sup 85}Kr,{sup 39,42}Ar,{sup 220,222}Rn). Radon is a particularly universal problem, due to the extended decay sequence of its daughters and its ubiquitous presence in detector materials. Purification and de-radonation of liquid xenon are addressed with particular focus on the experience gained with the EXO-200 neutrino-less double beta decay detector.

  8. Influence of krypton atoms on the structure of hydrogenated amorphous carbon deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. H.; Viana, G. A.; de Lima, M. M.; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.; Marques, F. C.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using methane (CH4) plus krypton (Kr) mixed atmosphere. The depositions were performed as function of the bias voltage and krypton partial pressure. The goal of this work was to study the influence of krypton gas on the physical properties of a-C:H films deposited on the cathode electrode. Krypton concentration up to 1.6 at. %, determined by Rutherford Back-Scattering, was obtained at high Kr partial pressure and bias of -120 V. The structure of the films was analyzed by means of optical transmission spectroscopy, multi-wavelength Raman scattering and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. It was verified that the structure of the films remains unchanged up to a concentration of Kr of about 1.0 at. %. A slight graphitization of the films occurs for higher concentration. The observed variation in the film structure, optical band gap, stress, and hydrogen concentration were associated mainly with the subplantation process of hydrocarbons radicals, rather than the krypton ion energy.

  9. Influence of krypton atoms on the structure of hydrogenated amorphous carbon deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, M. H. Jr.; Viana, G. A.; Marques, F. C.; Lima, M. M. Jr. de; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using methane (CH{sub 4}) plus krypton (Kr) mixed atmosphere. The depositions were performed as function of the bias voltage and krypton partial pressure. The goal of this work was to study the influence of krypton gas on the physical properties of a-C:H films deposited on the cathode electrode. Krypton concentration up to 1.6 at. %, determined by Rutherford Back-Scattering, was obtained at high Kr partial pressure and bias of -120 V. The structure of the films was analyzed by means of optical transmission spectroscopy, multi-wavelength Raman scattering and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. It was verified that the structure of the films remains unchanged up to a concentration of Kr of about 1.0 at. %. A slight graphitization of the films occurs for higher concentration. The observed variation in the film structure, optical band gap, stress, and hydrogen concentration were associated mainly with the subplantation process of hydrocarbons radicals, rather than the krypton ion energy.

  10. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=85

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Balraj; Chen, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Evaluated experimental data are presented for 13 known nuclides of mass 85 (Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo). Since the previous 1990 evaluation of A=85, {sup 85}Zn, {sup 85}Ga, {sup 85}Ge and {sup 85}nuclides are newly added here. Excited state data for {sup 85}Se, {sup 85}Zr have become available from radioactive decay and in–beam γ–ray studies. New and improved high–spin data are available for {sup 85}Br, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 85}Rb, {sup 85}Y, {sup 85}Nb and {sup 85}Mo. New direct and precise measurement of atomic masses of {sup 85}Ge, {sup 85}As, {sup 85}Se, {sup 85}Br, {sup 85}Rb, {sup 85}Zr, {sup 85}Nb and {sup 85}Mo have greatly improved the landscape of β decay–Q values and separation energies in this mass region. In spite of extensive experimental work on the isobaric nuclei of this mass chain several deficiencies remain. No excited states are known in {sup 85}Zn, {sup 85}Ga, {sup 85}As. Only a few excited state are assigned in {sup 85}Ge from {sup 85}Ga β– decay. From radioactivity studies, the decay schemes of {sup 85}Zn and {sup 85}Mo are not known, and those for {sup 85}Ga, {sup 85}Ge, {sup 85}As and 10.9–s isomer of {sup 85}Zr are incomplete. Level lifetimes are not known for excited states in {sup 85}Se, {sup 85}Br, {sup 85}Nb and {sup 85}Mo. The {sup 85}Tc nuclide has not been detected in fragmentation experiments at GANIL, alluding to its unbound nature for proton emission. The {sup 85}Kr, {sup 85}Rb, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 85}Y nuclides remain the most extensively studied from many different reactions and decays. The evaluation of A=85 nuclides has been done after a span of 23 years, thus includes an extensive amount of new data for almost each nuclide. This work supersedes the data for A=85 nuclides presented in earlier full NDS publication by J. Tepel in 1980Te04 and a later one published in an update mode by H. Sievers in 1991Si01.

  11. Cryogenic system with GM cryocooler for krypton, xenon separation from hydrogen-helium purge gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X. X.; Zhang, M. M.; Zhang, D. X.; Xu, D.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR), fission products such as krypton, xenon and tritium will be produced continuously in the process of nuclear fission reaction. A cryogenic system with a two stage GM cryocooler was designed to separate Kr, Xe, and H2 from helium purge gas. The temperatures of two stage heat exchanger condensation tanks were maintained at about 38 K and 4.5 K, respectively. The main fluid parameters of heat transfer were confirmed, and the structural heat exchanger equipment and cold box were designed. Designed concentrations after cryogenic separation of Kr, Xe and H2 in helium recycle gas are less than 1 ppb.

  12. Krypton laser photocoagulation induces retinal vascular remodeling rather than choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Behar-Cohen, F; Benezra, D; Soubrane, G; Jonet, L; Jeanny, J C

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the retina and choroid response following krypton laser photocoagulation. Ninety-two C57BL6/Sev129 and 32 C57BL/6J, 5-6-week-old mice received one single krypton (630 nm) laser lesion: 50 microm, 0.05 s, 400 mW. On the following day, every day thereafter for 1 week and every 2-3 days for the following 3 weeks, serial sections throughout the lesion were systematically collected and studied. Immunohistology using specific markers or antibodies for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (astrocytes, glia and Muller's cells), von Willebrand (vW) (vascular endothelial cells), TUNEL (cells undergoing caspase dependent apoptosis), PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) p36, CD4 and F4/80 (infiltrating inflammatory and T cells), DAPI (cell nuclei) and routine histology were carried out. Laser confocal microscopy was also performed on flat mounts. Temporal and spatial observations of the created photocoagulation lesions demonstrate that, after a few hours, activated glial cells within the retinal path of the laser beam express GFAP. After 48 h, GFAP-positive staining was also detected within the choroid lesion center. "Movement" of this GFAP-positive expression towards the lasered choroid was preceded by a well-demarcated and localized apoptosis of the retina outer nuclear layer cells within the laser beam path. Later, death of retinal outer nuclear cells and layer thinning at this site was followed by evagination of the inner nuclear retinal layer. Funneling of the entire inner nuclear and the thinned outer nuclear layers into the choroid lesion center was accompanied by "dragging" of the retinal capillaries. Thus, from days 10 to 14 after krypton laser photocoagulation onward, well-formed blood capillaries (of retinal origin) were observed within the lesion. Only a few of the vW-positive capillary endothelial cells stained also for PCNA p36. In the choroid, dilatation of the vascular bed occurred at the vicinity of the

  13. Cryogenic system with GM cryocooler for krypton, xenon separation from hydrogen-helium purge gas

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, X. X.; Zhang, D. X.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.; Zhang, M. M.; Xu, D.

    2014-01-29

    In the thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR), fission products such as krypton, xenon and tritium will be produced continuously in the process of nuclear fission reaction. A cryogenic system with a two stage GM cryocooler was designed to separate Kr, Xe, and H{sub 2} from helium purge gas. The temperatures of two stage heat exchanger condensation tanks were maintained at about 38 K and 4.5 K, respectively. The main fluid parameters of heat transfer were confirmed, and the structural heat exchanger equipment and cold box were designed. Designed concentrations after cryogenic separation of Kr, Xe and H{sub 2} in helium recycle gas are less than 1 ppb.

  14. HIRFL-CSR internal cluster target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Caojie; Lu, Rongchun; Cai, Xiaohong; Yu, Deyang; Ruan, Fangfang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Jianming; Torpokov, D. K.; Nikolenko, D.

    2013-12-01

    Since HIRFL-CSR internal cluster target was built, it has played a key role in in-ring experiments at HIRFL-CSR. So far it have been operated with five gas species as targets for scattering experiments, i.e. hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, neon, and krypton. The obtained highest thickness for hydrogen target amounts up to 1012 atoms/cm2, and those of other targets are larger than 1013 atoms/cm2 with the background pressure of 10-11 mbar in CSR. The target thickness can be varied by regulating the nozzle temperature and pressure of the inlet gas. The first online internal target experiment dedicated to investigate radioactive electron capture (REC) process with Xe54+ ions colliding with the nitrogen target demonstrated the stability and reliability of the internal target system. In addition, hydrogen and krypton were also tested online in recent experiments, which indicate the target system can meet experimental requirements for the thickness of target, pressure in scattering chamber, and long-term stability.

  15. Benchmark Calculations for Electron-Impact Excitation of Krypton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.; Bartschat, K.

    2000-06-01

    Angular correlation and polarization studies of electron-impact excitation of the heavy rare gases provide important benchmarks for testing theoretical approaches. For e--Kr collisions, simulations must treat a complex target structure and the scattering dynamics, both with the inclusion of relativistic effects. A variety of observables calculated with our improved model will be presented, the convergence of the results with the number of coupled channels will be analyzed, and the results will be compared with detailed experimental data [1,2]. Finally, our predictions for the angular momentum transfer L_⊥ at small scattering angles suggest a promising test for a deeper understanding of propensity rules in these transitions. [1] X. Guo et al. (1999), J. Phys. B 32 L155. [2] M. Dümmler et al. (1995), J. Phys. B 28 2985.

  16. The yrast rotational bands of selenium-74 and krypton-77

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    New states in the positive parity yrast bands of {sup 74}Se and {sup 77}Kr have been observed with the reactions {sup 52}Cr({sup 28}Si,{alpha}2p){sup 74}Se and {sup 52}Cr ({sup 28}Si,2pn){sup 77}Kr at 98 MeV. The target consisted of approximately 1 mg/cm{sup 2} natural chromium (84% {sup 52}Cr abundance) evaporated on a thick lead backing. The new states extend the known level scheme of {sup 74}Se up to I{sup {pi}} = (22{sup +}) and most of the transitions in the other previously reported bands have been seen. For the states I{sup {pi}} {ge} 6{sup +} the spectrum shows a relatively constant moment of inertia parameter (h{sup 2}/2{Theta}) = 27.8 {plus minus} 0.5 keV. Excited positive parity states up to spin (41/2) have been observed in {sup 77}Kr. {Delta}I = 1 transitions have been identified throughout the positive parity band. The energies, mixing ratios and B(M1) transition rates for these transitions alternate in size as the spin increases. A cranked shell model analysis was performed along with Strutinsky-Bogolyubov cranking calculations. The observed decrease in the signature splitting of the {nu}g{sub 9/2} band has been attributed to a band crossing due to an aligning pair of g{sub 9/2} protons. Prolate quadrupole deformations of {beta}{sub 2} = 0.34 for the ground band and {beta}{sub 2} = 0.26 for the first excited band are predicted. This band crossing is associated with a shape change caused by the polarization effect of aligned quasiparticles.

  17. Unintentional fatal intoxications with mitragynine and O-desmethyltramadol from the herbal blend Krypton.

    PubMed

    Kronstrand, Robert; Roman, Markus; Thelander, Gunilla; Eriksson, Anders

    2011-05-01

    The leaves of Kratom, a medicinal plant in Southeast Asia, have been used as an herbal drug for a long time. At least one of the alkaloids present in Kratom, mitragynine, is a mu-receptor agonist. Both Kratom and an additional preparation called Krypton are available via the internet. It seems to consist of powdered Kratom leaves with another mu-receptor agonist, O-desmethyltramadol, added. O-Desmethyltramadol is an active metabolite of tramadol, a commonly prescribed analgesic. We present nine cases of intoxication, occurring in a period of less than one year, where both mitragynine and O-desmethyltramadol were detected in the postmortem blood samples. Neither tramadol nor N-desmethyltramadol was present in these samples, which implies that the ingested drug was O-desmethyltramadol. The blood concentrations of mitragynine, determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, ranged from 0.02 to 0.18 μg/g, and O-desmethyltramadol concentrations, determined by gas chromatography with nitrogen-specific detection, ranged from 0.4 to 4.3 μg/g. We believe that the addition of the potent mu-receptor agonist O-desmethyltramadol to powdered leaves from Kratom contributed to the unintentional death of the nine cases presented and conclude that intake of Krypton is not as harmless as it often is described on internet websites. PMID:21513619

  18. L-shell spectroscopic diagnostics of radiation from krypton HED plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, E. E.; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Rawat, R. S.; Tan, K. S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Hell, N.; Brown, G. V.

    2016-11-01

    X-ray spectroscopy is a useful tool for diagnosing plasma sources due to its non-invasive nature. One such source is the dense plasma focus (DPF). Recent interest has developed to demonstrate its potential application as a soft x-ray source. We present the first spectroscopic studies of krypton high energy density plasmas produced on a 3 kJ DPF device in Singapore. In order to diagnose spectral features, and to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of plasma parameters, a new non-local thermodynamic equilibrium L-shell kinetic model for krypton was developed. It has the capability of incorporating hot electrons, with different electron distribution functions, in order to examine the effects that they have on emission spectra. To further substantiate the validity of this model, it is also benchmarked with data gathered from experiments on the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where data were collected using the high resolution EBIT calorimeter spectrometer.

  19. Diffusion coefficient of krypton atoms in helium gas at low and moderate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazza, M. T.; Bouledroua, M.

    In the present work, using the Chapman-Enskog method for dilute gases, the diffusion coefficients of ground krypton atoms in a very weakly ionized helium buffer gas are revisited. The calculations are carried out quantum mechanically in the range of low and moderate temperatures. The 1 Σ+ potential-energy curve via which Kr approaches He is constructed from the most recent ab initio energy points. The reliable data points used in the construction are smoothly connected to adequate long- and short-range forms. The calculations of the classical second virial coefficients and the Boyle temperature of the helium-krypton mixture are also discussed. These coefficients and their variations in terms of temperature are analysed by adopting the constructed HeKr potential and the Lennard-Jones form that fits it. The diffusion and elastic cross sections are also explored and the resonance features they exhibit are closely examined. The variation law of the diffusion coefficients with temperature is determined for typical values of density and pressure. The coefficients show excellent agreement with the available experimental data; the discrepancies do not exceed 5%.

  20. Unintentional fatal intoxications with mitragynine and O-desmethyltramadol from the herbal blend Krypton.

    PubMed

    Kronstrand, Robert; Roman, Markus; Thelander, Gunilla; Eriksson, Anders

    2011-05-01

    The leaves of Kratom, a medicinal plant in Southeast Asia, have been used as an herbal drug for a long time. At least one of the alkaloids present in Kratom, mitragynine, is a mu-receptor agonist. Both Kratom and an additional preparation called Krypton are available via the internet. It seems to consist of powdered Kratom leaves with another mu-receptor agonist, O-desmethyltramadol, added. O-Desmethyltramadol is an active metabolite of tramadol, a commonly prescribed analgesic. We present nine cases of intoxication, occurring in a period of less than one year, where both mitragynine and O-desmethyltramadol were detected in the postmortem blood samples. Neither tramadol nor N-desmethyltramadol was present in these samples, which implies that the ingested drug was O-desmethyltramadol. The blood concentrations of mitragynine, determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, ranged from 0.02 to 0.18 μg/g, and O-desmethyltramadol concentrations, determined by gas chromatography with nitrogen-specific detection, ranged from 0.4 to 4.3 μg/g. We believe that the addition of the potent mu-receptor agonist O-desmethyltramadol to powdered leaves from Kratom contributed to the unintentional death of the nine cases presented and conclude that intake of Krypton is not as harmless as it often is described on internet websites.

  1. Four-body interaction energy for compressed solid krypton from quantum theory.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chunling; Wu, Na; Liu, Fusheng; Saxena, Surendra K; Zheng, Xingrong

    2012-07-28

    The importance of the four-body contribution in compressed solid krypton was first evaluated using the many-body expansion method and the coupled cluster theory with full single and double excitations plus perturbative treatment of triples. All different four-atom clusters existing in the first- and second-nearest neighbor shells of face-centered cubic krypton were considered, and both self-consistent-field Hartree-Fock and correlation parts of the four-body interaction were accurately determined from the ambient conditions up to eightfold volume compression. We find that the four-body interaction energy is negative at compression ratio lower than 2, where the dispersive forces play a dominant role. With increasing the compression, the four-body contribution becomes repulsive and significantly cancels the over-softening effects of the three-body potential. The obtained equation of state (EOS) was compared with the experiments and the density-functional theory calculations. It shows that combination of the four-body effects with two- and three-body interactions leads to an excellent agreement with EOS measurements throughout the whole experimental range 0-130 GPa, and extends the prediction to 300 GPa.

  2. A GCMC simulation and experimental study of krypton adsorption/desorption hysteresis on a graphite surface.

    PubMed

    Prasetyo, Luisa; Horikawa, Toshihide; Phadungbut, Poomiwat; Johnathan Tan, Shiliang; Do, D D; Nicholson, D

    2016-09-15

    Adsorption isotherms and isosteric heats of krypton on a highly graphitized carbon black, Carbopack F, have been studied with a combination of Monte Carlo simulation and high-resolution experiments at 77K and 87K. Our investigation sheds light on the microscopic origin of the experimentally observed, horizontal hysteresis loop in the first layer, and the vertical hysteresis-loop in the second layer, and is found to be in agreement with our recent Monte Carlo simulation study (Diao et al., 2015). From detailed analysis of the adsorption isotherm, the latter is attributed to the compression of an imperfect solid-like state in the first layer, to form a hexagonally packed, solid-like state, immediately following the first order condensation of the second layer. To ensure that capillary condensation in the confined spaces between microcrystallites of Carbopack F does not interfere with these hysteresis loops, we carried out simulations of krypton adsorption in the confined space of a wedge-shaped pore that mimics the interstices between particles. These simulations show that, up to the third layer, any such interference is negligible.

  3. Low Temperature Thermodynamic Equilibrium of CO2 Dimer Anion Species in Cryogenic Argon and Krypton Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Michael E.; Moore, David T.

    2016-06-01

    The separated CO2 dimer anion, (CO2)(CO2-), is observed by FTIR spectroscopy in matrix isolation experiments at 1652 cm-1 upon deposition of high energy argon ions into an argon matrix doped with 0.5% CO2. It has previously been reported by Andrews that upon annealing the matrix to 25K, the separated species converts to an oxalate-like C2O4- species which appears at 1856 cm-1.a We have observed that subsequently holding the matrix at 10K caused the C2O4- species to fully convert back to (CO2)(CO2-). Upon further investigation, we determined that the two species reversibly interconvert between 19K and 23K, suggesting the species are in thermodynamic equilibrium. The associated van't Hoff plot has a linear trend and indicates an endothermic reaction driven by a large increase in entropy. An analogous experiment in a krypton matrix was performed, and the equilibrium was found to occur between 26K and 31K. Interestingly, analysis revealed the reaction in krypton is more endothermic, but has nearly the same entropy value as was observed in the argon experiment. aZhou, M.; Andrews, L.; J. Chem. Phys. 110, 2414 (1999).

  4. Short wavelength laser calculations for electron pumping in neon-like krypton (Kr XXVII)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, U.; Bhatia, A. K.; Suckewer, S.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations of electron impact collision strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are made for neon-like krypton (Kr XXVII) for the 2s2 2p6, 2s2 2p5 3s, 2s2 2p5 3p, and 2s2 2p5 3d configurations. From these atomic data, the level populations as a function of the electron density are calculated at two temperatures, 1 x 10 to the 7th K and 3 x 10 to the 7th K. An analysis of level populations reveals that a volume of krypton in which a significant number of the ions are in the Kr XXVII degree of ionization can produce a significant gain in transition between the 2s2 2p5 3s and 2s2 2p5 3p configurations. At an electron density of 1 x 10 to the 19th/cu cm the plasma length has to be of the order of 1 m; at a density of 1 x 10 to the 21st/cu cm the length is reduced to approximately 0.5 cm; and at an electron density of 1 x 10 to the 22nd/cu cm the length of the plasma is further reduced to approximately 1 mm.

  5. Effective and accurate approach for modeling of commensurate–incommensurate transition in krypton monolayer on graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ustinov, E. A.

    2014-10-07

    Commensurate–incommensurate (C-IC) transition of krypton molecular layer on graphite received much attention in recent decades in theoretical and experimental researches. However, there still exists a possibility of generalization of the phenomenon from thermodynamic viewpoint on the basis of accurate molecular simulation. Recently, a new technique was developed for analysis of two-dimensional (2D) phase transitions in systems involving a crystalline phase, which is based on accounting for the effect of temperature and the chemical potential on the lattice constant of the 2D layer using the Gibbs–Duhem equation [E. A. Ustinov, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 074706 (2014)]. The technique has allowed for determination of phase diagrams of 2D argon layers on the uniform surface and in slit pores. This paper extends the developed methodology on systems accounting for the periodic modulation of the substrate potential. The main advantage of the developed approach is that it provides highly accurate evaluation of the chemical potential of crystalline layers, which allows reliable determination of temperature and other parameters of various 2D phase transitions. Applicability of the methodology is demonstrated on the krypton–graphite system. Analysis of phase diagram of the krypton molecular layer, thermodynamic functions of coexisting phases, and a method of prediction of adsorption isotherms is considered accounting for a compression of the graphite due to the krypton–carbon interaction. The temperature and heat of C-IC transition has been reliably determined for the gas–solid and solid–solid system.

  6. First-principles calculations of the stability and incorporation of helium, xenon and krypton in uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeler, B.; Good, B.; Rashkeev, S.; Deo, C.; Baskes, M.; Okuniewski, M.

    2012-06-01

    While metallic fuels have a long history of reactor use, their fundamental physical and thermodynamic properties are not well understood. Many metallic nuclear fuels are body-centered cubic alloys of uranium that swell under fission conditions, creating fission product gases such as helium, xenon and krypton. In this paper, helium, xenon, and krypton point defects are investigated in the α and γ phases of metallic uranium using first principles calculations. A density functional theory (DFT) framework is utilized with projector augmented-wave (PAW) pseudopotentials. Formation and incorporation energies of He, Xe, and Kr are calculated at various defect positions for the prediction of fission gas behavior in uranium. In most cases, defect energies follow a size effect, with helium incorporation and formation energies being the smallest. The most likely position for the larger Xe and Kr atoms in uranium is the substitutional site. Helium atoms are likely to be found in a wide variety of defect positions due to the comparable formation energies of all defect configurations analyzed. This is the first detailed study of the stability and incorporation of fission gases in uranium.

  7. S-process krypton of variable isotopic composition in the Murchison meteorite.

    PubMed

    Ott, U; Begemann, F; Yang, J; Epstein, S

    1988-04-21

    Current theories on the origin of the chemical elements explain the abundance of medium-heavy and heavy nuclides to be due to the capture by pre-existing lighter nuclides of free neutrons on either a slow timescale (s-process) or a rapid timescale (r-process). Experimental evidence in support of these theories comes from the analysis of carbonaceous chondrites. In acid-resistant residues of these meteorites a kind of xenon has been found, the isotopic composition of which matches almost perfectly that predicted for s-process xenon. We report data that allow us, for the first time, to derive with reasonable precision the full isotopic spectrum of s-process krypton as well. We show that this s-Kr in a residue from Murchison meteorite did not originate in one single s-process but rather is a mixture of contributions from stellar environments where the density of free neutrons was not the same. The astrophysical conditions under which this Krypton has been produced were distinct from those that have been invoked to explain the Solar System s-process abundance. Similar to the 13C-rich carbon component in an aliquot of the same residue, the s-process Kr from different astrophysical sites has retained its identity during the accumulation and subsequent history of the meteorite.

  8. First-principles calculations of the stability and incorporation of helium, xenon and krypton in uranium

    SciTech Connect

    B. Beeler; B. Good; S. Rashkeev; M. Baskes; M. Okuniewski

    2012-06-01

    While metallic fuels have a long history of reactor use, their fundamental physical and thermodynamic properties are not well understood. Many metallic nuclear fuels are body-centered cubic alloys of uranium that swell under fission conditions, creating fission product gases such as helium, xenon and krypton. In this paper, helium, xenon, and krypton point defects are investigated in the a and ? phases of metallic uranium using first principles calculations. A density functional theory (DFT) framework is utilized with projector augmented-wave (PAW) pseudopotentials. Formation and incorporation energies of He, Xe, and Kr are calculated at various defect positions for the prediction of fission gas behavior in uranium. In most cases, defect energies follow a size effect, with helium incorporation and formation energies being the smallest. The most likely position for the larger Xe and Kr atoms in uranium is the substitutional site. Helium atoms are likely to be found in a wide variety of defect positions due to the comparable formation energies of all defect configurations analyzed. This is the first detailed study of the stability and incorporation of fission gases in uranium.

  9. A GCMC simulation and experimental study of krypton adsorption/desorption hysteresis on a graphite surface.

    PubMed

    Prasetyo, Luisa; Horikawa, Toshihide; Phadungbut, Poomiwat; Johnathan Tan, Shiliang; Do, D D; Nicholson, D

    2016-09-15

    Adsorption isotherms and isosteric heats of krypton on a highly graphitized carbon black, Carbopack F, have been studied with a combination of Monte Carlo simulation and high-resolution experiments at 77K and 87K. Our investigation sheds light on the microscopic origin of the experimentally observed, horizontal hysteresis loop in the first layer, and the vertical hysteresis-loop in the second layer, and is found to be in agreement with our recent Monte Carlo simulation study (Diao et al., 2015). From detailed analysis of the adsorption isotherm, the latter is attributed to the compression of an imperfect solid-like state in the first layer, to form a hexagonally packed, solid-like state, immediately following the first order condensation of the second layer. To ensure that capillary condensation in the confined spaces between microcrystallites of Carbopack F does not interfere with these hysteresis loops, we carried out simulations of krypton adsorption in the confined space of a wedge-shaped pore that mimics the interstices between particles. These simulations show that, up to the third layer, any such interference is negligible. PMID:27343464

  10. Simulation of the transition radiation detection conditions in the ATLAS TRT detector filled with argon and krypton gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Boldyrev, A. S.; Maevskiy, A. S.

    2015-12-15

    Performance of the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) at the ATLAS experiment with argon and krypton gas mixtures was simulated. The efficiency of transition radiation registration, which is necessary for electron identification, was estimated along with the electron identification capabilities under such conditions.

  11. Soft X-ray Emission Optimization Studies with Krypton and Xenon Gases in Plasma Focus Using Lee Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akel, Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    The X-ray emission properties of krypton and xenon plasmas are numerically investigated using corona plasma equilibrium model. Numerical experiments have been investigated on various low energy plasma focus devices with Kr and Xe filling gases using Lee model. The Lee model was applied to characterize and to find the optimum combination of soft X-ray yields (Ysxr) for krypton (~4 Å) and xenon (~3 Å) plasma focus. These combinations give Ysxr = 0.018 J for krypton, and Ysxr = 0.5 J for xenon. Scaling laws on Kr and Xe soft X-ray yields, in terms of storage energies E0, peak discharge current Ipeak and focus pinch current Ipinch were found over the range from 2.8 to 900 kJ. Soft X-ray yields scaling laws in terms of storage energies were found to be as and for Kr and Xe, respectively, (E0 in kJ and Ysxr in J) with the scaling showing gradual deterioration as E0 rises over the range. The maximum soft X-ray yields are found to be about 0.5 and 27 J from krypton and xenon, respectively, for storage energy of 900 kJ. The optimum efficiencies for soft X-ray yields (0.0002 % for Kr) and (0.0047 % for Xe) are with capacitor bank energies of 67.5 and 225 kJ, respectively.

  12. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the Region of Bromine and Krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R; Dietrich, F; Bauer, R; Kelley, K; Mustafa, M

    2004-07-23

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of bromine and krypton (34 {le} Z {le} 37, 40 {le} N {le} 47).

  13. 40 CFR 85.1405 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... For the purposes of §§ 85.1405 through 85.1414, “equipment” includes alternative fuels and fuel... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1405 Applicability. The provisions...

  14. 40 CFR 85.1405 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... For the purposes of §§ 85.1405 through 85.1414, “equipment” includes alternative fuels and fuel... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1405 Applicability. The provisions...

  15. 40 CFR 85.1405 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... For the purposes of §§ 85.1405 through 85.1414, “equipment” includes alternative fuels and fuel... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1405 Applicability. The provisions...

  16. 40 CFR 85.1405 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... For the purposes of §§ 85.1405 through 85.1414, “equipment” includes alternative fuels and fuel... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1405 Applicability. The provisions...

  17. Computation of thermodynamic and transport properties to predict thermophoretic effects in an argon-krypton mixture.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nicholas A T; Daivis, Peter J; Snook, Ian K; Todd, B D

    2013-10-14

    Thermophoresis is the movement of molecules caused by a temperature gradient. Here we report the results of a study of thermophoresis using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of a confined argon-krypton fluid subject to two different temperatures at thermostated walls. The resulting temperature profile between the walls is used along with the Soret coefficient to predict the concentration profile that develops across the channel. We obtain the Soret coefficient by calculating the mutual diffusion and thermal diffusion coefficients. We report an appropriate method for calculating the transport coefficients for binary systems, using the Green-Kubo integrals and radial distribution functions obtained from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the bulk fluid. Our method has the unique advantage of separating the mutual diffusion and thermal diffusion coefficients, and calculating the sign and magnitude of their individual contributions to thermophoresis in binary mixtures.

  18. Computational modeling of Krypton gas puffs with tailored mass density profiles on Z

    DOE PAGES

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Lamppa, Derek C.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jones, Brent Manley; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Jobe, Marc Ronald Lee; Reneker, Joseph; Rochau, Gregory A.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; et al

    2015-05-18

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (~20 MA, ~100 ns) on the Z generator of Sandia National Laboratories are able to produce high-intensity Krypton K-shell emission at ~13 keV. Efficiently radiating at these high photon energies is a significant challenge which requires the careful design and optimization of the gas distribution. To facilitate this, we hydrodynamically model the gas flow out of the nozzle and then model its implosion using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). This approach enables us to iterate between modeling the implosion and gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiativemore » output from this combined system. Furthermore, guided by our implosion calculations, we have designed gas profiles that help mitigate disruption from Magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor implosion instabilities, while preserving sufficient kinetic energy to thermalize to the high temperatures required for K-shell emission.« less

  19. Computational modeling of Krypton gas puffs with tailored mass density profiles on Z

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Lamppa, D. C.; Hansen, S. B.; Jones, B.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Jobe, M.; Strizic, T.; Reneker, J.; Rochau, G. A.; Cuneo, M. E.

    2015-05-15

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (∼20 MA, ∼100 ns) on the Z generator of Sandia National Laboratories are able to produce high-intensity Krypton K-shell emission at ∼13 keV. Efficiently radiating at these high photon energies is a significant challenge which requires the careful design and optimization of the gas distribution. To facilitate this, we hydrodynamically model the gas flow out of the nozzle and then model its implosion using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). This approach enables us to iterate between modeling the implosion and gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiative output from this combined system. Guided by our implosion calculations, we have designed gas profiles that help mitigate disruption from Magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor implosion instabilities, while preserving sufficient kinetic energy to thermalize to the high temperatures required for K-shell emission.

  20. Generalized oscillator strengths for 5s, 5s{sup '}, and 5p excitations of krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Li Wenbin; Zhu Linfan; Yuan Zhensheng; Sun Jianmin; Cheng Huadong; Xu Kezun; Zhong Zhiping; Liu Xiaojing

    2003-06-01

    The absolute generalized oscillator strengths (GOSs) for 5s, 5s{sup '}, 5p [5/2]{sub 3,2}, 5p [3/2]{sub 1,2}, and 5p [1/2]{sub 0} transitions of krypton have been determined in a large K{sup 2} region at a high electron-impact energy of 2500 eV. The positions of the minima and maxima of these GOSs have been determined. The present results show that the angular resolution and pressure effect have great influence on the position and the amplitude of the minimum for the GOS of 5s+5s{sup '} transitions. When these effects are considered, the measured minimum position for the GOS of 5s+5s{sup '} transitions is in excellent agreement with the calculation of Chen and Msezane [J. Phys. B 33, 5397 (2000)].

  1. Computational modeling of Krypton gas puffs with tailored mass density profiles on Z

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Lamppa, Derek C.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jones, Brent Manley; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Jobe, Marc Ronald Lee; Reneker, Joseph; Rochau, Gregory A.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Strizic, T.

    2015-05-18

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (~20 MA, ~100 ns) on the Z generator of Sandia National Laboratories are able to produce high-intensity Krypton K-shell emission at ~13 keV. Efficiently radiating at these high photon energies is a significant challenge which requires the careful design and optimization of the gas distribution. To facilitate this, we hydrodynamically model the gas flow out of the nozzle and then model its implosion using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). This approach enables us to iterate between modeling the implosion and gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiative output from this combined system. Furthermore, guided by our implosion calculations, we have designed gas profiles that help mitigate disruption from Magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor implosion instabilities, while preserving sufficient kinetic energy to thermalize to the high temperatures required for K-shell emission.

  2. Double shock front formation in cylindrical radiative blast waves produced by laser irradiation of krypton gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.; Quevedo, H. J.; Feldman, S.; Bang, W.; Serratto, K.; McCormick, M.; Aymond, F.; Dyer, G.; Bernstein, A. C.; Ditmire, T.

    2013-12-15

    Radiative blast waves were created by irradiating a krypton cluster source from a supersonic jet with a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. It was found that the radiation from the shock surface is absorbed in the optically thick upstream medium creating a radiative heat wave that travels supersonically ahead of the main shock. As the blast wave propagates into the heated medium, it slows and loses energy, and the radiative heat wave also slows down. When the radiative heat wave slows down to the transonic regime, a secondary shock in the ionization precursor is produced. This paper presents experimental data characterizing both the initial and secondary shocks and numerical simulations to analyze the double-shock dynamics.

  3. Phase behavior of mixed submonolayer films of krypton and xenon on graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrykiejew, A.; Sokołowski, S.

    2012-04-01

    Using the results of extensive Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical and grand canonical ensembles, we discuss the phase behavior of mixed submonolayer films of krypton and xenon adsorbed on the graphite basal plane. The calculations have been performed using two- and three-dimensional models of the systems studied. It has been demonstrated that out-of-plane motion does not affect the properties of the films as long as the total density is well below the monolayer completion and at moderate temperatures. For the total densities close to the monolayer completion, the promotion of particles to the second layer considerably affects the film properties. Our results are in a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. The melting point of submonolayer films has been shown to exhibit non-monotonous changes with the film composition, and reaches minimum for the xenon concentration of about 50%. At the temperatures below the melting point, the structure of solid phases depends upon the film composition and the temperature; one can also distinguish commensurate and incommensurate phases. Two-dimensional calculations have demonstrated that for the xenon concentration between about 15% and 65% the adsorbed film exhibits the formation of a superstructure, in which each Xe atom is surrounded by six Kr atoms. This superstructure is stable only at very low temperatures and transforms into the mixed commensurate (√{3}× √{3})R30° phase upon the increase of temperature. Such a superstructure does not appear when a three-dimensional model is used. Grand canonical ensemble calculations allowed us to show that for the xenon concentration of about 3% the phase diagram topology of monolayer films changes from the krypton-like (with incipient triple point) to the xenon-like (with ordinary triple point).

  4. Phase behavior of mixed submonolayer films of krypton and xenon on graphite.

    PubMed

    Patrykiejew, A; Sokołowski, S

    2012-04-14

    Using the results of extensive Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical and grand canonical ensembles, we discuss the phase behavior of mixed submonolayer films of krypton and xenon adsorbed on the graphite basal plane. The calculations have been performed using two- and three-dimensional models of the systems studied. It has been demonstrated that out-of-plane motion does not affect the properties of the films as long as the total density is well below the monolayer completion and at moderate temperatures. For the total densities close to the monolayer completion, the promotion of particles to the second layer considerably affects the film properties. Our results are in a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. The melting point of submonolayer films has been shown to exhibit non-monotonous changes with the film composition, and reaches minimum for the xenon concentration of about 50%. At the temperatures below the melting point, the structure of solid phases depends upon the film composition and the temperature; one can also distinguish commensurate and incommensurate phases. Two-dimensional calculations have demonstrated that for the xenon concentration between about 15% and 65% the adsorbed film exhibits the formation of a superstructure, in which each Xe atom is surrounded by six Kr atoms. This superstructure is stable only at very low temperatures and transforms into the mixed commensurate (√3×√3)R30° phase upon the increase of temperature. Such a superstructure does not appear when a three-dimensional model is used. Grand canonical ensemble calculations allowed us to show that for the xenon concentration of about 3% the phase diagram topology of monolayer films changes from the krypton-like (with incipient triple point) to the xenon-like (with ordinary triple point).

  5. Non-LTE kinetics modeling of krypton ions: Calculations of radiative cooling coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, H.-K.; Fournier, K. B.; Lee, R. W.

    2006-06-01

    For plasmas containing high-Z ions the energy loss due to radiative processes can be important in understanding energy distributions and spectral characteristics. Since high-Z plasmas occur over a wide range of temperature and density conditions, a general non-LTE population kinetics description is required to provide a qualitative and quantitative description for radiative energy loss. We investigate radiative properties of non-LTE krypton plasmas with a collisional-radiative (CR) model constructed from detailed atomic data. This work makes two extensions beyond previous non-LTE kinetics models. First, this model explicitly treats the dielectronic recombination (DR) channels. Second, this model allows one to investigate the higher electron density regimes found commonly in laboratory plasmas. This more comprehensive approach enables the study of population kinetics in a general manner and will provide a systematic guide for reducing a complex model to a simpler one. Specifically, we present the calculations of radiative cooling coefficients of krypton ions as a function of electron density in the optically thin limit. Total, soft X-ray (1.6 keV ≤ E ≤ 12 keV), and hard X-ray ( E ≥ 12 keV) radiative cooling coefficients are given for the plasma conditions of 0.6 keV ≤ Te ≤ 10 keV and 10 14 cm -3 ≤ Ne ≤ 10 24 cm -3. The ionic radiative cooling coefficients provided are sufficient to allow users to construct the total rate from given charge state distributions. Steady-state calculations of the average charge state at given Te and Ne values are also presented.

  6. Phase behavior of mixed submonolayer films of krypton and xenon on graphite.

    PubMed

    Patrykiejew, A; Sokołowski, S

    2012-04-14

    Using the results of extensive Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical and grand canonical ensembles, we discuss the phase behavior of mixed submonolayer films of krypton and xenon adsorbed on the graphite basal plane. The calculations have been performed using two- and three-dimensional models of the systems studied. It has been demonstrated that out-of-plane motion does not affect the properties of the films as long as the total density is well below the monolayer completion and at moderate temperatures. For the total densities close to the monolayer completion, the promotion of particles to the second layer considerably affects the film properties. Our results are in a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. The melting point of submonolayer films has been shown to exhibit non-monotonous changes with the film composition, and reaches minimum for the xenon concentration of about 50%. At the temperatures below the melting point, the structure of solid phases depends upon the film composition and the temperature; one can also distinguish commensurate and incommensurate phases. Two-dimensional calculations have demonstrated that for the xenon concentration between about 15% and 65% the adsorbed film exhibits the formation of a superstructure, in which each Xe atom is surrounded by six Kr atoms. This superstructure is stable only at very low temperatures and transforms into the mixed commensurate (√3×√3)R30° phase upon the increase of temperature. Such a superstructure does not appear when a three-dimensional model is used. Grand canonical ensemble calculations allowed us to show that for the xenon concentration of about 3% the phase diagram topology of monolayer films changes from the krypton-like (with incipient triple point) to the xenon-like (with ordinary triple point). PMID:22502538

  7. Development of a krypton-doped gas symmetry capsule platform for x-ray spectroscopy of implosion cores on the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, T.; Chen, H.; Patel, P. K.; Schneider, M. B.; Barrios, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Chung, H.-K.; Hammel, B. A.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Jarrott, L. C.; Khan, S. F.; Lahmann, B.; Nora, R.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Pak, A.; Regan, S. P.; Scott, H. A.; Sio, H.; Spears, B. K.; Weber, C. R.

    2016-11-01

    The electron temperature at stagnation of an ICF implosion can be measured from the emission spectrum of high-energy x-rays that pass through the cold material surrounding the hot stagnating core. Here we describe a platform developed on the National Ignition Facility where trace levels of a mid-Z dopant (krypton) are added to the fuel gas of a symcap (symmetry surrogate) implosion to allow for the use of x-ray spectroscopy of the krypton line emission.

  8. 40 CFR 85.2102 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Aftermarket Part Certification Program § 85.2102 Definitions. (a) As used in §§ 85.2101 through 85.2111 all... means a part certified in accordance with the aftermarket part certification regulations contained in... test prescribed under 40 CFR 85.2201 et seq., and meeting all of the requirements thereunder. (6)...

  9. 46 CFR 147.85 - Oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oxygen. 147.85 Section 147.85 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.85 Oxygen. (a) Eighty five cubic meters (3000 standard cubic feet) or less of oxygen may be on board any vessel. (b) More than 85 m3 (3000 standard cubic...

  10. 46 CFR 147.85 - Oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oxygen. 147.85 Section 147.85 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.85 Oxygen. (a) Eighty five cubic meters (3000 standard cubic feet) or less of oxygen may be on board any vessel. (b) More than 85 m3 (3000 standard cubic...

  11. 46 CFR 147.85 - Oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oxygen. 147.85 Section 147.85 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.85 Oxygen. (a) Eighty five cubic meters (3000 standard cubic feet) or less of oxygen may be on board any vessel. (b) More than 85 m3 (3000 standard cubic...

  12. 46 CFR 147.85 - Oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oxygen. 147.85 Section 147.85 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.85 Oxygen. (a) Eighty five cubic meters (3000 standard cubic feet) or less of oxygen may be on board any vessel. (b) More than 85 m3 (3000 standard cubic...

  13. 46 CFR 147.85 - Oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen. 147.85 Section 147.85 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.85 Oxygen. (a) Eighty five cubic meters (3000 standard cubic feet) or less of oxygen may be on board any vessel. (b) More than 85 m3 (3000 standard cubic...

  14. 40 CFR 156.85 - Non-target organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) If a pesticide intended for outdoor use contains an active ingredient with a fish acute LC50 of 1 ppm... subacute dietary LC50 of 500 ppm or less, the statement, “This pesticide is toxic to wildlife” is...

  15. 40 CFR 156.85 - Non-target organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) If a pesticide intended for outdoor use contains an active ingredient with a fish acute LC50 of 1 ppm... subacute dietary LC50 of 500 ppm or less, the statement, “This pesticide is toxic to wildlife” is...

  16. 40 CFR 156.85 - Non-target organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) If a pesticide intended for outdoor use contains an active ingredient with a fish acute LC50 of 1 ppm... subacute dietary LC50 of 500 ppm or less, the statement, “This pesticide is toxic to wildlife” is...

  17. Comparison of RIMPUFF, HYSPLIT, ADMS atmospheric dispersion model outputs, using emergency response procedures, with (85)Kr measurements made in the vicinity of nuclear reprocessing plant.

    PubMed

    Connan, Olivier; Smith, Kilian; Organo, Catherine; Solier, Luc; Maro, Denis; Hébert, Didier

    2013-10-01

    The Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN) performed a series of (85)Kr air sampling campaigns at mesoscale distances (18-50 km) from the AREVA NC La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant (North West France) between 2007 and 2009. The samples were collected in order to test and optimise a technique to measure low krypton-85 ((85)Kr) air concentrations and to investigate the performance of three atmospheric dispersion models (RIMPUFF, HYSPLIT, and ADMS), This paper presents the (85)Kr air concentrations measured at three sampling locations which varied from 2 to 8000 Bq m(-3), along with the (85)Kr air concentrations output by the dispersion models. The dispersion models made reasonable estimates of the mean concentrations of (85)Kr field measurements during steady wind conditions. In contrast, the models failed to accurately predict peaks in (85)Kr air concentration during periods of rapid and large changes in wind speed and/or wind direction. At distances where we made the comparisons (18-50 km), in all cases, the models underestimated the air concentration activities.

  18. Monitoring of kratom or Krypton intake in urine using GC-MS in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Anika A; Meyer, Markus R; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Zweipfenning, Peter G M; Maurer, Hans H

    2011-04-01

    The Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is misused as a herbal drug. Besides this, a new herbal blend has appeared on the drugs of abuse market, named Krypton, a mixture of O-demethyltramadol (ODT) and kratom. Therefore, urine drug screenings should include ODT and focus on the metabolites of the kratom alkaloids mitragynine (MG), paynantheine (PAY), speciogynine (SG), and speciociliatine (SC). The aim of this study was to develop a full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure for monitoring kratom or Krypton intake in urine after enzymatic cleavage of conjugates, solid-phase extraction, and trimethylsilylation. With use of reconstructed mass chromatography with the ions m/z 271, 286, 329, 344, 470, 526, 528, and 586, the presence of MG, 16-carboxy-MG, 9-O-demethyl-MG, and/or 9-O-demethyl-16-carboxy-MG could be indicated, and in case of Krypton, with m/z 58, 84, 116, 142, 303, 361, 393, and 451, the additional presence of ODT and its nor metabolite could be indicated. Compounds were identified by comparison with their respective reference spectra. Depending on the plant type, dose, administration route, and/or sampling time, further metabolites of MG, PAY, SG, and SC could be detected. The limits of detection (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) were 100 ng/ml for the parent alkaloids and 50 ng/ml for ODT. As mainly metabolites of the kratom alkaloids were detected in urine, the detectability of kratom was tested successfully using rat urine after administration of a common user's dose of MG. As the metabolism in humans was similar, this procedure should be suitable to prove an intake of kratom or Krypton. PMID:21153588

  19. Monitoring of kratom or Krypton intake in urine using GC-MS in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Anika A; Meyer, Markus R; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Zweipfenning, Peter G M; Maurer, Hans H

    2011-04-01

    The Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is misused as a herbal drug. Besides this, a new herbal blend has appeared on the drugs of abuse market, named Krypton, a mixture of O-demethyltramadol (ODT) and kratom. Therefore, urine drug screenings should include ODT and focus on the metabolites of the kratom alkaloids mitragynine (MG), paynantheine (PAY), speciogynine (SG), and speciociliatine (SC). The aim of this study was to develop a full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure for monitoring kratom or Krypton intake in urine after enzymatic cleavage of conjugates, solid-phase extraction, and trimethylsilylation. With use of reconstructed mass chromatography with the ions m/z 271, 286, 329, 344, 470, 526, 528, and 586, the presence of MG, 16-carboxy-MG, 9-O-demethyl-MG, and/or 9-O-demethyl-16-carboxy-MG could be indicated, and in case of Krypton, with m/z 58, 84, 116, 142, 303, 361, 393, and 451, the additional presence of ODT and its nor metabolite could be indicated. Compounds were identified by comparison with their respective reference spectra. Depending on the plant type, dose, administration route, and/or sampling time, further metabolites of MG, PAY, SG, and SC could be detected. The limits of detection (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) were 100 ng/ml for the parent alkaloids and 50 ng/ml for ODT. As mainly metabolites of the kratom alkaloids were detected in urine, the detectability of kratom was tested successfully using rat urine after administration of a common user's dose of MG. As the metabolism in humans was similar, this procedure should be suitable to prove an intake of kratom or Krypton.

  20. Use of a krypton isotope for rapid ion changeover at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 88-inch cyclotron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soli, George A.; Nichols, Donald K.

    1989-01-01

    An isotope of krypton, Kr86, has been combined with a mix of Ar, Ne, and N ions at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source, at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory cyclotron, to provide rapid ion changeover in Single Event Phenomena (SEP) testing. The new technique has been proved out successfully by a recent Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) test in which it was found that there was no measurable contamination from other isotopes.

  1. Shock Properties of Fansteel85

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Nellis, W J

    2008-08-22

    The shock response of Fansteel85 was investigated in the pressure range 10-90 GPa. The linear U{sub s}-U{sub p} coefficients were found to be C = 4.160 {+-} .015 km/s and S = 1.195 {+-} .015. Ultrasound measurements yielded C{sub L} = 4.827 and C{sub T} = 2.101, implying a bulk sound speed C{sub B} = 4.173, which is in excellent agreement with the measured value for C. The Hugoniot elastic limit was determined to be 3.11 {+-} .05 GPa at U{sub p} = .0595 {+-} .001 km/s and U{sub s} = 4.886 {+-} .01 km/s. The speed of sound in the material behind the shock front was determined to be 5.10 {+-} .06 km/s at 10.2 GPa and 5.25 {+-} .06 km/s at 20.6 GPa.

  2. Development and evaluation of a silver mordenite composite sorbent for the partitioning of xenon from krypton in gas compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Garn, Troy G.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Law, Jack D.

    2015-12-22

    A new engineered form composite sorbent for the selective separation of xenon from krypton in simulant composition off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A sodium mordenite powder was incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder, formed into spherical beads and successfully converted to a 9 wt.% silver form composite sorbent. The final engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area indicative of sodium mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for xenon adsorption potential with capacities measured as high as 30 millimoles of xenon per kilogram of sorbent achieved at ambient temperature and 460 millimoles of xenon per kilogram sorbent at 220 K. Xenon/krypton selectivity was calculated to be 22.4 with a 1020 µL/L xenon, 150 µL/L krypton in a balance of air feed gas at 220 K. Furthermore, adsorption/desorption thermal cycling effects were evaluated with results indicating sorbent performance was not significantly impacted while undergoing numerous adsorption/desorption thermal cycles.

  3. Development and evaluation of a silver mordenite composite sorbent for the partitioning of xenon from krypton in gas compositions

    DOE PAGES

    Garn, Troy G.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Law, Jack D.

    2015-12-22

    A new engineered form composite sorbent for the selective separation of xenon from krypton in simulant composition off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A sodium mordenite powder was incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder, formed into spherical beads and successfully converted to a 9 wt.% silver form composite sorbent. The final engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area indicative of sodium mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for xenon adsorption potential with capacities measured as high as 30 millimoles of xenon per kilogram of sorbent achieved at ambient temperature andmore » 460 millimoles of xenon per kilogram sorbent at 220 K. Xenon/krypton selectivity was calculated to be 22.4 with a 1020 µL/L xenon, 150 µL/L krypton in a balance of air feed gas at 220 K. Furthermore, adsorption/desorption thermal cycling effects were evaluated with results indicating sorbent performance was not significantly impacted while undergoing numerous adsorption/desorption thermal cycles.« less

  4. Using Krypton K-shell Emission as a Diagnostic of Fuel Conditions in Implosions of SIO2 Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunderson, Mark; Wilson, Douglas; Kyrala, George; Benage, John

    2006-10-01

    To study how hi-Z impurities in imploding capsules affect the equilibration of ion, electron, and radiation temperatures, the D3He fill gas of SIO2 shells have been doped with various amounts of krypton and xenon. If xenon is used as the main adjustable impurity affecting this equilibration, the amount of krypton placed in the D3He fill gas can be kept at a level that minimizes the optical depth of the krypton K-shell emission lines. With the small optical depths, these emission lines can provide important time-resolved information on the electron temperature in the imploding fuel through the analysis of the relative intensities of the lines. With sufficient spectral resolution, these lines can even provide time-resolved information on the electron density of the imploding fuel by analyzing the widths of the emission lines. Used in conjunction with the emitted proton spectrum from which time-resolved ion temperature and rhoR can be inferred, we can directly study the effect of hi-Z impurities on temperature equilibration and yield.

  5. Groundwater age structure and palaeo hydrogeology over a 500 kyr time scale revealed from Krypton 81and a multiple tracer study: Great Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, A. J.; Purtschert, R.; Jiang, W.; Lu, Z.; Tosaki, Y.; Fulton, S.; Wohling, D.; Shand, P.; Broder, L.; Aeschbach, W.; Rousseau=Gueutin, P.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the most comprehensive set of krypton -81 data to be analysed so far. Our study site is on the western margin of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB). The study area is focused on the western margin of the GAB between the Finke River system in the Northern Territory and the iconic Dalhousie springs in South Australia. This represents the direction of groundwater flow from recharge to discharge through the Dalhousie spring complex. Because of its vast size and the potential for large regional flow systems to occur, the GAB has been considered an ideal basin to test emerging groundwater dating techniques such as Cl-36 and He-4. However both of these techniques are subjected to large degrees of uncertainty, as they require a detailed understanding of different sources and sinks of these two isotopes. Contrasting this Kr-81 is considered to be an ideal tracer as it contains only one source, the atmosphere with no or at most minimal sub surface production. For the first time we have provided a comprehensive suite of analyse not only of Cl-36, He-4, C-14, Ar-39, stable isotopes of the water molecule and noble gases but also, Kr-85 and Kr-81. Our results indicate a spectrum of 'groundwater ages' ranging from modern as indicated by thermonuclear C-14 and Ar-39 up to hundreds of thousands of years as indicated by Kr-81, Cl-36 and He-4. The data set indicates a wide range of stable isotopes of the water molecule as well as variability in noble gas recharge temperatures that suggest that not only has this region been subjected to changes in climate in the recharge zone but also testaments to a changes in the dominate direction of rainfall indicated by a change in recharge mechanism at the beginning of the Holocene. As suggested previously this groundwater flow transect may represent an ideal 'type section' for testing new and emerging environmental tracers in hydrogeology.

  6. Mechanism of inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85 by ebselen

    PubMed Central

    Favrot, Lorenza; Grzegorzewicz, Anna E.; Lajiness, Daniel H.; Marvin, Rachel K.; Boucau, Julie; Isailovic, Dragan; Jackson, Mary; Ronning, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis highlights the need for identifying new antitubercular drugs that can treat these infections. The antigen 85 (Ag85) complex has emerged as an intriguing mycobacterial drug target due to its central role in synthesizing major components of the inner and outer leaflets of the mycobacterial outer membrane. Here we identify ebselen as a potent inhibitor of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85 complex. Mass spectrometry data show that ebselen binds covalently to a cysteine residue (C209) located near the Ag85C active site. The crystal structure of Ag85C in the presence of ebselen shows that C209 modification restructures the active site, thereby disrupting the hydrogen-bonded network within the active site that is essential for enzymatic activity. C209 mutations display marked decreases in enzymatic activity. These data suggest that compounds using this mechanism of action will strongly inhibit the Ag85 complex and minimize the selection of drug resistance. PMID:24193546

  7. 40 CFR 167.85 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 167.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS REGISTRATION OF PESTICIDE AND ACTIVE INGREDIENT PRODUCING ESTABLISHMENTS, SUBMISSION OF PESTICIDE REPORTS Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements § 167.85 Reporting requirements. (a) Who must report. Each...

  8. 34 CFR 85.1005 - State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State. 85.1005 Section 85.1005 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85... of higher education, hospitals, or units of local government. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986...

  9. 34 CFR 85.930 - Debarment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Debarment. 85.930 Section 85.930 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.930 Debarment. Debarment means an action taken by a debarring official under subpart H...

  10. 34 CFR 85.940 - Disqualified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disqualified. 85.940 Section 85.940 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.940 Disqualified. Disqualified means that a person is prohibited from participating...

  11. 34 CFR 85.980 - Participant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Participant. 85.980 Section 85.980 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.980 Participant. Participant means any person who submits a proposal for or who enters into...

  12. 34 CFR 85.905 - Affiliate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affiliate. 85.905 Section 85.905 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.905 Affiliate. Persons are affiliates of each other if, directly or indirectly, either...

  13. 34 CFR 85.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal. 85.995 Section 85.995 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner,...

  14. 34 CFR 85.935 - Debarring official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Debarring official. 85.935 Section 85.935 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.935 Debarring official. (a) Debarring official means an agency official who is authorized...

  15. 34 CFR 85.955 - Indictment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indictment. 85.955 Section 85.955 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.955 Indictment. Indictment means an indictment for a criminal offense. A...

  16. 34 CFR 85.925 - Conviction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conviction. 85.925 Section 85.925 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.925 Conviction. Conviction means— (a) A judgment or any other determination of guilt of...

  17. 34 CFR 85.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 85.965 Section 85.965 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil...

  18. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate evidence. 85.900 Section 85.900 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support...

  19. 34 CFR 85.970 - Nonprocurement transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonprocurement transaction. 85.970 Section 85.970 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.970 Nonprocurement transaction. (a) Nonprocurement transaction means...

  20. 34 CFR 85.1000 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respondent. 85.1000 Section 85.1000 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.1000 Respondent. Respondent means a person against whom an agency has initiated a...

  1. 34 CFR 85.952 - HEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false HEA. 85.952 Section 85.952 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.952 HEA. HEA means the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended....

  2. 34 CFR 85.985 - Person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person. 85.985 Section 85.985 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85... legal entity, however organized. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3...

  3. 40 CFR 85.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 85.1502 Section 85.1502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1502...

  4. 40 CFR 85.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 85.1502 Section 85.1502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1502...

  5. 40 CFR 85.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions. 85.1502 Section 85.1502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1502...

  6. 40 CFR 85.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 85.1502 Section 85.1502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1502...

  7. 40 CFR 85.2221 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 85.2221 Section 85.2221 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2221...

  8. 34 CFR 85.1010 - Suspending official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designated by the agency head. (b) Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspending official. 85.1010 Section 85.1010 Education...) Definitions § 85.1010 Suspending official. (a) Suspending official means an agency official who is...

  9. 40 CFR 85.1803 - Remedial Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial Plan. 85.1803 Section 85.1803... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1803 Remedial Plan. (a) When any manufacturer is... manufacturer shall submit a plan to the Administrator to remedy such nonconformity. The plan shall contain...

  10. 28 CFR 8.5 - Custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Custody. 8.5 Section 8.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES Seizure and Forfeiture of Property § 8.5 Custody. (a) All property seized for forfeiture by ATF, DEA, or FBI shall be delivered to...

  11. 32 CFR 85.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 85.5 Section 85.5 National... PROMOTION § 85.5 Responsibilities. (a) The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) (ASD(HA)) shall... responsibility in cooperation with the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Force Management and Personnel) and...

  12. 32 CFR 85.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Responsibilities. 85.5 Section 85.5 National... PROMOTION § 85.5 Responsibilities. (a) The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) (ASD(HA)) shall... responsibility in cooperation with the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Force Management and Personnel) and...

  13. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  14. 24 CFR 85.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Real property. 85.31 Section 85.31... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.31 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real...

  15. 42 CFR 85.10 - Imminent dangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Imminent dangers. 85.10 Section 85.10 Public Health... AND RELATED ACTIVITIES REQUESTS FOR HEALTH HAZARD EVALUATIONS § 85.10 Imminent dangers. Whenever... that there is a reasonable basis for an allegation of an imminent danger, NIOSH will immediately...

  16. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  17. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  18. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  19. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  20. 24 CFR 85.33 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplies. 85.33 Section 85.33... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.33 Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest, upon acquisition, in the grantee...

  1. 24 CFR 85.11 - State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State plans. 85.11 Section 85.11... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Pre-Award Requirements § 85.11 State plans. (a) Scope. The statutes for some programs require States to submit plans before receiving grants. Under regulations implementing Executive...

  2. 40 CFR 85.1803 - Remedial Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Remedial Plan. 85.1803 Section 85.1803... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1803 Remedial Plan. (a) When any manufacturer is... manufacturer shall submit a plan to the Administrator to remedy such nonconformity. The plan shall contain...

  3. 24 CFR 85.11 - State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State plans. 85.11 Section 85.11... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Pre-Award Requirements § 85.11 State plans. (a) Scope. The statutes for some programs require States to submit plans before receiving grants. Under regulations implementing Executive...

  4. 24 CFR 85.11 - State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State plans. 85.11 Section 85.11... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Pre-Award Requirements § 85.11 State plans. (a) Scope. The statutes for some programs require States to submit plans before receiving grants. Under regulations implementing Executive...

  5. 40 CFR 85.1803 - Remedial Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Remedial Plan. 85.1803 Section 85.1803... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1803 Remedial Plan. (a) When any manufacturer is... manufacturer shall submit a plan to the Administrator to remedy such nonconformity. The plan shall contain...

  6. 32 CFR 85.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 85.3 Section 85.3 National Defense... § 85.3 Definitions. Health Promotion. Any combination of health education and related organizational... management, alcohol and drug abuse prevention, and early identification of hypertension. Lifestyle....

  7. 32 CFR 85.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions. 85.3 Section 85.3 National Defense... § 85.3 Definitions. Health Promotion. Any combination of health education and related organizational... management, alcohol and drug abuse prevention, and early identification of hypertension. Lifestyle....

  8. 32 CFR 85.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 85.3 Section 85.3 National Defense... § 85.3 Definitions. Health Promotion. Any combination of health education and related organizational... management, alcohol and drug abuse prevention, and early identification of hypertension. Lifestyle....

  9. 32 CFR 85.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 85.3 Section 85.3 National Defense... § 85.3 Definitions. Health Promotion. Any combination of health education and related organizational... management, alcohol and drug abuse prevention, and early identification of hypertension. Lifestyle....

  10. 32 CFR 85.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy. 85.4 Section 85.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN HEALTH PROMOTION § 85.4 Policy. It is DoD policy to: (a) Encourage military personnel, retirees, their families and civilian employees to live healthy lives...

  11. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  12. 40 CFR 282.85 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 282.85 Section 282.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.85...

  13. 24 CFR 85.34 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copyrights. 85.34 Section 85.34... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.34 Copyrights. The... copyright in any work developed under a grant, subgrant, or contract under a grant or subgrant; and (b)...

  14. 24 CFR 85.34 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copyrights. 85.34 Section 85.34... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.34 Copyrights. The... copyright in any work developed under a grant, subgrant, or contract under a grant or subgrant; and (b)...

  15. 24 CFR 85.34 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copyrights. 85.34 Section 85.34... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.34 Copyrights. The... copyright in any work developed under a grant, subgrant, or contract under a grant or subgrant; and (b)...

  16. 24 CFR 85.34 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copyrights. 85.34 Section 85.34... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.34 Copyrights. The... copyright in any work developed under a grant, subgrant, or contract under a grant or subgrant; and (b)...

  17. 24 CFR 85.34 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Copyrights. 85.34 Section 85.34... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.34 Copyrights. The... copyright in any work developed under a grant, subgrant, or contract under a grant or subgrant; and (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 808.85 - Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ohio. 808.85 Section 808.85 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.85 Ohio. (a) The following Ohio medical device requirement is...

  19. 21 CFR 808.85 - Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ohio. 808.85 Section 808.85 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.85 Ohio. (a) The following Ohio medical device requirement is...

  20. 21 CFR 808.85 - Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ohio. 808.85 Section 808.85 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.85 Ohio. (a) The following Ohio medical device requirement is...

  1. 21 CFR 808.85 - Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ohio. 808.85 Section 808.85 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.85 Ohio. (a) The following Ohio medical device requirement is...

  2. 21 CFR 808.85 - Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ohio. 808.85 Section 808.85 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.85 Ohio. (a) The following Ohio medical device requirement is...

  3. 32 CFR 552.85 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability. 552.85 Section 552.85 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.85...

  4. 32 CFR 552.85 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability. 552.85 Section 552.85 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.85...

  5. 32 CFR 552.85 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability. 552.85 Section 552.85 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.85...

  6. 32 CFR 552.85 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability. 552.85 Section 552.85 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.85...

  7. 32 CFR 552.85 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability. 552.85 Section 552.85 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.85...

  8. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3...

  9. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3...

  10. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3...

  11. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3...

  12. 9 CFR 381.85 - Special diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special diseases. 381.85 Section 381.85 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.85 Special diseases. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of any disease which is...

  13. 9 CFR 381.85 - Special diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special diseases. 381.85 Section 381.85 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.85 Special diseases. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of any disease which is...

  14. 9 CFR 381.85 - Special diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special diseases. 381.85 Section 381.85 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.85 Special diseases. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of any disease which is...

  15. 9 CFR 381.85 - Special diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special diseases. 381.85 Section 381.85 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.85 Special diseases. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of any disease which is...

  16. 9 CFR 381.85 - Special diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special diseases. 381.85 Section 381.85 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.85 Special diseases. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of any disease which is...

  17. 14 CFR 33.85 - Calibration tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calibration tests. 33.85 Section 33.85... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.85 Calibration tests. (a) Each engine must be subjected to those calibration tests necessary to establish its power characteristics and...

  18. 14 CFR 33.85 - Calibration tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calibration tests. 33.85 Section 33.85... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.85 Calibration tests. (a) Each engine must be subjected to those calibration tests necessary to establish its power characteristics and...

  19. 14 CFR 33.85 - Calibration tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calibration tests. 33.85 Section 33.85... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.85 Calibration tests. (a) Each engine must be subjected to those calibration tests necessary to establish its power characteristics and...

  20. 25 CFR 700.85 - Owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Owner. 700.85 Section 700.85 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.85 Owner. The term owner means the person who holds any interest in...

  1. 25 CFR 700.85 - Owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Owner. 700.85 Section 700.85 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.85 Owner. The term owner means the person who holds any interest in...

  2. 25 CFR 700.85 - Owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Owner. 700.85 Section 700.85 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.85 Owner. The term owner means the person who holds any interest in...

  3. 25 CFR 700.85 - Owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Owner. 700.85 Section 700.85 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.85 Owner. The term owner means the person who holds any interest in...

  4. 40 CFR 85.1801 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 85.1801 Section 85.1801 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1801 Definitions. For the purposes of this...

  5. 40 CFR 85.1801 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 85.1801 Section 85.1801 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1801 Definitions. For the purposes of this...

  6. 40 CFR 85.1801 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 85.1801 Section 85.1801 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1801 Definitions. For the purposes of this...

  7. 40 CFR 85.1801 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 85.1801 Section 85.1801 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1801 Definitions. For the purposes of this...

  8. 40 CFR 85.1801 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions. 85.1801 Section 85.1801 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1801 Definitions. For the purposes of this...

  9. 50 CFR 85.22 - Grant proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grant proposals. 85.22 Section 85.22...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CLEAN VESSEL ACT GRANT PROGRAM Application for Grants § 85.22 Grant proposals. Grant proposals will consist of a narrative which identifies...

  10. 50 CFR 85.31 - Grant selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grant selection. 85.31 Section 85.31...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CLEAN VESSEL ACT GRANT PROGRAM Grant Selection § 85.31 Grant selection. The Fish and Wildlife Service, Wildlife and Sport Fish...

  11. 50 CFR 85.31 - Grant selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grant selection. 85.31 Section 85.31...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CLEAN VESSEL ACT GRANT PROGRAM Grant Selection § 85.31 Grant selection. The Fish and Wildlife Service, Wildlife and Sport Fish...

  12. 50 CFR 85.22 - Grant proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grant proposals. 85.22 Section 85.22...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CLEAN VESSEL ACT GRANT PROGRAM Application for Grants § 85.22 Grant proposals. Grant proposals will consist of a narrative which identifies...

  13. 50 CFR 85.31 - Grant selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grant selection. 85.31 Section 85.31...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CLEAN VESSEL ACT GRANT PROGRAM Grant Selection § 85.31 Grant selection. The Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Federal Aid, will convene a...

  14. 50 CFR 85.22 - Grant proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grant proposals. 85.22 Section 85.22...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CLEAN VESSEL ACT GRANT PROGRAM Application for Grants § 85.22 Grant proposals. Grant proposals will consist of a narrative which identifies...

  15. 24 CFR 85.30 - Changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Changes. 85.30 Section 85.30... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.30 Changes. (a) General... unanticipated requirements and may make limited program changes to the approved project. However, unless...

  16. 7 CFR 3570.85 - Programmatic changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Programmatic changes. 3570.85 Section 3570.85... AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.85 Programmatic changes. The grantee shall obtain prior Agency approval for any change to the objectives of the approved project....

  17. 7 CFR 3570.85 - Programmatic changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Programmatic changes. 3570.85 Section 3570.85... AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.85 Programmatic changes. The grantee shall obtain prior Agency approval for any change to the objectives of the approved project....

  18. 24 CFR 85.30 - Changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes. 85.30 Section 85.30... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.30 Changes. (a) General... unanticipated requirements and may make limited program changes to the approved project. However, unless...

  19. 19 CFR 122.85 - Final airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final airport. 122.85 Section 122.85 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Procedures for Residue Cargo and Stopover Passengers § 122.85 Final airport. When an aircraft enters at the last domestic airport of discharge, the traveling general...

  20. 14 CFR 33.85 - Calibration tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calibration tests. 33.85 Section 33.85 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.85 Calibration tests. (a) Each...

  1. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those...

  2. 50 CFR 85.40 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.40 Cost sharing. (a) The Federal share shall not exceed 75% of total costs approved in the grant agreement. (b) The provisions of 43 CFR 12.64 apply to cost sharing or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost sharing. 85.40 Section 85.40...

  3. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  4. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  5. 45 CFR 96.85 - Income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Income eligibility. 96.85 Section 96.85 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.85 Income eligibility. (a) Application of poverty income guidelines and State...

  6. 34 CFR 668.85 - Suspension proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension proceedings. 668.85 Section 668.85 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Fine, Limitation, Suspension and Termination Proceedings § 668.85 Suspension proceedings. (a) Scope and consequences. (1) The Secretary may suspend...

  7. 34 CFR 668.85 - Suspension proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension proceedings. 668.85 Section 668.85 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Fine, Limitation, Suspension and Termination Proceedings § 668.85 Suspension proceedings. (a) Scope and consequences. (1) The Secretary may suspend...

  8. 7 CFR 3575.85 - Bankruptcy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankruptcy. 3575.85 Section 3575.85 Agriculture... GENERAL Community Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.85 Bankruptcy. (a) Calculating losses. Report of Loss... all the collateral securing it in bankruptcy proceedings. These responsibilities include, but are...

  9. 7 CFR 1779.85 - Bankruptcy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankruptcy. 1779.85 Section 1779.85 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.85 Bankruptcy. (a) Calculating losses... loan debt and all the collateral securing it in bankruptcy proceedings. These responsibilities...

  10. 7 CFR 3575.85 - Bankruptcy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankruptcy. 3575.85 Section 3575.85 Agriculture... GENERAL Community Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.85 Bankruptcy. (a) Calculating losses. Report of Loss... all the collateral securing it in bankruptcy proceedings. These responsibilities include, but are...

  11. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate...

  12. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate...

  13. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate...

  14. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate...

  15. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate...

  16. 14 CFR 33.85 - Calibration tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calibration tests. 33.85 Section 33.85... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.85 Calibration tests. (a) Each engine must be subjected to those calibration tests necessary to establish its power characteristics and...

  17. 36 CFR 9.85 - Environmental compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental compliance. 9.85 Section 9.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program § 9.85 Environmental compliance. Each AMRAP agency is responsible for obtaining...

  18. 24 CFR 85.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real property. 85.31 Section 85.31... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.31 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real...

  19. 28 CFR 8.5 - Custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Custody. 8.5 Section 8.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES Seizure and Forfeiture of Property § 8.5 Custody. (a) All property seized for forfeiture by ATF, DEA, or FBI shall be delivered to...

  20. 40 CFR 85.1709 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 85.1709 Section 85... Engines § 85.1709 Export exemptions. (a) A new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged on the outside of the container and on the vehicle or...

  1. 50 CFR 679.85 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rockfish fee liability may appeal the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost recovery. 679.85 Section 679.85....85 Cost recovery. (a) Cost recovery fees—(1) Responsibility. The person documented on the rockfish...

  2. 50 CFR 679.85 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rockfish fee liability may appeal the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost recovery. 679.85 Section 679.85....85 Cost recovery. (a) Cost recovery fees—(1) Responsibility. The person documented on the rockfish...

  3. 50 CFR 679.85 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rockfish fee liability may appeal the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost recovery. 679.85 Section 679.85....85 Cost recovery. (a) Cost recovery fees—(1) Responsibility. The person documented on the rockfish...

  4. Krypton tagging velocimetry in a turbulent Mach 2.7 boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahradka, D.; Parziale, N. J.; Smith, M. S.; Marineau, E. C.

    2016-05-01

    The krypton tagging velocimetry (KTV) technique is applied to the turbulent boundary layer on the wall of the "Mach 3 Calibration Tunnel" at Arnold Engineering Development Complex (AEDC) White Oak. Profiles of velocity were measured with KTV and Pitot-pressure probes in the Mach 2.7 turbulent boundary layer comprised of 99 % {N}2/1 % Kr at momentum-thickness Reynolds numbers of {Re}_{\\varTheta }= 800, 1400, and 2400. Agreement between the KTV- and Pitot-derived velocity profiles is excellent. The KTV and Pitot velocity data follow the law of the wall in the logarithmic region with application of the Van Driest I transformation. The velocity data are analyzed in the outer region of the boundary layer with the law of the wake and a velocity-defect law. KTV-derived streamwise velocity fluctuation measurements are reported and are consistent with data from the literature. To enable near-wall measurement with KTV (y/δ ≈ 0.1-0.2), an 800-nm longpass filter was used to block the 760.2-nm read-laser pulse. With the longpass filter, the 819.0-nm emission from the re-excited Kr can be imaged to track the displacement of the metastable tracer without imaging the reflection and scatter from the read-laser off of solid surfaces. To operate the Mach 3 AEDC Calibration Tunnel at several discrete unit Reynolds numbers, a modification was required and is described herein.

  5. Effects of dispersion forces on the structure and thermodynamics of fluid krypton

    PubMed

    Jakse; Bomont; Charpentier; Bretonnet

    2000-09-01

    Semianalytical and numerical calculations are performed to predict the structural and thermodynamic properties of low-density Kr fluid. Assuming that the interatomic forces can be modelled by a pairwise potential plus the three-body Axilrod-Teller potential, two different routes are explored. The first one is based on the hybridized mean spherical approximation integral equation of the theory of liquids and the second one uses large-scale molecular dynamics (MD). Algorithms for MD simulation are constructed on parallel machines to reduce the amount of computer time induced by the calculations of the three-body forces and the pair-correlation function. Our results obtained with the two methods mentioned above are in quite good agreement with the recent small-angle neutron-scattering experiments [Formisano et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 221 (1997); Benmore et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11, 3091 (1999)]. Moreover, the reliability of the asymptotic form of the integral equation is assessed for the specific case of dispersion forces including the three-body contributions, by an analysis at low wave vector and low density. It is seen that the effects of the Axilrod-Teller triple-dipole potential cannot be ignored to describe the structure and the thermodynamic properties of fluid krypton even at low density.

  6. Effect of Grain Boundaries on Krypton Segregation Behavior in Irradiated Uranium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Valderrama, Billy; He, Lingfeng; Henderson, Hunter B.; Pakarinen, Janne; Jaques, Brian; Gan, Jian; Butt, Darryl P.; Allen, Todd R.; Manuel, Michele V.

    2014-11-01

    Fission products, such as krypton (Kr), are known to be insoluble within UO2, segregating towards grain boundaries, eventually leading to a lowering of the thermal conductivity and fuel swelling. Recent computational studies have identified that differences in grain boundary structure have a significant effect on the segregation behavior of fission products. However, experimental work supporting these simulations is lacking. Atom probe tomography was used to measure the Kr distribution across grain boundaries in UO2. Polycrystalline depleted-UO2 samples was irradiated with 0.7 and 1.8 MeV Kr-ions and annealed to 1000ºC, 1300ºC, and 1600°C for 1 hour to produce a Kr-bubble dominated microstructure. The results of this work indicate a strong dependence of Kr concentration as a function of grain boundary structure. Temperature also influences grain boundary chemistry with greater Kr concentration evident at higher temperatures, resulting in a reduced Kr concentration in the bulk. While Kr migration is active at elevated temperatures, no changes in grain size or texture were observed in the irradiated UO2 samples.

  7. Dynamics of xenon, krypton, and methane monolayers in registry with graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, T.M.; Glyde, H.R.; Chui, S.T.

    1988-01-15

    The self-consistent phonon (SCP) theory is used to study the dynamics of monolayers of xenon, krypton, and methane adsorbed on graphite. Only the ..sqrt..3 x ..sqrt..3 solid phase is considered. It is shown that the phonon energies of the Xe monolayers are very similar to those of their floating counterparts, while the interaction of the Kr and CH/sub 4/ monolayers with the graphite significantly affects the phonon dispersion curves. The gap in the phonon dispersion curves at the center of the Brillouin zone is computed as a function of temperature. At a critical temperature, the gap goes spontaneously to zero and a transition from a locked-in commensurate phase to a floating phase takes place. This transition appears to describe the commensurate to floating transition in CH/sub 4/ well. A simple model of the floating transition is compared to the full SCP calculations. The one-phonon dynamic form factor, including the cubic anharmonic term, and phonon lifetimes are also evaluated for Kr and CH/sub 4/.

  8. Effects of pulmonary inhalation on hyperpolarized krypton-83 magnetic resonance T1 relaxation.

    PubMed

    Stupic, K F; Elkins, N D; Pavlovskaya, G E; Repine, J E; Meersmann, T

    2011-07-01

    The (83)Kr magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation time T(1) of krypton gas in contact with model surfaces was previously found to be highly sensitive to surface composition, surface-to-volume ratio, and surface temperature. The work presented here explored aspects of pulmonary (83)Kr T(1) relaxation measurements in excised lungs from healthy rats using hyperpolarized (hp) (83)Kr with approximately 4.4% spin polarization. MR spectroscopy without spatial resolution was applied to the ex vivo lungs that actively inhale hp (83)Kr through a custom designed ventilation system. Various inhalation schemes were devised to study the influence of anatomical dead space upon the measured (83)Kr T(1) relaxation times. The longitudinal (83)Kr relaxation times in the distal airways and the respiratory zones were independent of the lung inhalation volume, with T(1) = 1.3 s and T(1) = 1.0 s, depending only on the applied inhalation scheme. The obtained data were highly reproducible between different specimens. Further, the (83)Kr T(1) relaxation times in excised lungs were unaffected by the presence of up to 40% oxygen in the hp gas mixture. The results support the possible importance of (83)Kr as a biomarker for evaluating lung function.

  9. Radiation damage induced by krypton ions in sintered alpha-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Dalmasso, C; Iacconi, P; Beauvy, M; Lapraz, D; Balan, E; Calas, G

    2006-01-01

    Alpha-alumina is a useful thermoluminescence (TL) dosemeter. The knowledge of its behaviour under irradiation is thus of primary importance. The purpose of this paper is to characterise the radiation damage produced by swift krypton ions using various experimental methods, namely TL, optical absorption, fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). After ion irradiation, the TL intensity is shown to decrease, whereas the optical absorption rises in the whole studied wavelength range. These two phenomena seem to be related to one another. Furthermore, optical absorption measurements highlight the appearance of new absorption bands probably owing to oxygen vacancies. Induced defects are also observed in the EPR spectra of irradiated pellets. They are likely related to electronic holes trapped on oxygen ions. The concentration of these defects increases with ion fluence and fluorescence measurements indicate that some pre-existing defects such as F2(2+) centres follow the same trend up to approximately 4.1 x 10(13) ions cm(-2).

  10. Comparison between radioactive aerosol, technegas and krypton for ventilation imaging in healthy calves.

    PubMed

    Coghe, J; Votion, D; Lekeux, P

    2000-07-01

    The use of lung scintigraphy in calves necessitates the validation of a ventilation (V) imaging agent compatible with clinical applications. This study aimed at defining the value of an inhaled radioactive aerosol (99mTc-DTPA) and a 'pseudogas' (Technegas) in the assessment of regional V in healthy conscious calves by comparing 99mTc-DTPA and Technegas deposition (D) images to V(V) images obtained from the steady-state inhalation of the short half-life krypton 81 (81mKr) gas. Images were compared by analysis of radioactivity distribution in computer-generated regions of interest within the right lung and D to V ratio images were generated in order to highlight areas of mismatching between 99mTc-DTPA or Technegas and 81mKr distributions. Results of this analysis showed that the 99mTc-DTPA aerosol droplets were unable to reach the lung parenchyma because of significant particle impaction in the major conducting airways. Better definition of the ventilated lung was obtained when using Technegas because of minimal deposition in conducting airways. Furthermore, the Technegas and 81mKr distribution patterns were highly equivalent.

  11. Krypton laser-induced photothrombotic distal middle cerebral artery occlusion without craniectomy in mice.

    PubMed

    Sugimori, Hiroshi; Yao, Hiroshi; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Ibayashi, Setsuro; Iida, Mitsuo

    2004-08-01

    Recent advances in genetical engineering of the mouse have highlighted the importance of reproducible and less invasive models of cerebral ischemia in mice. In this paper, we developed minimally invasive and reproducible model of distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in mice using krypton (Kr) laser-induced photothrombosis. C57BL/6 or BALB mice (n=8 each) were anesthetized with halothane. The skin was cut, the temporal muscle was retracted, and the right distal MCA was observed through the skull. A Kr laser beam of wavelength 568 nm was focused onto the MCA over the intact skull. Upon laser irradiation, intravenous administration of a rose bengal solution was begun. After 4 min of irradiation, the laser beam was refocused on the MCA just proximal to the first spot, and another 4-min irradiation was performed. Then, the right common carotid artery (CCA) was ligated. Three days later, the brain was removed, and infarct volume was determined. Infarction confined almost solely to the cortical area was produced in each mouse. Mean infarct volume in C57BL/6 mice was 25.2+/-13.7 mm3. The BALB mice group showed significantly larger and more reproducible infarction (44.1+/-5.2 mm3; the coefficient of variation was 12%) than did C57BL/6 mice (P<0.005). Our photothrombosis model of stroke in mice can be performed without craniectomy, and its reproducibility is satisfactory when using BALB mice.

  12. The nature and role of the gold-krypton interactions in small neutral gold clusters.

    PubMed

    Mancera, Luis A; Benoit, David M

    2015-03-26

    We investigate the nature and role of krypton embedding in small neutral gold clusters. For some of these clusters, we observe a particular site-dependent character of the Kr binding that does not completely follow the criterion of binding at low-coordinated sites, widely accepted for interaction of a noble gas with closed-shell metal systems such as metal surfaces. We aim at understanding the effect of low dimensionality and open-shell electronic structure of the odd-numbered clusters on the noble gas-metal cluster interaction. First, we investigate the role of attractive and repulsive forces, and the frontier molecular orbitals. Second, we investigate the Au-Kr interaction in terms of reactivity and bonding character. We use a reactivity index derived from Fukui formalism, and criteria provided by the electron localization function (ELF), in order to classify the type of bonding. We carry out this study on the minimum energy structures of neutral gold clusters, as obtained using pseudo potential plane-wave density functional theory (DFT). A model is proposed that includes the effect of attractive electrostatic, van der Waals and repulsive forces, together with effects originating from orbital overlap. This satisfactorily explains minimum configurations of the noble gas-gold cluster systems, the site preference of the noble gas atoms, and changes in electronic properties.

  13. Effect of Grain Boundaries on Krypton Segregation Behavior in Irradiated Uranium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valderrama, Billy; He, Lingfeng; Henderson, Hunter B.; Pakarinen, Janne; Jaques, Brian; Gan, Jian; Butt, Darryl P.; Allen, Todd R.; Manuel, Michele V.

    2014-12-01

    Fission products, such as krypton (Kr), are known to be insoluble within UO2, segregating toward grain boundaries and eventually leading to a lowering in thermal conductivity and fuel swelling. Recent computational studies have identified that differences in grain boundary structure have a significant effect on the segregation behavior of fission products. However, experimental work supporting these simulations is lacking. Atom probe tomography was used to measure the Kr distribution across grain boundaries in UO2. Polycrystalline depleted UO2 samples were irradiated with 0.7 MeV and 1.8 MeV Kr-ions and annealed to 1000°C, 1300°C, and 1600°C for 1 h to produce a Kr-bubble dominated microstructure. The results of this work indicate a strong dependence of Kr concentration as a function of grain boundary structure. Temperature also influences grain boundary chemistry with greater Kr concentration evident at higher temperatures, resulting in a reduced Kr concentration in the bulk. Although Kr segregation takes place at elevated temperatures, no change in grain size or texture was observed in the irradiated UO2 samples.

  14. Interpretation of the krypton-81m dynamic series: the distribution of a tidal breath

    SciTech Connect

    Shykoff, B.E.; Cinotti, L.; Meignan, M.; Harf, A.; Chang, H.K.

    1988-12-01

    Lung scans during cyclic breathing of krypton-81m, an isotope with a 13-s half-life, were acquired in list mode, where both temporal and spatial information are preserved. Subjects in the left lateral decubitus position breathed with two tidal volumes at each of two frequencies. Profiles of total activity over the acquisition period were examined. They showed little effect of frequency or tidal volume on the distribution of air between dependent and non-dependent regions. Dynamic series for ensemble-averaged breaths were constructed. The regional flow per unit volume was shown to correspond to the time derivative of the regional activity of the dynamic series divided by the corresponding activity. Both the relative timing of the gas flow to different lung regions and the flow per unit volume as a function of time were obtained from the dynamic series. The dependent lung was seen to be better ventilated throughout the respiratory cycle except for brief periods at the start of inspiration and the end of expiration. Most of the dead-space gas can be construed to enter and leave the dependent lung.

  15. Effects of pulmonary inhalation on hyperpolarized krypton-83 magnetic resonance T1 relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupic, K. F.; Elkins, N. D.; Pavlovskaya, G. E.; Repine, J. E.; Meersmann, T.

    2011-07-01

    The 83Kr magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation time T1 of krypton gas in contact with model surfaces was previously found to be highly sensitive to surface composition, surface-to-volume ratio, and surface temperature. The work presented here explored aspects of pulmonary 83Kr T1 relaxation measurements in excised lungs from healthy rats using hyperpolarized (hp) 83Kr with approximately 4.4% spin polarization. MR spectroscopy without spatial resolution was applied to the ex vivo lungs that actively inhale hp 83Kr through a custom designed ventilation system. Various inhalation schemes were devised to study the influence of anatomical dead space upon the measured 83Kr T1 relaxation times. The longitudinal 83Kr relaxation times in the distal airways and the respiratory zones were independent of the lung inhalation volume, with T1 = 1.3 s and T1 = 1.0 s, depending only on the applied inhalation scheme. The obtained data were highly reproducible between different specimens. Further, the 83Kr T1 relaxation times in excised lungs were unaffected by the presence of up to 40% oxygen in the hp gas mixture. The results support the possible importance of 83Kr as a biomarker for evaluating lung function.

  16. A thermal beam of metastable krypton atoms produced by optical excitation.

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.; Hu, S.-M.; Bailey, K.; Davis, A. M.; Dunford, R. W.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Young, L.; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Science and Technology of China

    2007-02-08

    A room-temperature beam of krypton atoms in the metastable 5s[3/2]{sub 2} level is demonstrated via an optical excitation method. A Kr-discharge lamp is used to produce vacuum ultraviolet photons at 124 nm for the first-step excitation from the ground level 4p{sup 6} {sup 1}S{sub 0} to the 5s[3/2]{sub 1} level. An 819 nm Ti:sapphire laser is used for the second-step excitation from 5s[3/2]{sub 1} to 5s[3/2]{sub 2} followed by a spontaneous decay to the 5s[3/2]{sub 2} metastable level. A metastable atomic beam with an angular flux density of 3 x 10{sup 14} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} is achieved at the total gas flow rate of 0.01 cm{sup 3}/s at STP (or 3 x 10{sup 17} at./s). The dependences of the flux on the gas flow rate, laser power, and lamp parameters are investigated.

  17. Krypton-79m: a new radionuclide for applications in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.G.; Dahl, J.R.; Graham, M.C.

    1986-09-01

    Krypton-79m emits 130-keV gamma rays in 27 +/- 1% of its disintegrations and decays with a half-life of 50 +/- 3 sec. It is generated readily by bombarding nearly saturated aqueous solutions of bromide salts, or bromoform, with 14-MeV protons. The 79mKr is swept out continuously as it is produced by bubbling helium upward through the liquids. Up to 200 mCi per I are obtained of the resulting mixture of gases. The 79mKr + helium is mixed with about five volumes of air and then driven continuously through a small-bore tube to an Anger scintillation camera located approximately 200 yards away. The rate of flow is adjusted so that the amounts of 13-sec 81mKr and of 35-hr 79Kr are inconsequential at the time and point of use. When the gases are inhaled, good images of the lungs are obtained with an Anger scintillation camera. The trachea and bronchi commonly are revealed also.

  18. The nature and role of the gold-krypton interactions in small neutral gold clusters.

    PubMed

    Mancera, Luis A; Benoit, David M

    2015-03-26

    We investigate the nature and role of krypton embedding in small neutral gold clusters. For some of these clusters, we observe a particular site-dependent character of the Kr binding that does not completely follow the criterion of binding at low-coordinated sites, widely accepted for interaction of a noble gas with closed-shell metal systems such as metal surfaces. We aim at understanding the effect of low dimensionality and open-shell electronic structure of the odd-numbered clusters on the noble gas-metal cluster interaction. First, we investigate the role of attractive and repulsive forces, and the frontier molecular orbitals. Second, we investigate the Au-Kr interaction in terms of reactivity and bonding character. We use a reactivity index derived from Fukui formalism, and criteria provided by the electron localization function (ELF), in order to classify the type of bonding. We carry out this study on the minimum energy structures of neutral gold clusters, as obtained using pseudo potential plane-wave density functional theory (DFT). A model is proposed that includes the effect of attractive electrostatic, van der Waals and repulsive forces, together with effects originating from orbital overlap. This satisfactorily explains minimum configurations of the noble gas-gold cluster systems, the site preference of the noble gas atoms, and changes in electronic properties. PMID:25742369

  19. Solidification and fcc- to metastable hcp- phase transition in krypton under modulating dynamic pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing-Yin; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Kim, Minseob; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Cynn, Hyunchae; Jenei, Zsolt; Evans, William

    2014-03-01

    We describe high-pressure kinetic studies of the solidification, melting and fcc-hcp transitions of Krypton under dynamic loading conditions, using a dynamic-diamond anvil cell (d-DAC) coupled with time-resolved x-ray diffraction. The time-resolved diffraction patterns and dynamic pressure responses show compression-rate dependencies associated with both the decay and growth time constants of the liquid-solid and solid-liquid transitions. According to the Avrami equation, both the solidified and melting processes are spontaneous nucleation and a rod-like (1-D) growth. Furthermore, under dynamic loading conditions, Kr-hcp forms from fcc close to the melting line. The nucleation time of fcc and hcp are very fast, with little dependence of compression rates or shorter than the time resolutions. The threshold pressure for the formation of Kr-hcp is ~ 0.8 GPa at the dynamic loadings of 0.004-13 GPa/s. This work was carried out at DESY. This work was performed under the auspices of DOE by LLNL under contracts(W-7405-Eng-48 and DE-AC52-07NA27344) and funded by the LDRD(11-ERD-046). The work at WSU was funded by NSF-DMR(1203834), DTRA(HDTRA1-12-01-0020).

  20. Multielectron coincidence study of the double Auger decay of 3d-ionized krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, E.; Hedin, L.; Rubensson, J.-E.; Karlsson, L.; Feifel, R.; Fritzsche, S.; Linusson, P.; Eland, J. H. D.

    2010-10-15

    Multielectron coincidence data for triple ionization of krypton have been recorded above the 3d ionization threshold at two photon energies (140 and 150 eV). Three principal transition pathways have been observed, two involving double Auger transitions from Kr{sup +}, and one involving single Auger transitions from Kr{sup 2+} created by direct single-photon double ionization. The decay of the 3d{sup 9} {sup 2}D{sub 5/2,3/2} states in Kr{sup +} has been analyzed in some detail and is found to be strongly dominated by cascade processes where two electrons with well-defined energies are emitted. The decay paths leading to the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 3} {sup 4}S, {sup 2}D, and {sup 2}P states of Kr{sup 3+} are analyzed and energies of seven intermediate states in Kr{sup 2+} are given. A preliminary investigation of the decay paths from Kr{sup +} 3d{sup 9}4p{sup 5}nl shake-up states has also been carried out.

  1. Investigation on Soft X-Ray Lasers with a Picosecond-Laser-Irradiated Gas Puff Target

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedorowiez, H; Bartnik, A; Jarocki, R; Rakowski, R; Dunn, J; Smith, R F; Hunter, J; Hilsen, J; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2002-10-09

    We present results of experimental studies on transient gain soft x-ray lasers with a picosecond-laser-irradiated gas puff target. The target in a form of an elongated gas sheet is formed by pulsed injection of gas through a slit nozzle using a high-pressure electromagnetic valve developed and characterized at the Institute of Optoelectronics. The x-ray laser experiments were performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using the tabletop Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET) laser to irradiate argon, krypton or xenon gas puff targets. Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like argon on the 3p-3s transition at 46.9 nm and the 3d-3p transition at 45.1 nm have been demonstrated, however, no amplification for nickel-like krypton or xenon was observed. Results of the experiments are presented and discussed.

  2. Development of laser-based resonance ionization techniques for 81-Kr and 85-Kr measurements in the geosciences, II. December 1, 1994 through December 31, 2000 reporting period. Final technical report for Grant No. DE-FG05-95ER14497

    SciTech Connect

    Thonnard, Norbert; McKay, Larry D.; Labotka, Theodore C.

    2001-02-05

    A facility for measurement of rare Kr-81 and Kr-85 isotope concentration in hydrogeologic samples, and isotopic composition of minute quantities of krypton and xenon from extraterrestrial samples, was established, requiring refinement of an emerging mass spectrometric-based analytical technique and securing of laboratory space and equipment. The analytical process consists of (1) collecting a groundwater sample, (2) degassing the water, (3) separating Kr from the recovered gases, (4&5) two isotopic enrichments to reduce interfering isotopes by E9, and (6) detecting the rare krypton isotope in a unique time-of-flight mass spectrometer detecting as few as 100 Kr atoms. All equipment is installed and operating, with only some additional adjustment and testing of the last step (6, above) remaining to be completed. Collaborations have been established with a number of researchers and organizations world wide, and both groundwater and extraterrestrial samples have been collected. Completion of analyses awaits full operation of step 6.

  3. Photochemical synthesis of H2O2 from the H2O...O(3P) van der Waals complex: experimental observations in solid krypton and theoretical modeling.

    PubMed

    Pehkonen, Susanna; Marushkevich, Kseniya; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Räsänen, Markku; Grigorenko, Bella L; Nemukhin, Alexander V

    2007-11-15

    Productive photochemical synthesis of hydrogen peroxide, H(2)O(2), from the H(2)O...O((3)P) van der Waals complex is studied in solid krypton. Experimentally, we achieve the three-step formation of H(2)O(2) from H(2)O and N(2)O precursors frozen in solid krypton. First, 193 nm photolysis of N(2)O yields oxygen atoms in solid krypton. Upon annealing at approximately 25 K, mobile oxygen atoms react with water forming the H(2)O...O complex, where the oxygen atom is in the triplet ground state. Finally, the H(2)O...O complex is converted to H(2)O(2) by irradiation at 300 nm. According to the complete active space self-consistent field modeling, hydrogen peroxide can be formed through the photoexcited H(2)O+-O- charge-transfer state of the H(2)O...O complex, which agrees with the experimental evidence.

  4. Emission characteristics of pulse-periodic barrier-discharge plasma in a mixture of krypton with argon and liquid freon vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Minya, A. I.; Gritsak, R. V.; Gomoki, Z. T.

    2014-02-01

    Radiation of a nanosecond barrier discharge in a mixture of krypton, argon, and carbon-tetrachloride vapor is studied in the spectral range of 150-300 nm. The plasma radiation spectra and the dependences of the intensities of the 258 nm Cl2( D' → A'), 222 nm KrCl( B → X), and 175 nm ArCl( B → X) bands on the partial pressure of liquid freon vapor, argon, and krypton, as well as on the discharge excitation conditions, are studied. The optimal compositions of gas mixtures for creating a broadband UV-VUV emitter based on the band system of argon chloride, krypton chloride, and chlorine molecule are determined.

  5. Solvation of fluoroform and fluoroform-dimethylether dimer in liquid krypton: a theoretical cryospectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Kohls, Emilija; Mishev, Anastas; Pejov, Ljupčo

    2013-08-01

    A hybrid, sequential statistical physics-quantum mechanical electronic-quantum mechanical nuclei approach has been applied to study the C-H stretching frequencies of bare fluoroform dissolved in liquid krypton under cryogenic conditions (at ~130 K), as well as upon blue shifting hydrogen bonding interactions with dimethylether in the same solvent. The structure of the liquid at 130 K was generated by Monte Carlo simulations of cryogenic Kr solutions containing either fluoroform or fluoroform and dimethylether molecules. Statistically uncorrelated configurations were appropriately chosen from the equilibrated MC runs and supermolecular clusters containing solute and solvent molecules (either standalone or embedded in the "bulk" part of the solvent treated as a polarizable continuum) were subjected to quantum mechanical electronic (QMel) and subsequent quantum mechanical nuclei (QMnuc) calculations. QMel calculations were implemented to generate the in-liquid 1D intramolecular C-H stretching vibrational potential of the fluoroform moiety and subsequently in the QMnuc phase the corresponding anharmonic C-H stretching frequency was computed by diagonalization techniques. Finally, the constructed vibrational density of states histograms were compared to the experimental Raman bands. The calculated anharmonic vibrational frequency shifts of the fluoroform C-H stretching mode upon interaction with dimethylether in liquid Kr are in very good agreement with the experimental data (20.3 at MP2 level vs. 16.6 cm(-1) experimentally). Most of this relatively large frequency blue shift is governed by configurations characterized by a direct C-H···O contact between monomers. The second population detected during MC simulations, characterized by reversed orientation of the monomers, has a minor contribution to the spectral appearance. The experimentally observed trend in the corresponding bandwidths is also correctly reproduced by our theoretical approach. Solvation of the

  6. Solvation of fluoroform and fluoroform-dimethylether dimer in liquid krypton: a theoretical cryospectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Kohls, Emilija; Mishev, Anastas; Pejov, Ljupčo

    2013-08-01

    A hybrid, sequential statistical physics-quantum mechanical electronic-quantum mechanical nuclei approach has been applied to study the C-H stretching frequencies of bare fluoroform dissolved in liquid krypton under cryogenic conditions (at ~130 K), as well as upon blue shifting hydrogen bonding interactions with dimethylether in the same solvent. The structure of the liquid at 130 K was generated by Monte Carlo simulations of cryogenic Kr solutions containing either fluoroform or fluoroform and dimethylether molecules. Statistically uncorrelated configurations were appropriately chosen from the equilibrated MC runs and supermolecular clusters containing solute and solvent molecules (either standalone or embedded in the "bulk" part of the solvent treated as a polarizable continuum) were subjected to quantum mechanical electronic (QMel) and subsequent quantum mechanical nuclei (QMnuc) calculations. QMel calculations were implemented to generate the in-liquid 1D intramolecular C-H stretching vibrational potential of the fluoroform moiety and subsequently in the QMnuc phase the corresponding anharmonic C-H stretching frequency was computed by diagonalization techniques. Finally, the constructed vibrational density of states histograms were compared to the experimental Raman bands. The calculated anharmonic vibrational frequency shifts of the fluoroform C-H stretching mode upon interaction with dimethylether in liquid Kr are in very good agreement with the experimental data (20.3 at MP2 level vs. 16.6 cm(-1) experimentally). Most of this relatively large frequency blue shift is governed by configurations characterized by a direct C-H···O contact between monomers. The second population detected during MC simulations, characterized by reversed orientation of the monomers, has a minor contribution to the spectral appearance. The experimentally observed trend in the corresponding bandwidths is also correctly reproduced by our theoretical approach. Solvation of the

  7. Pathway to cryogen free production of hyperpolarized Krypton-83 and Xenon-129.

    PubMed

    Six, Joseph S; Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Stupic, Karl F; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (hp) (129)Xe and hp (83)Kr for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are typically obtained through spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) in gas mixtures with dilute concentrations of the respective noble gas. The usage of dilute noble gases mixtures requires cryogenic gas separation after SEOP, a step that makes clinical and preclinical applications of hp (129)Xe MRI cumbersome. For hp (83)Kr MRI, cryogenic concentration is not practical due to depolarization that is caused by quadrupolar relaxation in the condensed phase. In this work, the concept of stopped flow SEOP with concentrated noble gas mixtures at low pressures was explored using a laser with 23.3 W of output power and 0.25 nm linewidth. For (129)Xe SEOP without cryogenic separation, the highest obtained MR signal intensity from the hp xenon-nitrogen gas mixture was equivalent to that arising from 15.5±1.9% spin polarized (129)Xe in pure xenon gas. The production rate of the hp gas mixture, measured at 298 K, was 1.8 cm(3)/min. For hp (83)Kr, the equivalent of 4.4±0.5% spin polarization in pure krypton at a production rate of 2 cm(3)/min was produced. The general dependency of spin polarization upon gas pressure obtained in stopped flow SEOP is reported for various noble gas concentrations. Aspects of SEOP specific to the two noble gas isotopes are discussed and compared with current theoretical opinions. A non-linear pressure broadening of the Rb D(1) transition was observed and taken into account for the qualitative description of the SEOP process.

  8. Adsorptive Separation and Sequestration of Krypton, I and C14 on Diamond Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Tushar; Loyalka, Sudarsha; Prelas, Mark; Viswanath, Dabir

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this research proposal was to address the separation and sequestration of Kr and I from each other using nano-sized diamond particles and retaining these in diamond until they decay to the background level or can be used as a byproduct. Following removal of Kr and I, an adsorbent will be used to adsorb and store CO2 from the CO2 rich stream. A Field Enhanced Diffusion with Optical Activation (FEDOA-a large scale process that takes advantage of thermal, electrical, and optical activation to enhance the diffusion of an element into diamond structure) was used to load Kr and I on micron or nano sized particles having a larger relative surface area. The diamond particles can be further increased by doping it with boron followed by irradiation in a neutron flux. Previous studies showed that the hydrogen storage capacity could be increased significantly by using boron-doped irradiated diamond particles. Diamond powders were irradiated for a longer time by placing them in a quartz tube. The surface area was measured using a Quantachrome Autosorb system. No significant increase in the surface area was observed. Total surface area was about 1.7 m2/g. This suggests the existence of very minimal pores. Interestingly it showed hysteresis upon desorption. A reason for this may be strong interaction between the surface and the nitrogen molecules. Adsorption runs at higher temperatures did not show any adsorption of krypton on diamond. Use of a GC with HID detector to determine the adsorption capacity from the breakthrough curves was attempted, but experimental difficulties were encountered.

  9. Studies on the photochemical and thermal dissociation synthesis of krypton difluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Kinkead, S.A.; FitzPatrick, J.R.; Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Kissane, R.J.; Purson, J.D.

    1993-08-01

    Like dioxygen difluoride (O{sub 2}F{sub 2}), KrF{sub 2} can be produced by thermal dissociation or photochemical synthesis from the elements; however, the yields are invariably much less than those obtained for O{sub 2}F{sub 2}. For example, while irradiation of liquid O{sub 2}/F{sub 2} mixtures at {minus}196{degrees}C through a sapphire window with an unfiltered 1,000W uv lamp provides in excess of 3g of O{sub 2}F{sub 2} per hour, the yield of KrF{sub 2} under identical circumstances is approximately 125 mg/hr. In this report, the yield of KrF{sub 2} in quartz and Pyrex{trademark} photochemical reactors has been examined as a function of irradiation wavelength, irradiation power, and Kr: F{sub 2} mole ratio. The uv-visible spectrum of KrF{sub 2} has also been recorded for comparison with earlier work, and the quantum yield for photodissociation at two wavelengths determined. The synthesis of KrF{sub 2} using large thermal gradients has also been examined using resistively heated nickel filaments to thermally dissociate the F{sub 2} in close proximity to liquid nitrogen-cooled metal surfaces. As a net result, KrF{sub 2} has been produced in yields in excess of 1.75 g/hr for extended periods in photochemical systems, and 2.3 g/hr for shorter periods in thermally dissociative reactors. This paper summarizes the results of examining parametrically several different types of reactors for efficiency of producing krypton difluoride.

  10. 7 CFR 1216.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1216.85 Personal...

  11. 7 CFR 1216.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1216.85 Personal...

  12. 7 CFR 1216.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1216.85 Personal...

  13. 7 CFR 1216.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1216.85 Personal...

  14. 7 CFR 1216.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1216.85 Personal...

  15. 7 CFR 984.85 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separability. 984.85 Section 984.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  16. 7 CFR 984.85 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Separability. 984.85 Section 984.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  17. 7 CFR 984.85 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Separability. 984.85 Section 984.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  18. 7 CFR 984.85 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Separability. 984.85 Section 984.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  19. 7 CFR 984.85 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separability. 984.85 Section 984.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  20. 40 CFR 85.1705 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing exemption. 85.1705 Section 85.1705 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor...

  1. 40 CFR 85.1702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions. 85.1702 Section 85.1702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines §...

  2. 40 CFR 85.1504 - Conditional admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conditional admission. 85.1504 Section 85.1504 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines §...

  3. 40 CFR 85.1702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 85.1702 Section 85.1702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines §...

  4. 40 CFR 85.1709 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Export exemptions. 85.1709 Section 85.1709 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor...

  5. 40 CFR 85.1702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 85.1702 Section 85.1702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines §...

  6. 40 CFR 85.1705 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing exemption. 85.1705 Section 85.1705 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor...

  7. 40 CFR 85.1705 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing exemption. 85.1705 Section 85.1705 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor...

  8. 40 CFR 85.1701 - General applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General applicability. 85.1701 Section 85.1701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor...

  9. 40 CFR 85.1702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 85.1702 Section 85.1702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines §...

  10. 40 CFR 85.1705 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testing exemption. 85.1705 Section 85.1705 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor...

  11. 40 CFR 85.1707 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Display exemption. 85.1707 Section 85.1707 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor...

  12. 40 CFR 85.1707 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  13. 40 CFR 85.1707 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Display exemption. 85.1707 Section 85.1707 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor...

  14. 40 CFR 85.1504 - Conditional admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conditional admission. 85.1504 Section 85.1504 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines §...

  15. 40 CFR 85.1707 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display exemption. 85.1707 Section 85.1707 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor...

  16. 40 CFR 85.1504 - Conditional admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditional admission. 85.1504 Section 85.1504 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines §...

  17. 40 CFR 85.1504 - Conditional admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conditional admission. 85.1504 Section 85.1504 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines §...

  18. 40 CFR 85.2301 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  19. 40 CFR 85.1504 - Conditional admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  20. 40 CFR 85.1709 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Export exemptions. 85.1709 Section 85.1709 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor...

  1. 40 CFR 85.1702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 85.1702 Section 85.1702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines §...

  2. 40 CFR 85.1709 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Export exemptions. 85.1709 Section 85.1709 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor...

  3. 40 CFR 85.2202 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General provisions. 85.2202 Section 85.2202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests §...

  4. 40 CFR 85.2202 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General provisions. 85.2202 Section 85.2202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests §...

  5. 40 CFR 85.2202 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 85.2202 Section 85.2202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests §...

  6. 7 CFR 982.85 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 982.85 Section 982.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  7. 7 CFR 982.85 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 982.85 Section 982.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  8. 7 CFR 982.85 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 982.85 Section 982.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  9. 7 CFR 982.85 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 982.85 Section 982.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  10. 7 CFR 982.85 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 982.85 Section 982.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  11. 7 CFR 301.85-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-1... a regulated area not designated as a suppressive area in accordance with § 301.85-2. Golden nematode. The nematode known as the golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis), in any stage of...

  12. 40 CFR 85.504 - Applicable standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable standards. 85.504 Section 85.504 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exemption of Aftermarket Conversions From...

  13. 42 CFR 85a.7 - Imminent dangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Imminent dangers. 85a.7 Section 85a.7 Public Health... Imminent dangers. Whenever, during the course of, or as a result of, an investigation under this part, the... danger, NIOSH will immediately advise the employer, owner, operator or agent in charge at the place...

  14. 40 CFR 146.85 - Financial responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Financial responsibility. 146.85 Section 146.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... drinking water. (4) The qualifying financial responsibility instrument(s) must comprise...

  15. 40 CFR 146.85 - Financial responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Financial responsibility. 146.85 Section 146.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... drinking water. (4) The qualifying financial responsibility instrument(s) must comprise...

  16. 40 CFR 146.85 - Financial responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Financial responsibility. 146.85 Section 146.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... drinking water. (4) The qualifying financial responsibility instrument(s) must comprise...

  17. 40 CFR 146.85 - Financial responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Financial responsibility. 146.85 Section 146.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... drinking water. (4) The qualifying financial responsibility instrument(s) must comprise...

  18. 7 CFR 955.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 955.85 Section 955.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  19. 7 CFR 955.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 955.85 Section 955.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  20. 7 CFR 955.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 955.85 Section 955.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  1. 7 CFR 955.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 955.85 Section 955.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  2. 7 CFR 955.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 955.85 Section 955.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  3. 24 CFR 85.4 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability. 85.4 Section 85.4 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS General §...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.1228-85 Section 86... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... than one minute in length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.1228-85 Section 86... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... than one minute in length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels...

  6. 40 CFR 152.85 - Formulators' exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formulators' exemption. 152.85 Section 152.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Satisfaction of Data Requirements and Protection...

  7. 45 CFR 85.51 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communications. 85.51 Section 85.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS....51 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication...

  8. 45 CFR 85.51 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications. 85.51 Section 85.51 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS....51 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication...

  9. 45 CFR 85.51 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications. 85.51 Section 85.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS....51 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication...

  10. 45 CFR 85.51 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Communications. 85.51 Section 85.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS....51 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication...

  11. 24 CFR 85.32 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment. 85.32 Section 85.32 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS...

  12. 24 CFR 8.5 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 8.5 Section 8.5 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN......

  13. 24 CFR 8.5 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 8.5 Section 8.5 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN......

  14. 40 CFR 85.1413 - Decertification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....1413 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1413 Decertification. (a... Director upon written request pursuant to § 85.1412; or (vi) The life cycle cost of the equipment...

  15. 40 CFR 85.1413 - Decertification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....1413 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1413 Decertification. (a... Director upon written request pursuant to § 85.1412; or (vi) The life cycle cost of the equipment...

  16. 50 CFR 85.22 - Grant proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant proposals. 85.22 Section 85.22 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CLEAN VESSEL ACT GRANT PROGRAM Application...

  17. 40 CFR 720.85 - Chemical identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical identity. 720.85 Section 720... PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 720.85 Chemical identity. (a... submits information to EPA under this part may assert a claim of confidentiality for the chemical...

  18. 40 CFR 85.1807 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public hearings. 85.1807 Section 85.1807 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... (see also 5 CFR part 930 as amended). (6) “Environmental Appeals Board” shall mean the Board within...

  19. 40 CFR 85.1807 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public hearings. 85.1807 Section 85.1807 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... (see also 5 CFR part 930 as amended). (6) “Environmental Appeals Board” shall mean the Board within...

  20. 40 CFR 85.1807 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public hearings. 85.1807 Section 85.1807 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... (see also 5 CFR part 930 as amended). (6) “Environmental Appeals Board” shall mean the Board within...

  1. 40 CFR 720.85 - Chemical identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical identity. 720.85 Section 720... PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 720.85 Chemical identity. (a... submits information to EPA under this part may assert a claim of confidentiality for the chemical...

  2. 40 CFR 720.85 - Chemical identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical identity. 720.85 Section 720... PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 720.85 Chemical identity. (a... submits information to EPA under this part may assert a claim of confidentiality for the chemical...

  3. 40 CFR 720.85 - Chemical identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical identity. 720.85 Section 720... PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 720.85 Chemical identity. (a... submits information to EPA under this part may assert a claim of confidentiality for the chemical...

  4. 45 CFR 85.31 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 9 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 85.31 Section 85.31 Public Welfare....31 Employment. No qualified individuals with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  5. 49 CFR 26.85 - Interstate certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that you have submitted all the information required by 49 CFR 26.85(c) and the information is complete... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Certification Procedures § 26.85 Interstate... may include the following: (i) Evidence that State A's certification was obtained by fraud; (ii)...

  6. 49 CFR 26.85 - Interstate certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that you have submitted all the information required by 49 CFR 26.85(c) and the information is complete... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Certification Procedures § 26.85 Interstate... may include the following: (i) Evidence that State A's certification was obtained by fraud; (ii)...

  7. 49 CFR 26.85 - Interstate certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that you have submitted all the information required by 49 CFR 26.85(c) and the information is complete... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Certification Procedures § 26.85 Interstate... may include the following: (i) Evidence that State A's certification was obtained by fraud; (ii)...

  8. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  9. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  10. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  11. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  12. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior to... specific microorganism identity at the time of submission of the information. This claim will apply only...

  13. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior to... specific microorganism identity at the time of submission of the information. This claim will apply only...

  14. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior to... specific microorganism identity at the time of submission of the information. This claim will apply only...

  15. 40 CFR 720.85 - Chemical identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical identity. 720.85 Section 720... PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 720.85 Chemical identity. (a... submits information to EPA under this part may assert a claim of confidentiality for the chemical...

  16. 7 CFR 981.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 981.85 Section 981.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  17. 7 CFR 981.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 981.85 Section 981.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  18. 7 CFR 981.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 981.85 Section 981.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  19. 7 CFR 981.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 981.85 Section 981.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  20. 7 CFR 981.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 981.85 Section 981.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  1. 40 CFR 7.85 - Recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recipients. 7.85 Section 7.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Requirements for Applicants...

  2. 40 CFR 85.1413 - Decertification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1413 Decertification. (a... heavy-duty engine Federal Test Procedure contained in 40 CFR part 86 or an alternative test prescribed under 40 CFR 85.1414; or (ii) Use of the certified equipment is causing urban bus engine emissions...

  3. 40 CFR 7.85 - Recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recipients. 7.85 Section 7.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Requirements for Applicants...

  4. 40 CFR 7.85 - Recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recipients. 7.85 Section 7.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Requirements for Applicants...

  5. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior...

  6. 42 CFR 85a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 85a.2 Section 85a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH... Health of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services....

  7. 24 CFR 85.41 - Financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial reporting. 85.41 Section... § 85.41 Financial reporting. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) (2) and (5) of this... financial reports to Federal agencies, or (ii) Requesting advances or reimbursements when letters of...

  8. 44 CFR 6.85 - Reproduction fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reproduction fees. 6.85... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Fees § 6.85 Reproduction fees. (a... over 81/2 x 14 inches or whose physical characteristics do not permit reproduction by...

  9. 44 CFR 6.85 - Reproduction fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reproduction fees. 6.85... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Fees § 6.85 Reproduction fees. (a... 81/2×14 inches or whose physical characteristics do not permit reproduction by routine...

  10. 44 CFR 6.85 - Reproduction fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reproduction fees. 6.85... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Fees § 6.85 Reproduction fees. (a... over 81/2 x 14 inches or whose physical characteristics do not permit reproduction by...

  11. 44 CFR 6.85 - Reproduction fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Reproduction fees. 6.85... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Fees § 6.85 Reproduction fees. (a... over 81/2 x 14 inches or whose physical characteristics do not permit reproduction by...

  12. 44 CFR 6.85 - Reproduction fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reproduction fees. 6.85... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Fees § 6.85 Reproduction fees. (a... 81/2×14 inches or whose physical characteristics do not permit reproduction by routine...

  13. 9 CFR 3.85 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining nonhuman primates must have enough employees to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employees. 3.85 Section 3.85 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  14. 9 CFR 3.85 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining nonhuman primates must have enough employees to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Employees. 3.85 Section 3.85 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  15. 9 CFR 3.85 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining nonhuman primates must have enough employees to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employees. 3.85 Section 3.85 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  16. 9 CFR 3.85 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining nonhuman primates must have enough employees to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Employees. 3.85 Section 3.85 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  17. 9 CFR 3.85 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining nonhuman primates must have enough employees to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Employees. 3.85 Section 3.85 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  18. 40 CFR 152.85 - Formulators' exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., toxicology, residue chemistry, exposure, environmental fate, and ecological effects. (2) The data to which... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formulators' exemption. 152.85 Section 152.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE...

  19. 45 CFR 85.51 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Communications. 85.51 Section 85.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS....51 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication...

  20. Temperature Programmed Desorption of Quench-condensed Krypton and Acetone in Air; Selective Concentration of Ultra-trace Gas Components.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Taku T; Sakaguchi, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Selective concentration of ultra-trace components in air-like gases has an important application in analyzing volatile organic compounds in the gas. In the present study, we examined quench-condensation of the sample gas on a ZnO substrate below 50 K followed by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) (low temperature TPD) as a selective gas concentration technique. We studied two specific gases in the normal air; krypton as an inert gas and acetone as a reactive gas. We evaluated the relationship between the operating condition of low temperature TPD and the lowest detection limit. In the case of krypton, we observed the selective concentration by exposing at 6 K followed by thermal desorption at about 60 K. On the other hand, no selectivity appeared for acetone although trace acetone was successfully concentrated. This is likely due to the solvent effect by a major component in the air, which is suggested to be water. We suggest that pre-condensation to remove the water component may improve the selectivity in the trace acetone analysis by low temperature TPD.