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Sample records for kudzu pueraria lobata

  1. Isolation of Radiolabeled Isoflavones from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) Root Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Reppert, Adam; Yousef, Gad G.; Rogers, Randy B.; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Isoflavones have potential for preventing and treating several chronic health conditions, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this study, radiolabeled isoflavones were recovered from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures after incubation with uniformly labeled 14C-sucrose in the culture medium for 21 days. Approximately 19% of administered label was recovered in the isoflavone-rich dried extracts of kudzu root cultures (90.2 μCi/g or 3.3 MBq/g extract). HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the predominant isoflavones isolated from kudzu root cultures to be puerarin, daidzin, and malonyl-daidzin. The average concentration of the major isoflavone puerarin in kudzu root cultures was 33.6 mg/g extract, with a specific activity of 63.5 μCi/g (2.3 MBq/g). The isolated isoflavones were sufficiently 14C-labeled to permit utilization for subsequent in vivo metabolic tracking studies PMID:18690681

  2. Pueraria lobata (Kudzu root) hangover remedies and acetaldehyde-associated neoplasm risk.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Neil R

    2007-11-01

    Recent introduction of several commercial Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) containing hangover remedies has occurred in western countries. The available data is reviewed to assess if there are any potential concerns in relationship to the development of neoplasm if these products are used chronically. The herb Pueraria has two components that are used as traditional therapies; Pueraria lobata, the root based herb and Pueraria flos, the flower based herb. Both of these herbal components have different traditional claims and constituents. Pueraria flos, which enhances acetaldehyde removal, is the traditional hangover remedy. Conversely, Pueraria lobata is a known inhibitor of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and increases acetaldehyde. Pueraria lobata is being investigated for use as an aversion therapy for alcoholics due to these characteristics. Pueraria lobata is not a traditional hangover therapy yet has been accepted as the registered active component in many of these hangover products. The risk of development of acetaldehyde pathology, including neoplasms, is associated with genetic polymorphism with enhanced alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) or reduced ALDH activity leading to increased acetaldehyde levels in the tissues. The chronic usage of Pueraria lobata at times of high ethanol consumption, such as in hangover remedies, may predispose subjects to an increased risk of acetaldehyde-related neoplasm and pathology. The guidelines for Disulfiram, an ALDH2 inhibitor, provide a set of guidelines for use with the herb Pueraria lobata. Pueraria lobata appears to be an inappropriate herb for use in herbal hangover remedies as it is an inhibitor of ALDH2. The recommendations for its use should be similar to those for the ALDH2 inhibitor, Disulfiram.

  3. Kudzu [Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. Var lobata]: a new source of carbohydrate for bioethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the amount of standing biomass of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in naturally-infested fields in Maryland and Alabama, USA. At each site, we evaluated carbohydrate content of root, stems and leaves. For a third site from Georgia, we evaluated the carbohydrate content of roots o...

  4. First Report of Soybean Rust, Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, on Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first observed on soybean (Glycine max) in the continental United States in Louisiana in 2004, and on kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in the United States in 2005. Kudzu is a leguminous weed that is prevalent in the southern United States with ...

  5. Heterogeneity of clonal patterns among patches of kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, an invasive plant

    PubMed Central

    Kartzinel, Tyler R.; Hamrick, J. L.; Wang, Chongyun; Bowsher, Alan W.; Quigley, Bryan G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Viny species are among the most serious invasive plants, and better knowledge of how vines grow to dominate landscapes is needed. Patches may contain a single genotype (i.e. genet), a competitively dominant genet or many independent but interacting genets, yet the clonal structure of vining species is often not apparent. Molecular markers can discriminate among the genetic identities of entwined vines to reveal the number and spatial distribution of genets. This study investigated how genets are spatially distributed within and among discrete patches of the invasive vine kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, in the United States. It was expected that ramets of genets would be spatially clustered within patches, and that an increase in the number of genets within a patch would be associated with a decrease in the average size of each genet. Methods Six discrete kudzu patches were sampled across 2 years, and 1257 samples were genotyped at 21 polymorphic allozyme loci. Variation in genotypic and genetic diversity among patches was quantified and patterns of genet interdigitation were analysed. Key Results Substantial genotypic and genetic variation occurred within and among patches. As few as ten overlapping genets spanned up to 68 m2 in one patch, while >90 % of samples were genetically unique in another patch. Genotypic diversity within patches increased as mean clone size decreased, although spatially widespread genets did not preclude interdigitation. Eight genets were shared across ≥2 patches, suggesting that vegetative dispersal can occur among patches. Conclusions Genetically unique kudzu vines are highly interdigitated. Multiple vegetative propagules have become established in spatially discrete patches, probably through the movement of highway construction or maintenance machinery. The results suggest that common methods for controlling invasive vines (e.g. mowing) may inadvertently increase genotypic diversity. Thus, understanding

  6. Effects of Myrothecium verrucaria on ultrastructural integrity of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) and phytotoxin implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (MV), originally isolated from diseased sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia L.), has bioherbicial activity against kudzu and several other weeds when applied with low concentrations of the surfactant Silwet L-77. Ultrastructural investigations of MV effe...

  7. Rapid determination of major bioactive isoflavonoid compounds during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Hailong; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2015-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed into an indispensable tool for both academic research and industrial quality control in a wide field of applications. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to monitor the concentration of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein and total isoflavonoid (TIF) during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) was verified in this work. NIR spectra were collected in transmission mode and pretreated with smoothing and derivative. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models. Three different variable selection methods, including correlation coefficient method, interval partial least squares (iPLS), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were performed and compared with models based on all of the variables. The results showed that the approach was very efficient and environmentally friendly for rapid determination of the four quality indices (QIs) in the kudzu extraction process. This method established may have the potential to be used as a process analytical technological (PAT) tool in the future.

  8. Effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on the expansion and size of kudzu (pueraria lobata) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sasek, T.W.; Strain, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    Seedlings of kudzu were grown at 350, 675, or 1000 ..mu..l/L CO/sub 2/ in controlled-environment chambers. At elevated CO/sub 2/ in controlled-environment chambers. At elevated CO/sub 2/ concentrations, maximum leaf expansion rates were approximately 40% greater, leaves were fully expanded several days sooner, fully expanded leaves were larger at each leaf position, and leaf production rates were increased 12%. Peak starch accumulation was much greater in plants grown at elevated CO/sub 2/ concentrations. Total xylem water potentials were higher (less negative) at full hydration, and osmotic potentials were decreased (more negative) by CO/sub 2/ enrichment. At 1000 ..mu..l/L CO/sub 2/, leaf trigger pressure was twice that at 350 ..mu..l/L CO/sub 2/. Results suggest that leaf expansion rates and leaf expansivity may have been increased due to higher trigger pressure at the higher CO/sub 2/ concentrations. The potential for successful seedling establishment may be enhanced as the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration continues to rise, increasing kudzu invasiveness.

  9. Thermal stability of kudzu root (Pueraria Radix) isoflavones as additives to beef patties.

    PubMed

    Kumari, S; Raines, J M; Martin, J M; Rodriguez, J M

    2015-03-01

    Kudzu root, Pueraria radix, extracts are a rich source of isoflavones. This study investigates the thermal stability of Pueraria radix extracts as a natural nutraceutical supplement in beef patties. The extract contained puerarin, diadzin, genistin, ononin, daidzein, glycitein, calycosin, genistein, formononetin and biochanin A; however, puerarin, daidzein and glycitein were the main components. The isoflavones concentrations in the spiked beef patties with kudzu root extracts were unaffected by cooking. PMID:25745227

  10. Molecular authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii by ITS and 5S rRNA spacer sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Fung, Kwok-Pui

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examined nuclear DNA sequences in an attempt to reveal the relationships between Pueraria lobata (Willd). Ohwi, P. thomsonii Benth., and P. montana (Lour.) Merr. We found that internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA are highly divergent in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, and four types of ITS with different length are found in the two species. On the other hand, DNA sequences of 5S rRNA gene spacer are highly conserved across multiple copies in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, they could be used to identify P. lobata, P. thomsonii, and P. montana of this complex, and may serve as a useful tool in medical authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii. PMID:17202681

  11. Ovularia puerariae Sawada is the hyphomycetous anamorph of a new Marasmius species on living leaves of kudzu (Pueraria montana, Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Roland; Lee, I-Shu; Chen, Chee-Jen

    2013-01-01

    An arthroconidial hyphomycete on living leaves of kudzu (Pueraria montana, Fabaceae), originally described by Sawada in 1959 as Ovularia puerariae, was rediscovered. This anamorph is connected to an unknown Marasmius teleomorph belonging to section Globulares, which develops on the same living leaves. Ultrastructure and LSU rDNA sequence analysis of the anamorph confirm this connection. The fungus does not have only a unique biology among agarics, comparable only to Mycena citricolor, but also has the potential for application as a control agent of kudzu. During comparison with similar anamorph genera, Illosporium graminicola was found to be a synonym for Beniowskia sphaeroidea. PMID:23360973

  12. An Alternative Pathway for Formononetin Biosynthesis in Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    The O-methylation is an important tailing process in Pueraria lobata isoflavone metabolism, but the molecular mechanism governing it remains not elucidated. This manuscript describes the mining of key O-methyltransferases (OMTs) involved in the process. Using our previously constructed P. lobata transcriptome, the OMT candidates were searched, extensively analyzed, and their functions were investigated by expression in yeast, Escherichia coli, or Glycine max hairy roots. Here, we report the identification of the key OMT gene responsible for formononetin production in P. lobata (designated as PlOMT9). PlOMT9 primarily functions as an isoflavone-specific 4'-O-methyltransferase, although it shows high sequence identities with isoflavone 7-O-methyltransferases. Moreover, unlike the previously reported OMTs that catalyze the 4'-O-methylation for formononetin biosynthesis at the isoflavanone stage, PlOMT9 performs this modifying step at the isoflavone level, using daidzein rather than 2,7,4'-trihydroxy-isoflavanone as the substrate. Gene expression analyses and metabolite profiling supported its proposed roles in P. lobata. Using the system of transgenic G. max hairy roots, the role of PlOMT9 in the biosynthesis of formononetin was further demonstrated in vivo. PMID:27379141

  13. An Alternative Pathway for Formononetin Biosynthesis in Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    The O-methylation is an important tailing process in Pueraria lobata isoflavone metabolism, but the molecular mechanism governing it remains not elucidated. This manuscript describes the mining of key O-methyltransferases (OMTs) involved in the process. Using our previously constructed P. lobata transcriptome, the OMT candidates were searched, extensively analyzed, and their functions were investigated by expression in yeast, Escherichia coli, or Glycine max hairy roots. Here, we report the identification of the key OMT gene responsible for formononetin production in P. lobata (designated as PlOMT9). PlOMT9 primarily functions as an isoflavone-specific 4′-O-methyltransferase, although it shows high sequence identities with isoflavone 7-O-methyltransferases. Moreover, unlike the previously reported OMTs that catalyze the 4′-O-methylation for formononetin biosynthesis at the isoflavanone stage, PlOMT9 performs this modifying step at the isoflavone level, using daidzein rather than 2,7,4′-trihydroxy-isoflavanone as the substrate. Gene expression analyses and metabolite profiling supported its proposed roles in P. lobata. Using the system of transgenic G. max hairy roots, the role of PlOMT9 in the biosynthesis of formononetin was further demonstrated in vivo. PMID:27379141

  14. Kudzu--Wonder Weed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is a high climbing, exceedingly vigorous vine with twining stems (no tendrils or aerial holdfasts). The plant, introduced from the Orient and currently found in southeastern United States, has been known to choke valuable strands of trees, short electrical wires, and even creep up the sides of high rise buildings. Although…

  15. Differentiating Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix using HPTLC coupled with multivariate classification analyses.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka H; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Li, Kong M; Li, George Q; Chan, Kelvin

    2014-07-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix (PLR), the root of Pueraria lobata, is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Puerariae Thomsonii Radix (PTR), the root of Pueraria thomsonii, is a closely related species to PLR and has been used as a PLR substitute in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to compare the classification accuracy of high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with that of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in differentiating PLR from PTR. The Matlab functions were used to facilitate the digitalisation and pre-processing of the HPTLC plates. Seven multivariate classification methods were evaluated for the two chromatographic methods. The results demonstrated that the HPTLC classification models were comparable to the UPLC classification models. In particular, k-nearest neighbours, partial least square-discriminant analysis, principal component analysis-discriminant analysis and support vector machine-discriminant analysis showed the highest rate of correct species classification, whilst the lowest classification rate was obtained from soft independent modelling of class analogy. In conclusion, HPTLC combined with multivariate analysis is a promising technique for the quality control and differentiation of PLR and PTR. PMID:24631955

  16. Transcriptomic landscape of Pueraria lobata demonstrates potential for phytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Han, Rongchun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi has a long and broad application in the treatment of disease. However, in the US and EU, it is treated as a notorious weed. The information to be gained from decoding the deep transcriptome profile would facilitate further research on P. lobata. In this study, more than 93 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina's next-generation sequencing approach using five types of P. lobata tissue, followed by CLC de novo assembly methods, ultimately yielding about 83,041 contigs in total. Then BLASTx similarity searches against the NCBI NR database and UniProtKB database were conducted. Once the duplicates among BLASTx hits were eliminated, ID mapping against the UniProt database was conducted online to retrieve Gene Ontology information. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential biosynthesis pathways, all 1,348 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Enzymes related to the isoflavonoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were focused for detailed investigation and subsequently, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted for biological validation. Metabolites of interest, puerarin and daidzin were studied by HPLC. The findings in this report may serve as a footstone for further research into this promising medicinal plant. PMID:26157443

  17. Kudzu Suppression by Herbicides in Two-Year Field trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicides are currently the principle means of halting the spread of kudzu (Pueraria montana var lobata) and reclaiming kudzu-infested lands. The efficacy of several herbicides on this invasive weed has been well-established, but these chemicals can be prohibitively expensive, come with significan...

  18. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) Invasion Doubles Emissions of Nitric Oxide, a Precursor to Tropospheric Ozone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, J. E.; Wu, S.; Mickley, L. J.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen-fixing plants can increase rates of nitrogen (N) cycling in soils, fluxes of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluxes of the ozone precursor nitric oxide (NO). Invasion by the nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) across millions of hectares in the southeastern United States could be contributing to increased ozone concentrations. Ozone formation in the Southeast is broadly limited by atmospheric NO concentrations, so perturbations to the N cycle by kudzu have the potential to increase ozone concentrations in the region. At three sites in Madison County, Georgia, kudzu invasion increased rates of net N mineralization by up to an order of magnitude and rates of net nitrification and soil pools of NO3- and NO2- by up to 500%. Emissions of NO from soils invaded by kudzu averaged 2.81 ng NO-N cm-2 h-1, significantly higher than emissions from soil dominated by native vegetation, which averaged 1.24 ng NO-N cm-2 h-1. Emissions of N2O display a trend towards increasing under kudzu invasion, but N2O emissions at these sites were three orders of magnitude smaller than emissions of NO. Atmospheric chemical modeling suggests that these higher NO emissions could increase ozone concentrations in the region by up to 2 ppb. We propose that kudzu invasion in the southeastern United States represents a novel threat to air quality and could increase the frequency with which federal ozone standards are exceeded.

  19. Interaction of the bioherbicide Myrothecium verrucarria and glyphosate for kudzu control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spore and mycelial formulations of the bioherbicidal fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (MV) were tested alone and in combination with glyphosate for control of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) under greenhouse and field conditions in naturally-infested sites at Lexington and Eden, MS. Control of kudzu increased...

  20. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Jonathan E; Wu, Shiliang; Mickley, Loretta J; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2010-06-01

    The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a widespread invasive plant in the southeastern United States with physiological traits that may lead to important impacts on ecosystems and the atmosphere. Its spread has the potential to raise ozone levels in the region by increasing nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils as a consequence of increasing nitrogen (N) inputs and cycling in soils. We studied the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia in 2007 and used the results to model the effects of kudzu invasion on regional air quality. We found that rates of net N mineralization increased by up to 1,000%, and net nitrification increased by up to 500% in invaded soils in Georgia. Nitric oxide emissions from invaded soils were more than 100% higher (2.81 vs. 1.24 ng NO-N cm(-2) h(-1)). We used the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate the potential impact of kudzu invasion on regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality. In an extreme scenario, extensive kudzu invasion leads directly to an increase in the number of high ozone events (above 70 ppb) of up to 7 days each summer in some areas, up from 10 to 20 days in a control scenario with no kudzu invasion. These results establish a quantitative link between a biological invasion and ozone formation and suggest that in this extreme scenario, kudzu invasion can overcome some of the air quality benefits of legislative control.

  1. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract. PMID:26677717

  2. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract.

  3. [Microscopic anatomy of abnormal structure in root tuber of Pueraria lobata].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hai-yan; Cheng, Ming-en; Peng, Hua-sheng; Zhang, He-ting; Zhao, Yu-jiao

    2015-11-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix, also known as Gegen, is a root derived from Pueraria lobata. Based on field investigation and the developmental anatomy of root tuber, we have elucidated the relationship between the growth of root tuber and the anomalous structure. The results of analysis showed that the root system of P. lobata was developed from seed and adventitious root and there existed root tuber, adventitious root and conductive root according to morphology and function. The root tuber was developed from adventitious root, its secondary structure conformed to the secondary structure of dicotyledon's root. With the development of root, the secondary phloem of root tuber appeared abnormal vascular tissue, which was distributed like ring in the outside of secondary vascular tissue. The root tuber might have 4-6 concentric circular permutation abnormal vascular tissuelobate, and was formed by the internal development of abnormal vascular tissue. The xylem and phloem of abnormal vascular tissue were the main body of the root tuber. The results reveal the abnormal anatomical structure development of P. lobata, also provides the theoretical basis for reasonable harvest medicinal parts and promoting sustainable utilization of resources of P. lobata.

  4. [Microscopic anatomy of abnormal structure in root tuber of Pueraria lobata].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hai-yan; Cheng, Ming-en; Peng, Hua-sheng; Zhang, He-ting; Zhao, Yu-jiao

    2015-11-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix, also known as Gegen, is a root derived from Pueraria lobata. Based on field investigation and the developmental anatomy of root tuber, we have elucidated the relationship between the growth of root tuber and the anomalous structure. The results of analysis showed that the root system of P. lobata was developed from seed and adventitious root and there existed root tuber, adventitious root and conductive root according to morphology and function. The root tuber was developed from adventitious root, its secondary structure conformed to the secondary structure of dicotyledon's root. With the development of root, the secondary phloem of root tuber appeared abnormal vascular tissue, which was distributed like ring in the outside of secondary vascular tissue. The root tuber might have 4-6 concentric circular permutation abnormal vascular tissuelobate, and was formed by the internal development of abnormal vascular tissue. The xylem and phloem of abnormal vascular tissue were the main body of the root tuber. The results reveal the abnormal anatomical structure development of P. lobata, also provides the theoretical basis for reasonable harvest medicinal parts and promoting sustainable utilization of resources of P. lobata. PMID:27097408

  5. Effect of invader litter chemistries on soil organic matter compositions: consequences of Polygonum cuspidatum and Pueraria lobata invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharayil, N.; Tamura, M.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon fixation during photosynthesis forms the precursor of all organic carbon in soil and the predominant source of energy that drives soil microbial processes; hence the molecular identity of the fixed carbon could influence the formation of soil organic matter (SOM). Due to their high resource acquisition and resource use efficiencies, some invasive plants can input disproportionately high quantities of litter that are qualitatively distinctive, and this could influence the accrual of organic carbon and overall carbon cycling in invaded habitats. Hence, we hypothesized that invasive plants with unique litter chemistries would significantly influence the overall carbon cycling in the invaded soils. We tested this hypothesis by comparing plants exhibiting recalcitrant vs. labile litter chemistries using japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) and kudzu (Pueraria lobata), respectively. Japanese knotweed produces low litter abundant in polyphenols which selectively hinders microbially mediated decomposition and re-synthesis; whereas kudzu produces low C:N, high quality litter that can stimulate microbial decomposition. Soil samples were collected at 5-cm intervals and from inside and outside 15 to 20 year old stands of the invasive species. The novelty of our study was that both of our study species were invading into soils of contrasting substrate qualities relative to the invading litter quality. The molecular composition of carbon in the soils and the degradation stage of the SOM were assessed with a biomarker approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the source of biomolecules (plant or microbes). Stability of SOM fractions was assessed through oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, serving as a proxy of biological degradation, followed by stable isotope analysis. Fungal communities dominated the uppermost soils under knotweed whereas kudzu litter suppressed fungal biomass in the top 10-cm. In constrast, increase in active microbial biomass C

  6. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B; Rawat, A K S

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods. PMID:23690842

  7. Nutrient consumption and production of isoflavones in bioreactor cultures of Pueraria lobata (Willd).

    PubMed

    Chen, G; Li, L

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports the successful culture of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) suspension cells in a bioreactor. In vitro culture of this Chinese herb has potential as an alternative production method for industrial applications. Calli of P. lobata obtained from leaf explants were cultured in a 5.0 L bioreactor for two weeks. During this period, the pH of the medium declined from 5.8 to 4.5. By the end of the run about 70% of the sugars and reducing sugars and about 50% of nitrate was consumed. Almost 70% of inorganic phosphate and about 80% of the iron was exhausted. The bioreactor results indicated an isoflavone yield of 328.9 microg/ml, with an increase of about 1.77 fold. The yield of puerarin increased about 2.42 fold and reached 73.4 microg/ml in the bioreactor culture. PMID:17915773

  8. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel Isoflavone 3'-O-methyltransferase from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate 3'-, 4'- and 7-O-methylated isoflavones and many of these methylated compounds exhibit various pharmacological activities. Either the 4'- or 7-O-methylation activity has been investigated at molecular levels in several legume species. However, the gene encoding the isoflavone 3'-O-methyltransferase (OMT) has not yet been isolated from any plant species. In this study, we reported the first cDNA encoding the isoflavone 3'-OMT from P. lobata (designated PlOMT4). Heterologous expressions in yeast and Escherichia coli cells showed that the gene product exhibits an enzyme activity to methylate the 3'-hydroxy group of the isoflavone substrate. The transcript abundance of PlOMT4 matches well with its enzymatic product in different organs of P. lobata and in the plant roots in response to methyl jasmonate elicitation. Integration of the biochemical with metabolic and transcript data supported the proposed function of PlOMT4. The identification of PlOMT4 would not only help to understand the isoflavonoid metabolism in P. lobata but also potentially provide an enzyme catalyst for methylating existing drug candidates to improve their hydrophobicity. PMID:27458460

  9. [Rapid discriminant analysis of sulfur fumigated Puerariae Lobatae Radix based on vertical and horizontal surfaces].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-sheng; Du, Min; Pan, Xiao-ning; Zhao, Na; Shi, Xin-yuan; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-06-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) was used as rapid analysis method to identify the sulfur fumigated Puerariae Lobatae Radix. NIR spectra of the cross-sectional and longitudinal selection of samples were acquired. Principal component analysis was conducted. The samples were randomly selected. The different pretreatment methods were compared. Discriminant models were established for every type of spectra to calculate the recognition rate. The orthogonal test and nonparametric test were used to test data normality. The result showed that absorbance values of different sections were different due to the different structure, and the raw spectra were analyzed by PCA method. The result founded that the cumulative contribution rate was arrived at 99.2% while the PC numbers were arrived at 3. The pretreatment method based on the MSC + 1D + Savitzky-Golay was the best to establish the model. For the 50 models constructed with cross-section and longitudinal spectra and total spectra, the recognition rate were (94.4 ± 0.66)%, (94.4 ± 0.66)%, (95.3 ± 0.65)%, respectively, and no difference was observed. The NIR method could be used to identify the sulfur fumigated Puerariae Lobatae Radix. PMID:26591520

  10. A novel and effective chromatographic approach to the separation of isoflavone derivatives from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiang; Jing, Wenguang; Wang, Weihao; Chen, Sha; Zhang, Jun; Liu, An

    2015-01-01

    A novel and effective chromatographic approach to the separation and purification of isoflavone compounds from Pueraria lobata is described. The method is based on flash chromatography (FC), coupled to preparative high performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) via a six-way valve. The FC step comprised tandem reversed phase columns, pre-packed with MCI gel (Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo, Japan) and C18 (Fuji Silysia Chemical Ltd, Osaka, Japan) resin, respectively, and was designed to separate a crude Pueraria lobata extract into several preliminary fractions. Fractions containing the target compounds were then directly injected via the six-way valve into prep-HPLC columns, without further treatment, for final isolation and purification. Nine isoflavonoids were successfully isolated, three through an online mode and the other six through an offline mode. The purities of all compounds exceeded 95.0%, as determined by HPLC with an UV-vis photodiode array detector. The convenience, low solvent consumption, and time-saving advantages of this method offer an attractive and promising approach to the isolation of natural products. PMID:25751785

  11. Rapid kudzu eradication and switchgrass establishment though herbicide, bioherbicide and integrated programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the most important and visible weeds in the Southeatern U.S. is the exotic invasive vine, kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata). Efforts to eradicate it typically involve many years of application of restricted-use pesticides. Recent availability of effective, non-restricted use pesticides and...

  12. Comparative susceptibility of kudzu accessions from Southeastern United States to infection by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first discovered in the United States (U.S.), in the fall of 2004. The potential for economic loss in the U.S. hinges largely on whether or not the pathogen can readily survive winters in the absence of soybean. Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata...

  13. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) community responses to herbicides, burning, and high-density loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect

    T.B. Harrington; L.T. Rader-Dixon; J.W. Taylor, Jr.

    2003-11-01

    Kudzu is an aggressive, nonnative vine that currently dominates an estimated 810,000 ha of mesic forest communities in the eastern United States. To test an integrated method of weed control, abundances of kudzu and other plant species were compared during 4 yr after six herbicide treatments (clopyralid, triclopyr, metsulfuron, picloram 1 2,4-D, tebuthiuron, and a nonsprayed check), in which loblolly pines were planted at three densities (0, 1, and 4 seedlings m22) to induce competition and potentially delay kudzu recovery. This split-plot design was replicated on each of the four kudzu-dominated sites near Aiken, SC. Relative light intensity (RLI) and soil water content (SWC) were measured periodically to identify mechanisms of interference among plant species. Two years after treatment (1999), crown coverage of kudzu averaged , 2% in herbicide plots compared with 93% in the nonsprayed check, and these differences were maintained through 2001, except in clopyralid plots where kudzu cover increased to 15%. In 2001, pine interference was associated with 33, 56, and 67% reductions in biomass of kudzu, blackberry, and herbaceous vegetation, respectively. RLI in kudzu-dominated plots (4 to 15% of full sun) generally was less than half that of herbicide-treated plots. SWC was greatest in tebuthiuron plots, where total vegetation cover averaged 26% compared with 77 to 111% in other plots. None of the treatments eradicated kudzu, but combinations of herbicides and induced pine competition delayed its recovery.

  14. Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and methotrexate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, H.-M.; Fang, S.-H.; Wen, K.-C.; Hsiu, S.-L.; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Hou, Y.-C.; Chi, Y.-C.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn . E-mail: pdlee@mail.cmu.edu.tw

    2005-12-15

    Isoflavone supplements are nowadays widely used as alternative for hormone replacement therapy. However, the safety remains unanswered. This study attempted to investigate the effect of Pueraria lobata root decoction (PLRD), an isoflavone-rich herb, on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX), a bicarboxylate antimetabolite with narrow therapeutic window. Rats were orally and intravenously given methotrexate alone and coadministered with PLRD. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time points after drug administration. Serum methotrexate concentrations were assayed by specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartment model of WINNONLIN for both oral and intravenous data of MTX. Our results showed that coadministration of 4.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg of PLRD significantly increased the AUC{sub 0-t} by 207.8% and 127.9%, prolonged the mean residence time (MRT) by 237.8 and 155.2%, respectively, finally resulted in surprisingly high mortalities of 57.1% and 14.3% in rats. When MTX was given intravenously, the coadministration of PLRD at 4.0 g/kg significantly increased the half-life by 53.9% and decreased the clearance by 47.9%. In conclusion, the coadministration of PLRD significantly decreased the elimination and resulted in markedly increased exposure of MTX in rats.

  15. Simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Cheng, Ling; Ji, Shen; Wang, Ke

    2014-09-01

    This work reported an efficient and accurate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins in Puerariae lobatae radix, a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The effects of four different clean-up methods, including TC-M160, TC-T220, Mycosep 227, and QuEChERS method, on the recoveries of mycotoxins were investigated and compared. Finally, TC-M160 was chosen for better recovery and repeatability for mycotoxins analysis. The analytes were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C18 column (4.6mm×250mm, 5μm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The separated compounds were detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results of method validation accorded with the requirement of analytical method for mycotoxins in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 401/2006. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of mycotoxins in seventeen batches of Puerariae lobatae radix collected from different provinces of China. Three batches of them were found with contamination of mycotoxins AFB1 at (0.751±0.176)μg/kg, T-2 at (1.10±0.01)μg/kg, and T-2 at (0.853±0.044)μg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for monitoring mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix.

  16. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel Isoflavone 3′-O-methyltransferase from Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate 3′-, 4′- and 7-O-methylated isoflavones and many of these methylated compounds exhibit various pharmacological activities. Either the 4′- or 7-O-methylation activity has been investigated at molecular levels in several legume species. However, the gene encoding the isoflavone 3′-O-methyltransferase (OMT) has not yet been isolated from any plant species. In this study, we reported the first cDNA encoding the isoflavone 3′-OMT from P. lobata (designated PlOMT4). Heterologous expressions in yeast and Escherichia coli cells showed that the gene product exhibits an enzyme activity to methylate the 3′-hydroxy group of the isoflavone substrate. The transcript abundance of PlOMT4 matches well with its enzymatic product in different organs of P. lobata and in the plant roots in response to methyl jasmonate elicitation. Integration of the biochemical with metabolic and transcript data supported the proposed function of PlOMT4. The identification of PlOMT4 would not only help to understand the isoflavonoid metabolism in P. lobata but also potentially provide an enzyme catalyst for methylating existing drug candidates to improve their hydrophobicity. PMID:27458460

  17. Regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana (kudzu) by cork pieces, XAD-4, and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Chang, Soo Chul; Warber, Sara; Bolling, Steven; Vardapetyan, Hrachik

    2006-12-01

    A mini-hydroponic growing system was employed for seedlings of kudzu vine (Pueraria montana) and contents of isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, daidzin, genistin, and puerarin) from shoot and root parts of seedlings were analyzed quantitatively. In addition, exogenous cork pieces, polymeric adsorbent, XAD-4, and universal elicitor, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), were used to regulate the production of these isoflavones. It was shown that cork pieces up-regulate the production of daidzein and genistein up to seven- and eight-fold greater than the levels obtained for control roots. In contrast, levels of glucosyl conjugates, daidzin and genistin, decrease up to five- and eight-fold, respectively. Cork treatment also induces the excretion of the root isoflavone constituents into the growth medium. Minimal levels of isoflavones are absorbed by the cork pieces. XAD-4 stimulates the production of glucosyl conjugates, daidzin and genistin, in root parts about 1.5-fold greater than that obtained in control roots. These are the highest amounts of daidzin and genistin that are observed (5.101 and 6.759 mg g(-1) dry weight, respectively). In contrast to these two adsorbents, MeJA increases the accumulation of isoflavones in shoot rather than in root parts of seedlings, about three- to four-fold over control levels, with the exception of genistein. These studies reveal new observations on the regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana plants by two adsorbents (cork pieces and XAD-4) and MeJA elicitor. PMID:16841218

  18. Regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana (kudzu) by cork pieces, XAD-4, and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Chang, Soo Chul; Warber, Sara; Bolling, Steven; Vardapetyan, Hrachik

    2006-12-01

    A mini-hydroponic growing system was employed for seedlings of kudzu vine (Pueraria montana) and contents of isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, daidzin, genistin, and puerarin) from shoot and root parts of seedlings were analyzed quantitatively. In addition, exogenous cork pieces, polymeric adsorbent, XAD-4, and universal elicitor, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), were used to regulate the production of these isoflavones. It was shown that cork pieces up-regulate the production of daidzein and genistein up to seven- and eight-fold greater than the levels obtained for control roots. In contrast, levels of glucosyl conjugates, daidzin and genistin, decrease up to five- and eight-fold, respectively. Cork treatment also induces the excretion of the root isoflavone constituents into the growth medium. Minimal levels of isoflavones are absorbed by the cork pieces. XAD-4 stimulates the production of glucosyl conjugates, daidzin and genistin, in root parts about 1.5-fold greater than that obtained in control roots. These are the highest amounts of daidzin and genistin that are observed (5.101 and 6.759 mg g(-1) dry weight, respectively). In contrast to these two adsorbents, MeJA increases the accumulation of isoflavones in shoot rather than in root parts of seedlings, about three- to four-fold over control levels, with the exception of genistein. These studies reveal new observations on the regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana plants by two adsorbents (cork pieces and XAD-4) and MeJA elicitor.

  19. Leaching and persistence of herbicides for kudzu (Pueraria montana) control on pine regeneration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Berisford, Yvette, C.; Bush, Parshall, B.; Taylor, John, W.

    2006-03-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens forests in the southeastern United States. It can climb, overtop, and subsequently kill new seedlings or mature trees. Herbicides are commonly used to control kudzu; however, eradication might require retreatment for 3 to 10 yr in young stands and 7 to 10 yr for mature stands. Clopyralid, picloram, triclopyr, metsulfuron, and tebuthiuron exert various degrees of control, depending on soil type, meteorological conditions, herbicide formulation, seasonal application, characteristics of the kudzu stand, and frequency and number of herbicide. Field residue data for soil or leachate are lacking for all of these herbicides when they are used in actual forest regeneration programs in the Coastal Plain. These data are needed to assess the relative potential for the herbicides to leach into groundwater or to move off-site into sensitive ecological areas of the Coastal Plain in which sandy soils predominate and the groundwater tends to be shallow. As part of an integrated pest management program to control kudzu on forest regeneration areas at the Savannah River Site near New Ellenton, SC, five herbicides were evaluated from the standpoints of herbicide leaching, kudzu control, and plant community development. Three herbicide chemical families were represented. This included pyridinecarboxylic acid herbicides (clopyralid, picloram 1 2,4-D, and triclopyr), a sulfonylurea herbicide (metsulfuron), and a substituted urea herbicide (tebuthiuron).

  20. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel (Iso)flavone 4',7-O-diglucoside Glucosyltransferase from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate a rich source of isoflavonoid glycosides, including 7-O- and 4'-O-mono-glucosides, and 4',7-O-diglucosides, which have numerous human health benefits. Although, isoflavonoid 7-O-glucosyltranferases (7-O-UGTs) have been well-characterized at molecular levels in legume plants, genes, or enzymes that are required for isoflavonoid 4'-O- and 4',7-O-glucosylation have not been identified in P. lobata to date. Especially for the 4',7-O-di-glucosylations, the genetic control for this tailing process has never been elucidated from any plant species. Through transcriptome mining, we describe here the identification and characterization of a novel UGT (designated PlUGT2) governing the isoflavonoid 4',7-O-di-glucosylations in P. lobata. Biochemical roles of PlUGT2 were assessed by in vitro assays with PlUGT2 protein produced in Escherichia coli and analyzed for its qualitative substrate specificity. PlUGT2 was active with various (iso)flavonoid acceptors, catalyzing consecutive glucosylation activities at their O-4' and O-7 positions. PlUGT2 was most active with genistein, a general isoflavone in legume plants. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PlUGT2 is preferentially transcribed in roots relative to other organs of P. lobata, which is coincident with the accumulation pattern of 4'-O-glucosides and 4',7-O-diglucosides in P. lobata. The identification of PlUGT2 would help to decipher the P. lobata isoflavonoid glucosylations in vivo and may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for an efficient biotransformation of isoflavones or other natural products for food or pharmacological purposes.

  1. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel (Iso)flavone 4',7-O-diglucoside Glucosyltransferase from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate a rich source of isoflavonoid glycosides, including 7-O- and 4'-O-mono-glucosides, and 4',7-O-diglucosides, which have numerous human health benefits. Although, isoflavonoid 7-O-glucosyltranferases (7-O-UGTs) have been well-characterized at molecular levels in legume plants, genes, or enzymes that are required for isoflavonoid 4'-O- and 4',7-O-glucosylation have not been identified in P. lobata to date. Especially for the 4',7-O-di-glucosylations, the genetic control for this tailing process has never been elucidated from any plant species. Through transcriptome mining, we describe here the identification and characterization of a novel UGT (designated PlUGT2) governing the isoflavonoid 4',7-O-di-glucosylations in P. lobata. Biochemical roles of PlUGT2 were assessed by in vitro assays with PlUGT2 protein produced in Escherichia coli and analyzed for its qualitative substrate specificity. PlUGT2 was active with various (iso)flavonoid acceptors, catalyzing consecutive glucosylation activities at their O-4' and O-7 positions. PlUGT2 was most active with genistein, a general isoflavone in legume plants. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PlUGT2 is preferentially transcribed in roots relative to other organs of P. lobata, which is coincident with the accumulation pattern of 4'-O-glucosides and 4',7-O-diglucosides in P. lobata. The identification of PlUGT2 would help to decipher the P. lobata isoflavonoid glucosylations in vivo and may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for an efficient biotransformation of isoflavones or other natural products for food or pharmacological purposes. PMID:27066037

  2. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel (Iso)flavone 4′,7-O-diglucoside Glucosyltransferase from Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate a rich source of isoflavonoid glycosides, including 7-O- and 4′-O-mono-glucosides, and 4′,7-O-diglucosides, which have numerous human health benefits. Although, isoflavonoid 7-O-glucosyltranferases (7-O-UGTs) have been well-characterized at molecular levels in legume plants, genes, or enzymes that are required for isoflavonoid 4′-O- and 4′,7-O-glucosylation have not been identified in P. lobata to date. Especially for the 4′,7-O-di-glucosylations, the genetic control for this tailing process has never been elucidated from any plant species. Through transcriptome mining, we describe here the identification and characterization of a novel UGT (designated PlUGT2) governing the isoflavonoid 4′,7-O-di-glucosylations in P. lobata. Biochemical roles of PlUGT2 were assessed by in vitro assays with PlUGT2 protein produced in Escherichia coli and analyzed for its qualitative substrate specificity. PlUGT2 was active with various (iso)flavonoid acceptors, catalyzing consecutive glucosylation activities at their O-4′ and O-7 positions. PlUGT2 was most active with genistein, a general isoflavone in legume plants. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PlUGT2 is preferentially transcribed in roots relative to other organs of P. lobata, which is coincident with the accumulation pattern of 4′-O-glucosides and 4′,7-O-diglucosides in P. lobata. The identification of PlUGT2 would help to decipher the P. lobata isoflavonoid glucosylations in vivo and may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for an efficient biotransformation of isoflavones or other natural products for food or pharmacological purposes. PMID:27066037

  3. Effects of Pueraria lobata Root Ethanol Extract on Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis During 3T3-L1 Differentiation into Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae Myoung; Yoon, Mi Sook; Kim, Young Chul

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effect of Pueraria lobata root ethanol extract (PLREE) on lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation to adipocytes by measuring the intracellular expression of adipogenic, lipogenic, and lipolytic markers and lipid accumulation. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of PLREE were 47 and 29 mg/g, respectively. The electron donating capacity of PLREE at 1,000 μg/mL was 48.8%. Treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with 100, 250, or 500 μg/mL PLREE for 8 days dose-dependently promoted the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. In contrast, the lipid content of PLREE-treated cells was significantly reduced by 7.8% (p < 0.05), 35.6% (p < 0.001), and 42.2% (p < 0.001) following treatment with 100, 250, and 500 μg/mL PLREE, respectively, as compared to differentiated control cells. PLREE upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA and protein, and sterol regulator element-binding protein-1c mRNA levels, but did not affect CCAAT/enhancer binding-protein β and α mRNA levels. PLREE also downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA and protein, fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein, and leptin mRNA levels, but did not affect FAS mRNA expression. PLREE upregulated adipose triglyceride lipase mRNA and protein expression, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression, but did not affect HSL mRNA expression. In conclusion, we found that PLREE enhanced adipogenesis, but reduced lipogenesis, resulting in decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:26191386

  4. The Effect of Pueraria Lobata/Rehmannia Glutinosa and Exercise on Fatty Acid Transporters Expression in Ovariectomized Rats Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Jin; Yoon, Hae Min; Kwon, Oran; Lee, Won Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Pueraria lobata/rehmannia glutinosa (PR) and exercise have been receiving a lot of attention from postmenopausal women, as a result of the side effects of estrogen replacement therapy. However, the effects of PR and exercise on fatty acid transporters (FATPs), which play essential role in fatty acid transport, have not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PR and aerobic exercise on FATP1, FABPpm and FAT/CD36 expression in ovariectomized rat skeletal muscles. [Methods] Sixty rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: (1)HSV; high fat diet (HFD)+sedentary+vehicle, (2)HSP; HFD+sedentary+PR, (3)HSH; HFD+sedentary+17β-estradiol, (4)HEV; HFD+exercise+vehicle, (5) HEP; HFD+exercise+PR, (6)HEH; HFD+exercise+17β-estradiol. Exercise consisted of treadmill exercise (1-4th week: 15 m/min for 30 min, 5-8th week: 18 m/min for 40 min, 5 times/week). [Results] Exercise does not alter FATP1 and FAT/CD36 gene levels in soleus and plantaris muscles. In contrast, exercise had main effect on up-regulation of FABPpm mRNA expression in both muscles. However, FABPpm level was not increased by exercise combined with treatments, indicative of no additive effects of PR or hormone on FABPpm gene expression. On the other hand, immunohistochemistry result showed that translocation of FATPs proteins to plasma membrane were higher in PR, exercise groups, and exercise combined with PR groups in both muscles. [Conclusion] These result showed that aerobic exercise and PR may help increase fat-oxidation through the induction of FABPpm, a muscle specific transporter, in OVX rat skeletal muscles. In addition, FABPpm expression is possibly regulated post-transcriptionally in exercise, or pre-translationally in PR. PMID:27757385

  5. The biology and preliminary host range of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) and its impact on kudzu growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Hanula, James L; Horn, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (F.), recently was discovered in the United States feeding on kudzu, Pueraria montana Lour. (Merr.) variety lobata (Willd.), an economically important invasive vine. We studied its biology on kudzu and its impact on kudzu growth. We also tested its ability to use other common forest legumes for oviposition and development. Flight intercept traps operated from 17 May 2010 to 31 May 2011 in a kudzu field near Athens, GA showed three peaks of adult flight activity suggesting there are two generations per year on kudzu. Vine samples examined for eggs from April 2010 to April 2011 and June to October 2011 showed two periods of oviposition activity in 2010, which coincided with the peaks in adult activity. In 2011, the second period of oviposition began on or before 24 June and then egg abundance declined gradually thereafter until late August when we recovered <2 eggs/0.5 m of vine. Samples of the five nymphal instars and adults on vines did not show similar trends in abundance. Adults did not lay eggs on the various legume species tested in 2010 in a no-choice test possibly because the cages were too small. In the 2011 field host range experiments conducted in a kudzu field by using 12 legume species, M. cribraria preferentially oviposited on kudzu over soybean, Glycine max Merrill., but they still laid 320 eggs per plant on soybean. Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem. and Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don had 122.2 and 108.4 eggs per plant, respectively. Kudzu and soybean were the only species M. cribraria completed development on. Plots protected from M. cribraria feeding by biweekly insecticide applications had 32.8% more kudzu biomass than unprotected plots. Our results show that M. cribraria has a significant impact on kudzu growth and could help suppress this pest weed. PMID:22525058

  6. Production of puerarin and isoflavones in cell suspension cultures of Pueraria lobata (Willd.): effects of medium supplementation with casein hydrolysate and coconut milk.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Zhang, C R

    2006-01-01

    Callus induced from leaf explants of Pueraria lobata seedlings were suspended in Gamborg B5 medium supplemented with 1 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1 mg l(-1) naphthalene acetic acid, 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin and 30 g l(-1) sucrose. The effects of coconut milk and casein hydrolysate (CH) on cell growth and yields of puerarin and isoflavones in cells suspension were studied. The contents of total isoflavones and puerarin in suspension cultures were determined by spectrophotometry and HPLC. Coconut milk (10%, filter sterilized) decreased the growth of cell cultures and the accumulation of total isoflavones, while 0.2% CH promoted the growth of cell cultures and the accumulation and release of puerarin and total isoflavones. The total yield of puerarin and isoflavones were 34% and 40.8% higher than in the control, respectively. The optimum medium for cell cultures of leaves of P. lobata seedlings was B5 liquid medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 1.0 mg l(-1) 2,4-D, 1.0 mg l(-1) NAA, 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin and 20 mg l(-1) CH. The procedure use is a potentially useful for the production of isoflavones. PMID:16850870

  7. Screening and identification of BSA bound ligands from Puerariae lobata flower by BSA functionalized Fe₃O₄ magnetic nanoparticles coupled with HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangliang; Ma, Yongjian; Chen, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Xiang; Shi, Shuyun

    2012-03-01

    Puerariae lobata flower (Willdenow) has a long history used to treat alcoholic intoxication in China, which contains a series of isoflavones as its chief pharmacologically active constituents. In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA) functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄ MNPs) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) were used to screen and identify active compounds from ethanolic extract of P. lobata flower. Thirteen active isoflavones were screened and identified as glycitin (1), tectoridin (2), daidzin (3), 3'-methoxy daidzin (4), ononin (5), 3'-hydroxyl daidzein (6), tectorigenin (7), biochanin A (8), prunetin (9), genistein (10), 3'-methoxy daidzein (11), irisolidone (12) and 5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyisoflavone (13), while compounds 4, 6, 9, 11 and 13 were identified from this plant for the first time. Furthermore, the activity of each bound ligand was evaluated on-line. The results indicated that the binding affinities of compounds with BSA were highly dependent on chemical structures and the methoxylation and hydroxylation on B-ring could improve the activity. The effective method could be widely applied for rapid screening and identification of active compounds from complex mixtures. PMID:22305973

  8. Parsing polyphyletic Pueraria: Delimiting distinct evolutionary lineages through phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Egan, Ashley N; Vatanparast, Mohammad; Cagle, William

    2016-11-01

    Several taxonomic and phylogenetic studies have hypothesized polyphyly within Pueraria DC., a genus comprising 19 species (24 with varieties) including the highly invasive Pueraria montana var. lobata (Kudzu) introduced to the U.S.A. about 150years ago. Previous efforts to investigate monophyly of the genus have been hampered by limited taxon sampling or a lack of comprehensive evolutionary context that would enable definitive taxonomic associations. This work presents a comprehensive phylogenetic investigation of Pueraria within the context of tribe Phaseoleae (Leguminosae). Polyphyly was found to be more extensive than previously thought, with five distinct lineages spread across the tribe and spanning over 25mya of divergence strongly supported by two chloroplast and one nuclear marker, AS2, presented here as a phylogenetic marker for the first time. Our phylogenies support taxonomic revisions to rectify polyphyly within Pueraria, including the resurrection of Neustanthus, moving one species to Teyleria, and the creation of two new genera, Haymondia and Toxicopueraria (taxonomic revisions published elsewhere). PMID:27495827

  9. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. PMID:26319677

  10. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  11. Rapid Determination of Puerarin by Near-infrared Spectroscopy During Percolation and Concentration Process of Puerariae Lobatae Radix

    PubMed Central

    Jintao, Xue; Quanwei, Yang; Yun, Jing; Yufei, Liu; Chunyan, Li; Jing, Yang; Yanfang, Wu; Peng, Li; Guangrui, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gegen (Puerariae Labatae Radix) is one of the important medicines in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The studies showed that Gegen and its preparation had effective actions for atherosclerosis. Objective: Near-infrared (NIR) was used to develop a method for rapid determination of puerarin during percolation and concentration process of Gegen. Materials and Methods: About ten batches of samples were collected with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis values as reference, calibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression, and artificial neural networks (ANN) as nonlinear regression. Results: The root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Conclusions: The NIR model for the rapid analysis of puerarin can be used for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process. SUMMARY Near-infrared was used to develop a method for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process of GegenCalibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression and artificial neural networks (ANN) as non-linear regressionThe root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Abbreviations used: NIR: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy; Gegen: Puerariae Loabatae Radix; TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine; PLS: Partial least-squares; ANN: Artificial neural networks; RMSEP: Root mean square error of validation; R2: Correlation coefficients; PAT: Process analytical technology; FDA: The Food and Drug Administration; Rcal: Calibration set; RMSECV: Root mean square errors of cross-validation; RPD: Residual predictive deviation; SLS: Straight Line Subtraction; MLP: Multi-Layer Perceptron; MSE: Mean square error. PMID:27601848

  12. Relevance of the Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Puerariae lobatae Radix to Aggregation of Multi-Component Molecules in Aqueous Decoctions.

    PubMed

    Su, Bili; Kan, Yongjun; Xie, Jianwei; Hu, Juan; Pang, Wensheng

    2016-06-28

    The complexity of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is related to their multi-component system. TCM aqueous decoction is a common clinical oral formulation. Between molecules in solution, there exist intermolecular strong interactions to form chemical bonds or weak non-bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces, which hold molecules together to form "molecular aggregates". Taking the TCM Puerariae lobatae Radix (Gegen) as an example, we explored four Gegen decoctions of different concentration of 0.019, 0.038, 0.075, and 0.30 g/mL, named G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4. In order of molecular aggregate size (diameter) the four kinds of solution were ranked G-1 < G-2 < G-3 < G-4 by Flow Cell 200S IPAC image analysis. A rabbit vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency (VBI) model was set up and they were given Gegen decoction (GGD) at a clinical dosage of 0.82 g/kg (achieved by adjusting the gastric perfusion volume depending on the concentration). The HPLC fingerprint of rabbit plasma showed that the chemical component absorption into blood in order of peak area values was G-1 < G-2 > G-3 > G-4. Puerarin and daidzin are the major constituents of Gegen, and the pharmacokinetics of G-1 and G-2 puerarin conformed with the two compartment open model, while for G-3 and G-4, they conformed to a one compartment open model. For all four GGDs the pharmacokinetics of daidzin complied with a one compartment open model. FQ-PCR assays of rabbits' vertebrobasilar arterial tissue were performed to determine the pharmacodynamic profiles of the four GGDs. GGD markedly lowered the level of AT₁R mRNA, while the AT₂R mRNA level was increased significantly vs. the VBI model, and G-2 was the most effective. In theory the dosage was equal to the blood drug concentration and should be consistent; however, the formation of molecular aggregates affects drug absorption and metabolism, and therefore influences drugs' effects. Our data provided references for the rational use

  13. Dual high-resolution α-glucosidase and radical scavenging profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for identification of minor and major constituents directly from the crude extract of Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingrui; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Qinglei, Sun; Nyberg, Nils T; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2015-02-27

    The crude methanol extract of Pueraria lobata was investigated by dual high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition and radical scavenging profiling combined with hyphenated HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. Direct analysis of the crude extract without preceding purification was facilitated by combining chromatograms from two analytical-scale HPLC separations of 120 and 600 μg on-column, respectively. High-resolution α-glucosidase and radical scavenging profiles were obtained after microfractionation of the eluate in 96-well microplates. This allowed full bioactivity profiling of individual peaks in the HPLC chromatogram of the crude methanol extract. Subsequent HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR analysis allowed identification of 21 known compounds in addition to two new compounds, i.e., 3'-methoxydaidzein 8-C-[α-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside and 6″-O-malonyl-3'-methoxydaidzin, as well as an unstable compound tentatively identified as 3'-de-O-methylpuerariafuran. PMID:25679337

  14. Light and CO sub 2 effects on photosynthesis and growth in Kudzu

    SciTech Connect

    Schweder, M.; Bowes, G. ); Cure, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata Willd.) was grown for 28 days under four permutations of light (1,500 or 450 {mu}mol quanta m{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}) and CO{sub 2} (700 or 350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}). Total biomass and leaf area were up to 55% and 52% respectively greater in the high CO{sub 2} treatments. When measured at the growth CO{sub 2} concentration, photosynthetic rates showed little reduction over the 28 day period, and remained up to 29% higher in the high CO{sub 2} treatments. Under high light, soluble protein was 27% greater in the plants grown at high CO{sub 2}. Neither light nor CO{sub 2} had a significant effect on the initial or total rubisco activities. However, phosphoribulokinase activity was decreased under the high CO{sub 2} treatments. These data indicate that photosynthesis in kudzu shows little acclimation when grown at elevated CO{sub 2}.

  15. Impact of kudzu and puerarin on sperm function.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sandra L; Lackey, Brett R; Boone, William R

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of kudzu (Pueraria mirifica) and the isoflavone puerarin in functional toxicological tests on spermatozoa and to assess the affinity of extracts and pure isoflavones for estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and -beta (ERα, ERβ) in receptor binding assays. Capacitation, acrosome reaction and chromatin decondensation in spermatozoa were analyzed using microscopic analysis. Kudzu, but not puerarin, reduced motility of sperm. Puerarin reduced the percent spontaneous acrosome reaction in spermatozoa. The pathways used by kudzu that affect sperm function are not fully mirrored by puerarin. Puerarin, kudzu and its other phytoestrogenic components displayed preferential affinity for ERβ, however the diverse effects of kudzu and puerarin on sperm function implicate the involvement of multiple signaling systems. PMID:25828059

  16. Fermented Pueraria Lobata extract ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and recovering intestinal barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seungho; Woo, Jong-Kyu; Jang, Yeong-Su; Kang, Ju-Hee; Jang, Jung-Eun; Yi, Tae-Hoo; Park, Sang-Yong; Kim, Sun-Yeou; Yoon, Yeo-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder occurring in the gastrointestinal track. However, the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies has been limited and accompanied by side effects. In order to eliminate the limitations, herbal medicines have recently been developed for treatment of IBD. Peuraria Lobata (Peuraria L.) is one of the traditional herbal medicines that have anti-inflammatory effects. Bioavailability of Peuraria L., which is rich in isoflavones, is lower than that of their fermented forms. In this study, we generated fermented Peuraria L. extracts (fPue) and investigated the role of fPue in inflammation and intestinal barrier function in vitro and in vivo. As the mice or intestinal epithelial cells were treated with DSS/fPue, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was reduced and the architecture and expression of tight junction proteins were recovered, compared to the DSS-treated group. In summary, fPue treatment resulted in amelioration of DSS-induced inflammation in the colon, and the disrupted intestinal barrier was recovered as the expression and architecture of tight junction proteins were retrieved. These results suggest that use of fPue could be a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of IBD. PMID:27729931

  17. Effects of Puerariae Radix Extract on Endotoxin Receptors and TNF-α Expression Induced by Gut-Derived Endotoxin in Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing-Hua; Cui, Tuan; Sun, Zhao-Lin; Huang, Fu; Chen, Liang; Xu, Lin; Feng, Qin; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is one of the earliest medicinal plants used to treat alcohol abuse in traditional Chinese medicine for more than a millennium. However, little is known about its effects on chronic alcoholic liver injury. Therefore, the present study observed the effects of puerariae radix extract (RPE) on chronic alcoholic liver injury as well as Kupffer cells (KCs) activation to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induced by gut-derived endotoxin in rats and macrophage cell line. RPE was observed to alleviate the pathological changes and lipids deposition in liver tissues as well as the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity. Meanwhile, RPE inhibited KCs activation and subsequent hepatic TNF-α expression and downregulated the protein expression of endotoxin receptors, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), CD14, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, and TLR4 in chronic alcohol intake rats. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed that RPE inhibited the expression of TNF-α and endotoxin receptors, CD14 and TLR4, induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that RPE mitigated liver damage and lipid deposition induced by chronic alcohol intake in rats, as well as TNF-α release, protein expression of endotoxin receptors in vivo or in vitro. PMID:23133491

  18. Natural and human dimensions of a quasi-wild species: The case of kudzu

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Z.; Dong, Q.; Albright, T.P.; Guo, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The human dimensions of biotic invasion are generally poorly understood, even among the most familiar invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.) is a prominent invasive plant and an example of quasi-wild species, which has experienced repeated introduction, cultivation, and escape back to the wild. Here, we review a large body of primary scientific and historic records spanning thousands of years to characterize the complex relationships among kudzu, its natural enemies, and humans, and provide a synthesis and conceptual model relevant to the ecology and management of quasi-wild invasive species. We documented over 350, mostly insect, natural enemy species and their impacts on kudzu in its native East Asian range. These natural enemies play a minor role in limiting kudzu in its native range, rarely generating severe impacts on populations of wild kudzu. We identified a number of significant influences of humans including dispersal, diverse cultural selection, and facilitation through disturbances, which catalyzed the expansion and exuberance of kudzu. On the other hand, harvest by humans appears to be the major control mechanism in its native areas. Humans thus have a complex relationship with kudzu. They have acted as both friend and foe, affecting the distribution and abundance of kudzu in ways that vary across its range and over time. Our conceptual model of kudzu emphasizes the importance of multiple human dimensions in shaping the biogeography of a species and illustrates how kudzu and other quasi-wild species are more likely to be successful invaders. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.(outside the USA).

  19. Evolution of the Isoprene Biosynthetic Pathway in Kudzu1[w

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Thomas D.; Yeh, Sansun; Wiberley, Amy E.; Falbel, Tanya G.; Gong, Deming; Fernandez, Donna E.

    2005-01-01

    Isoprene synthase converts dimethylallyl diphosphate, derived from the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, to isoprene. Isoprene is made by some plants in substantial amounts, which affects atmospheric chemistry, while other plants make no isoprene. As part of our long-term study of isoprene synthesis, the genetics of the isoprene biosynthetic pathway of the isoprene emitter, kudzu (Pueraria montana), was compared with similar genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which does not make isoprene. The MEP pathway genes in kudzu were similar to the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. Isoprene synthase genes of kudzu and aspen (Populus tremuloides) were cloned to compare their divergence with the divergence seen in MEP pathway genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the terpene synthase gene family indicated that isoprene synthases are either within the monoterpene synthase clade or sister to it. In Arabidopsis, the gene most similar to isoprene synthase is a myrcene/ocimene (acyclic monoterpenes) synthase. Two phenylalanine residues found exclusively in isoprene synthases make the active site smaller than other terpene synthase enzymes, possibly conferring specificity for the five-carbon substrate rather than precursors of the larger isoprenoids. Expression of the kudzu isoprene synthase gene in Arabidopsis caused Arabidopsis to emit isoprene, indicating that whether or not a plant emits isoprene depends on whether or not it has a terpene synthase capable of using dimethylallyl diphosphate. PMID:15653811

  20. Kudzu response to foliar applied herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical control is presently the most cost-effective means to control kudzu, however, many of the herbicides labeled for kudzu control have substantial non-target toxicity, poor selectivity, high cost, long soil persistence, high soil mobility and / or high use rates. The present study evaluated ot...

  1. Towards Biological Control of Kudzu Through an Improved Understanding of Insect-Kudzu Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, D.; Barber, G.; DeBarr, G.; Thornton, M.

    2001-08-03

    The authors evaluated various approaches to the biological control of kudzu and exotic weed that infests the SRS. A large number of native pollinators were found to be attracted to kudzu. The viability of seed was found to be low, between 2% and 11%. This is the result of native Hemiptera. The results suggest that seed feeding insects should not be targeted for importation. Both kudzu and soybeans had the same level of abundance and diversity of herbivore insects and the same levels of defoliation. No vine or root damaging species were found. Efforts should be targeted to the latter insects to control kudzu.

  2. The Crude Extract from Puerariae Flower Exerts Antiobesity and Antifatty Liver Effects in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Sameshima-Kamiya, Mayu; Nagamine, Rika; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Shimada, Tsutomu; Aburada, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu, a leguminous plant, has long been used in folk medicine. In particular, its flowers are used in Japanese and Chinese folk medicine for treating hangovers. We focused on the flower of Kudzu (Puerariae thomsonii), and we previously reported the antiobesity effect of Puerariae thomsonii flower extract (PFE) in humans. In this study, we conducted an animal study to investigate the effect of PFE on visceral fat and hepatic lipid levels in mice with diet-induced obesity. In addition, we focused on gene expression profiles to investigate the antiobesity mechanism of PFE. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or an HFD supplemented with 5% PFE for 14 days. PFE supplementation significantly reduced body weight and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight. Moreover, in the histological analysis, PFE supplementation improved fatty liver. Hepatic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that PFE supplementation downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression. For adipose tissue, the expressions of hormone-sensitive lipase in WAT and uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) were significantly upregulated. These results suggest that PFE exerts antiobesity and antifatty liver effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice through suppressing lipogenesis in the liver, stimulating lipolysis in WAT, and promoting thermogenesis in BAT. PMID:22685484

  3. Interactions of Quinclorac with a bioherbicidal strain of Myrothecium verrucaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our laboratory, the fungus, Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (IMI Accession No. 3601690) (MV), is being developed as a bioherbicide for kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi] and other invasive weeds. We have found that spore and mycelial formulations of MV exhibit relatively rapid bioher...

  4. Puerarin, isolated from Pueraria lobata (Willd.), protects against diabetic nephropathy by attenuating oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Zheng, Ni; Chen, Zhaoni; Huang, Wansu; Liang, Tao; Kuang, Hai

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of puerarin (PR) on diabetic nephropathy (DN) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr), as well as 24-hour urine protein levels were effectively ameliorated in DN mice treated with PR (20, 40, 80mg/kg/day). Furthermore, PR treatment markedly resulted in down-regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in kidney. Interestingly, the activities of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased by PR. An improvement in kidney tissue damage could be observed after PR administration. Further ultrastructural investigation revealed a dramatically ameliorative effect of PR on mitochondrial damage. Meanwhile, the silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and alpha subunit of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) expressions were significantly up-regulated at protein level by PR administration in renal cortex. However, the protein expression of nuclear-factor kappa B (NF-κB) was down-regulated in PR groups. Our present study demonstrates the hypoglycemic and renal protective effects of PR in DN mice, which support its anti-diabetic property. PR exerts its renal protection effect probably via the mechanism of attenuating SIRT1/FOXO1 pathway for renal protection. PMID:27317894

  5. Population census of Megacopta cribraria in kudzu in Georgia, USA, 2013-2016

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kudzu bug populations, predators, and parasitoid and fungal infection rates in 7 kudzu patches were censused from 2013 through 2016 in north-central and southern Georgia. Within these sites, the terminal growth where most eggs are oviposited of 25 randomly selected kudzu vines at the patch edge, fr...

  6. Water stress, temperature, and light effects on isoprene emission and photosynthesis of Kudzu leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, T.D.; Loreto, F. )

    1993-05-01

    Kudzu (Pueraia lobata (Willd) Ohwi.) emits isoprene, a hydrocarbon which can significantly affect atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene emission under standard conditions of 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1] and 30[degrees]C developed only after the leaf bad reached full expansion and was not maximal until up to two weeks past the point of full expansion of the leaf. Isoprene emission from kudzu was stimulated by increases in temperature and photon flux density (up to 3000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]s[sup [minus]1]). For unstressed plants, 20 % of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis was reemitted as isoprene at 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1]. Following the relief of water stress, photosynthesis recovered to the prestress rate but isoprene emission increased up to five times the prestress rate. At 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1] and 35[degrees]C, 67% of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis was reemitted as isoprene eight days after water stress. For some leaves the rate of isoprene emission exceeded 500 nmol[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1], substantially higher than ever reported before. Leaves of plants grown at less than 20[degrees]C did not make isoprene until an inductive treatment was given. Withholding water from plants or keeping leaves at 30[degrees]C induced isoprene emission. The observation of rapid and dramatic changes in the rate of isoprene emission from leaves in response to water stress and temperature may indicate that isoprene emission improves the ability of plants to cope with these conditions. With the new information on temperature and water stress effects on isoprene emission we speculate on possible reasons for isoprene emission from plants.

  7. Comparative Feeding and Development of Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera Noctuidae) on Kudzu and Soybean Foliage

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, K.A.; Orr, D.B.

    2000-04-10

    Kudzu is a close relative of soybean and is a widely distributed exotic weed in the southern U.S. The biology of the soybean looper was studied to better understand the foraging behavior of this species on kudzu. Insects feeding on kudzu had higher mortality, longer development and lower pupal weights than those fed on soybean. Foliage consumption did not differ between treatments and nutritional quality between soybean and kudzu did not differ. In an oviposition test, females readily used kudzu if it was the only species available, but when soybean was provided more eggs were deposited on soybean.

  8. A new isoflavone glycoside from Pueraria alopecuroides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junlin; Fan, Qingfei; Zhang, Huanli; Song, Qishi

    2016-01-01

    A new isoflavone glycoside, (-)-tuberosin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), along with 10 known compounds 1a-10, was isolated from Pueraria alopecuroides. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS. These compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:26525177

  9. Preparation of monomeric and polymeric β-cyclodextrin functionalized monoliths for rapid isolation and purification of puerarin from Radix puerariae.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yongqin; Hughes, Timothy C; Hao, Xiaojuan; Mei, Danping; Tan, Tianwei

    2011-08-01

    Monomeric and epichlorohydrin polymerized β-CD functionalized monoliths were prepared for the rapid isolation and purification of the isoflavonoid puerarin, a well-known traditional Chinese drug, from a crude extract of Radix puerariae (root of the plant Pueraria lobata). Two copolymers poly(isocyanatoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(IEM-co-MMA-co-EDMA)) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-EDMA) (poly(GMA-co-EDMA)) were developed as facile, highly reactive and versatile monolithic matrix. SEM characterization demonstrated that the modified monoliths had homogenous porous structure and morphology. The success of the chemical modification of the monolithic matrix was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), solid-state (13) C NMR and elemental analysis. It was demonstrated that polymeric β-CD modified monoliths had better separation and selectivity for puerarin, recovering puerarin with a purity of 96% (m%) and a yield of 93% (m%). Compared with poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-EDMA), poly(isocyanatoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co-EDMA) monolithic matrix had higher reactivity, which significantly improved the β-CD ligand density and thus the selectivity of the monoliths. Puerarin with a purity of 96% (m%) and with a yield of 89% (m%) was recovered on the monolith.

  10. Management of kudzu by the bioherbicide, Myrothecium verrucaria, herbicides and integrated control programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replicated field plots were established and monitored for two years to evaluate management practices for kudzu. The bioherbical plant pathogen, Myrothecium verrucaria, several herbicides and a variety of integrated control programs achieved a high level of kudzu suppression, although no system test...

  11. A comparative survey of leguminous plants as sources of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein: implications for human nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, P B; Duke, J A; Brielmann, H; Boik, J; Hoyt, J E

    1997-01-01

    Over 80 taxa of mostly agriculturally important legumes were surveyed as sources of the metabolites, genistein and daidzein. Remarkably high concentrations (over 2 g.kg-1 dry weight) of the anticancer metabolite, genistein, were found in the leaves of Psoralea corylifolia (Indian bread root). All other legumes, with the exception of fermented soybean miso, had genistein levels < 400 mg.kg-1 dry weight. Concentrations of over 1 g.kg-1 dry weight and 0.95 g.kg-1 dry weight of the anticancer metabolite, daidzein, were found in the stems of the fava bean (Vicia faba) and roots of kudzu vine (Pueraria lobata), respectively. From this survey, our results indicate that the legumes, lupine (Lupinus spp.), fava bean, (Vicia faba), soybeans (Glycine max), kudzu (Pueraria lobata), and psoralea (Psoralea corylifolia), are excellent food sources for both genistein and daidzein. Miso, a fermented soybean product, is also a rich source of both isoflavones.

  12. A comparative survey of leguminous plants as sources of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein: implications for human nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, P B; Duke, J A; Brielmann, H; Boik, J; Hoyt, J E

    1997-01-01

    Over 80 taxa of mostly agriculturally important legumes were surveyed as sources of the metabolites, genistein and daidzein. Remarkably high concentrations (over 2 g.kg-1 dry weight) of the anticancer metabolite, genistein, were found in the leaves of Psoralea corylifolia (Indian bread root). All other legumes, with the exception of fermented soybean miso, had genistein levels < 400 mg.kg-1 dry weight. Concentrations of over 1 g.kg-1 dry weight and 0.95 g.kg-1 dry weight of the anticancer metabolite, daidzein, were found in the stems of the fava bean (Vicia faba) and roots of kudzu vine (Pueraria lobata), respectively. From this survey, our results indicate that the legumes, lupine (Lupinus spp.), fava bean, (Vicia faba), soybeans (Glycine max), kudzu (Pueraria lobata), and psoralea (Psoralea corylifolia), are excellent food sources for both genistein and daidzein. Miso, a fermented soybean product, is also a rich source of both isoflavones. PMID:9395689

  13. ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF Sida retusa, Urena lobata AND Triumfetta rhomboidea.

    PubMed

    Lissy, K P; Simon, Thara K; Lathab, M S

    2006-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Sida retusa Linn.(Malvaceae),Urena lobata Linn.(Malvaceae)and Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.(Teliaceae) roots were found to inhibit lipid peroxidation, scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The quantity of S.retusa root extract required for 50% inhibition of lipid peroxidation, scavenging hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical was 1130.24 ug/ml respectively. IC 50 of root extract of U.lobata was 470.60 ug/ml, 1627.35ug/ml and 1109.24 ug/ml for superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation respectively. T.rhomboidea root extract required for IC 50 was 336.65 ug/ml, 1346.03 ug/ml and 1004.22 ug/ml for superoxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation respectively. The present investigation indicated that S. retusa, U.lobata and T.rhomboidea possessed significant antioxidant activity.

  14. Chronic dietary kudzu isoflavones improve components of metabolic syndrome in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ning; Prasain, Jeevan K; Dai, Yanying; Moore, Ray; Arabshahi, Alireza; Barnes, Stephen; Carlson, Scott; Wyss, J Michael

    2009-08-26

    The present study tested the long-term effects of dietary kudzu root extract supplementation on the regulation of arterial pressure, plasma glucose, and circulating cholesterol in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SP-SHR). Female SP-SHR were maintained for 2 months on a polyphenol-free diet, with or without the addition of 0.2% kudzu root extract. Half of the rats in each diet group were ovariectomized, whereas the other half remained intact. Following 2 months on the diets, the 0.2% kudzu root extract supplementation (compared to control diet) significantly lowered arterial pressure (11-15 mmHg), plasma cholesterol, fasting blood glucose (20-30%), and fasting plasma insulin in both the ovariectomized and intact SP-SHR. These results indicate that long-term dietary kudzu root extract supplementation can improve glucose, lipid, and blood pressure control in intact and ovariectomized SP-SHR.

  15. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  16. A Single Dose of Kudzu Extract Reduces Alcohol Consumption in a Binge Drinking Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Penetar, David M.; Toto, Lindsay H.; Lee, David Y.-W.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overconsumption of alcohol has significant negative effects on an individual's health and contributes to an enormous economic impact on society as a whole. Pharmacotherapies to curb excessive drinking are important for treating alcohol use disorders. Methods Twenty (20) men participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, between subjects design experiment (n=10/group) that tested the effects of kudzu extract (Alkontrol-Herbal™) for its ability to alter alcohol consumption in a natural settings laboratory. A single dose of kudzu extract (2 grams total with an active isoflavone content of 520 mg) or placebo was administered 2.5 hours before the onset of a 90 minute afternoon drinking session during which participants had the opportunity to drink up to 6 beers ad libitum; water and juice were always available as alternative beverages. Results During the baseline session, the placebo-randomized group consumed 2.7 ± 0.78 beers before treatment and increased consumption to 3.4 ± 1.1 beers after treatment. The kudzu group significantly reduced consumption from 3.0 ± 1.7 at baseline to 1.9 ± 1.3 beers after treatment. The placebo-treated group opened 33 beers during baseline conditions and 38 following treatment whereas the kudzu-treated group opened 32 beers during baseline conditions and only 21 following treatment. Additionally, kudzu-treated participants drank slower. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that a single dose of kudzu extract quickly reduces alcohol consumption in a binge drinking paradigm. These data add to the mounting clinical evidence that kudzu extract may be a safe and effective adjunctive pharmacotherapy for alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:26048637

  17. Neurolaena lobata L. promotes wound healing in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramlogan, Surrin; Chalapathi Rao, AV; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Background: The leaves of the Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae) plant are used to control diabetes and heal wounds and infections. Aim: The ethanolic extract of N. lobata leaf was evaluated for its ability to heal inflicted wounds in rats using the excision wound model. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into three groups of six each. Test group animals were treated topically with an ethanolic extract of N. lobata (1:1 with petroleum jelly, 100 mg/kg/day). Standard and control group animals were treated with mupirocin and petroleum jelly, respectively. Treatment was given for 13 days and the wound area was measured on alternate days. Parameters of healing assessed were the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization and hydroxyproline content. Antimicrobial activity of the extract was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results: Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavanoids. Extract-treated animals exhibited 87% reduction in the wound area over 13 days when compared with the control (78%) and standard (83%) groups (P < 0.05). A significant decrease in the epithelialization period was noticed with the extract-treated test group animals compared with the controls and the standard group animals (P < 0.008). The hydroxyproline content of the extract-treated animals was higher (230.5 ± 42.1) when evaluated against the control and (79.0 ± 32.2) and the standard (115.0 ± 44.5) groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Increase in the rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content with decrease in epithelialization time in extract-treated animals support further evaluation of N. lobata as a pharmacotherapy for wound healing. PMID:25143886

  18. Kudzu Extract Treatment Does Not Increase the Intoxicating Effects of Acute Alcohol in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Penetar, David M.; MacLean, Robert R.; McNeil, Jane F.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Isoflavone administration in the form of a purified extract from the herbal medication kudzu root has been shown to reduce, but not eliminate, alcohol consumption in alcohol-abusing and alcohol-dependent men. The precise mechanism of this action is unknown, but one possible explanation for these results is that the isoflavones in kudzu might actually increase the intensity or duration of alcohol’s effects and thus delay the desire for subsequent drinks. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. Methods Twelve (12) healthy adult men and women (27.5±1.89 yrs old) who consumed moderate amounts of alcohol (7.8±0.63 drinks/week) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in which they were treated with either kudzu extract (total isoflavone dose of 750 mg/day) or matched placebo for nine days. On days 8 and 9, participants received an acute challenge of ethyl alcohol (either 0.35 or 0.7 g/kg alcohol). During the challenges the following measures were collected: subjective effects, psychomotor (body sway), cognitive performance (vigilance/reaction time), physiological measures (heart rate and skin temperature), and plasma ethanol concentration. Results Alcohol resulted in a dose-related alteration in subjective measures of intoxication, impairment of stance stability, and vigilance/reaction time. Kudzu extract did not alter participants’ subjective responses to the alcohol challenge or to alcohol’s effects on stance stability or vigilance/reaction time. However, individuals treated with kudzu extract experienced a slightly more rapid rise in plasma ethanol levels, but only after the 0.7 g/kg dose. This transient effect during the first 30 minutes of the ascending plasma alcohol curve lasted only 10-15 minutes; there were no differences in peak plasma alcohol levels or alcohol elimination kinetics. Additionally, kudzu pretreatment enhanced the effects of the 0.7 g/kg dose of alcohol on heart rate and skin

  19. Ecology and Management of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Southeastern Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Sriyanka

    2016-01-01

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive exotic pest of soybeans that has been present in the southeastern United States since 2009 and has been rapidly spreading through soybean-producing states. Their primary reproductive hosts in the United States are soybean, kudzu, pigeon pea, black eye pea, lima bean, pinto bean, wisteria, white sweet clover, white clover, red clover, alfalfa, perennial peanut, and American joint vetch. In soybeans, the kudzu bug feeds on vascular fluids at the stem, petiole, and nodes, causing yield losses of up to 60%. The current management recommendation for this pest includes spraying of pyrethroids such as bifenthrin, but this method is not environmentally friendly, as this negatively impacts beneficial insect populations. Sustainable management tactics, including the development of economic thresholds for insecticide sprays, assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of this pest, manipulating cultivation practices, use of biological control, and host plant resistance, are currently being explored. We present an overview of the ecology of the kudzu bug in soybeans and available management tactics to assist with the management of this potentially devastating pest of soybeans as it spreads westward. PMID:27812397

  20. Estimating anisotropic pollen dispersal: a case study in Quercus lobata.

    PubMed

    Austerlitz, F; Dutech, C; Smouse, P E; Davis, F; Sork, V L

    2007-08-01

    The pollen dispersal distribution is an important element of the neighbourhood size of plant populations. Most methods aimed at estimating the dispersal curve assume that pollen dispersal is isotropic, but evidence indicates that this assumption does not hold for many plant species, particularly wind-pollinated species subject to prevailing winds during the pollination season. We propose here a method of detecting anisotropy of pollen dispersal and of gauging its intensity, based on the estimation of the differentiation of maternal pollen clouds (TWOGENER extraction), assuming that pollen dispersal is bivariate and normally distributed. We applied the new method to a case study in Quercus lobata, detecting only a modest level of anisotropy in pollen dispersal in a direction roughly similar to the prevailing wind direction. Finally, we conducted a simulation to explore the conditions under which anisotropy can be detected with this method, and we show that while anisotropy is detectable, in principle, it requires a large volume of data.

  1. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata on paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichosanthes lobata (family cucurbitaceae) is used to treat malarial fever and liver disorders. This study aims to investigate possible hepatoprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar male rats by oral administration, 2 g/kg body weight on 7th day after the administration of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata and silymarin (100 mg/kg). Ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata was administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days. Several serum markers, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, total protein was measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced hepatic damage. The study included histopathological examination of liver sections. Results Blood samples from rats treated with ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata (200 mg/kg body weight and 400 mg/kg body weight) had significant reductions in serum markers in paracetamol administered animals, indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a reference drug. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata exhibits protective effects against paracetamol‒induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:22607721

  2. The Isoflavone-Rich Fraction of the Crude Extract of the Puerariae Flower Increases Oxygen Consumption and BAT UCP1 Expression in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Nagamine, Rika; Sameshima-Kamiya, Mayu; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya

    2012-01-01

    Puerariae flower extract (PFE) is a crude extract of the Kudzu flower. Previous studies have shown that PFE supplementation exerts anti-obesity and anti-fatty liver effects in high-fat diet-fed mice. In this study, we aimed to identify the PFE components responsible for these effects and to determine their influence on energy expenditure and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. Experiments were conducted on C57BL/6J male mice classified into 3 groups: (1) high-fat diet-fed (HFD), (2) high-fat diet-fed given PFE (HFD + PFE), and (3) high-fat diet-fed given the PFE isoflavone-rich fraction (HFD + ISOF). All groups were fed for 42 days. The HFD + PFE and HFD + ISOF groups showed significant resistance to increases in body weight, hepatic triglyceride level, and visceral fat compared to the HFD group. These groups also exhibited significant increases in oxygen consumption and UCP1-positive brown adipose tissue (BAT) area. Our results demonstrate that the active ingredients in PFE are present in the ISOF and that these compounds may increase energy expenditure by upregulation of BAT UCP1 expression. These findings provide valuable information regarding the anti-obesity effects of isoflavones. PMID:22980388

  3. Energy from aquatic plant wastewater treatment systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Spirodela sp. and Lemma sp.), water pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides), and kudzu (Pueraria lobata) were anaerobically fermented using an anaerobic filter technique that reduced the total digestion time from 90 days to an average of 23 days and produced 0.14-0.28 cu m CH4/kg (dry weight) (2.3-4.5 cu ft/lb) from mature filters. The anaerobic filter provided a large surface area for the anaerobic bacteria to establish and maintain an optimum balance of facultative, acid-forming, and methane-producing bacteria. Consequently the efficiency of the process was greatly improved over prior batch fermentations.

  4. Proteome analysis of Pueraria mirifica tubers collected in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Jungsukcharoen, Jutarmas; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Sangvanich, Polkit

    2016-06-01

    Pueraria mirifica-derived tuberous powder has been long-term consumed in Thailand as female hormone-replacement traditional remedies. The protein profiles of tubers collected in different seasons were evaluated. Phenol extraction, 2D-PAGE, and mass spectrometry were employed for tuberous proteome analysis. Out of the 322 proteins detected, over 59% were functionally classified as being involved in metabolism. The rest proteins were involved in defense, protein synthesis, cell structure, transportation, stress, storage, and also unidentified function. The proteins were found to be differentially expressed with respect to harvest season. Importantly, chalcone isomerase, isoflavone synthase, cytochrome p450, UDP-glycosyltransferase, and isoflavone reductase, which are all involved in the biosynthesis pathway of bioactive isoflavonoids, were most abundantly expressed in the summer-collected tubers. This is the first report on the proteomic patterns in P. mirifica tubers in relevant with seasonal variation. The study enlights the understanding of variance isoflavonoid production in P. mirifica tubers. PMID:26940377

  5. Field Evaluation of a Kudzu/Cottonseed Oil Formulation on the Persistence of the Beet Armyworm Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A plant extract (kudzu) was tested as a UV protectant for SeMNPV, with and without the addition of an oil/emulsifier (cottonseed oil/lecithin) formulation. Aqueous and oil emulsion formulations of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), nucleopolyhedrovirus SeMNPV were applied to collards an...

  6. Hydrology of a zero-order Southern Piedmont watershed through 45 years of changing agricultural land use. Part 1. Monthly and seasonal rainfall-runoff relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endale, Dinku M.; Fisher, Dwight S.; Steiner, Jean L.

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported runoff from small agricultural watersheds over sufficiently long period so that the effect of different cover types on runoff can be examined. We analyzed 45-yrs of monthly and annual rainfall-runoff characteristics of a small (7.8 ha) zero-order typical Southern Piedmont watershed in southeastern United States. Agricultural land use varied as follows: 1. Row cropping (5-yrs); 2. Kudzu ( Pueraria lobata; 5-yrs); 3. Grazed kudzu and rescuegrass ( Bromus catharticus; 7-yrs); and 4. Grazed bermudagrass and winter annuals ( Cynodon dactylon; 28-yrs). Land use and rainfall variability influenced runoff characteristics. Row cropping produced the largest runoff amount, percentage of the rainfall partitioned into runoff, and peak flow rates. Kudzu reduced spring runoff and almost eliminated summer runoff, as did a mixture of kudzu and rescuegrass (KR) compared to row cropping. Peak flow rates were also reduced during the kudzu and KR. Peak flow rates increased under bermudagrass but were lower than during row cropping. A simple process-based 'tanh' model modified to take the previous month's rainfall into account produced monthly rainfall and runoff correlations with coefficient of determination ( R2) of 0.74. The model was tested on independent data collected during drought. Mean monthly runoff was 1.65 times the observed runoff. Sustained hydrologic monitoring is essential to understanding long-term rainfall-runoff relationships in agricultural watersheds.

  7. Screening and isolation of potential lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors from five Chinese medicinal herbs: Soybean, Radix pueraria, Flos pueraria, Rhizoma belamcandae, and Radix astragali.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying; Li, Senlin; Li, Sainan; Yang, Xiaojing; Qin, Yao; Zhang, Yuchi; Liu, Chunming

    2016-06-01

    Stroke is among the leading causes of death and severe disability worldwide. Flavonoids have been extensively used in the treatment of ischemic stroke by reducing lactate dehydrogenase levels and thereby enhancing blood perfusion to the ischemic region. Here, we used ultrafiltration high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry for the rapid screening and identification of flavonoids from five Chinese medicinal herbs: soybean, Radix pueraria, Flos pueraria, Rhizoma belamcandae, and Radix astragali. Using PC12 cells as a suitable in vitro model of toxicity, cell viability was quantitated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results showed that the extracts of soybean and the six major components, namely, acetyldaidzin, malonylgenistin, daidiain, glycitin, genistin, and acetylcitin; the extract of R. pueraria and its main component daidzein; the extract of F. pueraria and its three major components, tectorigenin, tectoridin, and tectorigenin-7-O-xylosylglucosid; and the extract of R. belamcandae and its main component, tectoridin, were strong lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors. Also, the components of R. astragali showed no bioactivity. These findings indicate that the ultrafltration high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry method could be utilized in rapid screening and separation of bioactive compounds from a complex matrix. PMID:27059876

  8. Discovery of a Potent Anti-Yeast Triterpenoid Saponin, Clematoside-S from Urena lobata L.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiao-Ling; Liao, Ying; Wang, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong; Gao, Bo; Xu, Zheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Urena lobata has been used as a traditional medicinal plant in India and China. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity and isolated the active compound from the leaves of U. lobata. The 80% ethanol extract from U. lobata leaves showed an effective anti-yeast activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) strains. Using a combination of chromatographic methods, (−)-trachelogenin (1) and clematoside-S (2) were isolated from this plant for the first time, and their chemical structure was identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data analysis. In addition, 1 was found to be inactive against all of the test microorganisms in the antimicrobial assay, whereas 2 exhibits a specific anti-yeast activity against S. cerevisiae strains with diameter of inhibition zones in the range from 11 to 20 mm. Furthermore, the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) values of 2 against S. cerevisiae strains were detected to be in the ranges of 0.61 to 9.8 μg/mL and 2.42 to 9.8 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of 2 with a specific anti-yeast activity. The above result suggests the potential application of U. lobata to be used as a natural anti-yeast agent in food preservation. PMID:25739085

  9. Variability in anthocyanin content among Abutilon theophrasti, and Urena lobata genetic resources .

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants contain bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceuticals to be utilized in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. Sixty-two accessions of Abutilon theophrasti, Basella alba, and Urena lobata are conserved at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA. Anthocyanins...

  10. Discovery of a potent anti-yeast triterpenoid saponin, clematoside-S from Urena lobata L.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Ling; Liao, Ying; Wang, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong; Gao, Bo; Xu, Zheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Urena lobata has been used as a traditional medicinal plant in India and China. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity and isolated the active compound from the leaves of U. lobata. The 80% ethanol extract from U. lobata leaves showed an effective anti-yeast activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) strains. Using a combination of chromatographic methods, (-)-trachelogenin (1) and clematoside-S (2) were isolated from this plant for the first time, and their chemical structure was identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data analysis. In addition, 1 was found to be inactive against all of the test microorganisms in the antimicrobial assay, whereas 2 exhibits a specific anti-yeast activity against S. cerevisiae strains with diameter of inhibition zones in the range from 11 to 20 mm. Furthermore, the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) values of 2 against S. cerevisiae strains were detected to be in the ranges of 0.61 to 9.8 μg/mL and 2.42 to 9.8 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of 2 with a specific anti-yeast activity. The above result suggests the potential application of U. lobata to be used as a natural anti-yeast agent in food preservation.

  11. Energy from vascular plant wastewater treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wolverton, B.C.; McDonald, R.C.

    1981-04-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) duckweed (Spirodela sp. and Lemna sp.), water pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides), and kudzu (Pueraria lobata) were anaerobically fermented using an anaerobic filter technique that reduced the total digestion time from 90 d to an average of 23 d and produced 0.14 to 0.22 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//kg (dry weight) (2.3 to 3.6 ft/sup 3//lb) from mature filters for the 3 aquatic species. Kudzu required an average digestion time of 33 d and produced an average of 0.21 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//kg (dry weight) (3.4 ft/sup 3//lb). The anaerobic filter provided a large surface area for the anaerobic bacteria to establish and maintain an optimal balance of facultative, acid-forming, and methane-producing bacteria. Consequently the efficiency of the process was greatly improved over prior batch fermentations.

  12. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S; Reisig, Dominic D; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Roe, R Michael

    2016-09-16

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  13. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S.; Reisig, Dominic D.; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I.; Roe, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27649166

  14. Medical applications of phytoestrogens from the Thai herb Pueraria mirifica.

    PubMed

    Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2012-03-01

    Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw et Suvatabandhu is a medicinal plant endemic to Thailand. It has been used in Thai folklore medicine for its rejuvenating qualities in aged women and men for nearly one hundred years. Indeed, it has been claimed that P. mirifica contains active phytoestrogens (plant substances with estrogen-like activity). Using high performance liquid chromatography, at least 17 phytoestrogens, mainly isoflavones, have been isolated. Thus, fairly considerable scientific researches, both in vitro in cell lines and in vivo in various species of animals including humans, have been conducted to date to address its estrogenic activity on the reproductive organs, bones, cardiovascular diseases and other climacteric related symptoms. The antioxidative capacity and antiproliferative effect on tumor cell lines have also been assessed. In general, P. mirifica could be applicable for preventing, or as a therapeutic for, the symptoms related to estrogen deficiency in menopausal women as well as in andropausal men. However, the optimal doses for each desirable effect and the balance to avoid undesired side effects need to be calculated before use.

  15. Stability and quality of herb (Pueraria Tuberosa)-milk model system.

    PubMed

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Singh, R R B; Arora, Sumit

    2015-02-01

    The medicinal benefits of herbs could be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one of the important carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals presents in herbs (mainly polyphenols) for targeted health benefits in the traditional Indian system of medical science. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of herb components (Pueraria tuberosa) on properties of Pueraria tuberosa-milk model system. The herb was added into cow milk on the basis of sensory evaluation (0.4 %) by using 9-point hedonic scale. The physical and chemical changes were evaluated after various processing treatments viz. pasteurization (72 °C, 15 s), sterilization (121 °C, 15 min), separation etc. These changes were determined using viscosity, hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) value, ethanol stability, colour characteristics and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). It was observed that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk resulted in decreased HMF content, ethanol stability and lightness whereas antioxidant activity, redness and yellowness increased as compared to control. It can be concluded that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk at 0.4 % concentration altered the functional properties of milk and Pueraira tuberosa could be suitable for preparation of low heat treated functional dairy food products. PMID:25694723

  16. No gene flow across the Eastern Pacific Barrier in the reef-building coral Porites lobata.

    PubMed

    Baums, Iliana B; Boulay, Jennifer N; Polato, Nicholas R; Hellberg, Michael E

    2012-11-01

    The expanse of deep water between the central Pacific islands and the continental shelf of the Eastern Tropical Pacific is regarded as the world's most potent marine biogeographic barrier. During recurrent climatic fluctuations (ENSO, El Niño Southern Oscillation), however, changes in water temperature and the speed and direction of currents become favourable for trans-oceanic dispersal of larvae from central Pacific to marginal eastern Pacific reefs. Here, we investigate the population connectivity of the reef-building coral Porites lobata across the Eastern Pacific Barrier (EPB). Patterns of recent gene flow in samples (n = 1173) from the central Pacific and the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) were analysed with 12 microsatellite loci. Results indicated that P. lobata from the ETP are strongly isolated from those in the central Pacific and Hawaii (F(ct) ' = 0.509; P < 0.001). However, samples from Clipperton Atoll, an oceanic island on the eastern side of the EPB, grouped with the central Pacific. Within the central Pacific, Hawaiian populations were strongly isolated from three co-occurring clusters found throughout the remainder of the central Pacific. No further substructure was evident in the ETP. Changes in oceanographic conditions during ENSO over the past several thousand years thus appear insufficient to support larval deliveries from the central Pacific to the ETP or strong postsettlement selection acts on ETP settlers from the central Pacific. Recovery of P. lobata populations in the frequently disturbed ETP thus must depend on local larval sources.

  17. [Medicinal plants in the phytotherapy of alcohol or nicotine addiction. Implication for plants in vitro cultures].

    PubMed

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikołajczak, Przemyslaw Ł; Thiem, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The increasing problem of nicotine and alcohol addiction, and small availability of drugs in the pharmacologic treatment causes that there are still looking for new drugs that could be used in addiction prevention and relief of withdrawal symptoms. Currently, attention has focused on a number of species possessed above mentioned pharmacological profile that do not occur naturally in moderate climate in Poland, including Passiflora incarnata, Pueraria lobata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Salvia przewalskii. A rich source of biologically active compounds showing their possible benefit against addiction are plant derived both from its natural state as well as by biotechnological methods. Studies using in vitro plant cultures allow receiving material containing interesting secondary metabolites (active compounds) in the of shoots, root, callus and suspension cultures. Overview of pharmacological studies showed that several experiments carried out in animal models of alcoholism, and only few studies have been done on nicotine addiction using herbs. It has been shown that an extract of the herb Passiflora incarnata (and its benzoflavone derivative-BZF) can be an interesting plant material that could reduce the intensity of nicotine or alcohol withdrawal symptoms, however, only few studies have been published in this area. A larger amount of evidence has been provided to the anti-alcohol effect of the extract from the root of Pueraria lobata (kudzu). It is known that kudzu root extract is effective at reducing alcohol intake in animals and in humans. The three major isoflavones present in kudzu extracts, daidzin, daidzein and puerarin are responsible for the beneficial effects in reduction of alcohol consumption, although the exact mechanism by which kudzu suppresses ethanol intake remains to be clarified. It has been proven that daidzin in vitro is a strong, selective and reversible inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase. Moreover, studies on the CNS receptor gene expression showed

  18. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Germination of Urena lobata L. and Its Response to Herbicides

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Tahir Hussain; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Cruz, Pompe C. Sta.

    2014-01-01

    Urena lobata is becoming a noxious and invasive weed in rangelands, pastures, and undisturbed areas in the Philippines. This study determined the effects of seed scarification, light, salt and water stress, amount of rice residue, and seed burial depth on seed germination and emergence of U. lobata; and evaluated the weed's response to post-emergence herbicides. Germination was stimulated by both mechanical and chemical seed scarifications. The combination of the two scarification methods provided maximum (99%) seed germination. Germination was slightly stimulated when seeds were placed in light (65%) compared with when seeds were kept in the dark (46%). Sodium chloride concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 mM and osmotic potential ranging from 0 to −1.6 MPa affected the germination of U. lobata seeds significantly. The osmotic potential required for 50% inhibition of the maximum germination was −0.1 MPa; however, some seeds germinated at −0.8 MPa, but none germinated at −1.6 MPa. Seedling emergence and biomass increased with increase in rice residue amount up to 4 t ha−1, but declined beyond this amount. Soil surface placement of weed seeds resulted in the highest seedling emergence (84%), which declined with increase in burial depth. The burial depth required for 50% inhibition of maximum emergence was 2 cm; emergence was greatly reduced (93%) at burial depth of 4 cm or more. Weed seedling biomass also decreased with increase in burial depth. Bispyribac-sodium, a commonly used herbicide in rice, sprayed at the 4-leaf stage of the weed, provided 100% control, which did not differ much with 2,4-D (98%), glyphosate (97%), and thiobencarb + 2,4-D (98%). These herbicides reduced shoot and root biomass by 99–100%. PMID:24658143

  19. Analysis of functional and numerical responses of spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris when reared on kudzu bug, Megacopta cribaria (Hemiptera: Plataspididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spined solder bug (Podisus maculiventris) is a predatory insect that feeds on a wide array of species. The immatures of this predatory species have five instars. All stages are predatory except for the 1st instar nymphs. Kudzu bugs (Megacopta cribaria) are shield bugs that are deemed a pest of ...

  20. Environmental versus genetic influences on growth rates of the corals Pocillopora eydouxi and Porites lobata (Anthozoa: Scleractinia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.W.; Wirshing, H.H.; Baker, A.C.; Birkeland, C.

    2008-01-01

    Reciprocal transplant experiments of the corals Pocillopora eydouxi Milne Edwards & Haime and Porites lobata Dana were carried out for an 18-month period from September 2004 to March 2006 between two back reef pools on Ofu Island, American Samoa, to test environmental versus genetic effects on skeletal growth rates. Skeletal growth of P. eydouxi showed environmental but not genetic effects, resulting in doubling of growth in Pool 300 compared with Pool 400. There were no environmental or genetic effects on skeletal growth of P. lobata. Pool 300 had more frequent and longer durations of elevated seawater temperatures than Pool 400, characteristics likely to decrease rather than increase skeletal growth. Pool 300 also had higher nutrient levels and flow velocities than Pool 400, characteristics that may increase skeletal growth. However, higher nutrient levels would be expected to increase skeletal growth in both species, but there was no difference between the pools in P. lobata growth. P. eydouxi is much more common in high-energy environments than P. lobata; thus the higher flow velocities in Pool 300 than in Pool 400 may have positively affected skeletal growth of P. eydouxi while not having a detectable effect on P. lobata. The greater skeletal growth of P. eydouxi in Pool 300 occurred despite the presence of clade D zooxanthellae in several source colonies in Pool 300, a genotype known to result in greater heat resistance but slower skeletal growth. Increased skeletal growth rates in higher water motion may provide P. eydouxi a competitive advantage in shallow, high-energy enviromnents where competition for space is intense. ?? 2008 by University of Hawai'i Press. All rights reserved.

  1. Isoorientin, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) from the Tubers of Pueraria tuberosa.

    PubMed

    Sumalatha, Manne; Munikishore, Rachakunta; Rammohan, Aluru; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Kumar, Kotha Anil; Reddy, Kakularam Kumar; Azad, Rajaram; Reddanna, Pallu; Bodo, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fraction of the methanol extract of the roots of Pueraria tuberose DC yielded puerarin, an isoflavone C-glycoside (PT-1), isoorientin, a flavone C-glycoside (PT-2) and mangiferin, a xanthone C-glycoside (PT-3). The extracts and the isolated compounds were screened for potent anti-inflammatory components inhibiting the cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), the target enzymes of inflammation, by employing spectroscopic/polorographic methods. Among these, isoorientin was found to be a potent inhibitor of COX-2with an IC50 value of 39 μM. Docking studies were carried out to understand the interactions of isorientin (PT-2) with COX-2.The structures of the isolates were determined by mass spectrometry and 2D-NMR techniques including HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and 1H-1H COSY experiments. Although isoorientin and mangiferin have been reported from several plant sources, this is the first report of their isolation from a Pueraria species. PMID:26669106

  2. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  3. Symbiotic N2-Fixation Estimated by the 15N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m2 of 15N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  4. Symbiotic N 2 -Fixation Estimated by the (15) N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m(2) of (15)N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  5. Potential Skin Regeneration Activity and Chemical Composition of Absolute from Pueraria thunbergiana Flower.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Yoon; Won, Kyung-Jong; Hwang, Dae-Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Su Jin; Park, Joo-Hoon; Yoon, Myeong Sik; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-11-01

    The flower of Pueraria thunbergiana BENTH (PTBF) contains isoflavonoids and essential oil components. It has many biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-diabetes, anti-oxidant, and weight loss. However, its effect on skin regeneration remains unknown. In the present study, we isolated the absolute from PTBF through solvent extraction and determined the role of the absolute on skin regeneration-associated responses in human epidermal-keratinocytes (HaCats). The PTBF absolute, which contained 10 compounds, stimulated migration and proliferation and increased the phosphorylation of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 in HaCats. It induced type I and IV collagen synthesis in HaCats. In addition, treatment with PTBF absolute resulted in increased sprout outgrowth in HaCats. These findings suggest that PTBF absolute may participate in skin regeneration, probably through promotion of migration, proliferation, and collagen synthesis. PMID:26749850

  6. Sesquiterpenes from Neurolaena lobata and Their Antiproliferative and Anti-inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Five new sesquiterpenes, neurolobatin A (1), neurolobatin B (2), 5β-hydroxy-8β-isovaleroyloxy-9α-hydroxycalyculatolide (3), 3-epi-desacetylisovaleroylheliangine (4), and 3β-acetoxy-8β-isovaleroyloxyreynosin (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Neurolaena lobata. The structures were established by means of a combined spectroscopic data analysis, including ESIMS, APCI-MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Neurolobatin A (1) and B (2) are unusual isomeric seco-germacranolide sesquiterpenes with a bicyclic acetal moiety, compounds 3 and 4 are unsaturated epoxy-germacranolide esters, and compound 5 is the first eudesmanolide isolated from the genus Neurolaena. The isolated compounds (1–5) were shown to have noteworthy antiproliferative activities against human tumor cell lines (A2780, A431, HeLa, and MCF7). The anti-inflammatory effects of 1–5, evaluated in vitro using LPS- and TNF-α-induced IL-8 expression inhibitory assays, revealed that all these compounds strongly down-regulated the LPS-induced production of IL-8 protein, with neurolobatin B (2) and 3-epi-desacetylisovaleroylheliangine (4) being the most effective. PMID:24476550

  7. Needle-like grains across growth lines in the coral skeleton of Porites lobata.

    PubMed

    Motai, Satoko; Nagai, Takaya; Sowa, Kohki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Kawano, Jun

    2012-12-01

    The skeletal texture and crystal morphology of the massive reef-building coral Porites lobata were observed from the nano- to micrometer scale using an analytical transmission electron microscope (ATEM). The skeletal texture consists of centers of calcification (COCs) and fiber area. Fiber areas contain bundles of needle-like aragonite crystals that are elongated along the crystallographic c-axis and are several hundred nanometers to one micrometer in width and several micrometers in length. The size distribution of aragonite crystals is relatively homogeneous in the fibers. Growth lines are observed sub-perpendicular to the direction of aragonite growth. These growth lines occur in 1-2 μm intervals and reflect a periodic contrast in the thickness of an ion-spattered sample and pass through the interior of some aragonite crystals. These observations suggest that the medium filled in the calcification space maintains a CaCO₃-supersaturated state during fiber growth and that a physical change occurs periodically during the aragonite crystals of the fiber area.

  8. Needle-like grains across growth lines in the coral skeleton of Porites lobata.

    PubMed

    Motai, Satoko; Nagai, Takaya; Sowa, Kohki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Kawano, Jun

    2012-12-01

    The skeletal texture and crystal morphology of the massive reef-building coral Porites lobata were observed from the nano- to micrometer scale using an analytical transmission electron microscope (ATEM). The skeletal texture consists of centers of calcification (COCs) and fiber area. Fiber areas contain bundles of needle-like aragonite crystals that are elongated along the crystallographic c-axis and are several hundred nanometers to one micrometer in width and several micrometers in length. The size distribution of aragonite crystals is relatively homogeneous in the fibers. Growth lines are observed sub-perpendicular to the direction of aragonite growth. These growth lines occur in 1-2 μm intervals and reflect a periodic contrast in the thickness of an ion-spattered sample and pass through the interior of some aragonite crystals. These observations suggest that the medium filled in the calcification space maintains a CaCO₃-supersaturated state during fiber growth and that a physical change occurs periodically during the aragonite crystals of the fiber area. PMID:23041294

  9. Mechanisms Controlling Species Responses to Climate Change: Thermal Tolerances and Shifting Range Limits. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, R. F.; Bykova, O.; Coiner, H.

    2010-12-01

    One of the main effects of anthropogenic climate change will be widespread shifts in species distribution, with the common assumption that they will migrate to higher elevation and latitude. While this assumption is supported by migration patterns following climate warming in the past 20,000 years, it has not been rigorously evaluated in terms of physiological mechanism, despite the implication that migration in response to climate warming is controlled by some form of thermal adaptation. We have been evaluating the degree to which species range limits are controlled by physiological patterns of thermal tolerance in bioinvaders of North America. Bioinvaders presumably have few biotic controls over their distribution and thus are more likely to fully exploit their thermal niche. In cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), the minimum lethal temperature in winter is -32C, which corresponds to the mean winter minimum temperature at its northern range limit. In red brome (Bromus rubens), the minimum lethal temperature is also near -32C, which is well below the minimum winter temperature near -20C that corresponds to its northern distribution limit. In kudzu (Pueraria lobata), the minimum lethal temperature is near -20C, which corresponds to the midwinter minimum at its northern distribution limit; however, overwintering kudzu tissues are insulated by soil and snow cover, and thus do not experience lethal temperatures at kudzu's northern range limit. These results demonstrate that some invasive species can exploit the potential range defined by their low temperature tolerance and thus can be predicted by mechanistic models to migrate to higher latitudes with moderation of winter cold. The distribution of other invaders such as kudzu and red brome are not controlled by tolerance of midwinter cold. Developing mechanistic models of their distributions, and how these might change with climate warming, will require extensive physiological study.

  10. Flos Puerariae Extract Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong-he; Chen, Hong-guang; Wu, Pan-feng; Yao, Qing; Cheng, Hong-ke; Yu, Wei; Liu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The effects of Flos Puerariae extract (FPE) on cognitive impairment associated with diabetes were assessed in C57BL/6J mice. Methods. Experimental diabetic mice model was induced by one injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) for 5 days consecutively. FPE was orally administrated at the dosages of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day, respectively. The learning and memory ability was assessed by Morris water maze test. Body weight, blood glucose, free fatty acid (FFA) and total cholesterol (TCH) in serum, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were also measured. Results. Oral administration of FPE significantly improved cognitive deficits in STZ-induced diabetic mice. FPE treatment also maintained body weight and ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. Additionally, decreased MDA level, enhanced CAT, and GSH-Px activities in cerebral cortex or hippocampus, as well as alleviated AChE activity in cerebral cortex, were found in diabetic mice supplemented with FPE. Conclusion. This study suggests that FPE ameliorates memory deficits in experimental diabetic mice, at least partly through the normalization of metabolic abnormalities, ameliorated oxidative stress, and AChE activity in brain. PMID:26060502

  11. Major isoflavonoid contents of the 1-year-cultivated phytoestrogen-rich herb, Pueraria mirifica.

    PubMed

    Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Sriwatcharakul, Suttijit

    2007-10-01

    Pueraria mirifica is a tuberous plant enriched with active phytoestrogens. There is no established information about the factors influencing isoflavonoid storage in the tubers. We investigated the tuberous storage of the major isoflavonoids of 1-year-old plants. Four cultivars of P. mirifica were cultivated in the same field trial during the same period to establish a unique plant age and differentiation under the same environment and soil conditions. The tubers collected from the 1-year-old plants in the summer, rainy season and winter were submitted to an HPLC analysis with a gradient system comprising 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile. Five major isoflavonoids, puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein and genistein, were adopted as standards. P. mirifica tubers of different cultivars collected in the same season exhibited significant differences in individual and total isoflavonoid contents, showing chemovariety. P. mirifica tubers of the same cultivar collected from different seasons also exhibited significant differences in individual and total isoflavonoid contents, showing the influence of season. In conclusion, the tuberous storage of major isoflavonoids in 1-year-cultivated plants was greatly diverse and was strongly influenced by the season and plant genetics.

  12. Phenotypic plasticity of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo D T; Da Cruz, Leandro R; Dos Santos, Samuel A; Sant'anna-Santos, Bruno F; Dos Santos, Izabela T; De Oliveira, Ariane M; Barros, Rodrigo E; Santos, Márcia V; Faria, Rodrigo M

    2015-03-01

    Plants have the ability to undergo morphophysiological changes based on availability of light. The present study evaluated biomass accumulation, leaf morphoanatomy and physiology of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown in full sunlight, as well as in 30% and 50% shade. Two assays were performed, one for each species, using a randomized block design with 10 replicates. A higher accumulation of fresh mass in the shoot of the plants was observed for both species under cultivation in 50% shade, while no differences were detected between the full sunlight and 30% shade. N. wightii and P. phaseoloides showed increase in area and reduction in thickness leaf when cultivated in 50% shade. There were no changes in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and evapotranspiration of P. phaseoloides plants because growth environment. However, the shade treatments caused alterations in physiological parameters of N. wightii. In both species, structural changes in the mesophyll occurred depending on the availability of light; however, the amount of leaf blade tissue remained unaltered. Despite the influence of light intensity variation on the morphophysiological plasticity of N. wightii and P. phaseoloides, no effects on biomass accumulation were observed in response to light. PMID:25714076

  13. Pueraria tuberosa DC Extract Improves Androgenesis and Sexual Behavior via FSH LH Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Alexandra; Dixit, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PT) on sexual behaviour and androgenic activity. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: control group 1 (2% acacia solution), PT-treated group 2 (50 mg/Kg), PT-treated group 3 (100 mg/Kg), and PT-treated group 4 (150 mg/Kg). Sexual behavior of male rats in the presence of a female rat was recorded. The treated groups were evaluated for sexual parameters. The extract was characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatment on anabolic and weight of secondary sexual organs was determined. The histological changes in section of testis and epididymis after treatment were observed. Sperm count in epididymis and fructose content in seminal vesicles were also measured. Levels of hormones like FSH, LH, and T were determined. A dose-dependent increase in sexual behaviors was evidenced in the animals of extract treated groups. Increase in testis weight was recorded in PT. At the highest dose PT also affects the hormones level. The four compounds namely puerarin, daidzein, biochanin-A and formononetin were identified in ethanolic extract using LC-MS. It concluded that PT extract possesses androgenic effect and it significantly increased the sexual behaviour and hormones level. PMID:24489512

  14. Puerariae radix isoflavones and their metabolites inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.-J.; Hou, Y.C.; Lin, C.-H.; Hsu, Y.-A.; Sheu, Jim J.C.; Lai, C.-H.; Chen, B.-H.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn; Wan Lei Tsai, F.-J.

    2009-01-23

    Puerariae radix (PR) is a popular natural herb and a traditional food in Asia, which has antithrombotic and anti-allergic properties and stimulates estrogenic activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the PR isoflavones puerarin, daidzein, and genistein on the growth of breast cancer cells. Our data revealed that after treatment with PR isoflavones, a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth occurred in HS578T, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 cell lines. Results from cell cycle distribution and apoptosis assays revealed that PR isoflavones induced cell apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway and mediated cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, we observed that the serum metabolites of PR (daidzein sulfates/glucuronides) inhibited proliferation of the breast cancer cells at a 50% cell growth inhibition (GI{sub 50}) concentration of 2.35 {mu}M. These results indicate that the daidzein constituent of PR can be metabolized to daidzein sulfates or daidzein glucuronides that exhibit anticancer activities. The protein expression levels of the active forms of caspase-9 and Bax in breast cancer cells were significantly increased by treatment with PR metabolites. These metabolites also increased the protein expression levels of p53 and p21. We therefore suggest that PR may act as a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent against breast cancer by reducing cell viability and inducing apoptosis.

  15. Preventive effect of Pueraria mirifica on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Masrudin, S S; Mohamad, J

    2015-12-01

    Pueraria mirifica (PM) extract contains phytoestrogen daidzein and genistein. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of PM extract, daidzein and genistein on a testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Testosterone was administered at 3 mg kg(-1) to rats followed by the PM extract, daidzein and genistein for a period of 30 days with finasteride as positive control. The testosterone level was increased, indicating inhibition of 5α-reductase converting testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. This was confirmed by prostate-specific antigen level that significantly decreased when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein. The PM extract, daidzein and genistein reduced the increase in the prostate/body weight ratio in testosterone-induced rats. This gives indication that PM extract, daidzein and genistein possessed protective activity for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The analysis of histoarchitechture of the prostate has also shown that there was a significant improvement in prostatic cells of the testosterone-induced rats when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein.

  16. Linking sewage pollution and water quality to spatial patterns of Porites lobata growth anomalies in Puako, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Reyn M; Kim, Catherine J S; Tracy, Allison M; Most, Rebecca; Harvell, C Drew

    2016-03-15

    Sewage pollution threatens the health of coastal populations and ecosystems, including coral reefs. We investigated spatial patterns of sewage pollution in Puako, Hawaii using enterococci concentrations and δ(15)N Ulva fasciata macroalgal bioassays to assess relationships with the coral disease Porites lobata growth anomalies (PGAs). PGA severity and enterococci concentrations were high, spatially variable, and positively related. Bioassay algal δ(15)N showed low sewage pollution at the reef edge while high values of resident algae indicated sewage pollution nearshore. Neither δ(15)N metric predicted PGA measures, though bioassay δ(15)N was negatively related to coral cover. Furthermore, PGA prevalence was much higher than previously recorded in Hawaii and the greater Indo-Pacific, highlighting Puako as an area of concern. Although further work is needed to resolve the relationship between sewage pollution and coral cover and disease, these results implicate sewage pollution as a contributor to diminished reef health.

  17. Melanogenesis inhibitory effect of aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Han, EunByeol; Chang, BoYoon; Kim, DaeSung; Cho, HyoungKwon; Kim, SungYeon

    2015-01-01

    Melanin is major factor that determines skin color as well as one of the defense systems that prevent the UV-induced damage. In case of abnormal concentration of melanin, skin diseases or problems occur such as albinism, leukoplakia, melasma, freckles, moles, and lentigo. With the lifespan of humans has been extended, importance of 'life quality' has been increased. White and clean skin is very important part of the satisfaction of appearance, especially for Asia women. The aim of this study was to find an anti-melanogenesis activity for which the aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana can be utilized based on the increase in demands for cosmetics, particularly natural products. We demonstrated anti-pigmentation effects of aerial part of P. thunbergiana by measuring melanin content and through staining in the B16F10 melanoma cell line. The aerial part of P. thunbergiana decreased tyrosinase activity significantly in B16F10 cell cultures, while there is no direct effect on enzyme in cell-free conditions. To define the mechanisms, real-time PCR, western blot, glucosidase activity and antioxidant activity assay were implemented. As results, we demonstrated that aerial part of P. thunbergiana has anti-melanogenesis activity via two mechanisms. One is downgrading microphthalmia-associated transcription factor by activating Akt/GSK-3β. Consequently, transcription of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 is decreased. Another is interrupting maturation of tyrosinase through inhibiting α-glucosidase. Furthermore, aerial part of P. thunbergiana showed great efficacy on pigmentation in vivo. These results suggest that aerial part of P. thunbergiana can be used as an anti-melanogenic agent.

  18. Molecular Docking and Interactions of Pueraria Tuberosa with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors.

    PubMed

    Asthana, S; Agarwal, T; Singothu, S; Samal, A; Banerjee, I; Pal, K; Pramanik, K; Ray, S S

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria tuberosa is known for its therapeutic potentials in cardiovascular disorders, but its effect in angiogenesis has not been studied so far. In this study, a computational approach has been applied to elucidate the role of the phytochemicals in inhibition of angiogenesis through modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, major factors responsible for angiogenesis. Metabolite structures retrieved from PubChem and KNApSAcK - 3D databases, were docked using AutoDock4.2 tool. Hydrogen bond and molecular docking, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion and toxicity predictions were carried out using UCSF Chimera, LigPlot(+) and PreADMET server, respectively. From the docking analysis, it was observed that puerarone and tuberostan had significant binding affinity for the intracellular kinase domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 respectively. It is important to mention that both the phytochemicals shared similar interaction profile as that of standard inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Also, both puerarone and tuberostan interacted with Lys861/Lys868 (adenosine 5'-triphosphate binding site of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1/vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-2), thus providing a clue that they may enforce their inhibitory effect by blocking the adenosine 5'-triphosphate binding domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Moreover, these molecules exhibited good drug-likeness, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties without any carcinogenic and toxic effects. The interaction pattern of the puerarone and tuberostan may provide a hint for a novel drug design for vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors with better specificity to treat angiogenic disorders. PMID:26664060

  19. Neurotherapeutic Effects of Pueraria mirifica Extract in Early- and Late-Stage Cognitive Impaired Rats.

    PubMed

    Anukulthanakorn, Kanya; Parhar, Ishwar S; Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Kitahashi, Takashi; Watanbe, Gen; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-06-01

    We determined the neurotherapeutic effects of Pueraria mirifica extract (PME) and pure puerarin (PU) in comparison with 17β-estradiol (E2 ) in early- and late-stage cognitive impaired rats. Rats were ovariectomized (OVX), kept for 2 and 4 months to induce early- and late-stage cognitive impairment, respectively, and divided into four groups that were treated daily with (i) distilled water, (ii) 100 mg/kg of PME, (iii) 7 mg/kg of PU, and (iv) 80 µg/kg of E2 for 4 months. The estrogen deficiency symptoms of OVX rats were abrogated by treatment with E2 or PME, but not by treatment with PU. The mRNA level of genes associated with amyloid production (App and Bace1) and hyperphosphorylated Tau (Tau4) were upregulated together with the level of impaired cognition in the 2- and 4-month OVX rats. Treatment with E2 reduced the level of cognitive impairment more than that with PME and PU, and 2-month OVX rats were more responsive than 4-month OVX rats. All treatments down-regulated the Bace1 mRNA level in 2-month OVX rats, while PU and PME also decreased the App mRNA level in 2- and 4-month OVX rats, respectively. Only PU suppressed Tau4 expression in 2-month OVX rats. Thus, PME and PU elicit neurotherapeutic effects in different pathways, and earlier treatment is optimal. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26915634

  20. Molecular Docking and Interactions of Pueraria Tuberosa with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Asthana, S.; Agarwal, T.; Singothu, S.; Samal, A.; Banerjee, I.; Pal, K.; Pramanik, K.; Ray, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria tuberosa is known for its therapeutic potentials in cardiovascular disorders, but its effect in angiogenesis has not been studied so far. In this study, a computational approach has been applied to elucidate the role of the phytochemicals in inhibition of angiogenesis through modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, major factors responsible for angiogenesis. Metabolite structures retrieved from PubChem and KNApSAcK – 3D databases, were docked using AutoDock4.2 tool. Hydrogen bond and molecular docking, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion and toxicity predictions were carried out using UCSF Chimera, LigPlot+ and PreADMET server, respectively. From the docking analysis, it was observed that puerarone and tuberostan had significant binding affinity for the intracellular kinase domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 respectively. It is important to mention that both the phytochemicals shared similar interaction profile as that of standard inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Also, both puerarone and tuberostan interacted with Lys861/Lys868 (adenosine 5’-triphosphate binding site of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1/vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-2), thus providing a clue that they may enforce their inhibitory effect by blocking the adenosine 5’-triphosphate binding domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Moreover, these molecules exhibited good drug-likeness, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties without any carcinogenic and toxic effects. The interaction pattern of the puerarone and tuberostan may provide a hint for a novel drug design for vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors with better specificity to treat angiogenic disorders. PMID:26664060

  1. Physiological and Biogeochemical Traits of Bleaching and Recovery in the Mounding Species of Coral Porites lobata: Implications for Resilience in Mounding Corals

    PubMed Central

    Levas, Stephen J.; Grottoli, Andréa G.; Hughes, Adam; Osburn, Christopher L.; Matsui, Yohei

    2013-01-01

    Mounding corals survive bleaching events in greater numbers than branching corals. However, no study to date has determined the underlying physiological and biogeochemical trait(s) that are responsible for mounding coral holobiont resilience to bleaching. Furthermore, the potential of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as a source of fixed carbon to bleached corals has never been determined. Here, Porites lobata corals were experimentally bleached for 23 days and then allowed to recover for 0, 1, 5, and 11 months. At each recovery interval a suite of analyses were performed to assess their recovery (photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll a, energy reserves, tissue biomass, calcification, δ13C of the skeletal, δ13C, and δ15N of the animal host and endosymbiont fractions). Furthermore, at 0 months of recovery, the assimilation of photosynthetically acquired and zooplankton-feeding acquired carbon into the animal host, endosymbiont, skeleton, and coral-mediated DOC were measured via 13C-pulse-chase labeling. During the first month of recovery, energy reserves and tissue biomass in bleached corals were maintained despite reductions in chlorophyll a, photosynthesis, and the assimilation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. At the same time, P. lobata corals catabolized carbon acquired from zooplankton and seemed to take up DOC as a source of fixed carbon. All variables that were negatively affected by bleaching recovered within 5 to 11 months. Thus, bleaching resilience in the mounding coral P. lobata is driven by its ability to actively catabolize zooplankton-acquired carbon and seemingly utilize DOC as a significant fixed carbon source, facilitating the maintenance of energy reserves and tissue biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not only mounding morphologies but species like P. lobata, which have the ability to utilize heterotrophic sources of fixed carbon

  2. Physiological and biogeochemical traits of bleaching and recovery in the mounding species of coral Porites lobata: implications for resilience in mounding corals.

    PubMed

    Levas, Stephen J; Grottoli, Andréa G; Hughes, Adam; Osburn, Christopher L; Matsui, Yohei

    2013-01-01

    Mounding corals survive bleaching events in greater numbers than branching corals. However, no study to date has determined the underlying physiological and biogeochemical trait(s) that are responsible for mounding coral holobiont resilience to bleaching. Furthermore, the potential of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as a source of fixed carbon to bleached corals has never been determined. Here, Porites lobata corals were experimentally bleached for 23 days and then allowed to recover for 0, 1, 5, and 11 months. At each recovery interval a suite of analyses were performed to assess their recovery (photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll a, energy reserves, tissue biomass, calcification, δ(13)C of the skeletal, δ(13)C, and δ(15)N of the animal host and endosymbiont fractions). Furthermore, at 0 months of recovery, the assimilation of photosynthetically acquired and zooplankton-feeding acquired carbon into the animal host, endosymbiont, skeleton, and coral-mediated DOC were measured via (13)C-pulse-chase labeling. During the first month of recovery, energy reserves and tissue biomass in bleached corals were maintained despite reductions in chlorophyll a, photosynthesis, and the assimilation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. At the same time, P. lobata corals catabolized carbon acquired from zooplankton and seemed to take up DOC as a source of fixed carbon. All variables that were negatively affected by bleaching recovered within 5 to 11 months. Thus, bleaching resilience in the mounding coral P. lobata is driven by its ability to actively catabolize zooplankton-acquired carbon and seemingly utilize DOC as a significant fixed carbon source, facilitating the maintenance of energy reserves and tissue biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not only mounding morphologies but species like P. lobata, which have the ability to utilize heterotrophic sources of

  3. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass., a Q'eqchi' Maya traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Choueiri, Christine; Saleem, Ammar; Asim, Muhammd; Caal, Federico; Cal, Victor; Rojas, Marco Otarola; Pesek, Todd; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John Thor

    2013-08-01

    The widespread use of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass. by Q'eqchi' Maya and indigenous healers throughout the Caribbean for inflammatory conditions prompted the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of this traditional medicine. The objectives of this study were to conduct a detailed ethnobotanical investigation of the uses of N. lobata by the Q'eqchi' Maya of Belize for a variety of inflammatory symptoms and to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract and isolated sesquiterpene lactones. The crude 80% EtOH extract of N. lobata leaves administered at 100 μg/mL reduced LPS-stimulated TNF-α production in THP-1 monocytes by 72% relative to the stimulated vehicle control. Isolated sesquiterpene lactones, neurolenins B, C+D, lobatin B and 9α-hydroxy-8β-isovalerianyloxy-calyculatolide were more active (IC50=0.17-2.32 μM) than the positive control parthenolide (IC50=4.79 μM). The results provide a pharmacological and phytochemical basis for the traditional use of this leaf for inflammatory conditions. PMID:23747054

  4. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass., a Q'eqchi' Maya traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Choueiri, Christine; Saleem, Ammar; Asim, Muhammd; Caal, Federico; Cal, Victor; Rojas, Marco Otarola; Pesek, Todd; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John Thor

    2013-08-01

    The widespread use of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass. by Q'eqchi' Maya and indigenous healers throughout the Caribbean for inflammatory conditions prompted the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of this traditional medicine. The objectives of this study were to conduct a detailed ethnobotanical investigation of the uses of N. lobata by the Q'eqchi' Maya of Belize for a variety of inflammatory symptoms and to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract and isolated sesquiterpene lactones. The crude 80% EtOH extract of N. lobata leaves administered at 100 μg/mL reduced LPS-stimulated TNF-α production in THP-1 monocytes by 72% relative to the stimulated vehicle control. Isolated sesquiterpene lactones, neurolenins B, C+D, lobatin B and 9α-hydroxy-8β-isovalerianyloxy-calyculatolide were more active (IC50=0.17-2.32 μM) than the positive control parthenolide (IC50=4.79 μM). The results provide a pharmacological and phytochemical basis for the traditional use of this leaf for inflammatory conditions.

  5. Flos Puerariae Extract Prevents Myocardial Apoptosis via Attenuation Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuang; Cheng, Hongke; Wu, Jiliang; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) suggests a direct cellular insult to myocardium. Apoptosis is considered as one of the hallmarks of DCM. Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of DCM. In this study, we explored the prevention of myocardial apoptosis by crude extract from Flos Puerariae (FPE) in experimental diabetic mice. Methods Experimental diabetic model was induced by intraperitoneally injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg/day) for five consecutive days in C57BL/6J mice. FPE (100, 200 mg/kg) was orally administrated once a day for ten weeks. Cardiac structure changes, apoptosis, superoxide production, NADPH oxidase subunits expression (gp91phox, p47phox, and p67phox), and related regulatory factors were assessed in the heart of mice. Results Diabetic mice were characterized by high blood glucose (≥11.1 mmol/L) and reduced body weight. In the end of the experiment, aberrant myofilament structure, as well as TUNEL positive cardiac cells coupled with increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3 expression was found in diabetic mice. Moreover, ROS formation, the ratio of NADP+/NADPH and NADPH oxidase subunits expression of gp91phox and p47phox, lipid peroxidation level was significantly increased, while antioxidant enzyme SOD and GSH-Px activity were reduced in the myocardial tissue of diabetic mice. In contrast, treatment with FPE resulted in a normalized glucose and weight profile. FPE administration also preserved myocardial structure and reduced apoptotic cardiac cell death in diabetic mice. The elevated markers of oxidative stress were significantly reversed by FPE supplementation. Further, FPE treatment markedly inhibited the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3 expression, as well as suppressed JNK and P38 MAPK activation in the heart of diabetic mice. Conclusions Our data demonstrate for the first time that FPE may have therapeutic potential for STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy through preventing myocardial apoptosis via

  6. Molecular clusters size of Puerariae thomsonii radix aqueous decoction and relevance to oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong; Yang, Caimei; Zhang, Kuan; Hu, Juan; Pang, Wensheng

    2015-07-07

    The multi-component system of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is very complicated. The clusters are dynamic aggregates whose molecules are held together by hydrogen-bonded, Van der Waals forces or the opposite charges of particles attract each other. In this paper, field emission scanning electron microscopy proved that molecules form clusters in Pueraria thomsonii Benth (Fenge) water decoction. Four kinds of Fenge water decoction, 0.07 g∙mL-1 (F-1), 0.1 g∙mL-1 (F-2), 0.17 g∙mL-1 (F-3), 0.35 g∙mL-1 (F-4); F-1, average diameter of molecular was about 120 nm; F-2, 195 nm; F-3, 256 nm; and F-4, 480 nm. The molecular size was shown to depend on concentration. Rabbits were given equal does of 2.8 g∙kg-1, to perfuse F-1, F-2, F-3, F-4 in volume of 80 mL, 56 mL, 33 mL, 17 mL, respectively. At 0-180 min to collect 2 mL blood from the rabbit ears middle arteries for metabolism fingerprints, the results show the particle size of molecular is smaller, the absorption of drugs is better instead. The acute blood stasis model rats were treatment with Fenge decoction of 1.5 g∙kg-1 for 14 days, the concentrations of Ang II in plasma were significantly lower in F-1 and F-2 groups than those in model group (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05), but there were no significantly difference in F-3 and F-4 groups than those in model group (p > 0.05). Despite the molecular aggregation is a common physical phenomenon, it influence on the kind and amount of molecule per unit volume. Molecules morphology influence on the absorption behavior of drugs in vivo therefore is to have an impact on pharmacological function.

  7. Molecular clusters size of Puerariae thomsonii radix aqueous decoction and relevance to oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong; Yang, Caimei; Zhang, Kuan; Hu, Juan; Pang, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    The multi-component system of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is very complicated. The clusters are dynamic aggregates whose molecules are held together by hydrogen-bonded, Van der Waals forces or the opposite charges of particles attract each other. In this paper, field emission scanning electron microscopy proved that molecules form clusters in Pueraria thomsonii Benth (Fenge) water decoction. Four kinds of Fenge water decoction, 0.07 g∙mL-1 (F-1), 0.1 g∙mL-1 (F-2), 0.17 g∙mL-1 (F-3), 0.35 g∙mL-1 (F-4); F-1, average diameter of molecular was about 120 nm; F-2, 195 nm; F-3, 256 nm; and F-4, 480 nm. The molecular size was shown to depend on concentration. Rabbits were given equal does of 2.8 g∙kg-1, to perfuse F-1, F-2, F-3, F-4 in volume of 80 mL, 56 mL, 33 mL, 17 mL, respectively. At 0-180 min to collect 2 mL blood from the rabbit ears middle arteries for metabolism fingerprints, the results show the particle size of molecular is smaller, the absorption of drugs is better instead. The acute blood stasis model rats were treatment with Fenge decoction of 1.5 g∙kg-1 for 14 days, the concentrations of Ang II in plasma were significantly lower in F-1 and F-2 groups than those in model group (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05), but there were no significantly difference in F-3 and F-4 groups than those in model group (p > 0.05). Despite the molecular aggregation is a common physical phenomenon, it influence on the kind and amount of molecule per unit volume. Molecules morphology influence on the absorption behavior of drugs in vivo therefore is to have an impact on pharmacological function. PMID:26198223

  8. East-west genetic differentiation in Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) of Australia suggests late Pleistocene divergence at the Nullarbor Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guay, P.-J.; Chesser, R.T.; Mulder, R.A.; Afton, A.D.; Paton, D.C.; McCracken, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) are endemic to Australia and occur as two geographically isolated populations separated by the Nullarbor Plain, a vast arid region in southern Australia. We studied genetic variation in Musk Duck populations at coarse (eastern versus western Australia) and fine scales (four sites within eastern Australia). We found significant genetic structure between eastern and western Australia in the mtDNA control region (??ST = 0. 747), one nuclear intron (??ST = 0.193) and eight microsatellite loci (FST = 0.035). In contrast, there was little genetic structure between Kangaroo Island and adjacent mainland regions within eastern Australia. One small population of Musk Ducks in Victoria (Lake Wendouree) differed from both Kangaroo Island and the remainder of mainland eastern Australia, possibly due to genetic drift exacerbated by inbreeding and small population size. The observed low pairwise distance between the eastern and western mtDNA lineages (0.36%) suggests that they diverged near the end of the Pleistocene, a period characterised by frequent shifts between wet and arid conditions in central Australia. Our genetic results corroborate the display call divergence and Mathews' (Austral Avian Record 2:83-107, 1914) subspecies classification, and confirm that eastern and western populations of Musk Duck are currently isolated from each other. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. A first integrative study of the identity and origins of the British Dwarf Pill Millipede populations, Trachysphaera cf. lobata (Diplopoda, Glomerida, Glomeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Lee, Paul; Read, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three populations of the pill millipede genus Trachysphaera Heller 1858 are present in Great Britain, one on the Isle of Wight, one in South Wales and one in mid-Wales. To identify and characterize the British Trachysphaera populations, the intraspecific and interspecific variation of the populations in South Wales and on the Isle of Wight were studied and evaluated in a first integrative study of members of Trachysphaera, utilizing barcoding and SEM. DNA was extracted from 28 British Trachysphaera and 10 French T. lobata (Ribaut 1954) specimens, one each of French T. cf. drescoi (Conde and Demange 1961) and T. pyrenaica (Ribaut 1908), and one of Spanish T. cf. rousseti (Demange 1959); the barcoding fragment of the COI gene was amplified and their genetic intra- and interpopulation distances compared with one another using two Italian T. spp. and one Croatian T. schmidti Heller 1858 specimens as near outgroups. To compare the genetic distances with the morphological characters, 15 characters of a total of 13 British Trachysphaera, together with two specimens of T. pyrenaica, two T. cf. drescoi and one of T. cf. rousseti were imaged, using the same individuals utilized for DNA extraction. Albeit both British populations are genetically distant, they are closely related (1.9–2.5% p-distance) to French T. lobata, corroborating results of earlier studies. Between different Trachysphaera species, genetic distance was high (16.7–18.8%). The morphological study showed the non-reliability of key taxonomic characters in Trachysphaera, with genetically identical individuals exhibiting morphological variation, especially on the telopods. The only observed morphological characters constant within and different between species were the number of rows of sclerotized bacilli on the tergites, as well as the shape of the male and female anal shield. Both, barcoding and the morphological study identify the British Trachysphaera populations as T. lobata. PMID:26175612

  10. Influence of late Quaternary climate change on present patterns of genetic variation in valley oak, Quercus lobata Née.

    PubMed

    Gugger, Paul F; Ikegami, Makihiko; Sork, Victoria L

    2013-07-01

    Phylogeography and ecological niche models (ENMs) suggest that late Quaternary glacial cycles have played a prominent role in shaping present population genetic structure and diversity, but have not applied quantitative methods to dissect the relative contribution of past and present climate vs. other forces. We integrate multilocus phylogeography, climate-based ENMs and multivariate statistical approaches to infer the effects of late Quaternary climate change on contemporary genetic variation of valley oak (Quercus lobata Née). ENMs indicated that valley oak maintained a stable distribution with local migration from the last interglacial period (~120 ka) to the Last Glacial Maximum (~21 ka, LGM) to the present compared with large-scale range shifts for an eastern North American white oak (Quercus alba L.). Coast Range and Sierra Nevada foothill populations diverged in the late Pleistocene before the LGM [104 ka (28-1622)] and have occupied somewhat distinct climate niches, according to ENMs and coalescent analyses of divergence time. In accordance with neutral expectations for stable populations, nuclear microsatellite diversity positively correlated with niche stability from the LGM to present. Most strikingly, nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite variation significantly correlated with LGM climate, even after controlling for associations with geographic location and present climate using partial redundancy analyses. Variance partitioning showed that LGM climate uniquely explains a similar proportion of genetic variance as present climate (16% vs. 11-18%), and together, past and present climate explains more than geography (19%). Climate can influence local expansion-contraction dynamics, flowering phenology and thus gene flow, and/or impose selective pressures. These results highlight the lingering effect of past climate on genetic variation in species with stable distributions.

  11. [Effects of 6-benzylaminopurine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid on growth and isoflavone contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots].

    PubMed

    He, Hanjie; Shi, Heping

    2014-10-01

    In order to study the effect of phytohormone on growth and isoflavones contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots, we cultured the hairy roots with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) alone or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Then we determined the effects of 6-BA alone or in combination with NAA on the growth and the contents of isoflavones compounds and levels of antioxidase activities of hairy roots by spectrophotometry. The results show that 6-BA inhibited the growth, and decreased biomass and total isoflavones compounds of P. phaseoloides hairy roots. Furthermore, the inhibition was increased with the concentrations of 6-BA. Compared with the controls, different concentrations of 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L could inhibit the growth of hairy roots and decrease the content of total isoflavone compounds, and also significantly enhanced the contents of soluble protein and levels of peroxidase (POD) activities, but decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD). DNA ladders detected by agarose gel electrophoresis can be observed after hairy roots of P. phaseoloides were cultured with 6-BA alone for 30 days, but can appear on the 20th day after culture with 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L. This result indicates that 6-BA or 6-BA in combination with NAA can both stimulate appearance of programmed cell death (PCD), and NAA may play a synergistic role on PCD. PMID:25726582

  12. Assessment of fertility and reproductive toxicity in adult female mice after long-term exposure to Pueraria mirifica herb.

    PubMed

    Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Wattanasirmkit, Kingkaew; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Cherdshewasart, Wichai

    2007-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of long-term administration of Pueraria mirifica (PM) at non-toxic doses on the ovarian function and fertility of adult female mice based on evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Female mice were divided into 4 groups (36 mice/group). Groups 1-3 were orally treated with a dose of 0 (PM-0), 10 (PM-10) or 100 mg/kg BW/day PM (PM-100), and group 4 was subcutaneously injected with 200 mug/kg BW/day of synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES). The treatment schedule was separated into treatment and post-treatment periods. The duration of each period was 8 weeks. The PM-10 mice exhibited regular estrous cycles, while the PM-100 and DES treatments induced prolonged estrous cycles. Although no changes were observed in the uterus and ovary weights of the mice after the PM-100 and DES treatments, hyperplasia of the uterine endothelium and a decrease in the number of growing ovarian follicles were detected. The changes in the ovarian histologies of the PM-100 and DES mice were related to reductions in the levels of LH and FSH, which subsequently caused a decrease in mating efficiency. Once the PM mice were able to copulate, they were capable of successfully becoming pregnant and mothering offspring. No abnormalities were observed in the external morphologies and reproductive organ weights of the 50-day-old offspring. In conclusion, our results suggest that long-term exposure to 100 mg/kg BW of PM has adverse effects on the mating efficiency and reproduction of adult female mice and that administration of 10 mg/kg BW of PM does not induce any changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-uterine axis.

  13. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis.

    PubMed

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Kiatoko, Honoré; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P < 0.05) was observed decreasing from 126 for 0 % to approximately 84 g/kg of body weight for the 40 % forage diets, except for V. unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility.

  14. Puerariae flos alleviates metabolic diseases in Western diet-loaded, spontaneously obese type 2 diabetic model mice.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Koshi; Shimada, Tsutomu; Onishi, Rei; Tsubata, Masahito; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Nagamine, Rika; Iizuka, Seiichi; Sai, Yoshimichi; Amagaya, Sakae; Aburada, Masaki; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Puerariae flos extract (PFE) has been reported to have many effects, including preventing the development of hangovers, liver protective effects, and an estrogenic effect. In addition, some papers reported that PFE is effective against metabolic diseases, with hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects. However, the mechanism underlying such effects remains unclear. For the purpose of clarifying the effect of PFE on metabolic diseases related to the accumulation of visceral fat and to determine the mechanism of such action, TSOD mice, a multifactorial genetic disease animal model that spontaneously develops various metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, were given a Western diet (WTD) as an environmental factor to prepare a disease model (TSOD-WTD). When TSOD mice were loaded with WTD, it was confirmed that metabolic diseases such as obesity and abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism are aggravated. In contrast, PFE treatment to TSOD-WTD mice was shown to suppress body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation, alleviated the abnormal glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia, as well as causing an increase in blood adiponectin. Furthermore, the suppression of liver enlargement was observed in PFE-treated mice, with suppression of fatty degeneration and anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, to clarify the mechanism of the hyperlipidemia-alleviating effects in the liver, we investigated the effect of PFE on the expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. PFE was associated with a significant increase in gene expression for cholesterol synthesis rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, cholesterol catabolization enzyme Cyp7A1, bile salt export pump adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter B11, and low-density lipoprotein receptor involved in cholesterol uptake. The above results suggest that PFE acts to alleviate the effects of various metabolic diseases based on the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue, including obesity, diabetes

  15. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis.

    PubMed

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Kiatoko, Honoré; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P < 0.05) was observed decreasing from 126 for 0 % to approximately 84 g/kg of body weight for the 40 % forage diets, except for V. unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility. PMID:25069970

  16. Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Pueraria Flavones by a Novel Solid Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SMEDDS) Dropping Pills.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingxiang; Zhang, Guangyuan; Sun, Shilin; Fan, Hongbo; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Shaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To improve bioavailability of pueraria flavones (PF), a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) dropping pills composed of PF, Crodamol GTCC, Maisine 35-1, Cremophor RH 40, 1,2-propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) was developed. Particle size, zeta potential, morphology and in vitro drug release were investigated, respectively. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills were also evaluated and compared in rats. Puerarin treated as the representative component of PF was analyzed. Dynamic light scattering showed the ability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills to form a nanoemulsion droplet size in aqueous media. The type of media showed no significant effects on the release rate of PF. PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were able to improve the in vitro release rate of PF, and the in vitro release of these dropping pills was significantly faster than that of Yufengningxin dropping pills. There was a dramatic difference between the mean value of t1/2, peak concentration (Cmax), the area of concentration-time curve from 0 to 6 h (AUC0-6 h) of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and that of commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills. A pharmacokinetic study showed that the bioavailability of PF was greatly enhanced by PF-SMEDDS dropping pills. The value of Cmax and relative bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were dramatically improved by an average of 1.69- and 2.36-fold compared with that of Yufengningxin dropping pills after gavage administration, respectively. It was concluded that bioavailability of PF was greatly improved and that PF-SMEDDS dropping pills might be an encouraging strategy to enhance the oral bioavailability of PF. PMID:26935150

  17. Anti-osteoporotic effects of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica on bone mineral density and histomorphometry in estrogen-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Suthon, Sarocha; Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-04-01

    Although it has been clearly shown that Pueraria mirifica and its phytoestrogens can mimic estrogen in preventing bone loss, as osteoporosis is an asymptomatic disease, the therapeutic effects of P. mirifica should be acknowledged. In this study, 6-month-old female rats were ovariectomized, kept for 4 weeks to induce bone loss, divided into five groups, and treated with P. mirifica at doses of 0, 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg BW/day (PM0, PM5, PM25, and PM50 groups, respectively) or 7 mg/kg BW/day of puerarin (PU group) for 12 weeks. Only the trabecular bone mineral densities (BMDs) of tibia metaphysis (at the 12th, 14th, and 16th week) and total and trabecular BMDs of L4 (at the 16th week) of the PM50 group were significantly higher than those of the PM0 group. However, the BMDs of tibia metaphysis and L4 at the 16th week of the study period were kept significantly lower than those of the 0 week, and the BMD was also significantly lower than that of the 4th week for tibia metaphysis. The trabecular bone area (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and osteoblast surface (Ob.S/BS) were significantly higher, and trabecular space (Tb.Sp) was significantly lower in the PM50 group, as compared with those of the PM0 group. This study indicates that P. mirifica could be used as an anti-osteoporotic agent for postmenopausal women. Since P. mirifica could mainly retain bone mass at the levels before bone loss is initiated, the use of other anabolic agents in combination with P. mirifica is recommended for osteoporotic patients. PMID:26815435

  18. Declinol, a Complex Containing Kudzu, Bitter Herbs (Gentian, Tangerine Peel) and Bupleurum, Significantly Reduced Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) Scores in Moderate to Heavy Drinkers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Steven; Han, David; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; William Downs, B; Madigan, Margaret A; Giordano, John; Beley, Thomas; Jones, Scott; Barh, Debmayla; Simpatico, Thomas; Dushaj, Kristina; Lohmann, Raquel; Braverman, Eric R; Schoenthaler, Stephen; Ellison, David; Blum, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that inherited human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2) deficiency reduces the risk for alcoholism. Kudzu plants and extracts have been used for 1,000 years in traditional Chinese medicine to treat alcoholism. Kudzu contains daidzin, which inhibits ALDH-2 and suppresses heavy drinking in rodents. Decreased drinking due to ALDH-2 inhibition is attributed to aversive properties of acetaldehyde accumulated during alcohol consumption. However not all of the anti-alcohol properties of diadzin are due to inhibition of ALDH-2. This is in agreement with our earlier work showing significant interaction effects of both pyrozole (ALDH-2 inhibitor) and methyl-pyrozole (non-inhibitor) and ethanol’s depressant effects. Moreover, it has been suggested that selective ALDH 2 inhibitors reduce craving for alcohol by increasing dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In addition there is significant evidence related to the role of the genetics of bitter receptors (TAS2R) and its stimulation as an aversive mechanism against alcohol intake. The inclusion of bitters such as Gentian & Tangerine Peel in Declinol provides stimulation of gut TAS2R receptors which is potentially synergistic with the effects of Kudzu. Finally the addition of Radix Bupleuri in the Declinol formula may have some protective benefits not only in terms of ethanol induced liver toxicity but neurochemical actions involving endorphins, dopamine and epinephrine. With this information as a rationale, we report herein that this combination significantly reduced Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores administered to ten heavy drinkers (M=8, F=2; 43.2 ± 14.6 years) attending a recovery program. Specifically, from the pre-post comparison of the AUD scores, it was found that the score of every participant decreased after the intervention which ranged from 1 to 31. The decrease in the scores was found to be statistically significant with the p-value of 0.00298 (two-sided paired

  19. Declinol, a Complex Containing Kudzu, Bitter Herbs (Gentian, Tangerine Peel) and Bupleurum, Significantly Reduced Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) Scores in Moderate to Heavy Drinkers: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Steven; Han, David; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; William Downs, B; Madigan, Margaret A; Giordano, John; Beley, Thomas; Jones, Scott; Barh, Debmayla; Simpatico, Thomas; Dushaj, Kristina; Lohmann, Raquel; Braverman, Eric R; Schoenthaler, Stephen; Ellison, David; Blum, Kenneth

    2013-07-01

    It is well established that inherited human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2) deficiency reduces the risk for alcoholism. Kudzu plants and extracts have been used for 1,000 years in traditional Chinese medicine to treat alcoholism. Kudzu contains daidzin, which inhibits ALDH-2 and suppresses heavy drinking in rodents. Decreased drinking due to ALDH-2 inhibition is attributed to aversive properties of acetaldehyde accumulated during alcohol consumption. However not all of the anti-alcohol properties of diadzin are due to inhibition of ALDH-2. This is in agreement with our earlier work showing significant interaction effects of both pyrozole (ALDH-2 inhibitor) and methyl-pyrozole (non-inhibitor) and ethanol's depressant effects. Moreover, it has been suggested that selective ALDH 2 inhibitors reduce craving for alcohol by increasing dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In addition there is significant evidence related to the role of the genetics of bitter receptors (TAS2R) and its stimulation as an aversive mechanism against alcohol intake. The inclusion of bitters such as Gentian & Tangerine Peel in Declinol provides stimulation of gut TAS2R receptors which is potentially synergistic with the effects of Kudzu. Finally the addition of Radix Bupleuri in the Declinol formula may have some protective benefits not only in terms of ethanol induced liver toxicity but neurochemical actions involving endorphins, dopamine and epinephrine. With this information as a rationale, we report herein that this combination significantly reduced Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores administered to ten heavy drinkers (M=8, F=2; 43.2 ± 14.6 years) attending a recovery program. Specifically, from the pre-post comparison of the AUD scores, it was found that the score of every participant decreased after the intervention which ranged from 1 to 31. The decrease in the scores was found to be statistically significant with the p-value of 0.00298 (two-sided paired test

  20. Thermotolerance of leaf discs from four isoprene-emitting species is not enhanced by exposure to exogenous isoprene

    PubMed

    Logan; Monson

    1999-07-01

    The effects of exogenously supplied isoprene on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics were examined in leaf discs of four isoprene-emitting plant species, kudzu (Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi.), velvet bean (Mucuna sp.), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), and pussy willow (Salix discolor Muhl). Isoprene, supplied to the leaves at either 18 &mgr;L L-1 in compressed air or 21 &mgr;L L-1 in N2, had no effect on the temperature at which minimal fluorescence exhibited an upward inflection during controlled increases in leaf-disc temperature. During exposure to 1008 &mgr;mol photons m-2 s-1 in an N2 atmosphere, 21 &mgr;L L-1 isoprene had no effect on the thermally induced inflection of steady-state fluorescence. The maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry decreased sharply as leaf-disc temperature was increased; however, this decrease was unaffected by exposure of leaf discs to 21 &mgr;L L-1 isoprene. Therefore, there were no discernible effects of isoprene on the occurrence of symptoms of high-temperature damage to thylakoid membranes. Our data do not support the hypothesis that isoprene enhances leaf thermotolerance. PMID:10398717

  1. Thermotolerance of leaf discs from four isoprene-emitting species is not enhanced by exposure to exogenous isoprene

    PubMed

    Logan; Monson

    1999-07-01

    The effects of exogenously supplied isoprene on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics were examined in leaf discs of four isoprene-emitting plant species, kudzu (Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi.), velvet bean (Mucuna sp.), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), and pussy willow (Salix discolor Muhl). Isoprene, supplied to the leaves at either 18 &mgr;L L-1 in compressed air or 21 &mgr;L L-1 in N2, had no effect on the temperature at which minimal fluorescence exhibited an upward inflection during controlled increases in leaf-disc temperature. During exposure to 1008 &mgr;mol photons m-2 s-1 in an N2 atmosphere, 21 &mgr;L L-1 isoprene had no effect on the thermally induced inflection of steady-state fluorescence. The maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry decreased sharply as leaf-disc temperature was increased; however, this decrease was unaffected by exposure of leaf discs to 21 &mgr;L L-1 isoprene. Therefore, there were no discernible effects of isoprene on the occurrence of symptoms of high-temperature damage to thylakoid membranes. Our data do not support the hypothesis that isoprene enhances leaf thermotolerance.

  2. Thermotolerance of Leaf Discs from Four Isoprene-Emitting Species Is Not Enhanced by Exposure to Exogenous Isoprene1

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Barry A.; Monson, Russell K.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of exogenously supplied isoprene on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics were examined in leaf discs of four isoprene-emitting plant species, kudzu (Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi.), velvet bean (Mucuna sp.), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), and pussy willow (Salix discolor Muhl). Isoprene, supplied to the leaves at either 18 μL L−1 in compressed air or 21 μL L−1 in N2, had no effect on the temperature at which minimal fluorescence exhibited an upward inflection during controlled increases in leaf-disc temperature. During exposure to 1008 μmol photons m−2 s−1 in an N2 atmosphere, 21 μL L−1 isoprene had no effect on the thermally induced inflection of steady-state fluorescence. The maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry decreased sharply as leaf-disc temperature was increased; however, this decrease was unaffected by exposure of leaf discs to 21 μL L−1 isoprene. Therefore, there were no discernible effects of isoprene on the occurrence of symptoms of high-temperature damage to thylakoid membranes. Our data do not support the hypothesis that isoprene enhances leaf thermotolerance. PMID:10398717

  3. The Application of Dynamic Time Warping to the Quality Evaluation of Radix Puerariae thomsonii: Correcting Retention Time Shift in the Chromatographic Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Long; Wang, Xiaofei; Bing, Shan; Wang, Li; Li, Hua

    2015-07-01

    The application of dynamic time warping (DTW) to the correction of retention time shift in chromatographic fingerprints of Radix Puerariae thomsonii (RPT) was studied. The fingerprints of 27 RPT samples were established with their entire chromatograms. Because there is retention time shift in the obtained fingerprints, the quality of these samples cannot be correctly evaluated by applying similarity estimation and principal component analysis (PCA) to the unaligned fingerprints. Hence, the fingerprints were aligned by using DTW method. After alignment, the retention time shift was corrected satisfactorily and the quality of these RPT samples was correctly evaluated. It is demonstrated that DTW is a practical method for aligning the chromatographic fingerprints of RPT samples. The combination of similarity estimation, PCA and DTW is shown to be a promising method for evaluating the quality of herbal medicines.

  4. Suitability of Pueraria phaseoloides, Chromolaena odorata and Tithonia diversifolia as in-situ mulch for nematode management in musa cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Schösser, B; Hauser, S; Sikora, R A

    2006-01-01

    Mulching with plant organic matter has been shown to reduce nematode population densities in various cropping systems. The level of nematode control is increased when such mulches are incorporated into the soil as organic amendments. Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides are common cover crops in West and Central Africa that produce large quantities of nutrient rich biomass. The aim of this study was to determine, if in-situ mulching of C. odorata, T. diversifolia and P. phaseoloides is suitable for nematode control in Musa production. In a pot trial, the susceptibility of these plants to spiral nematodes was investigated. The effects of different quantities of surface mulch on nematode population densities in the soil and in banana roots also were determined. All mulch types and all quantities led to a reduction in nematode population densities in the soil. The strongest nematode reductions were observed in the Pueraria treatments. In treatments containing banana plants mulching improved plant growth compared to the clean-fallowed soil and induced lower root infestation rates. However, nematode soil populations were higher in mulched than in non-mulched banana treatments. Plant parasitic nematodes also were isolated from roots of all three cover crop species and all three plants caused an increase in nematode numbers in the soil. Therefore, the tested cover crops proved unsuitable for nematode control in a system with the highly susceptible bananas. Further examinations are needed to determine whether or not the positive effects of surface mulching on plantain plant growth and root infestation rates also have positive effects on yield in an in-situ mulching system in the presence of nematodes. PMID:17390809

  5. Suitability of Pueraria phaseoloides, Chromolaena odorata and Tithonia diversifolia as in-situ mulch for nematode management in musa cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Schösser, B; Hauser, S; Sikora, R A

    2006-01-01

    Mulching with plant organic matter has been shown to reduce nematode population densities in various cropping systems. The level of nematode control is increased when such mulches are incorporated into the soil as organic amendments. Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides are common cover crops in West and Central Africa that produce large quantities of nutrient rich biomass. The aim of this study was to determine, if in-situ mulching of C. odorata, T. diversifolia and P. phaseoloides is suitable for nematode control in Musa production. In a pot trial, the susceptibility of these plants to spiral nematodes was investigated. The effects of different quantities of surface mulch on nematode population densities in the soil and in banana roots also were determined. All mulch types and all quantities led to a reduction in nematode population densities in the soil. The strongest nematode reductions were observed in the Pueraria treatments. In treatments containing banana plants mulching improved plant growth compared to the clean-fallowed soil and induced lower root infestation rates. However, nematode soil populations were higher in mulched than in non-mulched banana treatments. Plant parasitic nematodes also were isolated from roots of all three cover crop species and all three plants caused an increase in nematode numbers in the soil. Therefore, the tested cover crops proved unsuitable for nematode control in a system with the highly susceptible bananas. Further examinations are needed to determine whether or not the positive effects of surface mulching on plantain plant growth and root infestation rates also have positive effects on yield in an in-situ mulching system in the presence of nematodes.

  6. Protein expression and genetic structure of the coral Porites lobata in an environmentally extreme Samoan back reef: Does host genotype limit phenotypic plasticity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barshis, D.J.; Stillman, J.H.; Gates, R.D.; Toonen, R.J.; Smith, L.W.; Birkeland, C.

    2010-01-01

    The degree to which coral reef ecosystems will be impacted by global climate change depends on regional and local differences in corals' susceptibility and resilience to environmental stressors. Here, we present data from a reciprocal transplant experiment using the common reef building coral Porites lobata between a highly fluctuating back reef environment that reaches stressful daily extremes, and a more stable, neighbouring forereef. Protein biomarker analyses assessing physiological contributions to stress resistance showed evidence for both fixed and environmental influence on biomarker response. Fixed influences were strongest for ubiquitin-conjugated proteins with consistently higher levels found in back reef source colonies both pre and post-transplant when compared with their forereef conspecifics. Additionally, genetic comparisons of back reef and forereef populations revealed significant population structure of both the nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial genomes of the coral host (FST = 0.146 P < 0.0001, FST = 0.335 P < 0.0001 for rDNA and mtDNA, respectively), whereas algal endosymbiont populations were genetically indistinguishable between the two sites. We propose that the genotype of the coral host may drive limitations to the physiological responses of these corals when faced with new environmental conditions. This result is important in understanding genotypic and environmental interactions in the coral algal symbiosis and how corals may respond to future environmental changes. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Kudzu, Rabbits, and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlad, John I.

    2002-01-01

    Essay on school reform argues that quality teachers are key to successful reform, not reform rhetoric by state governors and U.S. Presidents. Asserts that primary mission of schooling is to provide students an educational apprenticeship in democracy. Qualified, caring, competent teachers are essential to accomplish this mission. (PKP)

  8. Gene movement and genetic association with regional climate gradients in California valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) in the face of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sork, Victoria L.; Davis, Frank W.; Westfall, Robert; Flint, Alan L.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Wang, Hongfang; Grivet, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    Rapid climate change jeopardizes tree populations by shifting current climate zones. To avoid extinction, tree populations must tolerate, adapt, or migrate. Here we investigate geographic patterns of genetic variation in valley oak, Quercus lobata N??e, to assess how underlying genetic structure of populations might influence this species' ability to survive climate change. First, to understand how genetic lineages shape spatial genetic patterns, we examine historical patterns of colonization. Second, we examine the correlation between multivariate nuclear genetic variation and climatic variation. Third, to illustrate how geographic genetic variation could interact with regional patterns of 21st Century climate change, we produce region-specific bioclimatic distributions of valley oak using Maximum Entropy (MAXENT) models based on downscaled historical (1971-2000) and future (2070-2100) climate grids. Future climatologies are based on a moderate-high (A2) carbon emission scenario and two different global climate models. Chloroplast markers indicate historical range-wide connectivity via colonization, especially in the north. Multivariate nuclear genotypes show a strong association with climate variation that provides opportunity for local adaptation to the conditions within their climatic envelope. Comparison of regional current and projected patterns of climate suitability indicates that valley oaks grow in distinctly different climate conditions in different parts of their range. Our models predict widely different regional outcomes from local displacement of a few kilometres to hundreds of kilometres. We conclude that the relative importance of migration, adaptation, and tolerance are likely to vary widely for populations among regions, and that late 21st Century conditions could lead to regional extinctions. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Soil transfers from valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) stands increase ectomycorrhizal diversity and alter root and shoot growth on valley oak seedlings.

    PubMed

    Berman, J T; Bledsoe, C S

    1998-02-01

    Soils from valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) riparian areas of the Cosumnes River Nature Conservancy Preserve near Sacramento, California were added to growth medium of valley oak seedlings grown in a greenhouse or in agricultural fields at Cosumnes which probably once supported valley oak trees and are now replanted with native riparian vegetation or allowed to revegetate naturally. Agricultural field soil from the Cosumnes River Preserve was presumed to be low or lacking in ectomycorrhizal inoculum. The study was designed to (1) determine whether valley oak stand soil transfer could cause mycorrhizal infection on valley oak seedlings in an agricultural field and in a greenhouse, (2) describe ectomycorrhizal morphological types formed on valley oak seedlings, and (3) determine whether seedling growth is enhanced more by transfer of natural valley oak stand soil than agricultural field soil. In the field study, transfer of forest soil increased average ectomycorrhizal diversity (2.4 types) more than transfer of agricultural field soil (1.2 types). Valley oak seedlings were responsive to ectomycorrhizal infection in the field study. With increase in mycorrhizal infection there was an increase in shoot growth at the expense of root growth. In the greenhouse study, both percent mycorrhizal infection and mycorrhizal diversity were increased more by transfer of oak forest and woodland soils than agricultural field soil. Eight morphotypes occurred on seedlings in forest and woodland soils but only three morphotypes in agricultural soil. This result strongly suggests that the agricultural field also harbors ectomycorrhizal propagules but forest and woodland soils support a more abundant and diverse ectomycorrhizal flora.

  10. A high resolution δ13C record in a modern Porites lobata coral: Insights into controls on skeletal δ13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Nicola; Finch, Adrian A.; EIMF

    2012-05-01

    δ13C was determined at a high spatial resolution by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) across a 1 year section of a modern Porites lobata coral skeleton from Hawaii. Skeletal δ13C is dominated by large oscillations of 5-7‰ that typically cover skeletal distances equivalent to periods of ˜14-40 days. These variations do not reflect seawater temperature and it is unlikely that they reflect variations in the δ13C of local seawater. We observe no correlation between skeletal δ13C and the pH of the calcification fluid (estimated from previous measurements of skeletal δ11B). We conclude that either the proportion of skeletal carbon derived from metabolic CO2 is not reflected by estimated ECF pH (as the [CO2] in the overlying coral tissue varies) and/or the δ13C composition of the metabolic CO2 is highly variable. We also observe no correlation between skeletal δ13C and previous δ18O SIMS measurements. Variations in skeletal δ13C and δ18O do not have a common timing, providing no evidence that skeletal δ13C and δ18O vary in response to a single factor. This suggests that skeletal δ13C is principally driven by variations in the δ13C composition of metabolic CO2 rather than by the abundance of metabolic CO2, which would also affect skeletal δ18O. The δ13C composition of metabolic CO2 reflects the processes of photosynthesis, heterotrophic feeding and respiration in the overlying coral tissue. Corals catabolise stored lipid reserves to meet energetic demands when photosynthesis conditions are sub-optimal. Variations in the amounts and types of reserves utilised could induce changes in the δ13C composition of metabolic CO2 and the resultant skeleton which are temporally offset from skeletal δ18O records.

  11. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF) in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg). At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage. PMID:27042190

  12. Discrimination of the Thai rejuvenating herbs Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna collettii (Black Kwao Khruea) using PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Yodpetch, Woraluk; Komatsu, Katsuko; Zhu, Shu; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Sukrong, Suchada

    2013-07-01

    The tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea) and Mucuna collettii (Black Kwao Khruea), which belong to the family Leguminosae, are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional Thai medicine. Although all of these species have an indication for rejuvenation, each differs in its medicinal properties. Two varieties of P. candollei, var. mirifica and var. candollei, affect females, whereas B. superba and M. collettii exhibit effects on males. However, the identification of these roots according to the name "Kwao Khruea" is confusing due to the similarity in their features. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was utilised to identify plant origin. The partial matK gene was amplified and subjected to restriction enzyme digestion with DdeI and TaqI. The restriction fragments generated differed in number and size. To test the reliability of the method, an admixture of the different Kwao Khruea species containing equal amounts of DNA was tested. The results showed combined restriction patterns, and each species could be detected in the background of the others. The method was also used to authenticate eight different crude drugs sold as various types of Kwao Khruea in Thai markets. The results showed that the misidentification of commercial drugs remains a problem in crude drug markets. The PCR-RFLP analysis developed here provides a simple and accurate discrimination of these rejuvenating "Kwao Khruea" species. PMID:23086155

  13. 76 FR 31790 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... rulemaking was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 78932) on December 17, 2010. Interested parties were...--Zea mays L. subsp. mays'', ``Crambe--Crambe abyssinica R.E. Fr.'', ``Crotalaria, slenderleaf...--Phalaris stenoptera Hack.'', ``Hemp--Cannabis sativa L.'', ``Kudzu--Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr....

  14. 75 FR 78932 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...--Zea mays L. subsp. mays'', ``Crambe--Crambe abyssinica R.E. Fr.'', ``Crotalaria, slenderleaf...) Steud.'', ``Hardinggrass--Phalaris stenoptera Hack.'', ``Hemp--Cannabis sativa L.'', ``Kudzu--Pueraria... gracilis ] (Kunth) Griffiths'', ``Hardinggrass--Phalaris aquatica L.'', ``Hemp-- Cannabis sativa L....

  15. Improvements of Vaginal Atrophy without Systemic Side Effects after Topical Application of Pueraria mirifica, a Phytoestrogen-rich Herb, in Postmenopausal Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    JAROENPORN, Sukanya; URASOPON, Nontakorn; WATANABE, Gen; MALAIVIJITNOND, Suchinda

    2014-01-01

    The estrogenic efficacy of topical vaginal application of Pueraria mirifica extract (PM) on the restoration of vaginal atrophy, and the presence of any systemic side effects, were investigated in postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques. Twelve postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques, with complete cessation of menstruation for at least 5 years before start of this experiment, were divided into three groups. They received a topical vaginal application daily of 0.1 or 1% (w/w) PM cream or a conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) cream (a mixture of estrone, equilin, 17β-dihydroequilin, 17α-estradiol and 17α-dihydroequilin at 0.625 mg total estrogen/g cream) for 28 days. Estrogenic efficacy was assessed weekly by vaginal cytology assay and vaginal pH measurement, whilst the plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and sex skin coloration levels were determined at the end of each treatment period to evaluate the systemic side effects. PM significantly increased the proportion of superficial cells in a dose-dependent manner, with a similar efficacy between 1% (w/w) PM and CEE. Together with increased vaginal maturation, PM decreased the vaginal pH to acidic levels, as observed in the CEE group. PM induced no detected systemic side effects, whilst CEE decreased the plasma LH level and increased the reddish color of the sex skin during the posttreatment period. Topical vaginal treatment with PM stimulated the maturation of the vaginal epithelium without causing systemic side effects in postmenopausal monkeys. The implication is that PM could be a safer alternative to treat vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. PMID:24748397

  16. Puerarin, an isoflavonoid derived from Radix puerariae, potentiates endothelium-independent relaxation via the cyclic AMP pathway in porcine coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Dennis K Y; Leung, Susan W S; Xu, Yan Chun; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Man, Ricky Y K

    2006-12-15

    Puerarin, an isoflavonoid derived from the Chinese medicinal herb Radix puerariae, has been suggested to be useful in the management of various cardiovascular disorders. The present study examined the effect of acute exposure (30 min) to puerarin on vascular relaxation. Rings from porcine coronary artery of either sex were used. The highest concentration of puerarin (100 microM) produced a small but statistically significant relaxation of U46619-contracted rings. Vascular relaxations were also studied in the presence of lower concentrations of puerarin (0.1, 1 and 10 microM) which had no direct relaxation effect. Puerarin enhanced vasorelaxation to endothelium-independent relaxing agents, sodium nitroprusside and cromakalim. However, puerarin had no effect on vasorelaxation induced by endothelium-dependent relaxing agents, bradykinin and calcium ionophore A23187. The potentiating action of puerarin (10 microM) on sodium nitroprusside-mediated relaxation was not affected by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 300 microM), or by the disruption of the endothelium with Triton X-100. The effect of puerarin was reversible following a washout period. The potentiating effects were comparable with the 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) analogues, 8-bromoadenosine-3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic AMP; 10 muM) and Sp-isomer [S nomenclature refers to phosphorus] of adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Sp-cyclic AMPS; 3 microM), but not the 3'-5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP) analogue, 8-bromoguanosine-3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic GMP; 3 microM). The cyclic AMP antagonist, Rp-isomer [R nomenclature refers to phosphorus] of 8-bromoadenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-8-Br-cyclic AMPS; 10 microM), but not cyclic GMP antagonist, Rp-isomer of 8-bromoguanosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-8-Br-cyclic GMPS; 10 microM), reversed the effects of puerarin (10

  17. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women’s health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women’s Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  18. Puerarin ameliorates experimental alcoholic liver injury by inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing-Hua; Cui, Tuan; Huang, Fu; Chen, Liang; Zhao, Yu; Xu, Lin; Xu, Li-Li; Feng, Qin; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2013-03-01

    Puerarin, an isoflavone component extracted from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata), has been demonstrated to alleviate alcohol-related disorders. Our study examined whether puerarin ameliorates chronic alcoholic liver injury through inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, the subsequent Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression. Rats were provided with the Liber-DeCarli liquid diet for 8 weeks. Puerarin (90 mg/kg or 180 mg/kg daily) was orally administered from the beginning of the third week until the end of the experiment. Chronic alcohol intake caused increased serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and triglyceride levels as well as fatty liver and neutrophil infiltration in hepatic lobules as determined by biochemical and histologic assays. A significant increase of liver tumor necrosis factor α was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These pathologic effects correlated with increased endotoxin level in portal vein and upregulated protein expression of hepatic CD68, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, CD14, Toll-like receptor 2, and Toll-like receptor 4. Meanwhile, the intestinal microvilli were observed to be sparse, shortened, and irregularity in distribution under the transmission electron microscope in conjunction with the downregulated intestinal zonula occludens-1 protein expression. These hepatic pathologic changes were significantly inhibited in puerarin-treated animals as were the endotoxin levels and hepatic CD68 and endotoxin receptors. Moreover, the pathologic changes in intestinal microvillus and the decreased intestinal zonula occludens-1 were also ameliorated with puerarin treatment. These results thus demonstrate that puerarin inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression is involved in the alleviation of chronic alcoholic liver injury in rats.

  19. Selenium speciation in radix puerariae using ultrasonic assisted extraction combined with reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after magnetic solid-phase extraction with 5-sulfosalicylic acid functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yupin; Yan, Lizhen; Huang, Hongli; Deng, Biyang

    2016-08-01

    A new method for determination of selenium species in radix puerariae was described. The method consists of sample enrichment with 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SSA)-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, and online detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium species were extracted using ultrasonic extraction system with a mixture of protease K and lipase. The SSA-SMNPs were used to enrich trace amounts of selenite [Se(IV)], selenate [Se(VI)], selenomethionine (SeMet), and selenocystine (SeCys2) from lower selenium containing samples. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (3σ) for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were observed as 0.0023, 0.0015, 0.0043, and 0.0016 ng mL- 1, respectively. The RSD values (n = 6) of method for intraday were observed between 0.5% and 0.9%. The RSD values of method for interday were less than 1.3%. The linear concentration ranges for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were 0.008-1000, 0.005-200, 0.015-500 and 0.006-200 ng mL- 1, respectively. The detection limits of this method were improved by 10 times due to the enrichment with the SSA-SMNP extraction. The contents of SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet, and Se(VI) in radix puerariae were determined as 0.0140, 0.171, 0.0178, and 0.0344 μg g- 1, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 95.6%-99.4% and the RSDs (n = 6) of recoveries were less than 1.5%.

  20. A strategy for fast screening and identification of sulfur derivatives in medicinal Pueraria species based on the fine isotopic pattern filtering method using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Guo, De-an

    2015-09-24

    Sulfurous compounds are commonly present in plants, fungi, and animals. Most of them were reported to possess various bioactivities. Isotopic pattern filter (IPF) is a powerful tool for screening compounds with distinct isotope pattern. Over the past decades, the IPF was used mainly to study Cl- and Br-containing compounds. To our knowledge, the algorithm was scarcely used to screen S-containing compounds, especially when combined with chromatography analyses, because the (34)S isotopic ion is drastically affected by (13)C2 and (18)O. Thus, we present a new method for a fine isotopic pattern filter (FIPF) based on the separated M + 2 ions ((12)C(x)(1)H(y)(16)O(z)(32)S(13)C2(18)O, (12)C(x+2)(1)H(y)(16)O(z+1)(34)S, tentatively named M + 2OC and M + 2S) with an ultra-high-resolution mass (100,000 FWHM @ 400 m/z) to screen sulfur derivatives in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM).This finer algorithm operates through convenient filters, including an accurate mass shift of M + 2OC and M + 2S from M and their relative intensity compared to M. The method was validated at various mass resolutions, mass accuracies, and screening thresholds of flexible elemental compositions. Using the established FIPF method, twelve S-derivatives were found in the popular medicinal used Pueraria species, and 9 of them were tentatively identified by high-resolution multiple stage mass spectrometry (HRMS(n)). The compounds were used to evaluate the sulfurous compounds' situation in commercially purchased Pueraria products. The strategy presented here provides a promising application of the IPF method in a new field. PMID:26423627

  1. Archaeophytopathology of Global Soybean Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae are two rust species that infect soybean (Glycine max). A number of other hosts support the uredinial growth of these Phakopsora, including Pachyrhizus erosus, Pueraria lobata, and Vigna unguiculata, but no aecial host is known. Traditionally, these two species...

  2. Evaluation of oriental medicinal herbs for estrogenic and antiproliferative activities.

    PubMed

    Kang, Se Chan; Lee, Chang Min; Choi, Han; Lee, Jae Hyun; Oh, Joa Sub; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2006-11-01

    Herb extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic activity with a recombinant yeast system with both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 17-estradiol = 1.00) (7.8e-3) (RP for + control), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.3e-3), Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum palmatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum and Pueraria lobata (root) (9.5e-4-1.0e-4), and Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus and Adenophora stricta (9.0e-5-8.0e-5). In the antiproliferative assay, five human cancer cell lines representing different tissues (breast, lung and ovary) were used. Eriobotrya japonica showed strong cytotoxicity in ER-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), cervix epitheloid (HeLa) and lung (A549) carcinoma cell lines. PMID:16906642

  3. Plant Growth Under Light Emitting Diode Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennessen, Daniel John

    Plant growth under light emitting diodes (LEDs) was investigated to determine if LEDs would be useful to provide radiant energy for two plant processes, photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis. Photosynthesis of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and Kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd) Ohwi.) was measured using photons from LEDs to answer the following: (1) Are leaves able to use red LED light for photosynthesis? and (2) Is the efficiency of photosynthesis in pulsed light equal to that of continuous light? In 175 Pa CO _2, or in response to changes in CO _2,<=af photosynthesis and ATP status were the same in LED as in white xenon arc light. In 35 Pa CO_2, photosynthesis was 10% lower in LED than in xenon arc light due to lowered stomatal conductance. The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in pulsed light was equal to continuous light, even when pulses were twice as bright as sunlight. Xanthophyll pigments were not affected by these bright pulses. Photomorphogenesis of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and transformed tobacco and tomato (expressing oat phytochrome-A) was assessed by growing plants under red LED lamps in an attempt to answer the following: (1) What is the developmental response of non-transformed and transformed tobacco to red LED light? and (2) Can tomato plants that grow tall and spindly in red LED light be made to grow short by increasing the amount of phytochrome-A? The short phenotype of transformed tobacco was not evident when plants were grown in LED light. Addition of photons of far-red or blue light to red light resulted in short transformed tobacco. Tomato plants grew three times as tall and lacked leaf development in LED versus white light, but transformed tomato remained short and produced fruit under LED light. I have determined that the LED photons are useful for photosynthesis and that the photon efficiency of photosynthesis is the same in pulsed as in continuous light. From responses of tobacco, I

  4. The use of cycleave PCR for the differentiation of the rejuvenating herb species Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa (Black Kwao Khruea), and the simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets in a DNA admixture.

    PubMed

    Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Sukrong, Suchada

    2014-01-01

    Kwao Khruea, the tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth. (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba Roxb. (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa Wall. (Black Kwao Khruea), are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional medicine in many tropical countries. Although Kwao Khruea has attracted strong interest because of its rejuvenation properties, each species is used for specific purposes and effects. P. candollei shows estrogenic effects in females. In contrast, B. superba and M. macrocarpa show androgenic effects in males. The potential misidentification of dried tuberous roots of various Kwao Khruea species might cause problems in the drug market, especially when they are reduced into powders. A cycleave PCR, which is based on the sequence of chloroplast matK gene, was developed to differentiate P. candollei, B. superba, and M. macrocarpa. The results showed that cycleave PCR is able to identify specific Kwao Khruea species. A multiplex cycleave PCR was optimized for the simultaneous detection of two different DNA targets in a DNA admixture. The specificity of this technique was confirmed by its ability to distinguish M. macrocarpa from five related Mucuna species. Cycleave PCR can be a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for the identification of medicinal plants and crude plant samples. PMID:24660477

  5. All Wrapped Up in Kudzu and Other Ecological Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine E.; Cummo, Evelyn

    1999-01-01

    Introduces activities to reinforce the concept of and problems involved with introduced, nonnative or alien species. Provides seven vignettes about seven different plant and animal species that have become or currently are near ecological disasters. (CCM)

  6. Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Gyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, Kug Chan; Choung, Eui Su; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2008-01-01

    The medicinal plant extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in a recombinant yeast system featuring both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 7.75×10(-3); RP of 17β-estradiol=1), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.25×10(-3)). Next potent were a group consisting of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum undulatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum, and Pueraria lobata (root) (ranging from 9.5×10(-4) to 1.0×10(-4)). Least potent were Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus, and Adenophora stricta (ranging from 9.0×10(-5) to 8.0×10(-5)). The extracts exerting antiestrogenic effects, Cinnamomum cassia and Prunus persica, had relative potencies of 1.14×10(-3) and 7.4×10(-4), respectively (RP of tamoxifen=1). The solvent fractions from selected estrogenic or antiestrogenic herbs had higher estrogenic relative potencies, with their RP ranging from 9.3×10(-1) to 2.7×10(-4) and from 8.2×10(-1) to 9.1×10(-3), respectively. These results support previous reports on the efficacy of Oriental medicinal plants used or not used as phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy. PMID:21783839

  7. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weihua; Luo, Jianning; Tian, Xingshan; Soon Chow, Wah; Sun, Zhongyu; Zhang, Taijie; Peng, Shaolin; Peng, Changlian

    2015-06-01

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects on its photosynthetic characteristics, including suppression of leaf biomass and the abundance of the CO2-fixing enzyme RUBISCO. The field experiment demonstrated that sowing seeds of P. lobata or P. scandens in plots where the weed had been largely cleared produced 11.8-fold or 2.5-fold as much leaf biomass of the two natives, respectively, as the weed. Replacement control by valuable native species is potentially a feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica.

  8. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weihua; Luo, Jianning; Tian, Xingshan; Soon Chow, Wah; Sun, Zhongyu; Zhang, Taijie; Peng, Shaolin; Peng, Changlian

    2015-01-01

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects on its photosynthetic characteristics, including suppression of leaf biomass and the abundance of the CO2-fixing enzyme RUBISCO. The field experiment demonstrated that sowing seeds of P. lobata or P. scandens in plots where the weed had been largely cleared produced 11.8-fold or 2.5-fold as much leaf biomass of the two natives, respectively, as the weed. Replacement control by valuable native species is potentially a feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica. PMID:26047489

  9. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihua; Luo, Jianning; Tian, Xingshan; Soon Chow, Wah; Sun, Zhongyu; Zhang, Taijie; Peng, Shaolin; Peng, Changlian

    2015-01-01

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects on its photosynthetic characteristics, including suppression of leaf biomass and the abundance of the CO2-fixing enzyme RUBISCO. The field experiment demonstrated that sowing seeds of P. lobata or P. scandens in plots where the weed had been largely cleared produced 11.8-fold or 2.5-fold as much leaf biomass of the two natives, respectively, as the weed. Replacement control by valuable native species is potentially a feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica. PMID:26047489

  10. Plant litter chemistry and microbial priming regulate the accrual, composition and stability of soil carbon in invaded ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Mioko; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2014-07-01

    Soil carbon (C) sequestration, as an ecosystem property, may be strongly influenced by invasive plants capable of depositing disproportionately high quantities of chemically distinct litter that disrupt ecosystem processes. However, a mechanistic understanding of the processes that regulate soil C storage in invaded ecosystems remains surprisingly elusive. Here, we studied the impact of the invasion of two noxious nonnative species, Polygonum cuspidatum, which produces recalcitrant litter, and Pueraria lobata, which produces labile litter, on the quantity, molecular composition, and stability of C in the soils they invade. Compared with an adjacent noninvaded old-field, P. cuspidatum-invaded soils exhibited a 26% increase in C, partially through selective preservation of plant polymers. Despite receiving a 22% higher litter input, P. lobata-invaded Pinus stands exhibited a 28% decrease in soil C and a twofold decrease in plant biomarkers, indicating microbial priming of native soil C. The stability of C exhibited an opposite trend: the proportion of C that was resistant to oxidation was 21% lower in P. cuspidatum-invaded soils and 50% higher in P. lobata-invaded soils. Our results highlight the capacity of invasive plants to feed back to climate change by destabilizing native soil C stocks and indicate that environments that promote the biochemical decomposition of plant litter would enhance the long-term storage of soil C. Further, our study highlights the concurrent influence of dominant plant species on both selective preservation and humification of soil organic matter. PMID:24720813

  11. Plant litter chemistry and microbial priming regulate the accrual, composition and stability of soil carbon in invaded ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Mioko; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2014-07-01

    Soil carbon (C) sequestration, as an ecosystem property, may be strongly influenced by invasive plants capable of depositing disproportionately high quantities of chemically distinct litter that disrupt ecosystem processes. However, a mechanistic understanding of the processes that regulate soil C storage in invaded ecosystems remains surprisingly elusive. Here, we studied the impact of the invasion of two noxious nonnative species, Polygonum cuspidatum, which produces recalcitrant litter, and Pueraria lobata, which produces labile litter, on the quantity, molecular composition, and stability of C in the soils they invade. Compared with an adjacent noninvaded old-field, P. cuspidatum-invaded soils exhibited a 26% increase in C, partially through selective preservation of plant polymers. Despite receiving a 22% higher litter input, P. lobata-invaded Pinus stands exhibited a 28% decrease in soil C and a twofold decrease in plant biomarkers, indicating microbial priming of native soil C. The stability of C exhibited an opposite trend: the proportion of C that was resistant to oxidation was 21% lower in P. cuspidatum-invaded soils and 50% higher in P. lobata-invaded soils. Our results highlight the capacity of invasive plants to feed back to climate change by destabilizing native soil C stocks and indicate that environments that promote the biochemical decomposition of plant litter would enhance the long-term storage of soil C. Further, our study highlights the concurrent influence of dominant plant species on both selective preservation and humification of soil organic matter.

  12. Plant extracts as natural amoebicidal agents.

    PubMed

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Thiem, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    Strains of Acanthamoeba sp. constitute a factor contributing to the occurrence of chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, pneumonia, as well as inflammations of other organs. Treatment of these diseases is very difficult and not always effective. A majority of these infections have been fatal. The aim of our study was to examine the amoebicidal or amoebistatic activity of plant extracts from Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, Solidago virgaurea and Solidago graminifolia. For the purpose of isolation of pharmacologically active substances, we used the aboveground parts of plants, together with flowers, roots and leaves. It was established that extracts from S. virgauera, P. lobata and R. chamaemorus displayed chemotherapeutic properties in vitro in concentrations of approximately 0.01-0.05 mg extract/mL, i.e., in concentrations of 0.350 microg/mL expressed in ellagic acid for R. chamaemorus and 0.053 microg/mL expressed in puerarin for P. lobata. Therapeutic index values is 3.5-20. As a result of in vivo experiments, it was found out that, following therapy using the extracts, animals infected with Acanthamoeba sp. survived for an extended period (2.5-3 times longer). It was determined that plant extracts may be used both externally and internally in the case of a combined therapy for acanthamoebiasis. The tested extracts are not toxic for animals.

  13. Near term climate projections for invasive species distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and invasive species pose important conservation issues separately, and should be examined together. We used existing long term climate datasets for the US to project potential climate change into the future at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than the climate change scenarios generally available. These fine scale projections, along with new species distribution modeling techniques to forecast the potential extent of invasive species, can provide useful information to aide conservation and invasive species management efforts. We created habitat suitability maps for Pueraria montana (kudzu) under current climatic conditions and potential average conditions up to 30 years in the future. We examined how the potential distribution of this species will be affected by changing climate, and the management implications associated with these changes. Our models indicated that P. montana may increase its distribution particularly in the Northeast with climate change and may decrease in other areas. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. Determination of toxic metals by ICP-MS in Asiatic and European medicinal plants and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kurzawa, Marzanna; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The potentially toxic metals content was determined in selected plants, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Angelica sinensis, Bacopa monnieri, Bupleurum sinensis, Curcuma longa, Cola accuminata, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Pueraria lobata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Schisandra sinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis, Siraitia grosvenorii, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia chebula), and some European herbs (Echinacea purpurea, Hypericum perforatum, Vitis vinifera). Samples were mineralized in a closed microwave system using HNO3 and the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Al, As, Ba, Ni and Sb were determined by ICP-MS method. Some relevant aspects of potential toxicity of metallic elements and their compounds were also discussed. Results of metal content analysis in dietary supplements available on Polish market, containing studied plants, are presented as well. The results were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. PMID:25467854

  15. Biological control of weeds: research by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: selected case studies.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Paul C; DeLoach, C Jack; Wineriter, Susan A; Goolsby, John A; Sobhian, Rouhollah; Boyette, C Douglas; Abbas, Hamed K

    2003-01-01

    Research by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on biological control of weeds has been practiced for many years because of its inherent ecological and economic advantages. Today, it is further driven by ARS adherence to Presidential Executive Order 13112 (3 February 1999) on invasive species and to USDA-ARS policy toward developing technology in support of sustainable agriculture with reduced dependence on non-renewable petrochemical resources. This paper reports examples or case studies selected to demonstrate the traditional or classical approach for biological control programs using Old World arthropods against Tamarix spp, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) ST Blake and Galium spurium L/G aparine L, and the augmentative approach with a native plant pathogen against Pueraria lobata Ohwi = P montana. The examples illustrated various conflicts of interest with endangered species and ecological complexities of arthropods with associated microbes such as nematodes.

  16. Identifying bioactive components in natural products through chromatographic fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Xu, Qing-Song; Chan, Chi-On; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah; Yi, Lun-Zhao; Chau, Foo-Tim

    2015-04-22

    Bioactive component identification is a crucial issue in search for new drug leads. We provide a new strategy to search for bioactive components based on Sure Independence Screening (SIS) and interval PLS (iPLS). The method, which is termed as SIS-iPLS, is not only able to find out the chief bioactive components, but also able to judge how many components should be there responsible for the total bioactivity. The method is totally "data-driven" with no need for prior knowledge about the unknown mixture analyzed, therefore especially suitable for effect-directed work like bioassay-guided fractionation. Two data sets, a synthetic mixture system of twelve components and a suite of Radix Puerariae Lobatae extracts samples, are used to test the identification ability of the SIS-iPLS method. PMID:25819786

  17. [Progress on cardiovascular protections and mechanism research of puerarin].

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-yong

    2015-06-01

    Puerarin is one of the most important effective components of Pueraria lobata which exhibited classic estrogen-like biological activities and had remarkable cardiovascular protections in vivo and in vitro experiments. These protections of puerarin are mainly exhibited on improving the myocardial cells membrane potential and arrhythmia based on effecting the Na+, K+ , and Ca2+ channels,resisting myocardial fibrosis damage, diastolic effect on blood vessels, promoting angiogenesis, resisting calcification and atherosclerosis, improving blood flow, antiplatelet aggregation, reducing lipid and resisting diabetes. The main mechanisms are to improve the membrane potential and reduce cardiovascular damage caused by inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis, and the main regulated signal pathways are the PI3K/Akt, the NF-kappa B and the caspases. PMID:26591509

  18. Determination of toxic metals by ICP-MS in Asiatic and European medicinal plants and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kurzawa, Marzanna; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The potentially toxic metals content was determined in selected plants, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Angelica sinensis, Bacopa monnieri, Bupleurum sinensis, Curcuma longa, Cola accuminata, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Pueraria lobata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Schisandra sinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis, Siraitia grosvenorii, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia chebula), and some European herbs (Echinacea purpurea, Hypericum perforatum, Vitis vinifera). Samples were mineralized in a closed microwave system using HNO3 and the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Al, As, Ba, Ni and Sb were determined by ICP-MS method. Some relevant aspects of potential toxicity of metallic elements and their compounds were also discussed. Results of metal content analysis in dietary supplements available on Polish market, containing studied plants, are presented as well. The results were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis.

  19. The effects of daidzin and its aglycon, daidzein, on the scopolamine-induced memory impairment in male mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Jung, Hyun Ah; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Seungjoo; Choi, Jae Su; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ko, Kwang Ho; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the effect of daidzin or daidzein isolated from Pueraria lobata on the memory impairments induced by scopolamine was assessed in male mice using the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze tasks. Administration of daidzin (5 mg/kg) or daidzein (5 mg/kg) significantly reversed the scopolamine (1 mg/kg)-induced cognitive impairments in male mice as evidenced by the passive avoidance test (p < 0.05) and on the Morris water maze test (p < 0.05). Moreover, the ameliorating effects of daidzin or daidzein were antagonized by tamoxifen (1 mg/kg), the nonspecific estrogen receptor antagonist. These results indicate that daidzin or daidzein may be useful in cognitive impairment induced by cholinergic dysfunction, and this beneficial effect is mediated, in part, via estrogen receptor.

  20. Conformational analysis of argiopine molecule obtained from Argiope lobata spider venom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godjayev, Niftali M.; Aliyeva, Irade N.; Akyüz, Sevim; Aliyev, Cevanşir I.

    1995-05-01

    The conformational behavior of argiopine, the molecule that blocks the glutamate-activated ion channels of the central nervous system in mammals, was investigated by theoretical conformational analysis. Realization of two types of structures, i.e. the pseudocyclic structure, formed by the hydrogen bonds between residues at the opposite ends of the molecule, and the entirely stretched-out structure, were shown to be possible for an isolated molecule. The molecular structure of argiopine essentially depends on the conditions in which the molecule functions.

  1. A new invasive species in maryland: the biology and distribution of kudzu bug, megacopta cribraria (fabricius) (femiptera: plataspidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relaxation of trade restrictions in the 1960s and 70s led to an unintended exchange of invasive insect species as well as manufactured goods between the United States and its new trade partners. Consequently, the number of exotic insect pests accidently entering and taking up residence in the U...

  2. Growing Embedded Librarians Like Kudzu: How the Embedded Extension Service Creates More Embedded Librarians without Creating New Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coltrain, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In an era of exploding online enrollment and tight budgets, Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC) struggles to meet the needs of online students. CPCC librarians went one step towards solving that problem in 2009-2010 by launching an embedded librarian program. CPCC's program became so successful that it struggled to meet demand. In 2013,…

  3. Inhibitory effect of puerarin on vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation induced by oxidised low-density lipoprotein via suppressing ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and PCNA expression.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanwu; Liu, Kai; Bo, Sun; Yan, Mengtong; Zhang, Yang; Miao, Chunsheng; Ren, Liqun

    2016-02-01

    Puerarin, an isoflavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi, has been shown to process antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-hypercholesterolemic, and anti-hyperglycemic activities in vivo and in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antiproliferative effects and the possible mechanisms of puerarin in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated with oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). VSMCs were cultured and pretreated with different concentrations of puerarin (0, 1, 10, 50 µM) before stimulated by ox-LDL (50 µg/mL). Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to study the influence of puerarin on cell cycle. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 were detected by western blotting analysis. The results indicated that puerarin significantly inhibited VSMCs proliferation induced by ox-LDL and phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. Furthermore, puerarin also blocked the ox-LDL-induced cell-cycle progression at G1/S-interphase and down-regulated the expression of PCNA of VSMCs. The results suggest puerarin inhibits ox-LDL-induced proliferation of VSMCs by suppressing ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and PCNA expression.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24696703

  5. A Network Pharmacology Approach to Determine Active Compounds and Action Mechanisms of Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian Decoction for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiying; Zhao, Linhua; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Yuyu; Wang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Liu, Hongxing; Li, Shao; Tong, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulae can be valuable therapeutic strategies and drug discovery resources. However, the active ingredients and action mechanisms of most TCM formulae remain unclear. Therefore, the identification of potent ingredients and their actions is a major challenge in TCM research. In this study, we used a network pharmacology approach we previously developed to help determine the potential antidiabetic ingredients from the traditional Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction (GGQLD) formula. We predicted the target profiles of all available GGQLD ingredients to infer the active ingredients by clustering the target profile of ingredients with FDA-approved antidiabetic drugs. We also applied network target analysis to evaluate the links between herbal ingredients and pharmacological actions to help explain the action mechanisms of GGQLD. According to the predicted results, we confirmed that a novel antidiabetic ingredient from Puerariae Lobatae radix (Ge-Gen), 4-Hydroxymephenytoin, increased the insulin secretion in RIN-5F cells and improved insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The network pharmacology strategy used here provided a powerful means for identifying bioactive ingredients and mechanisms of action for TCM herbal formulae, including Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction. PMID:24527048

  6. Management of SAH with traditional Chinese medicine in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxue; Zhao, Xingquan; Mao, Shujing; Wang, Yongjun; Cui, Xiangning; Pu, Yuehua

    2006-06-01

    China lacks large scale authorized epidemiological study results in allusion to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) within recent 15 years since MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) study revealed SAH situation in China in 2000. The main cause of SAH in China is aneurysm which takes up 30-50%, while over 90% aneurysm locates at Willis circle. Early surgery for SAH after aneurysm rupture is the dominant procedure to deal with SAH in China. Moreover, calcium antagonists rank the absolute leading position for cerebral vascular spasm (CVS) among medication-based treatment options. However, traditional Chinese medicine such as Salvia miltiorrhiza, Acanthopanax senticosus, Ginkgo biloba, Pueraria lobata, Liguisticum chuanxiong, cow bezoar, Diospyros kaki and Gynostemma pentaphyllum have been proven beneficial in CVS prevention and treatment, while Salvia miltiorrhiza and TCM soup have unique effects on bleeding absorption. In addition, aescine and some TCM soup might relieve strong headache after SAH. In general, TCM integrated with western medicine have shown unique advantages in the current treatment of SAH in China. However, it is a pity that China still lacks larger scale randomized controlled trials and research on SAH treatment focusing on TCM and the related mechanism of TCM on SAH still need to be investigated further.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of 81 chinese herb extracts and their correlation with the characteristics of traditional chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24696703

  8. Inhibitory effect of puerarin on vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation induced by oxidised low-density lipoprotein via suppressing ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and PCNA expression.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanwu; Liu, Kai; Bo, Sun; Yan, Mengtong; Zhang, Yang; Miao, Chunsheng; Ren, Liqun

    2016-02-01

    Puerarin, an isoflavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi, has been shown to process antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-hypercholesterolemic, and anti-hyperglycemic activities in vivo and in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antiproliferative effects and the possible mechanisms of puerarin in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated with oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). VSMCs were cultured and pretreated with different concentrations of puerarin (0, 1, 10, 50 µM) before stimulated by ox-LDL (50 µg/mL). Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to study the influence of puerarin on cell cycle. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 were detected by western blotting analysis. The results indicated that puerarin significantly inhibited VSMCs proliferation induced by ox-LDL and phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. Furthermore, puerarin also blocked the ox-LDL-induced cell-cycle progression at G1/S-interphase and down-regulated the expression of PCNA of VSMCs. The results suggest puerarin inhibits ox-LDL-induced proliferation of VSMCs by suppressing ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and PCNA expression. PMID:27004373

  9. Licodione Synthase, a Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Catalyzing 2-Hydroxylation of 5-Deoxyflavanone, in Cultured Glycyrrhiza echinata L. Cells.

    PubMed Central

    Otani, K.; Takahashi, T.; Furuya, T.; Ayabe, Si.

    1994-01-01

    Cultured Glycyrrhiza echinata L. (Leguminosae) cells produce a retrochalcone echinatin (4,4[prime]-dihydroxy-2-methoxychalcone) and its biosynthetic intermediate licodione [1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-propanedione, a dibenzoylmethane (keto form) or its enol tautomer ([beta]-hydroxychalcone)], when treated with elicitor-active substances, e.g. yeast extract. A microsomal fraction (160,000g pellet) prepared from yeast extract-induced suspension cultures of G. echinata catalyzed the formation of licodione from (2S)-liquiritigenin (7,4[prime]-dihydroxyflavanone) in the presence of NADPH and air. This licodione synthase activity was shown to be dependent on cytochrome P450 by its microsomal localization, requirement of NAD(P)H and O2 for activity, and inhibition by typical cytochrome P450 inhibitors. Licodione synthase activity transiently increased in the cells after treatment with yeast extract. When (2S)-naringenin (5,7,4[prime]-trihydroxyflavanone) and NADPH were incubated with the same microsomal preparation, a polar compound, which further converted into apigenin (5,7,4[prime]-trihydroxyflavone) when treated with acid, was produced. The reaction mechanism of licodione synthase is likely to be 2-hydroxylation of the flavanone molecule and subsequent hemiacetal opening and is possibly the same as the previously suggested mechanism of flavone synthase II from soybean and, furthermore, closely related to isoflavone synthase from Pueraria lobata. PMID:12232298

  10. Puerarin attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan-shan; Yang, Wei-na; Jin, Hui; Ma, Kai-ge; Feng, Gai-feng

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin (PUE), an isoflavone purified from the root of Pueraria lobata (Chinese herb), has been reported to attenuate learning and memory impairments in the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested PUE in a sporadic AD (SAD) mouse model which was induced by the intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The mice were administrated PUE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg/d) for 28 days. Learning and memory abilities were assessed by the Morris water maze test. After behavioral test, the biochemical parameters of oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutases (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were measured in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The SAD mice exhibited significantly decreased learning and memory ability, while PUE attenuated these impairments. The activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased while MDA was increased in the SAD animals. After PUE treatment, the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were elevated, and the level of MDA was decreased. The middle dose PUE was more effective than others. These results indicate that PUE attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice. PUE may be a promising therapeutic agent for SAD. PMID:26511841

  11. Puerarin attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan-shan; Yang, Wei-na; Jin, Hui; Ma, Kai-ge; Feng, Gai-feng

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin (PUE), an isoflavone purified from the root of Pueraria lobata (Chinese herb), has been reported to attenuate learning and memory impairments in the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested PUE in a sporadic AD (SAD) mouse model which was induced by the intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The mice were administrated PUE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg/d) for 28 days. Learning and memory abilities were assessed by the Morris water maze test. After behavioral test, the biochemical parameters of oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutases (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were measured in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The SAD mice exhibited significantly decreased learning and memory ability, while PUE attenuated these impairments. The activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased while MDA was increased in the SAD animals. After PUE treatment, the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were elevated, and the level of MDA was decreased. The middle dose PUE was more effective than others. These results indicate that PUE attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice. PUE may be a promising therapeutic agent for SAD.

  12. Online screening of nitric oxide scavengers in natural products using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem diode array and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Wang, Ting; Guo, Yujie; Hu, Yuanjia; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2015-12-18

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important cellular signaling molecule with extensive physiological and pathophysiological effects. NO scavengers have the potential to treat inflammation, septic shock and other related diseases, and numerous examples have been chemically synthesized or isolated from natural products. The chemical diversity of natural products, however, means that a huge effort is necessary to efficiently screen and identify bioactive compounds, especially NO scavengers. In this article, we propose an effective analytical method to screen for NO scavengers in three natural products using an online system that couples high performance liquid chromatography with tandem diode array and fluorescence detection (HPLC-DAD-FLD). Eighteen compounds from radix of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and green tea displayed significant NO scavenging activity whereas components of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi had no discernable activity. The structures of the active compounds were elucidated using Agilent Accurate-Mass Q-TOF LC/MS system. Preliminary analysis of structure-activity relationships indicated that, in flavonoids, a 2,3-double bond and a 3-H atom or a 3-OH group are essential for activity. In tannins, poly-hydroxyl groups are important for NO scavenging activity. Method validation indicated that the newly developed method is both reliable and repeatable. The online method that we present provides a simple, rapid and effective way to identify and characterize NO scavengers present in natural products. PMID:26607316

  13. Effect of formononetin on mechanical properties and chemical composition of bones in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Wojnar, Weronika; Zych, Maria; Ozimina-Kamińska, Ewa; Taranowicz, Joanna; Siwek, Agata

    2013-01-01

    Formononetin is a naturally occurring isoflavone, which can be found in low concentrations in many dietary products, but the greatest sources of this substance are Astragalus membranaceus, Trifolium pratense, Glycyrrhiza glabra, and Pueraria lobata, which all belong to Fabaceae family. Due to its structural similarity to 17 β -estradiol, it can mimic estradiol's effect and therefore is considered as a "phytoestrogen." The aim of this study was to examine the effect of formononetin on mechanical properties and chemical composition of bones in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. 12-week-old female rats were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated, ovariectomized, ovariectomized treated with estradiol (0.2 mg/kg) and ovariectomized treated with formononetin (10 mg/kg). Analyzed substances were administered orally for 4 weeks. Ovariectomy caused osteoporotic changes, which can be observed in bone biomechanical features (decrease of maximum load and fracture load and increase of displacements for maximum and fracture loads) and bone chemical composition (increase of water and organic fraction content, while a decrease of minerals takes place). Supplementation with formononetin resulted in slightly enhanced bone mechanical properties and bone chemistry improvement (significantly lower water content and insignificantly higher mineral fraction content). To summarize, administration of formononetin to ovariectomized rats shows beneficial effect on bone biomechanical features and chemistry; thus, it can prevent osteoporosis development.

  14. Effect of Formononetin on Mechanical Properties and Chemical Composition of Bones in Rats with Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Wojnar, Weronika; Zych, Maria; Ozimina-Kamińska, Ewa; Taranowicz, Joanna; Siwek, Agata

    2013-01-01

    Formononetin is a naturally occurring isoflavone, which can be found in low concentrations in many dietary products, but the greatest sources of this substance are Astragalus membranaceus, Trifolium pratense, Glycyrrhiza glabra, and Pueraria lobata, which all belong to Fabaceae family. Due to its structural similarity to 17β-estradiol, it can mimic estradiol's effect and therefore is considered as a “phytoestrogen.” The aim of this study was to examine the effect of formononetin on mechanical properties and chemical composition of bones in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. 12-week-old female rats were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated, ovariectomized, ovariectomized treated with estradiol (0.2 mg/kg) and ovariectomized treated with formononetin (10 mg/kg). Analyzed substances were administered orally for 4 weeks. Ovariectomy caused osteoporotic changes, which can be observed in bone biomechanical features (decrease of maximum load and fracture load and increase of displacements for maximum and fracture loads) and bone chemical composition (increase of water and organic fraction content, while a decrease of minerals takes place). Supplementation with formononetin resulted in slightly enhanced bone mechanical properties and bone chemistry improvement (significantly lower water content and insignificantly higher mineral fraction content). To summarize, administration of formononetin to ovariectomized rats shows beneficial effect on bone biomechanical features and chemistry; thus, it can prevent osteoporosis development. PMID:23762138

  15. Online screening of nitric oxide scavengers in natural products using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem diode array and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Wang, Ting; Guo, Yujie; Hu, Yuanjia; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2015-12-18

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important cellular signaling molecule with extensive physiological and pathophysiological effects. NO scavengers have the potential to treat inflammation, septic shock and other related diseases, and numerous examples have been chemically synthesized or isolated from natural products. The chemical diversity of natural products, however, means that a huge effort is necessary to efficiently screen and identify bioactive compounds, especially NO scavengers. In this article, we propose an effective analytical method to screen for NO scavengers in three natural products using an online system that couples high performance liquid chromatography with tandem diode array and fluorescence detection (HPLC-DAD-FLD). Eighteen compounds from radix of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and green tea displayed significant NO scavenging activity whereas components of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi had no discernable activity. The structures of the active compounds were elucidated using Agilent Accurate-Mass Q-TOF LC/MS system. Preliminary analysis of structure-activity relationships indicated that, in flavonoids, a 2,3-double bond and a 3-H atom or a 3-OH group are essential for activity. In tannins, poly-hydroxyl groups are important for NO scavenging activity. Method validation indicated that the newly developed method is both reliable and repeatable. The online method that we present provides a simple, rapid and effective way to identify and characterize NO scavengers present in natural products.

  16. Estrogenic Plant Extracts Reverse Weight Gain and Fat Accumulation without Causing Mammary Gland or Uterine Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Saunier, Elise F.; Vivar, Omar I.; Rubenstein, Andrea; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Olshansky, Moshe; Baggett, Scott; Staub, Richard E.; Tagliaferri, Mary; Cohen, Isaac; Speed, Terence P.; Baxter, John D.; Leitman, Dale C.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term estrogen deficiency increases the risk of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy containing estrogens might prevent these conditions, but its prolonged use increases the risk of breast cancer, as wells as endometrial cancer if used without progestins. Animal studies indicate that beneficial effects of estrogens in adipose tissue and adverse effects on mammary gland and uterus are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). One strategy to improve the safety of estrogens to prevent/treat obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is to develop estrogens that act as agonists in adipose tissue, but not in mammary gland and uterus. We considered plant extracts, which have been the source of many pharmaceuticals, as a source of tissue selective estrogens. Extracts from two plants, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (RG) and Pueraria montana var. lobata (RP) bound to ERα, activated ERα responsive reporters, and reversed weight gain and fat accumulation comparable to estradiol in ovariectomized obese mice maintained on a high fat diet. Unlike estradiol, RG and RP did not induce proliferative effects on mammary gland and uterus. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that RG and RP induced estradiol-like regulation of genes in abdominal fat, but not in mammary gland and uterus. The compounds in extracts from RG and RP might constitute a new class of tissue selective estrogens to reverse weight gain, fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. PMID:22163294

  17. Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi by plant extracts used in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lirussi, D; Li, J; Prieto, J M; Gennari, M; Buschiazzo, H; Ríos, J L; Zaidenberg, A

    2004-12-01

    In this work, we assessed the effect of extracts obtained from 17 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. These extracts were tested in vitro with the epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, clone Bra C(15) C(2), at 27 degrees C in F-29 medium at a concentration of 100 microg/ml in axenic cultures. Allopurinol was used as reference drug. Seven plant extracts showed inhibitory activities lower than 25%. Pueraria lobata, Mahonia beaei, Dictamus dasycarpus, Kochia scoparia, Sophora flavescens and Ligustrum lucidum showed effects with inhibition values between 25% and 60%, whereas Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Saussurea lappa, Melia toosendan and Cinnamomum cassia showed the greatest inhibitory activity of 100%. The IC(50) of these extracts were: 0.4, 2.4, 1.8 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. The MTT assay was made and did not show cytotoxic activity. These results allowed us to suggest that L. erythrorhizon, S. lappa, M. toosendan and C. cassia could be a source of new compounds against T. cruzi. PMID:15567249

  18. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble arrowroot (Puerariae radix) tea extracts on foodborne pathogens in ground beef and mushroom soup.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Fung, D Y C

    2004-09-01

    Antimicrobial activity of water-soluble arrowroot tea extract was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in ground beef and mushroom soup. The concentrations of arrowroot tea used were 0, 3, and 6% (wt/wt) for ground beef and 0, 1, 5, and 10% (wt/vol) for mushroom soup. Samples without tea extract were considered controls. Each sample was stored for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days at 7 degrees C for ground beef and for 0, 1, 3, and 5 days at 35 degrees C for mushroom soup. On each sampling time, proper dilutions were spread plated on each pathogen-specific agar. Viable cell counts of each pathogen were performed after incubation at 35 degrees C for 24 to 48 h. For ground beef, Salmonella Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes were slightly suppressed by approximately 1.5 log, compared with the control, on day 7 at 3 and 6% arrowroot tea treatment. For mushroom soup, all test pathogens were suppressed by 6.5, 4.7, 3.4, and 4.3 log at 5% and 6.0, 4.7, 5.0, and 4.3 log at 10% against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. Mushroom soup with 1% arrowroot tea also showed 2.3- and 2.7-log growth suppression of Salmonella Enteritidis and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. This study showed that the use of arrowroot tea would effectively inhibit the microbial growth of both gram-negative and gram-positive foodborne pathogens in various foods, especially liquid foods. PMID:15453588

  19. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble arrowroot (Puerariae radix) tea extracts on foodborne pathogens in ground beef and mushroom soup.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Fung, D Y C

    2004-09-01

    Antimicrobial activity of water-soluble arrowroot tea extract was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in ground beef and mushroom soup. The concentrations of arrowroot tea used were 0, 3, and 6% (wt/wt) for ground beef and 0, 1, 5, and 10% (wt/vol) for mushroom soup. Samples without tea extract were considered controls. Each sample was stored for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days at 7 degrees C for ground beef and for 0, 1, 3, and 5 days at 35 degrees C for mushroom soup. On each sampling time, proper dilutions were spread plated on each pathogen-specific agar. Viable cell counts of each pathogen were performed after incubation at 35 degrees C for 24 to 48 h. For ground beef, Salmonella Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes were slightly suppressed by approximately 1.5 log, compared with the control, on day 7 at 3 and 6% arrowroot tea treatment. For mushroom soup, all test pathogens were suppressed by 6.5, 4.7, 3.4, and 4.3 log at 5% and 6.0, 4.7, 5.0, and 4.3 log at 10% against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. Mushroom soup with 1% arrowroot tea also showed 2.3- and 2.7-log growth suppression of Salmonella Enteritidis and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. This study showed that the use of arrowroot tea would effectively inhibit the microbial growth of both gram-negative and gram-positive foodborne pathogens in various foods, especially liquid foods.

  20. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P < 0.05) in the rainiest months than in the less rainy season, which resulted in 20% less predicted weight gain by growing steers (P < 0.05). Supplementation with sorghum grain was required to increase milk production and growth by 25 or 50% per animal, respectively, but this strategy was less profitable than current forage-only diets. Greater productivity of land and labor from higher stocking indicated greater net margins for beef production, but not for milk. This study suggested that more intensive beef production by judicious fertilization of grass-legume pastures and greater stocking density is the preferable strategy for owners of these cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing.

  1. Diffusion-based process for carbon dioxide uptake and isoprene emission in gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactors by photosynthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Fiona K; Melis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthesis for the generation of fuels and chemicals from cyanobacteria and microalgae offers the promise of a single host organism acting both as photocatalyst and processor, performing sunlight absorption and utilization, as well as CO(2) assimilation and conversion into product. However, there is a need to develop methods for generating, sequestering, and trapping such bio-products in an efficient and cost-effective manner that is suitable for industrial scale-up and exploitation. A sealed gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactor was designed and applied for the photosynthetic generation of volatile isoprene (C(5)H(8)) hydrocarbons, which operates on the principle of spontaneous diffusion of CO(2) from the gaseous headspace into the microalgal or cyanobacterial-containing aqueous phase, followed by photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation and isoprene production by the transgenic microorganisms. Volatile isoprene hydrocarbons were emitted from the aqueous phase and were sequestered into the gaseous headspace. Periodic replacement (flushing) of the isoprene (C(5)H(8)) and oxygen (O(2)) content of the gaseous headspace with CO(2) allowed for the simultaneous harvesting of the photoproducts and replenishment of the CO(2) supply in the gaseous headspace. Reduction in practice of the gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactor is offered in this work with a fed-batch and a semi-continuous culturing system using Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 heterologously expressing the Pueraria montana (kudzu) isoprene synthase (IspS) gene. Constitutive isoprene production was observed over 192 h of experimentation, coupled with cyanobacterial biomass accumulation. The diffusion-based process in gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactors has the potential to be applied to other high-value photosynthetically derived volatile molecules, emanating from a variety of photosynthetic microorganisms. PMID:21830206

  2. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and other intestinal parasites in young children in Lobata province, Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Maria Luísa; Augusto, João; Antunes, Francisco; Ceita, José; Xiao, Lihua; Codices, Vera; Matos, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Rare systemic studies concerning prevalence of intestinal parasites in children have been conducted in the second smallest country in Africa, the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. Fecal specimens from 348 children (214 in-hospital attending the Aires de Menezes Hospital and 134 from Agostinho Neto village) in São Tome Island were studied by parasitological and molecular methods. Of the 134 children from Agostinho Neto, 52.2% presented intestinal parasites. 32.1% and 20.2% of these children had monoparasitism and polyparasitism, respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides (27.6%), G. duodenalis (7.5%), T. trichiura (4.5%) and Entamoeba coli (10.5%) were the more frequent species identified in the children of this village. Giardia duodenalis (7.5%) and E. bieneusi (5.2%) were identified by PCR. Nested-PCR targeting G. duodenalis TPI identified Assemblage A (60%) and Assemblage B (40%). The E. bieneusi ITS-based sequence identified genotypes K (57.1%), KIN1 (28.6%) and KIN3 (14.3%). Among the 214 in-hospital children, 29.4% presented intestinal parasites. In 22.4% and 7.0% of the parasitized children, respectively, one or more species were concurrently detected. By microscopy, A. lumbricoides (10.3%) and Trichiuris trichiura (6.5%) were the most prevalent species among these children, and Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR in 8.9% of children. GP60 locus analysis identified 6.5% of C. hominis (subtypes IaA27R3 [35.7%], IaA23R3 [14.3%], IeA11G3T3 [28.6%] and IeA11G3T3R1 [21.4%]) and 2.3% of C. parvum (subtypes IIaA16G2R1 [20.0%], IIaA15G2R1 [20.0%], IIdA26G1 [40.0%] and IIdA21G1a [20.0%]). G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi were identified in 0.5% and 8.9% of the in-hospital children, respectively. G. duodenalis Assemblage B was characterized. The E. bieneusi genotypes K (52.6%), D (26.4%), A (10.5%) and KIN1 (10.5%) were identified. Although further studies are required to clarify the epidemiology of these infectious diseases in this endemic region the significance of the present results highlights that it is crucial to strength surveillance on intestinal pathogens. PMID:24846205

  3. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and other intestinal parasites in young children in Lobata province, Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Maria Luísa; Augusto, João; Antunes, Francisco; Ceita, José; Xiao, Lihua; Codices, Vera; Matos, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Rare systemic studies concerning prevalence of intestinal parasites in children have been conducted in the second smallest country in Africa, the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. Fecal specimens from 348 children (214 in-hospital attending the Aires de Menezes Hospital and 134 from Agostinho Neto village) in São Tome Island were studied by parasitological and molecular methods. Of the 134 children from Agostinho Neto, 52.2% presented intestinal parasites. 32.1% and 20.2% of these children had monoparasitism and polyparasitism, respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides (27.6%), G. duodenalis (7.5%), T. trichiura (4.5%) and Entamoeba coli (10.5%) were the more frequent species identified in the children of this village. Giardia duodenalis (7.5%) and E. bieneusi (5.2%) were identified by PCR. Nested-PCR targeting G. duodenalis TPI identified Assemblage A (60%) and Assemblage B (40%). The E. bieneusi ITS-based sequence identified genotypes K (57.1%), KIN1 (28.6%) and KIN3 (14.3%). Among the 214 in-hospital children, 29.4% presented intestinal parasites. In 22.4% and 7.0% of the parasitized children, respectively, one or more species were concurrently detected. By microscopy, A. lumbricoides (10.3%) and Trichiuris trichiura (6.5%) were the most prevalent species among these children, and Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR in 8.9% of children. GP60 locus analysis identified 6.5% of C. hominis (subtypes IaA27R3 [35.7%], IaA23R3 [14.3%], IeA11G3T3 [28.6%] and IeA11G3T3R1 [21.4%]) and 2.3% of C. parvum (subtypes IIaA16G2R1 [20.0%], IIaA15G2R1 [20.0%], IIdA26G1 [40.0%] and IIdA21G1a [20.0%]). G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi were identified in 0.5% and 8.9% of the in-hospital children, respectively. G. duodenalis Assemblage B was characterized. The E. bieneusi genotypes K (52.6%), D (26.4%), A (10.5%) and KIN1 (10.5%) were identified. Although further studies are required to clarify the epidemiology of these infectious diseases in this endemic region the significance of the present results highlights that it is crucial to strength surveillance on intestinal pathogens.

  4. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Other Intestinal Parasites in Young Children in Lobata Province, Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Maria Luísa; Augusto, João; Antunes, Francisco; Ceita, José; Xiao, Lihua; Codices, Vera; Matos, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Rare systemic studies concerning prevalence of intestinal parasites in children have been conducted in the second smallest country in Africa, the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. Fecal specimens from 348 children (214 in-hospital attending the Aires de Menezes Hospital and 134 from Agostinho Neto village) in São Tome Island were studied by parasitological and molecular methods. Of the 134 children from Agostinho Neto, 52.2% presented intestinal parasites. 32.1% and 20.2% of these children had monoparasitism and polyparasitism, respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides (27.6%), G. duodenalis (7.5%), T. trichiura (4.5%) and Entamoeba coli (10.5%) were the more frequent species identified in the children of this village. Giardia duodenalis (7.5%) and E. bieneusi (5.2%) were identified by PCR. Nested-PCR targeting G. duodenalis TPI identified Assemblage A (60%) and Assemblage B (40%). The E. bieneusi ITS-based sequence identified genotypes K (57.1%), KIN1 (28.6%) and KIN3 (14.3%). Among the 214 in-hospital children, 29.4% presented intestinal parasites. In 22.4% and 7.0% of the parasitized children, respectively, one or more species were concurrently detected. By microscopy, A. lumbricoides (10.3%) and Trichiuris trichiura (6.5%) were the most prevalent species among these children, and Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR in 8.9% of children. GP60 locus analysis identified 6.5% of C. hominis (subtypes IaA27R3 [35.7%], IaA23R3 [14.3%], IeA11G3T3 [28.6%] and IeA11G3T3R1 [21.4%]) and 2.3% of C. parvum (subtypes IIaA16G2R1 [20.0%], IIaA15G2R1 [20.0%], IIdA26G1 [40.0%] and IIdA21G1a [20.0%]). G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi were identified in 0.5% and 8.9% of the in-hospital children, respectively. G. duodenalis Assemblage B was characterized. The E. bieneusi genotypes K (52.6%), D (26.4%), A (10.5%) and KIN1 (10.5%) were identified. Although further studies are required to clarify the epidemiology of these infectious diseases in this endemic region the significance of the present results highlights that it is crucial to strength surveillance on intestinal pathogens. PMID:24846205

  5. [Comparative study on eight trace elements in twelve flower medicines].

    PubMed

    Niu, Ying-Feng; Han, Chun-Mei; Shao, Yun; Tao, Yan-Duo

    2009-07-01

    Eight trace elements such as Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, K, Mg and Na in twelve kinds of flower medicines were determined by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry with air-acetylene flame. The flower medicines include Pueraria lobata Ohwi., Gomphrena globosa L., Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., Canna indica L., Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd P. spp, Rosa chinensis Jacq., Celosia cristata L., Sophora japonica L., Saussurea medusa Maxim. , Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. All of the flowers were commonly used in Tibetan medicines. Three kinds of the flowers were bought in the market and the others were picked in Qinghai province. These flower medicines were selected, dried and powdered, 4.000 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and five portions were used for each kind of sample. The content of eight trace elements in these flower medicines was determined and the difference in the content was observed. The recovery rate obtained by the standard addition method was between 96.76% and 102.93%, and the RSD was between 1.13% and 3.46%, so the accuracy of the method was better and the precision of the method was good. The results of the experiment indicated that the contents of the eight trace elements were rich in the twelve kinds of flower medicines, and the content of three trace elements including K, Mg, Na were more than other trace elements in the twelve flower medicines. There were considerable differences in the content of the eight trace elements in different flower medicines and there were more trace elements in Saussure medusa Maxim., Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. Canna indica L. and Celosia cristata L. and less trace elements in Sophora japonica L. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. The data of the experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these flower medicines. PMID:19798991

  6. In vitro and in vivo antitumour activities of puerarin 6″-O-xyloside on human lung carcinoma A549 cell line via the induction of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ti; Chen, Hui; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Context Pueraria lobata (Leguminoseae) shows cytotoxic effects against cancer cells; however, its active components remain unclear. Objective This study investigated the antitumour activity of puerarin 6″-O-xyloside (POS) on the human lung carcinoma A549 cell line. Materials and methods The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of POS (at 10, 20 and 40 μM) in vitro, and xenograft nude mice were established to evaluate the antitumour effect of POS (at 40 mg/kg/d) in vivo by 15 days intraperitoneal injection (ip). To explore its mechanism of action, flow cytometry was performed to determine the pro-apoptotic effect of POS (at 10, 20 and 40 μM). Subsequently, the expression of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9, Bcl-2 and Bax in A549 cells were determined. Results POS showed significant cytotoxicity toward A549 cells (p < 0.05) by inducing apoptosis. Treatment with POS significantly upregulated the levels of caspase-3 (p < 0.01), caspase-7 (p < 0.01), caspase-9 (p < 0.01) and Bax (p < 0.01) in A549 cells, and Bcl-2 was downregulated (p < 0.01). Additionally, the in vivo animal study showed that POS significantly inhibited tumour growth in A549 cells (p < 0.01). Conclusion Our study demonstrated the POS has significant antitumour activities. The mechanisms are related to increased levels of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9 and Bax, and reduced levels Bcl-2. PMID:26730946

  7. [Study on anti-hyperlipidemia mechanism of high frequency herb pairs by molecular docking method].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-di; He, Yu-su; Chen, Xi; Tao, Ou; Li, Gong-Yu; Zhang, Yan-ling

    2015-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has definitely clinical effect in treating hyperlipidemia, but the action mechanism still need to be explored. Based on consulting Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010), all the lipid-lowering Chinese patent medicines were analyzed by associated rules data mining method to explore high frequency herb pairs. The top three couplet medicines with high support degree were Puerariae Lobatae Radix-Crataegi Fructus, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Crataegi Fructus, and Polygoni Multiflori Radix-Crataegi Fructus. The 20 main ingredients were selected from the herb pairs and docked with 3 key hyperlipidemia targets, namely 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α ) and niemann-pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) to further discuss the molecular mechanism of the high frequency herb pairs, by using the docking program, LibDock. To construct evaluation rules for the ingredients of herb pairs, the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) value between computed and initial complexes was first calculated to validate the fitness of LibDock models. Then, the key residues were also confirmed by analyzing the interactions of those 3 proteins and corresponding marketed drugs. The docking results showed that hyperin, puerarin, salvianolic acid A and polydatin can interact with two targets, and the other five compounds may be potent for at least one of the three targets. In this study, the multi-target effect of high frequency herb pairs for lipid-lowering was discussed on the molecular level, which can help further researching new multi-target anti-hyperlipidemia drug. PMID:26591535

  8. Involvements of calcium channel and potassium channel in Danshen and Gegen decoction induced vasodilation in porcine coronary LAD artery.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fan; Koon, Chi Man; Chan, Judy Yuet Wa; Lau, Kit Man; Kwan, Y W; Fung, Kwok Pui

    2012-09-15

    Danshen (Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix) and Gegen (Puerariae Lobatae Radix) have been widely used in treating cardiovascular diseases for thousands of years in China. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of a Danshen and Gegen decoction (DG) on the vascular reactivity of a porcine isolated coronary artery and the underlying mechanisms involved. Porcine coronary rings were precontracted with 15 nM U46619. The involvement of endothelium-dependent mechanisms was explored by removing the endothelium; the involvement of potassium channels was investigated by the pretreatment of the artery rings with various blockers, and the involvement of the calcium channels was investigated by incubating the artery rings with Ca²⁺-free buffer and priming them with high [K⁺] prior to adding CaCl₂ to elicit contraction. The involvement of Ca²⁺ sensitization was explored by evaluating the Rho-activity expression. The results revealed that DG elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation on a U46619-precontracted coronary artery ring. These relaxation responses were not altered by the pretreatment of inhibitors of endothelium-related dilator synthases, cGMP and cAMP pathway inhibitors, potassium channel (BK(Ca), SK(Ca), K(V) and K(ATP)) blockers and endothelium removal. The K(IR) channel blocker BaCl₂ only slightly attenuated the DG-induced relaxation. However, the Ca²⁺-induced artery contraction was inhibited by DG. Additionally, the expression of the phosphorylated myosin light chain was inhibited by DG whereas the activity of RhoA was not affected. Therefore, DG could be a useful cardioprotective agent for vasodilation in patients who have hypertension.

  9. Mechanism of phytoestrogen puerarin-mediated cytoprotection following oxidative injury: Estrogen receptor-dependent up-regulation of PI3K/Akt and HO-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2008-12-15

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenolic non-steroidal plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. The phytoestrogen puerarin, the main isoflavone glycoside found in the root of Pueraria lobata, has been used for various medicinal purposes in traditional Chinese medicines for thousands of years. Recent studies have indicated that the estrogen receptor (ER), through interaction with p85, regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, revealing a physiologic, non-nuclear function of ER that may be relevant in cytoprotection. In this study, we demonstrate that the phytoestrogen puerarin inhibits tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury via an ER-dependent G{beta}1/PI3K/Akt and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. Pretreatment of Hepa1c1c7 and HepG2 cells with puerarin significantly reduced t-BHP-induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent cell death. Also, puerarin up-regulated HO-1 expression and this expression conferred cytoprotection against oxidative injury induced by t-BHP. Moreover, puerarin induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which is upstream of puerarin-induced HO-1 expression, and PI3K activation, a pathway that is involved in induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression and cytoprotection. Puerarin-induced up-regulation of HO-1 and cytoprotection against t-BHP were abolished by silencing Nrf2 expression with specific siRNA. Also, puerarin-mediated increases in PI3K activation and HO-1 induction were reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780 and pertussis toxin. Taken together, these results suggest that puerarin augments cellular antioxidant defense capacity through ER-dependent HO-1 induction via the G{beta}1/PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress.

  10. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by enhanced chemiluminescence detection for the standardization of estrogenic miroestrol in Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth.

    PubMed

    Yusakul, Gorawit; Udomsin, Orapin; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn

    2015-08-01

    Miroestrol (ME) is a potent phytoestrogen from the P. candollei tuberous root. It has been approved for use in clinical trials due to its beneficial effect on disorders associated with estrogen deficiency. To ensure medical efficacy and safety, high performance analytical methods for ME analysis are required to standardize products from the P. candollei root. An enhanced chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ECL-ELISA) was developed and validated using a polyclonal antibody against ME and a chemiluminescent system of luminol-H2 O2 -horseradish peroxidase-4-(1-imidazolyl) phenol. The ECL-ELISA system exhibited linearity over a concentration range of 0.31-10.00 ng mL(-1) , for which the relative standard variation (%RSD) was less than 10% for both intra- and interplate determinations. The ECL-ELISA is reliable for the determination of ME as reflected by the high recovery percentage (101.22-103.06%). As a comparative analysis, the ME content in each sample determined by ECL-ELISA was correlated with high coefficients of determination with colorimetric ELISA (R(2)  = 0.998) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (R(2)  = 0.998) methods. The ECL-ELISA method could be applied to all of the commercial products containing P. candollei root, when the products contain between 0.706 ± 0.046 and 13.123 ± 0.794 µg g(-1) dry wt. of ME. This method is useful as a high performance analytical method for the quantity control of ME in raw materials and end products at both the research and industrial levels.

  11. Parasitism of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in organic soybean plots in Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...

  12. Predation of the newly invasive pest Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in soybean habitats adjacent to cotton by a complex of predators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic insect found primarily on kudzu, but also on soybean, in the southeastern United States. We used molecular gut-content analysis to document predation on this pest by insects and spiders in soybean; and to d...

  13. Assessment of Nonnative Invasive Plants in the DOE Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, S.J.

    2002-11-05

    The Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Research Park at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is composed of second-growth forest stands characteristic of much of the eastern deciduous forest of the Ridge and Valley Province of Tennessee. Human use of natural ecosystems in this region has facilitated the establishment of at least 167 nonnative, invasive plant species on the Research Park. Our objective was to assess the distribution, abundance, impact, and potential for control of the 18 most abundant invasive species on the Research Park. In 2000, field surveys were conducted of 16 management areas on the Research Park (14 Natural Areas, 1 Reference Area, and Walker Branch Watershed) and the Research Park as a whole to acquire qualitative and quantitative data on the distribution and abundance of these taxa. Data from the surveys were used to rank the relative importance of these species using the ''Alien Plant Ranking System, Version 5.1'' developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Microstegium (Microstegium vimineum) was ranked highest, or most problematic, for the entire Research Park because of its potential impact on natural systems, its tendency to become a management problem, and how difficult it is to control. Microstegium was present in 12 of the 16 individual sites surveyed; when present, it consistently ranked as the most problematic invasive species, particularly in terms of its potential impact on natural systems. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) were the second- and third-most problematic plant species on the Research Park; these two species were present in 12 and 9 of the 16 sites surveyed, respectively, and often ranked second- or third-most problematic. Other nonnative, invasive species, in decreasing rank order, included kudzu (Pueraria montma), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), Chinese lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneara), and other species representing a variety of life forms and growth forms. Results of

  14. Puerarin attenuates glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of hFOB1.19 cells through the JNK- and Akt-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dongdong; Mu, Shuai; Zhao, Danyang; Wang, Guangbin; Chen, Zhiguang; Ren, Hongfei; Fu, Qin

    2015-08-01

    Puerarin is an active component of Pueraria lobata, which is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of osteoporosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of puerarin on glucocorticoid (GC)-induced apoptosis of osteoblasts in vitro. The effects of puerarin on dexamethasone (DEX)-induced cell apoptosis were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and found that the viability of hFOB1.19 cells was significantly increased following exposure to between 10(-6) and 10(-10) M puerarin, with a maximal anti-apoptotic effect at a concentration of 10(-8) M. In addition, compared with the control group, puerarin upregulated the transcription and protein levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 and downregulated B-cell-associated X protein in the hFOB1.19 cells. Puerarin attenuated the DEX-induced release of cytochrome c and cleavage of caspase-3, and treatment with puerarin inhibited the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway and activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in the hFOB1.19 cells. Furthermore, the Akt inhibitor, LY294002, partly eliminated the protective effect of puerarin on DEX-induced apoptosis, and puerarin combined with the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, suppressed DEX-induced apoptosis to a lesser extent than in the cells treated with SP600125 alone. These results suggested that the JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways mediate the inhibitory effects of puerarin on apoptosis in the hFOB1.19 cells. In conclusion, puerarin prevented DEX-induced apoptosis of hFOB1.19 cells via inhibition of the JNK pathway and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the cells, dependent on the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. These results support puerarin as a promising target in the treatment of GC-induced osteoporosis. PMID:26101183

  15. Pharmacokinetics of irisolidone and its main metabolites in rat plasma determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guozhe; Qi, Wen; Xu, Liangyu; Kano, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Dan

    2015-11-15

    Irisolidone, a major isoflavone found in Pueraria lobata flowers, exhibits a wide spectrum of bioactivities, while its metabolic pathways and the pharmacokinetics of its metabolites in vivo have not been investigated yet. In the present study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF MS) method was employed to investigate the metabolic pathways of irisolidone and the pharmacokinetics of its main metabolites in rats, after a single 100mg/kg oral dose of irisolidone. Protein precipitation method was used to prepare plasma samples. A total of 15 metabolites included irisolidone were detected and tentatively identified based on the mass spectral fragmentation patterns, elution order or confirmed using available reference standards. The pharmacokinetics of the main metabolites included three glucuronide metabolites tectorigenin-7-O-glucuronide (Te-7G), 6-hydroxybiochanin A-6-O-glucuronide (6-OH-BiA-6G), irisolidone-7-O-glucuronide (Ir-7G), and three sulfate metabolite tectorigenin-7-O-sulfate-4'-O-sulfate (Te-7S-4'S), tectorigenin-7-O-sulfate (Te-7S) and irisolidone-7-O-sulfate (Ir-7S), and aglycone tectorigenin (Te), and irisolidone (Ir) were evaluated. The plasma concentrations reached maximal values of 0.297μmol/L at 10.3h for Te-7S-4'S, 0.199μmol/L at 21.7h for Te-7G, 0.154μmol/L at 8.00h for Te-7S, 4.10μmol/L at 15.3h for 6-OH-BiA-6G, 10.7μmol/L at 9.71h for Ir-7G, 0.918μmol/L at 11.3h for Te, 0.150μmol/L at 8.67h for Ir-7S, and 0.843μmol/L at 9.67h for Ir, respectively. Since the total plasma concentrations of conjugated metabolites were much higher than that of the irisolidone aglycone, an extensive phase II metabolism plays an important role in the pharmacokinetics of irisolidone in vivo. PMID:26465087

  16. Prediction of the Passive Intestinal Absorption of Medicinal Plant Extract Constituents with the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA).

    PubMed

    Petit, Charlotte; Bujard, Alban; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Cretton, Sylvian; Houriet, Joëlle; Christen, Philippe; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2016-03-01

    At the early drug discovery stage, the high-throughput parallel artificial membrane permeability assay is one of the most frequently used in vitro models to predict transcellular passive absorption. While thousands of new chemical entities have been screened with the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay, in general, permeation properties of natural products have been scarcely evaluated. In this study, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was used to predict the passive intestinal absorption of a representative set of frequently occurring natural products. Since natural products are usually ingested for medicinal use as components of complex extracts in traditional herbal preparations or as phytopharmaceuticals, the applicability of such an assay to study the constituents directly in medicinal crude plant extracts was further investigated. Three representative crude plant extracts with different natural product compositions were chosen for this study. The first extract was composed of furanocoumarins (Angelica archangelica), the second extract included alkaloids (Waltheria indica), and the third extract contained flavonoid glycosides (Pueraria montana var. lobata). For each medicinal plant, the effective passive permeability values Pe (cm/s) of the main natural products of interest were rapidly calculated thanks to a generic ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-UV detection method and because Pe calculations do not require knowing precisely the concentration of each natural product within the extracts. The original parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was found to keep its predictive power when applied to constituents directly in crude plant extracts provided that higher quantities of the extract were initially loaded in the assay in order to ensure suitable detection of the individual constituents of the extracts. Such an approach is thus valuable for the high

  17. Strongygaster triangulifera (Diptera: Tachinidae) as a parasitoid of adults of the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strongygaster triangulifera (Loew) (Diptera:Tachinidae) is reported for the first time as a parasitoid of Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, an introduced pest of soybeans and other legume crops in the southeastern U.S....

  18. Intercropping Tropical Vine Legumes and Maize for Silage in Temperate Climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize silage is used extensively in American dairy rations. Increasing protein content would enhance maize silage quality. This study examined nine forage legume species (Austrian winter pea, common bean, cowpea, lablab, scarlet runner bean, sesbania, sunn hemp, tropical kudzu, and velvet bean) gr...

  19. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet.

    PubMed

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-01-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard(®) (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 10⁶, n × 10⁷) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 10⁴, n × 10⁵) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98-4.98 viable spores per mm²). PMID:27376335

  20. Physiological specialization of Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates on soybean in the United States from 2006 to 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, cause of soybean rust, represents a classic case of a pathogen introduction that became established to a new geographical region on a perennial overwintering host (kudzu). The objective of our study was to classify the pathogenic variation in P. pachyrhizi isolates collected f...

  1. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera:Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lugys Spp. Diet²

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is a potential candidate for biological control of a variety of pests. The objectives of this study were isolate and identify the fungus from Kudzu bugs and determine its infectivity comparing with two highly pathogenic isolates including the Mississipp...

  2. From Asian curiosity to eruptive American pest: Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) and prospects for biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug or bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius), is native to Asia where it appears to be widely distributed (although the taxonomy is not entirely clear), but is infrequently a pest of legumes. This bug appeared in 2009 in the southeastern United States, where it is closely associa...

  3. Effects of surfactants on conidial germination of Myrothecium verrucaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myrothecium verrucaria has been employed as a unique biological control agent because it is highly effective against several annual and perennial weeds, including red vine, trumpet creeper, redroot pigweed, kudzu, hempsesbania and sicklepod. Although aerial conidia of M. verrucaria are hydrophilic, ...

  4. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet

    PubMed Central

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-01-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard® (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 106, n × 107) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 104, n × 105) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98–4.98 viable spores per mm2). PMID:27376335

  5. Clues to unraveling the coral species problem: distinguishing species from geographic variation in Porites across the Pacific with molecular markers and microskeletal traits

    PubMed Central

    Wellington, Gerrard M.; Fox, George E.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Morphological variation in the geographically widespread coral Porites lobata can make it difficult to distinguish from other massive congeneric species. This morphological variation could be attributed to geographic variability, phenotypic plasticity, or a combination of such factors. We examined genetic and microscopic morphological variability in P. lobata samples from the Galápagos, Easter Island, Tahiti, Fiji, Rarotonga, and Australia. Panamanian P. evermanni specimens were used as a previously established distinct outgroup against which to test genetic and morphological methods of discrimination. We employed a molecular analysis of variance (AMOVA) based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence, principal component analysis (PCA) of skeletal landmarks, and Mantel tests to compare genetic and morphological variation. Both genetic and morphometric methods clearly distinguished P. lobata and P. evermanni, while significant genetic and morphological variance was attributed to differences among geographic regions for P. lobata. Mantel tests indicate a correlation between genetic and morphological variation for P. lobata across the Pacific. Here we highlight landmark morphometric measures that correlate well with genetic differences, showing promise for resolving species of Porites, one of the most ubiquitous yet challenging to identify architects of coral reefs. PMID:25674364

  6. Unrecognized coral species diversity masks differences in functional ecology.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Jennifer N; Hellberg, Michael E; Cortés, Jorge; Baums, Iliana B

    2014-02-01

    Porites corals are foundation species on Pacific reefs but a confused taxonomy hinders understanding of their ecosystem function and responses to climate change. Here, we show that what has been considered a single species in the eastern tropical Pacific, Porites lobata, includes a morphologically similar yet ecologically distinct species, Porites evermanni. While P. lobata reproduces mainly sexually, P. evermanni dominates in areas where triggerfish prey on bioeroding mussels living within the coral skeleton, thereby generating asexual coral fragments. These fragments proliferate in marginal habitat not colonized by P. lobata. The two Porites species also show a differential bleaching response despite hosting the same dominant symbiont subclade. Thus, hidden diversity within these reef-builders has until now obscured differences in trophic interactions, reproductive dynamics and bleaching susceptibility, indicative of differential responses when confronted with future climate change.

  7. Unrecognized coral species diversity masks differences in functional ecology

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Jennifer N.; Hellberg, Michael E.; Cortés, Jorge; Baums, Iliana B.

    2014-01-01

    Porites corals are foundation species on Pacific reefs but a confused taxonomy hinders understanding of their ecosystem function and responses to climate change. Here, we show that what has been considered a single species in the eastern tropical Pacific, Porites lobata, includes a morphologically similar yet ecologically distinct species, Porites evermanni. While P. lobata reproduces mainly sexually, P. evermanni dominates in areas where triggerfish prey on bioeroding mussels living within the coral skeleton, thereby generating asexual coral fragments. These fragments proliferate in marginal habitat not colonized by P. lobata. The two Porites species also show a differential bleaching response despite hosting the same dominant symbiont subclade. Thus, hidden diversity within these reef-builders has until now obscured differences in trophic interactions, reproductive dynamics and bleaching susceptibility, indicative of differential responses when confronted with future climate change. PMID:24335977

  8. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains the following articles: "Resumption and Last Resort" (Joseph Aoun); "Existentials, A-Chains, and Reconstruction" (Norbert Hornstein); "How Long Was the Nineteenth Century" (David Lightfoot); "Formal Features and Parameter Setting: A View From Portuguese Past Participles and Romance Future Tenses" (Lucia Lobata); "Revisiting…

  9. Case Studies Due to Invasive Plants on the Vegetation Retardation Succession in Landslide Areas of Shimen reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Shin-Hwei

    2014-05-01

    The steep terrain and the fragile geology in Taiwan have caused large landslides in the reservoir watershed in the season with typhoons and heavy rain. Management, restoration strategies, and vegetation succession mechanism of landslide areas are distinct due to different attributes and locations of landslide areas. Aiming at 50 landslide areas in Shihmen reservoir watershed from 2004 to 2012, because of the Typhoon Aere occurred in 2004, this study clusters with the primary vegetation data and ortho image, and discusses the primary vegetation type in landslide areas. The successive management engineering in the watershed and the case data in Sule and Shaluntzu are analyzed the vegetation development and plant competition to evaluate the plant succession mechanism and the vegetation restoration results for the reference of successive design of vegetation engineering in landslide areas. The result shows that Shaluntzu area used invasive plants Rhodesgrass and Rhodesian kudzu when slope land vegetation restoration and secondary planting seedlings. Rhodesian kudzu has property of binding plant and causes for vegetation death. Currently, cutting down Rhodesian kudzu to reduce its interference is the most effective prevention and management method. Carefully choose the pre-grass species for vegetation in the have to carry out artificial vegetation restoration area, and continue to monitor the status currently. It would increase biodiversity for slope land due to select the indicator species of vegetation restoration and know successional trends of invasive plant species.

  10. Neoplasta Coquillett (Diptera: Empididae: Hemerodromiinae) from Brazil:
    new species and male description of N. fortiseta Smith.

    PubMed

    Câmara, Josenir T; Rafael, José A

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasta Coquillett is distributed in the New World. The male of N. fortiseta Smith and five new species collected in the Brazilian states of Santa Catarina and São Paulo (N. lobata sp. nov., N. longicornis sp. nov., N. macdonaldi sp. nov., N. nigrithorax sp. nov., and N. spinulosa sp. nov.), are described and illustrated. A key to Brazilian species is provided. PMID:27394260

  11. The distribution of the thermally tolerant symbiont lineage (Symbiodinium clade D) in corals from Hawaii: correlations with host and the history of ocean thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Stat, Michael; Pochon, Xavier; Franklin, Erik C; Bruno, John F; Casey, Kenneth S; Selig, Elizabeth R; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-05-01

    Spatially intimate symbioses, such as those between scleractinian corals and unicellular algae belonging to the genus Symbiodinium, can potentially adapt to changes in the environment by altering the taxonomic composition of their endosymbiont communities. We quantified the spatial relationship between the cumulative frequency of thermal stress anomalies (TSAs) and the taxonomic composition of Symbiodinium in the corals Montipora capitata, Porites lobata, and Porites compressa across the Hawaiian archipelago. Specifically, we investigated whether thermally tolerant clade D Symbiodinium was in greater abundance in corals from sites with high frequencies of TSAs. We recovered 2305 Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences from 242 coral colonies in lagoonal reef habitats at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, French Frigate Shoals, and Kaneohe Bay, Oahu in 2007. Sequences were grouped into 26 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 12 OTUs associated with Montipora and 21 with Porites. Both coral genera associated with Symbiodinium in clade C, and these co-occurred with clade D in M. capitata and clade G in P. lobata. The latter represents the first report of clade G Symbiodinium in P. lobata. In M. capitata (but not Porites spp.), there was a significant correlation between the presence of Symbiodinium in clade D and a thermal history characterized by high cumulative frequency of TSAs. The endogenous community composition of Symbiodinium and an association with clade D symbionts after long-term thermal disturbance appear strongly dependent on the taxa of the coral host. PMID:23762518

  12. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Berger, I; Barrientos, A C; Cáceres, A; Hernández, M; Rastrelli, L; Passreiter, C M; Kubelka, W

    1998-09-01

    The activities of crude plant extracts of five plants popularly used in Guatemala against bacterial and protozoal infections and some of their fractions have been evaluated against the trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. The most active fraction of Neurolaena lobata has also been screened in vivo. Main in vitro activities against trypomastigotes have been observed for the hexane and ethanol extracts of N. lobata (Asteraceae). Both extracts were also active against epimastigotes, whereas all other extracts tested had no effect on epimastigotes. For the hexane extracts of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) and Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes has been found. Also the ethanol extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) leafs and Gliricidia sepium (Papilionaceae) bark showed some trypanocidal activity. Fraction 2 of the ethanol extract of N. lobata was highly active against T. cruzi as well in vitro as in vivo. The chloroforme fraction of P. alliacea showed a high inhibition of trypomastigotes in vitro. Also three fractions of the active extract of B. crassifolia inhibited T. cruzi trypomastigotes. No fraction of G. sepium bark extract showed a marked trypanocidal activity.

  13. Botanical modulation of menopausal symptoms: mechanisms of action?

    PubMed

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dietz, Birgit M; Bolton, Judy L

    2013-05-01

    Menopausal women suffer from a variety of symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats, which can affect quality of life. Although it has been the treatment of choice for relieving these symptoms, hormone therapy has been associated with increased breast cancer risk leading many women to search for natural, efficacious, and safe alternatives such as botanical supplements. Data from clinical trials suggesting that botanicals have efficacy for menopausal symptom relief have been controversial, and several mechanisms of action have been proposed including estrogenic, progestogenic, and serotonergic pathways. Plant extracts with potential estrogenic activities include soy, red clover, kudzu, hops, licorice, rhubarb, yam, and chasteberry. Botanicals with reported progestogenic activities are red clover, hops, yam, and chasteberry. Serotonergic mechanisms have also been proposed since women taking antidepressants often report a reduction in hot flashes and night sweats. Black cohosh, kudzu, kava, licorice, and dong quai all either have reported 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7 ligands or inhibit serotonin reuptake, therefore have potential serotonergic activities. Understanding the mechanisms of action of these natural remedies used for women's health could lead to more efficacious formulations and to the isolation of active components which have the potential of becoming effective medications in the future. PMID:23408273

  14. Effect of Planting Date and Maturity Group on Soybean Yield Response to Injury by Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae).

    PubMed

    Blount, J L; Buntin, G D; Roberts, P M

    2016-02-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an invasive member of the family Plataspidae originating from Asia. Since its discovery in Georgia in 2009, its distribution has increased to 13 southern and eastern states. In the United States, M. cribraria is bivoltine and has two primary developmental hosts, kudzu and soybean. Here, we evaluated the yield response of soybean to M. cribraria feeding injury in relation to planting date and soybean maturity group. The study contained four replicated trials in Griffin, Tifton, and Midville, GA, in 2012 and 2013. Four planting dates from April to July, served as the whole plot of a split-plot design with maturity group five and seven soybean and insecticide (lambda-cyhalothrin) randomized within planting date. Egg masses, nymphs, and adults were enumerated weekly to biweekly until soybean reached maturity. Two generations were observed in April and May plantings, but only one generation was evident in June and July soybean plantings. Insecticide-protected plots had consistently higher yields than unprotected plots. Grain yield was greatest in the May planting and lowest in the July planting. Season-long feeding by M. cribraria reduced grain yield in April, May, and June plantings but not in the July planting. Maturity group and planting date had significant effects on yield components in most comparisons. This study indicated that early-planted soybean are at greater risk of yield loss from M. cribraria injury compared with later-planted soybean.

  15. Effect of Planting Date and Maturity Group on Soybean Yield Response to Injury by Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae).

    PubMed

    Blount, J L; Buntin, G D; Roberts, P M

    2016-02-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an invasive member of the family Plataspidae originating from Asia. Since its discovery in Georgia in 2009, its distribution has increased to 13 southern and eastern states. In the United States, M. cribraria is bivoltine and has two primary developmental hosts, kudzu and soybean. Here, we evaluated the yield response of soybean to M. cribraria feeding injury in relation to planting date and soybean maturity group. The study contained four replicated trials in Griffin, Tifton, and Midville, GA, in 2012 and 2013. Four planting dates from April to July, served as the whole plot of a split-plot design with maturity group five and seven soybean and insecticide (lambda-cyhalothrin) randomized within planting date. Egg masses, nymphs, and adults were enumerated weekly to biweekly until soybean reached maturity. Two generations were observed in April and May plantings, but only one generation was evident in June and July soybean plantings. Insecticide-protected plots had consistently higher yields than unprotected plots. Grain yield was greatest in the May planting and lowest in the July planting. Season-long feeding by M. cribraria reduced grain yield in April, May, and June plantings but not in the July planting. Maturity group and planting date had significant effects on yield components in most comparisons. This study indicated that early-planted soybean are at greater risk of yield loss from M. cribraria injury compared with later-planted soybean. PMID:26511984

  16. Anti-miroestrol polyclonal antibodies: a comparison of immunogen preparations used to obtain desired antibody properties.

    PubMed

    Kitisripanya, Tharita; Jutathis, Kamonthip; Inyai, Chadathorn; Komaikul, Jukrapun; Udomsin, Orapin; Yusakul, Gorawit; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2016-04-01

    Immunogen quality is one important factor that contributes to desirable antibody characteristics. Highly specific antibodies against miroestrol can be used to develop a quality control immunoassay for Pueraria candollei products. In this study, we investigated how various immunogen preparations affect antibody properties. The results show that immunogen prepared using the Mannich reaction provides antibodies with higher specificity and sensitivity against miroestrol than immunogen prepared with the periodate reaction. The results suggest the Mannich reaction maintains the original structure of miroestrol and generates useful antibodies for developing immunoassays. PMID:26563142

  17. Anti-miroestrol polyclonal antibodies: a comparison of immunogen preparations used to obtain desired antibody properties.

    PubMed

    Kitisripanya, Tharita; Jutathis, Kamonthip; Inyai, Chadathorn; Komaikul, Jukrapun; Udomsin, Orapin; Yusakul, Gorawit; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2016-04-01

    Immunogen quality is one important factor that contributes to desirable antibody characteristics. Highly specific antibodies against miroestrol can be used to develop a quality control immunoassay for Pueraria candollei products. In this study, we investigated how various immunogen preparations affect antibody properties. The results show that immunogen prepared using the Mannich reaction provides antibodies with higher specificity and sensitivity against miroestrol than immunogen prepared with the periodate reaction. The results suggest the Mannich reaction maintains the original structure of miroestrol and generates useful antibodies for developing immunoassays.

  18. A sea water barrier to coral gene flow.

    PubMed

    Lessios, H A

    2012-11-01

    Land is not the only barrier to dispersal encountered by marine organisms. For sedentary shallow water species, there is an additional, marine barrier, 5000 km of uninterrupted deep-water stretch between the central and the eastern Pacific. This expanse of water, known as the ‘Eastern Pacific Barrier’, has been separating faunas of the two oceanic regions since the beginning of the Cenozoic. Species with larvae that cannot stay in the plankton for the time it takes to cross between the two sides have been evolving independently. That the eastern Pacific does not share species with the rest of the Pacific was obvious to naturalists two centuries ago (Darwin 1860). Yet, this rule has exceptions. A small minority of species are known to straddle the Eastern Pacific Barrier. One such exception is the scleractinian coral Porites lobata (Fig. 1). This species is spread widely throughout the Indo-Pacific, where it is one of the major reef-builders, but it is also encountered in the eastern Pacific. Are eastern and central Pacific populations of this coral connected by gene flow? In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Baums et al. (2012) use microsatellite data to answer this question. They show that P. lobata populations in the eastern Pacific are cut off from genetic influx from the rest of the Pacific. Populations within each of the two oceanic regions are genetically connected (though those in the Hawaiian islands are also isolated). Significantly, the population in the Clipperton Atoll, the westernmost island in the eastern Pacific, genetically groups with populations from the central Pacific, suggesting that crossing the Eastern Pacific Barrier by P. lobata propagules does occasionally occur.

  19. Diversity in skeletal architecture influences biological heterogeneity and Symbiodinium habitat in corals.

    PubMed

    Yost, Denise M; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Fan, Tung-Yung; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Lee, Raymond W; Sogin, Emilia; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-10-01

    Scleractinian corals vary in response to rapid shifts in the marine environment and changes in reef community structure post-disturbance reveal a clear relationship between coral performance and morphology. With exceptions, massive corals are thought to be more tolerant and branching corals more vulnerable to changing environmental conditions, notably thermal stress. The typical responses of massive and branching coral taxa, respectively, are well documented; however, the biological and functional characteristics that underpin this variation are not well understood. We address this gap by comparing multiple biological attributes that are correlated with skeletal architecture in two perforate (having porous skeletal matrices with intercalating tissues) and two imperforate coral species (Montipora aequituberculata, Porites lobata, Pocillopora damicornis, and Seriatopora hystrix) representing three morphotypes. Our results reveal inherent biological heterogeneity among corals and the potential for perforate skeletons to create complex, three-dimensional internal habitats that impact the dynamics of the symbiosis. Patterns of tissue thickness are correlated with the concentration of symbionts within narrow regions of tissue in imperforate corals versus broad distribution throughout the larger tissue area in perforate corals. Attributes of the perforate and environmentally tolerant P. lobata were notable, with tissues ∼5 times thicker than in the sensitive, imperforate species P. damicornis and S. hystrix. Additionally, P. lobata had the lowest baseline levels of superoxide and Symbiodinium that provisioned high levels of energy. Given our observations, we hypothesize that the complexity of the visually obscured internal environment has an impact on host-symbiont dynamics and ultimately on survival, warranting further scientific investigation. PMID:23992772

  20. Capture methods for Musk Ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Hemmings, J.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Musk Ducks Biziura lobata are endemic to wetlands, river systems and coastal oceanic waters of temperate Australia. Individuals of this species are difficult to capture because of their excellent swimming and diving abilities and frequent use of deep-water habitats. Night-lighting, baited clover-leaf traps and walk-in-nest-traps were used to capture Musk Ducks at Murray Lagoon, Cape Gantheaume Conservation Park, Kangaroo Island, South Australia. These techniques should be useful for capturing Musk Ducks at other locations in Australia.

  1. Preliminary screening of five ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Morales, C; Gomez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar, A M; Cáceres, A

    2001-01-01

    We performed the Irwin test on some different extracts of the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens L., of the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., of the bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. and of the root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At a dosage of 1.25 g extract/100 g dried plant, the aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and G. sepium Jacq. Walp. showed higher activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis. catalepsy and strong hypothermia.

  2. Climate Change, Carbon Dioxide, and Pest Biology: Monitor, Mitigate, Manage.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H; McConnell, Laura L

    2016-01-13

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both managed and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a region) or negative (new introductions), but are likely to be accompanied by significant economic and environmental consequences. Recent studies indicate the range of invasive weeds such as kudzu and insects such as mountain pine beetle have already expanded to more northern regions as temperatures have risen. To reduce these consequences, a better understanding of the link between CO2/climate and pest biology is needed in the context of existing and new strategies for pest management. This paper provides an overview of the probable biological links and the vulnerabilities of existing pest management (especially chemical control) and provides a preliminary synthesis of research needs that could potentially improve the ability to monitor, mitigate, and manage pest impacts.

  3. Glycation of β-lactoglobulin and antiglycation by genistein in different reactive carbonyl model systems.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yanghui; Li, Xiaoming; Zheng, Tiesong; Lv, Lishuang

    2015-09-15

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are formed in β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) glycation systems via the Maillard reaction, have been implicated in diabetes-related long-term complications. In the present study, we found that reaction conditions, including temperature, time, pH, reactant type and molar ratio of beta-lg to a sugar/MGO/GO, can significantly affect the formation of AGEs. Using SDS-PAGE, we further demonstrated that genistein, a natural isoflavone found in a number of plants including soybeans and kudzu, can efficiently inhibit cross-links of the glycated β-lg, and suppress the formation AGEs in a dose-dependent manner by trapping reactive dicarbonyl compounds. The products formed from genistein and methylglyoxal (MGO) in the β-lg-MGO assay were analyzed using LC/MS. Both mono-MGO and di-MGO adducts of genistein were detected with this method. PMID:25863607

  4. Climate Change, Carbon Dioxide, and Pest Biology: Monitor, Mitigate, Manage.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H; McConnell, Laura L

    2016-01-13

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both managed and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a region) or negative (new introductions), but are likely to be accompanied by significant economic and environmental consequences. Recent studies indicate the range of invasive weeds such as kudzu and insects such as mountain pine beetle have already expanded to more northern regions as temperatures have risen. To reduce these consequences, a better understanding of the link between CO2/climate and pest biology is needed in the context of existing and new strategies for pest management. This paper provides an overview of the probable biological links and the vulnerabilities of existing pest management (especially chemical control) and provides a preliminary synthesis of research needs that could potentially improve the ability to monitor, mitigate, and manage pest impacts. PMID:25671793

  5. Release of phenols by plant roots and their potential importance as substrates for PCB-degrading bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.S.; Hedge, R.S.

    1994-12-31

    A comparison of the amount of phenols released into the soil by different plant species showed major differences. Total phenols recovered in the leachate following a single flush ranged from a low of 0.09 {mu}g morin equivalents per g of dry sand for indian grass and big blue stem to a high of 0.38 {mu}g morin equivalents per g sand for crabapple. From the values observed for total phenols, the plant species examined can be grouped into the following categories: (1) Low: big blue stem, cottonwood, eupatorium, indian grass, stephanandra, and sumac; (2) Moderate: asparagus, barberry, kudzu, licorice, mulberry, osage orange, perennial sunflower, rose, staghorn, sumac, and tall fescue; (3) High: crabapple. The relationship of these concentrations to microbial growth will be discussed.

  6. Effect of miroestrol on ovariectomy-induced cognitive impairment and lipid peroxidation in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Monthakantirat, Orawan; Sukano, Wichitsak; Umehara, Kaoru; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Chulikhit, Yaowared; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2014-09-25

    Miroestrol (MR) is a phytoestrogen isolated from Pueraria candollei var. mirifica (KwaoKrueaKhao), a Thai medicinal plant used for rejuvenation. We examined the effects of MR on cognitive function, oxidative brain damage, and the expression of genes encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), factors implicated in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. OVX decreased serum 17β-estradiol level and uterine weight. OVX also impaired object recognition performance in the novel object recognition test and spatial cognitive performance in the Y-maze test and the water maze test. Daily treatment of MR dose-dependently attenuated OVX-induced cognitive dysfunction. Moreover, OVX mice had a significantly increased level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and down-regulated expression levels of BDNF and CREB mRNAs in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. MR treatment as well as hormone replacement therapy with 17β-estradiol significantly reversed these neurochemical alterations caused by OVX. These results suggest that MR ameliorates cognitive deficits in OVX animals via attenuation of OVX-induced oxidative stress and down-regulation of BDNF and CREB mRNA transcription in the brain. Our findings raise the possibility that MR and Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, the plant of origin of MR, may have a beneficial effect on cognitive deficits like AD in which menopause/ovariectomy are implicated as risk factors.

  7. Interaction Between Daidzein and Hesperetin on Antispasmodic Action in Isolated Sensitized and Non-sensitized Guinea-Pig Tracheas.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chung-Hung; Chang, Tsu-Ya; Ko, Wun-Chang

    2016-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a combination of kudzu and Chen-Pi is frequently prescribed for relieving colds, fever, bronchitis, and cough. It contains daidzein and hesperetin, selective inhibitors of family 3 (PDE3), and 4 (PDE4) of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), respectively. In passively sensitized human airways, allergen-induced contraction was reported to be inhibited only by the simultaneous inhibition of PDE3 and PDE4, but not by single inhibition of either isozyme. Therefore, we are interested in investigating the interaction between daidzein and hesperetin on their antispasmodic effects in the isolated sensitized and non-sensitized guinea-pig tracheas, to clarify the difference between these two tissues, because effects of TCM prescription on patients with or without allergic asthma are often different. Guinea-pigs were sensitized by subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin (OVA) into legs. After sensitization, the baseline and cumulative OVA-induced contractions of the sensitized trachea were isometrically recorded on a polygraph. In the same way, the histamine (30 μM)-induced tonic contraction of non-sensitized guinea-pig trachea was recorded. The isobole method was used to analyze the antagonism and synergism between daidzein and hesperetin. The isoboles showed antagonism between daidzein and hesperetin on baseline relaxant effect and OVA (100 μg/ml)-induced contraction in the sensitized guinea-pig trachea. In contrast, the isobole showed synergism between daidzein and hesperetin on the relaxant effect of histamine-induced tonic contraction in non-sensitized guinea-pig trachea. These results suggest that the combination of kudzu and Chen-Pi for relieving colds, fever, bronchitis and cough is effective in patients without, but might show little effect in patients with allergic asthma.

  8. Interaction Between Daidzein and Hesperetin on Antispasmodic Action in Isolated Sensitized and Non-sensitized Guinea-Pig Tracheas

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Chung-Hung; Chang, Tsu-Ya; Ko, Wun-Chang

    2016-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a combination of kudzu and Chen-Pi is frequently prescribed for relieving colds, fever, bronchitis, and cough. It contains daidzein and hesperetin, selective inhibitors of family 3 (PDE3), and 4 (PDE4) of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), respectively. In passively sensitized human airways, allergen-induced contraction was reported to be inhibited only by the simultaneous inhibition of PDE3 and PDE4, but not by single inhibition of either isozyme. Therefore, we are interested in investigating the interaction between daidzein and hesperetin on their antispasmodic effects in the isolated sensitized and non-sensitized guinea-pig tracheas, to clarify the difference between these two tissues, because effects of TCM prescription on patients with or without allergic asthma are often different. Guinea-pigs were sensitized by subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin (OVA) into legs. After sensitization, the baseline and cumulative OVA-induced contractions of the sensitized trachea were isometrically recorded on a polygraph. In the same way, the histamine (30 μM)-induced tonic contraction of non-sensitized guinea-pig trachea was recorded. The isobole method was used to analyze the antagonism and synergism between daidzein and hesperetin. The isoboles showed antagonism between daidzein and hesperetin on baseline relaxant effect and OVA (100 μg/ml)-induced contraction in the sensitized guinea-pig trachea. In contrast, the isobole showed synergism between daidzein and hesperetin on the relaxant effect of histamine-induced tonic contraction in non-sensitized guinea-pig trachea. These results suggest that the combination of kudzu and Chen-Pi for relieving colds, fever, bronchitis and cough is effective in patients without, but might show little effect in patients with allergic asthma. PMID:27064479

  9. Interaction Between Daidzein and Hesperetin on Antispasmodic Action in Isolated Sensitized and Non-sensitized Guinea-Pig Tracheas.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chung-Hung; Chang, Tsu-Ya; Ko, Wun-Chang

    2016-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a combination of kudzu and Chen-Pi is frequently prescribed for relieving colds, fever, bronchitis, and cough. It contains daidzein and hesperetin, selective inhibitors of family 3 (PDE3), and 4 (PDE4) of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), respectively. In passively sensitized human airways, allergen-induced contraction was reported to be inhibited only by the simultaneous inhibition of PDE3 and PDE4, but not by single inhibition of either isozyme. Therefore, we are interested in investigating the interaction between daidzein and hesperetin on their antispasmodic effects in the isolated sensitized and non-sensitized guinea-pig tracheas, to clarify the difference between these two tissues, because effects of TCM prescription on patients with or without allergic asthma are often different. Guinea-pigs were sensitized by subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin (OVA) into legs. After sensitization, the baseline and cumulative OVA-induced contractions of the sensitized trachea were isometrically recorded on a polygraph. In the same way, the histamine (30 μM)-induced tonic contraction of non-sensitized guinea-pig trachea was recorded. The isobole method was used to analyze the antagonism and synergism between daidzein and hesperetin. The isoboles showed antagonism between daidzein and hesperetin on baseline relaxant effect and OVA (100 μg/ml)-induced contraction in the sensitized guinea-pig trachea. In contrast, the isobole showed synergism between daidzein and hesperetin on the relaxant effect of histamine-induced tonic contraction in non-sensitized guinea-pig trachea. These results suggest that the combination of kudzu and Chen-Pi for relieving colds, fever, bronchitis and cough is effective in patients without, but might show little effect in patients with allergic asthma. PMID:27064479

  10. Rheology of lyocell solutions from different cellulosic sources and development of regenerated cellulosic microfibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuopan

    2003-10-01

    The primary goals of the study were to develop manufactured cellulosic fibers and microfibers from wood pulps as well as from lignocellulosic agricultural by-products and to investigate alternative cellulosic sources as raw materials for lyocell solutions. A protocol was developed for the lyocell preparation from different cellulose sources. The cellulose sources included commercial dissolving pulps, commercial bleached hardwood, unbleached hardwood, bleached softwood, unbleached softwood, bleached thermomechanical pulp, unbleached thermomechanical pulp, bleached recycled newsprint, unbleached recycled newsprint, bagasse and kudzu. The rheological behavior of solutions was characterized. Complex viscosities and effective elongational viscosities were measured and the influences of parameters such as cellulose source, concentration, bleaching, and temperature were studied. One-way ANOVA post hoc tests were carried out to identify which cellulose sources have the potential to produce lyocell solutions having similar complex viscosities to those from commercial dissolving pulps. Lyocell solutions from both bleached and unbleached softwood and hardwood were classified as one homogenous subset that had the lowest complex viscosity. Kudzu solutions had the highest complex viscosity. The results showed the potential to substitute DP 1457 dissolving pulp with unbleached recycled newsprint pulps, to substitute DP 1195 dissolving pulp with bleached and unbleached thermomechanical pulps, to substitute DP 932 dissolving pulp with bleached thermomechanical pulps or bleached recycled newsprint pulps, to substitute DP 670 dissolving pulp with bagasse. Lyocell fibers were produced from selected solutions and were treated to produce microfibers. Water, sulfuric acid solutions and sodium hydroxide solutions were used. The treatment of lyocell fibers in 17.5% NaOH solutions for five minutes at 20°C successfully broke the fibers into fibrils along fiber axis. The diameters of the

  11. Depth limit for reef building corals in the Au'au Channel, S.E. Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigg, Richard W.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, the relationship between reef building (accretion) and depth in an optimal inter-island channel environment in Hawaii is analyzed. For accretion, the growth rate of Porites lobata is used as a proxy for the reef community, because it is the most abundant and dominant species of reef building coral in Hawaii. Optimal growth of P. lobata occurs at a depth of 6 m, below which both growth rate and abundance decrease with increasing depth. A lower depth limit for this species is found at about 80-100 m, yet reef accretion ceases at ~50 m depth. Below 50 m, rates of bio-erosion of colony holdfasts equal or exceed the growth of basal attachments, causing colonies to detach from the bottom. Continued bio-erosion further erodes and dislodges colonies leading to their breakdown and ultimately to the formation of coralline rubble and sand. Thus, within this channel environment in Hawaii, a threshold for reef building exists at ~ 50 m depth, where coral accretion is interrupted by bio-erosion. Conceptually viewed, this depth horizon is analogous to a vertical Darwin Point, although quite narrow in space and time. More importantly, it explains the history of reef morphology in the Au’au Channel where a chronological hiatus exists at a depth near 50 m. This hiatus separates shallower modern growth (about 100 years or less) from the deeper reef which is all due to accretion during the early Holocene or Pleistocene epochs.

  12. Comparative structural morphometry and elemental composition of three marine sponges from western coast of India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Maushmi S; Shah, Bhaumik

    2014-04-01

    Three marine sponges Halichondria glabrata, Cliono lobata, and Spirastrella pachyspira from the western coastal region of India were compared for their morphometry, biochemical, and elemental composition. One-way analysis of variance was applied for spicule morphometry results. Length, width, and length:width ratio were calculated independently. The ratio of length:width varied from 35 to 42 among the grown samples, which remained in the range of 10-22 in young sample at the beginning of studies. However, no significant change was observed in spicule width compared to length. Elemental compositions of marine sponges were determined by field emission gun-scanning electron microscope. Scanning electron microscopy data revealed that the spicules of all the three sponges were mostly composed of O (47-56%) and Si (30-40%), whereas Al (14.33%) was only detected in the spicules of C. lobata. Apart from these, K, Ni, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, and S were additionally detected in all the three samples. Presence of heavy metals in the sponges was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Results showed that iron was present in a large amount in samples, followed by zinc, lead, and copper.

  13. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover

    PubMed Central

    Page, Christopher A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1–3 cm2) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm2 per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration. PMID:26500822

  14. Effects of two sediment types on the fluorescence yield of two Hawaiian scleractinian corals.

    PubMed

    Piniak, Gregory A

    2007-10-01

    This study used non-invasive pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry to measure the maximum fluorescence yield (F(v)/F(m)) of two Hawaiian scleractinian coral species exposed to short-term sedimentation stress. Beach sand or harbor mud was applied to coral fragments in a flow-through aquarium system for 0-45 h, and changes in F(v)/F(m) were measured as a function of sediment type and length of exposure. Corals were monitored for up to 90 h to document recovery after sediment removal. Sediment deposition significantly decreased F(v)/F(m) in both species and was a function of sediment type and time. Corals that received sediment for 30 h or more had the greatest reduction in yield and exhibited little recovery over the course of the experiment. Harbor mud caused a greater reduction in Porites lobata yield than beach sand, whereas both sediment types had equally deleterious effects on Montipora capitata. Colony morphology and sediment type were important factors in determining yield reduction--P. lobata minimized damage from coarse sand grains by passive sediment rejection or accumulation in depressions in the skeleton, and fluorescence yield decreased most in corals exposed to sticky harbor mud or in colonies with flattened morphologies. Species-specific differences could not be tested due to differences in colony morphology and surface area. PMID:17568664

  15. Effects of two sediment types on the fluorescence yield of two Hawaiian scleractinian corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piniak, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    This study used non-invasive pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry to measure the maximum fluorescence yield (Fv/Fm) of two Hawaiian scleractinian coral species exposed to short-term sedimentation stress. Beach sand or harbor mud was applied to coral fragments in a flow-through aquarium system for 0-45 h, and changes in Fv/Fm were measured as a function of sediment type and length of exposure. Corals were monitored for up to 90 h to document recovery after sediment removal. Sediment deposition significantly decreased Fv/Fm in both species and was a function of sediment type and time. Corals that received sediment for 30 h or more had the greatest reduction in yield and exhibited little recovery over the course of the experiment. Harbor mud caused a greater reduction in Porites lobata yield than beach sand, whereas both sediment types had equally deleterious effects on Montipora capitata. Colony morphology and sediment type were important factors in determining yield reduction-P. lobata minimized damage from coarse sand grains by passive sediment rejection or accumulation in depressions in the skeleton, and fluorescence yield decreased most in corals exposed to sticky harbor mud or in colonies with flattened morphologies. Species-specific differences could not be tested due to differences in colony morphology and surface area. ?? 2007.

  16. Effects of two sediment types on the fluorescence yield of two Hawaiian scleractinian corals.

    PubMed

    Piniak, Gregory A

    2007-10-01

    This study used non-invasive pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry to measure the maximum fluorescence yield (F(v)/F(m)) of two Hawaiian scleractinian coral species exposed to short-term sedimentation stress. Beach sand or harbor mud was applied to coral fragments in a flow-through aquarium system for 0-45 h, and changes in F(v)/F(m) were measured as a function of sediment type and length of exposure. Corals were monitored for up to 90 h to document recovery after sediment removal. Sediment deposition significantly decreased F(v)/F(m) in both species and was a function of sediment type and time. Corals that received sediment for 30 h or more had the greatest reduction in yield and exhibited little recovery over the course of the experiment. Harbor mud caused a greater reduction in Porites lobata yield than beach sand, whereas both sediment types had equally deleterious effects on Montipora capitata. Colony morphology and sediment type were important factors in determining yield reduction--P. lobata minimized damage from coarse sand grains by passive sediment rejection or accumulation in depressions in the skeleton, and fluorescence yield decreased most in corals exposed to sticky harbor mud or in colonies with flattened morphologies. Species-specific differences could not be tested due to differences in colony morphology and surface area.

  17. Deciduous leaf drop reduces insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Karban, Richard

    2007-08-01

    Deciduous leaf fall is thought to be an adaptation that allows plants living in seasonal environments to reduce water loss and damage during unfavorable periods while increasing photosynthetic rates during favorable periods. Observations of natural variation in leaf shedding suggest that deciduous leaf fall may also allow plants to reduce herbivory. I tested this hypothesis by experimentally manipulating leaf retention for Quercus lobata and observing natural rates of herbivory. Quercus lobata is primarily deciduous although individuals show considerable natural variation in leaf retention. Oak saplings with no leaves through winter experienced reduced attack by cynipid gall makers the following spring. This pattern was consistent with the positive correlation between natural leaf persistence and gall numbers. These cynipids do not overwinter on the leaves that trees retain through winter, although they appear to use persistent leaves as oviposition cues. If these results are general for woody plants in continental temperate habitats, they suggest that an important and unrecognized consequence of deciduous leaf shedding may be a reduction in herbivore damage, and that this effect should be included in models of deciduous and evergreen behavior. PMID:17375327

  18. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Zac H; Page, Christopher A; Toonen, Robert J; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1-3 cm(2)) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm(2) per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration.

  19. Clipperton Atoll (eastern Pacific): oceanography, geomorphology, reef-building coral ecology and biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, P. W.; Veron, J. E. N.; Wellington, G. M.

    1996-06-01

    coralline algae are dominant (5 40% cover) from 0.5 to 7m. Spur and groove features, constructed of alternating frameworks of Pocillopora and Porites, and veneered with crustose coralline algae, are generally well developed around most atoll exposures. Although crustose coralline algae predominate in the breaker zone (with up to 100% cover), a prominent algal ridge is absent with only a slight buildup (ca. 10 cm) to seaward. Frequent grazing by the pufferfish Arothron meleagris results in the removal of large amounts of live tissue and skeleton from Porites lobata. Acanthaster planci is present, but rare. The grazing of large diadematid sea urchins, (2 species each of Diadema and Echinothrix) on dead corals cause extensive erosion in some areas. Large numbers of corals on the 15 18 m terrace had recently suffered partial ( P. lobata, 60 70% maximum of all colonies sampled) or total ( Pocillopora sp., 80% maximum) mortality. The lengths of regenerating knobs and the rates of linear skeletal growth in P. lobata, determined by sclerochronologic analysis, indicated a period of stress during 1987. Massive skeletal growth is significantly higher at intermediate (16 17 m) than shallow (6 8 m) depths with mean extension rates of 1.5 mm yr-1 in P. lobata and 1.4 mm yr-1 in P. minuta at intermediate depths. Skeletal growth in P. lobata was depressed during the 1987 El Nifio event at Clipperton. The branching coral Pocillopora sp. demonstrated high and similar skeletal growth rates at both shallow (25.4 mm yr-1) and intermediate (26.5 mm yr-1) depths. The presence of widely distributed Indo-Pacific zooxanthellate corals at Clipperton and the Revillagigedo Islands indicates that these NE Pacific Islands probably serve as a stepping stone for dispersal into the far eastern Pacific region.

  20. Effect of added herb extracts on oxidative stability of ghee (butter oil) during accelerated oxidation condition.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Nilkanth; Gandhi, Kamal; Purohit, Akash; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant activities of vidarikand (Pueraria tuberosa), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) were evaluated and compared with BHA using β-carotene bleaching assay, DPPH assay and Rancimat method. Phenolic contents of ethanolic extracts of herbs were high compared to their aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts showed more antioxidant activity (β-carotene-linoleic acid model system) than their aqueous counterparts. In DPPH system also, ethanolic extracts were superior to that of aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts of the herbs were more effective in preventing the development of the peroxide value and conjugated diene in ghee compared to their aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts of herbs showed the higher induction period as compared to their aqueous counter parts in the Rancimat. Antioxidant activity of the herbs decreased in the order vidarikand > ashwagandha > shatavari. Thus, the ethanolic extract of vidarikand was having the maximum antioxidant activity among all the herbs. PMID:25328218

  1. [Study of antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from some species of Georgian flora].

    PubMed

    Alaniia, M; Shalashvili, K; Sagareishvili, T; Kavtaradze, N; Sutiashvili, M

    2013-09-01

    The antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from different parts of Georgian flora species Hamamelis virginiana L., Astragalus caucasicus Pall., Astragalus microcephalus Willd., Vitis vinifera L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Rhododendron Ungernii Trautv., Ginkgo biloba L., Salvia officinalis L., Querqus iberica Stev., Maclura aurantiaca Nutt., Cotinus coggygria Ledeb., Fraxinus ornus L., Urtica dioica L., Rhododendron caucasicum Pall., Pueraria hirsuta Matsum., Geranium pusillum L., Astragalus Tanae Sosn., Pinus silvestris L. has been studied. Comparison with ethylentetraacetate and α-tocopherole revealed high efficacy of all extracts studied. 45 individual phenolic compounds were isolated and described by chemical examination of biologically active objects. Common sage (Salvia officinalis) extract turned out as the most active (200 %). The chemical study revealed the dominant content of condensed tannins and low molecular phenolic compounds, which may be attributed to the high antioxidant activity. Biologically active antiatherosclerotic food additive "Salbin" was developed on the basis of Common sage - Salvia officinalis L. phenolic compounds. PMID:24099817

  2. Chemical investigation of Cyperus distans L. and inhibitory activity of scabequinone in seed germination and seedling growth bioassays.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Karyme S S; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B; Santos, Lourivaldo Silva; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Cyperus distans (Cyperaceae) led to the identification of α-ciperone, cyperotundone and scabequinone, besides other common constituents. Complete assignment of the (13)C NMR data of scabequinone is being published for the first time. The inhibitory effects of C. distans extracts and scabequinone on the seed germination and seedling growth of Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated. Seed germination inhibition bioassay revealed that S. obtusifolia (52-53%) was more sensitive to the hexane and the methanol extracts at 1% than M. pudica (0-10%). Scabequinone at 250 mg L⁻¹ displayed seed germination inhibitions more than 50% and radicle growth reduction of more than 35% of the test species S. obtusifolia and P. phaseoloides, while the hypocotyl growth of M. pudica was significantly affected (>50%) by the quinone at the same concentration. These results demonstrate that scabequinone contributes to the overall inhibitory activities of C. distans.

  3. [Advances in the study of enzymes and transporters-mediated pharmacokinetic mechanism for herb-drug interaction].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Liu, Ke-xin

    2015-04-01

    With the wide application of Chinese herbal medicine, herb-drug interaction (HDI) has become increasingly prominent. Metabolic enzymes and transporters are the main targets of HDI, because the changes in expression and function of enzymes and transporters can influence the disposition of drugs. Metabolic enzymes are responsible for the metabolic clearance of drugs, including cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UGT) and sulfotransferases (SULT); transporters widely expressed in the intestine, kidney, liver and brain are involved in the oral absorption, distribution and excretion of drugs. Pueraria, ginkgo, ginseng, St. John's wort and other Chinese herbal medicine often induce a HDI because those herbal medicines combined with chemical medicine are widely used in clinic. The components of herb medicines mentioned above are prone to interact with enzymes and transporters, which often induce a HDI. This paper reviews the advances in the study of enzymes and transporters-mediated pharmacokinetic mechanism of HDI. PMID:26223121

  4. Identification of novel isoprene synthases through genome mining and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ilmén, Marja; Oja, Merja; Huuskonen, Anne; Lee, Sangmin; Ruohonen, Laura; Jung, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Isoprene is a naturally produced hydrocarbon emitted into the atmosphere by green plants. It is also a constituent of synthetic rubber and a potential biofuel. Microbial production of isoprene can become a sustainable alternative to the prevailing chemical production of isoprene from petroleum. In this work, sequence homology searches were conducted to find novel isoprene synthases. Candidate sequences were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and the desired enzymes were identified based on an isoprene production assay. The activity of three enzymes was shown for the first time: expression of the candidate genes from Ipomoea batatas, Mangifera indica, and Elaeocarpus photiniifolius resulted in isoprene formation. The Ipomoea batatas isoprene synthase produced the highest amounts of isoprene in all experiments, exceeding the isoprene levels obtained by the previously known Populus alba and Pueraria montana isoprene synthases that were studied in parallel as controls. PMID:26275749

  5. Development of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Based SCAR Marker for Identification of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq (Convolvulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Devaiah, Kambiranda; Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2011-01-01

    Vidari is an Ayurvedic herbal drug used as aphrodisiac, galactagogue and is also used in the preparation of Chyavanaprash. Tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae), Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC (Fabaceae), Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) de Wilde (Passifloraceae) and pith of Cycas circinalis L. (Cycadaceae) are all traded in the name of Vidari, creating issues of botanical authenticity of the Ayurvedic raw drug. DNA-based markers have been developed to distinguish I. mauritiana from the other Vidari candidates. A putative 600-bp polymorphic sequence, specific to I. mauritiana was identified using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Furthermore, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (IM1F and IM1R) were designed from the unique RAPD amplicon. The SCAR primers produced a specific 323-bp amplicon in authentic I. mauritiana and not in the allied species. PMID:21738554

  6. Development of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Based SCAR Marker for Identification of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq (Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Devaiah, Kambiranda; Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2011-01-01

    Vidari is an Ayurvedic herbal drug used as aphrodisiac, galactagogue and is also used in the preparation of Chyavanaprash. Tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae), Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC (Fabaceae), Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) de Wilde (Passifloraceae) and pith of Cycas circinalis L. (Cycadaceae) are all traded in the name of Vidari, creating issues of botanical authenticity of the Ayurvedic raw drug. DNA-based markers have been developed to distinguish I. mauritiana from the other Vidari candidates. A putative 600-bp polymorphic sequence, specific to I. mauritiana was identified using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Furthermore, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (IM1F and IM1R) were designed from the unique RAPD amplicon. The SCAR primers produced a specific 323-bp amplicon in authentic I. mauritiana and not in the allied species.

  7. Chemical investigation of Cyperus distans L. and inhibitory activity of scabequinone in seed germination and seedling growth bioassays.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Karyme S S; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B; Santos, Lourivaldo Silva; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Cyperus distans (Cyperaceae) led to the identification of α-ciperone, cyperotundone and scabequinone, besides other common constituents. Complete assignment of the (13)C NMR data of scabequinone is being published for the first time. The inhibitory effects of C. distans extracts and scabequinone on the seed germination and seedling growth of Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated. Seed germination inhibition bioassay revealed that S. obtusifolia (52-53%) was more sensitive to the hexane and the methanol extracts at 1% than M. pudica (0-10%). Scabequinone at 250 mg L⁻¹ displayed seed germination inhibitions more than 50% and radicle growth reduction of more than 35% of the test species S. obtusifolia and P. phaseoloides, while the hypocotyl growth of M. pudica was significantly affected (>50%) by the quinone at the same concentration. These results demonstrate that scabequinone contributes to the overall inhibitory activities of C. distans. PMID:24941231

  8. First discovery of Quercus feeding Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) in Central America.

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Schuster, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high taxonomic diversity of oaks in Mexico and Central America, no Quercus feeding Nepticulidae have ever been recorded from the region. Here, we present seven species whose larvae are leaf-miners of Quercus (section Lobatae) in Guatemala. Except Stigmella nigriverticella (Chambers 1875), which was previously known from the United States, all other discovered species are new. We describe and name five new species (Stigmella jaguari Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. lauta Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. sublauta Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. aurifasciata Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and S. guatemalensis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.); the remaining new species is described but left unnamed because of lack of adults (i. e. moths and genitalia are described from developed pupae). All seven treated species are illustrated with photographs of the leaf-mines, adults, and genitalia. PMID:25112733

  9. Pollen limitation and flower abortion in a wind-pollinated, masting tree.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Ian S; Koenig, Walter D; Funk, Kyle A; Pesendorfer, Mario B

    2015-02-01

    Pollen limitation is a key assumption of theories that explain mast seeding, which is common among wind-pollinated and woody plants. In particular, the pollen coupling hypothesis and pollination Moran effect hypothesis assume pollen limitation as a factor that synchronizes seed crops across individuals. The existence of pollen limitation has not, however, been unambiguously demonstrated in wind-pollinated, masting trees. We conducted a two-year pollen supplementation experiment on a masting oak species, Quercus lobata. Supplemental pollen increased acorn set in one year but not in the other, supporting the importance of pollen coupling and pollination Moran effect models of mast seeding. We also tracked the fate of female flowers over five years and found that the vast majority of flowers were aborted for reasons unrelated to pollination, even in the presence of excess pollen. Pollen limitation can reduce annual seed set in a wind-pollinated tree, but factors other than pollen limitation cause the majority of flower abortion.

  10. Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of fifty-eight ethnomedicinal plants used in Trinidad and Tobago for skin problems, stomach problems, pain and internal parasites for safety and possible efficacy. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000 on medicinal plant use for health problems. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad and one in Tobago. The uses are compared to those current in Asia. Bambusa vulgaris, Bidens alba, Jatropha curcas, Neurolaena lobata, Peperomia rotundifolia and Phyllanthus urinaria are possibly efficacous for stomach problems, pain and internal parasites. Further scientific study of these plants is warranted. PMID:17207273

  11. Neuropharmacological profile of ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Morales Cifuentes, C; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar del Fresno, A M; Morales, C; Paredes, M E; Cáceres, A

    2001-08-01

    We carried out the Irwin's test with some different extracts of the aerial parts of Thidax procumbens L., the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp., and root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At dosage of 1.25 g dried plant/kg weight aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. demonstrated the most activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis, catalepsy and strong hypothermia. These extracts of both plants were assayed for effects on CNS and they caused very significant reductions in spontaneous locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and rectal temperature and they increased the sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time.

  12. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, A; López, B; González, S; Berger, I; Tada, I; Maki, J

    1998-10-01

    Extracts were prepared from 13 native plants used for the treatment of protozoal infections. Activity against bacteria and fungi was demonstrated by dilution procedures; Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in vitro against epimastigote and trypomastigotes and in vivo against trypomastigotes. In active extracts, toxicity was evaluated by Artemia salina nauplii, oral acute toxicity (1-5 g/kg) and oral and intraperitoneal subacute toxicity in mice (500 mg/kg). From the plants screened, six showed activity (< or = 2 mg/ml) against bacteria, three against yeasts, five against Microsporum gypseum and five against T. cruzi in vitro and/or in vivo. In vitro and in vivo activity was demonstrated by Neurolaena lobata and Solanum americanum; in vitro or in vivo activity was shown by Acalypha guatemalensis, Petiveria alliacea and Tridax procumbens. Toxicity studies showed that extracts from S. americanum are toxic to A. salina (aqueous, 160 ppm). None showed acute or oral toxicity to mice; S. americanum showed intraperitoneal subacute toxicity.

  13. Influence of host species on ectomycorrhizal communities associated with two co-occurring oaks (Quercus spp.) in a tropical cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melissa H; Pérez-Pérez, Miguel A; Smith, Matthew E; Bledsoe, Caroline S

    2009-08-01

    Interactions between host tree species and ectomycorrhizal fungi are important in structuring ectomycorrhizal communities, but there are only a few studies on host influence of congeneric trees. We investigated ectomycorrhizal community assemblages on roots of deciduous Quercus crassifolia and evergreen Quercus laurina in a tropical montane cloud forest, one of the most endangered tropical forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified by sequencing internal transcribed spacer and partial 28S rRNA gene. We sampled 80 soil cores and documented high ectomycorrhizal diversity with a total of 154 taxa. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that oak host was significant in explaining some of the variation in ectomycorrhizal communities, despite the fact that the two Quercus species belong to the same red oak lineage (section Lobatae). A Tuber species, found in 23% of the soil cores, was the most frequent taxon. Similar to oak-dominated ectomycorrhizal communities in temperate forests, Thelephoraceae, Russulaceae and Sebacinales were diverse and dominant.

  14. Corals from the Persian/Arabian Gulf as models for thermotolerant reef-builders: prevalence of clade C3 Symbiodinium, host fluorescence and ex situ temperature tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hume, B; D'Angelo, C; Burt, J; Baker, A C; Riegl, B; Wiedenmann, J

    2013-07-30

    Corals in the Arabian/Persian Gulf endure summer temperatures of up to 36°C, making them ideal subjects to study the mechanisms underlying thermal tolerance. Unexpectedly, we found the "generalist" Symbiodinium clade C3 to be the prevalent symbiont among seven coral species from Abu Dhabi (UAE) waters. Moreover, C3 represented the only dominant symbiont type in Porites spp. from this region. The "thermotolerant" symbionts D1a and C15 were not encountered, indicating that the association with these symbionts cannot be the sole reason for the heat tolerance of Gulf corals. The association of Porites lobata with specific symbiont types (C3 vs. C15) in samples from habitats with very different temperature regimes (Abu Dhabi vs. Fiji) remained unaffected by laboratory culture. During temperature stress experiments specimens from both locations strongly downregulated green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments. However, the Abu Dhabi samples were less prone to bleaching and showed lower mortality.

  15. Coral reef recovery in the Galápagos Islands: the northernmost islands (Darwin and Wenman)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, Peter W.; Riegl, Bernhard; Purkis, Samuel; Kerr, Jeremy M.; Smith, Tyler B.

    2015-06-01

    The remote northernmost Galápagos Islands, Darwin and Wenman, exhibited well-developed coral communities in 1975, which were severely degraded during the 1982-1983 El Niño warming event. Mapping of the coral reef at Darwin, herein Wellington Reef, shows it presently to be the largest known structural reef in the Galápagos. It consists of numerous 1- to 3-m-high Porites framework towers or stacks and overlies a carbonate (coral/calcareous sediments) basement. Pre-disturbance Wellington Reef was constructed chiefly by Porites lobata and Pocillopora elegans, and Wenman coral cover was dominated by Pavona clavus and Porites lobata. Subsequent surveys in 2012 have demonstrated robust recovery in spite of ENSO thermal shock events, involving both high and low stressful temperatures that have caused tissue bleaching and mortality. No losses of coral species have been observed. Radiocarbon dating of 1- to 3-m-high poritid framework stacks, from their peaks to bases, revealed modern ages of up to 690 yr. Incremental stack growth rates ranged from 0.15-0.39 to 1.04-2.40 cm yr-1. The former are equivalent to framework accretion rates of 1.5-3.9 m Kyr-1, the latter to coral skeletal growth rates of 1.0-2.4 cm yr-1. Coral recovery in the central and southern Galápagos has been nonexistent to low compared with the northern islands, due chiefly to much higher population densities and destructive grazing pressure of the echinoid Eucidaris galapagensis. Thus, coral reef resistance to ENSO perturbations and recovery potential in the Galápagos are influenced by echinoid bioerosion that varies significantly among islands.

  16. Seaweed-coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience.

    PubMed

    Bonaldo, Roberta M; Hay, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70-80% lower, macroalgal cover 4-9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5-15 fold more frequent and 23-67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae), and coral cover 51-68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa) against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals. PMID:24465707

  17. soil carbon pools within oak forest is endangered by global climate change in central mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Oliva, Felipe; Merino, Agustín; González-Rodriguez, Antonio; Chávez-Vergara, Bruno; Tapia-Torres, Yunuen; Oyama, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Forest soil represents the main C pool in terrestrial ecosystems. In particular, temperate forest ecosystems play an important role in the C budget among tropical countries, such as Mexico. For example, the temperate forest ecosystem contains higher C contents on average (295 Mg C ha-1) than the soil C associated with other ecosystems in Mexico (between 56 to 287 Mg C ha-1). At a regional scale, oak forest has the highest C content (460 Mg C ha-1) among the forest ecosystem in Michoacán State at Central Mexico. At the local scale, the soil C content is strongly affected by the composition of organic matter produced by the plant species. The oak species are very diverse in Mexico, distributed within two sections: Quercus sensu stricto and Lobatae. The oak species from Quercus s.s. section produced litterfall with lower concentrations of recalcitrant and thermostable compounds than oak species from Lobatae section, therefore the soil under the former species had higher microbial activity and nutrient availability than the soil under the later species. However, the forest fragment with higher amount of oak species from Quercus s.s. section increases the amount of soil C contents. Unfortunately, Quercus species distribution models for the central western region of Mexico predict a decrease of distribution area of the majority of oak species by the year 2080, as a consequence of higher temperatures and lower precipitation expected under climate change scenarios. Additionally to these scenarios, the remnant oak forest fragments suffer strong degradation due to uncontrolled wood extraction and deforestation. For this reason, the conservation of oak forest fragments is a priority to mitigate the greenhouse gases emission to the atmosphere. In order to enhance the protection of these forest fragments it is required that the society identify the ecosystem services that are provided by these forest fragments.

  18. Seaweed-Coral Interactions: Variance in Seaweed Allelopathy, Coral Susceptibility, and Potential Effects on Coral Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Bonaldo, Roberta M.; Hay, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70–80% lower, macroalgal cover 4–9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5–15 fold more frequent and 23–67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae), and coral cover 51–68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa) against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals. PMID:24465707

  19. Seaweed-coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience.

    PubMed

    Bonaldo, Roberta M; Hay, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70-80% lower, macroalgal cover 4-9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5-15 fold more frequent and 23-67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae), and coral cover 51-68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa) against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals.

  20. The monstering of tamarisk: how scientists made a plant into a problem.

    PubMed

    Chew, Matthew K

    2009-01-01

    Dispersal of biota by humans is a hallmark of civilization, but the results are often unforeseen and sometimes costly. Like kudzu vine in the American South, some examples become the stuff of regional folklore. In recent decades, "invasion biology," conservation-motivated scientists and their allies have focused largely on the most negative outcomes and often promoted the perception that introduced species are monsters. However, cases of monstering by scientists preceded the rise of popular environmentalism. The story of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), flowering trees and shrubs imported to New England sometime before 1818, provides an example of scientific "monstering" and shows how slaying the monster, rather than allaying its impacts, became a goal in itself. Tamarisks' drought and salt tolerance suggested usefulness for both coastal and inland erosion control, and politicians as well as academic and agency scientists promoted planting them in the southern Great Plains and Southwest. But when erosion control efforts in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas became entangled with water shortages, economic development during the Depression and copper mining for national defense during World War Two, federal hydrologists moved quickly to recast tamarisks as water-wasting foreign monsters. Demonstrating significant water salvage was difficult and became subsidiary to focusing on ways to eradicate the plants, and a federal interagency effort devoted specifically to the latter purpose was organized and continued until it, in turn, conflicted with regional environmental concerns in the late 1960s. PMID:19852397

  1. Neuroprotective Effect of Puerarin on Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Y-79 Cells via Inhibition of ROS Generation and Ca2+ Influx

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhifeng; Sun, Song; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate toxicity is estimated to be the key cause of photoreceptor degeneration in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and Ca2+ influx induced by glutamate are responsible for the apoptosis process of photoreceptor degeneration. Puerarin, a primary component of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of puerarin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells was first investigated through cytotoxicity assay. Then the molecular mechanism of this effect regarding anti-oxidative stress and Ca2+ hemostasis was further explored with indirect immunofluorescence, flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis. Our study showed that glutamate induced cell viability loss, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, calcium overload and up-regulated cell apoptosis in differentiated Y-79 cells, which effect was significantly attenuated with the pre-treatment of puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data indicated that the neuroprotective effect of puerarin was potentially mediated through the inhibition of glutamate-induced activation of mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathway and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1(ASK-1)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 signaling pathway. The present study supports the notion that puerarin may be a promising neuroprotective agent in the prevention of retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27409614

  2. In vivo inhibitory effects of puerarin on selected rat cytochrome P450 isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-Jin; Liang, Dong-Lou; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Ye, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Puerarin, the major bioactive constituent in kudzu root, is used widely in China for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to find out whether puerarin influences the effect on rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYP2B6, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4) by using cocktail probe drugs in vivo. A cocktail solution at a dose of 5 mL/kg, which contained bupropion (20 mg/kg), tolbutamide (5 mg/kg) and midazolam (20 mg/kg), was given as oral administration to rats treated with 10 days oral administration of puerarin. Blood samples were collected at a series of time-points and the concentrations of probe drugs in plasma were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that treatment with multiple doses of puerarin had inhibitory effects on rat CYP2B6, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities. Therefore, caution is needed when puerarin is co-administered with CYP substrates, in view of herb-drug interactions.

  3. Invasive Plant Species: Inventory, Mapping, and Monitoring - A National Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludke, J. Larry; D'Erchia, Frank; Coffelt, Jan; Hanson, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    America is under siege by invasive species of plants and animals, and by diseases. The current environmental, economic, and health-related costs of invasive species could exceed $138 billion per year-more than all other natural disasters combined. Notorious examples include West Nile virus, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, and purple loose- strife in the Northeast; kudzu, Brazilian peppertree, water hyacinth, nutria, and fire ants in the Southeast; zebra mussels, leafy spurge, and Asian long-horn beetles in the Midwest; salt cedar, Russian olive, and Africanized bees in the Southwest; yellow star thistle, European wild oats, oak wilt disease, Asian clams, and white pine blister rust in California; cheatgrass, various knapweeds, and thistles in the Great Basin; whirling disease of salmonids in the Northwest; hundreds of invasive species from microbes to mammals in Hawaii; and the brown tree snake in Guam. Thousands of species from other countries are introduced intentionally or accidentally into the United States each year. Based on past experience, 10-15 percent can be expected to establish free-living populations and about 1 percent can be expected to cause significant impacts to ecosystems, native species, economic productivity, and (or) human health.

  4. Host Preference of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) on Selected Edible Beans and Soybean.

    PubMed

    Blount, J L; Buntin, G D; Sparks, A N

    2015-06-01

    Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) is an Old World pest of legumes in Asia. Since its 2009 discovery in Georgia, it has become an economic pest of soybeans in the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to determine the host preference of M. cribraria on edible legumes that might incur economic damage from injury of this pest. From 2012 to 2013 choice, no-choice, and field trials were conducted to evaluate the host suitability of several beans of commercial interest including pinto bean, lima bean, winter pea, and black-eyed pea. Choice and no-choice studies were conducted under greenhouse conditions. Plants in greenhouse trials were infested with adults and egg masses collected from kudzu and soybean and monitored for ∼2 wk. Field trials were allowed to be infested by naturally occurring M. cribraria populations. Sweep and whole plant counts of adults, egg masses, and nymphs were used to quantify field infestations. The legume crops found to be suitable developmental hosts are soybean, edamame, and pigeon pea. Low levels of development were seen on fava bean and none on the remaining entries. PMID:26470234

  5. Alcohol use disorders and current pharmacological therapies: the role of GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jing; Olsen, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are defined as alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, which create large problems both for society and for the drinkers themselves. To date, no therapeutic can effectively solve these problems. Understanding the underlying mechanisms leading to AUD is critically important for developing effective and safe pharmacological therapies. Benzodiazepines (BZs) are used to reduce the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. However, frequent use of BZs causes cross-tolerance, dependence, and cross-addiction to alcohol. The FDA-approved naltrexone and acamprosate have shown mixed results in clinical trials. Naltrexone is effective to treat alcohol dependence (decreased length and frequency of drinking bouts), but its severe side effects, including withdrawal symptoms, are difficult to overcome. Acamprosate showed efficacy for treating alcohol dependence in European trials, but two large US trials have failed to confirm the efficacy. Another FDA-approved medication, disulfiram, does not diminish craving, and it causes a peripheral neuropathy. Kudzu is the only natural medication mentioned by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, but its mechanisms of action are not yet established. It has been recently shown that dihydromyricetin, a flavonoid purified from Hovenia, has unique effects on GABAA receptors and blocks ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in alcoholic animal models. In this article, we review the role of GABAA receptors in the treatment of AUD and currently available and potentially novel pharmacological agents. PMID:25066321

  6. The monstering of tamarisk: how scientists made a plant into a problem.

    PubMed

    Chew, Matthew K

    2009-01-01

    Dispersal of biota by humans is a hallmark of civilization, but the results are often unforeseen and sometimes costly. Like kudzu vine in the American South, some examples become the stuff of regional folklore. In recent decades, "invasion biology," conservation-motivated scientists and their allies have focused largely on the most negative outcomes and often promoted the perception that introduced species are monsters. However, cases of monstering by scientists preceded the rise of popular environmentalism. The story of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), flowering trees and shrubs imported to New England sometime before 1818, provides an example of scientific "monstering" and shows how slaying the monster, rather than allaying its impacts, became a goal in itself. Tamarisks' drought and salt tolerance suggested usefulness for both coastal and inland erosion control, and politicians as well as academic and agency scientists promoted planting them in the southern Great Plains and Southwest. But when erosion control efforts in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas became entangled with water shortages, economic development during the Depression and copper mining for national defense during World War Two, federal hydrologists moved quickly to recast tamarisks as water-wasting foreign monsters. Demonstrating significant water salvage was difficult and became subsidiary to focusing on ways to eradicate the plants, and a federal interagency effort devoted specifically to the latter purpose was organized and continued until it, in turn, conflicted with regional environmental concerns in the late 1960s.

  7. Alcohol use disorders and current pharmacological therapies: the role of GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Olsen, Richard W

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are defined as alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, which create large problems both for society and for the drinkers themselves. To date, no therapeutic can effectively solve these problems. Understanding the underlying mechanisms leading to AUD is critically important for developing effective and safe pharmacological therapies. Benzodiazepines (BZs) are used to reduce the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. However, frequent use of BZs causes cross-tolerance, dependence, and cross-addiction to alcohol. The FDA-approved naltrexone and acamprosate have shown mixed results in clinical trials. Naltrexone is effective to treat alcohol dependence (decreased length and frequency of drinking bouts), but its severe side effects, including withdrawal symptoms, are difficult to overcome. Acamprosate showed efficacy for treating alcohol dependence in European trials, but two large US trials have failed to confirm the efficacy. Another FDA-approved medication, disulfiram, does not diminish craving, and it causes a peripheral neuropathy. Kudzu is the only natural medication mentioned by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, but its mechanisms of action are not yet established. It has been recently shown that dihydromyricetin, a flavonoid purified from Hovenia, has unique effects on GABAA receptors and blocks ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in alcoholic animal models. In this article, we review the role of GABAA receptors in the treatment of AUD and currently available and potentially novel pharmacological agents.

  8. Sublethal Effects of Insecticide Exposure on Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) Nymphs: Key Biological Traits and Acetylcholinesterase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Jin; Reisig, Dominic D.; Li, Guoping; Wu, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Megacopta cribraria F. (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, is an invasive insect pest of U.S. soybean. At present, insecticide application is the primary and most effective control option for M. cribraria. In this study, the potential effects of sublethal and low-lethal concentrations (LC10 and LC40) of three common insecticides on key biological traits and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the treated nymphal stage of insect were assessed. The results show that the sublethal concentration of imidacloprid significantly reduced adult emergence rate of M. cribraria. A low-lethal concentration of imidacloprid significantly increased nymphal development time, but significantly decreased adult emergence rate and adult longevity. Both sublethal and low-lethal concentrations of acephate caused an increase in nymphal development time and a reduction in adult emergence rate and adult longevity. Fecundity of females was significantly reduced only by exposure to low-lethal concentrations of acephate. Sublethal and low-lethal concentrations of bifenthrin increased nymphal development time, but significantly decreased adult emergence rate. In addition, we found that the AChE activity of M. cribraria was significantly increased only by LC40 imidacloprid, but strongly inhibited by acephate. PMID:27638957

  9. Puerarin Inhibits oxLDL-Induced Macrophage Activation and Foam Cell Formation in Human THP1 Macrophage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Zhai, Zhenhua; Zhou, Hongyu; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaojie; Lin, Yuhan; Li, Weihong; Shi, Yueping; Zhou, Ming-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Puerarin, an isoflavone derived from Kudzu roots, has been widely used for treatment of cardiovascular and cerebral vascular diseases in China and other Asian countries. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether puerarin inhibited atherogenic lipid oxLDL-mediated macrophage activation and foam cell formation in human THP1 macrophage. Treatment with oxLDL significantly increased the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, 160%) and interleukin (IL) 1β (13 fold) accompanied by upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, 165%) and the ratio of phospho-IκBα/IκBα in THP1 macrophage. Puerarin dose-dependently prevented an increase in oxLDL-induced proinflammatory gene expression with downregulation of TLR4 and the ratio of phospho-IκBα/IκBα. Furthermore, puerarin prevented oxLDL-mediated lipid deposition and foam cell formation associated with downregulation of scavenger receptor CD36. Flow cytometry analysis showed that puerarin reduced the number of early apoptotic cells of macrophages induced by oxLDL. Our results show that puerarin has anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects in vitro; the underlying mechanisms may involve the inhibition of TLR4/NFκB pathway and downregulation of CD36 expression. The results from the present study provide scientific evidence and may expand our armamentarium to use puerarin for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and atherosclerotic diseases. PMID:26576421

  10. Action Thresholds for Managing Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Soybean Based on Sweep-Net Sampling.

    PubMed

    Seiter, Nicholas J; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Greene, Jeremy K; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Roberts, Phillip M; Reisig, Dominic R

    2015-08-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), first discovered in the United States in 2009, has rapidly become a pest of commercial soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, throughout much of the southeast. Because of its recent arrival, management practices and recommendations are not well established. To develop action thresholds, we evaluated insecticide applications targeted at different densities of adults and nymphs determined using the standard 38-cm diameter sweep net sampling method in 12 soybean field trials conducted in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina from 2011 to 2013. Average peak densities of M. cribraria in the untreated controls reached as high as 63.5 ± 11.0 adults per sweep and 34.7 ± 8.0 nymphs per sweep. Insecticide applications triggered at densities of one adult or nymph of M. cribraria per sweep, two adults or nymphs per sweep, and one adult or nymph per sweep, with nymphs present, resulted in no yield reductions in most cases compared with plots that were aggressively protected with multiple insecticide applications. A single insecticide application timed at the R3 or R4 soybean growth stages also resulted in yields that were equivalent to the aggressively protected plots. Typically, treatments (excluding the untreated control) that resulted in fewer applications were more cost-effective. These results suggest that a single insecticide application targeting nymphs was sufficient to prevent soybean yield reduction at the densities of M. cribraria that we observed. PMID:26470324

  11. Content of methylated inositols in familiar edible plants.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Osamu; Mun'im, Abdul; Negishi, Yukiko

    2015-03-18

    Familiar plants contain large amounts of inositols; soybean, white clover, red clover, bush clover, locust tree, wisteria, and kudzu of the legume family contain pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) at approximately 200-600 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The contents of pinitol in other plants were 260 mg/100 g FW for sticky mouse-ear, 275 mg/100 g FW for chickweed, and 332 mg/100 g FW for ginkgo. chiro-Inositol of 191 and 156 mg/100 g FW was also found in dandelion and Japanese mallotus, respectively. Ononitol (4-O-methyl-myo-inositol) of 166 mg/100 g FW was found in sticky mouse-ear. Furthermore, young leaves of ginkgo contained sequoyitol (5-O-methyl-myo-inositol) of 287 mg/100 g FW. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the methylated inositols were higher than those of the original inositols. Effective uses of these familiar edible plants are expected to promote good health. PMID:25734537

  12. Host Preference of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) on Selected Edible Beans and Soybean.

    PubMed

    Blount, J L; Buntin, G D; Sparks, A N

    2015-06-01

    Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) is an Old World pest of legumes in Asia. Since its 2009 discovery in Georgia, it has become an economic pest of soybeans in the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to determine the host preference of M. cribraria on edible legumes that might incur economic damage from injury of this pest. From 2012 to 2013 choice, no-choice, and field trials were conducted to evaluate the host suitability of several beans of commercial interest including pinto bean, lima bean, winter pea, and black-eyed pea. Choice and no-choice studies were conducted under greenhouse conditions. Plants in greenhouse trials were infested with adults and egg masses collected from kudzu and soybean and monitored for ∼2 wk. Field trials were allowed to be infested by naturally occurring M. cribraria populations. Sweep and whole plant counts of adults, egg masses, and nymphs were used to quantify field infestations. The legume crops found to be suitable developmental hosts are soybean, edamame, and pigeon pea. Low levels of development were seen on fava bean and none on the remaining entries.

  13. Neuroprotective Effect of Puerarin on Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Y-79 Cells via Inhibition of ROS Generation and Ca(2+) Influx.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhifeng; Sun, Song; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate toxicity is estimated to be the key cause of photoreceptor degeneration in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and Ca(2+) influx induced by glutamate are responsible for the apoptosis process of photoreceptor degeneration. Puerarin, a primary component of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of puerarin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells was first investigated through cytotoxicity assay. Then the molecular mechanism of this effect regarding anti-oxidative stress and Ca(2+) hemostasis was further explored with indirect immunofluorescence, flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis. Our study showed that glutamate induced cell viability loss, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, calcium overload and up-regulated cell apoptosis in differentiated Y-79 cells, which effect was significantly attenuated with the pre-treatment of puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data indicated that the neuroprotective effect of puerarin was potentially mediated through the inhibition of glutamate-induced activation of mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathway and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1(ASK-1)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 signaling pathway. The present study supports the notion that puerarin may be a promising neuroprotective agent in the prevention of retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27409614

  14. Sublethal Effects of Insecticide Exposure on Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) Nymphs: Key Biological Traits and Acetylcholinesterase Activity.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jin; Reisig, Dominic D; Li, Guoping; Wu, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Megacopta cribraria F. (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, is an invasive insect pest of U.S. soybean. At present, insecticide application is the primary and most effective control option for M. cribraria In this study, the potential effects of sublethal and low-lethal concentrations (LC10 and LC40) of three common insecticides on key biological traits and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the treated nymphal stage of insect were assessed. The results show that the sublethal concentration of imidacloprid significantly reduced adult emergence rate of M. cribraria A low-lethal concentration of imidacloprid significantly increased nymphal development time, but significantly decreased adult emergence rate and adult longevity. Both sublethal and low-lethal concentrations of acephate caused an increase in nymphal development time and a reduction in adult emergence rate and adult longevity. Fecundity of females was significantly reduced only by exposure to low-lethal concentrations of acephate. Sublethal and low-lethal concentrations of bifenthrin increased nymphal development time, but significantly decreased adult emergence rate. In addition, we found that the AChE activity of M. cribraria was significantly increased only by LC40 imidacloprid, but strongly inhibited by acephate. PMID:27638957

  15. Sublethal Effects of Insecticide Exposure on Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) Nymphs: Key Biological Traits and Acetylcholinesterase Activity.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jin; Reisig, Dominic D; Li, Guoping; Wu, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Megacopta cribraria F. (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, is an invasive insect pest of U.S. soybean. At present, insecticide application is the primary and most effective control option for M. cribraria In this study, the potential effects of sublethal and low-lethal concentrations (LC10 and LC40) of three common insecticides on key biological traits and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the treated nymphal stage of insect were assessed. The results show that the sublethal concentration of imidacloprid significantly reduced adult emergence rate of M. cribraria A low-lethal concentration of imidacloprid significantly increased nymphal development time, but significantly decreased adult emergence rate and adult longevity. Both sublethal and low-lethal concentrations of acephate caused an increase in nymphal development time and a reduction in adult emergence rate and adult longevity. Fecundity of females was significantly reduced only by exposure to low-lethal concentrations of acephate. Sublethal and low-lethal concentrations of bifenthrin increased nymphal development time, but significantly decreased adult emergence rate. In addition, we found that the AChE activity of M. cribraria was significantly increased only by LC40 imidacloprid, but strongly inhibited by acephate.

  16. Alcohol use disorders and current pharmacological therapies: the role of GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Olsen, Richard W

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are defined as alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, which create large problems both for society and for the drinkers themselves. To date, no therapeutic can effectively solve these problems. Understanding the underlying mechanisms leading to AUD is critically important for developing effective and safe pharmacological therapies. Benzodiazepines (BZs) are used to reduce the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. However, frequent use of BZs causes cross-tolerance, dependence, and cross-addiction to alcohol. The FDA-approved naltrexone and acamprosate have shown mixed results in clinical trials. Naltrexone is effective to treat alcohol dependence (decreased length and frequency of drinking bouts), but its severe side effects, including withdrawal symptoms, are difficult to overcome. Acamprosate showed efficacy for treating alcohol dependence in European trials, but two large US trials have failed to confirm the efficacy. Another FDA-approved medication, disulfiram, does not diminish craving, and it causes a peripheral neuropathy. Kudzu is the only natural medication mentioned by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, but its mechanisms of action are not yet established. It has been recently shown that dihydromyricetin, a flavonoid purified from Hovenia, has unique effects on GABAA receptors and blocks ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in alcoholic animal models. In this article, we review the role of GABAA receptors in the treatment of AUD and currently available and potentially novel pharmacological agents. PMID:25066321

  17. Puerarin attenuates inflammation and oxidation in mice with collagen antibody-induced arthritis via TLR4/NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changxing; Wang, Weidong; Jin, Xiaping; Shen, Jianguo; Hu, Weifeng; Jiang, Tao

    2016-08-01

    Puerarin is an important active ingredient in the root of kudzu vine due to its pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study is to contribute to the existing knowledge of the effect of puerarin in the attenuation of inflammation and oxidation in mice with collagen antibody-induced arthritis via toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. Arthritis was induced using injection of anti‑type II collagen antibodies. Treatment with puerarin was observed to significantly decrease clinical scoring of the collagen antibody‑induced arthritis and suppress oxidative stress and the inflammatory response in mice. Furthermore, puerarin was demonstrated to inhibit mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase‑9 and protein expression of TLR4 following collagen antibody-induced arthritis in mice. The effect of puerarin may be associated with the suppression of NF‑κB activity in collagen antibody‑induced arthritis mice. Furthermore, upregulation of phosphorylated (p)‑Janus kinase 2 and p‑signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein expression was suppressed by puerarin. The results of the present study indicate, for the first time, the effect of puerarin to attenuate inflammation and oxidation in mice with collagen antibody‑induced arthritis via TLR4/NF-κB signaling. PMID:27278131

  18. How to improve fertility of African soils? Leguminous fallows (Cameroon), addition of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer (Kenya), organic residues management and introduction of N2 fixing species in forest plantations (Congo).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Mareschal, Louis; Mouanda, Cadeau; Epron, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Most of African soils are inherently infertile and poor in nutrients mainly nitrogen and phosphorus. Several practices are used to improve soil fertility, increase productivity and ensure their sustainability. Soil fertility in the leguminous fallows was evaluated through particulate organic matter (POM), the more active part of soil organic matter (SOM) in Cameroon. The combination of mineral and organic (manure) fertilizers increased microbial P biomass allowing the release of P along the plant growing period in the Kenyan soils. Organic residues management and introduction of nitrogen fixing species (Acacia) were used to improve soil fertility and sustain forest productivity on the coastal plains of Congo. SOM fractionation was made under Pueraria, Mucuna fallows and natural regrowth mainly Chromolaena and under 3 forest plantation treatments installed in previous savanna: 1) no input, 2) normal input, and 3) double input of organic residues. Microbial P biomass and sequential P fractionation were evaluated in high and low P fixing soils. N, C, available P and pH were determined on soil sampled in acacia (100A), eucalypt (100E) and mixed-species (50A:50E) stands. N and P were determined in aboveground litters and in leaves, bark and wood of trees. The two leguminous fallows increased N content in POM fractions i.e., N >1% for Pueraria and Mucuna against N<1% for natural regrowth in the 0-0.10m depth, probably through N input from N2 fixation from the atmosphere (Cameroon).The addition of mineral fertilizers and farmyard manure increases P biomass (4.8 after 2 weeks to 15.2 after 16 weeks), and then decreased to 9.7 mg P g-1 soil (week 32). It also changes the P Hedley fractions partition in the high P fixing Kenyan soil (0-0.10m). After two rotations (14 years), SOM mineralization was the highest in the double input of organic residues treatment (low coarse POM 5.6 g kg-1 of soil and high organo-mineral fraction (OMF) 115 g kg-1 of soil). The introduction of A

  19. Coral Pigments: Quantification Using HPLC and Detection by Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottone, Mary C.

    1995-01-01

    Widespread coral bleaching (loss of pigments of symbiotic dinoflagellates), and the corresponding decline in coral reef health worldwide, mandates the monitoring of coral pigmentation. Samples of the corals Porites compressa and P. lobata were collected from a healthy reef at Puako, Hawaii, and chlorophyll (chl) a, peridinin, and Beta-carotene (Beta-car) were quantified using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detailed procedures are presented for the extraction of the coral pigments in 90% acetone, and the separation, identification, and quantification of the major zooxanthellar pigments using spectrophotometry and a modification of the HPLC system described by Mantoura and Llewellyn (1983). Beta-apo-8-carotenal was found to be inadequate as in internal standard, due to coelution with chl b and/or chl a allomer in the sample extracts. Improvements are suggested, which may result in better resolution of the major pigments and greater accuracy in quantification. Average concentrations of peridinin, chl a, and Beta-car in corals on the reef were 5.01, 8.59, and 0.29, micro-grams/cm(exp 2), respectively. Average concentrations of peridinin and Beta-car did not differ significantly between the two coral species sampled; however, the mean chl a concentration in P. compressa specimens (7.81 ,micro-grams/cm(exp 2) was significantly lower than that in P. lobata specimens (9.96 11g/cm2). Chl a concentrations determined spectrophotometrically were significantly higher than those generated through HPLC, suggesting that spectrophotometry overestimates chl a concentrations. The average ratio of chl a-to-peridinin concentrations was 1.90, with a large (53%) coefficient of variation and a significant difference between the two species sampled. Additional data are needed before conclusions can be drawn regarding average pigment concentrations in healthy corals and the consistency of the chl a/peridinin ratio. The HPLC pigment concentration values

  20. Mean age, concentrations and usage of nonstructural carbon in California oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, C. I.; Muhr, J.; Xu, X.; Druffel-Rodriguez, K. C.; Trumbore, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies show that plants transport, accumulate, and store significant amounts of photosynthetic assimilates as nonstructural carbon (NSC). However, the temporal dynamics of the NSC pool and its role as energy source, in particular during times of stress, are not well known. Taking advantage of the bomb radiocarbon (14C) tracer, we determined the mean age (here defined as mean time elapsed since C was initially fixed from the atmosphere) of soluble and insoluble NSC pools within the stem and of stem-emitted CO2 in mature, sympatric deciduous and evergreen oaks in California. In 2008, we quantified the 14C content and concentration of soluble and insoluble NSC in up to 20 cm long stem increment cores of sympatric evergreen (Quercus agrifolia, wislizeni) and deciduous (Q. lobata, douglasii) oaks during the wet (deciduous dormant) and dry (deciduous growing) seasons. Samples were taken along a coastal precipitation gradient at five nature reserves. In 2010 and 2011, we monitored the rate and 14C content of CO2 emissions from tree trunks of sympatric evergreen Q. agrifolia and deciduous Q. lobata and douglasii at two of the reserves. In all cores, we found that the NSC associated with a given depth averaged several years younger than the structural C (cellulose) in the wood at the same depth. For example, in wood made of structural C fixed before 1950, we detected modern NSC that was clearly fixed during the decades since the testing of atomic weapons in the atmosphere (peak 1950-1960s). These patterns can be explained by a model in which NSC in a given location in the stem is derived from a component that was fixed in the same year as the structural C, mixed with younger NSC that has been transported inward. Despite differences in growth rates, we found no differences in the mean age of NSC pools between life strategies or locations. Within a given stem core increment, there was no difference between the mean age of soluble and insoluble NSC. Concentrations of

  1. Decadal Variations in Western Pacific Warm Pool Dynamics as Evidenced by Porites Corals from Chuuk Atoll, Federated States of Micronesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoll, J. L.; Wagner, A. J.; Anderson, D. M.; Lane, C.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) encompasses some of the warmest sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the world oceans. This region influences seasonal and decadal variability of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and climate anomalies such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Long-term changes coupled with anomalous events like El Niño can greatly influence the position of the ITCZ and subsequently alter weather patterns on a global scale. WPWP dynamics may have contributed to the slowdown in global warming during the last decade. The processes that control these variations are complex, and gaining insight into these systems on decadal to centennial timescales is necessary to improve climate modeling and future predictions for drought or floods associated with global climate change. Chuuk Atoll (7°N, 152°E), located in the Federated States of Micronesia, is positioned within the WPWP at the northern extent of the mean boreal summer position of the ITCZ, making this location optimal for studying WPWP dynamics and ocean-atmosphere linkages. Two coral cores from the species Porites lobata were collected from the outer-atoll at Fannuk Island and the inner-atoll at Lobata Reef. Using stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) composition and Sr/Ca trace metal analysis, the sites were identified as distinct hydrologic environments. Low seasonal variability in δ18O and Sr/Ca values at the outer-atoll site indicates a hydrologically-open system that is strongly influenced by the WPWP. At the inner-atoll site, δ18O and Sr/Ca values reflect a small seasonal SST cycle. In this hydrologically-restricted basin, the δ18O record is likely responding to salinity variations influenced by local climatology, specifically anomalously high or low precipitation events associated with ENSO. The average δ18O between 2003-2011 was 0.5‰ lighter at the inner-atoll site. These values can be interpreted as warmer sea surface temperatures and/or lower sea surface salinities

  2. Holocene key coral species in the Northwest Pacific: indicators of reef formation and reef ecosystem responses to global climate change and anthropogenic stresses in the near future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongo, Chuki

    2012-03-01

    The geological record of key coral species that contribute to reef formation and maintenance of reef ecosystems is important for understanding the ecosystem response to global-scale climate change and anthropogenic stresses in the near future. Future responses can be predicted from accumulated data on Holocene reef species identified in drillcore and from data on raised reef terraces. The present study analyzes a dataset based on 27 drillcores, raised reef terraces, and 134 radiocarbon and U-Th ages from reefs of the Northwest Pacific, with the aim of examining the role of key coral species in reef growth and maintenance for reef ecosystem during Holocene sea-level change. The results indicate a latitudinal change in key coral species: arborescent Acropora (Acropora intermedia and Acropora muricata) was the dominant reef builder at reef crests in the tropics, whereas Porites (Porites australiensis, Porites lutea, and Porites lobata) was the dominant contributor to reef growth in the subtropics between 10,000 and 7000 cal. years BP (when the rate of sea-level rise was 10 m/ka). Acropora digitifera, Acropora hyacinthus, Acropora robusta/A. abrotanoides, Isopora palifera, Favia stelligera, and Goniastrea retiformis from the corymbose and tabular Acropora facies were the main key coral species at reef crests between 7000 and 5000 cal. years BP (when the rate of sea-level rise was 5 m/ka) and during the following period of stable sea-level. Massive Porites (P. australiensis, P. lutea, and P. lobata) contributed to reef growth in shallow lagoons during the period of stable sea level. Key coral species from the corymbose and tabular Acropora facies have the potential to build reefs and maintain ecosystems in the near future under a global sea-level rise of 2-6 m/ka, as do key coral species from the arborescent Acropora facies and massive Porites facies, which show vigorous growth and are tolerant to relatively deep-water, low-energy environments. However, these species

  3. Characterisation and immuno-stimulating activity of polysaccharides from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Burana-Osot, J; Pattanapanyasat, K; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Sukapirom, K; Toida, T

    2010-09-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. and Pueraria candollei Wall. Ex Benth. var. mirifica (Shaw et Suvat.) C. Niyomdham, the leaves of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb, Ocimum basilicum L., Psidium guajava and Andrographis paniculata (Burn. f.) Nees, the stems of Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf ExG), and the fruits of Psidium guajava and Scaphium scaphigerum. The immunological impacts of the polysaccharides on T-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro was investigated by flow cytometric (immunofluorescence) analysis using staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) as a positive control. It was found that the polysaccharides enhanced T-lymphocyte proliferation, ranging from 4.5 to 27.0% at a concentration of 100 microg mL(-1), while the activity of SEB was 13.3%. The medicinal plants showing the highest immuno-stimulating activity were the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. The water-extracted tubers contained 60.0% (w/w) carbohydrates with 6.6% (w/w) uronic acid. The major constituent monosaccharides of the tubers were 28.2 mol% galactose, 10.5 mol% arabinose and 36.4 mol% glucose.

  4. Artificial soils from alluvial tin mining wastes in Malaysia--a study of soil chemistry following experimental treatments and the impact of mycorrhizal treatment on growth and foliar chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, David S; Bakar, Baki B; Hill, Steve J

    2012-01-01

    For decades Malaysia was the world's largest producer of Sn, but now the vast open cast mining operations have left a legacy of some 100,000 ha of what is effectively wasteland, covered with a mosaic of tailings and lagoons. Few plants naturally recolonise these areas. The demand for such land for both urban expansion and agricultural use has presented an urgent need for better characterisation. This study reports on the formation of artificial soils from alluvial Sn mining waste with a focus on the effects of experimental treatments on soil chemistry. Soil organic matter, clay, and pH were manipulated in a controlled environment. Adding both clay tailings and peat enhanced the cation exchange capacity of sand tailings but also reduced the pH. The addition of peat reduced the extractable levels of some elements but increased the availability of Ca and Mg, thus proving beneficial. The use of clay tailings increased the levels of macro and micronutrients but also released Al, As, La, Pb and U. Additionally, the effects of soil mix and mycorrhizal treatments on growth and foliar chemistry were studied. Two plant species were selected: Panicum milicaeum and Pueraria phaseoloides. Different growth patterns were observed with respect to the additions of peat and clay. The results for mycorrhizal treatment (live inoculum or sterile carrier medium) are more complex, but both resulted in improved growth. The use of mycorrhizal fungi could greatly enhance rehabilitation efforts on sand tailings.

  5. Effects of Medicinal Herb Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbe Diversity and Fermentation System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Tae; Hwang, Hee Soon; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Shin Ja; Lee, Il Dong; Lee, Su Kyoung; Oh, Da Som; Lim, Jung Hwa; Yoon, Ho Baek; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Im, Seok Ki; Lee, Sung Sill

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of medicinal herb extracts (MHEs) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the inhibition of protozoa to reduce methane production in the rumen. A fistulated Hanwoo was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The MHEs (T1, Veratrum patulum; T2, Iris ensata var. spontanea; T3, Arisaema ringens; T4, Carduus crispus; T5, Pueraria thunbergiana) were added to the in vitro fermentation bottles containing the rumen fluid and medium. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA), total gas production, gas profiles, and the ruminal microbe communities were measured. The tVFA concentration was increased or decreased as compared to the control, and there was a significant (p<0.05) difference after 24 h incubation. pH and ruminal disappearance of dry matter did not show significant difference. As the in vitro ruminal fermentation progressed, total gas production in added MHEs was increased, while the methane production was decreased compared to the control. In particular, Arisaema ringens extract led to decrease methane production by more than 43%. In addition, the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction indicted that the protozoa population in all added MHEs decreased more than that of the control. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that MHEs could have properties that decrease ruminal methanogenesis by inhibiting protozoa species and might be promising feed additives for ruminants. PMID:27004810

  6. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays.

    PubMed

    Bhatter, Purva D; Gupta, Pooja D; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  7. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Bhatter, Purva D.; Gupta, Pooja D.; Birdi, Tannaz J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  8. Effects of Medicinal Herb Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbe Diversity and Fermentation System.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Tae; Hwang, Hee Soon; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Shin Ja; Lee, Il Dong; Lee, Su Kyoung; Oh, Da Som; Lim, Jung Hwa; Yoon, Ho Baek; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Im, Seok Ki; Lee, Sung Sill

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of medicinal herb extracts (MHEs) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the inhibition of protozoa to reduce methane production in the rumen. A fistulated Hanwoo was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The MHEs (T1, Veratrum patulum; T2, Iris ensata var. spontanea; T3, Arisaema ringens; T4, Carduus crispus; T5, Pueraria thunbergiana) were added to the in vitro fermentation bottles containing the rumen fluid and medium. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA), total gas production, gas profiles, and the ruminal microbe communities were measured. The tVFA concentration was increased or decreased as compared to the control, and there was a significant (p<0.05) difference after 24 h incubation. pH and ruminal disappearance of dry matter did not show significant difference. As the in vitro ruminal fermentation progressed, total gas production in added MHEs was increased, while the methane production was decreased compared to the control. In particular, Arisaema ringens extract led to decrease methane production by more than 43%. In addition, the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction indicted that the protozoa population in all added MHEs decreased more than that of the control. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that MHEs could have properties that decrease ruminal methanogenesis by inhibiting protozoa species and might be promising feed additives for ruminants.

  9. Puerarin Attenuated Early Diabetic Kidney Injury through Down-Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yifei; Zhang, Xianwen; Cai, Xianfan; Wang, Ke; Chen, Yiping; Deng, Yueyi

    2014-01-01

    Radix puerariae, a traditional Chinese herbal medication, has been used successfully to treat patients with early stage of diabetic nephropathy. However, the underlined mechanism of this renal protective effect has not been determined. In the current study, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of puerarin in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. We treated STZ-rats with either puerarin or losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, as compared to those treated with vehicle. We found that both puerarin and losartan attenuated kidney hypertrophy, mesangial expansion, proteinuria, and podocyte foot process effacement in STZ rats. In addition, both puerarin and losartan increased expression of podocyte slit diaphragm proteins such as nephrin and podocin. Interestingly, we found that puerarin treatment induced a more pronounced suppression of oxidative stress production and S-nitrosylation of proteins in the diabetic kidneys as compared to losartan treatment. Furthermore, we found that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which is known to be activated by oxidative stress and S-nitrosylation of proteins, was also suppressed more extensively by puerarin than losartan. In conclusion, these data provide for the first time the potential mechanism to support the use of puerarin in the treatment of early diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24454919

  10. Interaction of some commercial teas with some carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes linked with type-2 diabetes: a dietary intervention in the prevention of type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ogunruku, Omodesola O; Ogidiolu, Funke O; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Adedayo, Bukola C; Ademosun, Ayokunle O

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the inhibitory effect of teas on key enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) linked with type-2 diabetes and their antioxidant properties. Four samples of three brands were used; infusions of green tea (GT), 2 brands of black tea (BT), and a formulated herbal preparation for diabetes (ADT) (white tea, Radix Puerariae, Radix ophiopogonis, hawthorn berry, Chinese yam, and fragrant Solomon seal rhizome) were prepared and subsequently analyzed for their total phenol, ascorbic acid contents, antioxidant properties (2,2-Azizobis (3-Ethylbenzo-Thiazoline~6-sulfonate) "ABTS" scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property), and inhibition of pancreatic-α-amylase and intestinal-α-glucosidase in vitro. The study revealed that GT had the highest total phenol content, ascorbic acid content, ABTS∗ scavenging ability, and ferric reducing ability. Furthermore, all the teas inhibited Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in pancreas, with GT having the highest inhibitory effect. Conversely, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the inhibitory effects of the teas on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The antidiabetic property of the teas could be attributed to their inhibitory effect on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes implicated in diabetes and their antioxidant activities. PMID:24527218

  11. Botanical origin of dietary supplements labeled as "Kwao Keur", a folk medicine from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In the course of our study on the quality of dietary supplements in Japan, both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nrDNA and the rps16 intron sequence of cpDNA of products labeled as "Kwao Keur" were investigated. As a result, the DNA sequence of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, which is the source plant of Kwao Keur, was observed in only about half of the products. Inferred from the determined sequences, source plants in the other products included Medicago sativa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Ipomoea batatas, etc. These inferior products are estimated to lack the efficacy implied by their labeling. In order to guarantee the quality of dietary supplements, it is important to identify the source materials exactly; in addition, an infrastructure that can exclude these inferior products from the market is needed for the protection of consumers from potential damage to their health and finances. The DNA analysis performed in this study is useful for this purpose. PMID:23677774

  12. Interaction of Some Commercial Teas with Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes Linked with Type-2 Diabetes: A Dietary Intervention in the Prevention of Type-2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ogunruku, Omodesola O.; Ogidiolu, Funke O.; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.; Adedayo, Bukola C.; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the inhibitory effect of teas on key enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) linked with type-2 diabetes and their antioxidant properties. Four samples of three brands were used; infusions of green tea (GT), 2 brands of black tea (BT), and a formulated herbal preparation for diabetes (ADT) (white tea, Radix Puerariae, Radix ophiopogonis, hawthorn berry, Chinese yam, and fragrant Solomon seal rhizome) were prepared and subsequently analyzed for their total phenol, ascorbic acid contents, antioxidant properties (2,2-Azizobis (3-Ethylbenzo-Thiazoline~6-sulfonate) “ABTS” scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property), and inhibition of pancreatic-α-amylase and intestinal-α-glucosidase in vitro. The study revealed that GT had the highest total phenol content, ascorbic acid content, ABTS∗ scavenging ability, and ferric reducing ability. Furthermore, all the teas inhibited Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in pancreas, with GT having the highest inhibitory effect. Conversely, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the inhibitory effects of the teas on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The antidiabetic property of the teas could be attributed to their inhibitory effect on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes implicated in diabetes and their antioxidant activities. PMID:24527218

  13. [Analysis on formula raw materials application of health food containing Gardeniae fructus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-guang; Tang, Shi-huan; Jia, Qiang; Meng, Fan-yun

    2014-11-01

    In this article we built formula database of health food containing Gardeniae Fructus with Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System (V2.0). And on this basis, use data mining method such as association rules of the software, to analyze commonly used formula raw materials or materials combination of formula containing Gardeniae Fructus and raw material application having assisted function formula to protect chemical liver injury. The result shows that of the 71 health food formulas containing Gardeniae Fructus, most used materials are Gardeniae Fructus, Lycii Fructus, Angelica Sinensis Radix, Poria and so on. Commonly used materials combination mostly are Gardeniae Fructus and Lycii Fructus, Gardeniae Fructus and Angelica Sinensis Radix, Gardeniae Fructus and Poria, Gardeniae Fructus and Paeonia. There are nearly 18 healthcare functions of the health food containing Gardeniae Fructus, and most of these are assisted functions to protect chemical liver injury, and then immune modulating function. Of 23 formulas containing Gardeniae Fructus having assisted function formula to protect chemical liver injury, Gardeniae Fructus usually combined with traditional Chinese medicine which nourishs blood and liver such as Pueraria, Lycii Fructus, Hawthorn, Paeonia and Turnjujube. Analyzing formula raw materials application of health food containing Gardeniae Fructus contributes a lot to the further development and utilization. PMID:25850287

  14. Effects of Medicinal Herb Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbe Diversity and Fermentation System.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Tae; Hwang, Hee Soon; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Shin Ja; Lee, Il Dong; Lee, Su Kyoung; Oh, Da Som; Lim, Jung Hwa; Yoon, Ho Baek; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Im, Seok Ki; Lee, Sung Sill

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of medicinal herb extracts (MHEs) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the inhibition of protozoa to reduce methane production in the rumen. A fistulated Hanwoo was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The MHEs (T1, Veratrum patulum; T2, Iris ensata var. spontanea; T3, Arisaema ringens; T4, Carduus crispus; T5, Pueraria thunbergiana) were added to the in vitro fermentation bottles containing the rumen fluid and medium. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA), total gas production, gas profiles, and the ruminal microbe communities were measured. The tVFA concentration was increased or decreased as compared to the control, and there was a significant (p<0.05) difference after 24 h incubation. pH and ruminal disappearance of dry matter did not show significant difference. As the in vitro ruminal fermentation progressed, total gas production in added MHEs was increased, while the methane production was decreased compared to the control. In particular, Arisaema ringens extract led to decrease methane production by more than 43%. In addition, the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction indicted that the protozoa population in all added MHEs decreased more than that of the control. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that MHEs could have properties that decrease ruminal methanogenesis by inhibiting protozoa species and might be promising feed additives for ruminants. PMID:27004810

  15. New agar microspheres for the separation and purification of natural products.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chunling; Hu, Yu; Zhang, Fan; Lv, Yongqin; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-11-01

    A new type of agar chromatography media has been prepared with a yield over 80% using a water-in-oil emulsion technique. These microspheres have regular spherical shapes and particle diameters in the range 40-165 μm (average ∼90 μm). Cross-linking of the resulting agar microspheres with epichlorohydrin and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether enhanced their mechanical and thermal stability. The alkaline conditions used during the cross-linking reaction also decreased the content of ionized sulfate groups of the polysaccharide, thus reducing the nonspecific adsorption of positively charged molecules. The cross-linked agar microspheres were functionalized with (i) branched poly(ethyleneimine) to obtain a stationary phase useful for the separation of proteins in an anion-exchange mode and (ii) with poly-β-cyclodextrin enabling direct isolation and purification of puerarin from a crude extract of Radix puerariae. Using a 23.5 mL column loaded with 20 mg extract (0.85 mg/mL gel), puerarin with a purity of 96% was recovered with a yield of 86%.

  16. Botanical origin of dietary supplements labeled as "Kwao Keur", a folk medicine from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In the course of our study on the quality of dietary supplements in Japan, both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nrDNA and the rps16 intron sequence of cpDNA of products labeled as "Kwao Keur" were investigated. As a result, the DNA sequence of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, which is the source plant of Kwao Keur, was observed in only about half of the products. Inferred from the determined sequences, source plants in the other products included Medicago sativa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Ipomoea batatas, etc. These inferior products are estimated to lack the efficacy implied by their labeling. In order to guarantee the quality of dietary supplements, it is important to identify the source materials exactly; in addition, an infrastructure that can exclude these inferior products from the market is needed for the protection of consumers from potential damage to their health and finances. The DNA analysis performed in this study is useful for this purpose.

  17. Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents. PMID:24915396

  18. Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents.

  19. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guodong; Lin, Lezhen; Zhong, Shusheng; Zhang, Qingfeng; Li, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT) weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2) was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25822741

  20. Puerarin ameliorates cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchu; Mo, Yanzhi; Gong, Jingbo; Li, Zhuang; Peng, Huan; Chen, Jiaxue; Wang, Qichao; Ke, Zhaowen; Xie, Jingtao

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has indicated that Diabetes is a high risk of learning and memory deficits. Puerarin, an isoflavonoid extracted from Kudzu roots, has been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-diabetic properties which are useful in the treatment of various diseases. Recently, Puerarin was found to have the effects on learning and memory performances in humans and animal models. However, up to now, there is no detailed evidence on the effect of Puerarin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD). In this study, we designed to assess the effects of Puerarin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD) using a streptozotocin (STZ)-injected rat model and exploring its potential mechanism. Diabetic rats were treated with Puerarin (100 mg/kg per d) for 7 days. The learning and memory function was evaluated by morris water maze test. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetylase (ChAT), oxidative indicators [malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] and inflammatory cytokine (TNF-a, IL-1β and IL-6) were measured in hippocampus by using corresponding commercial kits. mRNA and Protein levels of Bcl-2 were analyzed by RT-PCR and Westernblot. The results showed that supplementation of Puerarin improved the learning and memory performances compared with the STZ group by the morris water maze test. In addition, Puerarin supplement significantly prevented AChE and MDA activities, increased ChAT and SOD activities, and alleviated the protein level of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the hippocampus compared with the STZ group. Moreover, the pretreatment with Puerarin also significantly increased the Bcl-2 expression. It is concluded that Puerarin possesses neuroprotection to ameliorate cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiapototic effects. PMID:26686502

  1. Successful tree planting techniques for drastically disturbed lands: A case study of the propagation planting of container-grown oak and nut trees in Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.

    1998-12-31

    Successful tree seedling establishment on drastically disturbed lands is contingent on seven major variables: (1) selection of proper native species, (2) purchase of the best quality planting stock, (3) correct handling of planting stock, (4) correct planting techniques, (5) effective control of competing vegetation, (6) proper soil conditions and preparation, (7) weather. Exotic species should not be planted to avoid past mistakes such as kudzu, Japanese honeysuckle, sericea lespedeza and chestnut blight. A major concern of reclamation specialists and ecosystem restorationists is obtaining high-quality plant materials with the correct provenance. Ecosystem restorationists, reclamation specialists, park managers and private landowners can easily and cheaply propagate native oak or other hardwood species from local parent stock using Whitcomb bottomless containers. Proper seed collection, storage and preparation techniques as well as propagation methods are critical for seedling growth and development into quality air-pruned planting stock. Air-pruned seedlings of local provenance can be outplanted in the fall after one growing season with little transplanting shock while developing extensive root systems prior to soil freezing in winter. Establishment success of container-grown seedlings greatly exceeds that of spring-planted bare-root seedlings. Fall-planted, container-grown seedlings have a decided advantage since their roots continue to grow throughout the fall and much of the winter, enabling them to better withstand summer drought and weedy competitors. Container-grown seedlings also allow a five- to six-month planting season compared to bare-root seedlings` four to six weeks. Since propagation costs are minimal, planters who grow their own save money on the planting stock. Because the quality is higher, home-grown seedlings have greater establishment success, saving labor, time and money. With better survival rates, far fewer trees need be planted as compared

  2. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jr., Jeffrey L.; Hao, Wei Min; Holden, Amanda S.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Malm, William C.; Moosmuller, Hans; Sullivan, Amy P.; Wold, Cyle E.

    2009-05-15

    We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly-burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern US (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2-4} hydrocarbons, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3} and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed EF for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements often spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates for individual fuels of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions.

  3. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Hao, Wei Min; Holden, Amanda S.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Malm, William C.; Moosmüller, Hans; Sullivan, Amy P.; Wold, Cyle E.

    2009-10-01

    We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern United States (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO2, CO, CH4, C2-4 hydrocarbons, NH3, SO2, NO, NO2, HNO3, and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, Na+, K+, and NH4+ generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed emission factors for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions for individual fuels.

  4. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs. PMID:1795521

  5. Evolutionary lessons from California plant phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Sork, Victoria L; Gugger, Paul F; Chen, Jin-Ming; Werth, Silke

    2016-07-19

    Phylogeography documents the spatial distribution of genetic lineages that result from demographic processes, such as population expansion, population contraction, and gene movement, shaped by climate fluctuations and the physical landscape. Because most phylogeographic studies have used neutral markers, the role of selection may have been undervalued. In this paper, we contend that plants provide a useful evolutionary lesson about the impact of selection on spatial patterns of neutral genetic variation, when the environment affects which individuals can colonize new sites, and on adaptive genetic variation, when environmental heterogeneity creates divergence at specific loci underlying local adaptation. Specifically, we discuss five characteristics found in plants that intensify the impact of selection: sessile growth form, high reproductive output, leptokurtic dispersal, isolation by environment, and the potential to evolve longevity. Collectively, these traits exacerbate the impact of environment on movement between populations and local selection pressures-both of which influence phylogeographic structure. We illustrate how these unique traits shape these processes with case studies of the California endemic oak, Quercus lobata, and the western North American lichen, Ramalina menziesii Obviously, the lessons we learn from plant traits are not unique to plants, but they highlight the need for future animal, plant, and microbe studies to incorporate its impact. Modern tools that generate genome-wide sequence data are now allowing us to decipher how evolutionary processes affect the spatial distribution of different kinds of genes and also to better model future spatial distribution of species in response to climate change. PMID:27432984

  6. Visualization of embolism formation in the xylem of liana stems using neutron radiography

    PubMed Central

    Tötzke, Christian; Miranda, Tatiana; Konrad, Wilfried; Gout, Julien; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Dawson, Martin; Manke, Ingo; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Cold neutron radiography was applied to directly observe embolism in conduits of liana stems with the aim to evaluate the suitability of this method for studying embolism formation and repair. Potential advantages of this method are a principally non-invasive imaging approach with low energy dose compared with synchrotron X-ray radiation, a good spatial and temporal resolution, and the possibility to observe the entire volume of stem portions with a length of several centimetres at one time. Methods Complete and cut stems of Adenia lobata, Aristolochia macrophylla and Parthenocissus tricuspidata were radiographed at the neutron imaging facility CONRAD at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, with each measurement cycle lasting several hours. Low attenuation gas spaces were separated from the high attenuation (water-containing) plant tissue using image processing. Key results Severe cuts into the stem were necessary to induce embolism. The formation and temporal course of an embolism event could then be successfully observed in individual conduits. It was found that complete emptying of a vessel with a diameter of 100 µm required a time interval of 4 min. Furthermore, dehydration of the whole stem section could be monitored via decreasing attenuation of the neutrons. Conclusions The results suggest that cold neutron radiography represents a useful tool for studying water relations in plant stems that has the potential to complement other non-invasive methods. PMID:23393096

  7. Benthic composition of a healthy subtropical reef: baseline species-level cover, with an emphasis on algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Vroom, Peter S; Braun, Cristi L

    2010-01-01

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a "healthy" reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated. PMID:20305808

  8. The Sr/Ca-temperature relationship in coralline aragonite: Influence of variability in (Sr/Ca)[sub seawater] and skeletal growth parameters

    SciTech Connect

    de Villiers, S.; Shen, G.T.; Nelson, B.K. )

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an evaluation of two of the most likely pitfalls of Sr/Ca thermometry, i.e., the effect of biogenic cycling of Sr vs. Ca in the surface ocean and the effect of variable extension rate on Sr incorporation in coralline aragonite. The authors also report calibration of the Sr/Ca-temperature relationship for three coral species, Porites lobata, Pocillopora eydouxi, and Pavona clavus, collected for the Hawaiian and Galapagos islands. Analyses of seawater samples show significant spatial and depth variability in the Sr:Ca ratio. The uncertainty introduced by this effect is estimated to be <0.2[degrees]C for corals located in tropical oligotrophic waters, and potentially larger for corals located in upwelling areas. Sr/Ca along two different growth axes of a Galapagos Pavona clavus, with annual extension rates of [approximately]6 and 12 mm/y, respectively, indicate an offset of 1-2[degrees]C, with higher Sr/Ca values associated with slower extension rates. The offset observed between the two growth axes may be the result of variations in extension and/or calcification rate. These results are important in determining past sea surface temperatures for reconstruction of paleoclimates.

  9. Evolutionary lessons from California plant phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Sork, Victoria L.; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Phylogeography documents the spatial distribution of genetic lineages that result from demographic processes, such as population expansion, population contraction, and gene movement, shaped by climate fluctuations and the physical landscape. Because most phylogeographic studies have used neutral markers, the role of selection may have been undervalued. In this paper, we contend that plants provide a useful evolutionary lesson about the impact of selection on spatial patterns of neutral genetic variation, when the environment affects which individuals can colonize new sites, and on adaptive genetic variation, when environmental heterogeneity creates divergence at specific loci underlying local adaptation. Specifically, we discuss five characteristics found in plants that intensify the impact of selection: sessile growth form, high reproductive output, leptokurtic dispersal, isolation by environment, and the potential to evolve longevity. Collectively, these traits exacerbate the impact of environment on movement between populations and local selection pressures—both of which influence phylogeographic structure. We illustrate how these unique traits shape these processes with case studies of the California endemic oak, Quercus lobata, and the western North American lichen, Ramalina menziesii. Obviously, the lessons we learn from plant traits are not unique to plants, but they highlight the need for future animal, plant, and microbe studies to incorporate its impact. Modern tools that generate genome-wide sequence data are now allowing us to decipher how evolutionary processes affect the spatial distribution of different kinds of genes and also to better model future spatial distribution of species in response to climate change. PMID:27432984

  10. Screening of some medicinal plants from cameroon for beta-lactamase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Gangoué-Piéboji, Joseph; Baurin, Stéphane; Frère, Jean-Marie; Ngassam, Pierre; Ngameni, Bathelemy; Azebaze, Anatole; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Watchueng, Jean; Goffin, Colette; Galleni, Moreno

    2007-03-01

    In efforts to find new bioactive beta-lactamase inhibitors, this study investigated 16 Cameroonian plants belonging to 10 families which were evaluated for anti-beta-lactamase activity. The investigation showed that extracts 2, 6, 3 and 5 of the 16 plants investigated presented interesting in vitro beta-lactamase inhibition (over 90%), respectively, of the beta-lactamases TEM-1, OXA-10, IMP-1 and P99. These extracts were from Mammea africana (all beta-lactamases), Garcinia lucida, G. kola (OXA-10, IMP-1 and P99), Bridelia micrantha (OXA-10, P99), Ochna afzelii (OXA-10, P99), Prunus africana (IMP-1) and Adenia lobata (TEM-1). After elimination of tannins (according to the European Pharmacopoeia) the extracts from B. micrantha, G. lucida and M. africana were tested further for their anti-beta-lactamase activity. The extracts from B. micrantha and G. lucida exhibited potent inhibitory activity, respectively, of beta-lactamase OXA-10 (IC(50) = 0.02 mg/mL) and P99 (IC(50) = 0.01 mg/mL). The anti-beta-lactamase activity of M. africana extract was weak. The isolation and the structural elucidation of the active constituents of G. lucida and B. micrantha will provide useful leads in the development of beta-lactamase inhibitors.

  11. Endocytotic uptake of nutrients in carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Koller-Peroutka, Marianne; Bauer, Sonja; Koshkin, Edith; Lendl, Thomas; Lichtscheidl, Irene K

    2012-07-01

    Carnivorous plants trap, digest and absorb animals in order to supplement their mineral nutrition. Nutrients absorbed by the plant include different nitrogen species, phosphate, potassium, trace elements and small organic compounds. Uptake is usually thought to be performed via specific channels, but this study provides evidence that endocytosis is involved as well. Traps of the carnivorous plants Nepenthes coccinea, Nepenthes ventrata, Cephalotus follicularis, Drosophyllum lusitanicum, Drosera capensis, Dionaea muscipula, Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Genlisea violacea × lobata, Sarracenia psittacina and Sarracenia purpurea were stained with methylene blue in order to identify possible sites of uptake. The permeable parts of the traps were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and other fluorescent endocytosis markers, combined with the soluble protein BSA or respiratory inhibitors. Uptake was studied by confocal microscopy. In Nepenthes, small fluorescent vesicles became visible 1 h after incubation with FITC-BSA. These vesicles fused to larger compartments within 30 h. A similar behaviour was found in the related genera Drosera, Dionaea, Aldrovanda and Drosophyllum but also in Cephalotus with glands of different evolutionary origin. In Genlisea and Sarracenia, no evidence for endocytosis was found. We propose that in many carnivorous plants, nutrient uptake by carriers is supplemented by endocytosis, which enables absorption and intracellular digestion of whole proteins. The advantage for the plant of reducing secretion of enzymes for extracellular digestion is evident.

  12. Heterotrophic plasticity and resilience in bleached corals.

    PubMed

    Grottoli, Andréa G; Rodrigues, Lisa J; Palardy, James E

    2006-04-27

    Mass coral bleaching events caused by elevated seawater temperatures have resulted in extensive coral mortality throughout the tropics over the past few decades. With continued global warming, bleaching events are predicted to increase in frequency and severity, causing up to 60% coral mortality globally within the next few decades. Although some corals are able to recover and to survive bleaching, the mechanisms underlying such resilience are poorly understood. Here we show that the coral host has a significant role in recovery and resilience. Bleached and recovering Montipora capitata (branching) corals met more than 100% of their daily metabolic energy requirements by markedly increasing their feeding rates and CHAR (per cent contribution of heterotrophically acquired carbon to daily animal respiration), whereas Porites compressa (branching) and Porites lobata (mounding) corals did not. These findings suggest that coral species with high-CHAR capability during bleaching and recovery, irrespective of morphology, will be more resilient to bleaching events over the long term, could become the dominant coral species on reefs, and may help to safeguard affected reefs from potential local and global extinction.

  13. Endocytotic uptake of nutrients in carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Koller-Peroutka, Marianne; Bauer, Sonja; Koshkin, Edith; Lendl, Thomas; Lichtscheidl, Irene K

    2012-07-01

    Carnivorous plants trap, digest and absorb animals in order to supplement their mineral nutrition. Nutrients absorbed by the plant include different nitrogen species, phosphate, potassium, trace elements and small organic compounds. Uptake is usually thought to be performed via specific channels, but this study provides evidence that endocytosis is involved as well. Traps of the carnivorous plants Nepenthes coccinea, Nepenthes ventrata, Cephalotus follicularis, Drosophyllum lusitanicum, Drosera capensis, Dionaea muscipula, Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Genlisea violacea × lobata, Sarracenia psittacina and Sarracenia purpurea were stained with methylene blue in order to identify possible sites of uptake. The permeable parts of the traps were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and other fluorescent endocytosis markers, combined with the soluble protein BSA or respiratory inhibitors. Uptake was studied by confocal microscopy. In Nepenthes, small fluorescent vesicles became visible 1 h after incubation with FITC-BSA. These vesicles fused to larger compartments within 30 h. A similar behaviour was found in the related genera Drosera, Dionaea, Aldrovanda and Drosophyllum but also in Cephalotus with glands of different evolutionary origin. In Genlisea and Sarracenia, no evidence for endocytosis was found. We propose that in many carnivorous plants, nutrient uptake by carriers is supplemented by endocytosis, which enables absorption and intracellular digestion of whole proteins. The advantage for the plant of reducing secretion of enzymes for extracellular digestion is evident. PMID:22417315

  14. Helminth Parasites of Rhombomys opimus from Golestan Province, Northeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kamranrashani, B; Kia, EB; Mobedi, I; Mohebali, M; Zarei, Z; Mowlavi, Gh; Hajjaran, H; Abai, MR; Sharifdini, M; Kakooei, Z; Mirjalali, H; Charedar, S

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine the helminthic species occurring in great gerbil Rhombomys opimus collected from Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, northeast Iran. Methods During 2010-2011, a total of 77 R. opimus were captured from rural areas of Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, using Sherman live traps and examined for infectivity with any larva or adult stages of helminthic parasites. Results Overall, 63 R. opimus (81.8%) were found infected with different helminthic species. The rate of infectivity with each species was as follows: Trichuris rhombomidis 31.2%, Trichuris muris 32.5%, Trichuris spp. 10.4%, Syphacia muris 2.6%, Dipetalonema viteae (Acanthocheilonema viteae) 37.7%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata 15.6%, Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis) nana fraterna 5.2%, and Taenia endothoracicus larva 1.3%. Conclusion R. opimus is host for several species of cestodes and nematodes in the study area. The high rate of infectivity with D. viteae indicates the susceptibility of these gerbils to this filarial nematode. Synchronous infections occurred up to four species of helminthes in one host. PMID:23682264

  15. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2015-10-27

    Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulata n. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida.

  16. Effects of intermittent flow and irradiance level on back reef Porites corals at elevated seawater temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.W.; Birkeland, C.

    2007-01-01

    Corals inhabiting shallow back reef habitats are often simultaneously exposed to elevated seawater temperatures and high irradiance levels, conditions known to cause coral bleaching. Water flow in many tropical back reef systems is tidally influenced, resulting in semi-diurnal or diurnal flow patterns. Controlled experiments were conducted to test effects of semi-diurnally intermittent water flow on photoinhibition and bleaching of the corals Porites lobata and P. cylindrica kept at elevated seawater temperatures and different irradiance levels. All coral colonies were collected from a shallow back reef pool on Ofu Island, American Samoa. In the high irradiance experiments, photoinhibition and bleaching were less for both species in the intermittent high-low flow treatment than in the constant low flow treatment. In the low irradiance experiments, there were no differences in photoinhibition or bleaching for either species between the flow treatments, despite continuously elevated seawater temperatures. These results suggest that intermittent flow associated with semi-diurnal tides, and low irradiances caused by turbidity or shading, may reduce photoinhibition and bleaching of back reef corals during warming events. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication. PMID:10190189

  18. Effects of flow and colony morphology on the thermal boundary layer of corals.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Isabel M; Kühl, Michael; Larkum, Anthony W D; Ralph, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    The thermal microenvironment of corals and the thermal effects of changing flow and radiation are critical to understanding heat-induced coral bleaching, a stress response resulting from the destruction of the symbiosis between corals and their photosynthetic microalgae. Temperature microsensor measurements at the surface of illuminated stony corals with uneven surface topography (Leptastrea purpurea and Platygyra sinensis) revealed millimetre-scale variations in surface temperature and thermal boundary layer (TBL) that may help understand the patchy nature of coral bleaching within single colonies. The effect of water flow on the thermal microenvironment was investigated in hemispherical and branching corals (Porites lobata and Stylophora pistillata, respectively) in a flow chamber experiment. For both coral types, the thickness of the TBL decreased exponentially from 2.5 mm at quasi-stagnant flow (0.3 cm s(-1)), to 1 mm at 5 cm s(-1), with an exponent approximately 0.5 consistent with predictions from the heat transfer theory for simple geometrical objects and typical of laminar boundary layer processes. Measurements of mass transfer across the diffusive boundary layer using O(2) microelectrodes revealed a greater exponent for mass transfer when compared with heat transfer, indicating that heat and mass transfer at the surface of corals are not exactly analogous processes.

  19. Advertising displays of male Musk Ducks indicate population subdivision across the Nullarbor Plain of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Fullagar, P.J.; Slater, E.C.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic advertising displays (n=75) of male Musk Ducks Biziura lobata were analysed at ten widely spaced geographic localities in South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia. Vocalisations differed in a fixed, non-overlapping pattern between allopatric Musk Duck populations in southeastern and southwestern Australia. These findings suggest that Musk Duck populations are subdivided by the Nullarbor Plain, the arid treeless desert at the head of the Great Australian Bight. Three vocalisations performed by male Musk Ducks not previously reported in the literature were documented also. Vocalisations of captive Musk Ducks collected from different geographic regions (southeast and southwest) differed between regions from which captives originally were collected and were unlike those performed by wild birds. Based on calls of immature Musk Ducks, acoustic variation within regional populations and the apparent inability of captive Musk Ducks reared in isolation to develop the wild type adult call, regional dialects seemingly are acquired in a social context by repeated observance of adult males and some combination of social imprinting, learning, or practice.

  20. Bio-optical modeling of photosynthetic pigments in corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochberg, Eric J.; Apprill, Amy M.; Atkinson, Marlin J.; Bidigare, Robert R.

    2006-03-01

    The spectral reflectance of coral is inherently related to the amounts of photosynthetic pigments present in the zooxanthellae. There are no studies, however, showing that the suite of major photosynthetic pigments can be predicted from optical reflectance spectra. In this study, we measured cm-scale in vivo and in situ spectral reflectance for several colonies of the massive corals Porites lobata and Porites lutea, two colonies of the branching coral Porites compressa, and one colony of the encrusting coral Montipora flabellata in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. For each reflectance spectrum, we collected a tissue sample and utilized high-performance liquid chromatography to quantify six major photosynthetic pigments, located in the zooxanthellae. We used multivariate multiple regression analysis with cross-validation to build and test an empirical linear model for predicting pigment concentrations from optical reflectance spectra. The model accurately predicted concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c 2, peridinin, diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin and β-carotene, with correlation coefficients of 0.997, 0.941, 0.995, 0.996, 0.980 and 0.984, respectively. The relationship between predicted and actual concentrations was 1:1 for each pigment, except chlorophyll c 2. This simple empirical model demonstrates the potential for routine, rapid, non-invasive monitoring of coral-zooxanthellae status, and ultimately for remote sensing of reef biogeochemical processes.

  1. Reef coralgal assemblages as recorders of paleobathymetry and sea level changes in the Indo-Pacific province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabioch, G.; Montaggioni, L. F.; Faure, G.; Ribaud-Laurenti, A.

    1999-12-01

    The coralgal framework within the outer reef margin of many Indo-Pacific reefs exhibits three main shallow-water communities, the environmental significance of which can be inferred by comparison with their modern counterparts. A community dominated by tabular Acropora gr. hyacinthus/ cytherea with branching Pocillopora damicornis, P. eydouxi, Montipora digitata, occasional domal faviids and mm-thick crusts of the coralline algae Lithophyllum and Mesophyllum (mainly), typical of the 6 - 15 m paleodepth range; a community including robust-branching Acropora gr. danai/ robusta, A. humilis, A. digitifera and subordinate Favia stelligera, Echinopora gemmacea, associated to vermetid gastropods and thick coralline crusts of Hydrolithon cf. onkodes and Neogoniolithon cf. fosliei flourishing in depths less than 6 m; in medium-to-high water-energy settings, a community composed of domal Porites cf. lutea and P. cf. lobata with occasional Acropora gr. danai/ robusta and cm-thick crusts of coralline algae in sheltered habitats in depths less than 10 m. These biological assemblages allow us to determine relationships between reef growth and paleobathymetry and, consequently, to reconstruct regional relative sea-level curves. High water-energy reefal assemblages provide stronger evidence for reconstructing sea-level curves than low-energy buildups, because they have generally been controlled by a keep-up growth mode. Subsiding reef sites seem to be more reliable indicators of sea-level variations because they usually present expanded reef sequences.

  2. Diel 'tuning' of coral metabolism: physiological responses to light cues.

    PubMed

    Levy, O; Achituv, Y; Yacobi, Y Z; Dubinsky, Z; Stambler, N

    2006-01-01

    Hermatypic-zooxanthellate corals track the diel patterns of the main environmental parameters - temperature, UV and visible light - by acclimation processes that include biochemical responses. The diel course of solar radiation is followed by photosynthesis rates and thereby elicits simultaneous changes in tissue oxygen tension due to the shift in photosynthesis/respiration balance. The recurrent patterns of sunlight are reflected in fluorescence yields, photosynthetic pigment content and activity of the two protective enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), enzymes that are among the universal defenses against free radical damage in living tissue. All of these were investigated in three scleractinian corals: Favia favus, Plerogyra sinuosa and Goniopora lobata. The activity of SOD and CAT in the animal host followed the course of solar radiation, increased with the rates of photosynthetic oxygen production and was correlated with a decrease in the maximum quantum yield of photochemistry in Photosystem II (PSII) (DeltaF'/F(m)'). SOD and CAT activity in the symbiotic algae also exhibited a light intensity correlated pattern, albeit a less pronounced one. The observed rise of the free-radical-scavenger enzymes, with a time scale of minutes to several hours, is an important protective mechanism for the existence and remarkable success of the unique cnidarian-dinoflagellate associations, in which photosynthetic oxygen production takes place within animal cells. This represents a facet of the precarious act of balancing the photosynthetic production of oxygen by the algal symbionts with their destructive action on all living cells, especially those of the animal host.

  3. Modeled regional climate change and California endemic oak ranges.

    PubMed

    Kueppers, Lara M; Snyder, Mark A; Sloan, Lisa C; Zavaleta, Erika S; Fulfrost, Brian

    2005-11-01

    In the coming century, anthropogenic climate change will threaten the persistence of restricted endemic species, complicating conservation planning. Although most efforts to quantify potential shifts in species' ranges use global climate model (GCM) output, regional climate model (RCM) output may be better suited to predicting shifts by restricted species, particularly in regions with complex topography or other regionally important climate-forcing factors. Using a RCM-based future climate scenario, we found that potential ranges of two California endemic oaks, Quercus douglasii and Quercus lobata, shrink considerably (to 59% and 54% of modern potential range sizes, respectively) and shift northward. This result is markedly different from that obtained by using a comparable GCM-based scenario, under which these species retain 81% and 73% of their modern potential range sizes, respectively. The difference between RCM- and GCM-based scenarios is due to greater warming and larger precipitation decreases during the growing season predicted by the RCM in these species' potential ranges. Based on the modeled regional climate change, <50% of protected land area currently containing these species is expected to contain them under a future midrange "business-as-usual" path of greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs.

  5. Simultaneous extension of both basic microstructural components in scleractinian coral skeleton during night and daytime, visualized by in situ 86Sr pulse labeling.

    PubMed

    Domart-Coulon, I; Stolarski, J; Brahmi, C; Gutner-Hoch, E; Janiszewska, K; Shemesh, A; Meibom, A

    2014-01-01

    Using in situ (12 h) pulse-labeling of scleractinian coral aragonitic skeleton with stable 86Sr isotope, the diel pattern of skeletal extension was investigated in the massive Porites lobata species, grown at 5 m depth in the Gulf of Eilat. Several microstructural aspects of coral biomineralization were elucidated, among which the most significant is simultaneous extension of the two basic microstructural components Rapid Accretion Deposits (RAD; also called Centers of Calcification) and Thickening Deposits (TD; also called fibers), both at night and during daytime. Increased thickness of the 86Sr-labeled growth-front in the RADs compared to the adjacent TDs revealed that in this species RADs extend on average twice as fast as TDs. At the level of the individual corallite, skeletal extension is spatially highly heterogeneous, with sporadic slowing or cessation depending on growth directions and skeletal structure morphology. Daytime photosynthesis by symbiotic dinoflagellates is widely acknowledged to substantially increase calcification rates at the colony and the corallite level in reef-building corals. However, in our study, the average night-time extension rate (visualized in three successive 12 h pulses) was similar to the average daytime extension (visualized in the initial 12 h pulse), in all growth directions and skeletal structures. This research provides a platform for further investigations into the temporal calibration of coral skeletal extension via cyclic growth increment deposition, which is a hallmark of coral biomineralization.

  6. Neutral Loss Ion Mapping Experiment Combined with Precursor Mass List and Dynamic Exclusion for Screening Unstable Malonyl Glucoside Conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Yao, Shuai; Li, Shangrong; Yang, Wenzhi; Jiang, Baohong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wanying; Qv, Hua; Guo, De-an

    2016-01-01

    Malonates are one type of the acylation conjugates and found abundantly in ginseng and soybean. Malonyl conjugates of ginsenosides and isoflavone glycosides were often considered as the characteristic components to evaluate various species and different forms of ginseng and soybean products because of their thermal instability. Another famous isoflavonoid-rich leguminous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), named Puerarin lobata (Gegen), has also been reported to contain malonyl daidzin and malonyl genistin. However, the conjugates were found to present in very low amount and particularly unstable in the negative ion mode scan using LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI). In order to screen and characterize the malonyl conjugates in Gegen, a specific method was designed and developed combining neutral loss ion mapping (NLIM) experiment and precursor mass list (PL) triggered data dependent acquisition (DDA). Along with the activation of dynamic exclusion (DE), the method was proven to be specific and efficient for searching the malonate derivatives from Gegen. Two samples were examined by the established method. A total of 66 compounds were found, and 43 of them were malonates of isoflavone glycoside. Very few compounds were reported previously in Gegen. The results are helpful to understand the constituents of Gegen with more insight. The study not only provided a method for analyzing the malonyl conjugates from complex matrices but also explored a way to trace other low amount components in TCMs.

  7. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulata n. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida. PMID:26624419

  8. Modeling Surface Water Transport in the Central Pacific Ocean With 129I Records From Coral Skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, W.; Biddulph, D. L.; Russell, J. L.; Burr, G. S.; Jull, T. J.; Correge, T.; Roeder, B.

    2008-12-01

    129I occurs naturally in extremely low abundance via cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere as well as by spontaneous fission of uranium. Oceanic concentrations of 129I have risen by several orders of magnitude during the last half century largely from environmental pollution coming from several point-source nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. In the Pacific basin, much of the increase has apparently come from the Hanford Nuclear reprocessing plant in the United States, with iodine primarily arriving via the Columbia River. Coral skeletons preserve records of 129I concentration of the surface waters from which they were deposited, yielding records with annual resolution or better. We will present three such records from different locations in the Pacific Ocean: the Solomon Islands, Easter Island and Clipperton Atoll. For this study, drill cores from living massive coral skeletons of the species Porites Lobata were collected from these sites. 129I/127I values were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Arizona with an NEC 3 MV Pelletron accelerator. Results from the analysis of the corals will be compared to the distribution of other mixed-layer tracers (chloro-fluorocarbons and tritium) collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment cruises conducted between 1990 and 2002. The 129I/127I records observed in these corals will also be compared to tracer transit time calculations determined from a 20th century simulation of the GFDL coupled-climate passive-tracer model.

  9. Effects of flow and colony morphology on the thermal boundary layer of corals

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Isabel M.; Kühl, Michael; Larkum, Anthony W. D.; Ralph, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal microenvironment of corals and the thermal effects of changing flow and radiation are critical to understanding heat-induced coral bleaching, a stress response resulting from the destruction of the symbiosis between corals and their photosynthetic microalgae. Temperature microsensor measurements at the surface of illuminated stony corals with uneven surface topography (Leptastrea purpurea and Platygyra sinensis) revealed millimetre-scale variations in surface temperature and thermal boundary layer (TBL) that may help understand the patchy nature of coral bleaching within single colonies. The effect of water flow on the thermal microenvironment was investigated in hemispherical and branching corals (Porites lobata and Stylophora pistillata, respectively) in a flow chamber experiment. For both coral types, the thickness of the TBL decreased exponentially from 2.5 mm at quasi-stagnant flow (0.3 cm s−1), to 1 mm at 5 cm s−1, with an exponent approximately 0.5 consistent with predictions from the heat transfer theory for simple geometrical objects and typical of laminar boundary layer processes. Measurements of mass transfer across the diffusive boundary layer using O2 microelectrodes revealed a greater exponent for mass transfer when compared with heat transfer, indicating that heat and mass transfer at the surface of corals are not exactly analogous processes. PMID:21602322

  10. Cyclic and non-cyclic dynamics in populations of the helminth parasites of wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, S S; Montgomery, W I

    1988-03-01

    Two populations of Apodemus sylvaticus, one in deciduous woodland and another in coniferous forest in Co. Down, Northern Ireland, were trapped at monthly intervals over 33 months. The dynamics, reproduction and age structure of the mouse populations differed between years with over a 40 fold range of population size. Nine species of helminths were recovered from the alimentary tract and associated organs of the mice. The prevalence and mean worm burden of the cestodes, Catenotaenia lobata, Hymenolepis hibernia and Taenia taeniaeformis varied erratically. The trematodes, Corrigia vitta and to a lesser degree Brachylaima recurva, had seasonal changes in abundance. The nematodes Capillaria murissylvatici and Nematospiroides dubius had strongly seasonal cycles of abundance associated with the onset of host reproduction. Trichuris muris was the rarest helminth. Despite protracted periods of absence this species maintained a seasonal increase in mean worm burden in late winter. The nematode, Syphacia stroma, had a weakly seasonal pattern of dynamics. The bases of these cyclical and non-cyclical dynamics of the helminths of A. sylvaticus are discussed.

  11. Genetic Differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Populations on Cultivated Cowpea and Wild Host Plants: Implications for Insect Resistance Management and Biological Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Coates, Brad S.; Datinon, Benjamin; Djouaka, Rousseau; Sun, Weilin; Tamò, Manuele; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. var. javanica (Benth.) Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir), and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.). Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P≤0.001). The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries) on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation −0.68%) or F-statistics (FSTLoc = −0.01; P = 0.62). These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (φSTLoc = 0.05; P = 0.92). In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (FSTHost = 0.04; P = 0.01), which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (φSTHost = 0.06; P = 0.27). Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM) for M. vitrata in West Africa. PMID:24647356

  12. Genetic differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations on cultivated cowpea and wild host plants: implications for insect resistance management and biological control strategies.

    PubMed

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Coates, Brad S; Datinon, Benjamin; Djouaka, Rousseau; Sun, Weilin; Tamò, Manuele; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2014-01-01

    Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. var. javanica (Benth.) Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir), and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.). Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P≤0.001). The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries) on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation -0.68%) or F-statistics (FSTLoc = -0.01; P = 0.62). These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (φSTLoc = 0.05; P = 0.92). In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (FSTHost = 0.04; P = 0.01), which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (φSTHost = 0.06; P = 0.27). Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM) for M. vitrata in West Africa.

  13. Screening for in vitro metabolites of kakkalide and irisolidone in human and rat intestinal bacteria by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guozhe; Gong, Tianxing; Kano, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Dan

    2014-02-01

    Kakkalide and irisolidone, the main isoflavones of Flos Puerariae, exhibit a wide spectrum of bioactivities. Intestinal bacteria biotransformation plays an important role in the metabolic pathways of flavones, and is directly related to the bioactivities of the prodrugs after oral administration. To the best of our knowledge, the metabolic pathways of kakkalide and irisolidone in vitro have not been comprehensively studied yet. This paper describes the strategy using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF MS) for the rapid analysis of the metabolic profiles of kakkalide and irisolidone after incubated with human and rat intestinal bacteria. Bacteria incubated samples were prepared and analyzed after incubated under anaerobic conditions for 48 h. A total of 17 metabolites, including parent compounds, were detected in human and rat intestinal bacteria incubated samples. The results obtained indicate that hydrolysis, dehydroxylation, demethoxylation, demethylation, hydroxylation, decarbonylation, and reduction were the detected metabolic pathways of kakkalide and irisolidone in vitro. The conversion rate of irisolidone in human and rat bacteria was 8.57% and 6.51%, respectively. Biochanin A was the relatively main metabolite of irisolidone, and the content of biochanin A in human and rat bacteria was 3.68% and 4.25%, respectively. The conversion rate of kakkalide in human and rat bacteria was 99.92% and 98.58%, respectively. Irisolidone was the main metabolite of kakkalide, and the content of irisolidone in human and rat bacteria was 89.58% and 89.38%, respectively. This work not only provides the evidence of kakkalide and irisolidone metabolites in vivo, but also demonstrates a simple, fast, sensitive, and inexpensive method for identification of metabolites of other compounds transformed by intestinal bacteria.

  14. Preparation, characterization and in vitro/vivo evaluation of tectorigenin solid dispersion with improved dissolution and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Shuping; Yue, Shanlan; Huang, Qingting; Wang, Wei; Yang, Junyi; Lan, Ke; Ye, Liming

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel amorphous solid dispersion system for tectorigenin (TG). TG is one of isoflavone aglycones extracted from Iris tectorum and flowers of Pueraria thunbergiana, but its poor water solubility and low membrane permeability have severely restricted the clinical application. To increase the aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of TG, we prepared the solid dispersions of tectorigenin (TG-SD) using a simple solvent evaporation process with TG, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and PEG4000 at weight ratio of 7:54:9 after tested in several ratios. The prepared solid dispersions of tectorigenin are duly characterized for drug morphological conversion, in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies have indicated the morphological conversion of tectorigenin to amorphous form. In vitro release profiles revealed that the % release of TG-SD was achieved 4.35-fold higher than that of the pure drug after 150 min. The oral bioavailability of the solid dispersion in rats was also increased based on AUC0-t and C max of TG-SD, which were 4.8- and 13.1-fold higher than that of TG crystal, respectively. It is worth noting that physical mixture containing TG, PEG4000 and PVP produced a similar level of oral exposure as TG-SD, suggesting that PEG4000 and PVP were able to enhance bioavailability of TG in rats. However, with the reduction of particle size, TG-SD provided the fastest oral absorption compared to physical mixture and pure drug. These results demonstrated that the efficacy of solid dispersions for the enhancement of TG oral bioavailability was by increasing its aqueous solubility and the solid dispersion formulation could be a viable option for enhancing the oral bioavailability of TG.

  15. Sward characteristics and performance of dairy cows in organic grass-legume pastures shaded by tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Paciullo, D S C; Pires, M F A; Aroeira, L J M; Morenz, M J F; Maurício, R M; Gomide, C A M; Silveira, S R

    2014-08-01

    The silvopastoral system (SPS) has been suggested to ensure sustainability in animal production systems in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate pasture characteristics, herbage intake, grazing activity and milk yield of Holstein×Zebu cows managed in two grazing systems (treatments): SPS dominated by a graminaceous forage (Brachiaria decumbens) intercropped with different leguminous herbaceous forages (Stylosanthes spp., Pueraria phaseoloides and Calopogonium mucunoides) and legume trees (Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala), and open pasture (OP) of B. decumbens intercropped only with Stylosanthes spp. Pastures were managed according to the rules for organic cattle production. The study was carried out by following a switch back format with 12 cows, 6 for each treatment, over 3 experimental years. Herbage mass was similar (P>0.05) for both treatments, supporting an average stocking rate of 1.23 AU/ha. Daily dry matter intake did not vary (P>0.05) between treatments (average of 11.3±1.02 kg/cow per day, corresponding to 2.23±0.2% BW). Milk yield was higher (P0.05) in subsequent years. The highest (P0.05) milk yields. Low persistence of Stylosanthes guianensis was observed over the experimental period, indicating that the persistence of forage legumes under grazing could be improved using adapted cultivars that have higher annual seed production. The SPS and a diversified botanical composition of the pasture using legume species mixed with grasses are recommended for organic milk production. PMID:24703358

  16. Puerarin protects against CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice: possible role of PARP-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Feng, Min; Wang, Xun; Zhang, Zhi-Heng; Zhao, Xin; Han, Bing; Ma, Hu-Cheng; Dai, Bo; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2016-09-01

    Liver fibrosis, which is the pathophysiologic process of the liver due to sustained wound healing in response to chronic liver injury, will eventually progress to cirrhosis. Puerarin, a bioactive isoflavone glucoside derived from the traditional Chinese medicine pueraria, has been reported to have many anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis properties. However, the detailed mechanisms are not well studied yet. This study aimed to investigate the effects of puerarin on liver function and fibrosis process in mice induced by CCl4. C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with 10% CCl4 in olive oil(2mL/kg) with or without puerarin co-administration (100 and 200mg/kg intraperitoneally once daily) for four consecutive weeks. As indicated by the ameliorative serum hepatic enzymes and the reduced histopathologic abnormalities, the data collected showed that puerarin can protect against CCl4-induced chronic liver injury. Moreover, CCl4-induced development of fibrosis, as evidenced by increasing expression of alpha smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), collagen-1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and connective tissue growth factor(CTGF) in liver, were suppressed by puerarin. Possible mechanisms related to these suppressive effects were realized by inhibition on NF-κB signaling pathway, reactive oxygen species(ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo. In addition, these protective inhibition mentioned above were driven by down-regulation of PARP-1 due to puerarin because puerarin can attenuate the PARP-1 expression in CCl4-damaged liver and PJ34, a kind of PARP-1 inhibitor, mimicked puerarin's protection. In conclusion, puerarin played a protective role in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis probably through inhibition of PARP-1 and subsequent attenuation of NF-κB, ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27318789

  17. Preparation, characterization and in vitro/vivo evaluation of tectorigenin solid dispersion with improved dissolution and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Shuping; Yue, Shanlan; Huang, Qingting; Wang, Wei; Yang, Junyi; Lan, Ke; Ye, Liming

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel amorphous solid dispersion system for tectorigenin (TG). TG is one of isoflavone aglycones extracted from Iris tectorum and flowers of Pueraria thunbergiana, but its poor water solubility and low membrane permeability have severely restricted the clinical application. To increase the aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of TG, we prepared the solid dispersions of tectorigenin (TG-SD) using a simple solvent evaporation process with TG, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and PEG4000 at weight ratio of 7:54:9 after tested in several ratios. The prepared solid dispersions of tectorigenin are duly characterized for drug morphological conversion, in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies have indicated the morphological conversion of tectorigenin to amorphous form. In vitro release profiles revealed that the % release of TG-SD was achieved 4.35-fold higher than that of the pure drug after 150 min. The oral bioavailability of the solid dispersion in rats was also increased based on AUC0-t and C max of TG-SD, which were 4.8- and 13.1-fold higher than that of TG crystal, respectively. It is worth noting that physical mixture containing TG, PEG4000 and PVP produced a similar level of oral exposure as TG-SD, suggesting that PEG4000 and PVP were able to enhance bioavailability of TG in rats. However, with the reduction of particle size, TG-SD provided the fastest oral absorption compared to physical mixture and pure drug. These results demonstrated that the efficacy of solid dispersions for the enhancement of TG oral bioavailability was by increasing its aqueous solubility and the solid dispersion formulation could be a viable option for enhancing the oral bioavailability of TG. PMID:25669445

  18. Effects of puerarin in STZ-induced diabetic rats by oxidative stress and the TGF-β1/Smad2 pathway.

    PubMed

    She, ShaoYi; Liu, WeiJuan; Li, Tong; Hong, YingKai

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of pueraria on streptozotocine (STZ)-induced renal damage and its possible mechanisms. Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: the normal control group, diabetes untreated model group, two dosages (140 and 200 mg per kg bw per day) of puerarin treatment groups and a positive control group. Rats were studied 30 days after the STZ treatment, and the diabetes untreated model group presented significantly higher kidney index, blood glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), malondialdehyde (MDA), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and IFN-γ/IL-4 levels, lower body weight, fasting blood insulin (FPI), IL-4, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and nitric oxide (NO) levels and worse renal function (higher blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), urine protein (UP) levels and glomerular extracellular matrix (relative area)) compared with the normal control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, RT-FQ-PCR and western blot analyses showed that TGF-β1, Smad2, CTGF and FN protein and mRNA expression was significantly increased in the diabetes untreated model group compared with the normal control group. In contrast, the puerarin treatment dose-dependently significantly decreased the kidney index, blood glucose, TG, TC, MDA, IFN-γ, and IFN-γ/IL-4 levels, increased the body weight, FPI, IL-4, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and NO levels and improved the renal function (lower BUN, SCr, UP levels and glomerular extracellular matrix (relative area)) in puerarin treatment groups (p < 0.05). In addition, the mRNA and protein expression of TGF-β1, Smad2, CTGF and FN was downregulated. It can be concluded that puerarin exerted its anti-diabetic effect on the STZ-treated rats through the inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad2 pathway.

  19. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  20. Betaines and dimethylsulfoniopropionate as major osmolytes in cnidaria with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yancey, Paul H; Heppenstall, Marina; Ly, Steven; Andrell, Raymond M; Gates, Ruth D; Carter, Virginia L; Hagedorn, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Most marine invertebrates and algae are osmoconformers whose cells accumulate organic osmolytes that provide half or more of cellular osmotic pressure. These solutes are primarily free amino acids and glycine betaine in most invertebrates and small carbohydrates and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in many algae. Corals with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) have been reported to obtain from the symbionts potential organic osmolytes such as glycerol, amino acids, and DMSP. However, corals and their endosymbionts have not been fully analyzed for osmolytes. We quantified small carbohydrates, free amino acids, methylamines, and DMSP in tissues of the corals Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis, Pocillopora meandrina, Montipora capitata, Porites compressa, and Porites lobata (all with symbionts) plus Tubastrea aurea (asymbiotic) from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu (Hawaii). Glycine betaine, at 33-69 mmol/kg wet mass, was found to constitute 90% or more of the measured organic solutes in all except the Porites species. Those were dominated by proline betaine and dimethyltaurine. DMSP was found at 0.5-3 mmol/kg in all species with endosymbionts. Freshly isolated Symbiodinium from Fungia, P. damicornis, and P. compressa were also analyzed. DMSP and glycine betaine dominated in the first two; Porites endosymbionts had DMSP, proline betaine, and dimethyltaurine. In all specimens, glycerol and glucose were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography only at 0-1 mmol/kg wet mass. An enzymatic assay for glycerol plus glycerol 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate yielded 1-10 mmol/kg. Cassiopeia andromeda (upside-down jelly; Scyphozoan) and Aiptasia puchella (solitary anemone; Anthozoan) were also analyzed; both have endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. In both, glycine betaine, taurine, and DMSP were the dominant osmolytes. In summary, methylated osmolytes dominate in many Cnidaria; in those with algal symbionts, host and symbiont have similar methylated amino

  1. Multi-colony calibrations of coral Ba/Ca with a contemporaneous in situ seawater barium record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaVigne, Michèle; Grottoli, Andréa G.; Palardy, James E.; Sherrell, Robert M.

    2016-04-01

    The coral skeleton barium to calcium ratio (Ba/Cacoral), a proxy for seawater barium concentrations (BaSW), has been interpreted as a tracer of upwelling based on the characteristic "nutrient like" depth profile of BaSW. However, in some tropical regions, such as the Gulf of Panamá, substantial influence of terrestrial runoff inputs and differences between the vertical distribution of BaSW and that of the major nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) in the upper water column can complicate the interpretation of Ba/Cacoral as an upwelled nutrient proxy. In the Gulf of Panamá, contemporaneous Ba/Cacoral records from multiple colonies of Porites lobata, Pavona gigantea, and Pavona clavus corals record a nearly twofold change in surface water BaSW as a 20-70% increase in skeletal Ba/Ca with excellent correlation among Ba/Ca records from co-located colonies (r = 0.86-0.99). These results provide, for the first time, an absolute calibration of the coral Ba proxy with a contemporaneous BaSW record. Compiling the Ba/Cacoral records from three co-located colonies of each species into taxon-specific composite regressions reveals strong statistically significant correlations with the BaSW time-series record (p < 0.001). Differences among taxa in regression slope, y-intercept, and average distribution coefficient, as well as a demonstration of the application of the P. clavus calibration to a previously published Ba/Cacoral record, emphasize the necessity of using taxon-specific calibrations to reconstruct changes in BaSW with accuracy. These results support the application of Ba/Cacoral to reconstruct past changes in absolute BaSW concentrations, adding an important tool to the collection of geochemical proxies for reconstructing surface ocean biogeochemical processes in the past.

  2. Lobatin B inhibits NPM/ALK and NF-κB attenuating anaplastic-large-cell-lymphomagenesis and lymphendothelial tumour intravasation.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Izabella; Unger, Christine; Huu, Chi Nguyen; Atanasov, Atanas Georgiev; Kramer, Nina; Chatruphonprasert, Waranya; Brenner, Stefan; McKinnon, Ruxandra; Peschel, Andrea; Vasas, Andrea; Lajter, Ildiko; Kain, Renate; Saiko, Philipp; Szekeres, Thomas; Kenner, Lukas; Hassler, Melanie R; Diaz, Rene; Frisch, Richard; Dirsch, Verena M; Jäger, Walter; de Martin, Rainer; Bochkov, Valery N; Passreiter, Claus M; Peter-Vörösmarty, Barbara; Mader, Robert M; Grusch, Michael; Dolznig, Helmut; Kopp, Brigitte; Zupko, Istvan; Hohmann, Judit; Krupitza, Georg

    2015-01-28

    An apolar extract of the traditional medicinal plant Neurolaena lobata inhibited the expression of the NPM/ALK chimera, which is causal for the majority of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs). Therefore, an active principle of the extract, the furanoheliangolide sesquiterpene lactone lobatin B, was isolated and tested regarding the inhibition of ALCL expansion and tumour cell intravasation through the lymphendothelium. ALCL cell lines, HL-60 cells and PBMCs were treated with plant compounds and the ALK inhibitor TAE-684 to measure mitochondrial activity, proliferation and cell cycle progression and to correlate the results with protein- and mRNA-expression of selected gene products. Several endpoints indicative for cell death were analysed after lobatin B treatment. Tumour cell intravasation through lymphendothelial monolayers was measured and potential causal mechanisms were investigated analysing NF-κB- and cytochrome P450 activity, and 12(S)-HETE production. Lobatin B inhibited the expression of NPM/ALK, JunB and PDGF-Rβ, and attenuated proliferation of ALCL cells by arresting them in late M phase. Mitochondrial activity remained largely unaffected upon lobatin B treatment. Nevertheless, caspase 3 became activated in ALCL cells. Also HL-60 cell proliferation was attenuated whereas PBMCs of healthy donors were not affected by lobatin B. Additionally, tumour cell intravasation, which partly depends on NF-κB, was significantly suppressed by lobatin B most likely due to its NF-κB-inhibitory property. Lobatin B, which was isolated from a plant used in ethnomedicine, targets malignant cells by at least two properties: I) inhibition of NPM/ALK, thereby providing high specificity in combating this most prevalent fusion protein occurring in ALCL; II) inhibition of NF-κB, thereby not affecting normal cells with low constitutive NF-κB activity. This property also inhibits tumour cell intravasation into the lymphatic system and may provide an option to manage this

  3. Concentrations and 14C age of nonstructural carbon in California oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, C. I.; Druffel-Rodriguez, K.; Trumbore, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Plants store photosynthetic assimilates as nonstructural carbon (NSC), mainly glucose, fructose, sucrose, and starch. NSC fuels processes such as respiration and growth. Research suggests that NSC represents a significant fraction of a plant's annual C budget, but temporal dynamics of NSC are poorly understood. We used concentration and radiocarbon (14C) measurements of NSC to investigate how temporal dynamics of NSC vary with life strategy and throughout a species' range. In Mediterranean environments, oaks have developed two strategies (evergreen and deciduous) to cope with drought. Within California, the uncertainty of annual winter rain increases from north to south. We compared two evergreen and deciduous species: Coastal and Interior live oak (Quercus agrifolia and wislizenii) and Valley and Blue oak (Q. lobata and douglasii). Samples (4 mm cores to 20 cm depth at dbh) were taken in 2008 before leaf-out and fall at five sites which represent an inland to coast temperature gradient from high to low summer temperatures as well as a north- south precipitation gradient. Sugars were isolated by shaking in methanol-water and quantified using a spectrometric micro-plate technique. Starch was isolated by boiling in ethanol followed by HCl digestion and quantified manometrically. 14C contents were measured by AMS. Preliminary findings indicate that in live oaks, winter sugar concentrations are constant throughout the tree and across sites, while 14C concentrations increase towards a tree's center. This suggests that the NSC pool oaks is not well mixed. Future work will elucidate whether plants can access these older NSC stores.

  4. Species delimitation in the coral genus Goniopora (Scleractinia, Poritidae) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Terraneo, Tullia I; Benzoni, Francesca; Arrigoni, Roberto; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-09-01

    Variable skeletal morphology, genotype induced plasticity, and homoplasy of skeletal structures have presented major challenges for scleractinian coral taxonomy and systematics since the 18th century. Although the recent integration of genetic and micromorphological data is helping to clarify the taxonomic confusion within the order, phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation within most coral genera are still far from settled. In the present study, the species boundaries in the scleractinian coral genus Goniopora were investigated using 199 colonies from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea and sequencing of four molecular markers: the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between CytB and NAD2, the nuclear ribosomal ITS region, and two single-copy nuclear genes (ATPsβ and CalM). DNA sequence data were analyzed using a variety of methods and exploratory species-delimitation tools. The results were broadly congruent in identifying five distinct molecular lineages within the sequenced Goniopora samples: G. somaliensis/G. savignyi, G. djiboutiensis/G. lobata, G. stokesi, G. albiconus/G. tenuidens, and G. minor/G. gracilis. Although the traditional macromorphological characters used to identify these nine morphospecies were not able to discriminate the obtained molecular clades, informative micromorphological and microstructural features (such as the micro-ornamentation and the arrangement of the columella) were recovered among the five lineages. Moreover, unique in vivo morphologies were associated with the genetic-delimited lineages, further supporting the molecular findings. This study represents the first attempt to identify species boundaries within Goniopora using a combined morpho-molecular approach. The obtained data establish a basis for future taxonomic revision of the genus, which should include colonies across its entire geographical distribution in the Indo-Pacific.

  5. [Non-indigenous and non-specific parasitic nematodes--the background and the consequences].

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of the host is the main reason behind introduction of the parasite, e. g., nematodes. The introduction of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) in Europe in the 1980s resulted in expansion of the swimbladder nematode Anguillicola crassus which soon invaded not only populations of the European eel (A. anguilla), but also other local fish. The raccoon (Procyon lotor) is native to North America. It is the specific host of Strongyloides procyonis and Baylisascaris procyonis. More than 90 species of wild and domestical bird and mammal species, including humans, have been infected with B. procyonis larvae. The larvae enter various organs of paratenic hosts, particularly the central nervous system and eye, causing severe diseases and death. Asthworthius sidemi--a blood-succking, abomasal nematode, a specific parasite of the Asiatic sika deer (Cervus nippon) and sambar deer (C. unicolor)--was first introduced with its hosts into countries adjacent to Poland. A. sidemi is especially dangerous to the European bison (Bison bonasus) which is its new host. The bison populations, in both Białowieza Primaeval Forest and the Bieszczady Mts, sometimes show a 100% prevalence and mass infection intensity. Imported animals, sold in pet shops or available from private breeding firms, often carry non-native parasites. For example, the red-eared tortoise (Trachemys scripta elegans) and Afgan tortoise (Agrionemys horsfieldii) carry nematodes Angusticaecum holopterum, Tachygonetria lobata and T. robusta. Migratory birds in their wintering grounds are often infected with parasites which are usually not constant components of the native fauna, but sometimes nematodes could find a suitable conditions to complete their life cycle. E.g. Cyathosoma microspiculum, species specific to cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) and previously recorded only from Asia and the Asian-European boudary, was able complete the life cycle in Poland. The increasingly frequent travels to countries with

  6. Chemical Composition of Fresh and Aged Biochars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, W. T.; Hamdan, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Zimmerman, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    It is possible to manipulate the chemical and physical properties of pyrogenic organic matter ('black carbon' or 'biochar') during its production and tailor its composition for intended environmental management applications. In this study biochars made from grass (Tripsacum floridanum), oak (Quercus lobata), and pine (Pinus taeda) at 250 ºC in air and 400 and 650 ºC under N2 were characterized by solid state 13C-NMR spectroscopy and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry. Among the biochars produced, those originating from pine showed distinct characteristics, with greater amounts of oxygenated aromatic clusters after low temperature combustion and more condensed aromatic clusters after higher temperature pyrolysis. Although a mixture of small and large aromatic clusters occurred across the temperature profile, cluster size increased and functionality decreased with increasing combustion temperature (Figure 1). At medium and high temperatures, aromatic clusters of up to 60- carbon aromatic rings inter-connected with small chains dominated the biochars examined. These structures are intermediate in size between the linearly condensed structures and the predominantly condensed aromatic clusters proposed in earlier studies. Field aging of the pure biochars for 15 months decreased the total acid functional group content as determined by Boehm titration, but solid-state 13C-NMR analyses suggested the creation and transformation of a range of functional groups via leaching, oxidation, and addition of microbially-produced organic matter. Similar trends were observed when the biochars were mixed with soils, suggesting that the same biochar aging processes occurred in the soil environment. These findings demonstrate that biochar transformations occur over time through a multitude of processes that are both biochar and soil type-dependent.

  7. Reef-coral refugia in a rapidly changing ocean.

    PubMed

    Cacciapaglia, Chris; van Woesik, Robert

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to identify climate-change thermal-stress refugia for reef corals in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. A species distribution modeling approach was used to identify refugia for 12 coral species that differed considerably in their local response to thermal stress. We hypothesized that the local response of coral species to thermal stress might be similarly reflected as a regional response to climate change. We assessed the contemporary geographic range of each species and determined their temperature and irradiance preferences using a k-fold algorithm to randomly select training and evaluation sites. That information was applied to downscaled outputs of global climate models to predict where each species is likely to exist by the year 2100. Our model was run with and without a 1°C capacity to adapt to the rising ocean temperature. The results show a positive exponential relationship between the current area of habitat that coral species occupy and the predicted area of habitat that they will occupy by 2100. There was considerable decoupling between scales of response, however, and with further ocean warming some 'winners' at local scales will likely become 'losers' at regional scales. We predicted that nine of the 12 species examined will lose 24-50% of their current habitat. Most reductions are predicted to occur between the latitudes 5-15°, in both hemispheres. Yet when we modeled a 1°C capacity to adapt, two ubiquitous species, Acropora hyacinthus and Acropora digitifera, were predicted to retain much of their current habitat. By contrast, the thermally tolerant Porites lobata is expected to increase its current distribution by 14%, particularly southward along the east and west coasts of Australia. Five areas were identified as Indian Ocean refugia, and seven areas were identified as Pacific Ocean refugia for reef corals under climate change. All 12 of these reef-coral refugia deserve high-conservation status.

  8. Visibly healthy corals exhibit variable pigment concentrations and symbiont phenotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apprill, A. M.; Bidigare, R. R.; Gates, R. D.

    2007-06-01

    Understanding the natural variability of photosynthetic pigment ranges and distributions in healthy corals is central to evaluating how useful these measurements are for assessing the health and bleaching status of endosymbiotic reef-building corals. This study examined the photosynthetic pigment variability in visibly healthy Porites lobata and Porites lutea corals from Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii and explored whether pigment variability was related to the genetic identity or phenotypic characteristics of the symbionts. Concentrations of the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a, peridinin, chlorophyll c 2 , diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin, β,β-carotene and dinoxanthin were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pigment concentrations were found to range 1.5-10 fold in colonies of each species at similar depths (0-2, 2-4, 10-15 and 19-21 m). Despite the high pigment variability, pigment ratios for each species were relatively conserved over the 0-21 m depth gradient. The genetic identity of the symbiont communities was examined for each colony using 18S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphisms. All colonies contained symbionts belonging to clade C. The density and phenotypic characteristics of the symbionts were explored using flow cytometry, and fluorescence and side scatter (cell size) properties revealed phenotypically distinct symbiont subpopulations in every colony. The symbiont subpopulations displayed pigment trends that may be driven by acclimatization to irradiance microenvironments within the host. These results highlight the biological complexity of healthy coral-symbiont associations and the need for future research on pigments and symbiont subpopulation dynamics.

  9. Betaines and dimethylsulfoniopropionate as major osmolytes in cnidaria with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yancey, Paul H; Heppenstall, Marina; Ly, Steven; Andrell, Raymond M; Gates, Ruth D; Carter, Virginia L; Hagedorn, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Most marine invertebrates and algae are osmoconformers whose cells accumulate organic osmolytes that provide half or more of cellular osmotic pressure. These solutes are primarily free amino acids and glycine betaine in most invertebrates and small carbohydrates and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in many algae. Corals with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) have been reported to obtain from the symbionts potential organic osmolytes such as glycerol, amino acids, and DMSP. However, corals and their endosymbionts have not been fully analyzed for osmolytes. We quantified small carbohydrates, free amino acids, methylamines, and DMSP in tissues of the corals Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis, Pocillopora meandrina, Montipora capitata, Porites compressa, and Porites lobata (all with symbionts) plus Tubastrea aurea (asymbiotic) from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu (Hawaii). Glycine betaine, at 33-69 mmol/kg wet mass, was found to constitute 90% or more of the measured organic solutes in all except the Porites species. Those were dominated by proline betaine and dimethyltaurine. DMSP was found at 0.5-3 mmol/kg in all species with endosymbionts. Freshly isolated Symbiodinium from Fungia, P. damicornis, and P. compressa were also analyzed. DMSP and glycine betaine dominated in the first two; Porites endosymbionts had DMSP, proline betaine, and dimethyltaurine. In all specimens, glycerol and glucose were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography only at 0-1 mmol/kg wet mass. An enzymatic assay for glycerol plus glycerol 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate yielded 1-10 mmol/kg. Cassiopeia andromeda (upside-down jelly; Scyphozoan) and Aiptasia puchella (solitary anemone; Anthozoan) were also analyzed; both have endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. In both, glycine betaine, taurine, and DMSP were the dominant osmolytes. In summary, methylated osmolytes dominate in many Cnidaria; in those with algal symbionts, host and symbiont have similar methylated amino

  10. Sedimentologic succession of uplifted coral community, Urvina Bay, Isabela Island, Galapagos Archipelago, Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, M.W.; Hollander, D.

    1987-05-01

    In March 1954, along the west-central coast of Isabela Island, an upward movement of magma suddenly raised Urvina Bay over 6 m and exposed several square kilometers of carbonate deposits covering a young aa lava flow (around 1000 years old). Results from 6 transect lines across the uplift, 30 cores, and 10 trenches describe the sedimentologic and ecologic transition from barren basalt to diverse carbonate sediments with small coral reefs. Along horizontal transects spanning from 0 to 7 m paleowater depth, there is a seaward progression from beaches, mangroves, and basalt to thick deposits (> 1.6 m) of carbonate sands and small coral reefs. Variation in water depth, degree of wave exposure, and irregularity of the aa lava topography provided many microhabitats where coral, calcareous algae, and mollusks settled and grew. Eight hermatypic coral species are found throughout the shelf, and three species (i.e., Pavona clavus, Pocillopora damicornis, and Porites lobata) produced five small, isolated, monospecific, coral-reef frameworks. The vertical section seen in cores and trenches shows that calcium carbonate increased upward, whereas volcanic sediments decreased; however, episodic layers occur with high concentrations of basaltic sands. In vertical samples from the central portion of the shelf, the coral population changed from small, isolated colonies of Psammocora (Plesioseris) superficalis near the basalt basement to large reef-forming colonies of Pocillopora damicornis farther upsection. Reefs of the Galapagos Islands are small and less diverse than most Pacific reefs. Nonetheless, understanding their temporal successional development should throw light on the origin and history of larger oceanic reefs in the Pacific.

  11. Exploring the potential of small RNA subunit and ITS sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the phylum Ctenophora.

    PubMed

    Simion, Paul; Bekkouche, Nicolas; Jager, Muriel; Quéinnec, Eric; Manuel, Michaël

    2015-04-01

    Ctenophores are a phylum of non-bilaterian marine (mostly planktonic) animals, characterised by several unique synapomorphies (e.g., comb rows, apical organ). Relationships between and within the nine recognised ctenophore orders are far from understood, notably due to a paucity of phylogenetically informative anatomical characters. Previous attempts to address ctenophore phylogeny using molecular data (18S rRNA) led to poorly resolved trees but demonstrated the paraphyly of the order Cydippida. Here we compiled an updated 18S rRNA data set, notably including a few newly sequenced species representing previously unsampled families (Lampeidae, Euryhamphaeidae), and we constructed an additional more rapidly evolving ITS1 + 5.8S rRNA + ITS2 alignment. These data sets were analysed separately and in combination under a probabilistic framework, using different methods (maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) and models (e.g., doublet model to accommodate secondary structure; data partitioning). An important lesson from our exploration of these datasets is that the fast-evolving internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions are useful markers for reconstructing high-level relationships within ctenophores. Our results confirm the paraphyly of the order Cydippida (and thus a "cydippid-like" ctenophore common ancestor) and suggest that the family Mertensiidae could be the sister group of all other ctenophores. The family Lampeidae (also part of the former "Cydippida") is probably the sister group of the order Platyctenida (benthic ctenophores). The order Beroida might not be monophyletic, due to the position of Beroe abyssicola outside of a clade grouping the other Beroe species and members of the "Cydippida" family Haeckeliidae. Many relationships (e.g. between Pleurobrachiidae, Beroida, Cestida, Lobata, Thalassocalycida) remain unresolved. Future progress in understanding ctenophore phylogeny will come from the use of additional rapidly evolving markers and improvement of

  12. Effects of coral reef benthic primary producers on dissolved organic carbon and microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andreas F; Nelson, Craig E; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Carlson, Craig A; Rohwer, Forest; Leichter, James J; Wyatt, Alex; Smith, Jennifer E

    2011-01-01

    Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata--Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha--Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia--Chlorophyta), a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii) and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata). Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.0±2.8 µmol h⁻¹ dm⁻²), stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.044±0.002 log10 cells h⁻¹) and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.16±0.05 µmol L⁻¹ h⁻¹ dm⁻²). Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence reef microbial

  13. Rigidity and Plasticity of Leaf Carbon and Nitrogen Systematics in California Oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, T.; Baldocchi, D.; Xu, L.

    2003-12-01

    Mapping photosynthesis from space requires an understanding of photosynthetic efficiency. Current data sets prescribe global maps of photosynthetic parameters and relate them to greenness. It is the seasonality of greenness, and not of photosynthetic efficiency itself, which is presumed to drive photosynthesis. In fact, both greenness and photosynthetic efficiency convolve to produce seasonality in photosynthesis. If the scientific community is to globally retrieve photosynthetic rates from space, it must take this seasonality into account. We examine the rigidity and plasticity of photosynthetic capacity, its correlation to leaf nitrogen, and other leaf properties across geographic gradients of precipitation, soil moisture, air temperature, relative humidity and other measurables. In particular, these measurements focus on different species of oaks: blue oak (Quercus douglasii), coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), black oak (Quercus velutina), and valley oak (Quercus lobata). Leaf chamber measurements with infrared gas analyzers and measurements of leaf specific mass, carbon isotope composition, and nitrogen content were performed in three Mediterranean ecosystems in California: Russell Reservation (coastal hills; oak woodland), Quail Ridge Reservation (near Lake Berryessa; Northern Coast Ranges; oak woodland), and Ione (Central Valley; oak savanna). Oaks of the same species adapted to more temperate microclimates such as shaded, north-facing slopes showed less pronounced seasonality in leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. The comparison of evergreen and deciduous oak species yields relationships among leaf life span, specific leaf mass, and photosynthetic capacity that are consistent with the results of Reich. Our results confirm that oaks exhibit plasticity in their adaptation to more and less extreme environments. These results also explain why the deciduous oaks are less successful than the evergreen oaks near the coast and more successful in the

  14. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  15. Application of 1H-NMR metabolomic profiling for reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Sogin, Emilia M; Anderson, Paul; Williams, Philip; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Gates, Ruth D

    2014-01-01

    In light of global reef decline new methods to accurately, cheaply, and quickly evaluate coral metabolic states are needed to assess reef health. Metabolomic profiling can describe the response of individuals to disturbance (i.e., shifts in environmental conditions) across biological models and is a powerful approach for characterizing and comparing coral metabolism. For the first time, we assess the utility of a proton-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR)-based metabolomics approach in characterizing coral metabolite profiles by 1) investigating technical, intra-, and inter-sample variation, 2) evaluating the ability to recover targeted metabolite spikes, and 3) assessing the potential for this method to differentiate among coral species. Our results indicate 1H-NMR profiling of Porites compressa corals is highly reproducible and exhibits low levels of variability within and among colonies. The spiking experiments validate the sensitivity of our methods and showcase the capacity of orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) to distinguish between profiles spiked with varying metabolite concentrations (0 mM, 0.1 mM, and 10 mM). Finally, 1H-NMR metabolomics coupled with OPLS-DA, revealed species-specific patterns in metabolite profiles among four reef-building corals (Pocillopora damicornis, Porites lobata, Montipora aequituberculata, and Seriatopora hystrix). Collectively, these data indicate that 1H-NMR metabolomic techniques can profile reef-building coral metabolomes and have the potential to provide an integrated picture of the coral phenotype in response to environmental change. PMID:25354140

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Hawaiian Corals: Possible Protection from Disease?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochfeld, D. J.; Aeby, G. S.; Miller, J. D.

    2006-12-01

    Reports of coral diseases in the Caribbean have appeared with increasing frequency over the past two decades; however, records of coral diseases in the Pacific have lagged far behind. Recent surveys of coral disease in the Hawaiian Islands indicate relatively low, but consistent, levels of disease throughout the inhabited Main and uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and demonstrate variation in levels of disease among the major genera of Hawaiian corals. Although little is known about immune defense to disease in corals, one potential mechanism of defense is the production of antimicrobial compounds that protect corals from pathogens. A preliminary survey of antibacterial chemical defenses among three dominant species of Hawaiian corals was undertaken. Crude aqueous extracts of Porites lobata, Pocillopora meandrina and Montipora capitata were tested against nine strains of bacteria in a growth inhibition assay. Inhibitory extracts were further tested to determine whether their effects were cytostatic or cytotoxic. The bacteria selected included known coral pathogens, potential marine pathogens found in human waste and strains previously identified from the surfaces of Hawaiian corals. Extracts from all three species of coral exhibited a high degree of antibacterial activity, but also a high degree of selectivity against different bacterial strains. In addition, some extracts were stimulatory to some bacteria. In addition to interspecific variability, extracts also exhibited intraspecific variability, both within and between sites. Hawaiian corals have significant antibacterial activity, which may explain the relatively low prevalence of disease in these corals; however, further characterization of pathogens specifically responsible for disease in Hawaiian corals is necessary before we can conclude that antibacterial activity protects Hawaiian corals from disease.

  17. Application of 1H-NMR Metabolomic Profiling for Reef-Building Corals

    PubMed Central

    Sogin, Emilia M.; Anderson, Paul; Williams, Philip; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Gates, Ruth D.

    2014-01-01

    In light of global reef decline new methods to accurately, cheaply, and quickly evaluate coral metabolic states are needed to assess reef health. Metabolomic profiling can describe the response of individuals to disturbance (i.e., shifts in environmental conditions) across biological models and is a powerful approach for characterizing and comparing coral metabolism. For the first time, we assess the utility of a proton-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR)-based metabolomics approach in characterizing coral metabolite profiles by 1) investigating technical, intra-, and inter-sample variation, 2) evaluating the ability to recover targeted metabolite spikes, and 3) assessing the potential for this method to differentiate among coral species. Our results indicate 1H-NMR profiling of Porites compressa corals is highly reproducible and exhibits low levels of variability within and among colonies. The spiking experiments validate the sensitivity of our methods and showcase the capacity of orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) to distinguish between profiles spiked with varying metabolite concentrations (0 mM, 0.1 mM, and 10 mM). Finally, 1H-NMR metabolomics coupled with OPLS-DA, revealed species-specific patterns in metabolite profiles among four reef-building corals (Pocillopora damicornis, Porites lobata, Montipora aequituberculata, and Seriatopora hystrix). Collectively, these data indicate that 1H-NMR metabolomic techniques can profile reef-building coral metabolomes and have the potential to provide an integrated picture of the coral phenotype in response to environmental change. PMID:25354140

  18. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands.

    PubMed

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct "beads on a string" from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico. PMID:27199607

  19. The potential origins and palaeoenvironmental implications of high temporal resolution δ 18O heterogeneity in coral skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Nicola; Finch, Adrian A.; EIMF

    2010-10-01

    δ 18O was determined at high spatial resolution (beam diameter ˜30 μm) by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) across 1-2 year sections of 2 modern Porites lobata coral skeletons from Hawaii. We observe large (>2‰) cyclical δ 18O variations that typically cover skeletal distances equivalent to periods of ˜20-30 days. These variations do not reflect seawater temperature or composition and we conclude that skeletal δ 18O is principally controlled by other processes. Calcification site pH in one coral record was estimated from previous SIMS measurements of skeletal δ 11B. We model predicted skeletal δ 18O as a function of calcification site pH, DIC residence time at the site and DIC source (reflecting the inputs of seawater and molecular CO 2 to the site). We assume that oxygen isotopic equilibration proceeds at the rates observed in seawater and that only the aqueous carbonate ion is incorporated into the precipitating aragonite. We reproduce successfully the observed skeletal δ 18O range by assuming that DIC is rapidly utilised at the calcification site (within 1 h) and that ˜80% of the skeletal carbonate is derived from seawater. If carbonic anhydrase catalyses the reversible hydration of CO 2 at the calcification site, then oxygen isotopic equilibration times may be substantially reduced and a larger proportion of the skeletal carbonate could be derived from molecular CO 2. Seasonal skeletal δ 18O variations are most pronounced in the skeleton deposited from late autumn to winter (and coincide with the high density skeletal bands) and are dampened in skeleton deposited from spring to summer. We observed no annual pattern in sea surface temperature or photosynthetically active radiation variability which could potentially correlate with the coral δ 18O. At present we are unable to resolve an environmental cue to drive seasonal patterns of short term skeletal δ 18O heterogeneity.

  20. Effects of Coral Reef Benthic Primary Producers on Dissolved Organic Carbon and Microbial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Andreas F.; Nelson, Craig E.; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Carlson, Craig A.; Rohwer, Forest; Leichter, James J.; Wyatt, Alex; Smith, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata – Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha – Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia – Chlorophyta), a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii) and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata). Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.0±2.8 µmol h−1 dm−2), stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.044±0.002 log10 cells h−1) and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.16±0.05 µmol L−1 h−1 dm−2). Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence reef

  1. Species delimitation in the coral genus Goniopora (Scleractinia, Poritidae) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Terraneo, Tullia I; Benzoni, Francesca; Arrigoni, Roberto; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-09-01

    Variable skeletal morphology, genotype induced plasticity, and homoplasy of skeletal structures have presented major challenges for scleractinian coral taxonomy and systematics since the 18th century. Although the recent integration of genetic and micromorphological data is helping to clarify the taxonomic confusion within the order, phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation within most coral genera are still far from settled. In the present study, the species boundaries in the scleractinian coral genus Goniopora were investigated using 199 colonies from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea and sequencing of four molecular markers: the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between CytB and NAD2, the nuclear ribosomal ITS region, and two single-copy nuclear genes (ATPsβ and CalM). DNA sequence data were analyzed using a variety of methods and exploratory species-delimitation tools. The results were broadly congruent in identifying five distinct molecular lineages within the sequenced Goniopora samples: G. somaliensis/G. savignyi, G. djiboutiensis/G. lobata, G. stokesi, G. albiconus/G. tenuidens, and G. minor/G. gracilis. Although the traditional macromorphological characters used to identify these nine morphospecies were not able to discriminate the obtained molecular clades, informative micromorphological and microstructural features (such as the micro-ornamentation and the arrangement of the columella) were recovered among the five lineages. Moreover, unique in vivo morphologies were associated with the genetic-delimited lineages, further supporting the molecular findings. This study represents the first attempt to identify species boundaries within Goniopora using a combined morpho-molecular approach. The obtained data establish a basis for future taxonomic revision of the genus, which should include colonies across its entire geographical distribution in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:27321092

  2. The susceptibility and resilience of corals to thermal stress: adaptation, acclimatization or both?

    PubMed

    Weis, Virginia M

    2010-04-01

    Coral reefs are threatened with worldwide decline from multiple factors, chief among them climate change (Hughes et al. 2003; Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007). The foundation of coral reefs is an endosymbiosis between coral hosts and their resident photosynthetic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) and this partnership (or holobiont) is exquisitely sensitive to temperature stress. The primary response to hyperthermic stress is coral bleaching, which is the loss of symbionts from coral tissues-the collapse of the symbiosis (Weis 2008). Bleaching can result in increased coral mortality which can ultimately lead to severely compromised reef health (Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007). Despite this grim picture of coral bleaching and reef degradation, coral susceptibility to stress and bleaching is highly variable (Coles & Brown 2003). There is enormous interest in discovering the factors that determine susceptibility in order to help us predict if and how corals will survive a period of rapid global warming. In this issue, Barshis et al. (2010) examine the ecophysiological and genetic basis for differential responses to stress in Porites lobata in American Samoa. They combine a reciprocal transplant experimental design between two neighbouring, but very different reef environments with state-of-the-art physiological biomarkers and molecular genetic markers for both partners to tease apart the contribution of environmental and fixed influences on stress susceptibility. Their results suggest the presence of a fixed, rather than environmental effect on expression of ubiquitin conjugates, one key marker for physiological stress response. In addition, the authors show genetic differentiation in host populations between the two sites suggesting strong selection for physiological adaptation to differing environments across small geographic distances. These conclusions point the study of coral resilience and susceptibility in a new direction.

  3. Microstructural evolution and nanoscale crystallography in scleractinian coral spherulites.

    PubMed

    van de Locht, Renée; Verch, Andreas; Saunders, Martin; Dissard, Delphine; Rixen, Tim; Moya, Aurélie; Kröger, Roland

    2013-07-01

    One of the most important aspects in the research on reef-building corals is the process by which corals accrete biogenic calcium carbonate. This process leads to the formation of a mineral/organic composite and it is believed that the development of the nano- and microstructure of the mineral phase is highly sensitive to the growth conditions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of large-scale (10×30μm) focused ion beam (FIB) prepared lamellae was performed on adult and juvenile scleractinian coral skeleton specimens. This allowed for the investigation of the nano and microstructure and the crystallographic orientation of the aragonite mineral. We found the following microstructural evolution in the adult Porites lobata specimens: randomly oriented nanocrystals with high porosity, partly aligned nanocrystals with high porosity and areas of dense acicular crystals of several micrometers extension, the latter two areas are aligned close to the [001] direction (Pmcn space group). To the best of our knowledge, for the first time the observed microstructure could be directly correlated with the dark/bright bands characteristic of the diurnal growth cycle. We hypothesize that this mineral structure sequence and alignment in the adult specimen is linked to the photosynthetic diurnal cycle of the zooxanthellea regulating the oxygen levels and organic molecule transport to the calcifying medium. These observations reveal a strong control of crystal morphology by the organism and the correlation of the accretion process. No indication for a self-assembly of nanocrystalline units, i.e., a mesocrystal structure, on the micrometer scale could be found.

  4. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands

    PubMed Central

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct “beads on a string” from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico. PMID:27199607

  5. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands.

    PubMed

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct "beads on a string" from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico.

  6. The effect of within-year variation in acorn crop size on seed harvesting by avian hoarders.

    PubMed

    Pesendorfer, Mario B; Koenig, Walter D

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in resource distribution affect the movement and foraging behavior of many animals. In the case of animal-dispersed trees, numerous studies have addressed masting-the synchronized variation in seed production between years-but the fitness consequences of spatial variation in seed production within a year are unclear. We investigated the effects of variable acorn production in a population of valley oaks (Quercus lobata) on the composition and behavior of the avian-disperser community. We found that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica), high-quality dispersers that store seeds in the ground, were attracted to, and exhibited increased per capita dispersal rates from, trees with large acorn crops. In contrast, acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus), low-quality dispersers that store acorns in trees where they are unlikely to germinate, increased per capita hoarding rates but did not attend trees with large seed crops in higher numbers, suggesting that the two species responded to resources on different spatial scales. Antagonistic interactions within and between species increased with the number of birds attending a tree, resulting in a potential cost for foraging birds, but did not reduce dispersal rates. Using a simulation model, we estimated that trees with large initial crops experienced a greater proportion (77 %) of high-quality seed dispersal events than trees with small crops (62 %). Our findings provide support for a mechanistic link between seed production and foraging behavior of seed dispersers as predicted by the predator dispersal hypothesis for the functional consequences of variable seed production in hoarder-dispersed trees.

  7. Alteration of normal cellular profiles in the Scleractinian coral (Pocillopora damicornis) following laboratory exposure to fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Rougée, Luc; Downs, Craig A; Richmond, Robert H; Ostrander, Gary K

    2006-12-01

    Petroleum contamination from oil spills is a continuing threat to our ocean's fragile ecosystems. Herein, we explored the effects of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil on a stony coral, Pocillopora damicornis (Linneaeus 1758). We developed methods for exposing corals to various concentrations of crude oil and for assessing the potential molecular responses of the corals. Corals were exposed to water-accommodated fraction solutions, and appropriate cellular biomarkers were quantified. When compared to the "healthy" control specimens, exposed corals exhibited shifts in biomarker concentrations that were indicative of a shift from homeostasis. Significant changes were seen in cytochrome P450 1-class, cytochrome P450 2-class, glutathione-S-transferase-pi, and cnidarian multixenobiotic resistance protein- biomarkers, which are involved the cellular response to, and manipulation and excretion of, toxic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A shift in biomarkers necessary for porphyrin production (e.g., protoporphyrinogen oxidase IX and ferrochelatase) and porphyrin destruction (e.g., heme oxygenase-1 and invertebrate neuroglobin homologue) illustrates only one of the cellular protective mechanisms. The response to oxidative stress was evaluated through measurements of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-1 and DNA glycosylase MutY homologue-1 concentrations. Likewise, changes in heat shock protein 70 and small heat shock proteins indicated an adjustment in the cellular production of proteins. Finally, the results of this laboratory study were nearly identical to what we observed previously among corals of a different species, Porites lobata, exposed to an oil spill in the field after the grounding of the Merchant Vessel Kyowa Violet.

  8. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    PubMed

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered

  9. Nest-site selection in the acorn woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooge, P.N.; Stanback, M.T.; Koenig, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) at Hastings Reservation in central California prefer to nest in dead limbs in large, dead valley oaks (Quercus lobata) and California sycamores (Platanus racemosa) that are also frequently used as acorn storage trees. Based on 232 nest cavities used over an 18-year period, we tested whether preferred or modal nest-site characters were associated with increased reproductive success (the 'nest-site quality' hypothesis). We also examined whether more successful nests were likely to experience more favorable microclimatic conditions or to be less accessible to terrestrial predators. We found only equivocal support for the nest-site quality hypothesis: only 1 of 5 preferred characters and 2 of 10 characters exhibiting a clear modality were correlated with higher reproductive success. All three characteristics of nests known or likely to be associated with a more favorable microclimate, and two of five characteristics likely to render nests less accessible to predators, were correlated with higher reproductive success: These results suggest that nest cavities in this population are built in part to take advantage of favorable microclimatic conditions and, to a lesser extent, to reduce access to predators. However, despite benefits of particular nest characteristics, birds frequently nested in apparently suboptimal cavities. We also found a significant relationship between mean group size and the history of occupancy of particular territories and the probability of nest cavities being built in microclimatically favorable live limbs, suggesting that larger groups residing on more stable territories were better able to construct nests with optimal characteristics. This indicates that there may be demographic, as well as ecological, constraints on nest-site selection in this primary cavity nester.

  10. New species in the genus Thagria Melichar from the Oriental and Australian regions, with a revised key to genera and species and a synoptic catalogue of the genus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Coelidiinae).

    PubMed

    Nielson, M W

    2013-01-01

    The following 21 new species of Thagria from the Oriental and Australian regions are described, illustrated and photographed: T. aenigmatis, sp. nov., T. asperitas sp. nov., T. biretrorsa sp. nov., T. colorata, sp. nov., T. coniunctionis, sp. nov., T. constanti, sp.nov., T. fidelitas sp. nov., T. freytagi sp. nov., T. intorta sp. nov., T. iuxta, sp. nov., T. lobata sp. nov., T. longicatilla sp. nov., T. malenovskyi sp. nov., T. oldfieldi, sp. nov., T. paraunca, sp. nov., T. quadrimaculata, sp. nov., T. quadrispinosa sp. nov., T. trimaculata sp. nov., T. unibasispinosa, sp. nov.; T. unica sp. nov. and T. viraktamathi, sp. nov. Thagria bidentata Xu & Kuoh 1998, preoccupied by Thagria bidentata Nielson 1982 is renamed herein Thagria xui nom. nov. Thagria multicalcara Nielson is suppressed junior synonym of Coelidia inscripta Walker. Thagria hongdoensis Kwon & Lee is suppressed junior synonym of resurrected Coelidia satsumensis Matsumura. Cambodia is a new record for T. longistyla Freytag. Laos is a new record for T. acrodens Freytag, T. boulardi Nielson, T.emeiensis Zhang, T. fuscoscuta Zhang, T. janssoni Nielson, T. obrienae Nielson and T. ungulata Nielson. Vietnam is a new record for T. grandis Nielson and T. marissae Nielson. Intra-inter specific variation involving 6 closely related species (melichari species complex) in Southeast Asia is discussed. Morphology and taxonomic value of the dorsal connective, revised key to species and genera in Thagriini and an updated synoptic catalogue of the genus are also presented. Problematical species in the genus Thagria are reviewed. Distribution of 235 known species and the relationship between clypellus configuration and geographical origin are given.

  11. Determination of Boron Isotope Ratios in Coral Skeletons Using Multiple Collector ICP- MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, P.; You, C.; Huang, K.; Wang, B.; Yu, T.

    2008-12-01

    Boron isotopic compositions in biogenic carbonates are useful proxy for oceanic pH in the past. This information is essential for a better understanding of possible mechanisms that control environmental and climate change. A high-precision analytical technique was developed for isotopic determination of boron in coral skeletons using high-resolution multiple collector ICP-MS (MC-ICP-MS, Neptune, Thermo-Fisher). The mass discrimination was corrected by the sample-standard bracketing method. The main advantage of this technique is that both of sample throughput and analytical precision are significantly higher than P-TIMS and N-TIMS. The accuracy of this technique is further examined by replicated analyses of the international coral standard, Jcp-1, and in-house coral standard using both MC-ICP-MS and P-TIMS techniques. The long-lived massive coral skeletons (Porites lobata) from Lanyu Island offshore the southeastern Taiwan show annual δ 11B variation of around 2‰, 23.81 to 25.86‰ (n=39) during 1994 to 1996 A.D., which is similar to recent results from Flinders Reef in the Coral Sea. In combination with Sr/Ca-based thermometry, the intra-annual pH record shows clear seasonal cycles with high pH at cold period. B/Ca and U/Ca ratios also show a good correlation with Sr/Ca derived SSTs. Further in-depth δ 11B applications would help us to understand relationships between the global climate change and response in the surface ocean.

  12. Topography and spatial arrangement of reef-building corals on the fringing reefs of North Jamaica may influence their response to disturbance from bleaching.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, M J C

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of factors that are important in reef resilience helps us understand how reefs react following major environmental disturbances such as hurricanes and bleaching. Here we test factors that might have influenced Jamaican reef resilience to, and subsequent recovery from, the 2005 bleaching event, and which might help inform management policy for reefs in the future: reef rugosity and contact of corals with macroalgae. In addition, we test in the field, on Dairy Bull reef, whether aggregated Porites astreoides colonies exhibit enhanced growth when exposed to superior competition from Acopora palmata, as has been found by experiment with the Indo-Pacific corals Porites lobata and the superior competitor Porites rus [Idjadi, J.A., Karlson, R.H., 2007. Spatial arrangement of competitors influences coexistence of reef-building corals. Ecology 88, 2449-2454]. There were significant linear relationships between rugosity and the increase in smallest size classes for Sidastrea siderea, Colpophyllia natans, P. astreoides and Agaricia species, and between rugosity and cover of the branching coral Acropora cervicornis. Linear extension rates of A. cervicornis and radial growth rates of P. astreoides were significantly lower (p<0.025; F>6) when in contact with macroalgae. Aggregated colonies of P. astreoides in contact with one another, one of which was in contact with the faster growing competitor A. palmata showed significantly greater growth rates than with just two aggregated P. astreoides colonies alone. These findings suggest that three dimensional topography and complexity is important for reef resilience and viability in the face of environmental stressors such as bleaching. Our findings also support the idea that aggregated spatial arrangements of corals can influence the outcome of interspecific competition and promote species coexistence, important in times of reef recovery after disturbance.

  13. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    PubMed

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered

  14. Exploring the potential of small RNA subunit and ITS sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the phylum Ctenophora.

    PubMed

    Simion, Paul; Bekkouche, Nicolas; Jager, Muriel; Quéinnec, Eric; Manuel, Michaël

    2015-04-01

    Ctenophores are a phylum of non-bilaterian marine (mostly planktonic) animals, characterised by several unique synapomorphies (e.g., comb rows, apical organ). Relationships between and within the nine recognised ctenophore orders are far from understood, notably due to a paucity of phylogenetically informative anatomical characters. Previous attempts to address ctenophore phylogeny using molecular data (18S rRNA) led to poorly resolved trees but demonstrated the paraphyly of the order Cydippida. Here we compiled an updated 18S rRNA data set, notably including a few newly sequenced species representing previously unsampled families (Lampeidae, Euryhamphaeidae), and we constructed an additional more rapidly evolving ITS1 + 5.8S rRNA + ITS2 alignment. These data sets were analysed separately and in combination under a probabilistic framework, using different methods (maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) and models (e.g., doublet model to accommodate secondary structure; data partitioning). An important lesson from our exploration of these datasets is that the fast-evolving internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions are useful markers for reconstructing high-level relationships within ctenophores. Our results confirm the paraphyly of the order Cydippida (and thus a "cydippid-like" ctenophore common ancestor) and suggest that the family Mertensiidae could be the sister group of all other ctenophores. The family Lampeidae (also part of the former "Cydippida") is probably the sister group of the order Platyctenida (benthic ctenophores). The order Beroida might not be monophyletic, due to the position of Beroe abyssicola outside of a clade grouping the other Beroe species and members of the "Cydippida" family Haeckeliidae. Many relationships (e.g. between Pleurobrachiidae, Beroida, Cestida, Lobata, Thalassocalycida) remain unresolved. Future progress in understanding ctenophore phylogeny will come from the use of additional rapidly evolving markers and improvement of

  15. Puerarin suppresses AGEs-induced inflammation in mouse mesangial cells: A possible pathway through the induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki Mo; Jung, Dong Ho; Jang, Dae Sik; Kim, Young Sook; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Ha-Na; Surh, Young-Joon; Kim, Jin Sook

    2010-04-15

    Puerarin is a natural product isolated from Puerarin lobata and has various pharmacological effects, including anti-hyperglycemic and anti-allergic properties. In the present study, we investigated the effect of puerarin against advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced inflammation in mouse mesangial cells. Puerarin acts by inducing the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Puerarin was able to enhance phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) delta, but not PKC alpha/beta II, in a time-dependent manner. Induction of HO-1 expression by puerarin was suppressed by GF109203X, a general inhibitor of PKC, and by rottlerin, a specific inhibitor of PKC delta. However, induction was not suppressed by Goe6976, a selective inhibitor for PKC alpha/beta II. Additionally, the knockdown of endogenous PKC delta by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in the inhibition of HO-1 expression and Akt phosphorylation. Puerarin increased antioxidant response element (ARE)-Luciferase activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner in transfected mouse mesangial cells. Mutation of the ARE sequence abolished puerarin-induced HO-1 expression. Furthermore, puerarin treatments resulted in a marked increase in NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf-2) translocation, leading to up-regulation of HO-1 expression. However, transfection of Nrf-2 specific siRNA abolished HO-1 expression. Pretreatment with puerarin inhibited the expressions of COX-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9. But, these effects were reversed by ZnPP, an inhibitor of HO-1. Taken together, our results demonstrate that puerarin-induced expression of HO-1 is mediated by the PKC delta-Nrf-2-HO-1 pathway and inhibits N-carboxymethyllysine (CML)-induced inflammation in mouse mesangial cells.

  16. Live coral cover may provide resilience to damage from the vermetid gastropod Dendropoma maximum by preventing larval settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, N. E.; Shima, J. S.; Osenberg, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Dendropoma maximum is a vermetid gastropod (a sessile tube-forming snail) commonly associated with living corals throughout shallow-water reefs of the Indo-Pacific. Recent work suggests that, once established, this species can adversely affect growth and survival of corals. Here, we test the hypotheses that disturbances to live coral substrates (e.g., creation of bare patches) facilitate successful larval settlement and subsequent population growth of D. maximum, and conversely, that live coral inhibits D. maximum settlement. In the shallow lagoon of Moorea, French Polynesia, we selected patch reefs where D. maximum was either present or absent (to evaluate potential effects of resident adult conspecifics on recruitment) and established focal quadrats on each reef. In each quadrat, we either experimentally removed 50 % of live coral cover or left the quadrat with 100 % live coral cover. In addition, we deployed units of bare substrate (coral rubble) to each reef. We conducted a census of deployed substrates and quadrats after 6 months and found that D. maximum settled irrespective of resident vermetid populations, and only onto nonliving surfaces (i.e., cleared patches in quadrats, coral rubble, and marine epoxy). In laboratory experiments, we exposed larvae of D. maximum to live coral and found species-specific effects on survival of D. maximum larvae. Porites lobata and Pocillopora sp. killed larvae of D. maximum, Porites rus caused weaker mortality, and Millepora sp. had no effect on larval survival. Collectively, these results suggest that D. maximum requires disturbances that create bare patches to successfully settle onto reefs, and that a high cover of living corals contributes resilience to reefs by limiting settlement opportunities of a species known to reduce coral growth and survival.

  17. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

    PubMed Central

    Haavik, Laurel J.; Coleman, Tom W.; Flint, Mary Louise; Venette, Robert C.; Seybold, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole) of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae) produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus). On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface), yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2). In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus), exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae) that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative. PMID:26462589

  18. Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species.

    PubMed

    Keena, M A

    2003-02-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introduced into North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven conifer species (Abies concolor, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. pungens, Pinus sylvestris with male cones, P. menziesii variety glance, and Tsuga canadensis) and six broadleaf species (Betula populifolia, Malus x domestica, Prunus serotiaa, Quercus lobata, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina) were suitable for L. monacha survival and development. Eleven of the host species tested were rated as intermediate in suitability, four conifer species (Larix occidentalis, P. nigra, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii) and six broadleaf species (Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Populus grandidentata, Q. alba, and Tilia cordata) and the remaining 10 species tested were rated as poor (Acer rubrum, A. platanoidies, A. saccharum, F. americana, Juniperus virginiana, Larix kaempferi, Liriodendron tulipfera, Morus alba, P. taeda, and P. deltoides). The phenological state of the trees had a major impact on establishment, survival, and development of L. monacha on many of the tree species tested. Several of the deciduous tree species that are suitable for L. monacha also are suitable for L. dispar (L.) and L. mathura Moore. Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important tree species on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas.

  19. Microstructural evolution and nanoscale crystallography in scleractinian coral spherulites.

    PubMed

    van de Locht, Renée; Verch, Andreas; Saunders, Martin; Dissard, Delphine; Rixen, Tim; Moya, Aurélie; Kröger, Roland

    2013-07-01

    One of the most important aspects in the research on reef-building corals is the process by which corals accrete biogenic calcium carbonate. This process leads to the formation of a mineral/organic composite and it is believed that the development of the nano- and microstructure of the mineral phase is highly sensitive to the growth conditions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of large-scale (10×30μm) focused ion beam (FIB) prepared lamellae was performed on adult and juvenile scleractinian coral skeleton specimens. This allowed for the investigation of the nano and microstructure and the crystallographic orientation of the aragonite mineral. We found the following microstructural evolution in the adult Porites lobata specimens: randomly oriented nanocrystals with high porosity, partly aligned nanocrystals with high porosity and areas of dense acicular crystals of several micrometers extension, the latter two areas are aligned close to the [001] direction (Pmcn space group). To the best of our knowledge, for the first time the observed microstructure could be directly correlated with the dark/bright bands characteristic of the diurnal growth cycle. We hypothesize that this mineral structure sequence and alignment in the adult specimen is linked to the photosynthetic diurnal cycle of the zooxanthellea regulating the oxygen levels and organic molecule transport to the calcifying medium. These observations reveal a strong control of crystal morphology by the organism and the correlation of the accretion process. No indication for a self-assembly of nanocrystalline units, i.e., a mesocrystal structure, on the micrometer scale could be found. PMID:23685125

  20. Seasonal variations in the nitrogen isotope composition of Okinotori coral in the tropical western Pacific: A new proxy for marine nitrate dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Shirai, Kotaro; Toratani, Mitsuhiro; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2011-12-01

    To demonstrate the utility of coral skeletons as a recorder of nitrate dynamics in the surface ocean, we collected coral skeletons of Porites lobata and determined their nitrogen isotope composition (δ15Ncoral) from 2002 to 2006. Skeletons were collected at Okinotori Island in southwestern Japan, far from any sources of terrestrial nitrogen. Nitrogen isotope compositions along the growth direction were determined at 800 μm intervals (˜1 month resolution) and compared against the skeletal carbon isotope composition (δ13Ccoral-carb), barium/calcium ratio (Ba/Ca), and Chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a). From 2002 to 2004, ratios of the δ15Ncoral varied between +0.8 and +8.3‰ with inverse variation to SST (r = -0.53). Ba/Ca ratios and Chl-a concentrations were also observed to be high during seasons with low SST. These results suggested that the vertical mixing that occurs during periods of low SST carries nutrients from deeper water (δ15NDIN; +5˜+6‰) to the sea surface. In 2005 onward, δ15Ncoral and Ba/Ca ratios also had positive peaks even in high SST during periods of transient upwelling caused by frequent large typhoons (maximum wind speed 30 m/s). In addition, low δ15Ncoral (+0.8˜+2.0‰) four months after the last typhoon implied nitrogen fixation because of the lack of typhoon upwelling through the four years record of δ15Ncoral. Variations in the δ13Ccoral-carb and δ15Ncoral were synchronized, suggesting that nitrate concentration could control zooxanthellae photosynthesis. Our results suggested that δ15Ncoral holds promise as a proxy for reconstructing the transport dynamics of marine nitrate and thus also a tool for estimating nitrate origins in the tropical and subtropical oceans.

  1. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  2. The metabolism and analysis of isoflavones and other dietary polyphenols in foods and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Stephen; Prasain, Jeevan; D'Alessandro, Tracy; Arabshahi, Ali; Botting, Nigel; Lila, Mary Ann; Jackson, George; Janle, Elsa M; Weaver, Connie M

    2011-05-01

    Polyphenols in dietary and botanical matrices are usually present as simple and complex O-glycosides. In fermented dietary materials, the glycosidic moiety is removed and accompanied in some cases by more complex changes to the polyphenol. As for most xenobiotics, polyphenols undergo phase II conjugation in the intestinal wall during their absorption from the gut. In contrast, a few polyphenols, such as puerarin in the kudzu vine, are C-glycosides and are stable in the gut and during absorption, distribution and excretion. Large bowel bacteria reduce polyphenol aglycones, causing opening of the heterocyclic B-ring and ring cleavage. The products are mostly absorbed and enter the bloodstream. Phase I and II metabolism events occur in the intestine and the liver - most polyphenols predominantly circulate as β-glucuronides and sulfate esters with very little as the aglycones, the presumed active forms. In addition, metabolism can occur in non-hepatic tissues and cells including breast tumor cells that have variable amounts of cytochrome P450s, sulfatase and sulfotransferase activities. Inflammatory cells produce chemical oxidants (HOCl, HOBr, ONO(2)(-)) that will react with polyphenols. The isoflavones daidzein and genistein and the flavonol quercetin form mono- and dichlorinated products in reaction with HOCl. Genistein is converted to 3'-nitrogenistein in the lung tissue of lipopolysaccharide-treated rats. Whereas polyphenols that can be converted to quinones or epoxides react with glutathione (GSH) to form adducts, chlorinated isoflavones do not react with GSH; instead, they are converted to β-glucuronides and are excreted in bile. Analysis of polyphenols and their metabolites is routinely carried out with great sensitivity, specificity and quantification by LC-tandem mass spectrometry. Critical questions about the absorption and tissue uptake of complex polyphenols such as the proanthocyanins can be answered by labeling these polyphenols with (14)C-sucrose in

  3. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation and Aging in a Flow Reactor in the Forested Southeast US during SOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Palm, B. B.; Hacker, L.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Simoes de Sa, S.; Fry, J.; Ayres, B. R.; Draper, D. C.; Ortega, A. M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Panujoka, A.; Virtanen, A.; Miettinen, P.; Krechmer, J.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Thompson, S.; Yatavelli, L. R.; Stark, H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Lechner, M.; Martin, S. T.; Farmer, D.; Brown, S. S.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    compounds were observed when a pine branch was placed in front of the PAM, while oak and kudzu branches resulted in lower enhancement. Processing of ambient air by OH led to significant reductions in the bounce of ambient particles, indicating an effect on their phase.

  4. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  5. Research on plants for fertility regulation in India.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, V P; Dhawan, B N

    1982-09-01

    This present review of Indian plants investigated for fertility regulation includes published literature of the country and unpublished data of the Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), located in Lucknow, India. Publications without supportive experimental data have not been included. It is evident from the data presented in the tables that most of the investigators have failed to include the valuable information on the time and place of collection and proper botanical authentication, if conducted, in their publications. The plants evaluated at the Institute do contain this information and their herbaria sheets are available at CDRI. The plants, with part used, type of extract, isolated compound/chromatographic fraction, dose, route and schedule of administration with animal used, and percentage activity are given in tables. The plants are classified according to their activity profile and presented accordingly. Plants for which the hormonal profile or toxicity data have been reported are dealt with under each type of activity. Most of the investigators did not develop the active plants, probably because of inconsistent results in repeat tests or lack of facilities. Major attention has been devoted to identifying plants with interceptive properties. The schedules used are more or less uniform and acceptable. On the basis of preliminary toxicity data, extracts/compounds from "Aristolochia indica," "Artemisia scoparia," "Hibiscus rosa sinensis," "Laccardia lacca," and "Plumbago zeylanica" exclude themselves from consideration for follow-up. Wherever done, the hormonal profiles revealed estrogenic activity in active extracts/fractions/compounds from "Artabotrys odoratissimus," "Datura quercifolia," "Daucus carota," "Embelia ribes," "Hibiscus rosa sinensis," "Pueraria tuberosa" and "Tabernaemontana heyneana." Thus they are not ideal for follow-up. Some more plants can be excluded initially because of low activity or equivocal reports on activity. The remaining

  6. Combining geochemical proxies in Porites coral cores from Chuuk Lagoon, Micronesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A. J.; Zivkovic, J.; Anderson, D.; Umling, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    Chuuk Lagoon (7°N, 152°E), part of the Federated States of Micronesia, is centrally located in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) and provides an ideal location for studies of El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Warm Pool processes. The WPWP is a key aspect of the global climate, exchanging heat and carbon with the atmosphere as well as with the surrounding ocean and the underlying water masses. Recent work has indicated long-term changes in the WPWP, including freshening and warming, that have been attributed to climate change. This region also experiences large fluctuations in precipitation and temperature due to interannual oscillations in ENSO. Oxygen isotope (δ18O) data from corals provides insight into the isotopic ratio of the water in which the corals grew their aragonitic skeletons. However, the oxygen isotope ratio of seawater varies with both changes in temperature and salinity. Sr/Ca ratios vary with seawater temperature and, when combined with δ18O, can be used to interpret both temperature and salinity variations. Three coral cores from large Porites lobata coral heads were collected from Chuuk Lagoon in June 2011, and one additional core was collected in 2008. Two cores (one in 2008 and another in 2011) were collected near the main island within the lagoon where they are subject to large precipitation and temperature variability due to fluctuations in ENSO. The remaining two cores were collected at the outer edge of the atoll, just inside of the barrier reef. These cores were collected in less than 3 m of water and were constantly being flushed with water from the open ocean warm pool. Seasonal variability in temperature and salinity are expected to be very low at this site. Stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) and trace element (Sr/Ca) analyses for the upper portion of these cores will be presented and compared to ENSO variability and observed trends in the WPWP. An adjacent lagoon coral is valuable in developing the lagoon history, while the

  7. Stable isotope geochemistry of corals from Costa Rica as proxy indicator of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

    SciTech Connect

    Carriquiry, J.D.; Risk, M.J.; Schwarcz, H.P. )

    1994-01-01

    The authors analyzed the [delta][sup 18]O and [delta][sup 13]C time-series contained in coral skeletons collected from Isla de Cano, Costa Rica, that survived the 1982-1983 El Nino warming event. Coral [delta][sup 18]O give a record of thermal histories with a precision of [approximately]0.5[degrees]C. For this locality, the authors have determined that the average [Delta][delta][sub w] effect in the coral skeletons is equivalent to 33% of the skeletal [delta][sup 18]O range. Therefore, if [delta][sub w] effects are not compensated for, the annual skeletal-[delta][sup 18]O range displays a temperature range of 1[degrees]C lower than actual values. The isotopic record of Porites lobata skeletons shows simultaneous depletions in [sup 18]O and [sup 13]C at skeletal levels corresponding to 1983, coincident with the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. Therefore, the El Nino event is not only recorded as negative [delta][sup 18]O anomalies in the skeleton, suggesting the warming of ambient waters, but also in the [delta][sup 13]C signal as negative anomalies, indicating coral bleaching. Contrary to the predictions of the [open quotes][sup 13]C-insolation model[close quotes] that the annual carbon isotope variation should be attenuated with depth in proportion to the decrease in light-intensity variation with depth, the authors found a clear trend where [Delta][delta][minus][sup 13]C increases with depth. Coral bioenergetics, which depends on both coral physiology and ecology, may adequately explain the unexpected increase in [delta][sup 13]C range with depth, without contradicting the seasonal character of [delta][sup 13]C variability with the solar irradiance cycle. Although some authors have determined the presence of hiatuses in the skeletal record due to severe stress and growth cessation, in this study it has been found that skeletal growth was not seriously diminished during the El Nino year of 1983.

  8. Coral transplantation as an aid to reef rehabilitation: evaluation of a case study in the Maldive Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S.; Edwards, A. J.

    1995-11-01

    As part of a study of reef rehabilitation, whole coral colonies (primarily Acropora, Pocillopora, Porites, Favia and Favites) were transplanted and cemented in place onto three approximately 20 m2 areas of Armorflex concrete mats on a 0.8-1.5 m deep reef-flat in the Maldives which had been severely degraded by coral mining. Growth, in situ mortality, and losses from mats due to wave action of a total of 530 transplants were monitored over 28 months. Natural recruitment of corals to both the transplanted Armorflex areas and concrete mats without transplants was also studied. Overall survivorship of corals 28 months after transplantation was 51%. Most losses of transplants due to wave action occurred during the first 7 months when 25% were lost, with only a further 5% of colonies being lost subsequently. Within 16 months most colonies had accreted naturally to the concrete mats. Thirty-two percent of transplants which remained attached died with Acropora hyacinthus and Pocillopora verrucosa having the highest mortality rates (approx. 50% mortality over two years) and Porites lobata and P. lutea the lowest (2.8 and 8.1% mortality respectively over two years). Growth rates were very variable with a quarter to a third of transplants showing negative growth during each inter-survey period. Acropora hyacinthus, A. cytherea and A. divaricata transplants had the highest growth rates (colony mean linear radial extension 4.15-5.81 cm y-1), followed by Pocillopora verrucosa (mean 2.51 cm y-1). Faviids and poritids had lowest growth rates. Favia and Favites showed the poorest response to transplantation whilst Acropora divaricata, which combined a high growth rate with relatively low mortality, appeared particularly amenable to transplantation. Natural recruitment did not differ significantly between concrete mats with and without transplanted corals. `Visible' recruits were first recorded 10 months after emplacement of the mats and were predominantly Acropora and Pocillopora

  9. [[Anti-leishmanial activity in plants from a Biological Reserve of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Chinchilla-Carmona, Misael; Valerio-Campos, Idalia; Sánchez-Porras, Ronald; Bagnarello-Madrigal, Vanessa; Martínez-Esquivel, Laura; González-Paniagua, Antonieta; Alpizar-Cordero, Javier; Cordero-Villalobos, Maribel; Rodríguez-Chaves, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Leishmaniosis is an important human disease very difficult to treat. For this reason, many researchers in the world have been look- ing for anti-leishmanial chemical components present in several plant species. In Costa Rica, since no studies have been done in this field, this work aimed at the search of active chemical components in local plants that may have an activity against Leishmania sp. A total of 67 plants were selected from the Alberto Manuel Brenes Biological Reserve (REBAMB). For these collected plants, fresh or dried hidroalcoholic extracts of root, stem, mature or young leaves, flowers, and immature or mature fruits, were prepared under conventional methods. All extracts were tested for their effect against a strain of Leishmania (OCR with known characteristics). Firstly, by presumptive tests, we selected only those with some activity, and then, more specific studies were done to determine the IC50 in μg/mL; a promising plant was considered only if at least one of its parts presented an IC50 < 100 μg/mL. Under this parameter, the following active plants were obtained and their lowest and highest IC50 obtained values presented (μg/mL): Bocconia frutescens (0.6 and 66.7), Clematis dioica (27.5 and 44.4), Cordia megalantha (80.0), Eugenia austin-smithi (90.6), Guarea bullata (98.8), Guateria tonduzii (44.4 and 66.3), Mikania holwayana (45.0 and 95.6), Nectandra membranacea (44.5 and 58.6), Neurolaena lobata (25.0 and 100.0), Persea povedae (76.9), Piper auritum (60.0), Rollinia pittieri (43.1), Solanum arboreum (25.8 and 72.5), Tetrorchidiumn eurphyllum (53.8 and 95.0), Witheringia solanacea (15.9 and 98.1) and Zanthoxylum juniperinum (23.4 and 97.5). Although the parasitic effect of fresh or dried extracts were almost similar, the fresh material slightly showed better results. That anti-parasitic effect occurred in one or more than four parts of the plant. Most of the active extracts did not produce lysis and aglutination which indicates a low

  10. δ 11B, Sr, Mg and B in a modern Porites coral: the relationship between calcification site pH and skeletal chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Nicola; Finch, Adrian A.; EIMF

    2010-03-01

    Sr/Ca, B/Ca, Mg/Ca and δ 11B were determined at high spatial resolution across ˜1 year of a modern Hawaiian Porites lobata coral by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). We observe significant variations in B/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and δ 11B over short skeletal distances (nominally equivalent to periods of <20 days). This heterogeneity probably reflects variations in the composition of the extracellular calcifying fluid (ECF) from which the skeleton precipitates. Calcification site pH (total scale) was estimated from skeletal δ 11B and ranged from 8.3 to 8.8 (± ˜0.1) with a mean of ˜8.6. Sr/Ca and B/Ca heterogeneity is not simply correlated with calcification site pH, as might be expected if Ca-ATPase activity increases the pH and decreases the Sr/Ca and B(OH) 4-/CO 32- ratios of the ECF. We produced a simple model of the ECF composition and the skeleton deposited from it, over a range of calcium transport and carbonate scenarios, which can account for these observed geochemical variations. The relationship between the pH and Sr/Ca of the ECF is dependent on the concentration of DIC at the calcification site. At higher DIC concentrations the ECF has a high capacity to buffer the [H +] changes induced by Ca-ATPase pumping. Conversely, at low DIC concentrations, this buffering capacity is reduced and ECF pH changes more rapidly in response to Ca-ATPase pumping. The absence of a simple correlation between ECF pH and skeletal Sr/Ca implies that calcification occurred under a range of DIC concentrations, reflecting variations in the respiration and photosynthesis of the coral and symbiotic zooxanthellate in the overlying coral tissues. Our observations have important implications for the use of coral skeletons as indicators of palaeo-ocean pH.

  11. The calibration of D[Sr/Ca]versus sea surface temperature relationship for Porites corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chuan-Chou; Lee, Typhoon; Chen, Chi-Yun; Wang, Chung-Ho; Dai, Chang-Feng; Li, Lung-An

    1996-10-01

    Taking advantage of the availability of a continuous sea surface temperature (SST) record at Kenting, southern Taiwan, we have carried out a calibration of D[Sr/Ca]-SST ( D: distribution coefficient) relationships for Porites lobata and P. lutea. Between 22°C ˜ 28°C, the best fitting linear relationships for the two species agree within their respective errors with a maximum deviation less than 0.3°C. Our calibration overlaps with the only published calibration for Porites ( deVilliers et al., 1994) but is somewhat less temperature sensitive. The maximum temperature differences for the two calibrations between 21°C and 27°C are ± 1.2°C. The D-SST relationship calculated using the data of Beck et al. (1992, 1994) and their unpublished seawater data lies between these two calibrations. Our calibration removes some discrepancies previously described in the studies of McCulloch et al. (1994a) on the Great Barrier Reef and of Min et al. (1995) on New Caledonia. We found little growth rate effect on the calibration for P. lutea between 18 mm/yr and 23 mm/yr. We have also monitored the seawater [Sr/Ca] for the entire 1993. The observed variation of 0.033 mmol/mol can cause a temperature artifact of 0.7°C and is thus a dominant error in using this new paleo-thermometer. To carry out this experiment, we have developed a microsurgical technique that can be used to sample corals at better than 0.15 mm resolution. The analytical precision should ultimately allow SST reconstruction of better than 0.2°C. Furthermore, the insensitivity of the calibration against growth rate variation and species differences suggests a promising future for this new thermometer, in contrast to the pessimism of deVilliers et al. (1995). However, inter-laboratory differences and the question of seawater [Sr/Ca] variation need to be addressed first. We recommend a single SST calibration for the Sr/Ca thermometer on coral Porites: Sr/Ca N = 10.286-0.0514 × SST (N: normalized to Hawaii

  12. Orographic and Climatic Influence on Leaf Wax Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Ratios: a Field Survey From Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, B. J.; Pagani, M.; Smith, R.; Anders, A.

    2007-12-01

    The primary objective of this research was to empirically ground-truth environmental controls on δD and δ13C values of higher plant n-alkanes, since these higher-plant specific compounds are refractory and commonly preserved in the geologic record they hold great paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental information. Our approach was to extensively sample leaves and stems of nine species of trees across two Northern California east-west transects twice during the growing season. One hundred and ninety trees from ninety-three sites were collected along with topsoils and surface waters from most localities. Bigleaf Maple ( Acer macrophyllum), California White Oak ( Quercus lobata) and Blue Oak ( Quercus douglasii) n--alkanes δ13C have been analyzed and range from -38.0 to -29.6‰, -35.2 to - 30.4‰ and -34.5 to -30.4‰, respectively. Currently, all tree species show little to no relationship with any physical variable, such as longitude, elevation, tree height, aspect, slope, etc. The large range in tree isotope values suggests these plants are reacting to a yet unknown climatic variable or these species operate within a range of water-use efficiencies. Similarly, soil-extracted n--alkane δ13C values range between -36.5 to -29.2‰ and do not strongly correlate with any physical parameter. Surface water δD and δ18O are highly correlated and similar to the meteoric water line, however, not as robust, soil-extracted n--alkane δD show similar trends. Notably, the apparent enrichment factor between soil lipids and surface waters is not as stable as seen in other localities, varying by over 30‰, illustrating uncertainties in paleo-applications. Interestingly, water δD and δ18O from surface waters varied little between early June and mid-September and demonstrate a roughly -90‰ depletion in deuterium across the two transects. This D-depletion is reflected in the early growing season stem waters with a consistent slope to that of surface waters.

  13. Modern foraminiferal facies in a subtropical estuarine channel, Bertioga, São Paulo, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eichler, P.P.B.; Eichler, B.B.; De Miranda, L. B.; Rodrigues, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    other mostly of Textulariida (Facies 5 and 6). Facies 5 includes Ammonia beecarii, Elphidium excavatum, Arenoparrella mexicana, Haplophragmoides wilberti, Siphotrochammina lobata, Trochammina inflata and Trochammina sp., all of which are typical of mesohaline sites (mainly Crumau?? and Trindade rivers), and Facies 6 includes Bolivina sp., Ammoastuta salsa, Arenoparrella mexicana, Haplophragmoides wilberti and Trochammina sp., all of which are typical of oligohaline and mesohaline mangrove fringes. The foraminiferal species from the present study are frequently found in paralic environments in Brazil, western Africa and other estuaries around the world.

  14. A review of world Diallactiini (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Winnertziinae), with the description of six new genera and seventeen new species.

    PubMed

    Jaschhof, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Fossil and extant Diallactiini, which are mycophagous Cecidomyiidae (gall midges), are reviewed globally for the first time. Johnsonomyia Felt, 1908 stat. rev. is restored from synonymy with Haplusia Karsch, 1877 (with Chastomera Skuse, 1888 confirmed as a junior synonym) and both genera are re-defined. Haplusia funebris Plakidas, 2007 and Wyattella lobata Yukawa, 1968 are newly combined in Johnsonomyia. Gynapteromyia Mamaev, 1965 is shown to be a species-rich, almost cosmopolitan genus, which absorbs several of the species previously classified in Haplusia or Chastomera. Gynapteromyia brevipalpis (Mamaev, 1964) comb. nov., G. heteroptera (Mamaev & Spungis, 1980) comb. nov., G. hondrui (Mamaev, 1964) comb. nov., G. indica (Grover, 1971) comb. nov., G. longipalpis (Mamaev, 1964) comb. nov., and G. stricta (Fedotova & Sidorenko, 2005) comb. nov. are all new combinations. †Palaeocolpodia eocenica Meunier, 1904 is considered to be a nomen dubium. Prior to the present study, the tribe Diallactiini contained 28 extant species classified in 6 genera. Previously unworked specimens of Diallactiini gathered by the author in the past 15 years were examined and identified as belonging to 57 different species, all unnamed. From that material, the following new taxa are described: Bruneiplusia gen. nov. (from Brunei), B. kaspraki sp. nov., Gynapteromyia costaricensis sp. nov. (Costa Rica), G. furcata sp. nov. (Costa Rica), G. novaezealandiae sp. nov. (New Zealand), G. tasmanica sp. nov. (Australia), G. temburong sp. nov. (Brunei), G. tenuistylata sp. nov. (Brunei), Haplusia afrotropica sp. nov. (South Africa), Japoplusia gen. nov. (Japan), Jap. honshuensis sp. nov., Johnsonomyia scabra sp. nov. (Costa Rica), John. serrata sp. nov. (South Africa), Loboplusia gen. nov. (Costa Rica), L. zurqui sp. nov., Makrostyles gen. nov. (Costa Rica), Makr. terrifica sp. nov., Mikrostyles gen. nov. (Brunei), Mikr. angustilobata sp. nov., Mikr. latolobata sp. nov., Wahabia gen. nov. (Brunei

  15. Sex-associated variations in coral skeletal oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of Porites panamensis in the southern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral-Tena, Rafael A.; Sánchez, Alberto; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor; Ruvalcaba-Díaz, Angel H.; Balart, Eduardo F.

    2016-05-01

    variables; therefore, variations in skeletal δ13C appear to be driven mainly by metabolic effects. Our results support the hypothesis of a sex-associated difference in skeletal δ18O and δ13C signal, and suggest that environmental conditions and coral growth parameters affect skeletal isotopic signals differently in each sex. Although these findings relate to one gonochoric brooding species, they may have some implications for the more commonly used gonochoric spawning species such as Porites lutea and Porites lobata.