Science.gov

Sample records for kudzu pueraria lobata

  1. Isolation of radiolabeled isoflavones from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Adam; Yousef, Gad G; Rogers, Randy B; Lila, Mary Ann

    2008-09-10

    Isoflavones have potential for preventing and treating several chronic health conditions, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this study, radiolabeled isoflavones were recovered from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures after incubation with uniformly labeled (14)C-sucrose in the culture medium for 21 days. Approximately 19% of administered label was recovered in the isoflavone-rich dried extracts of kudzu root cultures (90.2 microCi/g or 3.3 MBq/g extract). HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the predominant isoflavones isolated from kudzu root cultures to be puerarin, daidzin, and malonyl-daidzin. The average concentration of the major isoflavone puerarin in kudzu root cultures was 33.6 mg/g extract, with a specific activity of 63.5 microCi/g (2.3 MBq/g). The isolated isoflavones were sufficiently (14)C-labeled to permit utilization for subsequent in vivo metabolic tracking studies.

  2. Isolation of Radiolabeled Isoflavones from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) Root Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Reppert, Adam; Yousef, Gad G.; Rogers, Randy B.; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Isoflavones have potential for preventing and treating several chronic health conditions, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this study, radiolabeled isoflavones were recovered from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures after incubation with uniformly labeled 14C-sucrose in the culture medium for 21 days. Approximately 19% of administered label was recovered in the isoflavone-rich dried extracts of kudzu root cultures (90.2 μCi/g or 3.3 MBq/g extract). HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the predominant isoflavones isolated from kudzu root cultures to be puerarin, daidzin, and malonyl-daidzin. The average concentration of the major isoflavone puerarin in kudzu root cultures was 33.6 mg/g extract, with a specific activity of 63.5 μCi/g (2.3 MBq/g). The isolated isoflavones were sufficiently 14C-labeled to permit utilization for subsequent in vivo metabolic tracking studies PMID:18690681

  3. A genomic approach to isoflavone biosynthesis in kudzu (Pueraria lobata).

    PubMed

    He, XianZhi; Blount, Jack W; Ge, Shujun; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A

    2011-04-01

    Roots of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) are a rich source of isoflavone O- and C-glycosides. Although O-glycosylation of (iso)flavonoids has been well characterized at the molecular level, no plant isoflavonoid C-glycosyltransferase genes have yet been isolated. To address the biosynthesis of kudzu isoflavonoids, we generated 6,365 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a subtraction cDNA library constructed using RNA from roots that differentially accumulate puerarin. The ESTs were clustered into 722 TCs and 3,913 singletons, from which 15 family I glycosyltransferases (UGTs) were identified. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the expression patterns of these UGTs with isoflavone synthase (IFS) in a range of tissues identified UGTs with potential functions in isoflavone glycosylation. The open reading frames of these UGTs were expressed in E. coli for functional analysis, and one was shown to preferentially glycosylate isoflavones at the 7-O-position. In addition, ESTs corresponding to chalcone synthase, chalcone reductase, chalcone isomerase (CHI) and 2-hydroxyisoflavanone dehydratase were identified. Recombinant CHI proteins had high activities with both 6'-deoxy- and 6'-hydroxy chalcones, typical of Type II CHIs. Establishment of this EST database and identification of genes associated with kudzu isoflavone biosynthesis and glycosylation provide a new resource for metabolic engineering of bioactive kudzu isoflavones.

  4. Batch foam fractionation of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) vine retting solution.

    PubMed

    Eiamwat, J; Loha, V; Prokop, A; Tanner, R D

    1998-01-01

    The aqueous protein solution from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) vine retting broth, without the addition of other surfactants, was foam-fractionated in a vertical tubular column with multiple sampling ports. Time-varying trajectories of the total protein levels were determined to describe the protein behavior at six positions along the 1-m column. The lowest two trajectories of this batch process represented a loss of proteins from the bulk liquid and tended to merge and decay together in time; the other trajectories displayed a gain in proteins in the foam phase. These upper column port protein concentration trajectories generally increased in time up to 45 mm, followed by a decrease, reflecting the removal of proteins from the column ports. The foam became dryer as it passed up the column to the top port. The protein concentration was about 5-8x higher in the top port foam than in the initial bulk solution, mainly as a result of liquid drainage from the foam along the column axis. This concentration increase in the collected foam was dependent on the initial pH of the bulk solution. The mol-wt profile of the proteins in the concentrated foam effluent was determined by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. An analysis of the gel electropherograms indicated that the most abundant proteins could be cellulases and pectinases.

  5. Pueraria lobata (Kudzu root) hangover remedies and acetaldehyde-associated neoplasm risk.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Neil R

    2007-11-01

    Recent introduction of several commercial Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) containing hangover remedies has occurred in western countries. The available data is reviewed to assess if there are any potential concerns in relationship to the development of neoplasm if these products are used chronically. The herb Pueraria has two components that are used as traditional therapies; Pueraria lobata, the root based herb and Pueraria flos, the flower based herb. Both of these herbal components have different traditional claims and constituents. Pueraria flos, which enhances acetaldehyde removal, is the traditional hangover remedy. Conversely, Pueraria lobata is a known inhibitor of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and increases acetaldehyde. Pueraria lobata is being investigated for use as an aversion therapy for alcoholics due to these characteristics. Pueraria lobata is not a traditional hangover therapy yet has been accepted as the registered active component in many of these hangover products. The risk of development of acetaldehyde pathology, including neoplasms, is associated with genetic polymorphism with enhanced alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) or reduced ALDH activity leading to increased acetaldehyde levels in the tissues. The chronic usage of Pueraria lobata at times of high ethanol consumption, such as in hangover remedies, may predispose subjects to an increased risk of acetaldehyde-related neoplasm and pathology. The guidelines for Disulfiram, an ALDH2 inhibitor, provide a set of guidelines for use with the herb Pueraria lobata. Pueraria lobata appears to be an inappropriate herb for use in herbal hangover remedies as it is an inhibitor of ALDH2. The recommendations for its use should be similar to those for the ALDH2 inhibitor, Disulfiram.

  6. An evidence-based systematic review of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Costa, Dawn; Dam, Chi; D'Auria, Denise; Giese, Nicole; Isaac, Richard; LeBlanc, Yvonne; Rusie, Erica; Weissner, Wendy; Windsor, Regina C

    2015-03-01

    An evidence-based systematic review of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

  7. Kudzu [Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. Var lobata]: a new source of carbohydrate for bioethanol production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined the amount of standing biomass of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in naturally-infested fields in Maryland and Alabama, USA. At each site, we evaluated carbohydrate content of root, stems and leaves. For a third site from Georgia, we evaluated the carbohydrate content of roots o...

  8. First Report of Soybean Rust, Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, on Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in Illinois

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first observed on soybean (Glycine max) in the continental United States in Louisiana in 2004, and on kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in the United States in 2005. Kudzu is a leguminous weed that is prevalent in the southern United States with ...

  9. A glycoside flavonoid in Kudzu (Pueraria lobata): identification, quantification, and determination of antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ching S; Carrier, Danielle J; Beitle, Robert R; Howard, Luke R; Lay, Jackson O; Liyanage, Rohana; Clausen, Edgar C

    2005-01-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) foliage has been touted as a possible energy crop. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of the methanolic kudzu foliage extracts confirmed the presence of robinin (kaempferol-3-O-robinoside-7-O-rhamnoside). Robinin accounted for 0.65 +/- 0.16% (dry basis) of kudzu biomass. Fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC) was employed to fractionate robinin from the crude extract. The antioxidant capacity of robinin was evaluated by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The ORAC values of pure standard were compared with those of the extract fractions. One milligram of the FPLC-fractionated robinin generated an ORAC value of 5.15 +/- 2.00 micromol/mg of Trolox, whereas 1 mg of pure robinin generated an ORAC value of 12.34 +/- 0.45 micromol/mg of Trolox. Because of its antioxidant properties, robinin may be a flavonoid worth extracting prior to energy production.

  10. Heterogeneity of clonal patterns among patches of kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, an invasive plant.

    PubMed

    Kartzinel, Tyler R; Hamrick, J L; Wang, Chongyun; Bowsher, Alan W; Quigley, Bryan G P

    2015-10-01

    Viny species are among the most serious invasive plants, and better knowledge of how vines grow to dominate landscapes is needed. Patches may contain a single genotype (i.e. genet), a competitively dominant genet or many independent but interacting genets, yet the clonal structure of vining species is often not apparent. Molecular markers can discriminate among the genetic identities of entwined vines to reveal the number and spatial distribution of genets. This study investigated how genets are spatially distributed within and among discrete patches of the invasive vine kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, in the United States. It was expected that ramets of genets would be spatially clustered within patches, and that an increase in the number of genets within a patch would be associated with a decrease in the average size of each genet. Six discrete kudzu patches were sampled across 2 years, and 1257 samples were genotyped at 21 polymorphic allozyme loci. Variation in genotypic and genetic diversity among patches was quantified and patterns of genet interdigitation were analysed. Substantial genotypic and genetic variation occurred within and among patches. As few as ten overlapping genets spanned up to 68 m(2) in one patch, while >90 % of samples were genetically unique in another patch. Genotypic diversity within patches increased as mean clone size decreased, although spatially widespread genets did not preclude interdigitation. Eight genets were shared across ≥2 patches, suggesting that vegetative dispersal can occur among patches. Genetically unique kudzu vines are highly interdigitated. Multiple vegetative propagules have become established in spatially discrete patches, probably through the movement of highway construction or maintenance machinery. The results suggest that common methods for controlling invasive vines (e.g. mowing) may inadvertently increase genotypic diversity. Thus, understanding vine architecture and growth has practical

  11. Heterogeneity of clonal patterns among patches of kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, an invasive plant

    PubMed Central

    Kartzinel, Tyler R.; Hamrick, J. L.; Wang, Chongyun; Bowsher, Alan W.; Quigley, Bryan G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Viny species are among the most serious invasive plants, and better knowledge of how vines grow to dominate landscapes is needed. Patches may contain a single genotype (i.e. genet), a competitively dominant genet or many independent but interacting genets, yet the clonal structure of vining species is often not apparent. Molecular markers can discriminate among the genetic identities of entwined vines to reveal the number and spatial distribution of genets. This study investigated how genets are spatially distributed within and among discrete patches of the invasive vine kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, in the United States. It was expected that ramets of genets would be spatially clustered within patches, and that an increase in the number of genets within a patch would be associated with a decrease in the average size of each genet. Methods Six discrete kudzu patches were sampled across 2 years, and 1257 samples were genotyped at 21 polymorphic allozyme loci. Variation in genotypic and genetic diversity among patches was quantified and patterns of genet interdigitation were analysed. Key Results Substantial genotypic and genetic variation occurred within and among patches. As few as ten overlapping genets spanned up to 68 m2 in one patch, while >90 % of samples were genetically unique in another patch. Genotypic diversity within patches increased as mean clone size decreased, although spatially widespread genets did not preclude interdigitation. Eight genets were shared across ≥2 patches, suggesting that vegetative dispersal can occur among patches. Conclusions Genetically unique kudzu vines are highly interdigitated. Multiple vegetative propagules have become established in spatially discrete patches, probably through the movement of highway construction or maintenance machinery. The results suggest that common methods for controlling invasive vines (e.g. mowing) may inadvertently increase genotypic diversity. Thus, understanding

  12. Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect of a Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) Vine Extract in Ovariectomized Mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Teruyoshi; Yokota, Yukihiro; Tang, Hanjun; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Postmenopausal diabetes is exacerbated by estrogen deficiency. Ovariectomized (OVX) animal models can be used to develop strategies for preventing or treating postmenopausal symptoms. We previously found that a diet containing kudzu (Pueraria lobata) vine ethanol extract (PVEE) suppressed weight gain in OVX mice. Therefore, this study further elucidated how PVEE affected OVX mice. Ten-week-old OVX or sham-operated mice were fed diets containing either no PVEE (control) or 20 mg•kg(-1)•d(-1) PVEE for 8 wk, 5 mg•kg(-1)•d(-1) PVEE for 24 wk, or 20 mg•kg(-1)•d(-1) puerarin (daidzein-8-C-glucoside), a major isoflavone present in PVEE, for 10 wk. The effects of puerarin on glucose tolerance were also tested in OVX mice. The experimental diets were not associated with any abnormalities in any mice tested in the present study. Weight gain and serum glucose levels were increased in OVX mice and these effects were significantly attenuated in OVX mice that consumed PVEE (5 or 20 mg•kg(-1)•d(-1)) or puerarin. Puerarin-treated OVX mice also showed reduced serum glucose levels following administration of 1,000 mg•kg(-1) glucose. These results suggested that puerarin contributed to PVEE-mediated improvements in glucose metabolism in OVX mice. Although further studies are needed to clarify the molecular mechanism underlying these observations, PVEE and puerarin could provide effective approaches to the amelioration of postmenopausal diabetes.

  13. In vivo metabolic tracking of 14C-radiolabelled isoflavones in kudzu (Pueraria lobata) and red clover (Trifolium pratense) extracts.

    PubMed

    Mun, Jonathan G; Grannan, Michael D; Lachcik, Pamela J; Reppert, Adam; Yousef, Gad G; Rogers, Randy B; Janle, Elsa M; Weaver, Connie M; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-11-01

    Absorption, distribution and elimination of 14C-labelled isoflavone-containing extracts from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root culture and red clover (Trifolium pratense) cell culture were investigated in an in vivo rat model. The predominant isoflavones in the kudzu extract were the glycosides puerarin, daidzin and malonyl daidzin, while in the red clover extract, the major isoflavones were formononetin and its derivatives, genistein and biochanin A, with radioactivities of 3.770 and 7.256 MBq/g, respectively. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, implanted with a jugular catheter and a subcutaneous ultrafiltrate probe, were orally administered with 14C-labelled isoflavone extracts from either kudzu or clover cell cultures. Serum, interstitial fluid (ISF), urine and faeces were collected using a Culex Automated Blood Collection System for 24 h. Analysis of bone tissues revealed that radiolabel accumulated in the femur, tibia and vertebrae at 0.04, 0.03 and 0.01 % of the administered dose, respectively, in both kudzu and red clover treatments. The liver accumulated the greatest concentration of radiolabel among the tissues tested, at 1.99 and 1.54 % of the administered kudzu and red clover extracts, respectively. Serum and ISF analysis showed that both extracts were rapidly absorbed, distributed in various tissues, and largely eliminated in the urine and faeces. Urine and faeces contained 8.53 and 9.06 % of the kudzu dose, respectively, and 3.60 and 5.64 % of the red clover dose, respectively. Serum pharmacokinetics suggest that extracts from kudzu may undergo enterohepatic circulation.

  14. Effects of Myrothecium verrucaria on ultrastructural integrity of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) and phytotoxin implications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (MV), originally isolated from diseased sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia L.), has bioherbicial activity against kudzu and several other weeds when applied with low concentrations of the surfactant Silwet L-77. Ultrastructural investigations of MV effe...

  15. Rapid determination of major bioactive isoflavonoid compounds during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Hailong; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2015-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed into an indispensable tool for both academic research and industrial quality control in a wide field of applications. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to monitor the concentration of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein and total isoflavonoid (TIF) during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) was verified in this work. NIR spectra were collected in transmission mode and pretreated with smoothing and derivative. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models. Three different variable selection methods, including correlation coefficient method, interval partial least squares (iPLS), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were performed and compared with models based on all of the variables. The results showed that the approach was very efficient and environmentally friendly for rapid determination of the four quality indices (QIs) in the kudzu extraction process. This method established may have the potential to be used as a process analytical technological (PAT) tool in the future.

  16. Rapid determination of major bioactive isoflavonoid compounds during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Hailong; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2015-02-25

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed into an indispensable tool for both academic research and industrial quality control in a wide field of applications. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to monitor the concentration of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein and total isoflavonoid (TIF) during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) was verified in this work. NIR spectra were collected in transmission mode and pretreated with smoothing and derivative. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models. Three different variable selection methods, including correlation coefficient method, interval partial least squares (iPLS), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were performed and compared with models based on all of the variables. The results showed that the approach was very efficient and environmentally friendly for rapid determination of the four quality indices (QIs) in the kudzu extraction process. This method established may have the potential to be used as a process analytical technological (PAT) tool in the future.

  17. Effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on the expansion and size of kudzu (pueraria lobata) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sasek, T.W.; Strain, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    Seedlings of kudzu were grown at 350, 675, or 1000 ..mu..l/L CO/sub 2/ in controlled-environment chambers. At elevated CO/sub 2/ in controlled-environment chambers. At elevated CO/sub 2/ concentrations, maximum leaf expansion rates were approximately 40% greater, leaves were fully expanded several days sooner, fully expanded leaves were larger at each leaf position, and leaf production rates were increased 12%. Peak starch accumulation was much greater in plants grown at elevated CO/sub 2/ concentrations. Total xylem water potentials were higher (less negative) at full hydration, and osmotic potentials were decreased (more negative) by CO/sub 2/ enrichment. At 1000 ..mu..l/L CO/sub 2/, leaf trigger pressure was twice that at 350 ..mu..l/L CO/sub 2/. Results suggest that leaf expansion rates and leaf expansivity may have been increased due to higher trigger pressure at the higher CO/sub 2/ concentrations. The potential for successful seedling establishment may be enhanced as the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration continues to rise, increasing kudzu invasiveness.

  18. Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) vine ethanol extracts improve ovariectomy-induced bone loss in female mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Teruyoshi; Tang, Hanjun; Yu, Fengnian; Michihara, Seiwa; Uzawa, Yuki; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio

    2011-12-28

    Bone-loss-improving action of kudzu vine ethanol extracts (PVEE) was clarified. PVEE was composed roughly of 80% fiber, 10% puerarin, 3.6% daidzin, 2.5% 6″-O-malonyldaidzin, and the other minor isoflavones. Ten-week-old ovariectomized (OVX) mice were fed diets containing PVEE (20 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 weeks. The bone resorption markers (urinary deoxypyridinoline and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity) was elevated in OVX mice and was significantly decreased in OVX mice that consumed PVEE for 8 weeks. Consistent with the decrease in the markers, the number of matured osteoclasts in the distal femur was diminished in OVX mice fed PVEE diets. PVEE diets also suppressed the decrease in femoral bone mineral density (BMD) by OVX. PVEE showed the affinity for estrogen receptor α and β nearly 1/10000 weaker than 17β-estradiol. No hypertrophy in the uterus by the PVEE diet was observed. These results suggest that PVEE could be a promising resource for a functional food that improves osteoporosis.

  19. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two divergent 4-coumarate : coenzyme A ligases from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Bo; Li, Chang-Fu; Li, Jia; Zhang, Yan-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    As part of the efforts to understand isoflavonoid metabolism in Pueraria lobata at the molecular level, the cDNAs encoding two divergent 4-coumarate : coenzyme A ligases (4CLs, designated Pl4CL1 and Pl4CL2, respectively) were isolated from P. lobata roots. Sequence analysis revealed that Pl4CL1 had an N-terminal extension of twenty-one amino acid residues compared to Pl4CL2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Pl4CL1 and Pl4CL2 fell into angiosperm Class II and Class I, respectively. Through in vitro biochemical assays, both Pl4CLs were found to have the capacity to utilize 4-coumarate and trans-cinnamate as substrates, while neither of them could convert sinapate. Pl4CL2 had a broader substrate specificity than Pl4CL1. The affinity of Pl4CL1 for 4-coumarate was 2.6-fold higher than that of Pl4CL2 (with the Km values of 3.5 µM and 9.1 µM, respectively). Combining the dataset including gene expression profiles, metabolites measurements, and biochemical properties, our results indicated that Pl4CL1, just as other angiosperm Class II 4CLs, might play a role in isoflavone biosynthesis in P. lobata, while Pl4CL2 belongs to angiosperm Class I, and may function as a housekeeping enzyme concerning lignification.

  20. High degree of clonal reproduction and lack of large-scale geographic patterning mark the introduced range of the invasive vine, kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata), in North America.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Kerin E; Mauricio, Rodney

    2016-08-01

    Pueraria montana var. lobata, or kudzu, is an invasive species whose invasion in North America is not genetically well characterized. The clonality of kudzu introduces challenges to population genetic analyses that can bias the assessment of spatial patterns of genotypes. Assessing patterns of genetic diversity while considering clonality is necessary to understand the invasion and spread of kudzu in its invasive range. We screened 1747 individuals from 87 populations across the invasive range with 15 microsatellite markers and a 789 bp chloroplast region. We performed detailed clonal analyses and tested levels of genetic diversity, population structure, and phylogeographic relationships. Kudzu exhibited a clonal rate of 80%, and was more heterozygous than other long-lived perennials. We detected only 353 distinct clonal lineages, with over 60% sharing a maternal haplotype. Populations were established with few genotypes, many consisting of only a single clone. We found no isolation by distance. Despite high genetic diversity, we found little geographic patterning. Kudzu is highly clonal with few genetically distinct lineages and haplotypes existing in the introduced range. Our data are consistent with a large single introduction, or a few at most. Introduced lineages are geographically randomly distributed but isolated, suggesting that genotypes rarely expand into already established populations. No route of expansion was detectable from an original introduction. The invasion of kudzu does not seem to have been dominated by a single genotype, thus standing genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity are more likely mechanisms explaining kudzu's invasion success. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  1. Leaf-lamina conductance contributes to an equal distribution of water delivery in current-year shoots of kudzu-vine shoot, Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Taneda, Haruhiko; Tateno, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Leaf-lamina resistance, R(L), accounts for a large fraction of branch resistance across a wide range of plant species. This work hypothesized that large R(L) is essential for distributing water equally to leaves on the shoot, and tested this hypothesis through theoretical analyses and measurements using over 10-m-long current-year shoots of kudzu vine, Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi. First, the hydraulic architecture and the distribution of the motive force achieving equal distribution of water delivery were theoretically obtained by simulating water flow through a hypothetical shoot comprising an axial pathway and several lateral pathways as a stem and leaves, respectively, in a kudzu-vine shoot. The model predicts that large resistance of the lateral pathway relative to that of the axial pathway is associated strongly with small variation in the hydraulic conductance of a pathway from the base of the axial pathways to the lateral pathway among the nodes, rendering water delivery to each lateral pathway equal under small variation in motive force for water flow. For the kudzu-vine shoot, the measured ratio of the lateral (a petiole) to the axial (a stem) resistance was 115. When R(L) was added to the lateral pathway, the ratio increased to 1136. According to the model prediction, these values imply that the hydraulic conductance of a pathway comprising a stem and a petiole, K(BP), is favored strongly at the basal nodes, while the hydraulic conductance of a pathway including a stem, a petiole and a lamina, K(SL), is slightly different across the nodes. For the shoots with leaf lamina, the diurnal change in transpiration rate was not different between the leaves on the three nodes dividing the shoot into four parts. K(SL) was not related significantly to node number. Conversely, K(BP) at the distal node was ~0.06-fold that at the basal node. Furthermore, the motive force for water flow should vary by 6.64-fold among nodes to compensate for the favored distribution of

  2. Differentiation of Pueraria lobata and Pueraria thomsonii using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA).

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka H; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Li, Kong M; Li, George Q; Chan, Kelvin

    2013-10-01

    The aims of the study were to differentiate Pueraria lobata from its related species Pueraria thomsonii and to examine the raw herbal material used in manufacturing kudzu root granules using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Sixty-four raw materials of P. lobata and P. thomsonii and kudzu root-labelled granules were analysed by ultra performance liquid chromatography. To differentiate P. lobata from P. thomsonii, PLS-DA models using the variables selected from the entire chromatograms, genetic algorithm (GA), successive projection algorithm (SPA), puerarin alone and six selected peaks were employed. The models constructed by GA and SPA demonstrated superior classification ability and lower model's complexity as compared to the model based on the entire chromatographic matrix, whilst the model constructed by the six selected peaks was comparable to the entire chromatographic model. The model established by puerarin alone showed inferior classification ability. In addition, the PLS-DA models constructed by the entire chromatographic matrix, GA, SPA and the six selected peaks showed that four brands out of seventeen granules were mislabelled as P. lobata. In conclusion, PLS-DA is a promising procedure for differentiating Pueraria species and determining raw material used in commercial products.

  3. Survey of phytophagous insects and foliar pathogens in China for a biocontrol perspective on kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen and S. Almeida (Fabaceae)

    Treesearch

    Jiang-Hua Sun; Zhu-Dong Liu; Kerry O. Britton; Ping Cai; David Orr; Judith Hough-Goldstein

    2006-01-01

    A three-year survey of kudzu foliage, seed, stems, and roots for associated phytophagous insects was conducted to establish basic information about the insect communities that kudzu harbors in China and to assess the abundance, diversity and damage caused by these insects. Diseases of kudzu were also surveyed in southern China. A total of 116 phytophagous insect...

  4. Bioactive isoflavones from Pueraria lobata root and starch: Different extraction techniques and carbonic anhydrase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Andrei; Carradori, Simone; Locatelli, Marcello; Secci, Daniela; Cesa, Stefania; Mollica, Adriano; Riga, Simona; Angeli, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Celia, Christian; Di Marzio, Luisa

    2017-08-12

    Kudzu, the dried root of an important edible plant (Pueraria lobata), is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the important nutritional value strictly related to its isoflavone derivatives. These compounds characterize the quality of kudzu contained in different preparations, as pharmaceutical ingredient as well as dietary/food supplement (e.g. starch). The optimization of the isoflavones recovery, monitored by HPLC-PDA, through different innovative and conventional extraction techniques, e.g. microwave-assisted, ultrasound-assisted and conventional extraction, represented a suitable challenge in food industry and natural products evaluation. The impact on the isoflavone extraction by using an ionic liquid-assisted procedure was also considered. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of the most representative isoflavones, isolated from kudzu, was evaluated using four isoforms (I, II, IX and XII) of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) due to their role in several physiopathological processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isoflavonoids production in callus culture of Pueraria tuberosa, the Indian kudzu.

    PubMed

    Vaishnav, Kamlesh; Goyal, Shaily; Ramawat, K G

    2006-12-01

    Isoflavonoid contents of different plant parts and callus tissues of the Indian Kudzu, Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb.ex.Willd.) DC are presented. The initial cultures were slow growing, associated with browning of the tissues. The production of four isoflavonoids (puerarin, genistin, genistein and daidzein) in the callus cultures of P. tuberosa was studied by manipulating the plant growth regulators and sucrose concentration in the medium. Organogenesis was not recorded in callus on any of these treatments. Tuber and stem accumulated puerarin, a glycoside of daidzein, at high amounts, 0.65% and 0.054% respectively. However, the daidzein content of the callus tissues grown on Murashige and Skoog medium containing BA (20.9 microM) and sucrose (60 gl(-1)) was significantly higher (0.056%) than in vivo plant material (0.02%) and other comparable culture systems like Genista and Pueraria lobata.

  6. Kudzu -- Goat Interactions

    Treesearch

    Peter R. Mount

    1994-01-01

    Researchers at Tuskegee University have joined together to study the impact of grazing Angora goats on kudzu (Pueraria lobata). A pilot project funded by the Southern Forest Experiment Station of the USDA Forest Service was started in 1990. The problem was to find an environmentally acceptable way to control and eradicate kudzu in forest situations...

  7. Identification of isoflavone glycosides in Pueraria lobata cultures by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Prasain, Jeevan K; Reppert, Adam; Jones, Kenneth; Moore, D Ray; Barnes, Stephen; Lila, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    Isoflavones in the methanolic extracts of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) callus, suspension and root cultures were compared in order to develop an experimental system in which puerarin (daidzein 8-C-glucoside) and other isoflavones could be synthesised in vitro. Quantitative variation of puerarin and other known isoflavones was estimated in kudzu culture extracts using HPLC-UV. The highest and lowest amounts of puerarin (14.56 and 0.33 mg/g) were present in in vitro root cultures and leaf tissue-derived callus cultures, respectively. A total of 48 isoflavone metabolites were detected in extracts of kudzu root cultures by HPLC-MS/MS, and the structures of 33 of them were tentatively assigned. Amongst these, 12 isoflavone C-glycosides were identified. Hydroxyderivatives of puerarin in several isomeric forms were detected, some of which have not been previously reported in kudzu root. The molecular weights, interpretation of characteristic fragment ions obtained from HPLC-MS/MS and comparison with reported data allowed the putative identification of the isoflavone metabolites.

  8. Major isoflavonoid contents of the phytoestrogen rich-herb Pueraria mirifica in comparison with Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Subtang, Subongkoj; Dahlan, Winai

    2007-01-17

    Pueraria mirifica tubers collected from 28 out of 76 provinces of Thailand and Pueraria lobata tubers collected from Guangzhou province, China were submitted to HPLC analysis with the established gradient system comprising 1.5% acetic acid and acetonitrile. Five major isoflavonoids, including puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein and genistein, were adopted as authentic standards. P. mirifica tubers showed intra- as well as inter-provincial differences in isoflavonoid and total isoflavonoid contents. The difference in both cases should be mostly influenced by genetic and environmental factors. In comparison with P. lobata, P. mirifica population exhibited differences only with a lower amount of daidzein.

  9. Thermal stability of kudzu root (Pueraria Radix) isoflavones as additives to beef patties.

    PubMed

    Kumari, S; Raines, J M; Martin, J M; Rodriguez, J M

    2015-03-01

    Kudzu root, Pueraria radix, extracts are a rich source of isoflavones. This study investigates the thermal stability of Pueraria radix extracts as a natural nutraceutical supplement in beef patties. The extract contained puerarin, diadzin, genistin, ononin, daidzein, glycitein, calycosin, genistein, formononetin and biochanin A; however, puerarin, daidzein and glycitein were the main components. The isoflavones concentrations in the spiked beef patties with kudzu root extracts were unaffected by cooking.

  10. An Alternative Pathway for Formononetin Biosynthesis in Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    The O-methylation is an important tailing process in Pueraria lobata isoflavone metabolism, but the molecular mechanism governing it remains not elucidated. This manuscript describes the mining of key O-methyltransferases (OMTs) involved in the process. Using our previously constructed P. lobata transcriptome, the OMT candidates were searched, extensively analyzed, and their functions were investigated by expression in yeast, Escherichia coli, or Glycine max hairy roots. Here, we report the identification of the key OMT gene responsible for formononetin production in P. lobata (designated as PlOMT9). PlOMT9 primarily functions as an isoflavone-specific 4′-O-methyltransferase, although it shows high sequence identities with isoflavone 7-O-methyltransferases. Moreover, unlike the previously reported OMTs that catalyze the 4′-O-methylation for formononetin biosynthesis at the isoflavanone stage, PlOMT9 performs this modifying step at the isoflavone level, using daidzein rather than 2,7,4′-trihydroxy-isoflavanone as the substrate. Gene expression analyses and metabolite profiling supported its proposed roles in P. lobata. Using the system of transgenic G. max hairy roots, the role of PlOMT9 in the biosynthesis of formononetin was further demonstrated in vivo. PMID:27379141

  11. Genetic variation in Pueraria lobata (Fabaceae), an introduced, clonal, invasive plant of the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Pappert, R A; Hamrick, J L; Donovan, L A

    2000-09-01

    Pueraria lobata (kudzu), a clonal, leguminous vine, is invading the southeastern United States at a rate of 50 000 ha per year. Genetic variability and clonal diversity were measured in 20 southeastern U.S. populations using 14 allozyme loci. Within its U.S. range, 92.9% of the loci were polymorphic and overall genetic diversity was 0.290. Such high levels of genetic diversity are consistent with its history of multiple introductions over an extended period of time. The average proportions of polymorphic loci and genetic diversity within populations were 55.7% (range = 28.6-85.7%) and 0.213 (range = 0.114-0.317), respectively. The proportion of total genetic diversity found among populations was similar to species with equivalent life history characters (G(ST) = 0.199). No regional patterns of variation were seen. The number of putative genotypes in each population ranged from 2 to 26. Mean genotypic diversity was 0.694, ranging from 0.223 to 0.955. Such high levels of genotypic diversity indicate that local sites are often colonized by several propagules (most likely seeds) and/or that sexual reproduction occurs within populations after establishment. An excess of heterozygosity was observed in populations with few unique genets, implying that selection for highly heterozygous individuals may occur in populations of P. lobata.

  12. Development and validation of an HPLC method for quality control of Pueraria lobata flower.

    PubMed

    Bebrevska, Lidiya; Bravo, Luis; Vandervoort, Jo; Pieters, Luc; Vlietinck, Arnold; Apers, Sandra

    2007-12-01

    Pueraria lobata, also known as Kudzu (Japan) or Ge (China), is a medicinal plant widely used in Oriental traditional medicine. In this study the development, optimization and validation of an HPLC ethod for quality control of Pueraria flower plant material is presented. By means of this analytical method the three major compounds, i. e., the isoflavones tectorigenin 7- O-[beta- D-xylopyranosyl-(1 - 6)-beta- D-glucopyranoside], tectorigenin 7- O-beta- D-glucopyranoside and tectorigenin, were quantified, using the isoflavones genistin and genistein as external standards. The extraction procedure, the extraction solvent, the extraction yields and the HPLC conditions were evaluated and optimized. The samples were analyzed on an RP C18 column, and eluted with a binary system consisting of water and methanol using a linear gradient; detection was at 262 nm. Tectorigenin used in the recovery experiments was isolated and purified in the laboratory. The final method was fully validated according to the ICH guidelines in terms of linearity, precision and accuracy. The validation data showed that the precision, (RSD% (betweendays) of 3.1, 2.84 and 1.77 for the three major compounds, respectively), and the accuracy (recovery of 104.2 %) were acceptable. These validation results demonstrate the suitability of the method for the quality control of this crude drug.

  13. Differentiating Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix using HPTLC coupled with multivariate classification analyses.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka H; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Li, Kong M; Li, George Q; Chan, Kelvin

    2014-07-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix (PLR), the root of Pueraria lobata, is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Puerariae Thomsonii Radix (PTR), the root of Pueraria thomsonii, is a closely related species to PLR and has been used as a PLR substitute in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to compare the classification accuracy of high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with that of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in differentiating PLR from PTR. The Matlab functions were used to facilitate the digitalisation and pre-processing of the HPTLC plates. Seven multivariate classification methods were evaluated for the two chromatographic methods. The results demonstrated that the HPTLC classification models were comparable to the UPLC classification models. In particular, k-nearest neighbours, partial least square-discriminant analysis, principal component analysis-discriminant analysis and support vector machine-discriminant analysis showed the highest rate of correct species classification, whilst the lowest classification rate was obtained from soft independent modelling of class analogy. In conclusion, HPTLC combined with multivariate analysis is a promising technique for the quality control and differentiation of PLR and PTR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Kudzu--Wonder Weed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is a high climbing, exceedingly vigorous vine with twining stems (no tendrils or aerial holdfasts). The plant, introduced from the Orient and currently found in southeastern United States, has been known to choke valuable strands of trees, short electrical wires, and even creep up the sides of high rise buildings. Although…

  15. Kudzu--Wonder Weed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is a high climbing, exceedingly vigorous vine with twining stems (no tendrils or aerial holdfasts). The plant, introduced from the Orient and currently found in southeastern United States, has been known to choke valuable strands of trees, short electrical wires, and even creep up the sides of high rise buildings. Although…

  16. Ovularia puerariae Sawada is the hyphomycetous anamorph of a new Marasmius species on living leaves of kudzu (Pueraria montana, Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Roland; Lee, I-Shu; Chen, Chee-Jen

    2013-01-01

    An arthroconidial hyphomycete on living leaves of kudzu (Pueraria montana, Fabaceae), originally described by Sawada in 1959 as Ovularia puerariae, was rediscovered. This anamorph is connected to an unknown Marasmius teleomorph belonging to section Globulares, which develops on the same living leaves. Ultrastructure and LSU rDNA sequence analysis of the anamorph confirm this connection. The fungus does not have only a unique biology among agarics, comparable only to Mycena citricolor, but also has the potential for application as a control agent of kudzu. During comparison with similar anamorph genera, Illosporium graminicola was found to be a synonym for Beniowskia sphaeroidea.

  17. Transcriptomic landscape of Pueraria lobata demonstrates potential for phytochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rongchun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi has a long and broad application in the treatment of disease. However, in the US and EU, it is treated as a notorious weed. The information to be gained from decoding the deep transcriptome profile would facilitate further research on P. lobata. In this study, more than 93 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina’s next-generation sequencing approach using five types of P. lobata tissue, followed by CLC de novo assembly methods, ultimately yielding about 83,041 contigs in total. Then BLASTx similarity searches against the NCBI NR database and UniProtKB database were conducted. Once the duplicates among BLASTx hits were eliminated, ID mapping against the UniProt database was conducted online to retrieve Gene Ontology information. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential biosynthesis pathways, all 1,348 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Enzymes related to the isoflavonoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were focused for detailed investigation and subsequently, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted for biological validation. Metabolites of interest, puerarin and daidzin were studied by HPLC. The findings in this report may serve as a footstone for further research into this promising medicinal plant. PMID:26157443

  18. Transcriptomic landscape of Pueraria lobata demonstrates potential for phytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Han, Rongchun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi has a long and broad application in the treatment of disease. However, in the US and EU, it is treated as a notorious weed. The information to be gained from decoding the deep transcriptome profile would facilitate further research on P. lobata. In this study, more than 93 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina's next-generation sequencing approach using five types of P. lobata tissue, followed by CLC de novo assembly methods, ultimately yielding about 83,041 contigs in total. Then BLASTx similarity searches against the NCBI NR database and UniProtKB database were conducted. Once the duplicates among BLASTx hits were eliminated, ID mapping against the UniProt database was conducted online to retrieve Gene Ontology information. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential biosynthesis pathways, all 1,348 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Enzymes related to the isoflavonoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were focused for detailed investigation and subsequently, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted for biological validation. Metabolites of interest, puerarin and daidzin were studied by HPLC. The findings in this report may serve as a footstone for further research into this promising medicinal plant.

  19. The biology and preliminary host range of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) and its impact on kudzu growth

    Treesearch

    Yanzhuo Zhang; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2012-01-01

    The bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (F.), recently was discovered in the United States feeding on kudzu, Pueraria montana Lour. (Merr.) variety lobata (Willd.), an economically important invasive vine. We studied its biology on kudzu and its impact on kudzu growth. We also tested its ability to use other common forest legumes for oviposition and development. Flight...

  20. Kudzu Suppression by Herbicides in Two-Year Field trials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Herbicides are currently the principle means of halting the spread of kudzu (Pueraria montana var lobata) and reclaiming kudzu-infested lands. The efficacy of several herbicides on this invasive weed has been well-established, but these chemicals can be prohibitively expensive, come with significan...

  1. [Determination of puerarin, daidzin and daidzein in root of Pueraria lobata of different origin by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Jin, Wen-shan; Tan, Yu-yuan; Chen, You-gen; Wang, Yan

    2003-01-01

    To develop an HPLC method to determine Puerarin, Daidzin and Daidzein in Pueraria lobata. The separation was performed in a SYMMETRY C18 column with a mobile phase of methanol-1% HAC solution (gradient elution), the The detection wavelength being 250 nm. The average recovery was respectively 101.7%, 100.7% and 101.7% (n = 3), RSD 0.43%, 0.82% and 1.50% (n = 3) for Puerarin, Daidzin and Daidzein. This method is suitable for the determination of Puerarin, Daidzin and Daidzein in Pueraria lobata and its preparation.

  2. Characterization of kudzu (Pueraria spp.) resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of soybean rust.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Stephen A; Mailhot, Daniel J; Gevens, Amanda J; Marois, Jim J; Wright, David L; Harmon, Carrie L; Harmon, Philip F

    2010-09-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria spp.) is an accessory host for soybean rust (SBR) (caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi) that is widespread throughout the southeastern United States. An expanded survey of kudzu sites was conducted in 2008 to determine the proportion of natural resistance in the north-Florida kudzu population. Of the 139 sites evaluated, approximately 18% were found to be free of SBR infection, while 23% had reduced sporulation. Ten accessions of kudzu from north-central Florida were characterized for their response to challenge by a single isolate of P. pachyrhizi under laboratory conditions. Three outcomes were observed: tan lesions with profuse sporulation (susceptible); reddish-brown lesions with delayed, reduced sporulation (resistant); and an immune response in which no lesions developed (immune). Of the 10 accessions, 6 were susceptible, 3 were immune, and 1 was resistant. Cytological examination revealed that resistant interactions were typified by early onset of a multicell hypersensitive response (HR) while typical immune interactions were the result of cell wall depositions that blocked penetration in combination with early onset of the HR. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the extent of colonization. After 15 days, there was 10-fold less P. pachyrhizi DNA present in resistant compared with susceptible kudzu, while the amount of P. pachyrhizi DNA present in the immune kudzu was below the detection level. Susceptible kudzu had approximately half the amount of P. pachyrhizi DNA present when compared with a susceptible soybean cultivar.

  3. Comparison of alternative kudzu control measures on a before-tax basis in Mississippi

    Treesearch

    Donald L. Grebner; Andrew W. Ezell; Jon D. Prevost

    2010-01-01

    Kudzu [Pueraria Montana var. lobata (Willd.)] was initially planted in the Southern United States for a variety of uses. Changing land use and homestead abandonment over time has lead to the spread of kudzu across the countryside. The species may now be considered as the original invasive exotic species in the South. Currently, it...

  4. Interaction of the bioherbicide Myrothecium verrucarria and glyphosate for kudzu control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spore and mycelial formulations of the bioherbicidal fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (MV) were tested alone and in combination with glyphosate for control of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) under greenhouse and field conditions in naturally-infested sites at Lexington and Eden, MS. Control of kudzu increased...

  5. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) Invasion Doubles Emissions of Nitric Oxide, a Precursor to Tropospheric Ozone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, J. E.; Wu, S.; Mickley, L. J.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen-fixing plants can increase rates of nitrogen (N) cycling in soils, fluxes of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluxes of the ozone precursor nitric oxide (NO). Invasion by the nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) across millions of hectares in the southeastern United States could be contributing to increased ozone concentrations. Ozone formation in the Southeast is broadly limited by atmospheric NO concentrations, so perturbations to the N cycle by kudzu have the potential to increase ozone concentrations in the region. At three sites in Madison County, Georgia, kudzu invasion increased rates of net N mineralization by up to an order of magnitude and rates of net nitrification and soil pools of NO3- and NO2- by up to 500%. Emissions of NO from soils invaded by kudzu averaged 2.81 ng NO-N cm-2 h-1, significantly higher than emissions from soil dominated by native vegetation, which averaged 1.24 ng NO-N cm-2 h-1. Emissions of N2O display a trend towards increasing under kudzu invasion, but N2O emissions at these sites were three orders of magnitude smaller than emissions of NO. Atmospheric chemical modeling suggests that these higher NO emissions could increase ozone concentrations in the region by up to 2 ppb. We propose that kudzu invasion in the southeastern United States represents a novel threat to air quality and could increase the frequency with which federal ozone standards are exceeded.

  6. Kudzu eradication trials with new herbicides

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1988-01-01

    Two screening studies in Georgia tested new herbicides as potential eradicators of kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi). One study was conducted on a Coastal Plain and the other on a Piedmont site. Tordon 101 was applied as the standard. Those herbicides which are currently labeled for forest land site preparation and which gave control comparable...

  7. Some New Possibilities to Control Kudzu

    Treesearch

    Jerry L. Michael

    1982-01-01

    Six chemicals were tested at random with 3 replications at 3 rates for foliar activity on kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi]. All chemicals gave some degree of control. DPX-6376, XRM-3972 (Lontrel), and Oust(TM) Weed Killer (formerly known as DPX-5648) gave more than 99% topkill for 3 l/2 months. Preliminary results...

  8. Comparing morphological, chemical and anti-diabetic characteristics of Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka H; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Li, Kong M; Li, George Q; Chan, Kelvin

    2015-04-22

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix (PLR) and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix (PTR) are traditional Chinese medicines used for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. These two herbs are used interchangeably in clinical practice, even though they possess significantly different chemical profiles. In the case of Pueraria species, the misidentification is related to the multiple Chinese common names in clinical practice and variable pharmaceutical Latin names in different versions of the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. In addition, there is lack of evidence demonstrating how the differences in the chemical profile would impact on the pharmacological activity of the two herbs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the microscopic, phytochemical profiles and anti-diabetic activity of PLR and PTR so that the two species can be differentiated. The microscopic characteristics of the PLR and PTR were observed and measured by an optical microscope. The major compounds were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) colorimetric assay. The free radical scavenging capacity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assays. Anti-diabetic activity was determined by the inhibition of porcine pancreatic α-amylase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase activities. Microscopic results illustrated that the size of xylem vessels (PLR: 0.1390 ± 0.0184 mm; PTR: 0.0471 ± 0.0109 mm), number of fibre per bundle (PLR: 32.6800 ± 2.8780; PTR: 16.5900 ± 0.9982) and the size of fibre (PLR: 0.0075 ± 0.0003 mm(2); PTR: 0.0025 ± 0.0002 mm(2)) in PLR were significantly greater than that in PTR (p<0.01). PLR possessed a significantly lower total starch content (PLR: 0.5288 ± 1.2559 mg starch/g DM; PTR: 76.7954 ± 2.9905 mg starch/g DM) and total dietary fibre content (PLR: 4.2886 ± 0.3466 g/100g DM; PTR: 12.4148 ± 0.4541 g/100g DM) as compared to PTR. Isoflavonoids including puerarin, daidzin

  9. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract.

  10. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Jonathan E.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Lerdau, Manuel T.

    2010-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a widespread invasive plant in the southeastern United States with physiological traits that may lead to important impacts on ecosystems and the atmosphere. Its spread has the potential to raise ozone levels in the region by increasing nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils as a consequence of increasing nitrogen (N) inputs and cycling in soils. We studied the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia in 2007 and used the results to model the effects of kudzu invasion on regional air quality. We found that rates of net N mineralization increased by up to 1,000%, and net nitrification increased by up to 500% in invaded soils in Georgia. Nitric oxide emissions from invaded soils were more than 100% higher (2.81 vs. 1.24 ng NO-N cm−2 h−1). We used the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate the potential impact of kudzu invasion on regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality. In an extreme scenario, extensive kudzu invasion leads directly to an increase in the number of high ozone events (above 70 ppb) of up to 7 days each summer in some areas, up from 10 to 20 days in a control scenario with no kudzu invasion. These results establish a quantitative link between a biological invasion and ozone formation and suggest that in this extreme scenario, kudzu invasion can overcome some of the air quality benefits of legislative control. PMID:20479252

  11. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Jonathan E; Wu, Shiliang; Mickley, Loretta J; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2010-06-01

    The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a widespread invasive plant in the southeastern United States with physiological traits that may lead to important impacts on ecosystems and the atmosphere. Its spread has the potential to raise ozone levels in the region by increasing nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils as a consequence of increasing nitrogen (N) inputs and cycling in soils. We studied the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia in 2007 and used the results to model the effects of kudzu invasion on regional air quality. We found that rates of net N mineralization increased by up to 1,000%, and net nitrification increased by up to 500% in invaded soils in Georgia. Nitric oxide emissions from invaded soils were more than 100% higher (2.81 vs. 1.24 ng NO-N cm(-2) h(-1)). We used the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate the potential impact of kudzu invasion on regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality. In an extreme scenario, extensive kudzu invasion leads directly to an increase in the number of high ozone events (above 70 ppb) of up to 7 days each summer in some areas, up from 10 to 20 days in a control scenario with no kudzu invasion. These results establish a quantitative link between a biological invasion and ozone formation and suggest that in this extreme scenario, kudzu invasion can overcome some of the air quality benefits of legislative control.

  12. Metabolic differentiations of Pueraria lobata and Pueraria thomsonii using ¹H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Gan; Song, Yue-Lin; Wang, Ying; Yuan, Yun-Fei; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Ye, Wen-Cai; Wang, Yi-Tao; Zhang, Qing-Wen

    2014-05-01

    Puerariae Radix was a widely used herbal medicine. Pueraria lobata (PL) and Pueraria thomsonii (PT) were the two authorized sources of Puerariae Radix (gegen) in China. In this study, metabolic differentiations between these two species were investigated using NMR spectroscopy followed by principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The content of puerarin in PL and PT was also determined using quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Thirteen isoflavones were tentatively identified based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data in two species. The (1)H NMR spectra of PL and PT were obviously different. PL and PT could also be markedly discriminated from (1)H NMR spectroscopic data by PCA and PLS-DA. For the crude drug resources, isoflavones, in which puerarin is the most important one, were regarded as the reasonable markers for the discrimination of the two species. The contents of puerarin and total isoflavones in PL were quantitated much higher than those in PT. Above all, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, which can provide comprehensive profiles of the metabolites and achieve convenient determinations of puerarin and total isoflavones in a single run, is an efficient means for evaluating the medicinal samples and achieving a better quality control of Puerariae Radix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Microscopic anatomy of abnormal structure in root tuber of Pueraria lobata].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hai-yan; Cheng, Ming-en; Peng, Hua-sheng; Zhang, He-ting; Zhao, Yu-jiao

    2015-11-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix, also known as Gegen, is a root derived from Pueraria lobata. Based on field investigation and the developmental anatomy of root tuber, we have elucidated the relationship between the growth of root tuber and the anomalous structure. The results of analysis showed that the root system of P. lobata was developed from seed and adventitious root and there existed root tuber, adventitious root and conductive root according to morphology and function. The root tuber was developed from adventitious root, its secondary structure conformed to the secondary structure of dicotyledon's root. With the development of root, the secondary phloem of root tuber appeared abnormal vascular tissue, which was distributed like ring in the outside of secondary vascular tissue. The root tuber might have 4-6 concentric circular permutation abnormal vascular tissuelobate, and was formed by the internal development of abnormal vascular tissue. The xylem and phloem of abnormal vascular tissue were the main body of the root tuber. The results reveal the abnormal anatomical structure development of P. lobata, also provides the theoretical basis for reasonable harvest medicinal parts and promoting sustainable utilization of resources of P. lobata.

  14. Effect of invader litter chemistries on soil organic matter compositions: consequences of Polygonum cuspidatum and Pueraria lobata invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharayil, N.; Tamura, M.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon fixation during photosynthesis forms the precursor of all organic carbon in soil and the predominant source of energy that drives soil microbial processes; hence the molecular identity of the fixed carbon could influence the formation of soil organic matter (SOM). Due to their high resource acquisition and resource use efficiencies, some invasive plants can input disproportionately high quantities of litter that are qualitatively distinctive, and this could influence the accrual of organic carbon and overall carbon cycling in invaded habitats. Hence, we hypothesized that invasive plants with unique litter chemistries would significantly influence the overall carbon cycling in the invaded soils. We tested this hypothesis by comparing plants exhibiting recalcitrant vs. labile litter chemistries using japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) and kudzu (Pueraria lobata), respectively. Japanese knotweed produces low litter abundant in polyphenols which selectively hinders microbially mediated decomposition and re-synthesis; whereas kudzu produces low C:N, high quality litter that can stimulate microbial decomposition. Soil samples were collected at 5-cm intervals and from inside and outside 15 to 20 year old stands of the invasive species. The novelty of our study was that both of our study species were invading into soils of contrasting substrate qualities relative to the invading litter quality. The molecular composition of carbon in the soils and the degradation stage of the SOM were assessed with a biomarker approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the source of biomolecules (plant or microbes). Stability of SOM fractions was assessed through oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, serving as a proxy of biological degradation, followed by stable isotope analysis. Fungal communities dominated the uppermost soils under knotweed whereas kudzu litter suppressed fungal biomass in the top 10-cm. In constrast, increase in active microbial biomass C

  15. Characterizing Specimens of Kudzu and Related Taxa with RAPD's

    Treesearch

    D.K. Jewett; C.J. Jiang; K.O. Britton; J.H. Sun; J. Tang

    2003-01-01

    Kudzu [Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen and Almeidal is a perennial, semi-woody, climbing legume in the tribe Phaseoleae Benth., subtribe Glycininae Benth. (Maesen 1985, Maesen and Almeida 1988, Ward 1998). It is native to China, where an abundance of natural enemies (Pemberton 1988) and its cultivation...

  16. De novo transcriptome sequencing in Pueraria lobata to identify putative genes involved in isoflavones biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Li, Shutao; Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-05-01

    Using Illumina sequencing technology, we have generated the large-scale transcriptome sequencing data and indentified many putative genes involved in isoflavones biosynthesis in Pueraria lobata. Pueraria lobata, a member of the Leguminosae family, is a traditional Chinese herb which has been used since ancient times. P. lobata root has extensive clinical usages, because it contains a rich source of isoflavones, including daidzin and puerarin. However, the knowledge of isoflavone metabolism and the characterization of corresponding genes in such a pathway remain largely unknown. In this study, de novo transcriptome of P. lobata root and leaf was sequenced using the Solexa sequencing platform. Over 140 million high-quality reads were assembled into 163,625 unigenes, of which about 43.1% were aligned to the Nr protein database. Using the RPKM (reads per kilo bases per million reads) method, 3,148 unigenes were found to be upregulated, and 2,011 genes were downregulated in the leaf as compared to those in the root. Towards a further understanding of these differentially expressed genes, Gene ontology enrichment and metabolic pathway enrichment analyses were performed. Based on these results, 47 novel structural genes were identified in the biosynthesis of isoflavones. Also, 22 putative UDP glycosyltransferases and 45 O-methyltransferases unigenes were identified as the candidates most likely to be involved in the tailoring processes of isoflavonoid downstream pathway. Moreover, MYB transcription factors were analyzed, and 133 of them were found to have higher expression levels in the roots than in the leaves. In conclusion, the de novo transcriptome investigation of these unique transcripts provided an invaluable resource for the global discovery of functional genes related to isoflavones biosynthesis in P. lobata.

  17. Hepatotoxicity of tubers of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa) in rats.

    PubMed

    Santosh, Nagwani; Mohan, Kumar; Royana, Singh; Yamini, Tripathi B

    2010-04-01

    Methanolic extract of tubers of Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) (PTME) has been tested for hepatoxicity in rats. In acute study, PTME (100-400 mg/100 g BW, given orally) showed LD(50) at 227.5 mg. For sub-chronic study, its repeated doses (5-100 mg/100 g BW, for 30 days), significantly increased hepatic enzymes in blood, sinusoidal congestion, disruption of central vein, inflammatory cell infiltration and hepatocellular necrosis in liver in dose dependent manner, with increase in NO, iNOS and ROS levels. In a kinetic study (single dose 227.5 mg/100 g BW), there was sequential decrease in GSH and enhanced NO suggesting free-radical generation as the primary cause of cell damage. It is concluded that the higher dosing of PTME or its continuous use for longer period (even in low doses) is hepatotoxicity by inducing oxidative stress.

  18. Isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata suppress alcohol preference in a pharmacogenetic rat model of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lin, R C; Guthrie, S; Xie, C Y; Mai, K; Lee, D Y; Lumeng, L; Li, T K

    1996-06-01

    The extract from an edible vine, Pueraria lobata, has long been used in China to lessen alcohol intoxication. We have previously shown that daidzin, one of the major components from this plant extract, is efficacious in lowering blood alcohol levels and shortens sleep time induced by alcohol ingestion. This study was conducted to test the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin and two other major isoflavonoids, daidzein and puerarin, from Pueraria lobata administered by the oral route. An alcohol-preferring rat model, the selectively-bred P line of rats, was used for the study. All three isoflavonoid compounds were effective in suppressing voluntary alcohol consumption by the P rats. When given orally to P rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day, daidzein, daidzin, and puerarin decreased ethanol intake by 75%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. The decrease in alcohol consumption was accompanied by an increase in water intake, so that the total fluid volume consumed daily remained unchanged. The effects of these isoflavonoid compounds on alcohol and water intake were reversible. Suppression of alcohol consumption was evident after 1 day of administration and became maximal after 2 days. Similarly, alcohol preference returned to baseline levels 2 days after discontinuation of the isoflavonoids. Rats receiving the herbal extracts ate the same amounts of food as control animals, and they gained weight normally during the experiments. When administered orally, none of these compounds affected the activities of liver alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Therefore, the reversal of alcohol preference produced by these compounds may be mediated via the CNS. Data demonstrate that isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata is effective in suppressing the appetite for alcohol when taken orally, raising the possibility that other constituents of edible plants may exert similar and more potent actions.

  19. Phenolic compounds from Pueraria lobata protect PC12 cells against Aβ-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-hyeok; Hong, Seong Su; Shin, Yu Su; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Park, So-Young; Lee, Dongho

    2010-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc-soluble extract of Pueraria lobata based on the inhibition of Aβ-induced toxicity in PC12 cells resulted in the isolation of four known active compounds, genistein (8), biochanin A (9), sissotrin (10), and puerol B (11). Of these, genistein (8) and biochanin A (9) exhibited potent neuroprotective effects with ED(50) values of 33.7 and 27.8 μM, respectively. In addition, a new coumestan, 2-(α,α-dimethylallyl)coumestrol (1) was isolated and characterized, but proved to be inactive, as were additional seven known compounds. The structure of new compound 1 was determined using spectroscopic techniques.

  20. Extraction technology of isoflavone from Dabie Mountain's Pueraria lobata and determination of its reducing power.

    PubMed

    Renshu, Huang; Huili, He; Jiaojiao, Fang; Yuanjun, Ren

    2014-11-01

    In order to determine the optimum extracting process of the isoflavone from Dabie Mountain's Pueraria lobata and its reducing power, a 5-level, 4-factor Box-Behnken center-united experiment was conducted on the basis of single factor experiment. The Box-Behnken experiment analyzed and optimized the processing conditions by response surface methodology, and determined the reducing power of the Pueraria Isoflavone's extract under the optimum conditions. The results showed that the extraction rate of the Pueraria Isoflavone was 24.87%, of which the relative error was only 0.4% compared with the predicted value of 24.77%, under the optimum conditions of ethanol concentration 7.5%, liquid-to-solid ratio17.50 mL/g, treatment temperature 94.30°C, treatment time 47.36 min. The experiment also concluded that response surface methodology was suitable for the regression analysis of isoflavone's extraction rate and parameter optimization; the reducing power of Pueraria Isoflavone's EC50 value was 0.098 mg/mL.

  1. The Chinese Pueraria root extract (Pueraria lobata) ameliorates impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Prasain, Jeevan K; Peng, Ning; Rajbhandari, Rajani; Wyss, J Michael

    2012-12-15

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic disease is rapidly increasing, but effective therapies for their prevention and treatment have been poorly tolerated or minimally effective. In this study, chronic administration of kudzu root extract (8 months, 0.2%, w/w, in diet) decreased baseline fasting plasma glucose (183±14 vs. 148±11 mg/dl) and improved glucose and insulin tolerance in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice (1.67±0.17 ng/ml [kudzu treated] vs. 2.35±0.63 ng/ml [control]), but such treatment did not alter these parameters in lean control mice. Among the mice on the kudzu supplementation, plasma levels of isoflavone metabolites were significantly higher in ob/ob versus lean control mice, and unmetabolized puerarin (11.50±5.63 ng/g) was found in adipose tissue only in the treated mice. Together, these data demonstrate that a puerarin containing kudzu diet improves glucose and insulin responsiveness in ob/ob mice, suggesting that puerarin may be a beneficial adjuvant for treating metabolic disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. [Simultaneous Determination of Five Active Components in Puerariae Lobatae Radix from Different Habitats by UHPLC].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Guan, Qin-xiao; Lu, Li; Guo, Xian-shuai; Liu, Guo-hong; Wang, Shu-mei

    2015-03-01

    To develop a UHPLC method for determination of 3'-hydroxy puerarin,puerarin, 3'-methoxy puerarin, daid- zin, and daidzein in Puerariae Lobatae Radix from different habitats. The analysis was carried out on an Agela Venusil MP C18 (100 mm x 2. 1 mm, 3 µm) column. The mobile phase was composed of 0. 1% formic acid and methanol with gradient elution. The de- tection wavelength was set at 250 nm. The standard curves of five components showed a good linearity in 12. 41 ~ 248. 24 ng(r =0. 9999), 58. 82 ~ 1 176. 47 ng(r =0. 9997), 12. 65 ~252. 94 ng(r=0. 9999), 12.14 ~ 242.82 ng(r=0. 9998), and 1. 82 ~ 36.30 ng(r =0. 9997), respectively. The average recoveries were 99. 03% ~ 100. 32%, and RSD values were 0. 26% ~ 1. 37%. This method is simple, quick,reproducible and can be used to control the quality of Puerariae Lobatae Radix.

  3. A novel and effective chromatographic approach to the separation of isoflavone derivatives from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiang; Jing, Wenguang; Wang, Weihao; Chen, Sha; Zhang, Jun; Liu, An

    2015-03-05

    A novel and effective chromatographic approach to the separation and purification of isoflavone compounds from Pueraria lobata is described. The method is based on flash chromatography (FC), coupled to preparative high performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) via a six-way valve. The FC step comprised tandem reversed phase columns, pre-packed with MCI gel (Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo, Japan) and C18 (Fuji Silysia Chemical Ltd, Osaka, Japan) resin, respectively, and was designed to separate a crude Pueraria lobata extract into several preliminary fractions. Fractions containing the target compounds were then directly injected via the six-way valve into prep-HPLC columns, without further treatment, for final isolation and purification. Nine isoflavonoids were successfully isolated, three through an online mode and the other six through an offline mode. The purities of all compounds exceeded 95.0%, as determined by HPLC with an UV-vis photodiode array detector. The convenience, low solvent consumption, and time-saving advantages of this method offer an attractive and promising approach to the isolation of natural products.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of total isoflavones from Pueraria lobata on cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Lee, Changho; Kim, In-Ho; Kim, Yun Tai

    2013-08-28

    Puerariae radix, the dried root of Pueraria lobata Ohwi, is one of earliest and most important edible crude herbs used for various medical purposes in Oriental medicine. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of Total Isoflavones from P. lobata (TIPL), which contains the unique isoflavone puerarin, in ischemia in vivo models. Oral administration of TIPL (100 mg/kg) reduced the brain infarct volume and attenuated ischemia-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) up-regulation at 2 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in rats. Moreover, TIPL reduced activation of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and CD11b antibody (OX-42) at 7 days after MCAo in hippocampal CA1 region. These results show that TIPL can protect the brain from ischemic damage after MCAo. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effects of TIPL may be attributable to its anti-inflammatory properties by the inhibition of COX-2 expression, astrocyte expression, and microglia.

  5. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M.; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R. R. B.; Rawat, A. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods. PMID:23690842

  6. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B; Rawat, A K S

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods.

  7. Acute interstitial nephritis following kudzu root juice ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Myun; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Dong Cheol; Jeon, Jin Seok; Jin, So Young

    2013-10-01

    Recently, the use of herbal remedies and complementary and alternative medicine has increased globally. Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) is a plant commonly used in traditional medicine to promote health. A middle-aged woman consumed kudzu root juice to promote health and well-being for 10 days. Subsequently, she developed anorexia, epigastric discomfort and azotemia. These symptoms improved rapidly within several days after discontinuation of the suspected offending agent and conservative treatment. Acute interstitial nephritis was diagnosed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing acute interstitial nephritis following the ingestion of kudzu root juice.

  8. Pine Regeneration with Simultaneous Control of Kudzu

    Treesearch

    Jerry L. Michael

    1986-01-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd.)Ohwi) growing on clay, clay loam, and sandy loam soils in cm and north Alabama was treated in a randomized design on each soil type with three replications using three application rates of Arsenal@ (imazapyr at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 lb se/a), a single rate of Tordone 101 [1.35 lb ae/a picloram plus 5 lb se/a 2,4-...

  9. Kudzu eradication trials testing fifteen herbicides

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1986-01-01

    Two studies examined herbicide treatments for controlling kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi]. In one study, fifteen herbicides were tested at 1 or 2 rates at 5 locations. Treatments and re-treatments occurred over a 2-yr period. The most effective herbicides were picloram pellets (4.7 and 5.8 lb ai/a), tebuthiuron pellets (6 lb ai/a), and picloram...

  10. Off-Site Movement of Picloram From A Coastal Plain Kudzu Site

    Treesearch

    Jerry L. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-picolinic acid) was aerially applied to a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris L.) site in the upper coastal plain of Alabama to control kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi). Granules (10% ai [active ingredient]) were spread at a rate of 56 kg/ha to sandy loam Typic Paleudult soils. Movement was...

  11. Rapid kudzu eradication and switchgrass establishment though herbicide, bioherbicide and integrated programs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Among the most important and visible weeds in the Southeatern U.S. is the exotic invasive vine, kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata). Efforts to eradicate it typically involve many years of application of restricted-use pesticides. Recent availability of effective, non-restricted use pesticides and...

  12. Comparative susceptibility of kudzu accessions from Southeastern United States to infection by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first discovered in the United States (U.S.), in the fall of 2004. The potential for economic loss in the U.S. hinges largely on whether or not the pathogen can readily survive winters in the absence of soybean. Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata...

  13. Constituents of the roots of Pueraria lobata inhibit formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Yun Mi; Lee, Ga Young; Jang, Dae Sik; Bae, Ki Hwan; Kim, Jin Sook

    2006-10-01

    Two isoflavone C-glucosides, puerarin (1) and PG-3 (2), a but-2-enolide, (+/-)-puerol B (3), two isoflavone O-glucosides, daidzin (4) and genistin (5), and three pterocarpans, (-)-medicarpin (6), (-)-glycinol (7) and (-)-tuberosin (8), were isolated from a MeOH extract of the roots of Pueraria lobata, using an in vitro bioassay based on the inhibition of the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) to monitor chromatographic fractionation. The structures of 1-8 were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation, particularly by 1D- and 2D-NMR studies, and by comparison of these data with values in the literature. All of the isolates (1-8) were evaluated for their inhibitory activity on AGEs formation in vitro. Of these, puerarin (1), PG-3 (2), and (+/-)-puerol B (3) exhibited more potent inhibitory activity than the positive control aminoguanidine.

  14. Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and methotrexate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, H.-M.; Fang, S.-H.; Wen, K.-C.; Hsiu, S.-L.; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Hou, Y.-C.; Chi, Y.-C.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn . E-mail: pdlee@mail.cmu.edu.tw

    2005-12-15

    Isoflavone supplements are nowadays widely used as alternative for hormone replacement therapy. However, the safety remains unanswered. This study attempted to investigate the effect of Pueraria lobata root decoction (PLRD), an isoflavone-rich herb, on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX), a bicarboxylate antimetabolite with narrow therapeutic window. Rats were orally and intravenously given methotrexate alone and coadministered with PLRD. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time points after drug administration. Serum methotrexate concentrations were assayed by specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartment model of WINNONLIN for both oral and intravenous data of MTX. Our results showed that coadministration of 4.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg of PLRD significantly increased the AUC{sub 0-t} by 207.8% and 127.9%, prolonged the mean residence time (MRT) by 237.8 and 155.2%, respectively, finally resulted in surprisingly high mortalities of 57.1% and 14.3% in rats. When MTX was given intravenously, the coadministration of PLRD at 4.0 g/kg significantly increased the half-life by 53.9% and decreased the clearance by 47.9%. In conclusion, the coadministration of PLRD significantly decreased the elimination and resulted in markedly increased exposure of MTX in rats.

  15. Constituents with potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity from Pueraria lobata (Willd.) ohwi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ling; Jiao, Fu-Rong; Yu, Meng; Lin, Li-Bin; Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Le; Duan, Dong-Zhu; Xie, Gang

    2017-05-01

    One new flavone hydrate named lobatflavate (1), one new chromone named lobatchrosin (2), and one new isoflavone named 3S,4R-tuberosin (3), along with four known isoflavone analogues (4-7), were isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) ohwi. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods of IR, UV, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR. The absolute configuration of 3 was determined by CD spectrum associated with TD-DFT calculation analysis. All compounds except for 2 were assayed the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. Every tested compound was proved to be more active than positive control of acarbose. Of which 1 and 4 showed significant activity with IC50 value of 1.79μM and 23.01μM (IC50 of acarbose was 1998.79μM). Enzyme kinetic experiments revealed that 1 was irreversible whereas 4 was reversible and non-competitive α-glucosidase inhibitors. Moreover, structure-activity relationship was discussed and the docking studies of 1, 3 and 4 were also carried out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) community responses to herbicides, burning, and high-density loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect

    T.B. Harrington; L.T. Rader-Dixon; J.W. Taylor, Jr.

    2003-11-01

    Kudzu is an aggressive, nonnative vine that currently dominates an estimated 810,000 ha of mesic forest communities in the eastern United States. To test an integrated method of weed control, abundances of kudzu and other plant species were compared during 4 yr after six herbicide treatments (clopyralid, triclopyr, metsulfuron, picloram 1 2,4-D, tebuthiuron, and a nonsprayed check), in which loblolly pines were planted at three densities (0, 1, and 4 seedlings m22) to induce competition and potentially delay kudzu recovery. This split-plot design was replicated on each of the four kudzu-dominated sites near Aiken, SC. Relative light intensity (RLI) and soil water content (SWC) were measured periodically to identify mechanisms of interference among plant species. Two years after treatment (1999), crown coverage of kudzu averaged , 2% in herbicide plots compared with 93% in the nonsprayed check, and these differences were maintained through 2001, except in clopyralid plots where kudzu cover increased to 15%. In 2001, pine interference was associated with 33, 56, and 67% reductions in biomass of kudzu, blackberry, and herbaceous vegetation, respectively. RLI in kudzu-dominated plots (4 to 15% of full sun) generally was less than half that of herbicide-treated plots. SWC was greatest in tebuthiuron plots, where total vegetation cover averaged 26% compared with 77 to 111% in other plots. None of the treatments eradicated kudzu, but combinations of herbicides and induced pine competition delayed its recovery.

  17. Simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Cheng, Ling; Ji, Shen; Wang, Ke

    2014-09-01

    This work reported an efficient and accurate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins in Puerariae lobatae radix, a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The effects of four different clean-up methods, including TC-M160, TC-T220, Mycosep 227, and QuEChERS method, on the recoveries of mycotoxins were investigated and compared. Finally, TC-M160 was chosen for better recovery and repeatability for mycotoxins analysis. The analytes were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C18 column (4.6mm×250mm, 5μm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The separated compounds were detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results of method validation accorded with the requirement of analytical method for mycotoxins in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 401/2006. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of mycotoxins in seventeen batches of Puerariae lobatae radix collected from different provinces of China. Three batches of them were found with contamination of mycotoxins AFB1 at (0.751±0.176)μg/kg, T-2 at (1.10±0.01)μg/kg, and T-2 at (0.853±0.044)μg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for monitoring mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix.

  18. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel Isoflavone 3′-O-methyltransferase from Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate 3′-, 4′- and 7-O-methylated isoflavones and many of these methylated compounds exhibit various pharmacological activities. Either the 4′- or 7-O-methylation activity has been investigated at molecular levels in several legume species. However, the gene encoding the isoflavone 3′-O-methyltransferase (OMT) has not yet been isolated from any plant species. In this study, we reported the first cDNA encoding the isoflavone 3′-OMT from P. lobata (designated PlOMT4). Heterologous expressions in yeast and Escherichia coli cells showed that the gene product exhibits an enzyme activity to methylate the 3′-hydroxy group of the isoflavone substrate. The transcript abundance of PlOMT4 matches well with its enzymatic product in different organs of P. lobata and in the plant roots in response to methyl jasmonate elicitation. Integration of the biochemical with metabolic and transcript data supported the proposed function of PlOMT4. The identification of PlOMT4 would not only help to understand the isoflavonoid metabolism in P. lobata but also potentially provide an enzyme catalyst for methylating existing drug candidates to improve their hydrophobicity. PMID:27458460

  19. Rapid simultaneous determination of major isoflavones of Pueraria lobata and discriminative analysis of its geographical origins by principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chenxi; Chan, Hoi-yan; Yuan, Dalin; Liang, Yizeng; Lau, Tsui-yan; Chau, Foo-Tim

    2011-01-01

    Isoflavones are main bioactive components of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi. Puerarin has been used as the marker compound in herb quality evaluation in the Chinese Pharmacopoiea. However, it is also important to include the other isoflavones present in the herb, such as daidzin, daidzein, genistin and genistein, in the evaluation as they also contribute to the overall bioactivity of the herb. To develop a rapid and reliable method for simultaneous quantitation of isoflavones for P. lobata herb quality evluation. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent rapid resolution liquid chromatographic system through gradient elution. The developed method for the quantification of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein, genistin and genistein was fully validated. When it was applied to analyse the extracts of P. lobata, baseline separation was obtained within 10 min. The amounts of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein and genistin varied greatly among the samples although their chromatographic fingerprints were similar to each other. The 19 samples studied were classified into three clusters (I-III) by principal component analysis based on the amounts of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein and genistin. The classification result can be related to herbal origins, but the classification outcome from the chromatographic fingerprinting similarity approach did not provide any geographical origin information. This shows that bioactive constituents can reflect the intrinsic quality of P. lobata more accurately. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) community responses to herbicides, burning, and high-density loblolly pine.

    Treesearch

    Timothy B. Harrington; Laura T. Rader-Dixon; John W. Jr. Taylor

    2003-01-01

    Kudzu is an aggressive, nonnative vine that currently dominates an estimated 810,000 ha of mesic forest communities in the eastern United States. To test an integrated method of weed control, abundances of kudzu and other plant species were compared during 4 yr after six herbicide treatments (clopyralid, triclopyr, metsulfuron, picloram 1 2,4-D, tebuthiuron, and a...

  1. In vivo antioxidative activity of a quantified Pueraria lobata root extract.

    PubMed

    Bebrevska, Lidiya; Foubert, Kenne; Hermans, Nina; Chatterjee, Shyama; Van Marck, Eric; De Meyer, Guido; Vlietinck, Arnold; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2010-01-08

    Oxidative stress has been associated with many pathological disorders such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and cancer. Supplementation with exogenous antioxidants, including phenolic compounds from plant sources, may help to restore the pro-oxidative/antioxidative balance. To take into account effects of absorption, metabolisation, plasma protein binding, distribution, and elimination, antioxidative research should not be limited to in vitro assays but be extended to in vivo models. In the present work a quantified 50% EtOH root extract of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi (Fabaceae) was selected to determine its in vivo antioxidative activity in a diabetic rat model, where diabetes and the accompanying oxidative stress were induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin. This root extract was found to contain 10.42+/-0.15% puerarin as the main constituent and smaller amounts of the related isoflavonoids 3'-hydroxypuerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, 6''-xylosylpuerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein and genistein, as determined by a validated HPLC method. This extract was administered orally at a daily dose of 500 mg/kg root extract, corresponding to 50mg/kg puerarin, during 3 weeks. In addition the effect on the plasma concentration of some fat-soluble antioxidants (co-enzyme Q(9), alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) was evaluated. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma, used as a marker of oxidative damage to lipids, was reduced to the same level as in healthy control animals, and as in the positive control group treated daily with 50mg/kg alpha-tocopherol acetate. No obvious signs of toxicity were observed by administration of 10x the treatment dose. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Pueraria lobata with hormone replacement therapy in treating the adverse health consequences of menopause.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jean; Lau, Edith; Ho, Suzanne C; Cheng, Francis; Chan, Cynthia; Chan, Agnes S Y; Haines, Christopher J; Chan, Thomas Y K; Li, Martin; Sham, Aprille

    2003-01-01

    Pueraria lobata (PL) is used as a traditional Chinese herbal remedy for menopausal symptoms, as well as an ingredient in preparations for conditions affecting menopausal women, such as osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, and some hormone-dependent cancers. The scientific basis for its action may be its action as a phytoestrogen. To examine the effects of PL in comparison with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on lipid profile, sex hormone levels, bone turnover markers, and indices of cognitive function. For the study, 127 community-living, postmenopausal women aged 50 to 65 years were randomized to receive HRT (n = 43), PL (equivalent to 100 mg isoflavone; n = 45), or no treatment (n = 39) for 3 months. The following measurements were carried out at baseline and after 3 months for all participants: menopausal symptoms questionnaire; neuropsychological tests covering memory, attention, motor speed, and word-finding ability; quality of life (SF36); lipid profile; urinary deoxypyridinoline; dietary phytoestrogen intake and urinary phytoestrogen; estradiol; follicle-stimulating hormone; and luteinizing hormone. Only participants in the HRT group showed a mean reduction in cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol that was significantly different from that of the control group. No significant changes in lipid profile or follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were observed in the PL group compared with the controls. However, both the HRT and PL groups showed an improvement in Mini-Mental State Examination score and attention span compared with the case of participants receiving no treatment. HRT and PL had different effects on cognitive function; HRT improved delayed recall, whereas flexible thinking seemed improved in the PL group. This study was unable to demonstrate a scientific basis for the use of PL for improving the health of postmenopausal women in general. However, the effect of PL on cognitive function deserves further study.

  3. Quantitative analysis of two isoflavones in Pueraria lobata flowers from eleven Chinese provinces using high performance liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pueraria lobata flower (Gehua) is a medicinal herb to treat intoxication, hepatic and gastrointestinal tract lesion induced by alcohol. This study aims to develop a new HPLC method for the determination of two major isoflavones in P. lobata flowers, namely tectoridin and 6"-O-xylosyl-tectoridin. Methods A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was developed for the quantitative analysis of tectoridin and 6"-O-xylosyl-tectoridin, the main isoflavone components in P. lobata flower. A simple gradient of acetonitrile/water (0 min 15:85; 35 min 50:50; 36 min 15:85; 40 min 15:85; v/v) was used, and 265 nm was selected as detection wavelength. Tectoridin and 6"-O-xylosyl-tectoridin were used as the external standards in quality control of P. lobata flower for the first time. The method was applied to practical use in quality assessment of eleven batches of P. lobata flower samples in Chinese herbal medicine market. Results The peak area response was linear for tectoridin in the 11.8-236.4 μg/mL range with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996 (P < 0.001), and for 6"-O-xylosyl-tectoridin in the 10.33-185.99 μg/mL range with a correlation coefficient of 0.9984 (P < 0.001) respectively. The average recoveries were 102.7-103.7% for tectoridin and 95.7-103.2% for 6"-O-xylosyl-tectoridin (RSDs < 3%), and the intra-day and inter-day RSDs of the two components were less than 2%. This HPLC method was applied to assess the quality of P. lobata flower from eleven provinces in China. P. lobata flowers from northern China contained 26.46-43.28 mg/g of tectoridin and 30.90-48.23 mg/g of 6"-O-xylosyl-tectoridin comparing to 10.00-19.81 mg/g of tectoridin and 11.08-37.03 mg/g of 6"-O-xylosyl-tectoridin in those from southern China. Conclusion The results showed that P. lobata flowers from northern China contained more tectoridin and 6"-O-xylosyl-tectoridin than those from southern China. PMID:20416072

  4. Regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana (kudzu) by cork pieces, XAD-4, and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Chang, Soo Chul; Warber, Sara; Bolling, Steven; Vardapetyan, Hrachik

    2006-12-01

    A mini-hydroponic growing system was employed for seedlings of kudzu vine (Pueraria montana) and contents of isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, daidzin, genistin, and puerarin) from shoot and root parts of seedlings were analyzed quantitatively. In addition, exogenous cork pieces, polymeric adsorbent, XAD-4, and universal elicitor, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), were used to regulate the production of these isoflavones. It was shown that cork pieces up-regulate the production of daidzein and genistein up to seven- and eight-fold greater than the levels obtained for control roots. In contrast, levels of glucosyl conjugates, daidzin and genistin, decrease up to five- and eight-fold, respectively. Cork treatment also induces the excretion of the root isoflavone constituents into the growth medium. Minimal levels of isoflavones are absorbed by the cork pieces. XAD-4 stimulates the production of glucosyl conjugates, daidzin and genistin, in root parts about 1.5-fold greater than that obtained in control roots. These are the highest amounts of daidzin and genistin that are observed (5.101 and 6.759 mg g(-1) dry weight, respectively). In contrast to these two adsorbents, MeJA increases the accumulation of isoflavones in shoot rather than in root parts of seedlings, about three- to four-fold over control levels, with the exception of genistein. These studies reveal new observations on the regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana plants by two adsorbents (cork pieces and XAD-4) and MeJA elicitor.

  5. Leaching and persistence of herbicides for kudzu (Pueraria montana) control on pine regeneration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Berisford, Yvette, C.; Bush, Parshall, B.; Taylor, John, W.

    2006-03-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens forests in the southeastern United States. It can climb, overtop, and subsequently kill new seedlings or mature trees. Herbicides are commonly used to control kudzu; however, eradication might require retreatment for 3 to 10 yr in young stands and 7 to 10 yr for mature stands. Clopyralid, picloram, triclopyr, metsulfuron, and tebuthiuron exert various degrees of control, depending on soil type, meteorological conditions, herbicide formulation, seasonal application, characteristics of the kudzu stand, and frequency and number of herbicide. Field residue data for soil or leachate are lacking for all of these herbicides when they are used in actual forest regeneration programs in the Coastal Plain. These data are needed to assess the relative potential for the herbicides to leach into groundwater or to move off-site into sensitive ecological areas of the Coastal Plain in which sandy soils predominate and the groundwater tends to be shallow. As part of an integrated pest management program to control kudzu on forest regeneration areas at the Savannah River Site near New Ellenton, SC, five herbicides were evaluated from the standpoints of herbicide leaching, kudzu control, and plant community development. Three herbicide chemical families were represented. This included pyridinecarboxylic acid herbicides (clopyralid, picloram 1 2,4-D, and triclopyr), a sulfonylurea herbicide (metsulfuron), and a substituted urea herbicide (tebuthiuron).

  6. Inhibition of aldose reductase and xylose-induced lens opacity by puerariafuran from the roots of Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nan Hee; Kim, Young Sook; Lee, Yun Mi; Jang, Dae Sik; Kim, Jin Sook

    2010-01-01

    High sugar levels found in diabetic cataract cause the opacification of lenses by osmotic changes induced via the aldose reductase (AR)-mediated polyol pathway. In this study, puerariafuran, a 2-arylbenzofuran from Pueraria lobata, investigated the inhibitory effects upon AR, antioxidant contents and enzyme activities in the lens. The effect of puerariafuran on xylose-induced lens opacity was also examined. Puerariafuran showed potential inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 22.34 microM against rat lens AR. The xylose-induced opacity of lenses was significantly improved when treated with puerariafuran. Xylose exposure of rat lenses significantly decreased the reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity and treatment with puerariafuran significantly increased these factors. These results suggest that puerariafuran may provide a potential therapeutic approach for prevention of diabetic complications, such as cataracts.

  7. Invasive Species Biology, Control, and Research. Part 1: Kudzu (Pueraria montana)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    3 Reproduction ...overtop trees and surrounding vegetation. Reproduction Kudzu reportedly reproduces readily through vegetative spread (Foresth and Innis 2004...Vegetative reproduction occurs when stems come into contact with the ground, roots will develop at stem nodes. When plants senesce or stems are broken due

  8. Tectoridin, an isoflavone glycoside from the flower of Pueraria lobata, prevents acute ethanol-induced liver steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yu; Yang, Yuqing; Yang, Jin; Chai, Hongyan; Li, Ying; Yang, Jing; Jia, Ziming; Wang, Zhengrong

    2010-09-30

    In traditional Chinese medicine, the flower of Pueraria lobata (Puerariae Flos) has been used in therapy to counteract the problems associated with alcohol drinking and liver injury. In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects and its mechanisms of tectoridin, an isoflavone glycoside from the flower of P. lobata (Willd.) Ohwi. Ethanol (5g/kg) was given orally every 12h for a total of three doses. 1h after the last dose of ethanol, tectoridin (25, 50 and 100mg/kg) was given intragastrically five times in three consecutive days. The mice were sacrificed at 4h after tectoridin treatment. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and their target genes were evaluated by biochemical analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mitochondria were isolated for the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) assay. Acute ethanol exposure resulted in the significant increase of the alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and triglyceride (TG) levels and hepatic mitochondria dysfunction shown as the increase of MPT and the decrease of DeltaPsi(m). However, tectoridin treatment dramatically attenuated these effects. In addition, tectoridin remarkably alleviated the over-production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance. Furthermore, tectoridin inhibited the decrease of PPARalpha expression and its target genes, including medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) and cytochrome P450 4A (CYP 4A) at mRNA and enzyme activity levels. These data showed that tectoridin protected against ethanol-induced liver steatosis mainly through modulating the disturbance of PPARalpha pathway and ameliorating mitochondrial function. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Simultaneous determination of tectorigenin-7-O-xylosylglucosid, tectoridin and tectorigenin in flowers of Pueraria lobata by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihui; Li, Weimin; Gao, Ying

    2010-09-01

    To develop a HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of tectorigenin-7-O-xylosylglucosid, tectoridin and tectorigenin in flowers of Pueraria lobata. The separation was performed on a Kromasil C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm), using a gradient elution with acetonitrile-water containing 0.2% phosphoric acid as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), the detection wavelength was 265 nm and the temperature of column was 35 degrees C. The linear ranges of tectorigenin-7-O-xylosylglucosid, tectoridin and tectorigenin were 0.14-1.40 (r = 0.9994), 0.20-2.02 (r = 0.9993), and 0. 10-1.04 (r = 0.9991) , respectively. The average recoveries (n=6) of the three constituents were 99.5% (RSD 1.8%), 99.6% (RSD 1.7%), and 99.8% (RSD 1.9%), respectively. The method is simple and accurate with a good eata and can be used as a quality control method for flowers of P. lobata of different sources.

  10. Effect of Pueraria tuberosa DC. (Indian Kudzu) on blood pressure, fibrinolysis and oxidative stress in patients with stage 1 hypertension.

    PubMed

    Verma, S K; Jain, Vartika; Singh, D P

    2012-08-01

    The Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa DC.) is an important medicinal plant widely used in Indian and Chinese traditional systems of medicine. The present study is an attempt to evaluate effect of its tubers on blood pressure, coagulation parameters and antioxidant status in patients with stage 1 (primary) hypertension. In a long-term, single blinded, placebo controlled study; 15 patients with stage 1 hypertension (group 1), were administered 3 g P. tuberosa in two divided doses while another 15 patients (group II) were administered matched placebo for a period of twelve weeks. A significant fall of 25, 11 and 16 mmHg was observed in systolic (p < 0.001), diastolic (p < 0.05) and mean (p < 0.001) blood pressure, respectively at the end of the study. Along with blood pressure reduction, there was a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in plasma fibrinogen and significant enhancement of plasma fibrinolytic activity (p < 0.001) and serum total antioxidant status (p < 0.05). It was tolerated well without any untoward side effects.

  11. Water extract of Pueraria lobata Ohwi has anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzeng-Jih; Yeh, Chia-Feng; Wang, Kuo-Chih; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Chang, Jung-San

    2013-12-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) infects all age groups and causes bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome with a significant mortality rate. To date, only ribavirin has been used to manage HRSV infection. However, ribavirin is expensive with an only modest effect. Furthermore, ribavirin has several side effects, which means it has limited clinical benefit. Pueraria lobata Ohwi (P. lobata) is a common ingredient of Ge-Gen-Tang (Kakkon-to) and Sheng-Ma-Ge-Gen-Tang (Shoma-kakkon-to), which are prescriptions of Chinese traditional medicine proven to have antiviral activity against HRSV. Therefore, it was hypothesized that P. lobata might be effective against HRSV. To find a cost-effective therapeutic modality, both human upper (HEp-2) and lower (A549) respiratory tract cell lines were used to test the hypothesis that P. lobata could inhibit HRSV-induced plaque formation. Results showed that the water extract of P. lobata was effective (p < 0.0001) against HRSV-induced plaque formation. P. lobata was more effective when given prior to viral inoculation (p < 0.0001) by inhibiting viral attachment (p < 0.0001) and penetration (p < 0.0001). However, supplementation with P. lobata could not stimulate interferon secretion after HRSV infection. In conclusion, P. lobata has antiviral activity against HRSV-induced plaque formation in airway mucosa mainly by inhibiting viral attachment and internalization. Further identification of effective constituents could contribute to the prevention of HRSV infection.

  12. Isolation and characterization of nonrhizobial plant growth promoting bacteria from nodules of Kudzu (Pueraria thunbergiana) and their effect on wheat seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, G; Kundu, S; Gupta, Anand D; Shouche, Yogesh S; Gupta, Hari S

    2008-02-01

    The leguminous vine Kudzu (Pueraria thunbergiana) is an introduction into the N. W. Himalayan region of India. Despite its value as a fodder and cover crop, little is known about the nature of the nodule microflora. In an attempt to study the nodule bacteria, we isolated and characterized three nonrhizobial plant growth promoting bacteria from surface sterilized nodules of Kudzu. Based on the sequencing of the 16 S r RNA gene, the isolates were designated as Bacillus thuringiensis KR-1, Enterobacter asburiae KR-3, and Serratia marcescens KR-4. Crystalline bodies were detected in the isolate KR-1, confirming its identity as B. thuringiensis. Under in vitro conditions, all three isolates were found to produce indole acetic acid. Other plant growth promotion attributes such as P solubilization, hydrogen cyanide production, and ammonia production varied among the isolates. All of the three isolates promoted growth and positively influenced nutrient uptake parameters of wheat seedlings.

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Pueraria lobata Extract in Gray Hair Prevention: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Na, Sun Jae; Jin, Yingji; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Su Na

    2013-01-01

    Background Graying of hair-a sign of aging-raises cosmetic concerns. Individuals with gray hair often look older than others their age; therefore, some dye their hair for aesthetic purposes. However, hair colorants can induce many problems including skin irritation, allergic reaction and hair-breakage. Objective This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in order to examine the effects of APHG-1001, a compound including an extract from Pueraria lobata, on graying hair. Methods A total of 44 female subjects were randomly treated with either APHG-1001 or placebo twice daily for 24 weeks. Using the phototrichogram analysis, a count of newly developed gray hair was estimated. Investigator assessment and subject self-assessment were also performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the compound. Results The mean number of newly developed gray hair at 24 weeks was 6.3/cm2 in the APHG-1001 group and 11.4/cm2 in the placebo group; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). However, the investigator assessment and subject self-assessment did not show any significant change in the gross appearance of hair grayness by the end of the study. No severe adverse events in either group were observed. Moreover, the incidence of adverse events did not differ between the groups. Conclusion This clinical trial revealed that APHG-1001, which contains an extract of P. lobata, could prevent the development of new gray hair without any remarkable adverse effects. Thus, it can be considered as a viable treatment option for the prevention of gray hair. PMID:23717015

  14. Red-purple flower color and delphinidin-type pigments in the flowers of Pueraria lobata (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Tanikawa, Natsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2017-05-01

    A previously undescribed acylated anthocyanin was extracted from the red-purple flowers of Pueraria lobata with 5% HOAc-H2O, and determined to be petunidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside], by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, two known acylated anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] and malvidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] were identified. Delphinidin 3,5-di-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-glucoside, and malvidin 3,5-di-glucoside, have been known as major components of P. lobata in the former study. However, malonyl esters amounts were detected over 10 times compared with non-malonyl esters amounts. In those anthocyanins the most abundant anthocyanin was petunidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] in total flowers. On the visible absorption spectral curve of fresh red-purple petals, one characteristic absorption maximum was observed at 520 nm, which is similar to those of flowers containing pelargonidin derivatives. In contrast, the absorption spectral curve of old violet petals was observed at 500(sh), 536, 564(sh), and 613(sh) nm, which are similar to those of violet flowers containing delphinidin-type pigments. Pressed juices of both fresh red-purple petals and old violet petals had pH5.2 and 5.5 respectively, and had the same flavonoid constitution. Crude fresh red-purple petal pigments extracted by pH 2.2 and pH 5.2 buffers exhibited the same color and spectral curves as fresh red-purple petals and old violet petals, respectively. Moreover, in a cross-TLC experiment of crude extracted pigments, red-purple color was exhibited by the anthocyanin region and the crossed region of anthocyanins and isoflavone. Thus, it may be assumed that the unusually low pH in the vacuole of fresh petals plays an important role to form red-purple flower color against weak acidic pH in the vacuole of old violet P. lobata

  15. An overexpression of chalcone reductase of Pueraria montana var. lobata alters biosynthesis of anthocyanin and 5'-deoxyflavonoids in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Joung, Jae-youl; Kasthuri, G Mangai; Park, Ji-young; Kang, Won-jin; Kim, Hyun-soon; Yoon, Bong-sik; Joung, Hyouk; Jeon, Jae-heung

    2003-03-28

    We isolated the chalcone reductase (pl-chr) gene of Pueraria montana var. lobata by using a PCR strategy from cDNA pools of storage roots. A high level of expression of RNA was found in both stems and roots. The genomic Southern blot result suggests that pl-chr exists as a member of a small gene family. By introducing a pl-chr gene under the control of the 35S CaMV promoter into the pink-flowering Xanthi line of Nicotiana tabacum, the flower color was changed from pink to white-to-pink. The contents of anthocyanin in the flowers of the transgenic lines were dramatically decreased by 40%, but the total UV absorption compounds remained unchanged. The production of liquiritigenin in pl-chr overexpressed transgenic tobacco lines was confirmed by HPLC and MS analysis. The introduction of pl-chr gene provides a method to redirect the flavonoid pathway into 5'-deoxyflavonoid production in non-legume crops, in order to manipulate the phenylpropanoid pathway for isoflavonoid production.

  16. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel (Iso)flavone 4',7-O-diglucoside Glucosyltransferase from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate a rich source of isoflavonoid glycosides, including 7-O- and 4'-O-mono-glucosides, and 4',7-O-diglucosides, which have numerous human health benefits. Although, isoflavonoid 7-O-glucosyltranferases (7-O-UGTs) have been well-characterized at molecular levels in legume plants, genes, or enzymes that are required for isoflavonoid 4'-O- and 4',7-O-glucosylation have not been identified in P. lobata to date. Especially for the 4',7-O-di-glucosylations, the genetic control for this tailing process has never been elucidated from any plant species. Through transcriptome mining, we describe here the identification and characterization of a novel UGT (designated PlUGT2) governing the isoflavonoid 4',7-O-di-glucosylations in P. lobata. Biochemical roles of PlUGT2 were assessed by in vitro assays with PlUGT2 protein produced in Escherichia coli and analyzed for its qualitative substrate specificity. PlUGT2 was active with various (iso)flavonoid acceptors, catalyzing consecutive glucosylation activities at their O-4' and O-7 positions. PlUGT2 was most active with genistein, a general isoflavone in legume plants. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PlUGT2 is preferentially transcribed in roots relative to other organs of P. lobata, which is coincident with the accumulation pattern of 4'-O-glucosides and 4',7-O-diglucosides in P. lobata. The identification of PlUGT2 would help to decipher the P. lobata isoflavonoid glucosylations in vivo and may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for an efficient biotransformation of isoflavones or other natural products for food or pharmacological purposes.

  17. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel (Iso)flavone 4′,7-O-diglucoside Glucosyltransferase from Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate a rich source of isoflavonoid glycosides, including 7-O- and 4′-O-mono-glucosides, and 4′,7-O-diglucosides, which have numerous human health benefits. Although, isoflavonoid 7-O-glucosyltranferases (7-O-UGTs) have been well-characterized at molecular levels in legume plants, genes, or enzymes that are required for isoflavonoid 4′-O- and 4′,7-O-glucosylation have not been identified in P. lobata to date. Especially for the 4′,7-O-di-glucosylations, the genetic control for this tailing process has never been elucidated from any plant species. Through transcriptome mining, we describe here the identification and characterization of a novel UGT (designated PlUGT2) governing the isoflavonoid 4′,7-O-di-glucosylations in P. lobata. Biochemical roles of PlUGT2 were assessed by in vitro assays with PlUGT2 protein produced in Escherichia coli and analyzed for its qualitative substrate specificity. PlUGT2 was active with various (iso)flavonoid acceptors, catalyzing consecutive glucosylation activities at their O-4′ and O-7 positions. PlUGT2 was most active with genistein, a general isoflavone in legume plants. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PlUGT2 is preferentially transcribed in roots relative to other organs of P. lobata, which is coincident with the accumulation pattern of 4′-O-glucosides and 4′,7-O-diglucosides in P. lobata. The identification of PlUGT2 would help to decipher the P. lobata isoflavonoid glucosylations in vivo and may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for an efficient biotransformation of isoflavones or other natural products for food or pharmacological purposes. PMID:27066037

  18. Metabolism of Isoflavones Found in the Pueraria thomsonii Flower by Human Intestinal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Kazuhiro; Matsuzuka, Yuki; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Itoh, Kikuji

    2011-01-01

    Isoflavones contained in the root and flower of Kudzu (Pueraria lobata and related species) are suggested to be the critical component for its effects. Although metabolism of soy isoflavones has been well studied, the composition of isoflavones found in Kudzu is completely different from that of soy isoflavones. In the present study, we investigated whether isoflavones found in the flower of Pueraria thomsonii, a species of Kudzu, were metabolized by human fecal microbiota and murine small intestinal enzymes. Among 5 glycosidic isoflavones of the Pueraria thomsonii flower, tectorigenin 7-O-xylosylglucoside, tectoridin, genistin and glycitin were completely hydrolyzed by a homogenate of germfree mouse small intestine without contribution of bacteria. Released aglycones were not further metabolized, except that up to half of glycitein disappeared. Mouse small intestinal enzymes did not metabolize 6-hydroxygenistein 6,7-di-O-glucoside. Isoflavone aglycones as well as 6-hydroxygenistein 6,7-di-O-glucoside were highly metabolized by most of the human fecal suspensions. Metabolites were not detected with the present analytical methods in most cases. Although further investigations of the pharmacokinetics of Pueraria thomsonii flower isoflavones are needed, the results of the present study indicate active metabolism of Pueraria thomsonii flower isoflavones in the human intestine.

  19. Effects of Pueraria lobata Root Ethanol Extract on Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis During 3T3-L1 Differentiation into Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae Myoung; Yoon, Mi Sook; Kim, Young Chul

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effect of Pueraria lobata root ethanol extract (PLREE) on lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation to adipocytes by measuring the intracellular expression of adipogenic, lipogenic, and lipolytic markers and lipid accumulation. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of PLREE were 47 and 29 mg/g, respectively. The electron donating capacity of PLREE at 1,000 μg/mL was 48.8%. Treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with 100, 250, or 500 μg/mL PLREE for 8 days dose-dependently promoted the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. In contrast, the lipid content of PLREE-treated cells was significantly reduced by 7.8% (p < 0.05), 35.6% (p < 0.001), and 42.2% (p < 0.001) following treatment with 100, 250, and 500 μg/mL PLREE, respectively, as compared to differentiated control cells. PLREE upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA and protein, and sterol regulator element-binding protein-1c mRNA levels, but did not affect CCAAT/enhancer binding-protein β and α mRNA levels. PLREE also downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA and protein, fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein, and leptin mRNA levels, but did not affect FAS mRNA expression. PLREE upregulated adipose triglyceride lipase mRNA and protein expression, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression, but did not affect HSL mRNA expression. In conclusion, we found that PLREE enhanced adipogenesis, but reduced lipogenesis, resulting in decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells.

  20. The Effect of Pueraria Lobata/Rehmannia Glutinosa and Exercise on Fatty Acid Transporters Expression in Ovariectomized Rats Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Jin; Yoon, Hae Min; Kwon, Oran; Lee, Won Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Pueraria lobata/rehmannia glutinosa (PR) and exercise have been receiving a lot of attention from postmenopausal women, as a result of the side effects of estrogen replacement therapy. However, the effects of PR and exercise on fatty acid transporters (FATPs), which play essential role in fatty acid transport, have not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PR and aerobic exercise on FATP1, FABPpm and FAT/CD36 expression in ovariectomized rat skeletal muscles. [Methods] Sixty rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: (1)HSV; high fat diet (HFD)+sedentary+vehicle, (2)HSP; HFD+sedentary+PR, (3)HSH; HFD+sedentary+17β-estradiol, (4)HEV; HFD+exercise+vehicle, (5) HEP; HFD+exercise+PR, (6)HEH; HFD+exercise+17β-estradiol. Exercise consisted of treadmill exercise (1-4th week: 15 m/min for 30 min, 5-8th week: 18 m/min for 40 min, 5 times/week). [Results] Exercise does not alter FATP1 and FAT/CD36 gene levels in soleus and plantaris muscles. In contrast, exercise had main effect on up-regulation of FABPpm mRNA expression in both muscles. However, FABPpm level was not increased by exercise combined with treatments, indicative of no additive effects of PR or hormone on FABPpm gene expression. On the other hand, immunohistochemistry result showed that translocation of FATPs proteins to plasma membrane were higher in PR, exercise groups, and exercise combined with PR groups in both muscles. [Conclusion] These result showed that aerobic exercise and PR may help increase fat-oxidation through the induction of FABPpm, a muscle specific transporter, in OVX rat skeletal muscles. In addition, FABPpm expression is possibly regulated post-transcriptionally in exercise, or pre-translationally in PR. PMID:27757385

  1. Kudzu root: traditional uses and potential medicinal benefits in diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka H; Li, George Q; Li, Kong M; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Chan, Kelvin

    2011-04-12

    Kudzu root (Gegen in Chinese) is the dried root of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, a semi-woody, perennial and leguminous vine native to South East Asia. It is often used interchangeably in traditional Chinese medicine with thomson kudzu root (Fengen in Chinese), the dried root of P. thomsonii, although the Chinese Pharmacopoeia has separated them into two monographs since the 2005 edition. For more than 2000 years, kudzu root has been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of fever, acute dysentery, diarrhoea, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Both English and Chinese literatures on the traditional applications, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicology, quality control and potential interactions with conventional drugs of both species have been included in the present review. Over seventy phytochemicals have been identified in kudzu root, with isoflavonoids and triterpenoids as the major constituents. Isoflavonoids, in particular puerarin, have been used in most of the pharmacological studies. Animal and cellular studies have provided support for the traditional uses of kudzu root on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and endocrine systems, including diabetes and its complications. Further studies to define the active phytochemical compositions, quality standards and clinical efficacy are warranted. Strong interdisciplinary collaboration to bridge the gap between traditional medicine and modern biomedical medicine is therefore needed for the development of kudzu root as an effective medicine for the management of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Kudzu Pueraria montana

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1999-01-01

    Plant: Twining and trailing semi-woody vine, 10-30 m (35-100 ft) long, with rope-like vines covering mature trees and forming dense patches, having 3-leaflet leaves on hairy pctioles and stems, deciduous and dying with first frost, yielding fragrant red-purple flowers in mid- summer. and hairy flat capsules with few seeds in fall. Large, semi-...

  3. The biology and preliminary host range of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) and its impact on kudzu growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Hanula, James L; Horn, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (F.), recently was discovered in the United States feeding on kudzu, Pueraria montana Lour. (Merr.) variety lobata (Willd.), an economically important invasive vine. We studied its biology on kudzu and its impact on kudzu growth. We also tested its ability to use other common forest legumes for oviposition and development. Flight intercept traps operated from 17 May 2010 to 31 May 2011 in a kudzu field near Athens, GA showed three peaks of adult flight activity suggesting there are two generations per year on kudzu. Vine samples examined for eggs from April 2010 to April 2011 and June to October 2011 showed two periods of oviposition activity in 2010, which coincided with the peaks in adult activity. In 2011, the second period of oviposition began on or before 24 June and then egg abundance declined gradually thereafter until late August when we recovered <2 eggs/0.5 m of vine. Samples of the five nymphal instars and adults on vines did not show similar trends in abundance. Adults did not lay eggs on the various legume species tested in 2010 in a no-choice test possibly because the cages were too small. In the 2011 field host range experiments conducted in a kudzu field by using 12 legume species, M. cribraria preferentially oviposited on kudzu over soybean, Glycine max Merrill., but they still laid 320 eggs per plant on soybean. Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem. and Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don had 122.2 and 108.4 eggs per plant, respectively. Kudzu and soybean were the only species M. cribraria completed development on. Plots protected from M. cribraria feeding by biweekly insecticide applications had 32.8% more kudzu biomass than unprotected plots. Our results show that M. cribraria has a significant impact on kudzu growth and could help suppress this pest weed.

  4. Extraction and isolation of potential anti-stroke compounds from flowers of Pueraria lobata guided by in vitro PC12 cell model.

    PubMed

    Li, Sainan; Li, Senlin; Liu, Chengyu; Liu, Chunming; Zhang, Yuchi

    2017-03-24

    A simple and efficient method based on ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS) was applied to rapidly screen and identify ligands for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the flowers of Pueraria lobata, and the compounds were assessed for anti-stroke activity using a PC12 cell model. Seven major isoflavones, kakkalide, 3'-hydroxy puerarin, puerarin, puerarin xyloside, tectoridin, tectorigenin, and ononin, were identified as potent LDH inhibitors. A continuous online method, which consisted of microwave-assisted extraction and countercurrent chromatography (MAE-CCC), was newly developed for scaled-up production of these compounds with high purity and efficiency. This novel approach, using UFLC-MS coupled with MAE-CCC and a PC12 cell model, provided a powerful tool for screening, extraction, and separation of LDH inhibitors from complex samples, and a useful platform for the large-scale production of functional food and nutraceutical ingredients.

  5. Puerarin, isolated from Pueraria lobata (Willd.), protects against hepatotoxicity via specific inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, thereby leading to anti-fibrotic effect.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingyuan; Zheng, Ni; He, Qiaoling; Li, Rong; Zhang, Kefeng; Liang, Tao

    2013-10-15

    Recently, the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway has been investigated in the pathogenesis of hepatofibrosis, and pharmacological treatment of liver fibrosis targeted this pathway to determine its contribution to the inhibition of fibrotic development. Importantly, ethnopharmacology-derived Pueraria lobata has been reported to effectively reverse the fibrotic process in the liver. In the present study, we performed dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats to assess the benefits of puerarin (PR), which was isolated from Pueraria lobata (Willd.), on ECM-derived hepatocytes associated with the TGF-β1/Smad pathway. Our results showed that the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), type III precollagen (PCIII) and type IV collagen (CIV) were significantly reduced by PR treatment, while hepatic homogenates showed decreased levels of hydroxyproline (Hyp) and collagen I (Col I). Masson's trichrome staining indicated that the DMN-induced liver fibrosis was alleviated. In addition, the protein expression levels of transforming growth factor-β l (TGF-β l), smad2, smad3, α-SMA and TIMP-1 were downregulated specifically by PR treatment, whereas the protein expression levels of smad7 and MMP-1 were upregulated. Furthermore, we evaluated the PR-mediated inhibitory effect on TGF-β1-treated proliferation and activation in a rat liver stellate cell line (HSC-T6). These data resulted in inhibition of the cell growth of HSC-T6 in a dose-dependent manner and a reduction in TβRI, smad2 and smad3 expressed proteins in the presence of PR on TGF-β1-treated HSC-T6 cells, while smad7 levels were downregulated. Taken together, these findings identify a unique effect for PR-regulation of the TGF-β1/Smad pathway in blocking fibrotic development and provide a promising strategy for hepatofibrosis treatment.

  6. Production of puerarin and isoflavones in cell suspension cultures of Pueraria lobata (Willd.): effects of medium supplementation with casein hydrolysate and coconut milk.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Zhang, C R

    2006-01-01

    Callus induced from leaf explants of Pueraria lobata seedlings were suspended in Gamborg B5 medium supplemented with 1 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1 mg l(-1) naphthalene acetic acid, 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin and 30 g l(-1) sucrose. The effects of coconut milk and casein hydrolysate (CH) on cell growth and yields of puerarin and isoflavones in cells suspension were studied. The contents of total isoflavones and puerarin in suspension cultures were determined by spectrophotometry and HPLC. Coconut milk (10%, filter sterilized) decreased the growth of cell cultures and the accumulation of total isoflavones, while 0.2% CH promoted the growth of cell cultures and the accumulation and release of puerarin and total isoflavones. The total yield of puerarin and isoflavones were 34% and 40.8% higher than in the control, respectively. The optimum medium for cell cultures of leaves of P. lobata seedlings was B5 liquid medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 1.0 mg l(-1) 2,4-D, 1.0 mg l(-1) NAA, 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin and 20 mg l(-1) CH. The procedure use is a potentially useful for the production of isoflavones.

  7. Screening and identification of BSA bound ligands from Puerariae lobata flower by BSA functionalized Fe₃O₄ magnetic nanoparticles coupled with HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangliang; Ma, Yongjian; Chen, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Xiang; Shi, Shuyun

    2012-03-01

    Puerariae lobata flower (Willdenow) has a long history used to treat alcoholic intoxication in China, which contains a series of isoflavones as its chief pharmacologically active constituents. In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA) functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄ MNPs) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) were used to screen and identify active compounds from ethanolic extract of P. lobata flower. Thirteen active isoflavones were screened and identified as glycitin (1), tectoridin (2), daidzin (3), 3'-methoxy daidzin (4), ononin (5), 3'-hydroxyl daidzein (6), tectorigenin (7), biochanin A (8), prunetin (9), genistein (10), 3'-methoxy daidzein (11), irisolidone (12) and 5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyisoflavone (13), while compounds 4, 6, 9, 11 and 13 were identified from this plant for the first time. Furthermore, the activity of each bound ligand was evaluated on-line. The results indicated that the binding affinities of compounds with BSA were highly dependent on chemical structures and the methoxylation and hydroxylation on B-ring could improve the activity. The effective method could be widely applied for rapid screening and identification of active compounds from complex mixtures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Plant architecture and growth response of kudzu (fabaceae: Fabaceae) to simulated insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Frye, M J; Hough-Goldstein, J

    2013-10-01

    Kudzu [Pueraria montana variety lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. M. Almeida] plant architecture and growth were compared for plants subjected to 4 wk of simulated herbivory (75% leaf cutting) and no damage. Simulated herbivory reduced above-ground and root biomass by 40 and 47%, respectively, whereas total vine length and average length of the 10 longest vines were reduced by 48 and 43%, respectively, compared with control plants. Plant architecture was also affected, with damaged plants showing a significantly reduced proportion of primary vines, shorter secondary vines, and reduced average internode distances compared with the control plants. In natural situations, these changes would reduce the ability of kudzu to compete for light and other resources by affecting the plant's climbing habit.

  9. Macrocyclic trichothecenes are undetectable in kudzu (Pueraria montana) plants treated with a high-producing isolate of Myrothecium verrucaria.

    PubMed

    Abbas, H K; Tak, H; Boyette, C D; Shier, W T; Jarvis, B B

    2001-09-01

    Myrothecium verrucaria was found to be an effective pathogen against kudzu grown in the greenhouse and the field. M. verrucaria produced large amounts of macrocyclic trichothecenes when cultured on solid rice medium, including epiroridin E (16.8 mg/g crude extract), epiisororidin E (1 mg/g), roridin E (8.7 mg/g), roridin H (31.3 mg/g), trichoverrin A (0.6 mg/g), trichoverrin B (0.1 mg/g), verrucarin A (37.4 mg/g), and verrucarin J (2.2 mg/g). Most of these toxins were also isolated from M. verrucaria spores and mycelia grown on potato dextrose agar medium, including epiroridin E (32.3 mg/g), epiisororidin E (28.6 mg/g), roridin E (0 mg/g), roridin H (60 mg/g), trichoverrin A (1.3 mg/g), trichoverrin B (1.8 mg/g), verrucarin A (13.8 mg/g), and verrucarin J (131 mg/g). When M. verrucaria was cultured on liquid media, the numbers but not the amounts of toxins decreased. Only epiroridin E (28.3 mg/g), epiisororidin E (29.6 mg/g), verrucarin B (195 mg/g) and verrucarin J (52.6 mg/g) were measured when the fungus was cultured on cornsteep medium. On soyflour-cornmeal broth M. verrucaria produced several toxins, including epiroridin E (58.1 mg/g), epiisororidin E (5.8 mg/g), verrucarin B (29.9 mg/g) and verrucarin J (32 mg/g). In contrast, no macrocyclic trichothecenes were detected by HPLC analysis of plant tissues of kudzu, sicklepod, and soybean treated with aqueous suspensions of M. verrucaria spores formulated with a surfactant. Chloroform-methanol extracts of kudzu leaves and stems treated with M. verrucaria spores were less cytotoxic to four cultured mammalian cell lines than the corresponding extracts from control plants. Purified macrocyclic trichothecenes (verrucarin A and T-2 toxin) were very cytotoxic to the same cell lines (< or = 2 ng/ml). These results show that neither intact macrocyclic trichothecenes nor toxic metabolites could be detected in plant tissues after treatment with M. verrucaria spores. These results argue for both safety and efficacy for the

  10. The Root Extract of Pueraria lobata and Its Main Compound, Puerarin, Prevent Obesity by Increasing the Energy Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyo Won; Kang, An Na; Kang, Seok Yong; Park, Yong-Ki; Song, Mi Young

    2017-01-04

    Radix Pueraria lobata (RP) has been reported to prevent obesity and improve glucose metabolism; however, the mechanism responsible for these effects has not been elucidated. The mechanism underlying anti-obesity effect of RP was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice and skeletal muscle cells (C2C12). Five-week-old C5BL/6 mice were fed a HFD containing or not containing RP (100 or 300 mg/kg) or metformin (250 mg/kg) for 16 weeks. RP reduced body weight gain, lipid accumulation in liver, and adipocyte and blood lipid levels. In addition, RP dose-dependently improved hyperglycemia, insulinemia, and glucose tolerance, and prevented the skeletal muscle atrophy induced by HFD. Furthermore, RP increased the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) expression and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in skeletal muscle tissues. RP and its main component, puerarin, increased mitochondrial biogenesis and myotube hypertrophy in C2C12 cells. The present study demonstrates that RP can prevent diet-induced obesity, glucose tolerance, and skeletal muscle atrophy in mouse models of obesity. The mechanism responsible for the effect of RP appears to be related to the upregulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, which at the molecular level may be associated with PGC-1α and AMPK activation.

  11. The Root Extract of Pueraria lobata and Its Main Compound, Puerarin, Prevent Obesity by Increasing the Energy Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyo Won; Kang, An Na; Kang, Seok Yong; Park, Yong-Ki; Song, Mi Young

    2017-01-01

    Radix Pueraria lobata (RP) has been reported to prevent obesity and improve glucose metabolism; however, the mechanism responsible for these effects has not been elucidated. The mechanism underlying anti-obesity effect of RP was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice and skeletal muscle cells (C2C12). Five-week-old C5BL/6 mice were fed a HFD containing or not containing RP (100 or 300 mg/kg) or metformin (250 mg/kg) for 16 weeks. RP reduced body weight gain, lipid accumulation in liver, and adipocyte and blood lipid levels. In addition, RP dose-dependently improved hyperglycemia, insulinemia, and glucose tolerance, and prevented the skeletal muscle atrophy induced by HFD. Furthermore, RP increased the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) expression and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in skeletal muscle tissues. RP and its main component, puerarin, increased mitochondrial biogenesis and myotube hypertrophy in C2C12 cells. The present study demonstrates that RP can prevent diet-induced obesity, glucose tolerance, and skeletal muscle atrophy in mouse models of obesity. The mechanism responsible for the effect of RP appears to be related to the upregulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, which at the molecular level may be associated with PGC-1α and AMPK activation. PMID:28054981

  12. The roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) and Pueraria lobata (Gegen) inhibit atherogenic events: a study of the combination effects of the 2-herb formula.

    PubMed

    Wing-Shing Cheung, David; Koon, Chi-Man; Ng, Chun-Fai; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Kar-Sing Poon, Simon; Bik-San Lau, Clara

    2012-10-11

    The roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) and Pueraria lobata (Gegen) are principle herbs of Chinese herbal formulae which have long been used to treat cardiovascular diseases. The present study validated the anti-atherogenic effects of three extracts, Danshen alone (DE), Gegen alone (GE) as well as DGE and interpreted their combination effects statistically. The anti-atherogenic effects of the three extracts were studied in three assays with regards to inflammation, foam cell formation and vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) proliferation using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production model, macrophage foam cell formation model and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced vSMC proliferation model, respectively. The combination effects of DGE were statistically analyzed using combination index (CI) and fixed-ratio experimental design. The anti-atherogenic effects of the three extracts including anti-inflammation, anti-foam cell formation and anti-vSMC proliferation were demonstrated in this study. Their combination effects in anti-inflammation, anti-foam cell formation and anti-vSMC proliferation were found to be synergistic, additive and antagonistic, respectively. This study provided scientific support for the combination use of DGE on atherosclerosis and presented one of the first applications of statistical interpretations of the combination effects of the 2-herb formula. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  14. Kudzu as a Feed For Angora Goats

    Treesearch

    E.G. Rhoden; A. Woldeghebriel; T. Small

    1991-01-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobota), a large-leaved, deep-rooted, perennial legume, favors a warm moist climate and has the ability to thrive on almost any soil. During the 1930's, the government gave an $8 per acre incentive to plant kudzu to control soil erosion in the Southeast, and the forage was subsequently used for cattle grazing. But the asset...

  15. Parsing polyphyletic Pueraria: Delimiting distinct evolutionary lineages through phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Egan, Ashley N; Vatanparast, Mohammad; Cagle, William

    2016-11-01

    Several taxonomic and phylogenetic studies have hypothesized polyphyly within Pueraria DC., a genus comprising 19 species (24 with varieties) including the highly invasive Pueraria montana var. lobata (Kudzu) introduced to the U.S.A. about 150years ago. Previous efforts to investigate monophyly of the genus have been hampered by limited taxon sampling or a lack of comprehensive evolutionary context that would enable definitive taxonomic associations. This work presents a comprehensive phylogenetic investigation of Pueraria within the context of tribe Phaseoleae (Leguminosae). Polyphyly was found to be more extensive than previously thought, with five distinct lineages spread across the tribe and spanning over 25mya of divergence strongly supported by two chloroplast and one nuclear marker, AS2, presented here as a phylogenetic marker for the first time. Our phylogenies support taxonomic revisions to rectify polyphyly within Pueraria, including the resurrection of Neustanthus, moving one species to Teyleria, and the creation of two new genera, Haymondia and Toxicopueraria (taxonomic revisions published elsewhere). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Biology and preliminary host range assessment of two potential kudzu biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Frye, Matthew J; Hough-Goldstein, Judith; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2007-12-01

    Two insect species from China, Gonioctena tredecimmaculata (Jacoby) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Ornatalcides (Mesalcidodes) trifidus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were studied in quarantine in the United States as potential biological control agents for kudzu, Pueraria montana variety lobata (Willd.) Maesen and S. Almeida. Adults of G. tredecimmaculata were ovoviviparous and reproduced throughout the summer, producing offspring that had an obligate adult diapause. In no-choice tests, adult and larval G. tredecimmaculata rejected most of the plant species tested, but consumed foliage and completed their life cycle on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and on a native woodland plant, hog-peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata L. Fernald), which are in the same subtribe as kudzu (Glycininae). Insects showed similar responses to field- and greenhouse-grown soybean and kudzu foliage, despite measurable differences in leaf traits: field-grown foliage of both plants had greater leaf toughness, higher total carbon content, higher trichome density, and lower water content than greenhouse foliage. O. trifidus adults also rejected most of the plants tested but fed on and severely damaged potted soybean and hog-peanut plants in addition to kudzu. Further tests in China are needed to determine whether these species will accept nontarget host plants under open-field conditions.

  17. Separation and determination of isoflavonoids in several kudzu samples by high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE).

    PubMed

    Fang, Congbing; Wan, Xiaochun; Tan, Huarong; Jiang, Changjun

    2006-01-01

    Pueraria lobata is a rich source of isoflavonoids. The detection and identification of isoflavonoid components from root, stem, leaf, callus and cell samples, is very important for the best, safest and most efficacious use of kudzu as a medicinal plant, and for the studies on quantitative analysis in the secondary metabolism of isoflavonoids. In this paper, a simple, rapid and precise high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) method with diode array detection (DAD) has been developed for separation and determination of isoflavonoids in several kudzu samples. The isoflavonoids could be well separated within 15 min in a 40 cm length capillary at a separation voltage of 15kV in a 30 mmol L(-1) borax buffer (pH9.29), and this proposed method demonstrated excellent reproducibility and accuracy with relative standard deviations of less than 5% for isoflavonoid content (n = 5) of different kudzu samples. The relationship between peak areas and isoflavone concentrations, in a specified working range with linear response, was determined by first-order polynomial regression over the range 0.05-0.5 mg mL(-1) for puerarin and 2.5-50 microg mL(-1) for 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin and daidzein, respectively, and quantitative evaluation of those four main isoflavonoid components was determined by ultraviolet absorption at lambda = 192 nm. The differences were also illustrated by comparison of the determination of isoflavonoid components from kudzu root, stem, leaf samples and plant tissue cultures in vitro.

  18. Tracking deposition of a 14C-radiolabeled kudzu hairy root-derived isoflavone-rich fraction into bone.

    PubMed

    Mun, Jonathan G; Grannan, Michael D; Lachcik, Pamela J; Rogers, Randy B; Yousef, Gad G; Grace, Mary H; Janle, Elsa M; Wu, Qing Li; Simon, James E; Weaver, Connie M; Lila, Mary Ann

    2010-10-01

    Hairy roots were induced in four genotypes from three kudzu species (Pueraria montana var. lobata, P. lobata and P. phaseoloides) in vitro using Agrobacterium rhizogenes to stimulate rapid secondary metabolite synthesis. Hairy roots from P. montana var. lobata (United States Department of Agriculture no. PI 434246) yielded the highest puerarin and total isoflavone content and the greatest new biomass per growth cycle among the genotypes evaluated. Hairy roots from this genotype were selected for radiolabeling using (14)C-sucrose as a carbon source. Isoflavones from radiolabeled kudzu hairy root cultures were extracted with 80% methanol, partitioned by solvent extraction, and then subfractionated by Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration. Radiolabeled isoflavones were isolated in a highly enriched fraction, which contained predominantly puerarin, daidzin and malonyl-daidzin and had an average radioactivity of 8.614 MBq/g (232.8 μCi/g) dry fraction. The (14)C-radiolabeled, isoflavone-rich fraction was orally administered at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight to male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with a jugular catheter, a subcutaneous ultrafiltrate probe and a brain microdialysate probe. Serum, interstitial fluid, brain microdialysate, urine and feces were collected using a Culex(®) Automated Blood Collection System for 24 h. At the end of this period, rats were sacrificed and major tissues were collected. Analysis by a scintillation counter confirmed that a bolus dose of (14)C-radiolabeled, isoflavone-rich kudzu fraction reached bone tissues, which accumulated 0.011%, 0.09% and 0.003% of the administered dose in femur, tibia and vertebrae, respectively. Femurs extracted with 80% methanol were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and were found to contain trace quantities of puerarin, daidzein and puerarin glucuronide. This study demonstrates that kudzu isoflavones and metabolites are capable of reaching bone tissues

  19. Rapid Determination of Puerarin by Near-infrared Spectroscopy During Percolation and Concentration Process of Puerariae Lobatae Radix

    PubMed Central

    Jintao, Xue; Quanwei, Yang; Yun, Jing; Yufei, Liu; Chunyan, Li; Jing, Yang; Yanfang, Wu; Peng, Li; Guangrui, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gegen (Puerariae Labatae Radix) is one of the important medicines in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The studies showed that Gegen and its preparation had effective actions for atherosclerosis. Objective: Near-infrared (NIR) was used to develop a method for rapid determination of puerarin during percolation and concentration process of Gegen. Materials and Methods: About ten batches of samples were collected with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis values as reference, calibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression, and artificial neural networks (ANN) as nonlinear regression. Results: The root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Conclusions: The NIR model for the rapid analysis of puerarin can be used for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process. SUMMARY Near-infrared was used to develop a method for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process of GegenCalibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression and artificial neural networks (ANN) as non-linear regressionThe root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Abbreviations used: NIR: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy; Gegen: Puerariae Loabatae Radix; TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine; PLS: Partial least-squares; ANN: Artificial neural networks; RMSEP: Root mean square error of validation; R2: Correlation coefficients; PAT: Process analytical technology; FDA: The Food and Drug Administration; Rcal: Calibration set; RMSECV: Root mean square errors of cross-validation; RPD: Residual predictive deviation; SLS: Straight Line Subtraction; MLP: Multi-Layer Perceptron; MSE: Mean square error. PMID:27601848

  20. Simultaneous determination of ten active components in traditional Chinese medicinal products containing both Gegen (Pueraria lobata) and Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qi; Sun, Lan; Zhao, Run-Huai; Chow, Moses S S; Zuo, Zhong

    2008-01-01

    In order to facilitate the quality control of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) products containing both Gegen (Pueraria lobata) and Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), a new and simple HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of 10 active components in these products has been developed. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C(18) column eluted with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% acetic acid in water and 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile with gradient elution. The eluent was monitored by a photodiode array UV detector at a wavelength of 250 nm for Gegen components including puerarin, daidzein 8-C-apiosyl-glucoside, daidzin and daidzein, and at 270 nm for Danshen components including danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIa. Excellent chromatographic separation was achieved for all studied compounds with good linearity (r(2)> 0.999) over the studied concentration ranges. The developed method has been applied to the simultaneous determination of the 10 studied compounds in commercially available products containing both Gegen and Danshen. The TCM product samples were extracted by sonication with a mixture of methanol:water (80:20) containing 0.5% acetic acid. Extraction recoveries for all studied compounds were in the range of 96.01-106.18%. The intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 7.25 and 5.44%, respectively, for all studied compounds. The developed method has not only proved to be effective in the simultaneous determination of the 10 components, but also provides a convenient quality control approach for TCM products containing both Gegen and Danshen.

  1. Comparative evaluation of three methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography analysis combined with a 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay for the rapid screening of antioxidants from Pueraria lobata flowers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Ping; Shi, Shu-Yun; Xiong, Xiang; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Peng, Mi-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Traditional activity-guided fractionation of natural products is a time-consuming, labor intensive, and expensive strategy, which cannot compete with high-throughput and rapid screening of natural products. Therefore, more efficient approaches are necessary for searching active compounds from natural products. Three main methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis combined with 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, DPPH spiking HPLC analysis, on-line post-column HPLC-DPPH analysis, and HPLC-based DPPH activity profiling, were then developed for the rapid screening of antioxidants from complex mixtures. In the present study, a comparative study of these three methods has been conducted to identify antioxidants from an ethyl acetate fraction of Pueraria lobata flowers. The parameters in HPLC analysis and DPPH assay were optimized. The results indicated that all three methods could achieve similar information with regard to antioxidants, without the need for preparative isolation techniques. However, there were differences in instrumental set-up, sensitivity, and efficiency. DPPH spiking HPLC analysis seemed to be more sensitive and effective with simpler instrumental set-up and easier operation, which could also detect the total antioxidant capacity of color complexes. Eighteen antioxidants were tentatively screened and identified from P. lobata flowers by DPPH spiking HPLC-MS/MS. Among them, ten compounds including one new compound were first isolated from P. lobata flowers, and the DPPH radical scavenging activity of the new compound was reported for the first time.

  2. Relevance of the Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Puerariae lobatae Radix to Aggregation of Multi-Component Molecules in Aqueous Decoctions.

    PubMed

    Su, Bili; Kan, Yongjun; Xie, Jianwei; Hu, Juan; Pang, Wensheng

    2016-06-28

    The complexity of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is related to their multi-component system. TCM aqueous decoction is a common clinical oral formulation. Between molecules in solution, there exist intermolecular strong interactions to form chemical bonds or weak non-bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces, which hold molecules together to form "molecular aggregates". Taking the TCM Puerariae lobatae Radix (Gegen) as an example, we explored four Gegen decoctions of different concentration of 0.019, 0.038, 0.075, and 0.30 g/mL, named G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4. In order of molecular aggregate size (diameter) the four kinds of solution were ranked G-1 < G-2 < G-3 < G-4 by Flow Cell 200S IPAC image analysis. A rabbit vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency (VBI) model was set up and they were given Gegen decoction (GGD) at a clinical dosage of 0.82 g/kg (achieved by adjusting the gastric perfusion volume depending on the concentration). The HPLC fingerprint of rabbit plasma showed that the chemical component absorption into blood in order of peak area values was G-1 < G-2 > G-3 > G-4. Puerarin and daidzin are the major constituents of Gegen, and the pharmacokinetics of G-1 and G-2 puerarin conformed with the two compartment open model, while for G-3 and G-4, they conformed to a one compartment open model. For all four GGDs the pharmacokinetics of daidzin complied with a one compartment open model. FQ-PCR assays of rabbits' vertebrobasilar arterial tissue were performed to determine the pharmacodynamic profiles of the four GGDs. GGD markedly lowered the level of AT₁R mRNA, while the AT₂R mRNA level was increased significantly vs. the VBI model, and G-2 was the most effective. In theory the dosage was equal to the blood drug concentration and should be consistent; however, the formation of molecular aggregates affects drug absorption and metabolism, and therefore influences drugs' effects. Our data provided references for the rational use

  3. The anti-hypertensive effect of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) and Gegen (Pueraria lobata) formula in rats and its underlying mechanisms of vasorelaxation.

    PubMed

    Ng, C F; Koon, C M; Cheung, D W S; Lam, M Y; Leung, P C; Lau, C B S; Fung, K P

    2011-10-11

    Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen) and Radix Puerariae lobatae (Gegen) have long been used in traditional Chinese Medicine and serve as the principal herbs in treating cardiovascular disease. In the present study, an aqueous extract comprising Danshen and Gegen in the ratio of 7:3 (DG) was investigated for its anti-hypertension in vivo and vasodilative activities ex vivo. The anti-hypertensive effect of DG extract was investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) by measuring systolic blood pressure (SBP). Oral administration of DG extract was started at age of 6 weeks and 14 weeks for the preventive and therapeutic studies, respectively. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff method biweekly for 12 weeks. The ex vivo vasodilative activities of DG extract, its dependency on endothelium and the involvement of nitric oxide, prostacyclin and potassium channels were investigated using isolated rat aorta ring in organ bath. For in vivo study, systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced in DG extract-treated groups (90.2 and 300 mg/kg) as compared with the SHR control in both preventive and therapeutic studies. However, DG extract was unable to suppress or delay the onset of hypertension in the preventive study. For ex vivo study, the results showed that DG extract induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in aorta and persisted response was observed with the removal of endothelium. Besides, pretreatment with a non-selective potassium channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium (TEA) also significantly inhibited DG extract-induced vasodilation. Further investigations on specific potassium channel blockers revealed that ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel inhibitor glibenclamide, inward rectifier potassium (Kir) inhibitor barium chloride and voltage-dependent potassium (K(v)) channel inhibitor 4-aminopyridine, but not BK(Ca) channel inhibitor iberiotoxin, exerted significant inhibition on DG extract-induced vasodilation. The results of in vivo SHR

  4. Influence of an extract from kudzu symbiosomes containing leghemoglobin on in vitro cutaneous procollagen production.

    PubMed

    Gruber, James V; Holtz, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Cytoglobin is a hexacoordinate globin protein that was recently discovered in mammals. Interestingly, of the four human globin proteins that are now known, hemoglobin, myoglobin, neuroglobin and cytoglobin, the latter appears to have the closest resemblance to strikingly similar proteins expressed in plants. In legumes, these proteins accumulate in symbiosomes (root nodules) of various legumes and are called leghemoglobin. The paper will discuss the ability of an aqueous extract from Pueraria lobata (kudzu) symbiosomes that contains leghemoglobin to stimulate procollagen production in human dermal fibroblasts. This effect may be partly due to the possibility that leghemoglobin may mimic the function of cytoglobin by shuttling oxygen to prolyl-4-hydroxylase, the enzyme responsible for oxidizing proline residues in procollagen bundles. This hypothesis is supported by DNA microarray sequencing data that demonstrate that treatment of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) with highly purified cytoglobin or leghemoglobin upregulates a number of key collagen-related genes including COL1A1 and COL1A2.

  5. Dual high-resolution α-glucosidase and radical scavenging profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for identification of minor and major constituents directly from the crude extract of Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingrui; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Qinglei, Sun; Nyberg, Nils T; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2015-02-27

    The crude methanol extract of Pueraria lobata was investigated by dual high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition and radical scavenging profiling combined with hyphenated HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. Direct analysis of the crude extract without preceding purification was facilitated by combining chromatograms from two analytical-scale HPLC separations of 120 and 600 μg on-column, respectively. High-resolution α-glucosidase and radical scavenging profiles were obtained after microfractionation of the eluate in 96-well microplates. This allowed full bioactivity profiling of individual peaks in the HPLC chromatogram of the crude methanol extract. Subsequent HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR analysis allowed identification of 21 known compounds in addition to two new compounds, i.e., 3'-methoxydaidzein 8-C-[α-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside and 6″-O-malonyl-3'-methoxydaidzin, as well as an unstable compound tentatively identified as 3'-de-O-methylpuerariafuran.

  6. Light and CO sub 2 effects on photosynthesis and growth in Kudzu

    SciTech Connect

    Schweder, M.; Bowes, G. ); Cure, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata Willd.) was grown for 28 days under four permutations of light (1,500 or 450 {mu}mol quanta m{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}) and CO{sub 2} (700 or 350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}). Total biomass and leaf area were up to 55% and 52% respectively greater in the high CO{sub 2} treatments. When measured at the growth CO{sub 2} concentration, photosynthetic rates showed little reduction over the 28 day period, and remained up to 29% higher in the high CO{sub 2} treatments. Under high light, soluble protein was 27% greater in the plants grown at high CO{sub 2}. Neither light nor CO{sub 2} had a significant effect on the initial or total rubisco activities. However, phosphoribulokinase activity was decreased under the high CO{sub 2} treatments. These data indicate that photosynthesis in kudzu shows little acclimation when grown at elevated CO{sub 2}.

  7. The application of kudzu as a medium for the adsorption of heavy metals from dilute aqueous wastestreams.

    PubMed

    Brown, P A; Brown, J M; Allen, S J

    2001-06-01

    This study assessed the use of kudzu (Pueraria lobata ohwi) as a medium for the capture of copper, cadmium, and zinc from low concentration solutions. The rate and extent of uptake was studied using a system of standardized batch adsorbers under steady-state and transient-rate conditions. All plant components were tested. Residual metals analyses were performed on an ICP-AES/OES (Optima 3000 DV). The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson isotherms were determined; the Langmuir isotherm was found to best represent the data for copper and cadmium uptake. The Redlich-Peterson best represented the data for zinc. Kudzu was determined to be an effective adsorbent for removal of heavy metals. Though its capacity for metals removal is less than commercial grade ion exchange resins, it could be used at much lower cost, and may find application in the treatment of dilute mixed-matrix metal wastestreams, such as urban runoff, where the application of resins would be expensive and subject to premature poisoning by interfering contaminants.

  8. Impact of kudzu and puerarin on sperm function.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sandra L; Lackey, Brett R; Boone, William R

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of kudzu (Pueraria mirifica) and the isoflavone puerarin in functional toxicological tests on spermatozoa and to assess the affinity of extracts and pure isoflavones for estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and -beta (ERα, ERβ) in receptor binding assays. Capacitation, acrosome reaction and chromatin decondensation in spermatozoa were analyzed using microscopic analysis. Kudzu, but not puerarin, reduced motility of sperm. Puerarin reduced the percent spontaneous acrosome reaction in spermatozoa. The pathways used by kudzu that affect sperm function are not fully mirrored by puerarin. Puerarin, kudzu and its other phytoestrogenic components displayed preferential affinity for ERβ, however the diverse effects of kudzu and puerarin on sperm function implicate the involvement of multiple signaling systems.

  9. Fermented Pueraria Lobata extract ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and recovering intestinal barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seungho; Woo, Jong-Kyu; Jang, Yeong-Su; Kang, Ju-Hee; Jang, Jung-Eun; Yi, Tae-Hoo; Park, Sang-Yong; Kim, Sun-Yeou; Yoon, Yeo-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder occurring in the gastrointestinal track. However, the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies has been limited and accompanied by side effects. In order to eliminate the limitations, herbal medicines have recently been developed for treatment of IBD. Peuraria Lobata (Peuraria L.) is one of the traditional herbal medicines that have anti-inflammatory effects. Bioavailability of Peuraria L., which is rich in isoflavones, is lower than that of their fermented forms. In this study, we generated fermented Peuraria L. extracts (fPue) and investigated the role of fPue in inflammation and intestinal barrier function in vitro and in vivo. As the mice or intestinal epithelial cells were treated with DSS/fPue, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was reduced and the architecture and expression of tight junction proteins were recovered, compared to the DSS-treated group. In summary, fPue treatment resulted in amelioration of DSS-induced inflammation in the colon, and the disrupted intestinal barrier was recovered as the expression and architecture of tight junction proteins were retrieved. These results suggest that use of fPue could be a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of IBD. PMID:27729931

  10. Water stress, temperature, and light effects on the capacity for isoprene emission and photosynthesis of kudzu leaves.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Thomas D; Loreto, Francesco

    1993-09-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd) Ohwi.) is a vine which forms large, monospecific stands in disturbed areas of the southeastern United States. Kudzu also emits isoprene, a hydrocarbon which can significantly affect atmospheric chemistry including reactions leading to tropospheric ozone. We have studied physiological aspects of isoprene emission from kudzu so the ecological consequences of isoprene emission can be better understood. We examined: (a) the development of isoprene emission as leaves developed, (b) the interaction between photon flux density and temperature effects on isoprene emission, (c) isoprene emission during and after water stress, and (d) the induction of isoprene emission from leaves grown at low temperature by water stress or elevated temperature. Isoprene emission under standard conditions of 1000 μmol photons·m(-2)·s(-1) and 30°C developed only after the leaf had reached full expansion, and was not complete until up to two weeks past the point of full expansion of the leaf. The effect of temperature on isoprene emission was much greater than found for other species, with a 10°C increase in temperature causing a eight-fold increase in the rate of isoprene emission. Isoprene emission from kudzu was stimulated by increases in photon flux density up to 3000 μmol photons·m(-2)·s(-1). In contrast, photosynthesis of kudzu was saturated at less than 1000 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) photon flux density and was reduced at high temperature, so that up to 20% of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis was reemitted as isoprene gas at 1000 μmol photons·m(-2)·s(-1) and 35°C. Withholding water caused photosynthesis to decline nearly to zero after several days but had a much smaller effect on isoprene emission. Following the relief of water stress, photosynthesis recovered to the prestress level but isoprene emission increased to about five times the prestress rate. At 1000 μmol photons·m(-2)·s(-1) and 35°C as much as 67% of the carbon fixed in

  11. [Study on HPLC-FPS of Pueraria of different sources].

    PubMed

    He, Chun-nian; Li, Min; Cao, Zhi-gao; Guo, Hong-ying; Wang, Chun-lan; Yu, Shi-chun

    2003-12-01

    To make comparative study on HPLC-FPS of several kinds of Pueraria lobata and P. thomsonii from different sources. Kromasil C18 column was used, with mixture of acetonitrile and water as mobile phase in a gradient mode. The wavelength of measurement was 250 nm. The fingerprints of P. lobata and P. thomsonii were obtained. This method can be used to identify P. lobata and P. thomsonii from different sources conveniently, and it may be practically valuable for the quality control of sample for P. lobata or P. thomsonii and its preparation.

  12. High-performance thin-layer chromatographic fingerprints of isoflavonoids for distinguishing between Radix Puerariae Lobate and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si-Bao; Liu, He-Ping; Tian, Run-Tao; Yang, Da-Jian; Chen, Shi-Lin; Xu, Hong-Xi; Chan, Albert S C; Xie, Pei-Shan

    2006-07-14

    The roots of Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi and Pueraria thomsonii Benth have been officially recorded in all editions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia under the same monograph 'Gegen' (Radix Puerariae, RP). However, in its 2005 edition, the two species were separated into both individual monographs, namely 'Gegen' (Radix Puerariae Lobatae, RPL) and 'Fenge' (Radix Puerariae Thomsonii, RPT), respectively, due to their obvious content discrepancy of puerarin, the major active constituent. In present paper, the fingerprint of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) combining digital scanning profiling was developed to identify and distinguish the both species in detail. The unique properties of the HPTLC fingerprints were validated by analyzing ten batches of Pueraria lobata and P. thomsonii samples, respectively. The common pattern of the HPTLC images of the roots of Pueraria spp. and the respective different ratios of the chemical distribution can directly discern the two species. The corresponding digital scanning profiles provided an easy way for quantifiable comparison among the samples. Obvious difference in ingredient content and HPTLC patterns of the two species questioned their bio-equivalence and explained that recording both species separately in the current edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2005 edition) is reasonable due to not only the content of major constituent, puerarin, but also the peak-to-peak distribution in the fingerprint and integration value of the total components. Furthermore, the HPTLC fingerprint is also suitable for rapid and simple authentication and comparison of the subtle difference among samples with identical plant resource but different geographic locations.

  13. Effects of Puerariae Radix Extract on Endotoxin Receptors and TNF-α Expression Induced by Gut-Derived Endotoxin in Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jing-Hua; Cui, Tuan; Sun, Zhao-Lin; Huang, Fu; Chen, Liang; Xu, Lin; Feng, Qin; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is one of the earliest medicinal plants used to treat alcohol abuse in traditional Chinese medicine for more than a millennium. However, little is known about its effects on chronic alcoholic liver injury. Therefore, the present study observed the effects of puerariae radix extract (RPE) on chronic alcoholic liver injury as well as Kupffer cells (KCs) activation to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induced by gut-derived endotoxin in rats and macrophage cell line. RPE was observed to alleviate the pathological changes and lipids deposition in liver tissues as well as the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity. Meanwhile, RPE inhibited KCs activation and subsequent hepatic TNF-α expression and downregulated the protein expression of endotoxin receptors, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), CD14, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, and TLR4 in chronic alcohol intake rats. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed that RPE inhibited the expression of TNF-α and endotoxin receptors, CD14 and TLR4, induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that RPE mitigated liver damage and lipid deposition induced by chronic alcohol intake in rats, as well as TNF-α release, protein expression of endotoxin receptors in vivo or in vitro. PMID:23133491

  14. First discovery of the family Tanaostigmatidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from China with a description of a new gall-making species utilizing kudzu leaves

    Treesearch

    Yang Zhong-qi; Sun Jiang-hua; James P. Pitts

    2004-01-01

    A new species of Tanaostigmodes (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Tanaostigmatidae) is described from China- Tanaostigmodes puerariae sp. nov. This is the first record of this family in China. This new species has potential as a biological control agent for control of kudzu, Pueraria lobate, in the U.S., because its...

  15. Biology and preliminary host range assessment of two potential kudzu biological control agents

    Treesearch

    Matthew J. Fyre; Judith Hough-Goldstein; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2007-01-01

    Two insect species from China, Gonioctena tredecimmaclliata (Jacoby) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Ornatalcides (Mesalcidodes) trifidus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were studied in quarantine in the United States as potential biological control agents for kudzu, Pueraria nwntana variety Zobata (Willd.) Maesen and S. Almeida...

  16. Natural and human dimensions of a quasi-wild species:the case of kudzu

    Treesearch

    Zhenyu Li; Quan Dong; Thomas Albright; Qinfeng Guo

    2011-01-01

    The human dimensions of biotic invasion are generally poorly understood, even among the most familiar invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.) is a prominent invasive plant and an example of quasi-wild species, which has experienced repeated introduction, cultivation, and escape back to the wild. Here, we review a large body of primary scientific and...

  17. Kudzu eradication and management

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1996-01-01

    Kudzu patches can be eradicated with persistent treatments or they can be contained and managed with other treatment options. Herbicides, grazing, prescribed buring, and disk harrowing can be used as eradication or containment treatments. For eradication, every kudzu plant in and around a patch must be killed or the spread from any surviving plants can make all prior...

  18. Modeling landscape-scale pathogen spillover between domesticated and wild hosts: Asian soybean rust and kudzu.

    PubMed

    Fabiszewski, Anna M; Umbanhowar, James; Mitchell, Charles E

    2010-03-01

    Many emerging pathogens infect both domesticated and wild host species, creating the potential for pathogen transmission between domesticated and wild populations. This common situation raises the question of whether managing negative impacts of disease on a focal host population (whether domesticated, endangered, or pest) requires management of only the domesticated host, only the wild host, or both. To evaluate the roles of domesticated and wild hosts in the dynamics of shared pathogens, we developed a spatially implicit model of a pathogen transmitted by airborne spores between two host species restricted to two different landscape patch types. As well as exploring the general dynamics and implications of the model, we fully parameterized our model for Asian soybean rust, a multihost infectious disease that emerged in the United States in 2004. The rust fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi infects many legume species, including soybeans (Glycine max) and the nonnative invasive species kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata). Our model predicts that epidemics are driven by the host species that is more abundant in the landscape. In managed landscapes, this will generally be the domesticated host. However, many pathogens overwinter on a wild host, which acts as the source of initial inoculum at the start of the growing season. Our model predicts that very low local densities of infected wild hosts, surviving in landscape patches separate from the domesticated host, are sufficient to initiate epidemics in the domesticated host, such that managing epidemics by reducing wild host local density may not be feasible. In contrast, managing to reduce pathogen infection of a domesticated host can reduce disease impacts on wild host populations.

  19. Natural and human dimensions of a quasi-wild species: The case of kudzu

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Z.; Dong, Q.; Albright, T.P.; Guo, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The human dimensions of biotic invasion are generally poorly understood, even among the most familiar invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.) is a prominent invasive plant and an example of quasi-wild species, which has experienced repeated introduction, cultivation, and escape back to the wild. Here, we review a large body of primary scientific and historic records spanning thousands of years to characterize the complex relationships among kudzu, its natural enemies, and humans, and provide a synthesis and conceptual model relevant to the ecology and management of quasi-wild invasive species. We documented over 350, mostly insect, natural enemy species and their impacts on kudzu in its native East Asian range. These natural enemies play a minor role in limiting kudzu in its native range, rarely generating severe impacts on populations of wild kudzu. We identified a number of significant influences of humans including dispersal, diverse cultural selection, and facilitation through disturbances, which catalyzed the expansion and exuberance of kudzu. On the other hand, harvest by humans appears to be the major control mechanism in its native areas. Humans thus have a complex relationship with kudzu. They have acted as both friend and foe, affecting the distribution and abundance of kudzu in ways that vary across its range and over time. Our conceptual model of kudzu emphasizes the importance of multiple human dimensions in shaping the biogeography of a species and illustrates how kudzu and other quasi-wild species are more likely to be successful invaders. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.(outside the USA).

  20. Seasonal variations in the isoflavonoids of radix Puerariae.

    PubMed

    Sibao, Chen; Dajian, Yang; Shilin, Chen; Hongx, Xu; Chan, Albert S C

    2007-01-01

    The variations in isoflavonoid content in Radix Puerariae, the root of Pueraria lobata (Wild) Ohwi, have been examined in order to determine the optimum time to harvest the herb. Total isoflavonoid contents have been analysed by a UV spectrophotometric method whilst HPLC with photodiode array detection has been used to monitor the contents of seven major individual isoflavonoids, namely, 3'-hydroxypuerarin, puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, genistin, formononetin-7-glucoside and daidzein. Ninety-six samples of Radix Puerariae of different ages and harvested in different months were collected and analysed. The results clearly showed that 3-year-old roots harvested in January have the highest yields of isoflavonoid compounds. Moreover, the results obtained by both methods have a strong correlation. This suggested that the simple and fast UV spectrophotometric method could be used for monitoring the phytochemical quality of Radix Puerariae.

  1. Consumption of Pueraria flower extract reduces body mass index via a decrease in the visceral fat area in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Takano, Akira; Matsuzuka, Yuki; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Kondo, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, kudzu is a familiar plant, well-known as an ingredient in the Japanese-style confections kudzu-kiri and kudzu-mochi. In this study, we focused on the flower of kudzu (Pueraria thomsonii) and conducted a clinical trial to investigate the effects of Pueraria thomsonii flower extract (PFE) on obesity using obese Japanese males and females (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Eighty-one obese subjects were randomly divided into three groups and consumed test food containing 300 mg of PFE, 200 mg of PFE, and a placebo over 12 weeks. The results indicate that PFE intake reduces BMI and decreases, the visceral fat area, but not the subcutaneous fat area. In addition, the decrease in visceral fat area showed no sexual dimorphism. Consequently, we propose that PFE intake expresses its BMI reduction effects via a decrease in visceral fat area.

  2. Evolution of the isoprene biosynthetic pathway in kudzu.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Thomas D; Yeh, Sansun; Wiberley, Amy E; Falbel, Tanya G; Gong, Deming; Fernandez, Donna E

    2005-02-01

    Isoprene synthase converts dimethylallyl diphosphate, derived from the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, to isoprene. Isoprene is made by some plants in substantial amounts, which affects atmospheric chemistry, while other plants make no isoprene. As part of our long-term study of isoprene synthesis, the genetics of the isoprene biosynthetic pathway of the isoprene emitter, kudzu (Pueraria montana), was compared with similar genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which does not make isoprene. The MEP pathway genes in kudzu were similar to the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. Isoprene synthase genes of kudzu and aspen (Populus tremuloides) were cloned to compare their divergence with the divergence seen in MEP pathway genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the terpene synthase gene family indicated that isoprene synthases are either within the monoterpene synthase clade or sister to it. In Arabidopsis, the gene most similar to isoprene synthase is a myrcene/ocimene (acyclic monoterpenes) synthase. Two phenylalanine residues found exclusively in isoprene synthases make the active site smaller than other terpene synthase enzymes, possibly conferring specificity for the five-carbon substrate rather than precursors of the larger isoprenoids. Expression of the kudzu isoprene synthase gene in Arabidopsis caused Arabidopsis to emit isoprene, indicating that whether or not a plant emits isoprene depends on whether or not it has a terpene synthase capable of using dimethylallyl diphosphate.

  3. Fruits and foliage of Pueraria (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) from the Neogene of Eurasia and their biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Manchester, Steven R; Dilcher, David L

    2010-12-01

    Pueraria (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) is native in East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania and is well known as a rampant invasive weed in the southeastern United States (P. montana; better known as kudzu), but relatively little is known about its early evolution and biogeographic origin. • On the basis of comparative analyses of the fruit and leaflet architecture of closely related extant and fossil taxa, we studied the fossil history and biogeography of Pueraria. • Fossil Pueraria is recognized on the basis of distinctive fruit and foliage from the Mio-Pliocene of middle latitudes in China, Japan, Abkhazia, and Croatia. Recognition of P. miothunbergiana from the Mio-Pliocene of China and Japan is reinforced by a trifoliolate leaf as well as isolated lateral and terminal leaflets. Pueraria shanwangensis sp. nov. represents the first recognition of fossil Pueraria fruits. This fruit species co-occurs with P. miothunbergiana in the Middle Miocene Shanwang flora and possibly represents the same population. Pueraria maxima (Unger) comb. nov., previously named as Dolichites maximus or Desmodium maximum, is recognized on the basis of leaflets from the Miocene of Croatia and Abkhazia. Other prior fossil reports of Pueraria and Dolichites are reevaluated. • Pueraria had begun to diversify by at least the Middle Miocene and had spread into the Mio-Pliocene subtropical and temperate floras of the Balkan Peninsula, the Caucasus, and eastern Asia, which suggests the present diversity of this genus in tropical Asia and Oceania might have originated from the mid-latitudes of Eurasia.

  4. [Identification of three-step IR spectra of radix Puerariae from different habitats].

    PubMed

    Han, Ming-Xia; Zhou, Qun; Li, Quan-Hong; Sun, Su-Qin

    2009-07-01

    The IR spectra method and 2D-IR correlation spectra method were used for the identification of radix puerariae from Baxian mountain in Tianjin, Huping mountain in Hunan and Jinfo mountain in Chongqing. The results show that the IR spectra (the first identification) and the second derivative spectra (the second identification) of kudzu roots from different habitats have some similarity. Compared with the spectra of amylum and puerarin, three samples are all rich in amylum, and have some puerarin. The primary difference is the 62 wave numbers between the strongest peak of Tianjin kudzu at 1 048 cm(-1) and amylum at 986 cm(-1), showing that the content of amylum is lower. Radix puerariae from Tianjin has characteristic peaks consistent with those of puerarin at 891, 835 and 797 cm(-1), which means that radix puerariae from Tianjin has more puerarin. In the 2D-IR correlation spectra (the third identification), the three kinds of radix puerariae have the difference in position and the intensity of the correlation peak cluster. Therefore, the three-step IR macro-fingerprint provides a rapid and effective method for the identification of radix puerariae from the different habitats.

  5. Identification of a naturally-occurring 8-[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]daidzein from cultivated kudzu root.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Dao; Min, Byoung-Cheol; Kyung, Myung-Ok; Park, Jong-Tae; Lee, Byong Hoon; Choi, Chung-Hyo; Seo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Yong-Ro; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Sung-Joon; Park, Cheon-Seok; Kim, Jung-Wan; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    Kudzu root (Radix puerariae) is a rich source of isoflavones that are effective in preventing osteoporosis, heart disease and symptoms associated with menopause. The major isoflavonoids in kudzu root extracts were reported as puerarin, daidzin and daidzein. Recently, an unknown isoflavonoid (compound 1) was detected from one-year-old kudzu root cultivated in Vietnam. To identify a novel compound 1 in kudzu root extract and determine the structure of the compound by ESI(+) TOF MS-MS, (1)H-, (13)C-NMR and enzymatic hydrolysis. Samples were prepared by extraction of one-year-old kudzu root with 50% ethanol and the isoflavonoids were purified using recycling preparative HPLC. Unknown compound 1 was detected using UV-light at 254 nm in TLC and HPLC analyses. The molecular weight of 1 was determined using a TOF mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ion source. The structure of 1 was determined from the (13)C and (1)H NMR spectra recorded at 100.40 and 400.0 MHz, respectively. ESI(+) TOF MS-MS analysis shows that 1 is a puerarin diglycoside. The interglycosidic linkage of diglycoside determined by (1)H-, (13)C-NMR, and enzymatic hydrolysis suggests that 1 has a glucosyl residue linked to puerarin by an alpha-1,6-glycosidic bond. This compound is the first naturally-occurring 8-[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]daidzein in kudzu root. The concentration of glucosyl-alpha-1,6-puerarin in kudzu root was 2.3 mg/g as determined by HPLC. The results indicate that puerarin diglycoside is one of the major isoflavonoids in kudzu root and has a significant impact on the preparation of highly water-soluble glycosylated puerarin.

  6. Rapid analysis of Radix puerariae by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ching-Ching; Chan, Chi-On; Chau, Foo-Tim; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah

    2009-03-13

    A new, rapid analytical method using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was developed to differentiate two species of Radix puerariae (GG), Pueraria lobata (YG) and Pueraria thomsonii (FG), and to determine the contents of puerarin, daidzin and total isoflavonoid in the samples. Five isoflavonoids, puerarin, daidzin, daidzein, genistin and genistein were analyzed simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The total isoflavonoid content was exploited as critical parameter for successful discrimination of the two species. Scattering effect and baseline shift in the NIR spectra were corrected and the spectral features were enhanced by several pre-processing methods. By using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling class analogy (SIMCA), samples were separated successfully into two different clusters corresponding to the two GG species. Furthermore, sensitivity and specificity of the classification models were determined to evaluate the performance. Finally, partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to build the correlation models. The results showed that the correlation coefficients of the prediction models are R=0.970 for the puerarin, R=0.939 for daidzin and R=0.969 for total isoflavonoid. The outcome showed that NIRS can serve as routine screening in the quality control of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM).

  7. Herbicide Tests For Kudzu Eradication

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller; Ronald E. True

    1986-01-01

    Kudzu control treatments using 15 herbicides at 1 and 2 rates were tested at six locations in Georgia and Alabama. Treatments and retreatments occurred over a 2-year period. Tordon® 101 Mixture at 2 gal/acre was the most cost-effective treatment, averaging about $77 per acre for herbicide costs. Tordon® 10K Pellets (presently not being manufactured) gave slightly...

  8. Kudzu response to foliar applied herbicides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemical control is presently the most cost-effective means to control kudzu, however, many of the herbicides labeled for kudzu control have substantial non-target toxicity, poor selectivity, high cost, long soil persistence, high soil mobility and / or high use rates. The present study evaluated ot...

  9. Kudzu in Alabama History, Uses, and Control

    Treesearch

    John W. Everest; James H. Miller; Donald M. Ball; Mike Patterson

    1999-01-01

    Probably the main reason people have difficulty in controlling kudzu is that they give up too easily. Eradication, not merely a population reduction, is essential for permanent control. It is important to follow initial treatments with spot applications for as long as new sprouts continue to appear. If follow-up treatments are not exercised, kudzu's quick growth...

  10. Seasonal occurrence and interspecific interactions of egg parasitoids of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Japan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted a field study to determine seasonal egg parasitism rates of the kudzu bug Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) on the kudzu plant, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen et Almeida ex Sanjappa and Pradeep in Tokyo, Japan during the period from May 2014 to September 2014. ...

  11. Towards Biological Control of Kudzu Through an Improved Understanding of Insect-Kudzu Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, D.; Barber, G.; DeBarr, G.; Thornton, M.

    2001-08-03

    The authors evaluated various approaches to the biological control of kudzu and exotic weed that infests the SRS. A large number of native pollinators were found to be attracted to kudzu. The viability of seed was found to be low, between 2% and 11%. This is the result of native Hemiptera. The results suggest that seed feeding insects should not be targeted for importation. Both kudzu and soybeans had the same level of abundance and diversity of herbivore insects and the same levels of defoliation. No vine or root damaging species were found. Efforts should be targeted to the latter insects to control kudzu.

  12. Effects of Dietary Isoflavones from Puerariae Radix on Lipid and Bone Metabolism in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Yun Tai

    2013-01-01

    Puerariae radix, the dried root of Pueraria lobata Ohwi, is one of the earliest and most important edible crude herbs used for various medical purposes in oriental medicine. This study evaluated the metabolic effects of total isoflavones from P. lobata (PTIF) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The OVX rats were divided into four groups treated with distilled water, 17β-estradiol (E2 10 μg/kg, once daily, i.p.) and PTIF (30 and 100 mg/kg, once daily, p.o.) for eight weeks. The treatments with high-dose PTIF significantly decreased the bone mineral density (BMD) loss in the femur and inhibited the increase in body weight and lipoprotein levels compared to the OVX-control group without elevating the serum levels of the liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). Furthermore, PTIF exhibits a hepatoprotective effect in OVX-induced hepatic steatosis, indicated with reduced hepatic lipid contents. Taken together, our findings suggest that PTIF may be useful for controlling lipid and bone metabolism, at least in OVX rats. Further research is necessary to determine whether PTIF will have the same effects in humans. PMID:23867712

  13. Effects of dietary isoflavones from Puerariae radix on lipid and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Yun Tai

    2013-07-17

    Puerariae radix, the dried root of Pueraria lobata Ohwi, is one of the earliest and most important edible crude herbs used for various medical purposes in oriental medicine. This study evaluated the metabolic effects of total isoflavones from P. lobata (PTIF) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The OVX rats were divided into four groups treated with distilled water, 17β-estradiol (E2 10 μg/kg, once daily, i.p.) and PTIF (30 and 100 mg/kg, once daily, p.o.) for eight weeks. The treatments with high-dose PTIF significantly decreased the bone mineral density (BMD) loss in the femur and inhibited the increase in body weight and lipoprotein levels compared to the OVX-control group without elevating the serum levels of the liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). Furthermore, PTIF exhibits a hepatoprotective effect in OVX-induced hepatic steatosis, indicated with reduced hepatic lipid contents. Taken together, our findings suggest that PTIF may be useful for controlling lipid and bone metabolism, at least in OVX rats. Further research is necessary to determine whether PTIF will have the same effects in humans.

  14. A rapid method for simultaneous determination of 14 phenolic compounds in Radix Puerariae using microwave-assisted extraction and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Du, G; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, Q W; Li, G H; Yang, F Q; Wang, Y; Li, Y C; Wang, Y T

    2010-01-29

    A microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-TOF-MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 14 phenolic compounds in the root of Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi and Pueraria thomsonii Benth. Operational conditions of MAE were optimized by central composite design (CCD). The optimized result was 65% ethanol as extraction solvent, 17mL of extraction volume, 100 degrees C of extraction temperature and 2min of hold time. A Zorbax SB C(18) (50mmx4.6mm I.D., 1.8microm) and gradient elution were used during the analysis. The chromatographic peaks of 14 investigated compounds in samples were successfully identified by comparing their retention time, UV spectra and TOF mass data with the reference substances. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.9997) within the test ranges. The intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 1.77% and 2.88%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to determine the investigated compounds in 10 samples of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii, respectively. The result indicated that MAE and UHPLC-DAD-TOF-MS system might provide a rapid method for the quality control of Radix Puerariae.

  15. Kudzu's invasion into Southern United states life and culture

    Treesearch

    Richard J. Blaustein

    2001-01-01

    Kudzu, a perennial vine native to Japan and China, was first introduced into the USA in 1876 and was actively promoted by the government as a "wonderplant", It expanded to cover over 1 million ha by 1946 and well over 2 million ha today. When Kudzu invades a forest, it prevents the growth of young hardwoods and kills off other plants. Kudzu causes damage to...

  16. Oral toxicological studies of pueraria flower extract: acute toxicity study in mice and subchronic toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Takano, Akira; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Kinjo, Junei

    2013-11-01

    Kudzu has been widely used as an herbal medicine in China. The root of the kudzu is also well known as an antipyretic and analgesic in treatment of the common cold, while its flower has been used to treat alcohol intoxication, alcohol abuse, and dysentery. Pueraria flower extract (PFE) is a hot water extract derived from the flower of the kudzu, Pueraria thomsonii Benth. (Fabaceae), oral intake of which exhibits anti-obesity properties in mice and humans. In this study, we conducted acute and subchronic toxicity studies for an evaluation of safety. In the acute study, PFE (5 g/kg body weight) was orally administered to ddY mice. For 14 d after administration, no deaths or abnormal changes were observed in general signs, body weight (BW), or food consumption, and no abnormal findings were observed in the major organs and tissues of either males or females at necropsy. The oral LD50 of PFE was therefore estimated to be higher than 5 g/kg BW. In the subchronic study, PFE was mixed into the diet in place of powdered CRF-1 and administered at concentrations of 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.5%, and 5.0% to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 d. No mortality or toxicological changes were observed during the experimental period. Blood biochemical, hematological, and urinary parameters revealed no toxicologically significant changes. Furthermore, no anatomical or histopathological changes due to PFE were observed. The no-observed adverse-effect-level of PFE was thus estimated to be 5.0% in the diet (male: 3.0 g/kg BW/d; female: 3.5 g/kg BW/d).

  17. The differential anti-proliferation effect of white (Pueraria mirifica), red (Butea superba), and black (Mucuna collettii) Kwao Krua plants on the growth of MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Cherdshewasart, W; Cheewasopit, W; Picha, P

    2004-08-01

    The differential anti-proliferation effect of white (Pueraria mirifica), red (Butea superba) and black (Mucuna collettii) Kwao Krua plant extracts on the growth of MCF-7 cells was evaluated after 4 days of incubation. The percent cell growth comparison was based on protein determination of the harvested cells in parallel with the control group and Pueraria lobata treatment group. Pueraria lobata led to no proliferation and a mild anti-proliferation effect on the growth of MCF-7 cells. Pueraria mirifica caused proliferation at 1 microg/mL and an anti-proliferative effect on the growth of MCF-7 cells at 100 and 1000 microg/mL with an ED50 value of 642.83 microg/mL. Butea superba led to no proliferation and an anti-proliferation effect on the growth of MCF-7 cells at 10, 100 and 1000 microg/mL with an ED50 value of 370.91 microg/mL. Mucuna collettii led to no proliferation and an anti-proliferation effect on the growth of MCF-7 cells at 100 and 1000 microg/mL with an ED50 value of 85.36 microg/mL. The results demonstrated that only Pueraria mirifica showed an estrogenic effect on MCF-7 cell growth and a clear antagonistic effect with E2 at high concentration. Butea superba and Mucuna collettii exhibited only anti-proliferation effects on the growth of MCF-7 cells in relation with a possible anti-estrogen mechanism or a potent cytotoxic effect.

  18. Profiling and quantification of isoflavonoids in kudzu dietary supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Prasain, Jeevan K; Jones, Kenneth; Kirk, Marion; Wilson, Landon; Smith-Johnson, Michelle; Weaver, Connie; Barnes, Stephen

    2003-07-16

    The kudzu vine (Pueraria sp.) is a rich source of isoflavones. Dietary supplements based on kudzu have become commercially available. In the present study, liquid chromatography coupled with negative and positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and diode array detection (DAD) has been used for the detection and characterization of isoflavonoids in kudzu dietary supplements (KDS). The MS/MS spectrum of the protonated ion of puerarin showed characteristic product ions of the C-glycoside unit itself, whereas daidzin generated an abundant Y(0)(+) aglycon ion in its product ion spectrum. A base peak due to the loss of 120 Da [M + H - 120](+) is the diagnostic ion for C-glycosides. Neutral loss scans allowed for the detection of other C- and O-glycosides in the methanolic extract of KDS, and their structures have been proposed. The concentration of isoflavonoids in the methanolic extract of commercially available KDS was quantified by using DAD-HPLC. Puerarin, rather than daidzin, was the most abundant component (8.44-30.60 mg/capsule) in commercially available KDS.

  19. 78 FR 56505 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Georgia Rockcress

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... sinense (Chinese privet) and Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), threaten this site (Alison 1999, p... azedarach (Chinaberry or bead-tree), Japanese honeysuckle, and Pueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu) are..., including Chinese privet and Japanese honeysuckle, are present but not severe. Timber harvesting...

  20. Interactions of Quinclorac with a bioherbicidal strain of Myrothecium verrucaria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In our laboratory, the fungus, Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (IMI Accession No. 3601690) (MV), is being developed as a bioherbicide for kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi] and other invasive weeds. We have found that spore and mycelial formulations of MV exhibit relatively rapid bioher...

  1. Puerarin, isolated from Pueraria lobata (Willd.), protects against diabetic nephropathy by attenuating oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Zheng, Ni; Chen, Zhaoni; Huang, Wansu; Liang, Tao; Kuang, Hai

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of puerarin (PR) on diabetic nephropathy (DN) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr), as well as 24-hour urine protein levels were effectively ameliorated in DN mice treated with PR (20, 40, 80mg/kg/day). Furthermore, PR treatment markedly resulted in down-regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in kidney. Interestingly, the activities of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased by PR. An improvement in kidney tissue damage could be observed after PR administration. Further ultrastructural investigation revealed a dramatically ameliorative effect of PR on mitochondrial damage. Meanwhile, the silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and alpha subunit of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) expressions were significantly up-regulated at protein level by PR administration in renal cortex. However, the protein expression of nuclear-factor kappa B (NF-κB) was down-regulated in PR groups. Our present study demonstrates the hypoglycemic and renal protective effects of PR in DN mice, which support its anti-diabetic property. PR exerts its renal protection effect probably via the mechanism of attenuating SIRT1/FOXO1 pathway for renal protection.

  2. The crude extract from puerariae flower exerts antiobesity and antifatty liver effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Sameshima-Kamiya, Mayu; Nagamine, Rika; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Shimada, Tsutomu; Aburada, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu, a leguminous plant, has long been used in folk medicine. In particular, its flowers are used in Japanese and Chinese folk medicine for treating hangovers. We focused on the flower of Kudzu (Puerariae thomsonii), and we previously reported the antiobesity effect of Puerariae thomsonii flower extract (PFE) in humans. In this study, we conducted an animal study to investigate the effect of PFE on visceral fat and hepatic lipid levels in mice with diet-induced obesity. In addition, we focused on gene expression profiles to investigate the antiobesity mechanism of PFE. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or an HFD supplemented with 5% PFE for 14 days. PFE supplementation significantly reduced body weight and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight. Moreover, in the histological analysis, PFE supplementation improved fatty liver. Hepatic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that PFE supplementation downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression. For adipose tissue, the expressions of hormone-sensitive lipase in WAT and uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) were significantly upregulated. These results suggest that PFE exerts antiobesity and antifatty liver effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice through suppressing lipogenesis in the liver, stimulating lipolysis in WAT, and promoting thermogenesis in BAT.

  3. Water stress, temperature, and light effects on isoprene emission and photosynthesis of Kudzu leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, T.D.; Loreto, F. )

    1993-05-01

    Kudzu (Pueraia lobata (Willd) Ohwi.) emits isoprene, a hydrocarbon which can significantly affect atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene emission under standard conditions of 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1] and 30[degrees]C developed only after the leaf bad reached full expansion and was not maximal until up to two weeks past the point of full expansion of the leaf. Isoprene emission from kudzu was stimulated by increases in temperature and photon flux density (up to 3000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]s[sup [minus]1]). For unstressed plants, 20 % of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis was reemitted as isoprene at 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1]. Following the relief of water stress, photosynthesis recovered to the prestress rate but isoprene emission increased up to five times the prestress rate. At 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1] and 35[degrees]C, 67% of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis was reemitted as isoprene eight days after water stress. For some leaves the rate of isoprene emission exceeded 500 nmol[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1], substantially higher than ever reported before. Leaves of plants grown at less than 20[degrees]C did not make isoprene until an inductive treatment was given. Withholding water from plants or keeping leaves at 30[degrees]C induced isoprene emission. The observation of rapid and dramatic changes in the rate of isoprene emission from leaves in response to water stress and temperature may indicate that isoprene emission improves the ability of plants to cope with these conditions. With the new information on temperature and water stress effects on isoprene emission we speculate on possible reasons for isoprene emission from plants.

  4. Population census of Megacopta cribraria in kudzu in Georgia, USA, 2013-2016

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kudzu bug populations, predators, and parasitoid and fungal infection rates in 7 kudzu patches were censused from 2013 through 2016 in north-central and southern Georgia. Within these sites, the terminal growth where most eggs are oviposited of 25 randomly selected kudzu vines at the patch edge, fr...

  5. Comparative Feeding and Development of Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera Noctuidae) on Kudzu and Soybean Foliage

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, K.A.; Orr, D.B.

    2000-04-10

    Kudzu is a close relative of soybean and is a widely distributed exotic weed in the southern U.S. The biology of the soybean looper was studied to better understand the foraging behavior of this species on kudzu. Insects feeding on kudzu had higher mortality, longer development and lower pupal weights than those fed on soybean. Foliage consumption did not differ between treatments and nutritional quality between soybean and kudzu did not differ. In an oviposition test, females readily used kudzu if it was the only species available, but when soybean was provided more eggs were deposited on soybean.

  6. Simultaneous determination of isoflavones, saponins and flavones in Flos Puerariae by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Xie, Yuanyuan; Tan, Yao; Qu, Jialin; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Yuan, Dan

    2013-01-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF/MS) method is established for the rapid analysis of isoflavones, saponins and flavones in 16 samples originated from the flowers of Pueraria lobata and P. thomsonii. A total of 25 isoflavones, 13 saponins and 3 flavones were identified by co-chromatography of sample extract with authentic standards and comparing the retention time, UV spectra, characteristic molecular ions and fragment ions with those of authentic standards, or tentatively identified by MS/MS determination along with Mass Fragment software. Moreover, the method was validated for the simultaneous quantification of 29 components. The samples from two Pueraria flowers significantly differed in the quality and quantity of isoflavones, saponins and flavones, which allows the possibility of showing their chemical distinctness, and may be useful in their standardization and quality control. Dataset obtained from UPLC-MS was processed with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to holistically compare the difference between both Pueraria flowers.

  7. Preparation of monomeric and polymeric β-cyclodextrin functionalized monoliths for rapid isolation and purification of puerarin from Radix puerariae.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yongqin; Hughes, Timothy C; Hao, Xiaojuan; Mei, Danping; Tan, Tianwei

    2011-08-01

    Monomeric and epichlorohydrin polymerized β-CD functionalized monoliths were prepared for the rapid isolation and purification of the isoflavonoid puerarin, a well-known traditional Chinese drug, from a crude extract of Radix puerariae (root of the plant Pueraria lobata). Two copolymers poly(isocyanatoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(IEM-co-MMA-co-EDMA)) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-EDMA) (poly(GMA-co-EDMA)) were developed as facile, highly reactive and versatile monolithic matrix. SEM characterization demonstrated that the modified monoliths had homogenous porous structure and morphology. The success of the chemical modification of the monolithic matrix was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), solid-state (13) C NMR and elemental analysis. It was demonstrated that polymeric β-CD modified monoliths had better separation and selectivity for puerarin, recovering puerarin with a purity of 96% (m%) and a yield of 93% (m%). Compared with poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-EDMA), poly(isocyanatoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co-EDMA) monolithic matrix had higher reactivity, which significantly improved the β-CD ligand density and thus the selectivity of the monoliths. Puerarin with a purity of 96% (m%) and with a yield of 89% (m%) was recovered on the monolith.

  8. A new isoflavone glycoside from Pueraria alopecuroides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junlin; Fan, Qingfei; Zhang, Huanli; Song, Qishi

    2016-01-01

    A new isoflavone glycoside, (-)-tuberosin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), along with 10 known compounds 1a-10, was isolated from Pueraria alopecuroides. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS. These compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  9. The Chinese Pueraria root extract (Pueraria lobota) ameliorates impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Prasain, Jeevan K.; Peng, Ning; Rajbhandari, Rajani; Wyss, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic disease is rapidly increasing, but effective therapies for their prevention and treatment have been poorly tolerated or minimally effective. In this study, chronic administration of kudzu root extract (8 months, 0.2% w/w in diet) decreased baseline fasting plasma glucose (183±14 vs 148±11 mg/dl) and improved glucose and insulin tolerance in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice (1.67±0.17 ng/ml [kudzu treated] vs. 2.35±0.63 ng/ml [control]), but such treatment did not alter these parameters in lean control mice. Among the mice on the kudzu supplementation, plasma levels of isoflavone metabolites were significantly higher in ob/ob versus lean control mice, and unmetabolized puerarin (11.50±5.63 ng/gram) was found in adipose tissue only in the treated mice. Together, these data demonstrate that a puerarin containing kudzu diet improves glucose and insulin responsiveness in ob/ob mice, suggesting that puerarin may be a beneficial adjuvant for treating metabolic disease. PMID:23123226

  10. Kinetic modeling of the adsorption of basic dyes by kudzu.

    PubMed

    Allen, Stephen J; Gan, Quan; Matthews, Ronan; Johnson, Pauline A

    2005-06-01

    The use of kudzu, a rapidly growing, high-climbing perennial leguminous vine, for the adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution has been investigated at various initial dye concentrations, masses of kudzu, and agitation rates. The extent and rate of adsorption of the three basic dyes (Basic Red 22, Basic Yellow 21, and Basic Blue 3) were analyzed using a pseudo-first-order and a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. While both rate mechanisms provided an acceptable degree of correlation with the experimental sorption rate data, the pseudo-second-order model gave a much higher degree of correlation, suggesting that this model could be used in design and simulation applications.

  11. [Preventive effects of pueraria on presbycusis in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wangyan; Yao, Qi; Liu, Weihong; Zhang, Bibo; Wang, Ying; Liu, Bo

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the preventive effects of Pueraria on presbycusis in rats. Thirty-two 24-26 month old Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, and were treated with different dosages of Pueraria (1, 2, 4, 0 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) separately for 4 weeks. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to detect the change of hearing threshold of rats. Hemorheological items of rats were checked in each group. Compared with control group, the hearing threshold and hemorheological items of rats was significantly improved after treated with Pueraria (P<0.05). In addition, 2 g/(kg x d) was found to be the best dosage of Pueraria for rats, which can achieve ideal effect with minimum side effect. Pueraria could improve tiny circulation, has good preventive effect on presbycusis of rats.

  12. ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF Sida retusa, Urena lobata AND Triumfetta rhomboidea.

    PubMed

    Lissy, K P; Simon, Thara K; Lathab, M S

    2006-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Sida retusa Linn.(Malvaceae),Urena lobata Linn.(Malvaceae)and Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.(Teliaceae) roots were found to inhibit lipid peroxidation, scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The quantity of S.retusa root extract required for 50% inhibition of lipid peroxidation, scavenging hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical was 1130.24 ug/ml respectively. IC 50 of root extract of U.lobata was 470.60 ug/ml, 1627.35ug/ml and 1109.24 ug/ml for superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation respectively. T.rhomboidea root extract required for IC 50 was 336.65 ug/ml, 1346.03 ug/ml and 1004.22 ug/ml for superoxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation respectively. The present investigation indicated that S. retusa, U.lobata and T.rhomboidea possessed significant antioxidant activity.

  13. A comparative survey of leguminous plants as sources of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein: implications for human nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, P B; Duke, J A; Brielmann, H; Boik, J; Hoyt, J E

    1997-01-01

    Over 80 taxa of mostly agriculturally important legumes were surveyed as sources of the metabolites, genistein and daidzein. Remarkably high concentrations (over 2 g.kg-1 dry weight) of the anticancer metabolite, genistein, were found in the leaves of Psoralea corylifolia (Indian bread root). All other legumes, with the exception of fermented soybean miso, had genistein levels < 400 mg.kg-1 dry weight. Concentrations of over 1 g.kg-1 dry weight and 0.95 g.kg-1 dry weight of the anticancer metabolite, daidzein, were found in the stems of the fava bean (Vicia faba) and roots of kudzu vine (Pueraria lobata), respectively. From this survey, our results indicate that the legumes, lupine (Lupinus spp.), fava bean, (Vicia faba), soybeans (Glycine max), kudzu (Pueraria lobata), and psoralea (Psoralea corylifolia), are excellent food sources for both genistein and daidzein. Miso, a fermented soybean product, is also a rich source of both isoflavones.

  14. Comparison of treatments of controlling kudzu prior to planting tree seedlings

    Treesearch

    Andrew W. Ezell; Larry Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Seven herbicide treatments were applied to well-established patches of kudzu in Mississippi and South Carolina. Six treatments were applied at each location; five treatments were the same at both locations, and one treatment was applied at one site only. Treatments were evaluated for brownout of the kudzu at 30 and 60 days after treatment (DAT). Percent control of the...

  15. Management of kudzu by the bioherbicide, Myrothecium verrucaria, herbicides and integrated control programs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Replicated field plots were established and monitored for two years to evaluate management practices for kudzu. The bioherbical plant pathogen, Myrothecium verrucaria, several herbicides and a variety of integrated control programs achieved a high level of kudzu suppression, although no system test...

  16. Acute and Chronic Kudzu Improves Plasma Glucose Tolerance in Non-Diabetic CD-1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Scott; Prasain, Jeevan K; Peng, Ning; Dai, Yanying; Wyss, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that kudzu root extract and its major isoflavone (puerarin) improve glucose metabolism in animal models of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, these beneficial effects have not been investigated in normal glycemic mice. The present study investigates the effect of acute and chronic kudzu root extract supplementation on glucose tolerance in normoglycemic CD-1 mice. Male, adult CD-1 mice were fed a phytoestrogen-free diet containing 0.2% or 0.0% kudzu root extract for 6 weeks. Thereafter, they were acutely administered kudzu root extract (75 mg/kg BW; oral) or vehicle followed by a glucose challenge (2 g/kg BW; oral). In control fed mice, the acute glucose challenge increased blood glucose ~300% after 30 minutes, and acute kudzu root extract administration significantly blunted this response by ~50%. In mice chronically fed a kudzu-supplemented diet, glucose tolerance was improved, and acute treatment caused no additional improvement. Irrespective of treatment, all mice were normoglycemic at the start of each glucose challenge. Administration of insulin resulted in a larger decrease in blood glucose in chronic kudzu-supplemented compared to control mice. Co-administration of phloridzin (a specific inhibitor of SGLT-mediated glucose uptake), improved glucose tolerance in acutely kudzu-treated mice but had no significant effect on glucose tolerance in chronically treated mice. These results indicate that both acute and chronic administration of kudzu root extract improves glucose tolerance in a normal glycemic mouse strain and that the effects of chronic kudzu feeding may be mediated, in part, by enhanced insulin sensitivity (chronic) and inhibition of sodium dependent glucose transport.

  17. Acute and Chronic Kudzu Improves Plasma Glucose Tolerance in Non-Diabetic CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Scott; Prasain, Jeevan K.; Peng, Ning; Dai, Yanying; Wyss, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that kudzu root extract and its major isoflavone (puerarin) improve glucose metabolism in animal models of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, these beneficial effects have not been investigated in normal glycemic mice. The present study investigates the effect of acute and chronic kudzu root extract supplementation on glucose tolerance in normoglycemic CD-1 mice. Male, adult CD-1 mice were fed a phytoestrogen-free diet containing 0.2% or 0.0% kudzu root extract for 6 weeks. Thereafter, they were acutely administered kudzu root extract (75 mg/kg BW; oral) or vehicle followed by a glucose challenge (2 g/kg BW; oral). In control fed mice, the acute glucose challenge increased blood glucose ~300% after 30 minutes, and acute kudzu root extract administration significantly blunted this response by ~50%. In mice chronically fed a kudzu-supplemented diet, glucose tolerance was improved, and acute treatment caused no additional improvement. Irrespective of treatment, all mice were normoglycemic at the start of each glucose challenge. Administration of insulin resulted in a larger decrease in blood glucose in chronic kudzu-supplemented compared to control mice. Co-administration of phloridzin (a specific inhibitor of SGLT-mediated glucose uptake), improved glucose tolerance in acutely kudzu-treated mice but had no significant effect on glucose tolerance in chronically treated mice. These results indicate that both acute and chronic administration of kudzu root extract improves glucose tolerance in a normal glycemic mouse strain and that the effects of chronic kudzu feeding may be mediated, in part, by enhanced insulin sensitivity (chronic) and inhibition of sodium dependent glucose transport.

  18. Cardiovascular Protective Effects of Adjunctive Alternative Medicine (Salvia miltiorrhiza and Pueraria lobata) in High-Risk Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Woo, K. S.; Yip, Thomas W. C.; Chook, Ping; Kwong, S. K.; Szeto, C. C.; Li, June K. Y.; Yu, Alex W. Y.; Cheng, William K. F.; Chan, Thomas Y. K.; Fung, K. P.; Leung, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Hypertension in association with diabetes (DM), renal impairment (RI), and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) increases the risk of future cardiovascular events. We hypothesize, traditional herbal medicines Danshen and Gegen (D&G) have beneficial effects on atherogenesis in these high-risk hypertensive subjects. Subjects and Methods. 90 asymptomatic hypertensive subjects associated with LVH (63.3%), DM (62.2%), or RI (30%) were randomized to receive D&G herbal capsules 1 gm/day, 2 gm/day, or identical placebo capsules in double-blind and parallel fashion for 12 months. Brachial flow-mediated dilation (endothelium-dependent dilation, FMD) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured by ultrasound. All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences in Windows 16.0. Results. Their mean age was 55 ± 8 years, and 74.4% were male. After 12 months of adjunctive therapies and compared with baseline, there were no significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate, hematological, glucose, and creatinine profiles in both placebo and D&G groups. FMD improved significantly during D&G (P = 0.0001) and less so after placebo treatment (P = 0.001). There was a mild but significant decrease in carotid IMT after D&G (P < 0.001) but no significant changes after placebo. A trend of better improvement in FMD after higher versus lower D&G dosages was seen. D&G were well tolerated, with no significant adverse events or blood biochemistry changes. Conclusion. D&G adjunctive treatment was well tolerated and significantly improved atherogenesis in high-risk hypertensive patients, with potential in primary atherosclerosis prevention. PMID:23533460

  19. A new arbutin derivative from the leaves of Heliciopsis lobata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingsheng; Kang, Shengli; Zhang, Junqing; Zhang, Xiaopo

    2010-11-01

    A new arbutin derivative, 6'-(2,5-dihydroxycinnamoyl) arbutin, was isolated from the n-BuOH extract of leaves of Heliciopsis lobata (Merr.) Sleum. Its structure was characterised by extensive spectrometric methods, including 1-D and 2-D NMR experiments.

  20. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  1. Chronic dietary Kudzu Isoflavones Improve Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Stroke-prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ning; Prasain, Jeevan K.; Dai, Yanying; Moore, Ray; Arabshahi, Alireza; Barnes, Stephen; Carlson, Scott; Wyss, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested the long-term effects of dietary kudzu root extract supplementation on the regulation of arterial pressure, plasma glucose and circulating cholesterol in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SP-SHR). Female SP-SHR were maintained for 2 months on a polyphenol-free diet, with or without the addition of 0.2% kudzu root extract. One-half of the rats in each diet group were ovariectomized while the other half remained intact. Following 2 months on the diets, the 0.2% kudzu root extract supplementation (compared to control diet) significantly lowered arterial pressure (11–15 mm Hg), plasma cholesterol, fasting blood glucose (20%–30%) and fasting plasma insulin in both the ovariectomized and intact SP-SHR. These results indicate that long-term dietary kudzu root extract supplementation can improve glucose, lipid and blood pressure control in intact and ovariectomized SP-SHR. PMID:19938872

  2. Chronic dietary kudzu isoflavones improve components of metabolic syndrome in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ning; Prasain, Jeevan K; Dai, Yanying; Moore, Ray; Arabshahi, Alireza; Barnes, Stephen; Carlson, Scott; Wyss, J Michael

    2009-08-26

    The present study tested the long-term effects of dietary kudzu root extract supplementation on the regulation of arterial pressure, plasma glucose, and circulating cholesterol in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SP-SHR). Female SP-SHR were maintained for 2 months on a polyphenol-free diet, with or without the addition of 0.2% kudzu root extract. Half of the rats in each diet group were ovariectomized, whereas the other half remained intact. Following 2 months on the diets, the 0.2% kudzu root extract supplementation (compared to control diet) significantly lowered arterial pressure (11-15 mmHg), plasma cholesterol, fasting blood glucose (20-30%), and fasting plasma insulin in both the ovariectomized and intact SP-SHR. These results indicate that long-term dietary kudzu root extract supplementation can improve glucose, lipid, and blood pressure control in intact and ovariectomized SP-SHR.

  3. Kudzu Root Extract Does Not Perturb the Sleep/Wake Cycle of Moderate Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Penetar, David M.; Maclean, Robert Ross; Lukas, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives According to ancient Chinese medicine, kudzu root has been used as an ingredient to treat alcohol intoxication for centuries. Kudzu root extract is effective at reducing alcohol intake in animals and in humans, both in a natural-settings laboratory environment and on an outpatient basis. In dependent populations, withdrawal from alcohol is associated with disturbed sleep. These disturbances to the quantity and quality of sleep likely impact relapse to drinking. Many medications used to treat alcohol dependence also affect sleep. Therefore, as a possible treatment for alcohol dependence, the impact of kudzu root extract on the sleep/wake cycle is an important aspect of its effectiveness. Design This double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial tested the effects of kudzu root extract on the sleep/wake cycles of moderate drinkers. Results Kudzu extract had no effect on any of the sleep parameters measured, including sleep efficiency, sleep latency, total time asleep per night, number of waking episodes, time awake per episode, number of moving minutes, number of sleep episodes, time asleep per episode, and number of immobile minutes. Conclusions These data suggest that the administration of kudzu root extract does not disturb sleep/wake cycles of moderate drinkers, and as such its utility as an adjunct treatment for alcohol dependence remains free of any potential side-effects on sleep. PMID:22010780

  4. [Effects of extracts of root of kudzu vine on mammary gland and uterus development in rats].

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-ou; Jin, Huan; Niu, Jian-zhao; Wang, Ji-feng

    2003-06-01

    To study the effects of extracts of root of kudzu vine on mammary gland and uterus development in rats. 40 Wistar rats weighting 65-85 g were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, estrogen group, extracts of root of kudzu vine group of high dose, extracts of root of kudzu vine group of low dose. (10 rats in each group). After having been treated for 7 days, the rats were killed; mammary glands and uterus were removed and weighed. Serum was isolated and kept at 4 degrees C for determination of hormones. 1. Administration of the root of kudzu vine significantly increased the weigh of mammary gland and uterus in rats. 2. Administration of the root of kudzu vine increased serum FSH, LH, E2 and decreased PRL. Extracts of root of kudzu vine could enhance the weight of mammary gland and uterus growth in rats, which may provide experimental evidence for the development of new drug used for promoting mammary gland and uterus.

  5. Kudzu root extract does not perturb the sleep/wake cycle of moderate drinkers.

    PubMed

    Bracken, Bethany K; Penetar, David M; Maclean, Robert Ross; Lukas, Scott E

    2011-10-01

    According to ancient Chinese medicine, kudzu root has been used as an ingredient to treat alcohol intoxication for centuries. Kudzu root extract is effective at reducing alcohol intake in animals and in humans, both in a natural-settings laboratory environment and on an outpatient basis. In dependent populations, withdrawal from alcohol is associated with disturbed sleep. These disturbances to the quantity and quality of sleep likely impact relapse to drinking. Many medications used to treat alcohol dependence also affect sleep. Therefore, as a possible treatment for alcohol dependence, the impact of kudzu root extract on the sleep/wake cycle is an important aspect of its effectiveness. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial tested the effects of kudzu root extract on the sleep/wake cycles of moderate drinkers. Kudzu extract had no effect on any of the sleep parameters measured, including sleep efficiency, sleep latency, total time asleep per night, number of waking episodes, time awake per episode, number of moving minutes, number of sleep episodes, time asleep per episode, and number of immobile minutes. These data suggest that the administration of kudzu root extract does not disturb sleep/wake cycles of moderate drinkers, and as such its utility as an adjunct treatment for alcohol dependence remains free of any potential side-effects on sleep.

  6. Preventive effects of kudzu root on bone loss and cartilage degradation in ovariectomized rat

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunyun; Zheng, Shuang; Ding, Yujia; Dai, Yueqin; Zhou, Yi; Xiang, Ruifeng; Bay-Jensen, Anne C; Karsdal, Morten A; Qvist, Per; Zheng, Qinlong

    2017-01-01

    The clinical utility of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herbs/roots extracts in osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA) has been described in multiple reports, but there have been few studies of TCM for preventing bone loss and cartilage degradation simultaneously. Six-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats each were subjected to ovariectomized (OVX) or sham surgery and treated orally once daily with herbal extracts or vehicle. Body weight was recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected from fasting animals at different time points. Biochemical markers of bone resorption and cartilage degradation were analyzed. Changes in bone mineral density and calcium content were determined in the femoral center and femoral telocentric end of rats. Out of 56 TCM herbs/roots extracts, only kudzu root demonstrated consistent joint protective effects. OVX resulted in a marked increase in bone resorption and cartilage degradation, which could be significantly reversed by kudzu after three weeks of treatment. Compared to vehicle, kudzu induced a significant increase in bone mineral density in the femoral center and femoral telocentric end, and calcium content. The results show that kudzu exerts direct effects on articular cartilage in the OVX rat and can effectively prevent the acceleration of cartilage degradation induced by ovariectomy. Moreover, kudzu has demonstrated positive effects on metabolic health (cause a weight reduction) and may represent a possible treatment for OP and OA with high body mass index. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential effects of kudzu root in postmenopausal women. PMID:28804568

  7. A Single Dose of Kudzu Extract Reduces Alcohol Consumption in a Binge Drinking Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Penetar, David M.; Toto, Lindsay H.; Lee, David Y.-W.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overconsumption of alcohol has significant negative effects on an individual's health and contributes to an enormous economic impact on society as a whole. Pharmacotherapies to curb excessive drinking are important for treating alcohol use disorders. Methods Twenty (20) men participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, between subjects design experiment (n=10/group) that tested the effects of kudzu extract (Alkontrol-Herbal™) for its ability to alter alcohol consumption in a natural settings laboratory. A single dose of kudzu extract (2 grams total with an active isoflavone content of 520 mg) or placebo was administered 2.5 hours before the onset of a 90 minute afternoon drinking session during which participants had the opportunity to drink up to 6 beers ad libitum; water and juice were always available as alternative beverages. Results During the baseline session, the placebo-randomized group consumed 2.7 ± 0.78 beers before treatment and increased consumption to 3.4 ± 1.1 beers after treatment. The kudzu group significantly reduced consumption from 3.0 ± 1.7 at baseline to 1.9 ± 1.3 beers after treatment. The placebo-treated group opened 33 beers during baseline conditions and 38 following treatment whereas the kudzu-treated group opened 32 beers during baseline conditions and only 21 following treatment. Additionally, kudzu-treated participants drank slower. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that a single dose of kudzu extract quickly reduces alcohol consumption in a binge drinking paradigm. These data add to the mounting clinical evidence that kudzu extract may be a safe and effective adjunctive pharmacotherapy for alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:26048637

  8. Both soybean and kudzu phytoestrogens modify favorably the blood lipoprotein profile in ovariectomized and castrated hamsters.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lei; Yeung, Sai Ying Venus; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2006-06-28

    The present study compared the hypolipidemic activity of kudzu phytoestrogens with that of soybean phytoestrogen in estrogen- and androgen-deficient hamsters. In the first experiment, ovariectomized hamsters (n = 37) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 9-10 each group). The first group was the control group, whereas the second group had the time-releasing estradiol-17beta subcutaneous (pellet) implants as a positive control. The third and fourth groups were orally administered soybean or kudzu phytoestrogen extracts (30 mg/kg of body weight) per day. In the second experiments, the first group of male hamsters (n = 9) received a sham operation, whereas the other three groups of male hamsters (n = 9 each) were castrated. The castrated control group received orally distilled water, whereas the second and third castrated groups were orally given 30 mg/kg soybean or kudzu phytoestrogen extracts. The results for the first experiment showed that the ovariectomized hamsters orally given soybean and kudzu phytoestrogen extracts had significantly decreased serum total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) with HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) being unaffected. The data from the second experiment demonstrated that administration of soybean but not kudzu phytoestrogen extracts decreased significantly serum TC. However, administration of kudzu phytoestrogens caused redistribution of cholesterol among lipoproteins, leading to a significant decrease in the ratio of non-HDL-C to HDL-C. It was concluded that both soybean and kudzu phytoestrogens could modify favorably lipoprotein profiles in ovariectomized and castrated hamsters.

  9. A single dose of kudzu extract reduces alcohol consumption in a binge drinking paradigm.

    PubMed

    Penetar, David M; Toto, Lindsay H; Lee, David Y-W; Lukas, Scott E

    2015-08-01

    Overconsumption of alcohol has significant negative effects on an individual's health and contributes to an enormous economic impact on society as a whole. Pharmacotherapies to curb excessive drinking are important for treating alcohol use disorders. Twenty (20) men participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, between subjects design experiment (n=10/group) that tested the effects of kudzu extract (Alkontrol-Herbal™) for its ability to alter alcohol consumption in a natural settings laboratory. A single dose of kudzu extract (2g total with an active isoflavone content of 520mg) or placebo was administered 2.5h before the onset of a 90min afternoon drinking session during which participants had the opportunity to drink up to 6 beers ad libitum; water and juice were always available as alternative beverages. During the baseline session, the placebo-randomized group consumed 2.7±0.78 beers before treatment and increased consumption to 3.4±1.1 beers after treatment. The kudzu group significantly reduced consumption from 3.0±1.7 at baseline to 1.9±1.3 beers after treatment. The placebo-treated group opened 33 beers during baseline conditions and 38 following treatment whereas the kudzu-treated group opened 32 beers during baseline conditions and only 21 following treatment. Additionally, kudzu-treated participants drank slower. This is the first demonstration that a single dose of kudzu extract quickly reduces alcohol consumption in a binge drinking paradigm. These data add to the mounting clinical evidence that kudzu extract may be a safe and effective adjunctive pharmacotherapy for alcohol abuse and dependence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Kudzu Extract Treatment Does Not Increase the Intoxicating Effects of Acute Alcohol in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Penetar, David M.; MacLean, Robert R.; McNeil, Jane F.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Isoflavone administration in the form of a purified extract from the herbal medication kudzu root has been shown to reduce, but not eliminate, alcohol consumption in alcohol-abusing and alcohol-dependent men. The precise mechanism of this action is unknown, but one possible explanation for these results is that the isoflavones in kudzu might actually increase the intensity or duration of alcohol’s effects and thus delay the desire for subsequent drinks. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. Methods Twelve (12) healthy adult men and women (27.5±1.89 yrs old) who consumed moderate amounts of alcohol (7.8±0.63 drinks/week) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in which they were treated with either kudzu extract (total isoflavone dose of 750 mg/day) or matched placebo for nine days. On days 8 and 9, participants received an acute challenge of ethyl alcohol (either 0.35 or 0.7 g/kg alcohol). During the challenges the following measures were collected: subjective effects, psychomotor (body sway), cognitive performance (vigilance/reaction time), physiological measures (heart rate and skin temperature), and plasma ethanol concentration. Results Alcohol resulted in a dose-related alteration in subjective measures of intoxication, impairment of stance stability, and vigilance/reaction time. Kudzu extract did not alter participants’ subjective responses to the alcohol challenge or to alcohol’s effects on stance stability or vigilance/reaction time. However, individuals treated with kudzu extract experienced a slightly more rapid rise in plasma ethanol levels, but only after the 0.7 g/kg dose. This transient effect during the first 30 minutes of the ascending plasma alcohol curve lasted only 10-15 minutes; there were no differences in peak plasma alcohol levels or alcohol elimination kinetics. Additionally, kudzu pretreatment enhanced the effects of the 0.7 g/kg dose of alcohol on heart rate and skin

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata on paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichosanthes lobata (family cucurbitaceae) is used to treat malarial fever and liver disorders. This study aims to investigate possible hepatoprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar male rats by oral administration, 2 g/kg body weight on 7th day after the administration of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata and silymarin (100 mg/kg). Ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata was administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days. Several serum markers, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, total protein was measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced hepatic damage. The study included histopathological examination of liver sections. Results Blood samples from rats treated with ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata (200 mg/kg body weight and 400 mg/kg body weight) had significant reductions in serum markers in paracetamol administered animals, indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a reference drug. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata exhibits protective effects against paracetamol‒induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:22607721

  12. Ecology and Management of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Southeastern Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Sriyanka

    2016-01-01

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive exotic pest of soybeans that has been present in the southeastern United States since 2009 and has been rapidly spreading through soybean-producing states. Their primary reproductive hosts in the United States are soybean, kudzu, pigeon pea, black eye pea, lima bean, pinto bean, wisteria, white sweet clover, white clover, red clover, alfalfa, perennial peanut, and American joint vetch. In soybeans, the kudzu bug feeds on vascular fluids at the stem, petiole, and nodes, causing yield losses of up to 60%. The current management recommendation for this pest includes spraying of pyrethroids such as bifenthrin, but this method is not environmentally friendly, as this negatively impacts beneficial insect populations. Sustainable management tactics, including the development of economic thresholds for insecticide sprays, assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of this pest, manipulating cultivation practices, use of biological control, and host plant resistance, are currently being explored. We present an overview of the ecology of the kudzu bug in soybeans and available management tactics to assist with the management of this potentially devastating pest of soybeans as it spreads westward. PMID:27812397

  13. Ecology and Management of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Southeastern Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Sriyanka; Reisig, Dominic D

    2016-01-01

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive exotic pest of soybeans that has been present in the southeastern United States since 2009 and has been rapidly spreading through soybean-producing states. Their primary reproductive hosts in the United States are soybean, kudzu, pigeon pea, black eye pea, lima bean, pinto bean, wisteria, white sweet clover, white clover, red clover, alfalfa, perennial peanut, and American joint vetch. In soybeans, the kudzu bug feeds on vascular fluids at the stem, petiole, and nodes, causing yield losses of up to 60%. The current management recommendation for this pest includes spraying of pyrethroids such as bifenthrin, but this method is not environmentally friendly, as this negatively impacts beneficial insect populations. Sustainable management tactics, including the development of economic thresholds for insecticide sprays, assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of this pest, manipulating cultivation practices, use of biological control, and host plant resistance, are currently being explored. We present an overview of the ecology of the kudzu bug in soybeans and available management tactics to assist with the management of this potentially devastating pest of soybeans as it spreads westward.

  14. Kudzu: Where did it come from? And how can we stop it?

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller; Boyd Edwards

    1983-01-01

    Kudzu is spreading in the South and control measures are required on large acreages. Control can be accomplished by persistent applications of effective herbicides or by overgrazing for two to three years. Soil-active herbicides containing the active ingredient picloram or dicamba are presently most effective. Herbicide sprays should be applied in a mixture with 60 to...

  15. Energy from aquatic plant wastewater treatment systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Spirodela sp. and Lemma sp.), water pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides), and kudzu (Pueraria lobata) were anaerobically fermented using an anaerobic filter technique that reduced the total digestion time from 90 days to an average of 23 days and produced 0.14-0.28 cu m CH4/kg (dry weight) (2.3-4.5 cu ft/lb) from mature filters. The anaerobic filter provided a large surface area for the anaerobic bacteria to establish and maintain an optimum balance of facultative, acid-forming, and methane-producing bacteria. Consequently the efficiency of the process was greatly improved over prior batch fermentations.

  16. Induction of growth hormone release by Pueraria thunbergiana BENTH.

    PubMed

    Jung, D Y; Ha, H; Kim, C

    2004-02-01

    Puerariae Radix (PR), Puerariae Flos (PF), and Puerariae Surculus (PS) as well as their constituents were tested for induction of rat growth hormone (rGH) release by both rat pituitary cell culture and in vivo experimentation in order to develop them to novel drugs. Through a calibration curve of the rGH released by addition of rat growth hormone-releasing hormone (rGHRH) to rat pituitary cells, the 70 % ethanol extracts of PR and PS increased rGH release by about 1.6 and 1.7 times as high, respectively, as the control group (264.6 +/- 13.6 pM). However, each puerarin type as a representative constituent of PR in Korea Pharmacopeia (KP) and tectorigenin and an important ingredient of PF were twice as effective as in the control group. The acid hydrolysate of Puerariae Surculus (HPS) increased rGH release concentration-dependently, and its EC (50) was approximately 10.4 microg/ml. The T (max) value for rGH after injection of 20 microg/kg of rGHRH was 10 - 30 min, while the C (max) value was increased by approximately 12-fold compared to the control group (198.2 +/- 25.0 pM) and the AUC (0 - 45) was increased to 10 times the level of the control group (10,840.9 +/- 845.5 min. pM). On the other hand, T (max) for the HPS was 60 min, while C (max) was increased approximately to 5.8 fold compared to control (244.1 +/- 36.4 pM). C (max) for puerarin was 1,028.6 +/- 502.7 pM, that is, approximately 5.2 times as high as the control level. However, tectorigenin (20 microg/kg) was of no statistical significance. Therefore, we suggest that the HPS and puerarin act either on GH secretagogue receptors or on GHRH receptor of somatotrophin as possible agonists or an inhibitor on somatostatin receptor to release rGH, respectively.

  17. The isoflavone-rich fraction of the crude extract of the Puerariae flower increases oxygen consumption and BAT UCP1 expression in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Nagamine, Rika; Sameshima-Kamiya, Mayu; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya

    2012-08-12

    Puerariae flower extract (PFE) is a crude extract of the Kudzu flower. Previous studies have shown that PFE supplementation exerts anti-obesity and anti-fatty liver effects in high-fat diet-fed mice. In this study, we aimed to identify the PFE components responsible for these effects and to determine their influence on energy expenditure and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. Experiments were conducted on C57BL/6J male mice classified into 3 groups: (1) high-fat diet-fed (HFD), (2) high-fat diet-fed given PFE (HFD + PFE), and (3) high-fat diet-fed given the PFE isoflavone-rich fraction (HFD + ISOF). All groups were fed for 42 days. The HFD + PFE and HFD + ISOF groups showed significant resistance to increases in body weight, hepatic triglyceride level, and visceral fat compared to the HFD group. These groups also exhibited significant increases in oxygen consumption and UCP1-positive brown adipose tissue (BAT) area. Our results demonstrate that the active ingredients in PFE are present in the ISOF and that these compounds may increase energy expenditure by upregulation of BAT UCP1 expression. These findings provide valuable information regarding the anti-obesity effects of isoflavones.

  18. The Isoflavone-Rich Fraction of the Crude Extract of the Puerariae Flower Increases Oxygen Consumption and BAT UCP1 Expression in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Nagamine, Rika; Sameshima-Kamiya, Mayu; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya

    2012-01-01

    Puerariae flower extract (PFE) is a crude extract of the Kudzu flower. Previous studies have shown that PFE supplementation exerts anti-obesity and anti-fatty liver effects in high-fat diet-fed mice. In this study, we aimed to identify the PFE components responsible for these effects and to determine their influence on energy expenditure and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. Experiments were conducted on C57BL/6J male mice classified into 3 groups: (1) high-fat diet-fed (HFD), (2) high-fat diet-fed given PFE (HFD + PFE), and (3) high-fat diet-fed given the PFE isoflavone-rich fraction (HFD + ISOF). All groups were fed for 42 days. The HFD + PFE and HFD + ISOF groups showed significant resistance to increases in body weight, hepatic triglyceride level, and visceral fat compared to the HFD group. These groups also exhibited significant increases in oxygen consumption and UCP1-positive brown adipose tissue (BAT) area. Our results demonstrate that the active ingredients in PFE are present in the ISOF and that these compounds may increase energy expenditure by upregulation of BAT UCP1 expression. These findings provide valuable information regarding the anti-obesity effects of isoflavones. PMID:22980388

  19. Evaluating Efficacy and Safety of Combination Medication of Atorvastatin and a Herbal Formula Containing Salvia miltiorrhiza and Pueraria lobata on Hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Cheung, David Wing-Shing; Koon, Chi-Man; Wong, Pui-Han; Yau, Ka-Chun; Wat, Elaine; Hung, Angela Sze-Man; Wang, Yan-Ping; Lau, Kit-Man; Ko, Chun-Hay; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Waye, Mary Miu-Yee; Fung, Kwok-Pui

    2017-10-01

    Despite being a potent hypolipidemic drug, atorvastatin (AS) possesses certain adverse effects. Using AS and an herbal formula (Danshen and Gegen, DG) in combination may achieve potentiated hypolipidemic effects and also reduce its adverse effects. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of an AS and DG combination on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Treatment outcomes were assessed by measuring parameters including body weight, adipose tissue, liver, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Measurements of adverse effects were achieved by determining aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and creatine kinase (CK). Danshen and Gegen, as well as AS alone, reduced body weight, adipose tissue, liver weight, liver fat vacuoles, total liver lipids, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in high-fat diet-fed mice but increased AST, ALT, and CK. A combination of AS and DG was able to enhance reduced effects on the aforementioned parameters in relation to hyperlipidemia over AS or DG alone. It also reduced the elevation of AST, ALT, and CK induced than by AS or DG alone. Results demonstrated that an AS and DG combination resulted in stronger hypolipidemic effects than with AS or DG alone. Additionally, DG might attenuate adverse effects of AS on the liver and skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for identification of isoflavones and description of the biotransformation of kudzu root.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Chen, Jiping; Liang, Xinmiao; Kettrup, Antonius

    2005-11-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been used to identify isoflavone aglycones and glycosides in kudzu root. Fourteen isoflavones were detected. Among these, six were identified by comparison with authentic standards. Tentative identifications of the other isoflavones are based on UV spectra, mass spectra of protonated and deprotonated molecules, and MS-MS data. Several are reported for the first time in kudzu root. The bioactivity and bioavailability of isoflavone aglycones are usually greater than those of their glycosides. To improve the bioavailability of kudzu root isoflavones, crude beta-glycosidases prepared from microbes were used to hydrolyze the isoflavone glycosides. Several MS modes are combined not only to identify the isoflavones in kudzu root, but also to describe the biotransformation of kudzu root isoflavone glycosides. It is also proved that crude beta-glycosidases have high selectivity toward the O-glycosides of isoflavones.

  1. Discovery of a Potent Anti-Yeast Triterpenoid Saponin, Clematoside-S from Urena lobata L.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiao-Ling; Liao, Ying; Wang, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong; Gao, Bo; Xu, Zheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Urena lobata has been used as a traditional medicinal plant in India and China. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity and isolated the active compound from the leaves of U. lobata. The 80% ethanol extract from U. lobata leaves showed an effective anti-yeast activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) strains. Using a combination of chromatographic methods, (−)-trachelogenin (1) and clematoside-S (2) were isolated from this plant for the first time, and their chemical structure was identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data analysis. In addition, 1 was found to be inactive against all of the test microorganisms in the antimicrobial assay, whereas 2 exhibits a specific anti-yeast activity against S. cerevisiae strains with diameter of inhibition zones in the range from 11 to 20 mm. Furthermore, the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) values of 2 against S. cerevisiae strains were detected to be in the ranges of 0.61 to 9.8 μg/mL and 2.42 to 9.8 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of 2 with a specific anti-yeast activity. The above result suggests the potential application of U. lobata to be used as a natural anti-yeast agent in food preservation. PMID:25739085

  2. Variability in anthocyanin content among Abutilon theophrasti, and Urena lobata genetic resources .

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants contain bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceuticals to be utilized in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. Sixty-two accessions of Abutilon theophrasti, Basella alba, and Urena lobata are conserved at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA. Anthocyanins...

  3. Riparian valley oak (Quercus lobata) forest restoration on the middle Sacramento River, California

    Treesearch

    F. Thomas Griggs; Gregory H. Golet

    2002-01-01

    In 1989 The Nature Conservancy initiated a riparian horticultural restoration program on the floodplain of the middle Sacramento River, California. At nearly all restoration sites Valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) comprised a major component of the planting design. Valley oaks are a keystone tree species of lowland floodplain habitats in California...

  4. Whole-transcriptome response to water stress in a California endemic oak, Quercus lobata

    Treesearch

    Paul F. Gugger; Juan Manuel Peñaloza-Ramírez; Jessica W. Wright; Victoria L. Sork; Jörg-Peter Schnitzler

    2016-01-01

    Reduced water availability during drought can create major stress for many plant species. Within a species, populations with a history of seasonal drought may have evolved the ability to tolerate drought more than those in areas of high precipitation and low seasonality. In this study, we assessed response to water stress in a California oak species, Quercus lobata Née...

  5. Estrogenic activity of the dichloromethane extract from Pueraria mirifica.

    PubMed

    Sookvanichsilp, N; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Boonleang, C

    2008-12-01

    Pueraria mirifica and its extracts are widely used as the ingredient(s) in many rejuvenating products. Up to now, the extract of P. mirifica roots that has been used in most studies, is the alcoholic extract. In the present study, we investigated the estrogenic activity using uterotropic and MCF-7 cell proliferation models of the dichloromethane extract as well as the water extract which was obtained from partitioning the ethanolic extract. The results indicated that among the three extracts, i.e. the ethanolic extract (PM1), the water extract (PM2) and dichloromethane extract (PM3), PM3 exhibited the most potent estrogenic activity in both models, followed by PM1. The extracts produced uterotropic activity associated with the increase of water content while uterotropic activity of 17beta-estradiol was related to the increase of muscle mass. The two isoflavonoids, genistein and daidzein, were not the major active phytoestrogens involving the estrogenic activity of these extracts.

  6. Proteome analysis of Pueraria mirifica tubers collected in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Jungsukcharoen, Jutarmas; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Sangvanich, Polkit

    2016-06-01

    Pueraria mirifica-derived tuberous powder has been long-term consumed in Thailand as female hormone-replacement traditional remedies. The protein profiles of tubers collected in different seasons were evaluated. Phenol extraction, 2D-PAGE, and mass spectrometry were employed for tuberous proteome analysis. Out of the 322 proteins detected, over 59% were functionally classified as being involved in metabolism. The rest proteins were involved in defense, protein synthesis, cell structure, transportation, stress, storage, and also unidentified function. The proteins were found to be differentially expressed with respect to harvest season. Importantly, chalcone isomerase, isoflavone synthase, cytochrome p450, UDP-glycosyltransferase, and isoflavone reductase, which are all involved in the biosynthesis pathway of bioactive isoflavonoids, were most abundantly expressed in the summer-collected tubers. This is the first report on the proteomic patterns in P. mirifica tubers in relevant with seasonal variation. The study enlights the understanding of variance isoflavonoid production in P. mirifica tubers.

  7. Hydrology of a zero-order Southern Piedmont watershed through 45 years of changing agricultural land use. Part 1. Monthly and seasonal rainfall-runoff relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endale, Dinku M.; Fisher, Dwight S.; Steiner, Jean L.

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported runoff from small agricultural watersheds over sufficiently long period so that the effect of different cover types on runoff can be examined. We analyzed 45-yrs of monthly and annual rainfall-runoff characteristics of a small (7.8 ha) zero-order typical Southern Piedmont watershed in southeastern United States. Agricultural land use varied as follows: 1. Row cropping (5-yrs); 2. Kudzu ( Pueraria lobata; 5-yrs); 3. Grazed kudzu and rescuegrass ( Bromus catharticus; 7-yrs); and 4. Grazed bermudagrass and winter annuals ( Cynodon dactylon; 28-yrs). Land use and rainfall variability influenced runoff characteristics. Row cropping produced the largest runoff amount, percentage of the rainfall partitioned into runoff, and peak flow rates. Kudzu reduced spring runoff and almost eliminated summer runoff, as did a mixture of kudzu and rescuegrass (KR) compared to row cropping. Peak flow rates were also reduced during the kudzu and KR. Peak flow rates increased under bermudagrass but were lower than during row cropping. A simple process-based 'tanh' model modified to take the previous month's rainfall into account produced monthly rainfall and runoff correlations with coefficient of determination ( R2) of 0.74. The model was tested on independent data collected during drought. Mean monthly runoff was 1.65 times the observed runoff. Sustained hydrologic monitoring is essential to understanding long-term rainfall-runoff relationships in agricultural watersheds.

  8. Energy from vascular plant wastewater treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wolverton, B.C.; McDonald, R.C.

    1981-04-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) duckweed (Spirodela sp. and Lemna sp.), water pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides), and kudzu (Pueraria lobata) were anaerobically fermented using an anaerobic filter technique that reduced the total digestion time from 90 d to an average of 23 d and produced 0.14 to 0.22 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//kg (dry weight) (2.3 to 3.6 ft/sup 3//lb) from mature filters for the 3 aquatic species. Kudzu required an average digestion time of 33 d and produced an average of 0.21 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//kg (dry weight) (3.4 ft/sup 3//lb). The anaerobic filter provided a large surface area for the anaerobic bacteria to establish and maintain an optimal balance of facultative, acid-forming, and methane-producing bacteria. Consequently the efficiency of the process was greatly improved over prior batch fermentations.

  9. Field Evaluation of a Kudzu/Cottonseed Oil Formulation on the Persistence of the Beet Armyworm Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A plant extract (kudzu) was tested as a UV protectant for SeMNPV, with and without the addition of an oil/emulsifier (cottonseed oil/lecithin) formulation. Aqueous and oil emulsion formulations of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), nucleopolyhedrovirus SeMNPV were applied to collards an...

  10. New arbutin derivatives from the leaves of Heliciopsis lobata with cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei-Yan; Ou, Na; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Han-Mei

    2016-10-01

    Heliciopsis lobata is a medicinal plant, which is exclusively used to treat tumor in Li folk region. Two new arbutin derivatives, 6'-((E)2-methoxy-5-hydroxycinnamoyl) arbutin (1) and 2'-((E)2, 5-dihydroxycinnamoyl) arbutin (2) along with five known compounds (3-7), were isolated from the leaves of Heliciopsis lobata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic interpretations. They were evaluated for their potential anticancer activity. Compounds 6 and 7 exhibited cytotoxicity against MGC-803 cells with IC50 values being 44.1 and 11.3 μg·mL(-1), respectively. Additionally, compounds 1, 2 and 5-7 exhibited a moderate inhibition of MGC-803 cells invasion; compound 2 at 20 μg·mL(-1) inhibited the invasion of MGC-803 cells by 43.0%, compared with the controls. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Standardized Kudzu Extract (NPI-031) Reduces Alcohol Consumption in Non Treatment-Seeking Male Heavy Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Lukas, Scott E.; Penetar, David; Su, Zhaohui; Geaghan, Thomas; Maywalt, Melissa; Tracy, Michael; Rodolico, John; Palmer, Christopher; Ma, Zhongze; Lee, David Y.-W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We previously demonstrated that short-term treatment with a standardized kudzu extract (NPI-031) reduced alcohol drinking by men and women in a natural setting. The present study was conducted in non treatment-seeking heavy drinkers to assess the safety and efficacy of four weeks of kudzu extract in an outpatient setting. METHOD This randomized between-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involved two weeks of baseline, four weeks of treatment and two weeks of follow-up. Seventeen men (21–33 years) who reported drinking 27.6 ± 6.5 drinks/week with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse/dependence took either kudzu extract (250 mg isoflavones, t.i.d.) or matched placebo on a daily basis. They reported alcohol consumption and desire to use alcohol using a wrist actigraphy device; twice weekly laboratory visits were scheduled to monitor medication adherence and adverse events. RESULTS Medication adherence was excellent and there were no adverse events, changes in vital signs, blood chemistry, renal or liver function. There was no effect on alcohol craving, but kudzu extract significantly reduced the number of drinks consumed each week by 34–57%, reduced the number of heavy drinking days and significantly increased the percent of days abstinent and the number of consecutive days of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS A standardized formulation of kudzu extract produced minimal side effects, was well-tolerated and resulted in a modest reduction in alcohol consumption in young non treatment-seeking heavy drinkers. Additional studies using treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent persons will be necessary to determine the usefulness of this herbal preparation in reducing alcohol use in other populations. PMID:23070022

  12. Evaluation of the estrogenic activity of the wild Pueraria mirifica by vaginal cornification assay.

    PubMed

    Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Kitsamai, Yosaporn; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the estrogenic activity of tuberous samples of phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica collected from 25 of 76 provinces in Thailand by vaginal cornification assay. Tuberous powders were prepared and administered to ovariectomized rats for 14 consecutive days at dosages of 10, 100 and 1,000 mg/kg BW respectively, and were compared with a daily treatment with 2 mg/kg BW 17beta-estradiol (E(2)). Rats treated with 10 mg/kg BW Pueraria mirifica showed no vaginal cornification. Treatment with 100 mg/kg BW Pueraria mirifica from 13 out of 25 plant samples resulted in development of vaginal cornification. The cell count percentages of the vaginal smeared cells for the treatment with the 2 plant samples that exhibited the fastest vaginal cornification revealed large variation in their estrogenic activities. Treatment with 1,000 mg/kg BW Pueraria mirifica from all plant samples produced vaginal cornification with the mean value for the period (day) of first appearance of cornified cells being 4.08 days compared to 2 days with 2 mg/kg BW E(2). The overall appearance period (day) of cornified cells during the treatment and post-treatment period with 1,000 mg/kg BW per day Pueraria mirifica was shorter than treatment with 2 mg/kg BW E(2). The results demonstrate that the plant population shows differential estrogenic activity as evaluated by vaginal cornification assay.

  13. No gene flow across the Eastern Pacific Barrier in the reef-building coral Porites lobata.

    PubMed

    Baums, Iliana B; Boulay, Jennifer N; Polato, Nicholas R; Hellberg, Michael E

    2012-11-01

    The expanse of deep water between the central Pacific islands and the continental shelf of the Eastern Tropical Pacific is regarded as the world's most potent marine biogeographic barrier. During recurrent climatic fluctuations (ENSO, El Niño Southern Oscillation), however, changes in water temperature and the speed and direction of currents become favourable for trans-oceanic dispersal of larvae from central Pacific to marginal eastern Pacific reefs. Here, we investigate the population connectivity of the reef-building coral Porites lobata across the Eastern Pacific Barrier (EPB). Patterns of recent gene flow in samples (n = 1173) from the central Pacific and the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) were analysed with 12 microsatellite loci. Results indicated that P. lobata from the ETP are strongly isolated from those in the central Pacific and Hawaii (F(ct) ' = 0.509; P < 0.001). However, samples from Clipperton Atoll, an oceanic island on the eastern side of the EPB, grouped with the central Pacific. Within the central Pacific, Hawaiian populations were strongly isolated from three co-occurring clusters found throughout the remainder of the central Pacific. No further substructure was evident in the ETP. Changes in oceanographic conditions during ENSO over the past several thousand years thus appear insufficient to support larval deliveries from the central Pacific to the ETP or strong postsettlement selection acts on ETP settlers from the central Pacific. Recovery of P. lobata populations in the frequently disturbed ETP thus must depend on local larval sources.

  14. Landscape genetics and population structure in Valley Oak (Quercus lobata Née).

    PubMed

    Ashley, Mary V; Abraham, Saji T; Backs, Janet R; Koenig, Walter D

    2015-12-01

    Although long-distance pollen movement is common in wind-pollinated trees, barriers to gene flow may occur in species that have discontinuous ranges or are confined to certain habitat types. We investigated the genetic structure of Quercus lobata Née populations throughout much of their range in California. We assessed the connectivity of populations and determined if barriers to gene flow occurred, and if so, if they corresponded to landscape features. We collected leaf samples from 270 trees from 12 stands of Quercus lobata and genotyped these trees using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. Genetic structure and clustering was evaluated using genetic distance methods, Bayesian clustering approaches, and network analysis of spatial genetic structure. The southernmost population of Quercus lobata sampled from the Santa Monica area comprised a separate genetic cluster from the rest of the species, suggesting that Transverse Ranges such as the San Gabriel Mountains limit gene flow. Population differentiation among the other sites was small but significant. Network analysis reflected higher connectivity among populations along the Central Coast range, with few connections spanning the dry, low Central Valley. While long distance pollen movement has been shown to be common in oaks, on larger spatial scales, topographic features such as mountain ranges and the large, flat Central Valley of California limit gene flow. Such landscape features explain gene flow patterns much better than geographic distance alone. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  15. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S.; Reisig, Dominic D.; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I.; Roe, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27649166

  16. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S; Reisig, Dominic D; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Roe, R Michael

    2016-09-16

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  17. Medical applications of phytoestrogens from the Thai herb Pueraria mirifica.

    PubMed

    Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2012-03-01

    Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw et Suvatabandhu is a medicinal plant endemic to Thailand. It has been used in Thai folklore medicine for its rejuvenating qualities in aged women and men for nearly one hundred years. Indeed, it has been claimed that P. mirifica contains active phytoestrogens (plant substances with estrogen-like activity). Using high performance liquid chromatography, at least 17 phytoestrogens, mainly isoflavones, have been isolated. Thus, fairly considerable scientific researches, both in vitro in cell lines and in vivo in various species of animals including humans, have been conducted to date to address its estrogenic activity on the reproductive organs, bones, cardiovascular diseases and other climacteric related symptoms. The antioxidative capacity and antiproliferative effect on tumor cell lines have also been assessed. In general, P. mirifica could be applicable for preventing, or as a therapeutic for, the symptoms related to estrogen deficiency in menopausal women as well as in andropausal men. However, the optimal doses for each desirable effect and the balance to avoid undesired side effects need to be calculated before use.

  18. Requirement of metabolic activation for estrogenic activity of Pueraria mirifica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y S; Park, J S; Cho, S D; Son, J K; Cherdshewasart, W; Kang, K S

    2002-12-01

    A wide range of chemicals derived from plant and human-made xenobiotics are reported to have hormonal activities. The present study was performed to examine the estrogenic effect of Kwao Keur, Pueraria mirifica (PM), that has been used as a rejuvenating folk medicine in Thailand, using recombinant yeast, MCF-7 cell proliferation and HepG2 cell transient transfection assay. In recombinant yeast assay, 0.025, 0.25, 2.5, 25, 2.5 x 10(2), 2.5 x 10(3), 2.5 x 10(4) ng/ml concentrations of PM did not show any estrogenic activities, while 10(-9) of 17 beta-estradiol (positive control) showed high estrogenic activity. Estrogenic activities were induced at 2.5 ng/ml to 25 microg/ml concentrations of PM in a dose-dependent manner on MCF-7 cells and the estrogenic effect of PM was blocked by tamoxifen treatment, a well-known anti-estrogen. PM also showed estrogenic effect on human hepatoma cell line, HepG2 cells, containing estrogen receptor and luciferase reporter gene. Taken together, PM in itself may have no estrogenicity in yeast system, but it has estrogenicity in MCF-7 & HepG2 cells that have human metabolic enzymes. The results indicated that PM may require metabolic activation for estrogenic activity.

  19. Pueraria tuberosa: a review on its phytochemical and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Maji, Amal K; Pandit, Subrata; Banerji, Pratim; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2014-01-01

    Pueraria tuberosa (Willd.) DC is a perennial herb commonly known as 'vidarikanda', distributed throughout south east Asia. The plant's tuber is widely used in ethanomedicine as well as in traditional systems of medicine, particularly in ayurveda. It has been used in various ayurvedic formulations as restorative tonic, antiaging, spermatogenic and immune booster and has been recommended for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, hepatosplenomegaly, fertility disorders, menopausal syndrome, sexual debility and spermatorrhoea. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals, mostly isoflavonoids such as puerarin, genistein, daidzein, tuberosin and so on have been identified in the tuber. In vivo and in vitro studies have provided the support against traditional demands of the tuber as spermatogenic, immune booster, aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic and brain tonic. However, further studies are required to define the active phytochemical compositions and to validate its clinical utilisation in the herbal formulations for human uses. This review provides an overview of traditional applications, current knowledge on the phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of P. tuberosa. This review also provides plausible hypotheses about how various isoflavones particularly puerarin, genistein and daidzein, individually or collectively, may be responsible for the therapeutic potential against a wide range of ailments.

  20. Pueraria mirifica leaves, an alternative potential isoflavonoid source.

    PubMed

    Jungsukcharoen, Jutarmas; Dhiani, Binar Asrining; Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Vinayavekhin, Nawaporn; Sangvanich, Polkit; Boonchird, Chuenchit

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the major leaf isoflavonoid contents of Pueraria mirifica from three different cultivars (PM-III, PM-IV, and PM-V) using reverse RP-HPLC analysis. The proportions and net levels of puerarin, daidzin, genistin, and daidzein in P. mirifica leaves were found to depend on the plant cultivar and to correlate with cultivation temperature and rainfall amount. The crude leaf-extracts were tested using the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay with both human estrogen receptors (hERα and hERβ). Their estrogenic activity was higher when determined by the YES system containing hERβ than that with hERα and was also higher when the Δsnq2 than the wildtype yeast was employed. The results open the possibility of selecting and cultivating certain P. mirifica cultivars at a farm scale to produce a sufficient supply of leaf material to act as a starting source for the commercial scale extraction of these major isoflavonoids.

  1. Physicochemical properties and micro-structural characteristics in starch from kudzu root as affected by cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Boru; Dang, Leping; Zhang, Xiao; Fang, Wenzhi; Hou, Mengna; Liu, Tiankuo; Wang, Zhanzhong

    2017-03-15

    Kudzu starch was cross-linked with sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) at different temperatures, time and of STMP concentrations in this work. The cross-linked starches (CLSs) were fractionated further into cross-linked amylose and amylopectin in order to compare the effect of cross-linking on the microstructure. According to scanning electron microscope (SEM), CLSs displayed the resemble appearance of spherical and polygonal shapes like NS. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that amylose of native starch (A), NS and CLS displayed a combination of A-type and B-type structure, while that was not found in amylose of cross-linked starch (CLA). The deconvoluted fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) indicated that crystal structure of kudzu starch was losing with the proceeding of cross-linking reaction. The CLSs exhibited a higher retrogradation and freeze-thaw stability than NS. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in sedimentation, transparency, swelling power and solubility.

  2. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Germination of Urena lobata L. and Its Response to Herbicides

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Tahir Hussain; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Cruz, Pompe C. Sta.

    2014-01-01

    Urena lobata is becoming a noxious and invasive weed in rangelands, pastures, and undisturbed areas in the Philippines. This study determined the effects of seed scarification, light, salt and water stress, amount of rice residue, and seed burial depth on seed germination and emergence of U. lobata; and evaluated the weed's response to post-emergence herbicides. Germination was stimulated by both mechanical and chemical seed scarifications. The combination of the two scarification methods provided maximum (99%) seed germination. Germination was slightly stimulated when seeds were placed in light (65%) compared with when seeds were kept in the dark (46%). Sodium chloride concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 mM and osmotic potential ranging from 0 to −1.6 MPa affected the germination of U. lobata seeds significantly. The osmotic potential required for 50% inhibition of the maximum germination was −0.1 MPa; however, some seeds germinated at −0.8 MPa, but none germinated at −1.6 MPa. Seedling emergence and biomass increased with increase in rice residue amount up to 4 t ha−1, but declined beyond this amount. Soil surface placement of weed seeds resulted in the highest seedling emergence (84%), which declined with increase in burial depth. The burial depth required for 50% inhibition of maximum emergence was 2 cm; emergence was greatly reduced (93%) at burial depth of 4 cm or more. Weed seedling biomass also decreased with increase in burial depth. Bispyribac-sodium, a commonly used herbicide in rice, sprayed at the 4-leaf stage of the weed, provided 100% control, which did not differ much with 2,4-D (98%), glyphosate (97%), and thiobencarb + 2,4-D (98%). These herbicides reduced shoot and root biomass by 99–100%. PMID:24658143

  3. Influence of environmental factors on the germination of Urena lobata L. and its response to herbicides.

    PubMed

    Awan, Tahir Hussain; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Sta Cruz, Pompe C

    2014-01-01

    Urena lobata is becoming a noxious and invasive weed in rangelands, pastures, and undisturbed areas in the Philippines. This study determined the effects of seed scarification, light, salt and water stress, amount of rice residue, and seed burial depth on seed germination and emergence of U. lobata; and evaluated the weed's response to post-emergence herbicides. Germination was stimulated by both mechanical and chemical seed scarifications. The combination of the two scarification methods provided maximum (99%) seed germination. Germination was slightly stimulated when seeds were placed in light (65%) compared with when seeds were kept in the dark (46%). Sodium chloride concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 mM and osmotic potential ranging from 0 to -1.6 MPa affected the germination of U. lobata seeds significantly. The osmotic potential required for 50% inhibition of the maximum germination was -0.1 MPa; however, some seeds germinated at -0.8 MPa, but none germinated at -1.6 MPa. Seedling emergence and biomass increased with increase in rice residue amount up to 4 t ha(-1), but declined beyond this amount. Soil surface placement of weed seeds resulted in the highest seedling emergence (84%), which declined with increase in burial depth. The burial depth required for 50% inhibition of maximum emergence was 2 cm; emergence was greatly reduced (93%) at burial depth of 4 cm or more. Weed seedling biomass also decreased with increase in burial depth. Bispyribac-sodium, a commonly used herbicide in rice, sprayed at the 4-leaf stage of the weed, provided 100% control, which did not differ much with 2,4-D (98%), glyphosate (97%), and thiobencarb + 2,4-D (98%). These herbicides reduced shoot and root biomass by 99-100%.

  4. Stability and quality of herb (Pueraria Tuberosa)-milk model system.

    PubMed

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Singh, R R B; Arora, Sumit

    2015-02-01

    The medicinal benefits of herbs could be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one of the important carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals presents in herbs (mainly polyphenols) for targeted health benefits in the traditional Indian system of medical science. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of herb components (Pueraria tuberosa) on properties of Pueraria tuberosa-milk model system. The herb was added into cow milk on the basis of sensory evaluation (0.4 %) by using 9-point hedonic scale. The physical and chemical changes were evaluated after various processing treatments viz. pasteurization (72 °C, 15 s), sterilization (121 °C, 15 min), separation etc. These changes were determined using viscosity, hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) value, ethanol stability, colour characteristics and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). It was observed that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk resulted in decreased HMF content, ethanol stability and lightness whereas antioxidant activity, redness and yellowness increased as compared to control. It can be concluded that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk at 0.4 % concentration altered the functional properties of milk and Pueraira tuberosa could be suitable for preparation of low heat treated functional dairy food products.

  5. Pueraria mirifica alleviates cortical bone loss in naturally menopausal monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kittivanichkul, Donlaporn; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Khemawoot, Phisit; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-11-01

    Since the in vitro and in vivo anti-osteoporotic effects of Pueraria mirifica (PM) in rodents have been verified, its activity in menopausal monkeys was evaluated as required before it can be applicable for human use. In this study, postmenopausal osteoporotic monkeys were divided into two groups (five per group), and fed daily with standard diet alone (PMP0 group) or diet mixed with 1000 mg/kg body weight (BW) of PM powder (PMP1000 group) for 16 months. Every 2 months, the bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and bone geometry parameters (cortical area and thickness and periosteal and endosteal circumference) at the distal radius and proximal tibia were determined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography together with plasma and urinary bone markers. Compared with the baseline (month 0) values, the cortical, but not trabecular, BMDs and BMCs and the cortical area and thickness at the metaphysis and diaphysis of the radius and tibia of the PMP0 group continuously decreased during the 16-month study period. In contrast, PMP1000 treatment ameliorated the bone loss mainly at the cortical diaphysis by decreasing bone turnover, as indicated by the lowered plasma bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels. Generally, changes in the cortical bone geometry were in the opposite direction to the cortical bone mass after PMP1000 treatment. This study indicated that postmenopausal monkeys continuously lose their cortical bone compartment, and they have a higher possibility for long bone fractures. Oral PMP treatment could improve both the bone quantity (BMC and BMD) and quality (bone geometry). © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Effects of Pueraria mirifica on vascular function of ovariectomized rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K; Chularojmontri, Linda; Srichirat, Supatra

    2005-06-01

    Estrogen stimulates endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production and attenuates endothelial dysfunction in ischemia/repurfusion and menopause. Recent studies have shown that phytoestrogens from dietary sources improve endothelial function and reduce cardiovascular risks. The Thai medicinal plant Pueraria mirifica (PM) contains many potent phytoestrogens including miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol but no study on vascular function has been established. Ground powder of PM was orally given to ovariectomized White New Zealand rabbits (OVX + PM group) (n = 4) weighing 3.2-4.0 kg at the dose of 100 mg/kg for 90 days. Saline-treated ovariectomized rabbits were assigned as a control group (OVX group) (n = 5). At the end of treatment thoracic aorta was isolated for functional evaluation. Maximal relaxant response to acetylcholine (ACh) was significantly increased (24%) with 3.5-fold decrease in EC50 while no change in relaxant response to sodium nitroprusside was observed Minimal and maximal responses to 17beta-estradiol (E2) were increased in the OVX + PM group and L-NAME (100 mM) attenuated Emax of E2. PM significantly decreased maximal contractile responses to norepinephrine (NE), but no change in EC50 was observed. In addition to vascular study, the authors found no significant alteration in serum cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride, HDL, ALT AST alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation in OVX + PM rabbits. These data demonstrate that PM (100 mg/kg/d) improved endothelial function through NO-dependent pathway and increased response to E2 while sensitivity to NE was reduced. In addition, it had no impact on lipid profile, liver enzymes, and ALP activities. PM is a potential source of phytoestrogens for postmenopausal women to improve cardiovascular function or reduce cardiovascular risks.

  7. Quantitative analysis of phytoestrogens in kudzu-root, soy and spiked serum samples by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Benlhabib, Elhabib; Baker, John I; Keyler, Daniel E; Singh, Ashok K

    2004-07-01

    A sensitive and reliable HPLC method that allows simultaneous quantification of phytoestrogens extracted from kudzu-root and soy preparations, and serum samples has been developed. Kudzu-root and soy preparations were mixed with 5 microg flavone and 15 microg rutin (internal standards) and the phytoestrogens were extracted by using solid-phase (C18) extraction cartridges. Blank or spiked serum samples were extracted by using either C18 cartridges or trichloroacetic acid-methanol extraction. The extracts were analyzed by the HPLC equipped with a reverse-phase (250 x 4 mm, C18) column and UV, diode-array or MS detector. A linear gradient of acetic acid and acetonitrile provided excellent separation of glycoside and aglycone-phytoestrogens from kudzu root and soy preparations. The C18 cartridge extraction of serum yielded excellent recovery of both glycoside- and aglycone-phytoestrogens, while the trichloroacetic acid-methanol extraction yielded excellent recovery of glycoside but poor recovery of aglycone compounds. UV and MS detectors were suitable for phytoestrogen analysis in plant and serum samples, while the diode-array detector was suitable for generating the UV absorbance curve for phytoestrogens.

  8. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Boué, Stephen M; Wiese, Thomas E; Nehls, Suzanne; Burow, Matthew E; Elliott, Steven; Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Shih, Betty Y; McLachlan, John A; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2003-04-09

    Seven legume extracts containing phytoestrogens were analyzed for estrogenic activity. Methanol extracts were prepared from soybean (Glycine max L.), green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), alfalfa sprout (Medicago sativa L.), mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.), kudzu root (Pueraria lobata L.), and red clover blossom and red clover sprout (Trifolium pratense L.). Extracts of kudzu root and red clover blossom showed significant competitive binding to estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta). Estrogenic activity was determined using an estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Kudzu root, red clover blossom and sprout, mung bean sprout, and alfalfa sprout extracts displayed increased cell proliferation above levels observed with estradiol. The pure estrogen antagonist, ICI 182,780, suppressed cell proliferation induced by the extracts, suggesting an ER-related signaling pathway was involved. The ER subtype-selective activities of legume extracts were examined using transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. All seven of the extracts exhibited preferential agonist activity toward ERbeta. Using HPLC to collect fractions and MCF-7 cell proliferation, the active components in kudzu root extract were determined to be the isoflavones puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein. These results show that several legumes are a source of phytoestrogens with high levels of estrogenic activity.

  9. Early results from a newly-established provenance test in Valley Oak (Quercus lobata) show significant population differentiation

    Treesearch

    Jessica W. Wright; Victoria L. Sork

    2017-01-01

    Valley oak (Quercus lobata) is a majestic, endemic California native oak, found throughout California's foothills, valleys and flood plains. It is threatened because: Contracted range due to housing and agriculture.Low recruitment in existing stands as a function of land use and...

  10. Historical Mortality of Valley Oak (Quercus lobata, Nee) in the Santa Ynez Valley, Santa Barbara County, 1938-1989

    Treesearch

    Rodney W. Brown; Frank W. Davis

    1991-01-01

    The range and abundance of valley oak (Quercus lobata, Nee) have steadily decreased in the last 100 years due to low rates of regeneration during this period. Documented low rates of sapling recruitment must be compared to adult mortality rates in order to evaluate the severity of this decline. The purpose of this research is to measure and analyze...

  11. Establishing a range-wide provenance test in valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) at two California sites

    Treesearch

    Annette Delfino-Mix; Jessica W. Wright; Paul F. Gugger; Christina Liang; Victoria L. Sork

    2015-01-01

    We present the methods used to establish a provenance test in valley oak, Quercus lobata. Nearly 11,000 acorns were planted and 88 percent of those germinated. The resulting seedlings were measured after 1 and 2 years of growth, and were outplanted in the field in the winter of 2014-2015. This test represents a long-term resource for both research...

  12. Photosynthesis and water relations of the mistletoe, Phoradendron villosum, and its host, the California valley oak, Quercus lobata

    Treesearch

    David Y. Hollinger

    1983-01-01

    Water vapor and CO2 exchange characteristics were studied in Phoradendron villosum, a hemiparasitic mistletoe and its host, Quercus lobata. The hemiparasite had stomatal conductances equal to or higher than the host but a much lower capacity to fix carbon. Respiration was high in the mistletoe relative to...

  13. [Medicinal plants in the phytotherapy of alcohol or nicotine addiction. Implication for plants in vitro cultures].

    PubMed

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikołajczak, Przemyslaw Ł; Thiem, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The increasing problem of nicotine and alcohol addiction, and small availability of drugs in the pharmacologic treatment causes that there are still looking for new drugs that could be used in addiction prevention and relief of withdrawal symptoms. Currently, attention has focused on a number of species possessed above mentioned pharmacological profile that do not occur naturally in moderate climate in Poland, including Passiflora incarnata, Pueraria lobata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Salvia przewalskii. A rich source of biologically active compounds showing their possible benefit against addiction are plant derived both from its natural state as well as by biotechnological methods. Studies using in vitro plant cultures allow receiving material containing interesting secondary metabolites (active compounds) in the of shoots, root, callus and suspension cultures. Overview of pharmacological studies showed that several experiments carried out in animal models of alcoholism, and only few studies have been done on nicotine addiction using herbs. It has been shown that an extract of the herb Passiflora incarnata (and its benzoflavone derivative-BZF) can be an interesting plant material that could reduce the intensity of nicotine or alcohol withdrawal symptoms, however, only few studies have been published in this area. A larger amount of evidence has been provided to the anti-alcohol effect of the extract from the root of Pueraria lobata (kudzu). It is known that kudzu root extract is effective at reducing alcohol intake in animals and in humans. The three major isoflavones present in kudzu extracts, daidzin, daidzein and puerarin are responsible for the beneficial effects in reduction of alcohol consumption, although the exact mechanism by which kudzu suppresses ethanol intake remains to be clarified. It has been proven that daidzin in vitro is a strong, selective and reversible inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase. Moreover, studies on the CNS receptor gene expression showed

  14. Environmental versus genetic influences on growth rates of the corals Pocillopora eydouxi and Porites lobata (Anthozoa: Scleractinia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.W.; Wirshing, H.H.; Baker, A.C.; Birkeland, C.

    2008-01-01

    Reciprocal transplant experiments of the corals Pocillopora eydouxi Milne Edwards & Haime and Porites lobata Dana were carried out for an 18-month period from September 2004 to March 2006 between two back reef pools on Ofu Island, American Samoa, to test environmental versus genetic effects on skeletal growth rates. Skeletal growth of P. eydouxi showed environmental but not genetic effects, resulting in doubling of growth in Pool 300 compared with Pool 400. There were no environmental or genetic effects on skeletal growth of P. lobata. Pool 300 had more frequent and longer durations of elevated seawater temperatures than Pool 400, characteristics likely to decrease rather than increase skeletal growth. Pool 300 also had higher nutrient levels and flow velocities than Pool 400, characteristics that may increase skeletal growth. However, higher nutrient levels would be expected to increase skeletal growth in both species, but there was no difference between the pools in P. lobata growth. P. eydouxi is much more common in high-energy environments than P. lobata; thus the higher flow velocities in Pool 300 than in Pool 400 may have positively affected skeletal growth of P. eydouxi while not having a detectable effect on P. lobata. The greater skeletal growth of P. eydouxi in Pool 300 occurred despite the presence of clade D zooxanthellae in several source colonies in Pool 300, a genotype known to result in greater heat resistance but slower skeletal growth. Increased skeletal growth rates in higher water motion may provide P. eydouxi a competitive advantage in shallow, high-energy enviromnents where competition for space is intense. ?? 2008 by University of Hawai'i Press. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved isoflavonoid production in Pueraria candollei hairy root cultures using elicitation.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2011-02-01

    The effect of abiotic and biotic elicitors (methyl jasmonate, chitosan, salicylic acid, Agrobacterium, and yeast extract) at various concentrations on total isoflavonoid accumulation was studied in the hairy root cultures of Pueraria candollei. All elicitors stimulated isoflavonoid production. Yeast extract (0.5 mg/ml) was the most efficient giving total isoflavonoids at 60 ± 1 mg/g dry wt, which was 4.5-fold higher than control hairy roots on day 3 of elicitation.

  16. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Kudzu and Soybean, and Implication for Insecticidal Management in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Blount, J L; Roberts, P M; Toews, M D; Gardner, W A; Buntin, G D; Davis, J W; All, J N

    2017-02-01

    Megacopta cribraria (F.), an invasive species introduced from Asia in 2009, is now prolific in the southeastern United States. Megacopta cribraria develops primarily on kudzu and soybean completing two generations. It is not well understood how this economic pest is affected by changes in geographic distribution in the United States or how population levels have changed since its establishment. The effect of insecticide application timing on field populations of M. cribraria is not well documented. These studies seek to understand how population dynamics of M. cribraria vary with geographic regions in Georgia. Effect of application timing on populations throughout the growing season was also examined. Weekly from 2012 to 2013, all life stages were enumerated from kudzu and soybean environments at several locations throughout Georgia from sweeps samples and flight intercept captures. Coordinates were recorded for locations, and classified as belonging to the Piedmont or Coastal Plain region of the state. Single spray trials were conducted from 2011-2014, and applications were made to soybean at intervals throughout the season. From 2012 to 2015, two kudzu patches near Griffin, GA, were monitored to detect population changes. Differences in population dynamics from locations around the state were found, but no clear effect of latitude, longitude, or region was observed. Insecticide applications applied in July suppressed nymph populations significantly better than treatments made earlier or later. Megacopta cribraria populations declined in 2014 and 2015 compared with 2012 and 2013. These studies provide the critical information for M. cribraria management in soybean in the southeastern United States. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Anti-Endometriotic Effects of Pueraria Flower Extract in Human Endometriotic Cells and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Woo, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Hye Mi; Oh, Myung Sook; Jang, Dae Sik; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2017-01-01

    Pueraria flowers have been used as a vegetable and an ingredient for tea and jelly. In this study, we investigated the effects of Pueraria flower extract (PFE) on endometriosis, a common gynaecological disease characterised by local sterile inflammation of peritoneal cavity. PFE suppressed the adhesion of human endometriotic cells 11Z and 12Z to human mesothelial Met5A cells. In addition, PFE significantly inhibited the migration of 11Z and 12Z cells as shown by wound-healing and transwell migration assays. PFE reduced the protein and mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in endometriotic cells. Moreover, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 was activated by PFE treatment, and an ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, significantly inhibited PFE-inhibited cell migration in endometriotic cells. Furthermore, PFE significantly suppressed endometriotic lesion formation in a mouse model. These data suggest that Pueraria flower is a potential anti-endometriotic agent for the inhibition of endometriotic cell adhesion, migration, and MMP expression. PMID:28264481

  18. Landscape genomic analysis of candidate genes for climate adaptation in a California endemic oak, Quercus lobata.

    PubMed

    Sork, Victoria L; Squire, Kevin; Gugger, Paul F; Steele, Stephanie E; Levy, Eric D; Eckert, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The ability of California tree populations to survive anthropogenic climate change will be shaped by the geographic structure of adaptive genetic variation. Our goal is to test whether climate-associated candidate genes show evidence of spatially divergent selection in natural populations of valley oak, Quercus lobata, as preliminary indication of local adaptation. Using DNA from 45 individuals from 13 localities across the species' range, we sequenced portions of 40 candidate genes related to budburst/flowering, growth, osmotic stress, and temperature stress. Using 195 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we estimated genetic differentiation across populations and correlated allele frequencies with climate gradients using single-locus and multivariate models. The top 5% of FST estimates ranged from 0.25 to 0.68, yielding loci potentially under spatially divergent selection. Environmental analyses of SNP frequencies with climate gradients revealed three significantly correlated SNPs within budburst/flowering genes and two SNPs within temperature stress genes with mean annual precipitation, after controlling for multiple testing. A redundancy model showed a significant association between SNPs and climate variables and revealed a similar set of SNPs with high loadings on the first axis. In the RDA, climate accounted for 67% of the explained variation, when holding climate constant, in contrast to a putatively neutral SSR data set where climate accounted for only 33%. Population differentiation and geographic gradients of allele frequencies in climate-associated functional genes in Q. lobata provide initial evidence of adaptive genetic variation and background for predicting population response to climate change. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  19. Coral hybridization or phenotypic variation? Genomic data reveal gene flow between Porites lobata and P. Compressa.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Z H; Knapp, I S S; Tisthammer, K; Eaton, D A R; Belcaid, M; Toonen, R J

    2017-03-31

    Major gaps remain in our understanding of the ecology, evolution, biodiversity, biogeography, extinction risk, and adaptive potential of reef building corals. One of the central challenges remains that there are few informative genetic markers for studying boundaries between species, and variation within species. Reduced representation sequencing approaches, such as RADseq (Restriction site Associated DNA sequencing) have great potential for resolving such relationships. However, it is necessary to identify loci in order to make inferences for endosymbiotic organisms such as corals. Here, we examined twenty-one coral holobiont ezRAD libraries from Hawai'i, focusing on P. lobata and P. compressa, two species with contrasting morphology and habitat preference that previous studies have not resolved. We used a combination of de novo assembly and reference mapping approaches to identify and compare loci: we used reference mapping to extract and compare nearly complete mitochondrial genomes, ribosomal arrays, and histone genes. We used de novo clustering and phylogenomic methods to compare the complete holobiont data set with coral and symbiont subsets that map to transcriptomic data. In addition, we used reference assemblies to examine genetic structure from SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms). All approaches resolved outgroup taxa but failed to resolve P. lobata and P. compressa as distinct, with mito-nuclear discordance and shared mitochondrial haplotypes within the species complex. The holobiont and 'coral transcriptomic' datasets were highly concordant, revealing stronger genetic structure between sites than between coral morphospecies. These results suggest that either branching morphology is a polymorphic trait, or that these species frequently hybridize. This study provides examples of several approaches to acquire, identify, and compare loci across metagenomic samples such as the coral holobiont while providing insights into the nature of coral variability.

  20. Analysis of functional and numerical responses of spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris when reared on kudzu bug, Megacopta cribaria (Hemiptera: Plataspididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spined solder bug (Podisus maculiventris) is a predatory insect that feeds on a wide array of species. The immatures of this predatory species have five instars. All stages are predatory except for the 1st instar nymphs. Kudzu bugs (Megacopta cribaria) are shield bugs that are deemed a pest of ...

  1. Assessment of the impact of the egg parasitoid, Paratelenoumus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) on populations of the kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The kudzu bug has become a pest of economic importance ever since its introduction to the Southeastern United States from Asia in 2009. It causes serious economic damage to legume crops (soybeans, bean, pigeon pea, mung bean, velvet bean etc.) and is a nuisance to home owners. At least one natural e...

  2. The effect of Pueraria mirifica on cytologic and urodynamic findings in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Manonai, Jittima; Seif, Christoph; Böhler, Georg; Jünemann, Klaus Peter

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of Pueraria mirifica on vaginal and urethral cytology, bladder pressure and capacity, residual urine, and leak point pressure in ovariectomized rats. Seventy-two adult, ovariectomized, female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed into one of four groups: control, estradiol, or 100 or 1,000 mg/kg of Pueraria mirifica (PM-100 and PM-1000, respectively). The vaginal and urethral smears were checked after 30 days of ovariectomy at pretreatment and at day 28 of treatment.A single cystometry, defined as the micturition interval, filling pressure, threshold pressure, micturition pressure, and voided volume, was performed. Peak bladder pressure was calculated for each leak point pressure measured at half bladder capacity by slowly and manually increasing abdominal pressure until a leak occurred, at which point external pressure was rapidly released. Leak point pressure was tested three times per rat. After 28 days of treatment, the estradiol, PM-100, and PM-1000 groups had significantly higher numbers of vaginal and urethral superficial cells compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Regarding the urodynamic parameters, the threshold pressure, micturition pressure, and leak point pressure were higher in the estradiol, PM-100, and PM-1000 groups compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The control, PM-100, and PM-1000 groups had the same values for micturition interval, bladder capacity, voided volume, and residual volume (P > 0.05) but lower values compared with the estradiol group (P < 0.05). Pueraria mirifica 100 and 1,000 mg/kg/day showed an estrogen-like effect on the vaginal and urethral epithelium of ovariectomized rats. They did not change bladder capacity and residual urine volume but increased leak point pressure according to urodynamic study.

  3. Needle-like grains across growth lines in the coral skeleton of Porites lobata.

    PubMed

    Motai, Satoko; Nagai, Takaya; Sowa, Kohki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Kawano, Jun

    2012-12-01

    The skeletal texture and crystal morphology of the massive reef-building coral Porites lobata were observed from the nano- to micrometer scale using an analytical transmission electron microscope (ATEM). The skeletal texture consists of centers of calcification (COCs) and fiber area. Fiber areas contain bundles of needle-like aragonite crystals that are elongated along the crystallographic c-axis and are several hundred nanometers to one micrometer in width and several micrometers in length. The size distribution of aragonite crystals is relatively homogeneous in the fibers. Growth lines are observed sub-perpendicular to the direction of aragonite growth. These growth lines occur in 1-2 μm intervals and reflect a periodic contrast in the thickness of an ion-spattered sample and pass through the interior of some aragonite crystals. These observations suggest that the medium filled in the calcification space maintains a CaCO₃-supersaturated state during fiber growth and that a physical change occurs periodically during the aragonite crystals of the fiber area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption?

  5. Isoorientin, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) from the Tubers of Pueraria tuberosa.

    PubMed

    Sumalatha, Manne; Munikishore, Rachakunta; Rammohan, Aluru; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Kumar, Kotha Anil; Reddy, Kakularam Kumar; Azad, Rajaram; Reddanna, Pallu; Bodo, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fraction of the methanol extract of the roots of Pueraria tuberose DC yielded puerarin, an isoflavone C-glycoside (PT-1), isoorientin, a flavone C-glycoside (PT-2) and mangiferin, a xanthone C-glycoside (PT-3). The extracts and the isolated compounds were screened for potent anti-inflammatory components inhibiting the cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), the target enzymes of inflammation, by employing spectroscopic/polorographic methods. Among these, isoorientin was found to be a potent inhibitor of COX-2with an IC50 value of 39 μM. Docking studies were carried out to understand the interactions of isorientin (PT-2) with COX-2.The structures of the isolates were determined by mass spectrometry and 2D-NMR techniques including HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and 1H-1H COSY experiments. Although isoorientin and mangiferin have been reported from several plant sources, this is the first report of their isolation from a Pueraria species.

  6. Growth rhythms recorded in stable isotopes and density bands in the reef coral Porites lobata (Cebu, Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pätzold, J.

    1984-10-01

    Growth rhythms in the reef coral Porites lobata are revealed by X-radiography and stable carbon and oxygen isotopic analysis. High density increments were deposited during warm temperatures in summer and low density increments during winter. The seasonal temperature variations are reflected in the oxygen isotope ratios. The coral carbonate shows a constant depletion in 18O of -2.7%0 relative to calcite in equilibrium with the ambient seawater. The mean annual growth rate of the specimen studied was 1.3±0.3 cm/year.

  7. New approaches to the biogeography and areas of endemism of red oaks (Quercus L., section Lobatae).

    PubMed

    Torres-Miranda, Andrés; Luna-Vega, Isolda; Oyama, Ken

    2013-07-01

    An area of endemism is defined by the spatial congruence among two or more species with distributions that are limited by barriers. In this study, we explored and discussed the use of the network analysis method (NAM) and neighbor-joining (NJ) to analyze the areas of endemism of Quercus sect. Lobatae (red oak species) in Mexico and Central America. We compared the NAM and NJ with other methods commonly used in biogeographic studies to show the advantages of these new approaches and to identify the shortcomings of other approaches. The NAM used in this study is based on notions of centrality measures, such as betweenness. We incorporated the strength of the ties within the internal networks through p-cores and aggregate constraints in iterative analyses. The NAM based on betweenness is ideal for recognizing completely allopatric areas of endemism. The iterative NAMs increase the number of possible areas of endemism because they minimize the effect of minimal overlap, and the p-core is efficient at identifying the closest relationships among species in the cases in which betweenness is not informative. The number of areas of endemism increases when the sympatry matrix minimizes the dispersal effect and the sample effort is maximized, allowing the identification of the greatest number of these areas. The NJ method supports the idea that areas diverge among themselves in a differential way; the long branches correspond to zones with high speciation rates and complex histories (biotic and tectonic), and the short branches correspond to zones with low speciation rates and simple histories. In a classification scheme, NJ was capable of identifying the areas that are considered biotically complex because of their high speciation rates. The results obtained with the NAM and NJ showed that the physiographic regions of Mexico are not natural units and that many of them are composed of at least two different biotic components.

  8. THE ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF URENA LOBATA L. FROMV GUANGXI ON MICE WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS PNEUMONIA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufang; Huang, Zhenguang; Zou, Xiaoqin; Zhong, Xiaobin; Liang, Xueyan; Zhou, Jinling

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol extract from the root of Urena lobata L. (ULL) had broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Studies in vitro have sho that ULL aqueous extract has antibacterial effect on S. aureusis, and the combination therapy of the ULL aqueous extract with cefazolin sodium showed additive effect. The mice underwent nasal inhalation with S. aureus, a subset of mice were intra-gastric gavage with ULL and/or intravenous injection cefazolin sodium twice daily. After being exposed to S. aureus for 5 days, 10 days and 14 days respectively, the white blood cells count (WBC), neutrophils absolute value (NEU) and the neutrophil percentage (NEU%) in peripheral blood, as well as the levels of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM were determined using commercial kits. The colony count of S. aureus, the levels of interleukin (IL) -6 and IL-10 of mice lung tissue were detected, and the pathological changes of lung tissue were examined using H & E staining. ULL significantly protected against S. aureus pneumonia, as evidenced by the remarkable decrease in the rate of S. aureus colony count/lung weight, WBC, NEU and NEU% in peripheral blood, as well as the attenuation of lung histopathological damage. Additionally, ULL+cefazolin could have markedly reduced the rate of S. aureus colony count/lung weight when compared with cefazolin. Furthermore, ULL and ULL+cefazolin both could significantly decrease the serum levels of IgG and IgM, and the levels of IL-6, IL-10 in mice lung tissue. This study first demonstrated that ULL may have potential use as a therapeutic agent for S. aureus pneumonia, and the roles of IgG, IgM, IL-6 and IL-10 in ULL protection against S. aureus pneumonia remain to be further studied.

  9. Symbiotic N2-Fixation Estimated by the 15N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m2 of 15N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  10. Stable mucus-associated bacterial communities in bleached and healthy corals of Porites lobata from the Arabian Seas

    PubMed Central

    Hadaidi, Ghaida; Röthig, Till; Yum, Lauren K.; Ziegler, Maren; Arif, Chatchanit; Roder, Cornelia; Burt, John; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs are subject to coral bleaching manifested by the loss of endosymbiotic algae from coral host tissue. Besides algae, corals associate with bacteria. In particular, bacteria residing in the surface mucus layer are thought to mediate coral health, but their role in coral bleaching is unknown. We collected mucus from bleached and healthy Porites lobata colonies in the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) and the Red Sea (RS) to investigate bacterial microbiome composition using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We found that bacterial community structure was notably similar in bleached and healthy corals, and the most abundant bacterial taxa were identical. However, fine-scale differences in bacterial community composition between the PAG and RS were present and aligned with predicted differences in sulfur- and nitrogen-cycling processes. Based on our data, we argue that bleached corals benefit from the stable composition of mucus bacteria that resemble their healthy coral counterparts and presumably provide a conserved suite of protective functions, but monitoring of post-bleaching survival is needed to further confirm this assumption. Conversely, fine-scale site-specific differences highlight flexibility of the bacterial microbiome that may underlie adjustment to local environmental conditions and contribute to the widespread success of Porites lobata. PMID:28361923

  11. Limited hybridization between Quercus lobata and Quercus douglasii (Fagaceae) in a mixed stand in central coastal California.

    PubMed

    Craft, Kathleen J; Ashley, Mary V; Koenig, Walter D

    2002-11-01

    Many oak species are interfertile, and morphological and genetic evidence for hybridization is widespread. Here we use DNA microsatellite markers to characterize hybridization between two closely related oak species in a mixed stand in central coastal California, Quercus lobata (valley oak) and Q. douglasii (blue oak) (Fagaceae). Genotypes from four microsatellite loci indicate that many alleles are shared between the two species. However, each species harbors unique alleles, and allele frequencies differ significantly. A Bayesian analysis of genetic structure in the stand identified two highly differentiated genetic clusters, essentially corresponding to species assignment based on morphology. Data from the four loci were sufficient to assign all 135 trees to one of the two species. In addition, five putative hybrid individuals having intermediate morphologies could be assigned genetically to one or the other species, and all but one had low probability of hybrid ancestry. Overally, only six (4.6%) trees showed >0.05 probability of hybrid ancestry, in all cases their probabilities for nonhybrid ancestry were substantially higher. We conclude that adult hybrids of Q. douglasii × Q. lobata are rare at this site and plasticity in morphological characters may lead to overestimates of hybridization among Quercus species.

  12. Stable mucus-associated bacterial communities in bleached and healthy corals of Porites lobata from the Arabian Seas.

    PubMed

    Hadaidi, Ghaida; Röthig, Till; Yum, Lauren K; Ziegler, Maren; Arif, Chatchanit; Roder, Cornelia; Burt, John; Voolstra, Christian R

    2017-03-31

    Coral reefs are subject to coral bleaching manifested by the loss of endosymbiotic algae from coral host tissue. Besides algae, corals associate with bacteria. In particular, bacteria residing in the surface mucus layer are thought to mediate coral health, but their role in coral bleaching is unknown. We collected mucus from bleached and healthy Porites lobata colonies in the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) and the Red Sea (RS) to investigate bacterial microbiome composition using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We found that bacterial community structure was notably similar in bleached and healthy corals, and the most abundant bacterial taxa were identical. However, fine-scale differences in bacterial community composition between the PAG and RS were present and aligned with predicted differences in sulfur- and nitrogen-cycling processes. Based on our data, we argue that bleached corals benefit from the stable composition of mucus bacteria that resemble their healthy coral counterparts and presumably provide a conserved suite of protective functions, but monitoring of post-bleaching survival is needed to further confirm this assumption. Conversely, fine-scale site-specific differences highlight flexibility of the bacterial microbiome that may underlie adjustment to local environmental conditions and contribute to the widespread success of Porites lobata.

  13. Soil moisture availability as a factor affecting valley oak (Quercus lobata Neé) seedling establishment and survival in a riparian habitat, Cosumnes River Preserve, Sacramento County, California

    Treesearch

    Virginia C. Meyer

    2002-01-01

    The lack of valley oak (Quercus lobata Neé) regeneration throughout much of its historical range appears to be related to both habitat destruction and soil moisture availability. The water relations, growth and survival of greenhouse potted seedlings, field-planted and natural seedlings were monitored through the growing season, 1989. The age...

  14. Comparative analysis of the chemical constituents of two varieties of Pueraria candollei.

    PubMed

    Yusakul, Gorawit; Putalun, Waraporn; Udomsin, Orapin; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

    2011-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to determine the contents of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol in the tubers of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica and P. candollei var. candollei. The linear detection ranges were 0.78-25.00 μg/mL for miroestrol and 1.56-25.00 μg/mL for deoxymiroestrol. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.2 and 0.78 μg/mL, respectively, for miroestrol and 0.78 and 1.56 μg/mL, respectively, for deoxymiroestrol. Our results suggest that both varieties of P. candollei can produce miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol and that the developed HPLC method can be applied for quality control of plants and their products. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intestinal bacteria activate estrogenic effect of main constituents puerarin and daidzin of Pueraria thunbergiana.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Kyung; Shin, Jieun; Bae, Eun-Ah; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2006-12-01

    To understand the relationship between the metabolites and estrogenic activity of the main isoflavones puerarin and daidzin of the rhizome of Pueraria thunbergiana (PT, family Leguminosae), PT and its isoflavones were transformed by human intestinal bacteria and their estrogenic effects were investigated. All human fecal specimens hydrolyzed puerarin and daidzin to daidzein, but their hydrolyzing activities varied depending on the individuals. All intestinal bacteria isolated from human also hydrolyzed daidzin to daidzein, but a few bacteria transformed puerarin to daidzein. When the estrogenic effect of PT, puerarin and daidzin was compared with those of their metabolites, the metabolites more potently increased proliferation of MCF-7 cells than PT, puerarin and daidzin. The metabolite daidzein also potently increased estrogen-response c-fos mRNA and PR protein expressions. These findings suggest that intestinal bacteria, which can hydrolyze puerarin and/or daidzin, may activate a potent estrogenic activity of PT.

  16. Antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of flavonoids from Puerariae radix.

    PubMed

    Xiaoming, Wang; Ling, Lei; Jinghang, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of flavonoids from Puerariae radix (FPR). In vitro antioxidant activities of FPR were investigated through hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of FPR was investigated through loaded swimming exercise of mice. Results showed that FPR had not only in vitro antioxidant activities, but also an in vivo anti-fatigue activity in mice. FPR possessed superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in in vitro experimental studies. In vivo experimental studies, FPR could evidently extend exhaustive swimming time of mice, inhibit the increase of blood lactic acid (BLA), decrease serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, promote increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) of mice after swimming. The results provided an important basis for developing the FPR as a novel antioxidant and anti-fatigue compound.

  17. Potential Skin Regeneration Activity and Chemical Composition of Absolute from Pueraria thunbergiana Flower.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Yoon; Won, Kyung-Jong; Hwang, Dae-Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Su Jin; Park, Joo-Hoon; Yoon, Myeong Sik; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-11-01

    The flower of Pueraria thunbergiana BENTH (PTBF) contains isoflavonoids and essential oil components. It has many biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-diabetes, anti-oxidant, and weight loss. However, its effect on skin regeneration remains unknown. In the present study, we isolated the absolute from PTBF through solvent extraction and determined the role of the absolute on skin regeneration-associated responses in human epidermal-keratinocytes (HaCats). The PTBF absolute, which contained 10 compounds, stimulated migration and proliferation and increased the phosphorylation of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 in HaCats. It induced type I and IV collagen synthesis in HaCats. In addition, treatment with PTBF absolute resulted in increased sprout outgrowth in HaCats. These findings suggest that PTBF absolute may participate in skin regeneration, probably through promotion of migration, proliferation, and collagen synthesis.

  18. Production of isoflavonoids in callus cultures of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2009-01-01

    Pueraria candollei Wall. ex Benth. var. mirifica (Airy Shaw & Suvat.) Niyomdham was investigated for callus induction using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different plant growth regulators. After 8 weeks of culture, 66-100% of leaf or stem explants formed calli. Calli from stem explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) gave the maximum of shoot induction (16%) and the highest level of total isoflavonoids [(50.39 +/- 7.06) mg/g dry wt], which was 7-fold higher than that of the native tuber [(7.04 +/- 0.29) mg/g dry wt]. These results suggest that addition of TDZ to the culture medium markedly enhances the production of isoflavonoids in calli induced from stem explants of P. candollei var. mirifica.

  19. Foraging patterns of acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) on valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) in two California oak savanna-woodlands.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Douglas G; Alfaro, Victor Ryan; Sork, Victoria L; Grivet, Delphine; Martinez, Edith; Papp, Jeannette; Pluess, Andrea R; Koenig, Walter D; Smouse, Peter E

    2011-05-01

    Landscape characteristics and social behavior can affect the foraging patterns of seed-dependent animals. We examine the movement of acorns from valley oak (Quercus lobata) trees to granaries maintained by acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) in two California oak savanna-woodlands differing in the distribution of Q. lobata within each site. In 2004, we sampled Q. lobata acorns from 16 granaries at Sedgwick Reserve in Santa Barbara County and 18 granaries at Hastings Reserve in Monterey County. Sedgwick has lower site-wide density of Q. lobata than Hastings as well as different frequencies of other Quercus species common to both sites. We found acorn woodpeckers foraged from fewer Q. lobata seed source trees (K(g) = 4.1 ± 0.5) at Sedgwick than at Hastings (K(g) = 7.6 ± 0.6) and from fewer effective seed sources (N(em)* = 2.00 and 5.78, respectively). The differences between sites are due to a greater number of incidental seed sources used per granary at Hastings than at Sedgwick. We also found very low levels of seed source sharing between adjacent granaries, indicating that territoriality is strong at both sites and that each social group forages on its own subset of trees. We discovered an interesting spatial pattern in the location of granaries. At Sedgwick, acorn woodpeckers situated their granaries within areas of higher-than-average tree density, while at Hastings, they placed them within areas of lower-than-average tree density, with the outcome that granaries at the two sites were located in areas of similar valley oak density. Our results illustrate that landscape characteristics might influence the number of trees visited by acorn woodpeckers and the locations of territories, while woodpecker social behavior, such as territoriality, shapes which trees are visited and whether they are shared with other social groups.

  20. Molecular differentiation and diversity among the California red oaks (Fagaceae; Quercus section Lobatae).

    PubMed

    Dodd, Richard S; Kashani, Nasser

    2003-09-01

    A recent epidemic of Phytopthora (Sudden Oak Death) in coastal woodlands of California is causing severe mortality in some oak species belonging to the red oak (Lobatae) group. To predict the risks of spread of this disease, an understanding of the relationships among California's red oak species and of their population genetic structure is needed. We focus here on relationships among the four species of red oak. Whereas morphological distinction of Quercus wislizeni and Quercus parvula can pose problems, Quercus kelloggii and Quercus agrifolia in pure forms are easily distinguishable from one another and from Q. wislizeni and Q. parvula in the field. However, hybrids among all species combinations are known to occur in nature and these can confound data from ecological studies. Our results revealed greatest differentiation of the deciduous Q. kelloggii, with only weak AFLP fragment differentiation of the three remaining evergreen species. The molecular data suggest a closer affinity of Q. agrifolia with Q. wislizeni and Q. parvula contrary to earlier suggestions that its origins are likely to have been with northern deciduous oaks probably through a common ancestor with Q. kelloggii. Interior and coastal populations of Q. wislizeni separated in dendrograms based on phenetic and genetic distances suggesting probable isolation in different glacial refugia. The position of Q. parvula remains ambiguous, having a closer affinity with interior populations of Q. wislizeni and with Q. agrifolia, than with coastal populations of Q. wislizeni. Mean population differentiation in Q. wislizeni was 0.18, which is somewhat higher than the average for other oak species, suggesting that range fragmentation has occurred in the past, resulting in a metapopulation structure. Our results provide evidence that introgression among these species may be causing reticulation, further confounding species separation. Whereas Phytopthora has been reported on Q. agrifolia, Q. parvula and Q

  1. Whole-transcriptome response to water stress in a California endemic oak, Quercus lobata.

    PubMed

    Gugger, Paul F; Peñaloza-Ramírez, Juan Manuel; Wright, Jessica W; Sork, Victoria L

    2016-12-21

    Reduced water availability during drought can create major stress for many plant species. Within a species, populations with a history of seasonal drought may have evolved the ability to tolerate drought more than those in areas of high precipitation and low seasonality. In this study, we assessed response to water stress in a California oak species, Quercus lobata Née, by measuring changes in gene expression profiles before and after a simulated drought stress treatment through water deprivation of seedlings in a greenhouse setting. Using whole-transcriptome sequencing from nine samples from three collection localities, we identified which genes are involved in response to drought stress and tested the hypothesis that seedlings sampled from climatically different regions of the species range respond to water stress differently. We observed a surprisingly massive transcriptional response to drought: 35,347 of 68,434 contigs (52%) were differentially expressed before versus after drought treatment, of which 18,111 were down-regulated and 17,236 were up-regulated. Genes functionally associated with abiotic stresses and death were enriched among the up-regulated genes, whereas metabolic and cell part-related genes were enriched among the down-regulated. We found 56 contigs that exhibited significantly different expression responses to the drought treatment among the three populations (treatment × population interaction), suggesting that those genes may be involved in local adaptation to drought stress. These genes have stress response (e.g., WRKY DNA-binding protein 51 and HSP20-like chaperones superfamily protein), metabolic (e.g., phosphoglycerate kinase and protein kinase superfamily protein), transport/transfer (e.g., cationic amino acid transporter 7 and K(+) transporter) and regulatory functions (e.g., WRKY51 and Homeodomain-like transcriptional regulator). Baseline expression levels of 1310 unique contigs also differed among pairs of populations, and they

  2. Effect of chemical factors on production of isoflavonoids in Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb.ex.Willd.) DC suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shaily; Ramawat, K G

    2007-12-01

    Suspension cultures of Pueraria tuberosa, a woody legume, have been established and using different concentrations of growth regulators, sucrose, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, attempts have been made to improve their isoflavonoid content. The cell cultures grew well on all the treatments. Up to approximately 8 folds increased isoflavonoids content was recorded in the cultures grown in MS medium modified with nitrogen and supplemented with 1 mg 1(-1) of kinetin.

  3. Molecularly imprinted layer-coated monodisperse spherical silica microparticles toward affinity-enrichment of isoflavonoid glycosides from Radix puerariae.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Zhang, Liying; Chen, Danjun; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Jiawei; Peng, Yan; Du, Shuhu; Zhang, Zhongping

    2012-06-21

    This paper reports the preparation of puerarin (PR) imprinted layer-coated silica microparticles toward selective recognition of PR and fast affinity-enrichment of the main isoflavonoid glycosides from the crude extract of Radix puerariae. Before the preparation, quantum mechanics (QM) method was applied to identify three kinds of common functional monomers capable of interaction with PR and then predicted optimal functional monomer (acrylamide, AA) and the relative molar ratio of template to functional monomer (PR/AA, 1:4). The obtained PR-imprinted silica microparticles were evaluated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and rebinding experiments, exhibiting good morphology and high binding affinity to PR. Meanwhile, the rebinding amount of the imprinted microparticles to PR was nearly 2.1-folds that of non-imprinted microparticles. When the PR-imprinted microspheres were used as packing materials for solid-phase extraction, the recovery yields of PR, daidzin (DD) and genistin (GS) were simultaneously up to 90% by one-step extraction from the crude extract of Radix puerariae. Additionally, the PR-imprinted microparticles could be re-used for at least 5 times without losing any extraction efficiency. These results indicate that the PR-imprinted microparticles have highly selective adsorption capabilities to PR, DD and GS from the crude extract of Radix puerariae. The method of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) provides a good solution of the enrichment and separation of active extracts from complicated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with certain structures.

  4. Mechanisms Controlling Species Responses to Climate Change: Thermal Tolerances and Shifting Range Limits. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, R. F.; Bykova, O.; Coiner, H.

    2010-12-01

    One of the main effects of anthropogenic climate change will be widespread shifts in species distribution, with the common assumption that they will migrate to higher elevation and latitude. While this assumption is supported by migration patterns following climate warming in the past 20,000 years, it has not been rigorously evaluated in terms of physiological mechanism, despite the implication that migration in response to climate warming is controlled by some form of thermal adaptation. We have been evaluating the degree to which species range limits are controlled by physiological patterns of thermal tolerance in bioinvaders of North America. Bioinvaders presumably have few biotic controls over their distribution and thus are more likely to fully exploit their thermal niche. In cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), the minimum lethal temperature in winter is -32C, which corresponds to the mean winter minimum temperature at its northern range limit. In red brome (Bromus rubens), the minimum lethal temperature is also near -32C, which is well below the minimum winter temperature near -20C that corresponds to its northern distribution limit. In kudzu (Pueraria lobata), the minimum lethal temperature is near -20C, which corresponds to the midwinter minimum at its northern distribution limit; however, overwintering kudzu tissues are insulated by soil and snow cover, and thus do not experience lethal temperatures at kudzu's northern range limit. These results demonstrate that some invasive species can exploit the potential range defined by their low temperature tolerance and thus can be predicted by mechanistic models to migrate to higher latitudes with moderation of winter cold. The distribution of other invaders such as kudzu and red brome are not controlled by tolerance of midwinter cold. Developing mechanistic models of their distributions, and how these might change with climate warming, will require extensive physiological study.

  5. Linking sewage pollution and water quality to spatial patterns of Porites lobata growth anomalies in Puako, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Reyn M; Kim, Catherine J S; Tracy, Allison M; Most, Rebecca; Harvell, C Drew

    2016-03-15

    Sewage pollution threatens the health of coastal populations and ecosystems, including coral reefs. We investigated spatial patterns of sewage pollution in Puako, Hawaii using enterococci concentrations and δ(15)N Ulva fasciata macroalgal bioassays to assess relationships with the coral disease Porites lobata growth anomalies (PGAs). PGA severity and enterococci concentrations were high, spatially variable, and positively related. Bioassay algal δ(15)N showed low sewage pollution at the reef edge while high values of resident algae indicated sewage pollution nearshore. Neither δ(15)N metric predicted PGA measures, though bioassay δ(15)N was negatively related to coral cover. Furthermore, PGA prevalence was much higher than previously recorded in Hawaii and the greater Indo-Pacific, highlighting Puako as an area of concern. Although further work is needed to resolve the relationship between sewage pollution and coral cover and disease, these results implicate sewage pollution as a contributor to diminished reef health.

  6. Hard coral (Porites lobata) extracts and homarine on cytochrome P450 expression in Hawaiian butterflyfishes with different feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Aileen; Johnson, Amber; Gochfeld, Deborah; Slattery, Marc; Ostrander, Gary K; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Schlenk, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Dietary specialists tend to be less susceptible to the effects of chemical defenses produced by their prey compared to generalist predators that feed upon a broader range of prey species. While many researchers have investigated the ability of insects to detoxify dietary allelochemicals, little research has been conducted in marine ecosystems. We investigated metabolic detoxification pathways in three species of butterflyfishes: the hard coral specialist feeder, Chaetodon multicinctus, and two generalist feeders, Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon kleinii. Each species was fed tissue homogenate of the hard coral Porites lobata or the feeding deterrent compound homarine (found in the coral extract), and the expression and catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A-like and CYP2-like enzymes were examined after one-week of treatment. The P. lobata homogenate significantly induced content and catalytic activity of CYP2-like and CYP3A-like forms, by 2-3 fold and by 3-9 fold, respectively, in C. multicinctus. Homarine caused a significant decrease of CYP2-like and CYP3A-like proteins at the high dose in C. kleinii and 60-80% mortality in that species. Homarine also induced CYP3A-like content by 3-fold and catalytic activity by 2-fold in C. auriga, while causing non-monotonic increases in CYP2-like and CYP3A-like catalytic activity in C. multicinctus. Our results indicate that dietary exposure to coral homogenates and the feeding deterrent constituent within these homogenates caused species-specific modulation of detoxification enzymes consistent with the prey selection strategies of generalist and specialist butterflyfishes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. First Draft Assembly and Annotation of the Genome of a California Endemic Oak Quercus lobata Née (Fagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sork, Victoria L.; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel T.; Puiu, Daniela; Crepeau, Marc; Gugger, Paul F.; Sherman, Rachel; Stevens, Kristian; Langley, Charles H.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Salzberg, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Oak represents a valuable natural resource across Northern Hemisphere ecosystems, attracting a large research community studying its genetics, ecology, conservation, and management. Here we introduce a draft genome assembly of valley oak (Quercus lobata) using Illumina sequencing of adult leaf tissue of a tree found in an accessible, well-studied, natural southern California population. Our assembly includes a nuclear genome and a complete chloroplast genome, along with annotation of encoded genes. The assembly contains 94,394 scaffolds, totaling 1.17 Gb with 18,512 scaffolds of length 2 kb or longer, with a total length of 1.15 Gb, and a N50 scaffold size of 278,077 kb. The k-mer histograms indicate an diploid genome size of ∼720–730 Mb, which is smaller than the total length due to high heterozygosity, estimated at 1.25%. A comparison with a recently published European oak (Q. robur) nuclear sequence indicates 93% similarity. The Q. lobata chloroplast genome has 99% identity with another North American oak, Q. rubra. Preliminary annotation yielded an estimate of 61,773 predicted protein-coding genes, of which 71% had similarity to known protein domains. We searched 956 Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs, and found 863 complete orthologs, of which 450 were present in > 1 copy. We also examined an earlier version (v0.5) where duplicate haplotypes were removed to discover variants. These additional sources indicate that the predicted gene count in Version 1.0 is overestimated by 37–52%. Nonetheless, this first draft valley oak genome assembly represents a high-quality, well-annotated genome that provides a tool for forest restoration and management practices. PMID:27621377

  8. Physiological and Biogeochemical Traits of Bleaching and Recovery in the Mounding Species of Coral Porites lobata: Implications for Resilience in Mounding Corals

    PubMed Central

    Levas, Stephen J.; Grottoli, Andréa G.; Hughes, Adam; Osburn, Christopher L.; Matsui, Yohei

    2013-01-01

    Mounding corals survive bleaching events in greater numbers than branching corals. However, no study to date has determined the underlying physiological and biogeochemical trait(s) that are responsible for mounding coral holobiont resilience to bleaching. Furthermore, the potential of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as a source of fixed carbon to bleached corals has never been determined. Here, Porites lobata corals were experimentally bleached for 23 days and then allowed to recover for 0, 1, 5, and 11 months. At each recovery interval a suite of analyses were performed to assess their recovery (photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll a, energy reserves, tissue biomass, calcification, δ13C of the skeletal, δ13C, and δ15N of the animal host and endosymbiont fractions). Furthermore, at 0 months of recovery, the assimilation of photosynthetically acquired and zooplankton-feeding acquired carbon into the animal host, endosymbiont, skeleton, and coral-mediated DOC were measured via 13C-pulse-chase labeling. During the first month of recovery, energy reserves and tissue biomass in bleached corals were maintained despite reductions in chlorophyll a, photosynthesis, and the assimilation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. At the same time, P. lobata corals catabolized carbon acquired from zooplankton and seemed to take up DOC as a source of fixed carbon. All variables that were negatively affected by bleaching recovered within 5 to 11 months. Thus, bleaching resilience in the mounding coral P. lobata is driven by its ability to actively catabolize zooplankton-acquired carbon and seemingly utilize DOC as a significant fixed carbon source, facilitating the maintenance of energy reserves and tissue biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not only mounding morphologies but species like P. lobata, which have the ability to utilize heterotrophic sources of fixed carbon

  9. Physiological and biogeochemical traits of bleaching and recovery in the mounding species of coral Porites lobata: implications for resilience in mounding corals.

    PubMed

    Levas, Stephen J; Grottoli, Andréa G; Hughes, Adam; Osburn, Christopher L; Matsui, Yohei

    2013-01-01

    Mounding corals survive bleaching events in greater numbers than branching corals. However, no study to date has determined the underlying physiological and biogeochemical trait(s) that are responsible for mounding coral holobiont resilience to bleaching. Furthermore, the potential of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as a source of fixed carbon to bleached corals has never been determined. Here, Porites lobata corals were experimentally bleached for 23 days and then allowed to recover for 0, 1, 5, and 11 months. At each recovery interval a suite of analyses were performed to assess their recovery (photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll a, energy reserves, tissue biomass, calcification, δ(13)C of the skeletal, δ(13)C, and δ(15)N of the animal host and endosymbiont fractions). Furthermore, at 0 months of recovery, the assimilation of photosynthetically acquired and zooplankton-feeding acquired carbon into the animal host, endosymbiont, skeleton, and coral-mediated DOC were measured via (13)C-pulse-chase labeling. During the first month of recovery, energy reserves and tissue biomass in bleached corals were maintained despite reductions in chlorophyll a, photosynthesis, and the assimilation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. At the same time, P. lobata corals catabolized carbon acquired from zooplankton and seemed to take up DOC as a source of fixed carbon. All variables that were negatively affected by bleaching recovered within 5 to 11 months. Thus, bleaching resilience in the mounding coral P. lobata is driven by its ability to actively catabolize zooplankton-acquired carbon and seemingly utilize DOC as a significant fixed carbon source, facilitating the maintenance of energy reserves and tissue biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not only mounding morphologies but species like P. lobata, which have the ability to utilize heterotrophic sources of

  10. Silage preparation and fermentation quality of kudzu, sugarcane top and their mixture treated with lactic acid bacteria, molasses and cellulase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinzhu; Li, Wenyang; Gao, Chengfang; Zhang, Xiaopei; Weng, Boqi; Cai, Yimin

    2017-05-30

    We studied silage fermentation of kudzu (KZ), sugarcane top (ST) and their mixtures treated with additives to be able to effectively use available local feed resources. The silages were prepared using KZ, ST, KZ 90% + ST 10%, KZ 80% + ST 20%, KZ 70% + ST 30% and KZ 60% + ST 40%, based on fresh matter (FM). These silages were treated with 10(8)  colony-forming units/g epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB), 5% molasses and 0.02% cellulase of FM. The KZ contained higher crude protein (CP; 14.52%) content and lower levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 62.15%) than those of ST (6.84% CP and 64.93% NDF) based on dry matter (DM). The KZ 60% + ST 40% silage fermented well with a higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid content and lower (P < 0.05) pH than those of the other mixed silages. Silages treated with molasses had lower (P < 0.05) ammonia-N, NDF, acid detergent fiber, and hemi-cellulose contents as well as pH, but higher (P < 0.05) DM, water-soluble carbohydrate, and lactic acid contents, than those of the control, LAB and cellulase treatments. The results confirmed that KZ 60% + ST 40% was the best mixing ratio to prepare silage, and molasses improved silage fermentation and fiber degradation. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Mangiferin from Pueraria tuberosa reduces inflammation via inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Bulugonda, Ramakrishna K.; kumar, Kotha Anil; Gangappa, D.; Beeda, Harshavardhan; Philip, Gundala Harold; Muralidhara Rao, Dowlathabad; Faisal, Syed M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated the role of phyto-constituents in modulating inflammatory responses. Mangiferin isolated from Mangifera indica is known to induce potent anti-oxidative, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity is not properly understood. In this study we have isolated Mangiferin from the tubers of Pueraria tuberosa (PT-Mangiferin) and analysed the mechanism of its potent anti-inflammatory effects in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line and in a carrageenan induced air pouch model. PT-Mangiferin was non-toxic to primary cells but showed significant toxicity and apoptotic effect on cancerous cells. It significantly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (COX-2, iNOS and TNF-α) in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Further, it has also reduced the generation of ROS and inhibited LPS induced NF-kB translocation in these cells. Additionally, PT-Mangiferin significantly reduced inflammation in a mouse air pouch model by inhibiting the infiltration of monocytes and neutrophils and reducing the production of cytokines. These effects were mediated via inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome complex and its downstream signalling molecules. Taken together these results suggest that PT-Mangiferin is potent anti-inflammatory compound that reduces inflammation and holds promise in development of herbal based anti-inflammatory therapeutics in future. PMID:28218280

  12. Preventive effect of Pueraria mirifica on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Masrudin, S S; Mohamad, J

    2015-12-01

    Pueraria mirifica (PM) extract contains phytoestrogen daidzein and genistein. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of PM extract, daidzein and genistein on a testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Testosterone was administered at 3 mg kg(-1) to rats followed by the PM extract, daidzein and genistein for a period of 30 days with finasteride as positive control. The testosterone level was increased, indicating inhibition of 5α-reductase converting testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. This was confirmed by prostate-specific antigen level that significantly decreased when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein. The PM extract, daidzein and genistein reduced the increase in the prostate/body weight ratio in testosterone-induced rats. This gives indication that PM extract, daidzein and genistein possessed protective activity for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The analysis of histoarchitechture of the prostate has also shown that there was a significant improvement in prostatic cells of the testosterone-induced rats when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein.

  13. Phenotypic plasticity of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo D T; Da Cruz, Leandro R; Dos Santos, Samuel A; Sant'anna-Santos, Bruno F; Dos Santos, Izabela T; De Oliveira, Ariane M; Barros, Rodrigo E; Santos, Márcia V; Faria, Rodrigo M

    2015-03-01

    Plants have the ability to undergo morphophysiological changes based on availability of light. The present study evaluated biomass accumulation, leaf morphoanatomy and physiology of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown in full sunlight, as well as in 30% and 50% shade. Two assays were performed, one for each species, using a randomized block design with 10 replicates. A higher accumulation of fresh mass in the shoot of the plants was observed for both species under cultivation in 50% shade, while no differences were detected between the full sunlight and 30% shade. N. wightii and P. phaseoloides showed increase in area and reduction in thickness leaf when cultivated in 50% shade. There were no changes in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and evapotranspiration of P. phaseoloides plants because growth environment. However, the shade treatments caused alterations in physiological parameters of N. wightii. In both species, structural changes in the mesophyll occurred depending on the availability of light; however, the amount of leaf blade tissue remained unaltered. Despite the influence of light intensity variation on the morphophysiological plasticity of N. wightii and P. phaseoloides, no effects on biomass accumulation were observed in response to light.

  14. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Isoorientin Isolated from Tubers of Pueraria tuberosa

    PubMed Central

    Anilkumar, Kotha; Reddy, Gorla V.; Azad, Rajaram; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Dharmapuri, Gangappa; Srivastava, Anand

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is the major causative factor of different diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. Anti-inflammatory drugs are often the first step of treatment in many of these diseases. The present study is aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory properties of isoorientin, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor isolated from the tubers of Pueraria tuberosa, in vitro on mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and in vivo on mouse paw edema and air pouch models of inflammation. Isoorientin reduced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cell line in vitro and carrageenan induced inflammatory animal model systems in vivo. Cellular infiltration into pouch tissue was reduced in isoorientin treated mice compared to carrageenan treated mice. Isoorientin treated RAW 264.7 cells and animals showed reduced expression of inflammatory proteins like COX-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and interleukin 1-β (IL-1-β) both in vitro and in vivo. The antioxidant enzyme levels of catalase and GST were markedly increased in isoorientin treated mice compared to carrageenan treated mice. These results suggest that isoorientin, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, not only exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS induced RAW cells and carrageenan induced inflammatory model systems but also exhibits potent antioxidant properties. PMID:28243356

  15. Pueraria tuberosa DC Extract Improves Androgenesis and Sexual Behavior via FSH LH Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Alexandra; Dixit, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PT) on sexual behaviour and androgenic activity. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: control group 1 (2% acacia solution), PT-treated group 2 (50 mg/Kg), PT-treated group 3 (100 mg/Kg), and PT-treated group 4 (150 mg/Kg). Sexual behavior of male rats in the presence of a female rat was recorded. The treated groups were evaluated for sexual parameters. The extract was characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatment on anabolic and weight of secondary sexual organs was determined. The histological changes in section of testis and epididymis after treatment were observed. Sperm count in epididymis and fructose content in seminal vesicles were also measured. Levels of hormones like FSH, LH, and T were determined. A dose-dependent increase in sexual behaviors was evidenced in the animals of extract treated groups. Increase in testis weight was recorded in PT. At the highest dose PT also affects the hormones level. The four compounds namely puerarin, daidzein, biochanin-A and formononetin were identified in ethanolic extract using LC-MS. It concluded that PT extract possesses androgenic effect and it significantly increased the sexual behaviour and hormones level. PMID:24489512

  16. Pueraria mirifica, a phytoestrogen-rich herb, prevents bone loss in orchidectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Urasopon, Nontakorn; Hamada, Yuzuru; Asaoka, Kazuo; Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2007-03-20

    Estrogens and estrogen-like substances have been reported to play an important role in male bone homeostasis and to prevent bone loss. Pueraria mirifica (Leguminosae), a Thai herbal plant, containing a high amount of phytoestrogens was a choice of interest for this study. We examined the effects of crude P. mirifica on bone loss and influences on reproductive organs in male rats. Using fully mature and orchidectomized (ORX) rats, the effects of 0, 10, 100 and 1000 mg/kgB.W./day of P. mirifica and 0.1mg/kg B.W./day of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (a positive control) were evaluated on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) measured with a peripheral Quantitative Computerized Tomography (pQCT) densitometry. Bone loss in trabecular and cortical bones of the various sites of axial bone (fourth lumbar vertebral body) and long bones (tibia and femur) after ORX was dose-dependently prevented by P. mirifica. The effects were specific on bone types and sites. The weights of the accessory sex organs, seminal vesicle and ventral prostrate gland, which significantly decreased after 3-month of ORX, were not altered by P. mirifica. The results suggest that P. mirifica treatment may be useful to prevent an osteoporosis in elderly hypogonadism subjects without influences on reproductive organs.

  17. Protective effect of Pueraria tuberosa DC. embedded biscuit on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Yamini B; Nagwani, Santosh; Mishra, Pooja; Jha, Alok; Rai, Shashi Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the nephroprotective property of Pueraria tuberosa DC. tuber (PT) has been reported by our group. Here, PT-embedded biscuits were prepared and tested on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. The PT powder was characterized by RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) to ascertain its authenticity and PT biscuits were prepared in different concentrations (1, 2, or 4 g of PT powder). These biscuits were given as diet for a total of 10 days, but on the 7th day cisplatin injection (8 mg/kg bw, i.p.) was given. On the 10th day animals were killed to collect kidneys for assessment of antioxidant status. Blood samples were collected on both the 7th and 10th days for assessment of liver and kidney functions. In mice, PT biscuit showed significant protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, but there was a transient rise in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase at the dose of 4 g PT biscuit. Therefore, it is suggested that PT biscuit might be an effective food supplement for cancer patients undergoing cisplatin-chemotherapy. However, periodical liver function monitoring is required, especially when PT is used for longer periods or at higher doses.

  18. [Determination of five components in Pueraria labta decoction with reference extraction method].

    PubMed

    Xue, Cuijuan; Zhang, Jun; Jing, Wenguang; Wang, Yuesheng; Si, Nan; Liu, An

    2012-08-01

    To establish the reference extraction method for determining five components contained in Pueraria labta decoction and detecting the applicability and feasibility of the application of reference extracts according to the quality standard of traditional Chinese medicine. Zorbax C18 chromatographic column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) was used, with methanol-0.02% phosphoric acid (25:75) as the mobile phase and the detection wavelength was set at 250 nm. Self-prepared reference extracts of P. labta was used for determining the content of 3'-hydroxy puerarin, puerarin, 3'-methoxy puerarin, isoflavoues aglycone-8-C-apiose-(1--> 6) glucoside and daidzin and compare with the experimental results obtained with the single reference substance determination method. The reference extraction determination method showed high precision, stability and reproducibility, with coincident determination results with the results obtained with the single reference substance determination method. The reference extraction determination method of P. labta can be used for quality control of P. labta herbs. The study preliminarily proves the feasibility of the application of P. labta in traditional Chinese medicine.

  19. Pueraria tuberosa DC extract improves androgenesis and sexual behavior via FSH LH cascade.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Thakur, Mayank; Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Alexandra; Dixit, V K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PT) on sexual behaviour and androgenic activity. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: control group 1 (2% acacia solution), PT-treated group 2 (50 mg/Kg), PT-treated group 3 (100 mg/Kg), and PT-treated group 4 (150 mg/Kg). Sexual behavior of male rats in the presence of a female rat was recorded. The treated groups were evaluated for sexual parameters. The extract was characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatment on anabolic and weight of secondary sexual organs was determined. The histological changes in section of testis and epididymis after treatment were observed. Sperm count in epididymis and fructose content in seminal vesicles were also measured. Levels of hormones like FSH, LH, and T were determined. A dose-dependent increase in sexual behaviors was evidenced in the animals of extract treated groups. Increase in testis weight was recorded in PT. At the highest dose PT also affects the hormones level. The four compounds namely puerarin, daidzein, biochanin-A and formononetin were identified in ethanolic extract using LC-MS. It concluded that PT extract possesses androgenic effect and it significantly increased the sexual behaviour and hormones level.

  20. Puerariae radix isoflavones and their metabolites inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.-J.; Hou, Y.C.; Lin, C.-H.; Hsu, Y.-A.; Sheu, Jim J.C.; Lai, C.-H.; Chen, B.-H.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn; Wan Lei Tsai, F.-J.

    2009-01-23

    Puerariae radix (PR) is a popular natural herb and a traditional food in Asia, which has antithrombotic and anti-allergic properties and stimulates estrogenic activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the PR isoflavones puerarin, daidzein, and genistein on the growth of breast cancer cells. Our data revealed that after treatment with PR isoflavones, a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth occurred in HS578T, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 cell lines. Results from cell cycle distribution and apoptosis assays revealed that PR isoflavones induced cell apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway and mediated cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, we observed that the serum metabolites of PR (daidzein sulfates/glucuronides) inhibited proliferation of the breast cancer cells at a 50% cell growth inhibition (GI{sub 50}) concentration of 2.35 {mu}M. These results indicate that the daidzein constituent of PR can be metabolized to daidzein sulfates or daidzein glucuronides that exhibit anticancer activities. The protein expression levels of the active forms of caspase-9 and Bax in breast cancer cells were significantly increased by treatment with PR metabolites. These metabolites also increased the protein expression levels of p53 and p21. We therefore suggest that PR may act as a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent against breast cancer by reducing cell viability and inducing apoptosis.

  1. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass., a Q'eqchi' Maya traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Choueiri, Christine; Saleem, Ammar; Asim, Muhammd; Caal, Federico; Cal, Victor; Rojas, Marco Otarola; Pesek, Todd; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John Thor

    2013-08-01

    The widespread use of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass. by Q'eqchi' Maya and indigenous healers throughout the Caribbean for inflammatory conditions prompted the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of this traditional medicine. The objectives of this study were to conduct a detailed ethnobotanical investigation of the uses of N. lobata by the Q'eqchi' Maya of Belize for a variety of inflammatory symptoms and to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract and isolated sesquiterpene lactones. The crude 80% EtOH extract of N. lobata leaves administered at 100 μg/mL reduced LPS-stimulated TNF-α production in THP-1 monocytes by 72% relative to the stimulated vehicle control. Isolated sesquiterpene lactones, neurolenins B, C+D, lobatin B and 9α-hydroxy-8β-isovalerianyloxy-calyculatolide were more active (IC50=0.17-2.32 μM) than the positive control parthenolide (IC50=4.79 μM). The results provide a pharmacological and phytochemical basis for the traditional use of this leaf for inflammatory conditions.

  2. Isoprene Increases Thermotolerance of Isoprene-Emitting Species.

    PubMed Central

    Singsaas, E. L.; Lerdau, M.; Winter, K.; Sharkey, T. D.

    1997-01-01

    Isoprene-emitting plants lose a large portion of their assimilated C as isoprene. Because isoprene synthesis can be regulated, it has been assumed that isoprene benefits the plant. Since the rate of isoprene emission from leaves is highly responsive to temperature, we hypothesized that isoprene benefits plants by increasing their thermotolerance. We used three methods to measure isopreneinduced thermotolerance in leaves. Each technique assayed thermotolerance under conditions that suppressed endogenous isoprene synthesis. When measured by chlorophyll fluorescence, thermotolerance of kudzu (Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi.) leaves increased as much as 4[deg]C in very low light. With higher light, isoprene increased thermotolerance of kudzu leaves by as much as 10[deg]C. When measured as the temperature at which photosynthesis declined to zero, thermotolerance increased with added isoprene by 2.5[deg]C. All three measures of thermotolerance were dose dependent. Both fluorescence techniques also showed isoprene-induced thermotolerance in white oak (Quercus alba L.). Thermotolerance was not observed in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris var Linden), a species that does not emit isoprene. None of the experiments was designed to determine the mechanism of thermotolerance, but we theorize that isoprene functions by enhancing hydrophobic interactions in membranes. PMID:12223874

  3. Ethylene Production by Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars In Vitro and In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Weingart, H.; Volksch, B.

    1997-01-01

    Significant amounts of ethylene were produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, pv. phaseolicola (which had been isolated from viny weed Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi [common name, kudzu]), and pv. pisi in synthetic medium. On the other hand, the bean strains of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola and strains of 17 other pathovars did not produce ethylene. P. syringae pv. glycinea and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola produced nearly identical levels of ethylene (about 5 x 10(sup-7) nl h(sup-1) cell(sup-1)), which were about 10 times higher than the ethylene level of P. syringae pv. pisi. Two 22-bp oligonucleotide primers derived from the ethylene-forming enzyme (efe) gene of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola PK2 were investigated for their ability to detect ethylene-producing P. syringae strains by PCR analysis. PCR amplification with this primer set resulted in a specific 0.99-kb fragment in all ethylene-producing strains with the exception of the P. syringae pv. pisi strains. Therefore, P. syringae pv. pisi may use a different biosynthetic pathway for ethylene production or the sequence of the efe gene is less conserved in this bacterium. P. syringae pv. phaseolicola isolated from kudzu and P. syringae pv. glycinea also produced ethylene in planta. It could be shown that the enhanced ethylene production in diseased tissue was due to the production of ethylene by the inoculated bacteria. Ethylene production in vitro and in planta was strictly growth associated. PMID:16535480

  4. Preventive effects of Pueraria mirifica on bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Urasopon, Nontakorn; Hamada, Yuzuru; Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2008-02-20

    Effects of Pueraria mirifica on bone loss in fully mature ovariectomized rats are examined. Two series of experiments were performed. In the first series, rats were kept with their ovaries intact and divided into two groups; initial control (IC) and sham control (SH). The IC rats were sacrificed on day 1 and their data were kept as baseline control. The SH rats were subjected to sham operation on day 0 and gavaged daily with distilled water for 90 days. In the second series, rats were subjected to ovariectomy, divided into five groups and gavaged daily with 0.1mg/kg B.W./day of 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE), 0, 10, 100 and 1000mg/kg B.W./day of P. mirifica (P0, P10, P100 and P1000, respectively) for 90 days. Changes of bone mineral density and bone mineral content were measured using peripheral Quantitative Computerized Tomography. Bone loss was significantly induced by ovariectomy and it was dose-dependently prevented by P. mirifica treatment for 90 days. The preventive effects of P. mirifica on bone loss depended on bone types (axial or long bone), bone sites (metaphysis or diaphysis), and bone compartments (trabecular and cortical). At P100 and P1000, bone loss was completely prevented both in trabecular bone mineral density and content. The effects of P. mirifica were, as expected, comparable to that in the EE group. These results suggest that P. mirifica may be applicable to treat the osteoporosis in menopausal women; however, an undesirable side effect on stimulating reproductive organs should be concerned.

  5. Molecular Docking and Interactions of Pueraria Tuberosa with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Asthana, S.; Agarwal, T.; Singothu, S.; Samal, A.; Banerjee, I.; Pal, K.; Pramanik, K.; Ray, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria tuberosa is known for its therapeutic potentials in cardiovascular disorders, but its effect in angiogenesis has not been studied so far. In this study, a computational approach has been applied to elucidate the role of the phytochemicals in inhibition of angiogenesis through modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, major factors responsible for angiogenesis. Metabolite structures retrieved from PubChem and KNApSAcK – 3D databases, were docked using AutoDock4.2 tool. Hydrogen bond and molecular docking, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion and toxicity predictions were carried out using UCSF Chimera, LigPlot+ and PreADMET server, respectively. From the docking analysis, it was observed that puerarone and tuberostan had significant binding affinity for the intracellular kinase domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 respectively. It is important to mention that both the phytochemicals shared similar interaction profile as that of standard inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Also, both puerarone and tuberostan interacted with Lys861/Lys868 (adenosine 5’-triphosphate binding site of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1/vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-2), thus providing a clue that they may enforce their inhibitory effect by blocking the adenosine 5’-triphosphate binding domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Moreover, these molecules exhibited good drug-likeness, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties without any carcinogenic and toxic effects. The interaction pattern of the puerarone and tuberostan may provide a hint for a novel drug design for vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors with better specificity to treat angiogenic disorders. PMID:26664060

  6. Potentiation of the bioavailability of daidzin by an extract of Radix puerariae.

    PubMed

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

    1996-04-30

    The dose effect of pure daidzin on the suppression of ethanol intake in Syrian golden hamsters was compared with that of crude daidzin contained in a methanol extract of Radix puerariae (RP). EC50 values estimated from the graded dose-response curves for pure daidzin and RP extract daidzin are 23 and 2.3 mg per hamster per day, respectively. Apparently the antidipsotropic activity of the RP extract cannot be accounted for solely by its daidzin content (22 mg/g). In addition to daidzin, six other isoflavones were identified in the RP extract and quantified--namely, puerarin (160 mg per g of extract), genistin (3.7 mg/g), daidzein (2.6 mg/g), daidzein-4',7-diglucoside (1.2 mg/g), genistein (0.2 mg/g), and formononetin (0.16 mg/g). None of these, administered either alone or combined, contributes in any significant way to the antidipsotropic activity of the extract. Plasma daidzin concentration-time curves determined in hamsters administered various doses of pure daidzin or RP extract by i.p.injection indicate that the crude extract daidzin has approximately 10 times greater bioavailability than the pure compound. Reconstruction of the dose-response effects for pure and crude daidzin using bioavailable daidzin rather than administered dose gives a single curve. Synthetic daidzin added to the RP extract acquires the bioavailability of the endogenous daidzin that exists naturally in the extract. These results show that (i) daidzin is the major active principle in methanol extracts of RP, and (ii) additional constituents in the methanol extract of RP assist uptake of daidzin in golden hamsters.

  7. Melanogenesis inhibitory effect of aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Han, EunByeol; Chang, BoYoon; Kim, DaeSung; Cho, HyoungKwon; Kim, SungYeon

    2015-01-01

    Melanin is major factor that determines skin color as well as one of the defense systems that prevent the UV-induced damage. In case of abnormal concentration of melanin, skin diseases or problems occur such as albinism, leukoplakia, melasma, freckles, moles, and lentigo. With the lifespan of humans has been extended, importance of 'life quality' has been increased. White and clean skin is very important part of the satisfaction of appearance, especially for Asia women. The aim of this study was to find an anti-melanogenesis activity for which the aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana can be utilized based on the increase in demands for cosmetics, particularly natural products. We demonstrated anti-pigmentation effects of aerial part of P. thunbergiana by measuring melanin content and through staining in the B16F10 melanoma cell line. The aerial part of P. thunbergiana decreased tyrosinase activity significantly in B16F10 cell cultures, while there is no direct effect on enzyme in cell-free conditions. To define the mechanisms, real-time PCR, western blot, glucosidase activity and antioxidant activity assay were implemented. As results, we demonstrated that aerial part of P. thunbergiana has anti-melanogenesis activity via two mechanisms. One is downgrading microphthalmia-associated transcription factor by activating Akt/GSK-3β. Consequently, transcription of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 is decreased. Another is interrupting maturation of tyrosinase through inhibiting α-glucosidase. Furthermore, aerial part of P. thunbergiana showed great efficacy on pigmentation in vivo. These results suggest that aerial part of P. thunbergiana can be used as an anti-melanogenic agent.

  8. Reformation of tissue balls from tentacle explants of coral Goniopora lobata: self-organization process and response to environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiongxuan; Liu, Tao; Tang, Xianming; Dong, Bo; Guo, Huarong

    2017-02-01

    Coral has strong regeneration ability, which has been applied for coral production and biodiversity protection via tissue ball (TB) culture. However, the architecture, morphological processes, and effects of environmental factors on TB formation have not been well investigated. In this study, we first observed TB formation from the cutting tentacle of scleractinia coral Goniopora lobata and uncovered its inner organization and architecture by confocal microscopy. We then found that the cutting tentacle TB could self-organize and reform a solid TB (sTB) in the culture media. Using chemical drug treatment and dissection manipulation approaches, we demonstrated that the mechanical forces for bending and rounding of the cutting fragments came from the epithelial cells, and the cilia of epithelial cell played indispensable roles for the rounding process. Environmental stress experiments showed that high temperature, not CO2-induced acidification, affected TB and sTB formation. However, the combination of high temperature and acidification caused additional severe effects on sTB reformation. Our studies indicate that coral TB has strong regeneration ability and therefore could serve as a new model to further explore the molecular mechanism of TB formation and the effects of environmental stresses on coral survival and regeneration.

  9. Species-wide patterns of DNA methylation variation in Quercus lobata and their association with climate gradients.

    PubMed

    Gugger, Paul F; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; PellEgrini, Matteo; Sork, Victoria L

    2016-04-01

    DNA methylation in plants affects transposon silencing, transcriptional regulation and thus phenotypic variation. One unanswered question is whether DNA methylation could be involved in local adaptation of plant populations to their environments. If methylation alters phenotypes to improve plant response to the environment, then methylation sites or the genes that affect them could be a target of natural selection. Using reduced-representation bisulphite sequencing (RRBS) data, we assessed whether climate is associated with variation in DNA methylation levels among 58 naturally occurring, and species-wide samples of valley oak (Quercus lobata) collected across climate gradients. We identified the genomic context of these variants referencing a new draft valley oak genome sequence. Methylation data were obtained for 341 107 cytosines, of which we deemed 57 488 as single-methylation variants (SMVs), found in the CG, CHG and CHH sequence contexts. Environmental association analyses revealed 43 specific SMVs that are significantly associated with any of four climate variables, the majority of which are associated with mean maximum temperature. The 43 climate-associated SMVs tend to occur in or near genes, several of which have known involvement in plant response to environment. Multivariate analyses show that climate and spatial variables explain more overall variance in CG-SMVs among individuals than in SNPs, CHG-SMVs or CHH-SMVs. Together, these results from natural oak populations provide initial evidence for a role of CG methylation in locally adaptive evolution or plasticity in plant response. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Endosperm degradation during seed development of Echinocystis lobata (Cucurbitaceae) as a manifestation of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, Marzena; Olszewska, Maria J

    2003-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an active, genetically controlled process that ultimately leads to elimination of unnecessary or damaged cells from multicellular organism. It occurs during normal growth and development or in response to a variety of environmental triggers and is indispensable for survival of the organism. In Echinocystis lobata the endosperm, an ephemeral tissue in angiosperm plants, undergoes distinct cytological, physiological and molecular changes during seed development and maturation. As a result, mature seeds are deprived of this tissue. The endosperm was analyzed at the consecutive stages of seed development. The morphological changes of cells were studied at light and electron microscope levels. In this paper we report that endosperm cells undergo morphological and biochemical changes characteristic of apoptosis, a particular type of PCD, i.e. cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, and cytoplasm degradation, while the ultrastructure of mitochondria seems to be less changed. Furthermore, the progression of DNA degradation has been shown by agarose gel electrophoresis (ladder pattern of DNA fragmentseparation), TUNEL and comet assay. It isconcluded that during seed maturation, endosperm degradation process is accompanied by typical PCD-related changes of cell morphology and internucleosomal DNA cleavage.

  11. Cellular physiological effects of the MV Kyowa violet fuel-oil spill on the hard coral, Porites lobata.

    PubMed

    Downs, Craig A; Richmond, Robert H; Mendiola, Woon Jaye; Rougée, Luc; Ostrander, Gary K

    2006-12-01

    The grounding of the Merchant Vessel (MV) Kyowa Violet on a coral reef near Yap, Federated States of Micronesia, in December 2002 resulted in the release of an estimated 55,000 to 80,000 gallons of intermediate fuel oil grade 180. The immediate impact was the widespread coating of mangroves and the intertidal zone along more than 8 km of coastline. Of greater concern, however, was the partitioning of the fuel oil in the water column, leading to chronic exposure of organisms in the ecosystem for a considerable period after the initial event. Herein, we report on our examination of one coral species, Porites lobata, nearly three months after the initial exposure. We investigated whether changes in cellular physiology were consistent with the pathological profile that results from the interaction of corals with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the principal constituent of fuel oil. Specifically, we document, to our knowledge for the first time, changes in the cellular physiological condition of an exposed coral population affected by a fuel-oil spill. We also provide evidence that the observed changes are consistent with a recent exposure to fuel oil, as evidenced by the presence of characteristic cellular lesions attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Finally, our data support a model for a mechanistic relationship between the cellular pathological profile of the coral and a recent petroleum exposure, such as the MV Kyowa Violet fuel oil spill.

  12. Herbivore handling of a Plants trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Márcio Z

    2008-01-01

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plants defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes.

  13. East-west genetic differentiation in Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) of Australia suggests late Pleistocene divergence at the Nullarbor Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guay, P.-J.; Chesser, R.T.; Mulder, R.A.; Afton, A.D.; Paton, D.C.; McCracken, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) are endemic to Australia and occur as two geographically isolated populations separated by the Nullarbor Plain, a vast arid region in southern Australia. We studied genetic variation in Musk Duck populations at coarse (eastern versus western Australia) and fine scales (four sites within eastern Australia). We found significant genetic structure between eastern and western Australia in the mtDNA control region (??ST = 0. 747), one nuclear intron (??ST = 0.193) and eight microsatellite loci (FST = 0.035). In contrast, there was little genetic structure between Kangaroo Island and adjacent mainland regions within eastern Australia. One small population of Musk Ducks in Victoria (Lake Wendouree) differed from both Kangaroo Island and the remainder of mainland eastern Australia, possibly due to genetic drift exacerbated by inbreeding and small population size. The observed low pairwise distance between the eastern and western mtDNA lineages (0.36%) suggests that they diverged near the end of the Pleistocene, a period characterised by frequent shifts between wet and arid conditions in central Australia. Our genetic results corroborate the display call divergence and Mathews' (Austral Avian Record 2:83-107, 1914) subspecies classification, and confirm that eastern and western populations of Musk Duck are currently isolated from each other. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing the Functions of Headwater Slope Wetlands on the South Carolina Coastal Plain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Ligustrum sinense Chinese Privet Lonicera japonica Japanese Honeysuckle Lygodium japonicum Japanese Climbing Fern Microstegium vimineum Nepalese Browntop...exotics including Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), silktree (Albizia julibrissin), and kudzu (Pueraria montana) are present in the reference

  15. A first integrative study of the identity and origins of the British Dwarf Pill Millipede populations, Trachysphaera cf. lobata (Diplopoda, Glomerida, Glomeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Lee, Paul; Read, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three populations of the pill millipede genus Trachysphaera Heller 1858 are present in Great Britain, one on the Isle of Wight, one in South Wales and one in mid-Wales. To identify and characterize the British Trachysphaera populations, the intraspecific and interspecific variation of the populations in South Wales and on the Isle of Wight were studied and evaluated in a first integrative study of members of Trachysphaera, utilizing barcoding and SEM. DNA was extracted from 28 British Trachysphaera and 10 French T. lobata (Ribaut 1954) specimens, one each of French T. cf. drescoi (Conde and Demange 1961) and T. pyrenaica (Ribaut 1908), and one of Spanish T. cf. rousseti (Demange 1959); the barcoding fragment of the COI gene was amplified and their genetic intra- and interpopulation distances compared with one another using two Italian T. spp. and one Croatian T. schmidti Heller 1858 specimens as near outgroups. To compare the genetic distances with the morphological characters, 15 characters of a total of 13 British Trachysphaera, together with two specimens of T. pyrenaica, two T. cf. drescoi and one of T. cf. rousseti were imaged, using the same individuals utilized for DNA extraction. Albeit both British populations are genetically distant, they are closely related (1.9–2.5% p-distance) to French T. lobata, corroborating results of earlier studies. Between different Trachysphaera species, genetic distance was high (16.7–18.8%). The morphological study showed the non-reliability of key taxonomic characters in Trachysphaera, with genetically identical individuals exhibiting morphological variation, especially on the telopods. The only observed morphological characters constant within and different between species were the number of rows of sclerotized bacilli on the tergites, as well as the shape of the male and female anal shield. Both, barcoding and the morphological study identify the British Trachysphaera populations as T. lobata. PMID:26175612

  16. [Apoptosis of Kasumi-1 cells induced by puerariae radix flavones and its molecular mechanism].

    PubMed

    Shao, Hua-min; Tang, Yu-hong; Shen, Qun; Zhu, Hong-qing; Ji, Ou; Zhang, Ya-cheng; Ji, Jian-min; Jiang, Peng-jun; Si, Ye-jun; Li, Zhao-rong

    2012-01-01

    To explore the effects and the molecular mechanism of puerariae radix flavones (PRF) on acute myeloid leukemia cell line Kasumi-1 cells in vitro. Kasumi-1 cells treated by PRF for 48 hours were observed with Wright's and Hoechst 33258 dying. The apoptotic cells were analyzed by flow cytometry with AnnexinV/PI staining. The expression levels of bcl-2, Bim and Caspase-3/-8/-9 protein were assayed by Western blot and the AML1-ETO fusion gene was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. PRF could induce Kasumi-1 cells to apoptosis effectively. The proportion of apoptotic cells in 50, 200 and 500 µg/ml PRF treatment groups were (14.1 ± 0.8)%, (17.7 ± 1.3)% and (32.4 ± 1.4)%, respectively, and significantly higher than that of control \\[(7.8 ± 0.7)%\\]. The relative expression levels of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein were 0.85 ± 0.05, 0.62 ± 0.07 and 0.43 ± 0.05; the apoptotic Bim protein were 0.21 ± 0.06, 0.39 ± 0.04 and 0.75 ± 0.05; the caspase-3 and caspase-9 were 0.92 ± 0.04, 1.21 ± 0.07, 1.33 ± 0.04 and 0.35 ± 0.05, 0.53 ± 0.03, 0.69 ± 0.07, respectively. Compared to the blank control group, all these changes were significant (P < 0.01). Nevertheless, nearly no changes could be observed on the expression level of AML1-ETO fusion gene and caspase-8 protein. Apoptosis of Kasumi-1 cells induced by PRF might correlate to the down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 protein in the cells. It seemed that all these effects had no relationship with the AML1-ETO fusion gene.

  17. Effect of Pueraria tuberosa tuber extract on chronic foot shock stress in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, S S; Sur, T K; Debnath, P K; Bhattacharyya, D

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the protective effects of tuberous root extract of Pueraria tuberosa on chronic foot shock stress (CS) induced physiological, neurobehavioral and neuropathological alterations. Male Wistar rats (120-150 g) were divided into seven groups, consisting of ten animals in each. Group I served as normal, group II as positive control, while group III-VII as test drug treated. P tuberosa tuber extract (PTE) was given to rats of groups III-VI at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively, while group VII treated with Withania somnifera rhizome extract (WSE) (100 mg/kg) as reference drug. Group II (stress control) received only equivalent volume of distilled water (0.5 ml/100 g) orally. All the drugs were given orally once/day for 14 consecutive days. The last dose was given 1 h before study. Simultaneously, all the animals (except group I) were subjected to 1 h of foot-shock (2 mA) through a grid floor for those 14 days in a standard conditioning chamber with the escape route closed [Chronic stress (CS)]. Thereafter, the rats were placed on open-field and plus maze apparatus for studying the behavioral patterns of them, and the anxiolytic effects of the putative drug. Sexual activities of the animals were also studied. Finally, the animals were sacrificed and their ulcer formation in gastric mucosa was noted. Weights of adrenals and spleen were also taken. Further, plasma corticosterone levels were estimated spectroflurometrically. Results indicated that, CS significantly altered the behavioral patterns, decreased the sexual urge and activities, damaged the gastric mucosal layers, enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and increased adrenal glands and spleen weights. PTE and WSE showed significant anxiolytic activity, protected the gastric mucosa, lowered plasma corticosterone level (indicating HPA axis inhibition) and negated the hypertrophy of adrenals and spleen. PTE also enhanced the sexual urge and activities in

  18. Flos Puerariae extract prevents myocardial apoptosis via attenuation oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Zha, Wenliang; Guo, Shuang; Cheng, Hongke; Wu, Jiliang; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) suggests a direct cellular insult to myocardium. Apoptosis is considered as one of the hallmarks of DCM. Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of DCM. In this study, we explored the prevention of myocardial apoptosis by crude extract from Flos Puerariae (FPE) in experimental diabetic mice. Experimental diabetic model was induced by intraperitoneally injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg/day) for five consecutive days in C57BL/6J mice. FPE (100, 200 mg/kg) was orally administrated once a day for ten weeks. Cardiac structure changes, apoptosis, superoxide production, NADPH oxidase subunits expression (gp91phox, p47phox, and p67phox), and related regulatory factors were assessed in the heart of mice. Diabetic mice were characterized by high blood glucose (≥11.1 mmol/L) and reduced body weight. In the end of the experiment, aberrant myofilament structure, as well as TUNEL positive cardiac cells coupled with increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3 expression was found in diabetic mice. Moreover, ROS formation, the ratio of NADP+/NADPH and NADPH oxidase subunits expression of gp91phox and p47phox, lipid peroxidation level was significantly increased, while antioxidant enzyme SOD and GSH-Px activity were reduced in the myocardial tissue of diabetic mice. In contrast, treatment with FPE resulted in a normalized glucose and weight profile. FPE administration also preserved myocardial structure and reduced apoptotic cardiac cell death in diabetic mice. The elevated markers of oxidative stress were significantly reversed by FPE supplementation. Further, FPE treatment markedly inhibited the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3 expression, as well as suppressed JNK and P38 MAPK activation in the heart of diabetic mice. Our data demonstrate for the first time that FPE may have therapeutic potential for STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy through preventing myocardial apoptosis via attenuation oxidative stress. And this

  19. Molecular clusters size of Puerariae thomsonii radix aqueous decoction and relevance to oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong; Yang, Caimei; Zhang, Kuan; Hu, Juan; Pang, Wensheng

    2015-07-07

    The multi-component system of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is very complicated. The clusters are dynamic aggregates whose molecules are held together by hydrogen-bonded, Van der Waals forces or the opposite charges of particles attract each other. In this paper, field emission scanning electron microscopy proved that molecules form clusters in Pueraria thomsonii Benth (Fenge) water decoction. Four kinds of Fenge water decoction, 0.07 g∙mL-1 (F-1), 0.1 g∙mL-1 (F-2), 0.17 g∙mL-1 (F-3), 0.35 g∙mL-1 (F-4); F-1, average diameter of molecular was about 120 nm; F-2, 195 nm; F-3, 256 nm; and F-4, 480 nm. The molecular size was shown to depend on concentration. Rabbits were given equal does of 2.8 g∙kg-1, to perfuse F-1, F-2, F-3, F-4 in volume of 80 mL, 56 mL, 33 mL, 17 mL, respectively. At 0-180 min to collect 2 mL blood from the rabbit ears middle arteries for metabolism fingerprints, the results show the particle size of molecular is smaller, the absorption of drugs is better instead. The acute blood stasis model rats were treatment with Fenge decoction of 1.5 g∙kg-1 for 14 days, the concentrations of Ang II in plasma were significantly lower in F-1 and F-2 groups than those in model group (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05), but there were no significantly difference in F-3 and F-4 groups than those in model group (p > 0.05). Despite the molecular aggregation is a common physical phenomenon, it influence on the kind and amount of molecule per unit volume. Molecules morphology influence on the absorption behavior of drugs in vivo therefore is to have an impact on pharmacological function.

  20. Influence of late Quaternary climate change on present patterns of genetic variation in valley oak, Quercus lobata Née.

    PubMed

    Gugger, Paul F; Ikegami, Makihiko; Sork, Victoria L

    2013-07-01

    Phylogeography and ecological niche models (ENMs) suggest that late Quaternary glacial cycles have played a prominent role in shaping present population genetic structure and diversity, but have not applied quantitative methods to dissect the relative contribution of past and present climate vs. other forces. We integrate multilocus phylogeography, climate-based ENMs and multivariate statistical approaches to infer the effects of late Quaternary climate change on contemporary genetic variation of valley oak (Quercus lobata Née). ENMs indicated that valley oak maintained a stable distribution with local migration from the last interglacial period (~120 ka) to the Last Glacial Maximum (~21 ka, LGM) to the present compared with large-scale range shifts for an eastern North American white oak (Quercus alba L.). Coast Range and Sierra Nevada foothill populations diverged in the late Pleistocene before the LGM [104 ka (28-1622)] and have occupied somewhat distinct climate niches, according to ENMs and coalescent analyses of divergence time. In accordance with neutral expectations for stable populations, nuclear microsatellite diversity positively correlated with niche stability from the LGM to present. Most strikingly, nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite variation significantly correlated with LGM climate, even after controlling for associations with geographic location and present climate using partial redundancy analyses. Variance partitioning showed that LGM climate uniquely explains a similar proportion of genetic variance as present climate (16% vs. 11-18%), and together, past and present climate explains more than geography (19%). Climate can influence local expansion-contraction dynamics, flowering phenology and thus gene flow, and/or impose selective pressures. These results highlight the lingering effect of past climate on genetic variation in species with stable distributions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Increased puerarin biosynthesis during in vitro shoot formation in Pueraria tuberosa grown in growtek bioreactor with aeration.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Varsha; Goyal, Shaily; Ramawat, Kishan G

    2011-03-01

    Puerarin accumulation during shoot cultures in static and liquid medium with or without aeration is described in Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC. Maximum shoot induction from nodal explants was achieved on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 1.13 μM TDZ and 0.25 μM IBA after 4 weeks of growth. Puerarin content was higher in shoot cultures grown in liquid medium as compared to static medium. When shoots were grown in growtek bioreactor with different aeration volume, maximum puerarin content (1484 μg/g DW) was recorded with 20 % v/v aeration which was ~2.3 fold higher than puerarin content recorded in control cultures (cultures grown in growtek without aeration). Aeration requirement for organized (shoot) cultures was different for growth and puerarin accumulation.

  2. Suppression of BSEP and MRP2 in mouse liver by miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol isolated from Pueraria candollei.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2012-11-15

    Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol are highly active phytoestrogens isolated from the tuberous root of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica (Leguminosae). Modulatory effects of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol on the mRNAs of BSEP and MRP2 genes involved in bile salt transportation, in C57BL/6 mice were investigated. In contrast to estradiol, miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol suppressed the expression of BSEP and MRP2 mRNA in both male and female mice. The results suggest for the first time that the use of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol-containing products as alternative medicines or health supplements should be concerned according to their effects on key genes that regulate the bile salt export pump, which could result in the risk of hepatotoxicity and intrahepatic cholestasis.

  3. Active saponins from root of Pueraria peduncularis (Grah. ex Benth.) Benth. and their molluscicidal effects on Pomacea canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Yang, ChunPing; Zhang, Min; Lei, Bo; Gong, GuoShu; Yue, GuiZhou; Chang, XiaoLi; Sun, XiaoFang; Tian, Yue; Chen, HuaBao

    2017-06-01

    Pueraria peduncularis (Grah. ex Benth.) Benth., which belongs to the Leguminosae family, exhibits resistance to many crop pests in agricultural production. Pomacea canaliculata is an important invasive snail in rice fields and causes severe yield losses. To evaluate the toxicity of P. peduncularis to P. canaliculata, in this study the molluscicidal activity of root extracts of P. peduncularis was tested against P. canaliculata; the active compounds were isolated, and the structures of these compounds were analysed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and mass spectral analysis. Our results showed that the molluscicidal activity of the root crude extract differed between P. canaliculata with different shell diameters after treatment for 72 h. The median lethal concentration (LC50 ) was 5.511 mg L(-1) against snails of 1.5 ± 0.2 cm diameter and 12.383 mg L(-1) against snails of 2.5 ± 0.2 cm diameter. Furthermore, two active ingredients isolated from root methanol extracts were identified as pedunsaponin A and pedunsaponin C. Both pedunsaponin A and pedunsaponin C showed strong molluscicidal activities, with LC50 values of 3.893 and 4.252 mg L(-1) , respectively, against snails with shell diameters of 1.5 ± 0.2 cm after treatment for 72 h. Pueraria peduncularis extracts exhibit high molluscicidal activity and have great potential value for exploring a molluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Anti-Endometriotic Effects of Pueraria Flower Extract  in Human Endometriotic Cells and Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Woo, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Hye Mi; Oh, Myung Sook; Jang, Dae Sik; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2017-02-28

    Pueraria flowers have been used as a vegetable and an ingredient for tea and jelly. In this study, we investigated the effects of Pueraria flower extract (PFE) on endometriosis, a common gynaecological disease characterised by local sterile inflammation of peritoneal cavity. PFE suppressed the adhesion of human endometriotic cells 11Z and 12Z to human mesothelial Met5A cells. In addition, PFE significantly inhibited the migration of 11Z and 12Z cells as shown by woundhealing and transwell migration assays. PFE reduced the protein and mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in endometriotic cells. Moreover, extracellular signalregulated kinase (ERK)1/2 was activated by PFE treatment, and an ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, significantly inhibited PFE-inhibited cell migration in endometriotic cells. Furthermore, PFE significantly suppressed endometriotic lesion formation in a mouse model. These data suggest that Pueraria flower is a potential anti-endometriotic agent for the inhibition of endometriotic cell adhesion, migration, and MMP expression.

  5. Rapid simultaneous determination of isoflavones in Radix puerariae using high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with novel shell-type column.

    PubMed

    Du, Gang; Zhao, Haiyu; Song, Yuelin; Zhang, Qingwen; Wang, Yitao

    2011-10-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed for rapid determination of 13 isoflavones in Radix puerariae. A novel shell-type column, namely Kinetex core-shell C(18) column (50 mm×2.1 mm id, 2.6 μm), and gradient elution were used during the analysis. The chromatographic peaks of 13 investigated compounds were identified by comparing their retention time and MS data with the related reference compounds. Multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) was employed for the quantitative analysis with negative ionization mode. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9990) within test ranges. The LOD and LOQ were lower than 0.017 and 0.873 μg/mL on column, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions for 13 analytes were <1.17 and 2.17%, respectively, and the recoveries were 93.1-104.4%. The validated method was applied for quantitative analysis of 13 isoflavones in 7 species of Radix puerariae. The result demonstrated that HPLC-MS/MS system with Kinetex column could be a promising analytical tool for the determination of isoflavones in traditional Chinese medicines, which is helpful for comprehensive evaluation of quality of R. puerariae. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Road systems, land use, and related patterns of valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) populations, seedling recruitment, and herbivory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Bill Ahlering

    This research investigates the interactions of road systems and land use on the population dynamics and recruitment of a long-lived tree in Mediterranean climate California. In the case of Valley oak (Quercus lobata), habitat conversion and limited recruitment of new individuals has resulted in widespread declines throughout Santa Barbara County and California. This pattern contrasts with high recruitment rates along roadsides, offering a unique opportunity to examine the effects of roads on the population dynamics of a native species. The pattern of roadside recruits is described, mapped, and a complete survey of the biophysical environment along 109 kilometers of road was conducted. The biophysical factors of the road and road system were of four types: (1) the general roadside environment; (2) the acorn supply; (3) a measure of ungulate deterrence; and, (4) roadside management. Seven individual or aggregate factors were then related to the pattern of seedling and sapling densities along roads. Univariate analysis and regression trees determined that acorn supply and total woody cover within the roadside plots explained 49% of the variation in Valley oak seedling densities. These results support the conclusion that the recruitment pattern is due to the roadsides serving as refugia from browsers (cattle and deer). The change in Valley oak populations within roadsides, croplands, rangelands, and urban/suburban lands over a 59 year period is examined using georeferenced aerial photos from 1938 and 1997. While population per capita growth rates were less than one (declining) within both rangelands and croplands, rates were greater than one (increasing) in urban/suburban populations. While roadside growth rates were even higher than those in urban/suburban areas, high variance resulted in a rate neither positive nor negative. Finally, seedlings were planted along roadsides and within adjacent grazed and ungrazed uplands to test browsing pressure. Seedlings within

  7. Determination of isoflavone content in soy, red clover, and kudzu dietary supplement materials by liquid chromatography-particle beam/electron ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Burdette, Carolyn Q; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Increased consumption of dietary supplements brings about important requirements of analytical methods to allow accurate and precise measurements of the chemical composition of these botanical materials. Presented here is the isoflavone content in proposed National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference materials (SRMs) determined by LC-particle beam/electron ionization MS. Botanical materials (soy, red clover, and kudzu) are characterized for the content of a suite of five isoflavones (puerarin, daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and biochanin A). These compounds are of interest due to correlations with certain health benefits. An RP chromatographic separation was first optimized using UV-Vis spectrophotometric detection. The LC output was then introduced to an electron ionization source using a particle beam interface on an Extrel Benchmark MS system. The separation was carried out using a commercial C18 column and a linear gradient using water and methanol (both containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid as mobile phases A and B, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min over 40 min. LOD values for the isoflavones were determined to be at the ng level. Quantitation was performed using an internal standard (IS) approach with 7-hydroxy-4-chromone as the IS compound. The levels of isoflavones in the botanical products were determined for the proposed SRMs.

  8. Supplementation with soybean peptides, taurine, Pueraria isoflavone, and ginseng saponin complex improves endurance exercise capacity in humans.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Chan, Kuei-Hui; Hsu, Mei-Chich; Liu, Jen-Fang

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a proprietary blend of soybean peptides, taurine, Pueraria isoflavone, and ginseng saponin complex (STPG capsule) on exercise performance in humans. Fourteen male volunteers were randomly assigned to two crossover treatments in which they consumed either four STPG capsules (STPG treatment) or placebo (P treatment) for 15 days before a 75% maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) exhaustive cycling test. Blood samples and respiratory gas were collected prior to the exercise (Pre-Ex), at 10 (Ex-10), 15 (Ex-15), 20 (Ex-20), and 25 (Ex-25) minutes during exercise, and immediately after exercise (exhaustion) to assess the blood metabolites, cardiorespiratory responses, and energy substrate utilization. The result showed that exercise time to exhaustion of the 75% (VO(2max)) exhaustive cycling test of the STPG-treated subjects was significantly greater than with the P treatment (30.99 ± 2.01 vs. 28.05 ± 1.48 minutes). The plasma lactate concentrations at Ex-20 and Ex-25 in the STPG treatment were significantly lower with STPG treatment than with P treatment (10.5 ± 0.7 vs. 11.5 ± 0.8 and 10.7 ± 0.9 vs.12.3 ± 1.0 mmol/L, respectively). Nonesterified fatty acid levels at Ex-15, Ex-20, Ex-25, and exhaustion in the STPG group (0.27 ± 0.03, 0.32 ± 0.04, 0.32 ± 0.06, and 0.37 ± 0.05 mmol/L, respectively) were significantly higher than those in the P treatment (0.21 ± 0.03, 0.23 ± 0.03, 0.24 ± 0.03, and 0.25 ± 0.03 mmol/L, respectively). It was concluded that supplementation of four capsules (2 g) of STPG complex, consisting of soybean peptides, taurine, Pueraria isoflavone, and ginseng saponin, for 15 days was effective in promoting utilization of free fatty acids and improving exhaustive cycling test performance in humans.

  9. [Determination of trace elements in new food sources by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li E; Ding, Li; Qi, Min; Han, Xiu Li; Zhang, Hong-Quan

    2007-07-01

    Samples were digested by HNO3 + HClO4. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) was successfully used to determine copper, zinc and iron in new resource food. Under our experimental conditions, the recovery ratio was 94.66%-108.80%; the precision was 0.71%-4.78%. This method of measuring elements is convenient, rapid and accurate. The results showed that there are profitable elements, such as copper, zinc and iron in new resourse food in Henan province. By F test and SNK test, the content sequence of metal elements was found as follows: copper, Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat = Silkworm pupa > flowers of Pueraria lobata Ohwin = Wheat germ = Codonopsis lanceolata = roots of Pueraria lobata Ohwi > Opuntia dillenii Haw. Zinc, Opuntia dillenii Haw > Silkworm pupa = flowers of Pueraria lobata Ohwi = roots of Pueraria lobata Ohwi = Wheat germ = Codonopsis lanceolata = Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. Iron, Silkworm pupa = C hrysanthemum morifolium Ramat = roots of Pueraria lobata Ohwi > flowers of Pueraria lobata Ohwi = Wheat germ = Codonopis lanceolata = Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  10. Isoprene hydrocarbons production upon heterologous transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hong, S-Y; Zurbriggen, A S; Melis, A

    2012-07-01

      Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene; C(5) H(8) ) is naturally produced by photosynthesis and emitted in the atmosphere by the leaves of many herbaceous, deciduous and woody plants. Fermentative yeast and fungi (Ascomycota) are not genetically endowed with the isoprene production process. The work investigated whether Ascomycota can be genetically modified and endowed with the property of constitutive isoprene production.   Two different strategies for expression of the IspS gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were employed: (i) optimization of codon usage of the IspS gene for specific expression in S. cerevisiae and (ii) multiple independent integrations of the IspS gene in the rDNA loci of the yeast genome. Copy number analysis showed that IspS transgenes were on the average incorporated within about 25% of the endogenous rDNA. Codon use optimization of the Pueraria montana (kudzu vine) IspS gene (SckIspS) for S. cerevisiae showed fivefold greater expression of the IspS protein compared with that of nonoptimized IspS (kIspS). With the strategies mentioned earlier, heterologous expression of the kudzu isoprene synthase gene (kIspS) in S. cerevisiae was tested for stability and as a potential platform of fermentative isoprene production. The multi-copy IspS transgenes were stably integrated and expressed for over 100 generations of yeast cell growth and constitutively produced volatile isoprene hydrocarbons. Secondary chemical modification of isoprene to a number of hydroxylated isoprene derivatives in the sealed reactor was also observed.   Transformation of S. cerevisiae with the Pueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu vine) isoprene synthase gene (IspS) conferred to the yeast cells constitutive isoprene hydrocarbons production in the absence of adverse or toxic effects.   First-time demonstration of constitutive isoprene hydrocarbons production in a fermentative eukaryote operated through the mevalonic acid pathway. The work provides concept validation for the

  11. Plant litter chemistry alters the content and composition of organic carbon associated with soil mineral and aggregate fractions in invaded ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Mioko; Suseela, Vidya; Simpson, Myrna; Powell, Brian; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2017-10-01

    Through the input of disproportionate quantities of chemically distinct litter, invasive plants may potentially influence the fate of organic matter associated with soil mineral and aggregate fractions in some of the ecosystems they invade. Although context dependent, these native ecosystems subjected to prolonged invasion by exotic plants may be instrumental in distinguishing the role of plant-microbe-mineral interactions from the broader edaphic and climatic influences on the formation of soil organic matter (SOM). We hypothesized that the soils subjected to prolonged invasion by an exotic plant that input recalcitrant litter (Japanese knotweed, Polygonum cuspidatum) would have a greater proportion of plant-derived carbon (C) in the aggregate fractions, as compared with that in adjacent soil inhabited by native vegetation that input labile litter, whereas the soils under an invader that input labile litter (kudzu, Pueraria lobata) would have a greater proportion of microbial-derived C in the silt-clay fraction, as compared with that in adjacent soils that receive recalcitrant litter. At the knotweed site, the higher C content in soils under P. cuspidatum, compared with noninvaded soils inhabited by grasses and forbs, was limited to the macroaggregate fraction, which was abundant in plant biomarkers. The noninvaded soils at this site had a higher abundance of lignins in mineral and microaggregate fractions and suberin in the macroaggregate fraction, partly because of the greater root density of the native species, which might have had an overriding influence on the chemistry of the above-ground litter input. At the kudzu site, soils under P. lobata had lower C content across all size fractions at a 0-5 cm soil depth despite receiving similar amounts of Pinus litter. Contrary to our prediction, the noninvaded soils receiving recalcitrant Pinus litter had a similar abundance of plant biomarkers across both mineral and aggregate fractions, potentially because of

  12. Determination of the estrogenic activity of wild phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica by MCF-7 proliferation assay.

    PubMed

    Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Traisup, Virasinee; Picha, Porntipa

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the estrogenic activity of tuberous samples of wild, phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica collected from 28 out of 76 provinces of Thailand by MCF-7 proliferation assay. The plant extracts were administered to MCF-7, ER alpha positive human mammary adenocarcinoma cell cultures, for 3 days at dosages of 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 microg/ml and were compared with 17 beta-estradiol at concentrations of 10(-12)-10(-6) M. The mean P. mirifica population at 1 mug/ml exhibited significant proliferation. Two plant samples exhibited levels of proliferation in MCF-7 that were similar to 17beta-estradiol. The mean P. mirifica populations at 100 and 1,000 microg/ml exhibited significant cytotoxicity in MCF-7. Analysis of the estrogenic activity of puerarin, representative of major isoflavonoids in P. mirifica tubers, revealed proliferation in MCF-7 only at the highest dose (10(-6) M) that was 10(2)-10(5) times less active than 17 beta-estradiol. Puerarin and 17 beta-estradiol at concentration of 10(-12)-10(-6) M exhibited no cytotoxicity in MCF-7.

  13. Supplementation of Pueraria radix water extract on changes of antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in ethanol-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Sook

    2004-09-01

    Water extract of Pueraria radix (PRWE), traditional oriental medicinal plant, may have an effect on the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in ethanol-treated rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, ethanol, PRWE and ethanol-PRWE supplemented groups. Twenty-five percent (v/v) ethanol (5 g/kg body weight) was orally administered once a day for 5 weeks. The PRWE was supplemented in a diet based on 1500 mg of raw PRWE/kg body weight/day. Ethanol feeding resulted in a higher alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and lower aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. After PRWE supplementation, both activities were increased. The PRWE supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the plasma and liver total cholesterol concentrations in the ethanol-treated rats. Ethanol administration significantly lowered the activities of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), whereas it increased the plasma and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. However, PRWE supplementation resulted in a significant increase in the SOD and CAT activities and a significant decrease in the TBARS and the GSH-Px activities in the ethanol-treated rats. PRWE can contribute to alleviating the adverse effect of ethanol ingestion by enhancing the lipid metabolism as well as the hepatic antioxidant defense system.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effect of Pueraria tuberosa extracts through improvement in activity of red blood cell anti-oxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Nidhi; Yadav, Durgavati; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Yamini B.

    2013-01-01

    Changing life style and over-nutrition causes low-grade inflammation (LGI), with obesity and hyper-lipidemia as basic factors. The physiological state polarizes macrophages to classical type (M1), which is pro-inflammatory and promotes ectopic fat deposition in the body. Both factors induce inflammatory cascade, where free radicals (FRs) play an important role. Thus, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions would be effective in the management of LGI and plant products would be used as food supplement or as a drug. Previously, a study has reported the anti-oxidant potential of methanolic extract of tubers of Pueraria tuberosa (PTME) and inhibitory role of tuberosin on lipopolysaccharides-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages in an in vitro study model. Here, the effect of PTME has been explored on carrageenan-induced inflammatory changes in rats. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cell hemolysate has been assessed. PTME was orally given to rats for 9 days and periodical changes (every 3rd day) in the activity/concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxides (LPO), and C-reactive proteins (CRP) were monitored. The PTME significantly prevented carrageenan-induced decline in GSH content, lowering of catalase and SOD activity, and rise in LPO and CRP in rats in a time-dependent, sequential manner. Thus, it could be suggested that the anti-inflammatory role of PTME is primarily mediated through its FR scavenging potential. PMID:24501527

  15. Beta-glucuronidase inhibitor tectorigenin isolated from the flower of Pueraria thunbergiana protects carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Woong; Choo, Min-Kyung; Bae, Eun-Ah; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2003-08-01

    To understand the relationship between the fluctuation in serum beta-glucuronidase and hepatotoxicity, an inhibitor of beta-glucuronidase was isolated from the flowers of Pueraria thunbergiana and its hepatoprotective activity was measured. Tectorigenin was isolated from the flowers of pueria thunbergiana as an inhibitor of beta-glucuronidase, and serum ALT, AST and biological parameters as markers for its hepatoprotective activity were measured on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice. The relationship between serum beta-glucuronidase and hepatoprotective activities in mice was measured. : When tectorigenin at a dose of 100 mg/kg was intraperitoneally administered on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice, it significantly inhibited the increase of plasma ALT, AST and LDH activities. The inhibitory effect of tectorigenin is much more potent than that of dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate (DDB), which has been used as a commercial hepatoprotective agent. When tectoridin transformed to tectorigenin by intestinal bacteria was orally administered to mice, it showed hepatoprotective activity. However, when tectoridin was intraperitoneally administrated to mice, it did not exhibit hepatoprotective activity. Moreover, orally administered tectoridin not only inhibited beta-glucuronidase but also increased GSH content and GST activity on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity of mice. We insist that an inhibitor of beta-glucuronidase tectorigenin may be hepatoprotective and tectoridin should be a prodrug transformed to tectorigenin.

  16. Involvement of abscisic acid in ozone-induced puerarin production of Pueraria thomsnii Benth. suspension cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lina; Su, Hu; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Maojun

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ozone induced a rapid increase in the levels of the sesquiterpene phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the isoflavone puerarin in suspension cell cultures of Pueraria thomsnii Benth. The observed increases in ABA and puerarin were dependent on the concentration of ozone applied to P. thomsnii cell cultures. In order to examine the role of ABA in ozone-induced puerarin production, cell suspensions were pretreated with the ABA biosynthetic inhibitor fluridone. Following ozone exposure, fluridone treatment suppressed ABA accumulation suggesting ABA was normally synthesized de novo through the carotenoid pathway. Fluridone also blocked ozone-induced puerarin production, which could be reversed through application of exogenous ABA. However, in the absence of ozone, ABA itself had no effect on puerarin accumulation in the suspension cells. Taken together, the data indicate that ozone is an efficient elicitor of puerarin production and may be particularly applicable for improving puerarin production in plant cell cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ABA is one factor associated with ozone-induced puerarin production in P. thomsnii cell cultures.

  17. Protection of HT22 neuronal cells against glutamate toxicity mediated by the antioxidant activity of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica extracts.

    PubMed

    Sucontphunt, Apirada; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Nimmannit, Ubonthip; Dan Dimitrijevich, S; Gracy, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal degeneration is known to be due to oxidative stress acting through a pathway involving the excessive activation of glutamate receptors. We studied the neuroprotection potential of an ethyl acetate-ethanol extract of Pueraria mirifica (P. candollei var. mirifica) root (PM extract). PM extract was evaluated for its antioxidant and neuroprotective activities against glutamate toxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 neuronal cells. The extract at concentrations of 10 and 50 μg/ml exhibited considerable antioxidant activity with significant neuroprotection, based on the microscopic observations of cell morphology and the determination of cell viability and cell number. Studies of the possible mechanisms of action indicated that the neuroprotection exerted by PM extract was related to its scavenging activity against H(2)O(2) and related reactive oxygen species. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analyses showed that the extract contained daidzein and genistein as identified constituents, as well as additional components with antioxidant activity. While daidzein and genistein individually and in combination were observed not to be neuroprotective, we propose that the antioxidant and neuroprotective activities of PM extract are derived from the combined properties of its constituents.

  18. [Effects of 6-benzylaminopurine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid on growth and isoflavone contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots].

    PubMed

    He, Hanjie; Shi, Heping

    2014-10-01

    In order to study the effect of phytohormone on growth and isoflavones contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots, we cultured the hairy roots with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) alone or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Then we determined the effects of 6-BA alone or in combination with NAA on the growth and the contents of isoflavones compounds and levels of antioxidase activities of hairy roots by spectrophotometry. The results show that 6-BA inhibited the growth, and decreased biomass and total isoflavones compounds of P. phaseoloides hairy roots. Furthermore, the inhibition was increased with the concentrations of 6-BA. Compared with the controls, different concentrations of 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L could inhibit the growth of hairy roots and decrease the content of total isoflavone compounds, and also significantly enhanced the contents of soluble protein and levels of peroxidase (POD) activities, but decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD). DNA ladders detected by agarose gel electrophoresis can be observed after hairy roots of P. phaseoloides were cultured with 6-BA alone for 30 days, but can appear on the 20th day after culture with 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L. This result indicates that 6-BA or 6-BA in combination with NAA can both stimulate appearance of programmed cell death (PCD), and NAA may play a synergistic role on PCD.

  19. Boosting isoprene production via heterologous expression of the Kudzu isoprene synthase gene (kIspS) into Bacillus spp. cell factory.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Lamis; Loscar, Michael E; Zein, Haggag S; Abdel-Ghaffar, Nahed; Abdelhadi, Abdelhadi A; Abdelaal, Ali S; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2017-08-08

    Isoprene represents a key building block for the production of valuable materials such as latex, synthetic rubber or pharmaceutical precursors and serves as basis for advanced biofuel production. To enhance the production of the volatile natural hydrocarbon isoprene, released by plants, animals and bacteria, the Kudzu isoprene synthase (kIspS) gene has been heterologously expressed in Bacillus subtilis DSM 402 and Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13 using the pHT01 vector. As control, the heterologous expression of KIspS in E. coli BL21 (DE3) with the pET28b vector was used. Isoprene production was analyzed using Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector. The highest isoprene production was observed by recombinant B. subtilis harboring the pHT01-kIspS plasmid which produced 1434.3 μg/L (1275 µg/L/OD) isoprene. This is threefold higher than the wild type which produced 388 μg/L (370 μg/L/OD) isoprene, when both incubated at 30 °C for 48 h and induced with 0.1 mM IPTG. Additionally, recombinant B. subtilis produced fivefold higher than the recombinant B. licheniformis, which produced 437.2 μg/L (249 μg/L/OD) isoprene when incubated at 37 °C for 48 h induced with 0.1 mM IPTG. This is the first report of optimized isoprene production in B. licheniformis. However, recombinant B. licheniformis showed less isoprene production. Therefore, recombinant B. subtilis is considered as a versatile host for heterologous production of isoprene.

  20. Kudzu root extract suppresses voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol withdrawal symptoms in P rats receiving free access to water and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Benlhabib, Elhabib; Baker, John I; Keyler, Daniel E; Singh, Ashok K

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats, given free choice to drink water or 15% alcohol, drank 7-10 g of alcohol/kg/day, giving blood alcohol values ranging from 16 to 24 mg/dL. Body weight and food and total fluid intake values in control and alcohol-drinking P rats did not differ significantly, while water intake was inversely related to the amount of alcohol consumed. Alcohol withdrawal after 50 days of alcohol drinking caused withdrawal symptoms such as hypersensitivity, poor landing coordination, and tremors. A daily 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 g/kg dose of kudzu root (KdR) did not affect body weight and food and water intake values in control (no alcohol) P rats. Subchronic feeding of relatively higher KdR doses (0.75 and 1.0 g/kg) caused a 25-30% reduction in weight gain. The 0.5 g/kg KdR dose caused a 50-60% reduction in alcohol consumption, abolished the development of alcohol withdrawal symptoms, but did not affect blood alcohol levels. The higher KdR doses did not further reduce alcohol consumption. Alcohol suppressed the weight-reducing effects of KdR. The KdR extract used in this study contained 150 mg/g of puerarin, 13 mg/g of daidzin, 4 mg/g of daidzein, 3 mg/g of genistin, 0.2 mg/g of genistein, and 1 mg/g of glycetin. Blood and liver samples contained mostly puerarin and a trace amount of daidzein that may have been formed by the hydrolysis of daidzin by liver enzymes. An important observation was that brain samples obtained from KdR-fed or alcohol + KdR-fed rats did not contain any of the KdR isoflavones. Thus, KdR isoflavones suppressed alcohol drinking and withdrawal symptoms without entering the brain.

  1. Pueraria mirifica Exerts Estrogenic Effects in the Mammary Gland and Uterus and Promotes Mammary Carcinogenesis in Donryu Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kakehashi, Anna; Yoshida, Midori; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Naomi; Okuno, Takahiro; Gi, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria mirifica (PM), a plant whose dried and powdered tuberous roots are now widely used in rejuvenating preparations to promote youthfulness in both men and women, may have major estrogenic influence. In this study, we investigated modifying effects of PM at various doses on mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis in female Donryu rats. Firstly, PM administered to ovariectomized animals at doses of 0.03%, 0.3%, and 3% in a phytoestrogen-low diet for 2 weeks caused significant increase in uterus weight. Secondly, a 4 week PM application to non-operated rats at a dose of 3% after 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) initiation resulted in significant elevation of cell proliferation in the mammary glands. In a third experiment, postpubertal administration of 0.3% (200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day) PM to 5-week-old non-operated animals for 36 weeks following initiation of mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis with DMBA and N-ethyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG), respectively, resulted in significant increase of mammary adenocarcinoma incidence. A significant increase of endometrial atypical hyperplasia multiplicity was also observed. Furthermore, PM at doses of 0.3%, and more pronouncedly, at 1% induced dilatation, hemorrhage and inflammation of the uterine wall. In conclusion, postpubertal long-term PM administration to Donryu rats exerts estrogenic effects in the mammary gland and uterus, and at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w./day was found to promote mammary carcinogenesis initiated by DMBA. PMID:27827907

  2. Puerariae flos alleviates metabolic diseases in Western diet-loaded, spontaneously obese type 2 diabetic model mice.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Koshi; Shimada, Tsutomu; Onishi, Rei; Tsubata, Masahito; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Nagamine, Rika; Iizuka, Seiichi; Sai, Yoshimichi; Amagaya, Sakae; Aburada, Masaki; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Puerariae flos extract (PFE) has been reported to have many effects, including preventing the development of hangovers, liver protective effects, and an estrogenic effect. In addition, some papers reported that PFE is effective against metabolic diseases, with hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects. However, the mechanism underlying such effects remains unclear. For the purpose of clarifying the effect of PFE on metabolic diseases related to the accumulation of visceral fat and to determine the mechanism of such action, TSOD mice, a multifactorial genetic disease animal model that spontaneously develops various metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, were given a Western diet (WTD) as an environmental factor to prepare a disease model (TSOD-WTD). When TSOD mice were loaded with WTD, it was confirmed that metabolic diseases such as obesity and abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism are aggravated. In contrast, PFE treatment to TSOD-WTD mice was shown to suppress body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation, alleviated the abnormal glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia, as well as causing an increase in blood adiponectin. Furthermore, the suppression of liver enlargement was observed in PFE-treated mice, with suppression of fatty degeneration and anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, to clarify the mechanism of the hyperlipidemia-alleviating effects in the liver, we investigated the effect of PFE on the expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. PFE was associated with a significant increase in gene expression for cholesterol synthesis rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, cholesterol catabolization enzyme Cyp7A1, bile salt export pump adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter B11, and low-density lipoprotein receptor involved in cholesterol uptake. The above results suggest that PFE acts to alleviate the effects of various metabolic diseases based on the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue, including obesity, diabetes

  3. High performance enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of miroestrol, a potent phytoestrogen from Pueraria candollei.

    PubMed

    Yusakul, Gorawit; Udomsin, Orapin; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo; Putalun, Waraporn

    2013-06-27

    Pueraria candollei associated preparation is widely applied in folk Thai medicine for rejuvenating purpose in aged people, which correlated with its pharmacological activities reported by pre-clinical and clinical trials. Therefore, standardized products of this plant are needed by consumers and health care personnel. Miroestrol, a potent and stable phytoestrogen in P. candollei, exhibited potential to be biomarker for quality control of P. candollei samples in research or industrial levels. Indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) for miroestrol determination was developed and validated by using polyclonal antibody from rabbit immunization. The polyclonal antibody recognized specifically to miroestrol, which exhibited cross-reactivity to deoxymiroestrol and isomiroestrol with 6.68% and 1.05%, respectively. The linearity range of measurement was 0.73-3000 ng mL(-1), which coefficient of variation (CV) of both intra- and inter-plate determination was less than 5%. With spiked samples of known amount miroestrol, the percentages of recovery were 98.80-104.37% and 98.31-106.69% in P. candollei and its involved product samples, respectively. Validated ELISA was comparable with published HPLC method (R(2)=0.9996) (Yusakul et al.) in samples with various miroestrol contents. For application, the P. candollei involved preparations contained miroestrol 0.695±0.037-12.108±0.285 μg g(-1) dry wt. The developed ELISA was high performance for miroestrol determination, which could be applied for P. candollei quality control in research fields and industrial productions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A validated RP-HPLC-UV method for quantitative determination of puerarin in Pueraria tuberosa DC tuber extract.

    PubMed

    Maji, Amal K; Maity, Niladri; Banerji, Pratim; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2012-07-01

    Pueraria tuberosa (Fabaceae) is a well-known medicinal herbs used in Indian traditional medicines. The puerarin is one of the most important bioactive constituent found in the tubers of this plant. Quantitative estimation of bioactive molecules is essential for the purpose of quality control and dose determination of herbal medicines. The study was designed to develop a validated reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the quantification of puerarin in the tuber extract of P. tuberosa. The RP-HPLC system with Luna C18 (2) 100 Å, 250 × 4.6 mm column was used in this study. The analysis was performed using the mobile phase: 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% acetic acid in water (90:10, v/v) under column temperature 25°C. The detection wavelength was set at 254 nm with a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The method validation was performed according to the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonization. The puerarin content of P. tuberosa extract was found to be 9.28 ±0.09%. The calibration curve showed good linearity relationship in the range of 200-1000μg/ml (r (2)>0.99). The LOD and LOQ were 57.12 and 181.26μg/ml, respectively and the average recovery of puerarin was 99.73% ±1.02%. The evaluation of system suitability, precision, robustness and ruggedness parameters were also found to produce satisfactory results. The developed method is very simple and rapid with excellent specificity, accuracy and precision which can be useful for the routine analysis and quantitative estimation of puerarin in plant extracts and formulations.

  5. Anti-osteoporotic effects of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica on bone mineral density and histomorphometry in estrogen-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Suthon, Sarocha; Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-04-01

    Although it has been clearly shown that Pueraria mirifica and its phytoestrogens can mimic estrogen in preventing bone loss, as osteoporosis is an asymptomatic disease, the therapeutic effects of P. mirifica should be acknowledged. In this study, 6-month-old female rats were ovariectomized, kept for 4 weeks to induce bone loss, divided into five groups, and treated with P. mirifica at doses of 0, 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg BW/day (PM0, PM5, PM25, and PM50 groups, respectively) or 7 mg/kg BW/day of puerarin (PU group) for 12 weeks. Only the trabecular bone mineral densities (BMDs) of tibia metaphysis (at the 12th, 14th, and 16th week) and total and trabecular BMDs of L4 (at the 16th week) of the PM50 group were significantly higher than those of the PM0 group. However, the BMDs of tibia metaphysis and L4 at the 16th week of the study period were kept significantly lower than those of the 0 week, and the BMD was also significantly lower than that of the 4th week for tibia metaphysis. The trabecular bone area (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and osteoblast surface (Ob.S/BS) were significantly higher, and trabecular space (Tb.Sp) was significantly lower in the PM50 group, as compared with those of the PM0 group. This study indicates that P. mirifica could be used as an anti-osteoporotic agent for postmenopausal women. Since P. mirifica could mainly retain bone mass at the levels before bone loss is initiated, the use of other anabolic agents in combination with P. mirifica is recommended for osteoporotic patients.

  6. Pueraria mirifica extract and puerarin enhance proliferation and expression of alkaline phosphatase and type I collagen in primary baboon osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Tiyasatkulkovit, Wacharaporn; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Havill, Lorena M; Ford, Allen L; VandeBerg, John L

    2014-10-15

    Phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica (PM) tuberous extract is a promising candidate for the development of anti-osteoporosis drugs for postmenopausal women, but its action has never been validated in humans or in non-human primates, which are more closely related to humans than rodents. In vitro study of non-human primate osteoblasts is thus fundamental to prepare for in vivo studies of phytoestrogen effects on primate bone. This study aimed to establish a culture system of baboon primary osteoblasts and to investigate the effects of PM extract and its phytoestrogens on these cells. Primary osteoblasts from adult baboon fibulae exhibited osteoblast characteristics in regard to proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and estrogen receptor expression. They responded to 17β-estradiol by increased proliferation rate and mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen, and osteocalcin. After being exposed for 48 h to 100 μg/ml PM extract, 1000 nM genistein, or 1000 nM puerarin, primary baboon osteoblasts markedly increased the rate of proliferation and mRNA levels of ALP and type I collagen without changes in Runx2, osterix, or osteocalcin expression. PM extract, genistein, and puerarin also decreased the RANKL/OPG ratio, suggesting that they could decrease osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. However, neither PM extract nor its phytoestrogens altered calcium deposition in osteoblast culture. In conclusion, we have established baboon primary osteoblast culture, which is a new tool for bone research and drug discovery. Furthermore, the present results provide substantial support for the potential of PM extract and its phytoestrogens to be developed as therapeutic agents against bone fragility.

  7. A validated RP-HPLC-UV method for quantitative determination of puerarin in Pueraria tuberosa DC tuber extract

    PubMed Central

    Maji, Amal K.; Maity, Niladri; Banerji, Pratim; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pueraria tuberosa (Fabaceae) is a well-known medicinal herbs used in Indian traditional medicines. The puerarin is one of the most important bioactive constituent found in the tubers of this plant. Quantitative estimation of bioactive molecules is essential for the purpose of quality control and dose determination of herbal medicines. The study was designed to develop a validated reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the quantification of puerarin in the tuber extract of P. tuberosa. Materials and Methods: The RP-HPLC system with Luna C18 (2) 100 Å, 250 × 4.6 mm column was used in this study. The analysis was performed using the mobile phase: 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% acetic acid in water (90:10, v/v) under column temperature 25°C. The detection wavelength was set at 254 nm with a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The method validation was performed according to the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonization. Results: The puerarin content of P. tuberosa extract was found to be 9.28 ±0.09%. The calibration curve showed good linearity relationship in the range of 200-1000μg/ml (r2>0.99). The LOD and LOQ were 57.12 and 181.26μg/ml, respectively and the average recovery of puerarin was 99.73% ±1.02%. The evaluation of system suitability, precision, robustness and ruggedness parameters were also found to produce satisfactory results. Conclusions: The developed method is very simple and rapid with excellent specificity, accuracy and precision which can be useful for the routine analysis and quantitative estimation of puerarin in plant extracts and formulations. PMID:23781483

  8. Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Pueraria Flavones by a Novel Solid Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SMEDDS) Dropping Pills.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingxiang; Zhang, Guangyuan; Sun, Shilin; Fan, Hongbo; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Shaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To improve bioavailability of pueraria flavones (PF), a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) dropping pills composed of PF, Crodamol GTCC, Maisine 35-1, Cremophor RH 40, 1,2-propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) was developed. Particle size, zeta potential, morphology and in vitro drug release were investigated, respectively. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills were also evaluated and compared in rats. Puerarin treated as the representative component of PF was analyzed. Dynamic light scattering showed the ability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills to form a nanoemulsion droplet size in aqueous media. The type of media showed no significant effects on the release rate of PF. PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were able to improve the in vitro release rate of PF, and the in vitro release of these dropping pills was significantly faster than that of Yufengningxin dropping pills. There was a dramatic difference between the mean value of t1/2, peak concentration (Cmax), the area of concentration-time curve from 0 to 6 h (AUC0-6 h) of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and that of commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills. A pharmacokinetic study showed that the bioavailability of PF was greatly enhanced by PF-SMEDDS dropping pills. The value of Cmax and relative bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were dramatically improved by an average of 1.69- and 2.36-fold compared with that of Yufengningxin dropping pills after gavage administration, respectively. It was concluded that bioavailability of PF was greatly improved and that PF-SMEDDS dropping pills might be an encouraging strategy to enhance the oral bioavailability of PF.

  9. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis.

    PubMed

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Kiatoko, Honoré; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P < 0.05) was observed decreasing from 126 for 0 % to approximately 84 g/kg of body weight for the 40 % forage diets, except for V. unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility.

  10. Protective roles of puerarin and Danshensu on acute ischemic myocardial injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Qiao, H; Li, Y; Li, L

    2007-10-01

    Ischemic heart diseases have been the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries over the past decades. The aim of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of the complex preparation (called Shenge), made of puerarin (isolated from Pueraria lobata Ohwi., also called Kudzu) and Danshensu (isolated from the Chinese herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza), on acute ischemic myocardial injury in rats and its underlying mechanisms. The left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was occluded to induce myocardial ischemia in the hearts of SD rats. Shenge was injected into the tail vein 15 min after occlusion at doses of 0, 30, 60, or 120 mg/kg body wt. ST elevation was then measured at 60, 120, and 240 min after Shenge administration. The ischemic size, serum levels of creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and ST elevation were measured after the rats were sacrificed. Shenge decreased ST elevation induced by acute myocardial ischemia, reduced ischemic size, serum levels of CK-MB, LDH and MDA, and increased serum activity of SOD in a dose-dependent manner. The combined use of puerarin and Danshensu at a ratio of 1:1 showed the most effective activity. In conclusion, Shenge exerts significant cardioprotective effects against acute ischemic myocardial injury in rats, likely through its antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation properties, and thus may be an effective and promising medicine for both prophylaxis and treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  11. Supercritical fluid chromatography for the separation of isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Ganzera, Markus

    2015-03-25

    The first protocol for the analysis of isoflavones by supercritical fluid chromatography is reported. Optimum results were obtained on an Acquity UPC(2) BEH 1.7 μm column, using a solvent gradient of supercritical carbon dioxide and methanol (with phosphoric acid as additive) for elution. The method enables the baseline separation of nine isoflavones (aglyca and glycosides) in 8 min, and is suitable for their quantitative determination in dietary supplements containing soy (Glycine max), red glover (Trifolium pratense) and kudzu (Pueraria lobata). Method validation confirmed that the assay is selective, linear (R(2)≥0.9994), accurate (recovery rates from 97.6 to 102.4%), as well as precise on the short- and long-term level (intra-day precision ≤2.1%), and shows an on-column detection limit of 0.2 ng and below. This, together with an excellent performance shown in the analysis of real samples, indicates that SFC is well suited for the fast and accurate determination of isoflavones in complex matrices. Disadvantages compared to the established approaches were not observed, so that SFC has to be considered in this case as an (at least) equivalent analytical alternative.

  12. Thermotolerance of Leaf Discs from Four Isoprene-Emitting Species Is Not Enhanced by Exposure to Exogenous Isoprene1

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Barry A.; Monson, Russell K.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of exogenously supplied isoprene on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics were examined in leaf discs of four isoprene-emitting plant species, kudzu (Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi.), velvet bean (Mucuna sp.), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), and pussy willow (Salix discolor Muhl). Isoprene, supplied to the leaves at either 18 μL L−1 in compressed air or 21 μL L−1 in N2, had no effect on the temperature at which minimal fluorescence exhibited an upward inflection during controlled increases in leaf-disc temperature. During exposure to 1008 μmol photons m−2 s−1 in an N2 atmosphere, 21 μL L−1 isoprene had no effect on the thermally induced inflection of steady-state fluorescence. The maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry decreased sharply as leaf-disc temperature was increased; however, this decrease was unaffected by exposure of leaf discs to 21 μL L−1 isoprene. Therefore, there were no discernible effects of isoprene on the occurrence of symptoms of high-temperature damage to thylakoid membranes. Our data do not support the hypothesis that isoprene enhances leaf thermotolerance. PMID:10398717

  13. Thermotolerance of leaf discs from four isoprene-emitting species is not enhanced by exposure to exogenous isoprene

    PubMed

    Logan; Monson

    1999-07-01

    The effects of exogenously supplied isoprene on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics were examined in leaf discs of four isoprene-emitting plant species, kudzu (Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi.), velvet bean (Mucuna sp.), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), and pussy willow (Salix discolor Muhl). Isoprene, supplied to the leaves at either 18 &mgr;L L-1 in compressed air or 21 &mgr;L L-1 in N2, had no effect on the temperature at which minimal fluorescence exhibited an upward inflection during controlled increases in leaf-disc temperature. During exposure to 1008 &mgr;mol photons m-2 s-1 in an N2 atmosphere, 21 &mgr;L L-1 isoprene had no effect on the thermally induced inflection of steady-state fluorescence. The maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry decreased sharply as leaf-disc temperature was increased; however, this decrease was unaffected by exposure of leaf discs to 21 &mgr;L L-1 isoprene. Therefore, there were no discernible effects of isoprene on the occurrence of symptoms of high-temperature damage to thylakoid membranes. Our data do not support the hypothesis that isoprene enhances leaf thermotolerance.

  14. Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) Population Dynamics in Soybeans as Influenced by Planting Date, Maturity Group, and Insecticide Use.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Seiter, Nicholas J; Reisig, Dominic D; Greene, Jeremy K; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Bacheler, Jack S

    2016-02-18

    Since its unintentional introduction during 2009, Megacopta cribraria (F.) has spread rapidly throughout the southeastern United States, mainly feeding and reproducing on kudzu, Pueraria montana Loureiro (Merr.) variety lobata (Willdenow), and soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Megacopta cribraria has become a serious economic pest in soybeans, forcing growers to rely solely on insecticide applications to control this insect. The main objective of this study was to investigate if variation in planting date and maturity group of soybeans had an impact on management of M. cribraria populations. Three experimental fields were located in North Carolina (2) and South Carolina (1), and the tests replicated during 2012 and 2013. Treatments consisted of three planting dates, four maturity groups, and insecticide treated versus untreated, at each location. More M. cribraria were found in untreated early planted soybeans than late planted soybeans. Generally, maturity group did not influence population densities of M. cribraria. Yield was significantly influenced by the interaction between planting date and maturity group. There was a negative linear relationship between M. cribraria populations and soybean yield. Although early planted soybeans may avoid drought conditions and potentially large populations of defoliators, these fields may be at greater risk for infestation by M. cribraria. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  15. Protein expression and genetic structure of the coral Porites lobata in an environmentally extreme Samoan back reef: Does host genotype limit phenotypic plasticity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barshis, D.J.; Stillman, J.H.; Gates, R.D.; Toonen, R.J.; Smith, L.W.; Birkeland, C.

    2010-01-01

    The degree to which coral reef ecosystems will be impacted by global climate change depends on regional and local differences in corals' susceptibility and resilience to environmental stressors. Here, we present data from a reciprocal transplant experiment using the common reef building coral Porites lobata between a highly fluctuating back reef environment that reaches stressful daily extremes, and a more stable, neighbouring forereef. Protein biomarker analyses assessing physiological contributions to stress resistance showed evidence for both fixed and environmental influence on biomarker response. Fixed influences were strongest for ubiquitin-conjugated proteins with consistently higher levels found in back reef source colonies both pre and post-transplant when compared with their forereef conspecifics. Additionally, genetic comparisons of back reef and forereef populations revealed significant population structure of both the nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial genomes of the coral host (FST = 0.146 P < 0.0001, FST = 0.335 P < 0.0001 for rDNA and mtDNA, respectively), whereas algal endosymbiont populations were genetically indistinguishable between the two sites. We propose that the genotype of the coral host may drive limitations to the physiological responses of these corals when faced with new environmental conditions. This result is important in understanding genotypic and environmental interactions in the coral algal symbiosis and how corals may respond to future environmental changes. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Trade-offs between vegetative growth and acorn production in Quercus lobata during a mast year: the relevance of crop size and hierarchical level within the canopy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Humanes, Belén; Sork, Victoria L; Espelta, Josep Maria

    2011-05-01

    The concept of trade-offs between reproduction and other fitness traits is a fundamental principle of life history theory. For many plant species, the cost of sexual reproduction affects vegetative growth in years of high seed production through the allocation of resources to reproduction at different hierarchical levels of canopy organization. We have examined these tradeoffs at the shoot and branch level in an endemic California oak, Quercus lobata, during a mast year. To determine whether acorn production caused a reduction in vegetative growth, we studied trees that were high and low acorn producers, respectively. We observed that in both low and high acorn producers, shoots without acorns located adjacent to reproductive shoots showed reduced vegetative growth but that reduced branch-level growth on acorn-bearing branches occurred only in low acorn producers. The availability of local resources, measured as previous year growth, was the main factor determining acorn biomass. These findings show that the costs of reproduction varied among hierarchical levels, suggesting some degree of physiological autonomy of shoots in terms of acorn production. Costs also differed among trees with different acorn crops, suggesting that trees with large acorn crops had more available resources to allocate for growth and acorn production and to compensate for immediate local costs of seed production. These findings provide new insight into the proximate mechanisms for mast-seeding as a reproductive strategy.

  17. Declinol, a Complex Containing Kudzu, Bitter Herbs (Gentian, Tangerine Peel) and Bupleurum, Significantly Reduced Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) Scores in Moderate to Heavy Drinkers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Steven; Han, David; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; William Downs, B; Madigan, Margaret A; Giordano, John; Beley, Thomas; Jones, Scott; Barh, Debmayla; Simpatico, Thomas; Dushaj, Kristina; Lohmann, Raquel; Braverman, Eric R; Schoenthaler, Stephen; Ellison, David; Blum, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that inherited human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2) deficiency reduces the risk for alcoholism. Kudzu plants and extracts have been used for 1,000 years in traditional Chinese medicine to treat alcoholism. Kudzu contains daidzin, which inhibits ALDH-2 and suppresses heavy drinking in rodents. Decreased drinking due to ALDH-2 inhibition is attributed to aversive properties of acetaldehyde accumulated during alcohol consumption. However not all of the anti-alcohol properties of diadzin are due to inhibition of ALDH-2. This is in agreement with our earlier work showing significant interaction effects of both pyrozole (ALDH-2 inhibitor) and methyl-pyrozole (non-inhibitor) and ethanol’s depressant effects. Moreover, it has been suggested that selective ALDH 2 inhibitors reduce craving for alcohol by increasing dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In addition there is significant evidence related to the role of the genetics of bitter receptors (TAS2R) and its stimulation as an aversive mechanism against alcohol intake. The inclusion of bitters such as Gentian & Tangerine Peel in Declinol provides stimulation of gut TAS2R receptors which is potentially synergistic with the effects of Kudzu. Finally the addition of Radix Bupleuri in the Declinol formula may have some protective benefits not only in terms of ethanol induced liver toxicity but neurochemical actions involving endorphins, dopamine and epinephrine. With this information as a rationale, we report herein that this combination significantly reduced Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores administered to ten heavy drinkers (M=8, F=2; 43.2 ± 14.6 years) attending a recovery program. Specifically, from the pre-post comparison of the AUD scores, it was found that the score of every participant decreased after the intervention which ranged from 1 to 31. The decrease in the scores was found to be statistically significant with the p-value of 0.00298 (two-sided paired

  18. [A simultaneous determination of daidzin and puerarin and determination of daidzein in Oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing puerariae radix by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, T; Momma, N; Ohsawa, K

    1993-12-01

    A simple and precise method was established for the simultaneous determination of daidzin and puerarin and the determination of daidzein in oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing Puerariae Radix using high-performance liquid chromatography with tetra-n-heptylammonium bromide (THA) as an ion-pair reagent. Daidzin and puerarin were eluted within 45 min without interference with co-existing components using an ODS column and a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5)-methanol (68:32) containing 5 mM THA as a mobile phase. Daidzein was eluted within 35 min without interference with co-existing components using an ODS column and a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5)-acetonitrile (72:28 or 68:32) containing 5 mM THA as a mobile phase.

  19. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for total isoflavonoids in Pueraria candollei using anti-puerarin and anti-daidzin polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pongkitwitoon, Benyakan; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Kinjo, Junei; Morimoto, Satoshi; Putalun, Waraporn

    2010-05-01

    Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khuer) is a medicinal plant containing puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein as major isoflavonoids used for its rejuvenating and estrogenic effects. In order to analyze these compounds, a single enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for total isoflavonoids was developed using anti-puerarin and anti-daidzin polyclonal antibodies (PAbs). The range for calibration of isoflavonoids by ELISA was 0.05-6.25 microg/mL. Total isoflavonoid concentrations in P. candollei samples determined by the newly developed assay system showed good agreement with those analyzed by HPLC. Based on validation analysis, this analytical method by ELISA is a precise, accurate, and sensitive method for the determination of total isoflavonoids in P. candollei.

  20. Suitability of Pueraria phaseoloides, Chromolaena odorata and Tithonia diversifolia as in-situ mulch for nematode management in musa cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Schösser, B; Hauser, S; Sikora, R A

    2006-01-01

    Mulching with plant organic matter has been shown to reduce nematode population densities in various cropping systems. The level of nematode control is increased when such mulches are incorporated into the soil as organic amendments. Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides are common cover crops in West and Central Africa that produce large quantities of nutrient rich biomass. The aim of this study was to determine, if in-situ mulching of C. odorata, T. diversifolia and P. phaseoloides is suitable for nematode control in Musa production. In a pot trial, the susceptibility of these plants to spiral nematodes was investigated. The effects of different quantities of surface mulch on nematode population densities in the soil and in banana roots also were determined. All mulch types and all quantities led to a reduction in nematode population densities in the soil. The strongest nematode reductions were observed in the Pueraria treatments. In treatments containing banana plants mulching improved plant growth compared to the clean-fallowed soil and induced lower root infestation rates. However, nematode soil populations were higher in mulched than in non-mulched banana treatments. Plant parasitic nematodes also were isolated from roots of all three cover crop species and all three plants caused an increase in nematode numbers in the soil. Therefore, the tested cover crops proved unsuitable for nematode control in a system with the highly susceptible bananas. Further examinations are needed to determine whether or not the positive effects of surface mulching on plantain plant growth and root infestation rates also have positive effects on yield in an in-situ mulching system in the presence of nematodes.

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of the Mechanism Underlying the Biotransportation of the Active Ingredients in Puerariae lobatae Radix and Chuanxiong rhizoma.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xin-Li; Zhang, Jing; Liao, Zheng-Gen; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Luo, Yun; Li, Zhe; Satterlee, Andrew

    2015-06-15

    The objective of this study was to establish a quantitative method to evaluate the biotransportation of a drug across the cell membrane. Through the application of the law of mass conservation, the drug transportation rate was calculated based on Fick's law of passive diffusion and the Michaelis-Menten equation. The overall membrane-transportation rate was the sum of the passive diffusion rate and the carrier-mediated diffusion rate, which were calculated as the transportation mass divided by the respective rate. The active ingredients of Puerariae lobatae Radix and Chuanxiong rhizoma, namely, puerarin and ferulic acid, respectively, were used as two model drugs. The transportation rates of puerarin and ferulic acid were obtained by fitting a model that includes both Fick's law of diffusion and the Michaelis-Menten equation. Compared with the overall transportation, the carrier-mediated transport and passive diffusion of 1.59 mmol/L puerarin were -35.07% and 64.93%, respectively, whereas the respective transportation modes of 0.1 mmol/L ferulic acid were -35.40% and 64.60%, respectively. Verapamil and MK-571 increased the overall transport rate and ratio, and MK-571 treatment changed the carrier-mediated transport from negative to positive. However, the transport rate and ratio of ferulic acid did not change significantly. The cell transportation mechanisms of puerarin and ferulic acid primarily involve simple passive diffusion and carrier-mediated transportation. Moreover, P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein efflux proteins, and other transportation proteins were found to be involved in the transportation of puerarin. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Gene movement and genetic association with regional climate gradients in California valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) in the face of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sork, Victoria L.; Davis, Frank W.; Westfall, Robert; Flint, Alan L.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Wang, Hongfang; Grivet, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    Rapid climate change jeopardizes tree populations by shifting current climate zones. To avoid extinction, tree populations must tolerate, adapt, or migrate. Here we investigate geographic patterns of genetic variation in valley oak, Quercus lobata N??e, to assess how underlying genetic structure of populations might influence this species' ability to survive climate change. First, to understand how genetic lineages shape spatial genetic patterns, we examine historical patterns of colonization. Second, we examine the correlation between multivariate nuclear genetic variation and climatic variation. Third, to illustrate how geographic genetic variation could interact with regional patterns of 21st Century climate change, we produce region-specific bioclimatic distributions of valley oak using Maximum Entropy (MAXENT) models based on downscaled historical (1971-2000) and future (2070-2100) climate grids. Future climatologies are based on a moderate-high (A2) carbon emission scenario and two different global climate models. Chloroplast markers indicate historical range-wide connectivity via colonization, especially in the north. Multivariate nuclear genotypes show a strong association with climate variation that provides opportunity for local adaptation to the conditions within their climatic envelope. Comparison of regional current and projected patterns of climate suitability indicates that valley oaks grow in distinctly different climate conditions in different parts of their range. Our models predict widely different regional outcomes from local displacement of a few kilometres to hundreds of kilometres. We conclude that the relative importance of migration, adaptation, and tolerance are likely to vary widely for populations among regions, and that late 21st Century conditions could lead to regional extinctions. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Pharmacokinetic mechanism of enhancement by Radix Pueraria flavonoids on the hyperglycemic effects of Cortex Mori extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bing-Xin; Wang, Qian; Fan, Li-Qing; Kong, Ling-Ti; Guo, Shu-Ren; Chang, Qi

    2014-02-03

    Diabetes mellitus, characterized by abnormal blood glucose evaluation, is a serious chronic disease. In the treatment of the disease, α-glycosidase inhibitors play an important role for controlling the postprandial blood glucose level. Cortex Mori, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has a long history of use for the treatment of headaches, cough, edema and diabetes. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that the herb has beneficial effects on the suppression of postprandial blood glucose levels by inhibiting α-glycosidase activity in the small intestine. 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), the main active ingredient of this herb, is recognized as a potent α-glycosidase inhibitor. Our previous studies have shown that the hypoglycemic effect of Cortex Mori extract (CME) was significantly improved when giving CME in combination with Radix Pueraria flavonoids (RPF). In the present study, the pharmacokinetics and intestinal permeability of DNJ were comparatively investigated in rats after being given orally or by intestinal perfusion with CME alone or in CME-RPF pairs, to explore the mechanism of this synergistic effect. The role of RPF on the plasma and urine concentrations of DNJ from CME orally administered was investigated. Four groups of rats received a single oral dose of either CME or CME-RPF, at DNJ equivalent doses of 20 and 40mg/kg, respectively. After dosing, plasma and urine were collected and assayed by LC/MS/MS. In addition, another two groups of rats were used for small intestinal perfusion with CME or CME-RPF at DNJ concentration of 10µM. Compared to the data when dosing with CME alone, the Cmax of DNJ were decreased from 5.78 to 2.94µg/ml (p<0.05) and 10.66 to 5.35µg/ml (p<0.01); Tmax were delayed from 0.40 to 0.55h and 0.35 to 0.50h (p<0.05); and MRT were significantly prolonged from 1.14 to 1.72h (p<0.05) and 0.95 to 1.62h (p<0.01), after dosing with CME-RPF at DNJ doses of 20 and 40mg/kg, respectively. In addition, the urinary recovery of DNJ

  4. Kudzu, Rabbits, and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlad, John I.

    2002-01-01

    Essay on school reform argues that quality teachers are key to successful reform, not reform rhetoric by state governors and U.S. Presidents. Asserts that primary mission of schooling is to provide students an educational apprenticeship in democracy. Qualified, caring, competent teachers are essential to accomplish this mission. (PKP)

  5. An investigation on the germination of seeds of Kwao Kreu Kao (Pueraria candollei Grah. ex Benth) as affected by both water soakings and hot air oven treatments.

    PubMed

    Benjawan, Chutichudet; Chutichudet, P; Kaewsit, S

    2007-12-01

    This experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 4400, Thailand to investigate effects of different water-soaking durations and hot air oven treatments on the germination of seeds of Kwao Kreu Kao (Pueraria candollei Grah. ex Benth) plants. The experiment was laid in a Randomised Complete Block Design with four replications. The results showed that after tested for Electrical Conductivity (EC) values for cracking of seeds, all seeds being used were at a normal condition (with an average EC value of 28.56 microS cm(-1) g(-1)) and all seeds were ready for germination. Strength on impermeability of seeds declined after soaking in water for 10 h and onwards then the treated seeds had increased in weights. However, after treated under hot air oven, dry weights of all seeds became similar. Germination percentage of all treatments was most rapid during the first three weeks of germination period and later slowly increased with time. At day 91 after sowing, T2 gave the highest percentage of germination (52%) and the lowest was found with T1 (control) with 31.25%. Again at day 91 after sowing, T2 gave the highest mean value of plant numbers (16.38) and the lowest was found with T1 (7.28). Numbers of abnormal seedlings determined at day 63 after sowing were lowest with T2 (6.25%) and worst with T4 (20.14%). Again at day 63 after sowing, plant height was significantly tallest with T2 (3.88 cm) and the lowest was found with T4 (2.71 cm). Numbers of leaves were not significantly different among the treated plants reaching a highest value of 11.25 leaves plant(-1) for T3. It may be concluded that T2 was the best treatment for use in germinating seeds of Pueraria candollei Grah. ex Benth plants. Further improvements on longevity and high percentage of germination of seeds were discussed and suggested.

  6. A Herbal Composition of Semen Hoveniae, Radix Puerariae, and Fructus Schisandrae Shows Potent Protective Effects on Acute Alcoholic Intoxication in Rodent Models

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jie; Guo, Yu; Li, Lu-yi; Hu, Hang; Qu, Xin-lan; Sun, Xi-zhen; Liu, Sheng-hua; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study is designed to evaluate the effects of a herbal composition of Semen Hoveniae, Radix Puerariae and Fructus Schisandrae (SRF) against acute alcoholic intoxication. The animals were treated with SRF extract (SRFE) for 14 days, and ethanol was conducted subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of SRFE on righting reflex, inebriety rates, kinetic parameters of blood ethanol and acetaldehyde were determined. In addition; levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), the activities of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), selected antioxidative enzymes, and the contents of malonaldehyde (MDA) were measured. SRFE-pretreated rodents exhibited lower rates of intoxication, longer times to loss of righting reflex, and shortened times to recovery of righting reflex than in controls. The peak concentrations and area under the time-concentration curves were lower in the pretreated animals than in controls, which corresponded to higher levels of ADH and ALDH in both gastrointestines and livers of the SRFE-treated animals. The activities of CYP2E1 were lower in SRFE-pretreated animals, which also exhibited higher activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lower hepatic MDA levels. These findings suggest that the anti-inebriation effects of SRFE may involve inhibition of ethanol absorption, promotion of ethanol metabolism, and enhancing hepatic anti-oxidative functions. PMID:23118795

  7. Discrimination of the Thai rejuvenating herbs Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna collettii (Black Kwao Khruea) using PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Yodpetch, Woraluk; Komatsu, Katsuko; Zhu, Shu; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Sukrong, Suchada

    2013-07-01

    The tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea) and Mucuna collettii (Black Kwao Khruea), which belong to the family Leguminosae, are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional Thai medicine. Although all of these species have an indication for rejuvenation, each differs in its medicinal properties. Two varieties of P. candollei, var. mirifica and var. candollei, affect females, whereas B. superba and M. collettii exhibit effects on males. However, the identification of these roots according to the name "Kwao Khruea" is confusing due to the similarity in their features. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was utilised to identify plant origin. The partial matK gene was amplified and subjected to restriction enzyme digestion with DdeI and TaqI. The restriction fragments generated differed in number and size. To test the reliability of the method, an admixture of the different Kwao Khruea species containing equal amounts of DNA was tested. The results showed combined restriction patterns, and each species could be detected in the background of the others. The method was also used to authenticate eight different crude drugs sold as various types of Kwao Khruea in Thai markets. The results showed that the misidentification of commercial drugs remains a problem in crude drug markets. The PCR-RFLP analysis developed here provides a simple and accurate discrimination of these rejuvenating "Kwao Khruea" species.

  8. Impact of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica and its potent phytoestrogen miroestrol on expression of bone-specific genes in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Monthakantirat, Orawan; Churikhit, Yaowared; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2012-12-01

    Miroestrol (MR) is a highly active phytoestrogen isolated from tuberous root of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica (PM). Modulatory effects of PM and MR on osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) mRNAs which are bone-specific genes were investigated in ovariectomized female ICR mice. After ovariectomy, expression of OPG mRNA was suppressed but that of RANKL was induced. Estradiol benzoate (E2) recovered OPG expression to the level comparable to the sham while that of RANKL was suppressed in ovariectomized mice. PM crude extract (PME) significantly down-regulated the expression of RANKL mRNA with no change in the OPG level whereas MR elevated the expression of OPG mRNA with lowering level of RANKL mRNA, resulting in the increased OPG/RANKL ratio, and consequently lead to lowering progression of osteoporosis at molecular level. These findings revealed potential of PME and MR on bone loss prevention via increasing the ratio of OPG to RANKL (osteoformation/osteoresorption) in liver of ovariectomized mice. Therefore, using PME and MR as alternative hormone replacement therapy of E2 might be beneficial recommended due to advantageous on regulation of osteoporosis related genes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effect of pueraria crude extreact and puerarin on ethanol-induced expression of heat shock protein 70 in embryonic mouse hippocampal cultures].

    PubMed

    Han, Ping; Wu, De-sheng; Li, Wen-jie; Yu, Zeng-li; Wang, Qi

    2005-11-02

    To study if the Pueraria crude extreact (CP) and standard preparation of pure puerarin (SP) possess the same neuroprotective effects on the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 in the embryonic mouse hippocampal cells. The hippocampus of 18-days-old mouse embryo was taken out and suspension of single cells was cultured. Ethanol was added to cause HSP70 mRNA expression. Solvent, ethanol of different concentrations (50, 200, and 300 mmol/L), SP + ethanol, and SP + ethanol were added respectively. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of the expression of HSP70 mRNA. Ethanol of different concentrations increased the expression of HSP70 mRNA and the protein in comparison with the solvent control group. SP and CP inhibited the expression of HSP70 mRNA and protein. With identical effect of anti-oxidative stress, both SP and CP inhibit the increase of expression of HSP70 mRNA and protein, thus demonstrating I vitro anti-oxidative neuroprotection.

  10. Upregulation of osteoblastic differentiation marker mRNA expression in osteoblast-like UMR106 cells by puerarin and phytoestrogens from Pueraria mirifica.

    PubMed

    Tiyasatkulkovit, Wacharaporn; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Wongdee, Kannikar; Thongbunchoo, Jirawan; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2012-10-15

    Phytoestrogens have attracted attention for their potential in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recently, phytoestrogen-rich herb Pueraria mirifica has been demonstrated to possess an osteogenic effect on bone in ovariectomized rats, but its underlying cellular mechanism was not known. Here, we investigated the effects of P. mirifica extract and its major isoflavone compound, puerarin, on cell viability, cell proliferation and the expression of differentiation markers in rat osteoblast-like UMR106 cells. After exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2), genistein, P. mirifica extract and puerarin, proliferation but not viability of UMR106 cells was markedly decreased. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that P. mirifica extract and puerarin significantly increased the mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteoprotegerin, but not Runx2, osterix or osteocalcin. Puerarin also decreased the mRNA expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, an osteoclastogenic factor, suggesting that it could induce bone gain by enhancing osteoblast differentiation and suppressing osteoclast function. Furthermore, after an exposure to high affinity estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist (ICI182780), the E2-, genistein-, P. mirifica extract- and puerarin-induced upregulation of ALP expressions were completely abolished. It could be concluded that P. mirifica extract and puerarin induced osteoblast differentiation rather than osteoblast proliferation in an ER-dependent manner. The present findings, therefore, corroborated the potential benefit of P. mirifica extract and puerarin in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF) in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg). At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage. PMID:27042190

  12. Combination treatment with Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Puerariae radix offsets their independent actions on bone and mineral metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Li; Cao, Si-Si; Gao, Quan-Gui; Feng, Hao-Tian; Wong, Man-Sau; Denney, Liya

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) and Puerariae radix (PR) combination treatment in bone and mineral metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats in our search for an alternative regimen for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old OVX rats were used as postmenopausal osteoporotic models, and PR water extract (PR) and FLL water extract (WE) were added to commercial diets individually or in combination and administered to OVX rats for 12 weeks. Bone properties, calcium and phosphorus absorption, and bone biochemical markers were measured to investigate the potential interactions between the actions of PR and the actions of WE on bone and mineral metabolism in OVX rats. Long-term treatment with PR did not significantly improve bone properties but greatly ameliorated the secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by ovariectomy in the animals. WE significantly enhanced the intestinal calcium absorption rate and decreased the enlarged trabecular bone surface at the site of metaphysic tibia in OVX rats. However, the positive effects of WE or PR alone on bone and mineral metabolism were diminished when OVX rats were cotreated with WE and PR. The combination of these two herbs offsets their independent actions on bone and mineral metabolism in vivo. The results of the present study could provide insights to medical professionals to further their understanding of the potential negative impact of herb-herb interactions when a combination of herbal mixtures is used for the management of osteoporosis.

  13. Neurocytoprotective effects of the bioactive constituents of Pueraria thomsonii in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Min; Lin, Rong-Dih; Chen, Shui-Tein; Lin, Yi-Pei; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Lin, Jia-Wei; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Lee, Mei-Hsien

    2010-12-01

    Chronic neurodegenerative disorders are having an increasing impact on public health as human longevity increases. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system and is characterized by motor system disorders resulting in loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. Pueraria thomsonii Benth. (Fabaceae) is an herbal medicine that has traditionally been used as an antipyretic agent. In the present study, the active constituents, daidzein and genistein, were isolated from P. thomsonii. Both compounds exhibited neurocytoprotective effects against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells. Neither daidzein nor genistein affected 6-OHDA-induced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation according to flow cytometric analysis. Rather, they inhibited caspase-8 and partially inhibited caspase-3 activation, providing a protective mechanism against 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. The present results imply that daidzein and genistein may be useful in the development of future strategies for the treatment of PD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An extract of Pueraria tuberosa tubers attenuates diabetic nephropathy by upregulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in the kidney of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Yamini B; Shukla, Rashmi; Pandey, Nidhi; Pandey, Vivek; Kumar, Mohan

    2017-02-01

    Currently, no drug is available to directly target the signaling molecules involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN); only antihypertensive and antidiabetic drugs are in clinical use. In the present study, the therapeutic effects of a active fraction of tubers from Pueraria tuberosa (hereafter referred to as PTY-2) were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats with DN, with particular emphasis on its effects on extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp)-9 expression in kidney tissue. Rats were injected with 55 mg/kg, i.p., STZ. After 40 days, rats were divided into groups as follows (n = 6 per group): Group 1, age-matched rats not injected with STZ (non-diabetic control); Group 2, STZ-diabetic DN rats; and Group 3, PTY-2 (30 mg/100 g, p.o.)-treated DN rats. After 20 days treatment, the effects of PTY-2 on serum urea and creatinine concentrations, urinary levels of glucose, creatinine, protein, and ketone bodies, and urine pH were determined. Kidney tissue was evaluated for Mmp-9 expression and histological changes. Blood glucose, serum urea, creatinine, and urine protein levels were significantly higher, and creatinine clearance was significantly lower, in Group 2 versus Group 1 rats. There was a higher degree of glomerulosclerosis, expansion of the mesangial matrix, and excess ECM deposition and eosinophilic casts in kidneys from Group 2 versus Group 1 rats. Furthermore, Mmp-9 activity and expression were significantly reduced in kidney homogenate of Group 2 versus Group 1 rats. Interestingly, PTY-2 treatment significantly reversed all these changes in DN rats. Treatment of DN rats with PTY-2 significantly attenuated the severity of DN by increasing the expression and activity of Mmp-9, consequently degrading the ECM accumulated in kidney tissue. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Effect of extract of Pueraria tuberosa on expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor in kidney of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rashmi; Pandey, Nidhi; Banerjee, Somanshu; Tripathi, Yamini B

    2017-09-01

    Kidney hypoxia represents a unifying mechanism in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Hypoxia-induced factor (HIF)-1α mediates the metabolic responses of renal hypoxia by modulating the expression of VEGF. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Pueraria tuberosa extract (PTY-2r) on the expression of HIF-1α, VEGF and nephrin in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic nephropathy (DN). The model of diabetic nephropathy (DN) was produced by intraperitoneal injection of 55mg/kg of STZ and maintained for 60days. These DN-rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e., DN, DN+PTY-2r (100mg/100g), and DN+PTY-2r (50mg/100g). A normal control (NC) group was administrated with drug vehicle. Expression of HIF-1α, VEGF and nephrin were evaluated in the renal tissue. Blood glucose, urine protein, serum creatinine, and urea, level were significantly raised along with decreased creatinine clearance in DN rats. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis showed significantly increased expression of HIF-1α & VEGF and decreased expression of nephrin in DN control rats. The PTY-2r treatment significantly reversed these changes in a dose-dependent manner. Correlation analysis showed that the expression of VEGF was positively correlated with that of HIF-1α and negatively correlated with nephrin. The PTY-2r can improve the chronic hyperglycemic condition induced kidney damage, and may delay the development of diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, thereby restoring the expression of nephrin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Improvements of Vaginal Atrophy without Systemic Side Effects after Topical Application of Pueraria mirifica, a Phytoestrogen-rich Herb, in Postmenopausal Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    JAROENPORN, Sukanya; URASOPON, Nontakorn; WATANABE, Gen; MALAIVIJITNOND, Suchinda

    2014-01-01

    The estrogenic efficacy of topical vaginal application of Pueraria mirifica extract (PM) on the restoration of vaginal atrophy, and the presence of any systemic side effects, were investigated in postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques. Twelve postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques, with complete cessation of menstruation for at least 5 years before start of this experiment, were divided into three groups. They received a topical vaginal application daily of 0.1 or 1% (w/w) PM cream or a conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) cream (a mixture of estrone, equilin, 17β-dihydroequilin, 17α-estradiol and 17α-dihydroequilin at 0.625 mg total estrogen/g cream) for 28 days. Estrogenic efficacy was assessed weekly by vaginal cytology assay and vaginal pH measurement, whilst the plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and sex skin coloration levels were determined at the end of each treatment period to evaluate the systemic side effects. PM significantly increased the proportion of superficial cells in a dose-dependent manner, with a similar efficacy between 1% (w/w) PM and CEE. Together with increased vaginal maturation, PM decreased the vaginal pH to acidic levels, as observed in the CEE group. PM induced no detected systemic side effects, whilst CEE decreased the plasma LH level and increased the reddish color of the sex skin during the posttreatment period. Topical vaginal treatment with PM stimulated the maturation of the vaginal epithelium without causing systemic side effects in postmenopausal monkeys. The implication is that PM could be a safer alternative to treat vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. PMID:24748397

  17. Improvements of vaginal atrophy without systemic side effects after topical application of Pueraria mirifica, a phytoestrogen-rich herb, in postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Urasopon, Nontakorn; Watanabe, Gen; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2014-01-01

    The estrogenic efficacy of topical vaginal application of Pueraria mirifica extract (PM) on the restoration of vaginal atrophy, and the presence of any systemic side effects, were investigated in postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques. Twelve postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques, with complete cessation of menstruation for at least 5 years before start of this experiment, were divided into three groups. They received a topical vaginal application daily of 0.1 or 1% (w/w) PM cream or a conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) cream (a mixture of estrone, equilin, 17β-dihydroequilin, 17α-estradiol and 17α-dihydroequilin at 0.625 mg total estrogen/g cream) for 28 days. Estrogenic efficacy was assessed weekly by vaginal cytology assay and vaginal pH measurement, whilst the plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and sex skin coloration levels were determined at the end of each treatment period to evaluate the systemic side effects. PM significantly increased the proportion of superficial cells in a dose-dependent manner, with a similar efficacy between 1% (w/w) PM and CEE. Together with increased vaginal maturation, PM decreased the vaginal pH to acidic levels, as observed in the CEE group. PM induced no detected systemic side effects, whilst CEE decreased the plasma LH level and increased the reddish color of the sex skin during the posttreatment period. Topical vaginal treatment with PM stimulated the maturation of the vaginal epithelium without causing systemic side effects in postmenopausal monkeys. The implication is that PM could be a safer alternative to treat vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women.

  18. Using vaginal cytology to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb.

    PubMed

    Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Chansri, Kullakanya; Kijkuokul, Pisamai; Urasopon, Nontakorn; Cherdshewasart, Wichai

    2006-10-11

    To assess the estrogenic activities of synthetic estrogen, synthetic phytoestrogen, Pueraria lobata and three distinct cultivars of Pueraria mirifica, a phytoestrogen-rich herb, a vaginal cytology assay in ovariectomized rats were used. Rats were ovariectomized and treated with DW, estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg BW), genistein (0.25-2.5 mg/kg BW), Pueraria lobata and Pueraria mirifica (10-1,000 mg/kg BW) for 14 days. The vaginal cytology was checked daily and the uteri were dissected and weighed at the end of treatment or post-treatment periods. The treatments of DW, genistein and Pueraria lobata did not influence the vaginal epithelium, but the injection of estradiol valerate induced a vaginal cornification from day-3 of treatment to day-14 of post-treatment period. The occurrence of vaginal cornification after treatment and the recovery after the cessation was dependent on dosages and cultivars of Pueraria mirifica. The increments of uterus weight in all rats agreed with the cornification of vaginal epithelium. Although both uterotropic and vaginal cytology assays can be used to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb, however, using vaginal cytology assay has two advantages: (1) we do not need to kill the animals and (2) we can follow up the recovery after the cessation of treatment.

  19. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women’s health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women’s Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  20. Puerarin ameliorates experimental alcoholic liver injury by inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing-Hua; Cui, Tuan; Huang, Fu; Chen, Liang; Zhao, Yu; Xu, Lin; Xu, Li-Li; Feng, Qin; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2013-03-01

    Puerarin, an isoflavone component extracted from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata), has been demonstrated to alleviate alcohol-related disorders. Our study examined whether puerarin ameliorates chronic alcoholic liver injury through inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, the subsequent Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression. Rats were provided with the Liber-DeCarli liquid diet for 8 weeks. Puerarin (90 mg/kg or 180 mg/kg daily) was orally administered from the beginning of the third week until the end of the experiment. Chronic alcohol intake caused increased serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and triglyceride levels as well as fatty liver and neutrophil infiltration in hepatic lobules as determined by biochemical and histologic assays. A significant increase of liver tumor necrosis factor α was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These pathologic effects correlated with increased endotoxin level in portal vein and upregulated protein expression of hepatic CD68, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, CD14, Toll-like receptor 2, and Toll-like receptor 4. Meanwhile, the intestinal microvilli were observed to be sparse, shortened, and irregularity in distribution under the transmission electron microscope in conjunction with the downregulated intestinal zonula occludens-1 protein expression. These hepatic pathologic changes were significantly inhibited in puerarin-treated animals as were the endotoxin levels and hepatic CD68 and endotoxin receptors. Moreover, the pathologic changes in intestinal microvillus and the decreased intestinal zonula occludens-1 were also ameliorated with puerarin treatment. These results thus demonstrate that puerarin inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression is involved in the alleviation of chronic alcoholic liver injury in rats.

  1. Comparative analysis of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. phaseolicola based on phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase gene (argK) and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer sequences.

    PubMed

    Sawada, H; Takeuchi, T; Matsuda, I

    1997-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, which causes halo blight on various legumes, and pv. actinidiae, responsible for canker or leaf spot on actinidia plants, are known as phaseolotoxin producers, and the former possesses phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ROCT) which confers resistance to the toxin. We confirmed that the latter is also resistant to phaseolotoxin and possesses ROCT, and we compared the two pathovars by using sequence data of the ROCT gene and the intergenic spacer region located between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (16S-23S spacer region) as an index. It was found that the identical ROCT gene (argK) is contained not only in bean isolates of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola in Mexico and the United States but also in bean isolates in Japan and Canada, and that it is also distributed in the kudzu (Pueraria lobata) isolates of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola. Moreover, the kiwifruit and tara vine isolates of P. syringae pv. actinidiae were also found to possess the identical argK. On the contrary, the 16S-23S spacer regions showed a significant level of sequence variation between P. syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. phaseolicola, suggesting that these two pathovars evolved differently from each other in the phylogenetic development. The fact that even synonymous substitution has not occurred in argK among these strains despite their extreme differences in phylogenetic evolution and geographical distribution suggests that it was only recently in evolutionary time that argK was transferred from its origin to P. syringae pv. actinidiae and/or pv. phaseolicola.

  2. Comparative analysis of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. phaseolicola based on phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase gene (argK) and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, H; Takeuchi, T; Matsuda, I

    1997-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, which causes halo blight on various legumes, and pv. actinidiae, responsible for canker or leaf spot on actinidia plants, are known as phaseolotoxin producers, and the former possesses phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ROCT) which confers resistance to the toxin. We confirmed that the latter is also resistant to phaseolotoxin and possesses ROCT, and we compared the two pathovars by using sequence data of the ROCT gene and the intergenic spacer region located between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (16S-23S spacer region) as an index. It was found that the identical ROCT gene (argK) is contained not only in bean isolates of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola in Mexico and the United States but also in bean isolates in Japan and Canada, and that it is also distributed in the kudzu (Pueraria lobata) isolates of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola. Moreover, the kiwifruit and tara vine isolates of P. syringae pv. actinidiae were also found to possess the identical argK. On the contrary, the 16S-23S spacer regions showed a significant level of sequence variation between P. syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. phaseolicola, suggesting that these two pathovars evolved differently from each other in the phylogenetic development. The fact that even synonymous substitution has not occurred in argK among these strains despite their extreme differences in phylogenetic evolution and geographical distribution suggests that it was only recently in evolutionary time that argK was transferred from its origin to P. syringae pv. actinidiae and/or pv. phaseolicola. PMID:8979356

  3. Puerarin exerted anti-osteoporotic action independent of estrogen receptor-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Michihara, Seiwa; Tanaka, Teruyoshi; Uzawa, Yuki; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Puerarin, a daidzein-8-C glucoside, is the major isoflavonoid in Kudzu (Pueraria lobata), and is unique in that it contains C-C conjugated glucose at position 8 of the isoflavonoid structure. A puerarin diet at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w./d to fed ovariectomized mice for 2 mo diminished the urinary deoxypyridinoline, a typical bone-degradation product. Since the bone absorption marker, serum tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity of puerarin-fed mice decreased but the bone formation marker, osteocalcin level, did not alter, the puerarin diet was proved to specifically depress the bone absorption, but not the overall bone metabolism. In accordance with that results, the femur structure of puerarin-fed mice was restored compared with that of puerarin-free diet mice. The atrophied uterine due to low estrogen (E2) level after ovariectomy was not restored by the puerarin diet, suggesting that puerarin exerted the anti-osteoporotic action through a non estrogen receptor (ER) mediated-pathway, in vivo. The growth of an ER-positive human breast cancer cell, MCF-70, was not enhanced by puerarin, suggesting that puerarin did not show estrogen-like action on MCF-7 cells, even at a ten thousand times higher concentration than that of E2. Furthermore, ICI182,780 (ICI), an estrogen antagonist, suppressed the enhanced growth of MCF-7 cells by E2, but not that by puerarin. In an ER-binding assay, puerarin was proved not to bind to ERα or β, or if all, extremely weakly, although daidzein, an aglycon of puerarin, showed a little stronger binding compared with puerarin. All these results strongly indicate that puerarin exerts its anti-osteoprotic action independently of the ER-mediated pathway.

  4. Archaeophytopathology of Global Soybean Rust

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae are two rust species that infect soybean (Glycine max). A number of other hosts support the uredinial growth of these Phakopsora, including Pachyrhizus erosus, Pueraria lobata, and Vigna unguiculata, but no aecial host is known. Traditionally, these two species...

  5. A strategy for fast screening and identification of sulfur derivatives in medicinal Pueraria species based on the fine isotopic pattern filtering method using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Guo, De-an

    2015-09-24

    Sulfurous compounds are commonly present in plants, fungi, and animals. Most of them were reported to possess various bioactivities. Isotopic pattern filter (IPF) is a powerful tool for screening compounds with distinct isotope pattern. Over the past decades, the IPF was used mainly to study Cl- and Br-containing compounds. To our knowledge, the algorithm was scarcely used to screen S-containing compounds, especially when combined with chromatography analyses, because the (34)S isotopic ion is drastically affected by (13)C2 and (18)O. Thus, we present a new method for a fine isotopic pattern filter (FIPF) based on the separated M + 2 ions ((12)C(x)(1)H(y)(16)O(z)(32)S(13)C2(18)O, (12)C(x+2)(1)H(y)(16)O(z+1)(34)S, tentatively named M + 2OC and M + 2S) with an ultra-high-resolution mass (100,000 FWHM @ 400 m/z) to screen sulfur derivatives in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM).This finer algorithm operates through convenient filters, including an accurate mass shift of M + 2OC and M + 2S from M and their relative intensity compared to M. The method was validated at various mass resolutions, mass accuracies, and screening thresholds of flexible elemental compositions. Using the established FIPF method, twelve S-derivatives were found in the popular medicinal used Pueraria species, and 9 of them were tentatively identified by high-resolution multiple stage mass spectrometry (HRMS(n)). The compounds were used to evaluate the sulfurous compounds' situation in commercially purchased Pueraria products. The strategy presented here provides a promising application of the IPF method in a new field.

  6. Selenium speciation in radix puerariae using ultrasonic assisted extraction combined with reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after magnetic solid-phase extraction with 5-sulfosalicylic acid functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yupin; Yan, Lizhen; Huang, Hongli; Deng, Biyang

    2016-08-01

    A new method for determination of selenium species in radix puerariae was described. The method consists of sample enrichment with 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SSA)-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, and online detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium species were extracted using ultrasonic extraction system with a mixture of protease K and lipase. The SSA-SMNPs were used to enrich trace amounts of selenite [Se(IV)], selenate [Se(VI)], selenomethionine (SeMet), and selenocystine (SeCys2) from lower selenium containing samples. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (3σ) for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were observed as 0.0023, 0.0015, 0.0043, and 0.0016 ng mL- 1, respectively. The RSD values (n = 6) of method for intraday were observed between 0.5% and 0.9%. The RSD values of method for interday were less than 1.3%. The linear concentration ranges for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were 0.008-1000, 0.005-200, 0.015-500 and 0.006-200 ng mL- 1, respectively. The detection limits of this method were improved by 10 times due to the enrichment with the SSA-SMNP extraction. The contents of SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet, and Se(VI) in radix puerariae were determined as 0.0140, 0.171, 0.0178, and 0.0344 μg g- 1, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 95.6%-99.4% and the RSDs (n = 6) of recoveries were less than 1.5%.

  7. A diet formula of Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma alleviates insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in CD-1 mice and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, HongJuan; Ji, BaoPing; Cai, ShengBao; Wang, RuoJun; Zhou, Feng; Yang, JunSi; Liu, HuiJun

    2014-05-01

    According to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, medicinal and edible herbs exhibit holistic effects through their actions on multiple target organs. Four herbs, Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma, were selected and combined to create a new herbal formula (PLCP). The protective effects of both the aqueous extract (AE) and ethanol extract (EE) of PLCP against insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were evaluated in both high fat and high fructose diet-fed mice. Active fractions and constituents were screened in HepG2 cells with IR or an over-accumulation of triglycerides, and were further identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the AE did not improve (p > 0.05) glucose tolerance after three weeks, whereas EE showed a promising effect throughout the experiment. Medium and high doses of EE were found to reduce fasting blood glucose at week 9 by 21.1% and 24.4%, respectively. In addition, their efficacies for alleviating IR were comparable with that of metformin. Compared with AE, EE effectively improved hyperlipidemia, antioxidant status, and NAFLD. In contrast, metformin did not alleviate hyperlipidemia (p > 0.05) or NAFLD in the mice model. Results from the cell-based study indicate that the protective effects of EE were possibly due to the actions from puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, daidzein, and ononin.

  8. Bimodal action of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol, phytoestrogens from Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, on hepatic CYP2B9 and CYP1A2 expressions and antilipid peroxidation in mice.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2012-01-01

    Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol are phytoestrogens isolated from Pueraria candollei var. mirifica. The influence of miroestrol and dexoymirosestrol on hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes and antioxidative activity in brain was examined in C57BL/6 mice compared with that of a synthetic female sex hormone estradiol. We hypothesized that miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol would induce CYP2B9 expression, whereas CYP1A2 expression would be suppressed compared with estradiol. Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol treatment significantly increased uterus weight and volume. In addition, both of these phytoestrogens induced the expression of CYP2B9 and suppressed the expression of CYP1A2, as expected. Hepatic P450 activities correspondingly showed that both compounds increased benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity, whereas methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity was reduced. These observations suggested that miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol might affect hepatic P450 enzymes, including the CYP2B9 and CYP1A2 P450 isoforms. Assessment of lipid peroxidation demonstrated that miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol markedly decreased levels of malondialdehyde formation in the mouse brain. This is the first report suggesting miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol as potential alternative medicines to estradiol because of their distinctive ability to regulate mouse hepatic P450 expression and their beneficial antioxidative activities.

  9. Random Transect with Adaptive Clustering Sampling Design - ArcPad Applet Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    plant species (NIS) pose a significant threat to native biological diversity. Their management and control are mandated by Executive Order 13112 on...cycling processes. Ecosystems 6:503–523. Hickman, J., S. Wu, L. J. Mickley, and M. T. Lerdau. 2010. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles...M. E., and R. N. Mack. 1988. Controlling the spread of plant invasions: the importance of nascent foci. Journal of Applied Ecology 25:1009–1021

  10. Temperature-dependent performance of competitive native and alien invasive plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Uhram

    2017-10-01

    To assess the likely impacts of environmental change, the responses of two well-known invasive plant species, native Pueraria lobata and alien Humulus japonicus, to differences in growth temperature were studied in South Korea. Habitat preferences, physiological responses such as photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll contents, growth rates, and nutrient contents were quantified for each species. A competition experiment was conducted to evaluate the temperature preferences of the two species. All results indicated that the alien species H. japonicus can take advantage of elevated temperatures (35 °C) to enhance its competitive advantage against the native species P. lobata. While H. japonicus took advantage of elevated temperatures and preferred high-temperature areas, P. lobata showed reduced performance and dominance in high-temperature areas. Therefore, in future, due to global warming and urbanization, there are possibilities that H. japonicus takes advantage of elevated temperature against P. lobata that could lead to increased H. japonicus coverage over time. Therefore, consistent monitoring of both species especially where P. lobata is dominated are required because both species are found in every continents in the world. Controlling P. lobata requires thorough inspection of H. japonicus presence of the habitat in advance to prevent post P. lobata management invasion of H. japonicus.

  11. Evaluation of oriental medicinal herbs for estrogenic and antiproliferative activities.

    PubMed

    Kang, Se Chan; Lee, Chang Min; Choi, Han; Lee, Jae Hyun; Oh, Joa Sub; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2006-11-01

    Herb extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic activity with a recombinant yeast system with both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 17-estradiol = 1.00) (7.8e-3) (RP for + control), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.3e-3), Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum palmatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum and Pueraria lobata (root) (9.5e-4-1.0e-4), and Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus and Adenophora stricta (9.0e-5-8.0e-5). In the antiproliferative assay, five human cancer cell lines representing different tissues (breast, lung and ovary) were used. Eriobotrya japonica showed strong cytotoxicity in ER-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), cervix epitheloid (HeLa) and lung (A549) carcinoma cell lines. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Plant Growth Under Light Emitting Diode Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennessen, Daniel John

    Plant growth under light emitting diodes (LEDs) was investigated to determine if LEDs would be useful to provide radiant energy for two plant processes, photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis. Photosynthesis of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and Kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd) Ohwi.) was measured using photons from LEDs to answer the following: (1) Are leaves able to use red LED light for photosynthesis? and (2) Is the efficiency of photosynthesis in pulsed light equal to that of continuous light? In 175 Pa CO _2, or in response to changes in CO _2,<=af photosynthesis and ATP status were the same in LED as in white xenon arc light. In 35 Pa CO_2, photosynthesis was 10% lower in LED than in xenon arc light due to lowered stomatal conductance. The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in pulsed light was equal to continuous light, even when pulses were twice as bright as sunlight. Xanthophyll pigments were not affected by these bright pulses. Photomorphogenesis of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and transformed tobacco and tomato (expressing oat phytochrome-A) was assessed by growing plants under red LED lamps in an attempt to answer the following: (1) What is the developmental response of non-transformed and transformed tobacco to red LED light? and (2) Can tomato plants that grow tall and spindly in red LED light be made to grow short by increasing the amount of phytochrome-A? The short phenotype of transformed tobacco was not evident when plants were grown in LED light. Addition of photons of far-red or blue light to red light resulted in short transformed tobacco. Tomato plants grew three times as tall and lacked leaf development in LED versus white light, but transformed tomato remained short and produced fruit under LED light. I have determined that the LED photons are useful for photosynthesis and that the photon efficiency of photosynthesis is the same in pulsed as in continuous light. From responses of tobacco, I

  13. Puerarin Attenuates Cerebral Damage by Improving Cerebral Microcirculation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xu-Dong; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Fu, Yan; Liu, Feng-Ying; Liu, Xiu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix (Gegen in Chinese) is the dried root of Pueraria lobata, a semiwoody, perennial, and leguminous vine native to China. Puerarin is one of the effective components of isoflavones isolated from the root of Pueraria lobata. Previous studies showed that extracts derived from the root of Pueraria lobata possessed antihypertensive effect. Our study is to investigate whether puerarin contributes to prevention of stroke by improving cerebral microcirculation in rats. Materials and Methods. Video microscopy and laser Doppler perfusion imaging on the pia mater were used to measure the diameter of microvessel and blood perfusion in 12-week old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and age-matched normotensive WKY rats. Histological alterations were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and microvessel density in cerebral tissue was measured by immunohistochemical analysis with anti-Factor VIII antibody. Cell proliferation was detected by [3H]-TdR incorporation, and activities of p42/44 mitogen activated protein kinases (p42/44 MAPKs) were detected by western blot analysis in cultured cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (MECs). Results. Intravenous injection of puerarin relaxed arterioles and increased the blood flow perfusion in the pia mater in SHRs. Puerarin treatment for 14 days reduced the blood pressure to a normal level in SHRs (P < 0.05) and increased the arteriole diameter in the pia mater significantly as compared with vehicle treatment. Arteriole remodeling, edema, and ischemia in cerebral tissue were attenuated in puerarin-treated SHRs. Microvessel density in cerebral tissue was greater with puerarin than with vehicle treatment. Puerarin-treated MECs showed greater proliferation and p42/44 MAPKs activities than vehicle treatment. Conclusions. Puerarin possesses effects of antihypertension and stroke prevention by improved microcirculation in SHRs, which results from the increase in cerebral blood perfusion both by arteriole

  14. Puerarin attenuates cerebral damage by improving cerebral microcirculation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu-Dong; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Fu, Yan; Liu, Feng-Ying; Liu, Xiu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix (Gegen in Chinese) is the dried root of Pueraria lobata, a semiwoody, perennial, and leguminous vine native to China. Puerarin is one of the effective components of isoflavones isolated from the root of Pueraria lobata. Previous studies showed that extracts derived from the root of Pueraria lobata possessed antihypertensive effect. Our study is to investigate whether puerarin contributes to prevention of stroke by improving cerebral microcirculation in rats. Materials and Methods. Video microscopy and laser Doppler perfusion imaging on the pia mater were used to measure the diameter of microvessel and blood perfusion in 12-week old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and age-matched normotensive WKY rats. Histological alterations were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and microvessel density in cerebral tissue was measured by immunohistochemical analysis with anti-Factor VIII antibody. Cell proliferation was detected by [(3)H]-TdR incorporation, and activities of p42/44 mitogen activated protein kinases (p42/44 MAPKs) were detected by western blot analysis in cultured cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (MECs). Results. Intravenous injection of puerarin relaxed arterioles and increased the blood flow perfusion in the pia mater in SHRs. Puerarin treatment for 14 days reduced the blood pressure to a normal level in SHRs (P < 0.05) and increased the arteriole diameter in the pia mater significantly as compared with vehicle treatment. Arteriole remodeling, edema, and ischemia in cerebral tissue were attenuated in puerarin-treated SHRs. Microvessel density in cerebral tissue was greater with puerarin than with vehicle treatment. Puerarin-treated MECs showed greater proliferation and p42/44 MAPKs activities than vehicle treatment. Conclusions. Puerarin possesses effects of antihypertension and stroke prevention by improved microcirculation in SHRs, which results from the increase in cerebral blood perfusion both by arteriole

  15. The use of cycleave PCR for the differentiation of the rejuvenating herb species Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa (Black Kwao Khruea), and the simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets in a DNA admixture.

    PubMed

    Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Sukrong, Suchada

    2014-01-01

    Kwao Khruea, the tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth. (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba Roxb. (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa Wall. (Black Kwao Khruea), are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional medicine in many tropical countries. Although Kwao Khruea has attracted strong interest because of its rejuvenation properties, each species is used for specific purposes and effects. P. candollei shows estrogenic effects in females. In contrast, B. superba and M. macrocarpa show androgenic effects in males. The potential misidentification of dried tuberous roots of various Kwao Khruea species might cause problems in the drug market, especially when they are reduced into powders. A cycleave PCR, which is based on the sequence of chloroplast matK gene, was developed to differentiate P. candollei, B. superba, and M. macrocarpa. The results showed that cycleave PCR is able to identify specific Kwao Khruea species. A multiplex cycleave PCR was optimized for the simultaneous detection of two different DNA targets in a DNA admixture. The specificity of this technique was confirmed by its ability to distinguish M. macrocarpa from five related Mucuna species. Cycleave PCR can be a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for the identification of medicinal plants and crude plant samples.

  16. Kudzu-Goat Interactions--A Pilot Study

    Treesearch

    C. Bonsi; E. Rhoden; A. Woldeghebriel; P. Mount; S. Solaiman; R. Noble; G. Paris; Charles McMahon; H. Pearson; B. Cash

    1992-01-01

    The production and processing of forest products is a major industry in the State of Alabama. Current weed management and control practices rely heavily on the use of herbicides. With the risk of soil and water pollution associated with the use of some agricultural chemicals, the continuing use of such chemicals may become hazardous to human health. The need for...

  17. All Wrapped Up in Kudzu and Other Ecological Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine E.; Cummo, Evelyn

    1999-01-01

    Introduces activities to reinforce the concept of and problems involved with introduced, nonnative or alien species. Provides seven vignettes about seven different plant and animal species that have become or currently are near ecological disasters. (CCM)

  18. Adaptive Web Sampling - ArcPad Applet Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Ecosystems 6:503–523. Hickman, J., S. Wu, L. J. Mickley, and M. T. Lerdau. 2010. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and...1988. Controlling the spread of plant invasions: the importance of nascent foci. Journal of Applied Ecology 25:1009–1021. Morrison, L. W., D. R...59:247–265. Zavaleta, E. 2000. The economic value of controlling an invasive shrub. Ambio 29:462– 467. ERDC/CERL TR-11-33 31 Appendix A

  19. Quercus lobata seedlings and conspecific neighbors: Competitors or allies?

    Treesearch

    Claudia Tyler; Shelly Cole Moritz

    2015-01-01

    In conducting oak restoration, it is common to plant at least two acorns per location to increase the probability that at least one will germinate and produce a seedling. If both seedlings successfully establish, one is generally removed to reduce possible competition. To test the assumption that the near neighbors are competing, we examined several cohorts of valley...

  20. Evaluation of antidiabetic potential of selected traditional Chinese medicines in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Li, Xuegang; Chen, Xin; Ye, Xiaoli; Huang, Jing; Jin, Yanan; Li, Panpan; Deng, Yafei; Jin, Qing; Shi, Qing; Shu, Hejing

    2011-10-11

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for treating complex chronic diseases owing to their fewer side-effects, better patient tolerance and relatively less cost. The present work was carried out to study the anti-diabetic efficacy and mechanisms of 34 TCMs. Streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice were orally administrated with corresponding herbal solution once a day for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, the level of plasma glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the serum aldose reductase (AR) were determined, the effects of TCM extract on α-glucosidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in vitro were also evaluated. 13 out of the 34 herbs showed a statistically significant plasma glucose lowering action compared with the diabetic control group. Biochemical analysis revealed that Atractylodes macrocephala, Codonopsis pilosula, Dioscorea opposite, Flos lonicerae and Pueraria lobata may retard the progression of diabetes via reduce the blood glucose level and prevent the increase of AR activity. Other tested herbs, such as Ramulus cinnamomi, Cinnamomum cassia, and Eucommia ulmoides, showed the antidiabetic ability by either prevent the decrease in SOD activity or suppress the increase of MDA. Zymologic assay reveals that Pueraria lobata and Anemarrhena asphodeloides showed the highest inhibition against α-glucosidase and ACE respectively. Interestingly, the post-treatment glucose levels and AR activity were positively correlated with kidney/body weight of 34 herbs treated diabetic mice (p = 0.02, 0.04 respectively). Several potential antidiabetic herbs derived from Chinese traditional pharmacopeia such as Dioscorea opposite, Pueraria lobata, Codonopsis pilosula and Ramulus cinnamomi, have been found to exert a beneficial action on diabetes and diabetic complications via multi-mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thresholds of Disturbance: Land Management Effects on Vegetation and Nitrogen Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-31

    41 0 0.0001 Carex sp. Graminoid 64 28 0.0007 Poaceae sp3. Graminoid 13 0 0.0007 Uniola sessiliflora Graminoid 50 2 0.0001 Pueraria lobata Legume 7...Graminoid 3 23 0.0090 Panicum sp. Graminoid 26 73 0.0001 Paspalum sp. Graminoid 1 20 0.0169 Poaceae sp1. Graminoid 8 48 0.0002 Poaceae sp2. Graminoid 0...25 0.0001 Poaceae sp3. Graminoid 0 11 0.0072 Poaceae sp4. Graminoid 34 62 0.0038 Tripascum dactyloides Graminoid 0 13 0.0058 Uniola sessiliflora

  2. [Studies on the medicinal plant in the "Sambutsu-cho" of Higo Province possessed by the Kumamoto clan (II): on the medicina herbs].

    PubMed

    Hamada, T

    1993-01-01

    In the previous report, I studied the medicinal trees contained in the Sambutsu-cho of the Kumamoto clan in Higo Province. In this report, I studied the medicinal herbs contained in the same book. There were 439 names in the herbal part. I identified 214 species and found 129 species as the medicinal plants. The ratio of the medicinal plants was 60%. the famous medicinal plants were as follows: Atractilodes japonica, platycodon grandiflorum, prunella vulgaris var. lilacina, pharbitis nil, cnidium officinale, angelica acutiloba, bplerum falcatum, pueraria lobata, sophora flavescens, sinomenium acutum, akebia quinata, paeonia lactiflora, paeonia suffruticosa, achyranthes fauriei, houttuynia cordata, ophiopogon japonica, pinellia ternata and cyperus rotundus.

  3. Antithrombotic and antiallergic activities of daidzein, a metabolite of puerarin and daidzin produced by human intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Choo, Min-Kyung; Park, Eun-Kyung; Yoon, Hae-Kyung; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2002-10-01

    To evaluate the antithrombotic activities of puerarin and daidzin from the rhizome of Pueraria lobata, in vitro and ex vivo inhibitory activities of these compounds and their metabolite, daidzein, were measured. These compounds inhibited ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Daidzein was the most potent. However, when puerarin and daidzin were intraperitoneally administered, their antiaggregation activities were weaker than when these compounds were administered orally. When in vivo antithrombotic activities of these compounds against collagen and epinephrine were measured, these compounds showed significant protection from death due to pulmonary thrombosis in mice. To evaluate the antiallergic activity of puerarin, daidzin, and daidzein, their inhibitory effects on the release of beta-hexosaminidase from RBL 2H3 cells and on the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice were examined. Daidzein exhibited potent inhibitory activity on the beta-hexosaminidase release induced by DNP-BSA and potently inhibited the PCA reaction in rats. Daidzein administered intraperitoneally showed the strongest inhibitory activity and significantly inhibited the PCA reaction at doses of 25 and 50mg/kg with inhibitory activity of 37 and 73%, respectively. The inhibitory activity of intraperitoneally administered daidzein was stronger than those of intraperitoneally and orally administered puerarin and daidzin. Therefore we believe that puerarin and daidzin in the rhizome of Pueraria lobata are prodrugs, which have antiallergic and antithrombotic activities, produced by intestinal microflora.

  4. Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Gyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, Kug Chan; Choung, Eui Su; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2008-01-01

    The medicinal plant extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in a recombinant yeast system featuring both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 7.75×10(-3); RP of 17β-estradiol=1), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.25×10(-3)). Next potent were a group consisting of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum undulatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum, and Pueraria lobata (root) (ranging from 9.5×10(-4) to 1.0×10(-4)). Least potent were Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus, and Adenophora stricta (ranging from 9.0×10(-5) to 8.0×10(-5)). The extracts exerting antiestrogenic effects, Cinnamomum cassia and Prunus persica, had relative potencies of 1.14×10(-3) and 7.4×10(-4), respectively (RP of tamoxifen=1). The solvent fractions from selected estrogenic or antiestrogenic herbs had higher estrogenic relative potencies, with their RP ranging from 9.3×10(-1) to 2.7×10(-4) and from 8.2×10(-1) to 9.1×10(-3), respectively. These results support previous reports on the efficacy of Oriental medicinal plants used or not used as phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy.

  5. Nootropic activity of tuber extract of Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb).

    PubMed

    Rao, N Venkata; Pujar, Basavaraj; Nimbal, S K; Shantakumar, S M; Satyanarayana, S

    2008-08-01

    Nootropic effect of alcoholic (ALE; 50, 75, 100 mg/kg) and aqueous (AQE; 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) extracts of P. tuberosa was evaluated by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), scopolamine-induced amnesia (SIA), diazepam-induced amnesia (DIA), clonidine-induced (NA-mediated) hypothermia (CIH), lithium-induced (5-HT mediated) head twitches (LIH) and haloperidol-induced (DA- mediated) catalepsy (HIC) models. Piracetam was used as the standard drug. A significant increase in inflexion ratio (IR) was recorded in EPM, SIA and DIA models. A significant reversal effect was observed on rectal temperature in CIH model, reduction of head twitches in LIH models. However no significant reduction in catalepsy scores in HIC models were observed with test extracts and standard piracetam. The results indicate that nootropic activity observed with ALE and AQE of tuber extracts of P. tuberosa could be through improved learning and memory either by augmenting the noradrenaline (NA) transmission or by interfering with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release. Further, the extracts neither facilitated nor blocked release of the dopamine (DA). Thus ALE and AQE elicited significant nootropic effect in mice and rats by interacting with cholinergic, GABAnergic, adrenergic and serotonergic systems. Phytoconstituents like flavonoids have been reported for their nootropic effect and these are present in both ALE and AQE extracts of tubers of P. tuberosa (Roxb) and these active principles may be responsible for nootropic activity.

  6. Plant litter chemistry and microbial priming regulate the accrual, composition and stability of soil carbon in invaded ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Mioko; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2014-07-01

    Soil carbon (C) sequestration, as an ecosystem property, may be strongly influenced by invasive plants capable of depositing disproportionately high quantities of chemically distinct litter that disrupt ecosystem processes. However, a mechanistic understanding of the processes that regulate soil C storage in invaded ecosystems remains surprisingly elusive. Here, we studied the impact of the invasion of two noxious nonnative species, Polygonum cuspidatum, which produces recalcitrant litter, and Pueraria lobata, which produces labile litter, on the quantity, molecular composition, and stability of C in the soils they invade. Compared with an adjacent noninvaded old-field, P. cuspidatum-invaded soils exhibited a 26% increase in C, partially through selective preservation of plant polymers. Despite receiving a 22% higher litter input, P. lobata-invaded Pinus stands exhibited a 28% decrease in soil C and a twofold decrease in plant biomarkers, indicating microbial priming of native soil C. The stability of C exhibited an opposite trend: the proportion of C that was resistant to oxidation was 21% lower in P. cuspidatum-invaded soils and 50% higher in P. lobata-invaded soils. Our results highlight the capacity of invasive plants to feed back to climate change by destabilizing native soil C stocks and indicate that environments that promote the biochemical decomposition of plant litter would enhance the long-term storage of soil C. Further, our study highlights the concurrent influence of dominant plant species on both selective preservation and humification of soil organic matter. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weihua; Luo, Jianning; Tian, Xingshan; Soon Chow, Wah; Sun, Zhongyu; Zhang, Taijie; Peng, Shaolin; Peng, Changlian

    2015-06-01

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects on its photosynthetic characteristics, including suppression of leaf biomass and the abundance of the CO2-fixing enzyme RUBISCO. The field experiment demonstrated that sowing seeds of P. lobata or P. scandens in plots where the weed had been largely cleared produced 11.8-fold or 2.5-fold as much leaf biomass of the two natives, respectively, as the weed. Replacement control by valuable native species is potentially a feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica.

  8. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihua; Luo, Jianning; Tian, Xingshan; Soon Chow, Wah; Sun, Zhongyu; Zhang, Taijie; Peng, Shaolin; Peng, Changlian

    2015-06-05

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects on its photosynthetic characteristics, including suppression of leaf biomass and the abundance of the CO2-fixing enzyme RUBISCO. The field experiment demonstrated that sowing seeds of P. lobata or P. scandens in plots where the weed had been largely cleared produced 11.8-fold or 2.5-fold as much leaf biomass of the two natives, respectively, as the weed. Replacement control by valuable native species is potentially a feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica.

  9. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weihua; Luo, Jianning; Tian, Xingshan; Soon Chow, Wah; Sun, Zhongyu; Zhang, Taijie; Peng, Shaolin; Peng, Changlian

    2015-01-01

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects on its photosynthetic characteristics, including suppression of leaf biomass and the abundance of the CO2-fixing enzyme RUBISCO. The field experiment demonstrated that sowing seeds of P. lobata or P. scandens in plots where the weed had been largely cleared produced 11.8-fold or 2.5-fold as much leaf biomass of the two natives, respectively, as the weed. Replacement control by valuable native species is potentially a feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica. PMID:26047489

  10. Near term climate projections for invasive species distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and invasive species pose important conservation issues separately, and should be examined together. We used existing long term climate datasets for the US to project potential climate change into the future at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than the climate change scenarios generally available. These fine scale projections, along with new species distribution modeling techniques to forecast the potential extent of invasive species, can provide useful information to aide conservation and invasive species management efforts. We created habitat suitability maps for Pueraria montana (kudzu) under current climatic conditions and potential average conditions up to 30 years in the future. We examined how the potential distribution of this species will be affected by changing climate, and the management implications associated with these changes. Our models indicated that P. montana may increase its distribution particularly in the Northeast with climate change and may decrease in other areas. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Inventory of forest and rangeland and detection of forest stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, R. C.; Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. At the Atlanta site (226B) it was found that bulk color composites for October 15, 1972, and April 13, 1973, can be interpreted together to disclose the location of the perennial Kudzu vine (Pyeraria lobata). Land managers concerned with Kudzu eradication could use ERTS-1 to inventory locations over 200 meters (660 feet) square. Microdensitometer data collected on ERTS-1 Bulk photographic products for the Manitou test site (226C) have shown that the 15-step gray-scale tablets are not of systematic equal values corresponding to 1/14 the maximum radiant energy incident on the MSS sensor. The gray-scale values present a third-order polynomial function rather than a direct linear relationship. Although data collected on step tablets for precision photographic products appear more discrete, the density variation within blocks in almost as great as variations between blocks. These system errors will cause problems when attempting to analyze radiometric variances among vegetation and land use classes.

  12. Population Genetic Baseline of the First Plataspid Stink Bug Symbiosis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Reported in North America

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Tracie M.; Eaton, Tyler D.

    2011-01-01

    The stink bug, Megacopta cribraria, has an obligate relationship with a bacterial endosymbiont which allows it to feed on legumes. The insect is a pest of soybeans in Asia and was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in October 2009 on kudzu vine, Pueraria montana, in North Georgia, USA. By October 2010 M. cribraria had been confirmed in 80 counties in Georgia actively feeding on kudzu vine and soybean plants. Since the symbiosis may support the bug's ecological expansions, a population genetic baseline for the symbiosis was developed from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nuDNA) gene sequence collected from each insect and its primary γ- proteobacterium and secondary α -proteobacterium endosymbionts. A single mitochondrial DNA haplotype was found in all insects sampled in Georgia and South Carolina identified as GA1. The GAI haplotype appears to be rapidly dispersing across Georgia and into contiguous states. Primary and secondary endosymbiont gene sequences from M. cribraria in Georgia were the same as those found in recently collected Megacopta samples from Japan. The implications of these data are discussed. PMID:26467727

  13. Population Genetic Baseline of the First Plataspid Stink Bug Symbiosis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Reported in North America.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Tracie M Jenkins; Eaton, Tyler D

    2011-06-24

    The stink bug, Megacopta cribraria, has an obligate relationship with a bacterial endosymbiont which allows it to feed on legumes. The insect is a pest of soybeans in Asia and was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in October 2009 on kudzu vine, Pueraria montana, in North Georgia, USA. By October 2010 M. cribraria had been confirmed in 80 counties in Georgia actively feeding on kudzu vine and soybean plants. Since the symbiosis may support the bug's ecological expansions, a population genetic baseline for the symbiosis was developed from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nuDNA) gene sequence collected from each insect and its primary g- proteobacterium and secondary a -proteobacterium endosymbionts. A single mitochondrial DNA haplotype was found in all insects sampled in Georgia and South Carolina identified as GA1. The GAI haplotype appears to be rapidly dispersing across Georgia and into contiguous states. Primary and secondary endosymbiont gene sequences from M. cribraria in Georgia were the same as those found in recently collected Megacopta samples from Japan. The implications of these data are discussed.

  14. Biological control of weeds: research by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: selected case studies.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Paul C; DeLoach, C Jack; Wineriter, Susan A; Goolsby, John A; Sobhian, Rouhollah; Boyette, C Douglas; Abbas, Hamed K

    2003-01-01

    Research by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on biological control of weeds has been practiced for many years because of its inherent ecological and economic advantages. Today, it is further driven by ARS adherence to Presidential Executive Order 13112 (3 February 1999) on invasive species and to USDA-ARS policy toward developing technology in support of sustainable agriculture with reduced dependence on non-renewable petrochemical resources. This paper reports examples or case studies selected to demonstrate the traditional or classical approach for biological control programs using Old World arthropods against Tamarix spp, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) ST Blake and Galium spurium L/G aparine L, and the augmentative approach with a native plant pathogen against Pueraria lobata Ohwi = P montana. The examples illustrated various conflicts of interest with endangered species and ecological complexities of arthropods with associated microbes such as nematodes.

  15. [Progress on cardiovascular protections and mechanism research of puerarin].

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-yong

    2015-06-01

    Puerarin is one of the most important effective components of Pueraria lobata which exhibited classic estrogen-like biological activities and had remarkable cardiovascular protections in vivo and in vitro experiments. These protections of puerarin are mainly exhibited on improving the myocardial cells membrane potential and arrhythmia based on effecting the Na+, K+ , and Ca2+ channels,resisting myocardial fibrosis damage, diastolic effect on blood vessels, promoting angiogenesis, resisting calcification and atherosclerosis, improving blood flow, antiplatelet aggregation, reducing lipid and resisting diabetes. The main mechanisms are to improve the membrane potential and reduce cardiovascular damage caused by inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis, and the main regulated signal pathways are the PI3K/Akt, the NF-kappa B and the caspases.

  16. Progress on the pharmacological research of puerarin: a review.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Yong; Chen, Yi; Xu, Xiao-Yu

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary pharmacological research has demonstrated that puerarin, the most important phytoestrogen extracted from Pueraria lobata(Willd.) Ohwi, has protecting functions on the cardiovascular system, nervous system, osteoporosis, liver injury, and inflammation in vivo and in vitro. Most of these research studies focused on inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis through regulating various bioactivators and signal pathways. Among these, superoxide dismutase (SOD), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB are of great importance. The data cited in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in PubMed and Elsevier SDOL published from 1959 to 2013, and the search term used was "puerarin". Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of daidzin and its aglycon, daidzein, on the scopolamine-induced memory impairment in male mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Jung, Hyun Ah; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Seungjoo; Choi, Jae Su; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ko, Kwang Ho; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the effect of daidzin or daidzein isolated from Pueraria lobata on the memory impairments induced by scopolamine was assessed in male mice using the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze tasks. Administration of daidzin (5 mg/kg) or daidzein (5 mg/kg) significantly reversed the scopolamine (1 mg/kg)-induced cognitive impairments in male mice as evidenced by the passive avoidance test (p < 0.05) and on the Morris water maze test (p < 0.05). Moreover, the ameliorating effects of daidzin or daidzein were antagonized by tamoxifen (1 mg/kg), the nonspecific estrogen receptor antagonist. These results indicate that daidzin or daidzein may be useful in cognitive impairment induced by cholinergic dysfunction, and this beneficial effect is mediated, in part, via estrogen receptor.

  18. Determination of toxic metals by ICP-MS in Asiatic and European medicinal plants and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kurzawa, Marzanna; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The potentially toxic metals content was determined in selected plants, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Angelica sinensis, Bacopa monnieri, Bupleurum sinensis, Curcuma longa, Cola accuminata, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Pueraria lobata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Schisandra sinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis, Siraitia grosvenorii, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia chebula), and some European herbs (Echinacea purpurea, Hypericum perforatum, Vitis vinifera). Samples were mineralized in a closed microwave system using HNO3 and the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Al, As, Ba, Ni and Sb were determined by ICP-MS method. Some relevant aspects of potential toxicity of metallic elements and their compounds were also discussed. Results of metal content analysis in dietary supplements available on Polish market, containing studied plants, are presented as well. The results were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Screening inhibitors of xanthine oxidase from natural products using enzyme immobilized magnetic beads by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Li, Dapeng; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2017-03-06

    In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess the results of bioactive compound screening from natural products using immobilized enzyme magnetic beads. We compared three commercial magnetic beads with modified amino, carboxy and N-hydroxysuccinimide groups, respectively. Amino magnetic beads performed best for immobilization and were selected for further experiments. Xanthine oxidase was immobilized on amino magnetic beads and applied to screen potential inhibitors in fresh Zingiber officinale Roscoe, extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Pueraria lobata Ohwi. In total, 12 potential xanthine oxidase ligands were identified from fresh Zingiber root and Scutellaria root extracts, of which eight were characterized and the concentration required for 50% inhibition was determined. Preliminary structure-function relationships were discussed based on these results. A convenient and effective method was therefore developed for the identification of active compounds from complex natural product mixtures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of extracts and isolated components from selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Ju; Kwon, Do Young; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Young Chul

    2010-06-01

    We determined the ability of extracts and active components isolated from nine medicinal plants, Poncirus trifoliata, Astragalus membranaceus, Magnolia obovata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Angelica dahurica, Cornus officinalis, Cnidium officinale, Pueraria lobata and Ostericum koreanum, to neutralize peroxyl radicals using the total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay. Peroxyl radicals were generated from thermal homolysis of 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride, which oxidize alpha-keto-gamma-methiolbutyric acid to yield ethylene, and the TOSC of the substances tested is quantified from their ability to inhibit ethylene formation. Extracts from S. miltiorrhiza, M. obovata and P. lobata were determined to be potent peroxyl radical scavenging agents with a specific TOSC (sTOSC) being at least threefold greater than that of glutathione. Major constituents of the three plants, tanshinone, cryptotanshinone, 15,16-dihydrotanshinone, syringin, honokiol, magnolol, daidzein, puerarin and genistein, were examined for the antioxidant potential toward peroxyl radical. Puerarin and genistein were shown to have microM sTOSCs at least ten-fold greater than sTOSC of glutathione. Daidzein, syringin and honokiol demonstrated the peroxyl radical scavenging capacity comparable to that of glutathione. The implication of peroxyl radical in lipid peroxidation and other cellular damage suggests a possible protective role for the extracts and isolated components in oxidative stress caused by this reactive oxygen species.

  1. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua) water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE) and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR) assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders. PMID:20974012

  2. Determination of glibenclamide and puerarin in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS: application to their pharmacokinetic interaction study.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Deng, Ying; Wang, Dan; Qiao, Ying; Li, Famei

    2013-01-30

    In the treatment of diabetes mellitus, glibenclamide and puerarin may be co-administered unwittingly or wittingly. An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to determine the concentrations of glibenclamide and puerarin in rat plasma for the study of pharmacokinetic interaction between them. Analytes were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction. The separation was achieved on a Waters BEH C18 column using 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (containing 0.1% formic acid) and methanol as mobile phase with a linear gradient program. Electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in the multiple reaction monitoring positive mode. The proposed method was proved simple, specific and reliable. Glibenclamide, Pueraria lobata extract and glibenclamide in combination with P. lobata extract were orally administered to rats, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by Microsoft Excel software and analyzed by SPSS 12.0 software. Compared with glibenclamide group, pharmacokinetic parameters of glibenclamide in the co-administration group such as area under the curve and mean residence time were increased while clearance was decreased. Pharmacokinetic parameters of puerarin in the co-administration group such as peak concentration and area under the curve were enlarged while clearance and apparent volume of distribution were reduced compared with P. lobata extract group. These changes could enhance drug efficacy, but could also make drug accumulation to increase adverse effects, so it was suggested that the dosage should be adjusted or the drug concentration in plasma should be monitored if glibenclamide and puerarin were co-administered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Growing Embedded Librarians Like Kudzu: How the Embedded Extension Service Creates More Embedded Librarians without Creating New Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coltrain, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In an era of exploding online enrollment and tight budgets, Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC) struggles to meet the needs of online students. CPCC librarians went one step towards solving that problem in 2009-2010 by launching an embedded librarian program. CPCC's program became so successful that it struggled to meet demand. In 2013, CPCC…

  4. Growing Embedded Librarians Like Kudzu: How the Embedded Extension Service Creates More Embedded Librarians without Creating New Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coltrain, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In an era of exploding online enrollment and tight budgets, Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC) struggles to meet the needs of online students. CPCC librarians went one step towards solving that problem in 2009-2010 by launching an embedded librarian program. CPCC's program became so successful that it struggled to meet demand. In 2013, CPCC…

  5. A new invasive species in maryland: the biology and distribution of kudzu bug, megacopta cribraria (fabricius) (femiptera: plataspidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relaxation of trade restrictions in the 1960s and 70s led to an unintended exchange of invasive insect species as well as manufactured goods between the United States and its new trade partners. Consequently, the number of exotic insect pests accidently entering and taking up residence in the U...

  6. Structure of daidzin, a naturally occurring anti-alcohol-addiction agent, in complex with human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Edward D; Gao, Guang-Yao; Johnson, Louise N; Keung, Wing Ming

    2008-08-14

    The ALDH2*2 gene encoding the inactive variant form of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) protects nearly all carriers of this gene from alcoholism. Inhibition of ALDH2 has hence become a possible strategy to treat alcoholism. The natural product 7-O-glucosyl-4'-hydroxyisoflavone (daidzin), isolated from the kudzu vine ( Peruraria lobata), is a specific inhibitor of ALDH2 and suppresses ethanol consumption. Daidzin is the active principle in a herbal remedy for "alcohol addiction" and provides a lead for the design of improved ALDH2. The structure of daidzin/ALDH2 in complex at 2.4 A resolution shows the isoflavone moiety of daidzin binding close to the aldehyde substrate-binding site in a hydrophobic cleft and the glucosyl function binding to a hydrophobic patch immediately outside the isoflavone-binding pocket. These observations provide an explanation for both the specificity and affinity of daidzin (IC50 =80 nM) and the affinity of analogues with different substituents at the glucosyl position.

  7. Phenotypic variation in California populations of valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) sampled along elevational gradients

    Treesearch

    Ana L. Albarrán-Lara; Jessica W. Wright; Paul F. Gugger; Annette Delfino-Mix; Juan Manuel Peñaloza-Ramírez; Victoria L. Sork

    2015-01-01

    California oaks exhibit tremendous phenotypic variation throughout their range. This variation reflects phenotypic plasticity in tree response to local environmental conditions as well as genetic differences underlying those phenotypes. In this study, we analyze phenotypic variation in leaf traits for valley oak adults sampled along three elevational transects and in...

  8. Heavy metal contamination from gold mining recorded in Porites lobata skeletons, Buyat-Ratototok district, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Edinger, Evan N; Azmy, Karem; Diegor, Wilfredo; Siregar, P Raja

    2008-09-01

    Shallow marine sediments and fringing coral reefs of the Buyat-Ratototok district of North Sulawesi, Indonesia, are affected by submarine disposal of tailings from industrial gold mining and by small-scale gold mining using mercury amalgamation. Between-site variation in heavy metal concentrations in shallow marine sediments was partially reflected by trace element concentrations in reef coral skeletons from adjacent reefs. Corals skeletons recorded silicon, manganese, iron, copper, chromium, cobalt, antimony, thallium, and lead in different concentrations according to proximity to sources, but arsenic concentrations in corals were not significantly different among sites. Temporal analysis found that peak concentrations of arsenic and chromium generally coincided with peak concentrations of silica and/or copper, suggesting that most trace elements in the coral skeleton were incorporated into detrital siliciclastic sediments, rather than impurities within skeletal aragonite.

  9. First Draft Assembly and Annotation of the Genome of a California Endemic Oak Quercus lobata Née (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Sork, Victoria L; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel T; Puiu, Daniela; Crepeau, Marc; Gugger, Paul F; Sherman, Rachel; Stevens, Kristian; Langley, Charles H; Pellegrini, Matteo; Salzberg, Steven L

    2016-09-12

    Oaks represent a valuable natural resource across Northern Hemisphere ecosystems attracting a large research community studying its genetics, ecology, conservation, and management. Here we introduce a draft genome assembly of valley oak (Quercus lobate) using Illumina sequencing of adult leaf tissue of an tree found in an accessible, well-studied, natural southern California population. Our assembly includes a nuclear and complete chloroplast genome, along with annotation of encoded genes. The assembly contains 94,394 scaffolds totaling 1.17 Gb with 18,512 scaffolds of length 2 kb or longer, with a total length of 1.15 Gb and a N50 scaffold size of 278,077 kb. The k-mer histograms indicate an approximate diploid genome size of 720-730 Mb, which is smaller than the total length due to high heterozygosity, estimated at 1.25%. A comparison with a recently published European oak (Q. robur) nuclear sequence indicates 93% similarity. The Q. lobate chloroplast genome has 99% identity with another North American oak, Q. rubra Preliminary annotation yielded an estimate of 61,773 predicted protein-coding genes, of which 71% had similarity to known protein domains. We searched 956 Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs and found 863 complete orthologs of which 450 were present in more than one copy. We also examined an earlier version (v0.5) where duplicate haplotypes were removed to discover variants. These additional sources indicate that the predicted gene count in Version1.0 is over-estimated by 37-52%. Nonetheless, this first draft valley oak genome assembly represents a high-quality, well-annotated genome that provides a tool for forest restoration and management practices.

  10. Influence of winter-spring livestock grazing on survival and growth of Quercus lobata and Q. agrifolia seedlings

    Treesearch

    Claudia M. Tyler; Bruce E. Mahall; Frank W. Davis

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of livestock grazing in limiting or enhancing oak recruitment remains unclear because results from previous studies have been contradictory. In Santa Barbara County, we have replicated large-scale planting experiments from 1997 to 2001 to determine the effects of cattle and other factors on seedling establishment of valley oak (Quercus...

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of 81 chinese herb extracts and their correlation with the characteristics of traditional chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  12. Effects of isoflavones on alcohol pharmacokinetics and alcohol-drinking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, R C; Li, T K

    1998-12-01

    Puerarin, daidzin, and daidzein are 3 major isoflavonoid compounds isolated from Pueraria lobata, an edible vine used widely in China for various medicinal purposes. We studied the antiinebriation and the antidipsotropic effects of these antioxidants in rats. Daidzin and daidzein shortened alcohol-induced sleep time (loss of righting reflex) in rats that were given ethanol intragastrically but not in those given ethanol intraperitoneally. When daidzin was given to animals intragastrically with the ethanol solution, the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was found to peak later and be lower than in control rats that were given only the ethanol solution. BACs also receded more slowly if daidzin was fed to the animals. None of the 3 isoflavonoid compounds administered orally affected liver alcohol dehydrogenase or aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, as was reported for intraperitoneal administration. Further experiments indicated that the suppression of the BAC by daidzin was due mainly to delay of stomach emptying. All 3 compounds suppressed voluntary alcohol consumption in alcohol-preferring rats. The decrease in alcohol consumption was accompanied by an increase in water intake, so that the total volume of liquid consumed daily remained unchanged. Daily food consumption and body weight gain were not affected. Alcohol preference returned to baseline levels after the isoflavonoids were discontinued. We postulate that the suppression of alcohol reinforcement produced by these compounds is mediated centrally in the brain reward pathway.

  13. Online screening of nitric oxide scavengers in natural products using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem diode array and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Wang, Ting; Guo, Yujie; Hu, Yuanjia; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2015-12-18

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important cellular signaling molecule with extensive physiological and pathophysiological effects. NO scavengers have the potential to treat inflammation, septic shock and other related diseases, and numerous examples have been chemically synthesized or isolated from natural products. The chemical diversity of natural products, however, means that a huge effort is necessary to efficiently screen and identify bioactive compounds, especially NO scavengers. In this article, we propose an effective analytical method to screen for NO scavengers in three natural products using an online system that couples high performance liquid chromatography with tandem diode array and fluorescence detection (HPLC-DAD-FLD). Eighteen compounds from radix of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and green tea displayed significant NO scavenging activity whereas components of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi had no discernable activity. The structures of the active compounds were elucidated using Agilent Accurate-Mass Q-TOF LC/MS system. Preliminary analysis of structure-activity relationships indicated that, in flavonoids, a 2,3-double bond and a 3-H atom or a 3-OH group are essential for activity. In tannins, poly-hydroxyl groups are important for NO scavenging activity. Method validation indicated that the newly developed method is both reliable and repeatable. The online method that we present provides a simple, rapid and effective way to identify and characterize NO scavengers present in natural products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Puerarin attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan-shan; Yang, Wei-na; Jin, Hui; Ma, Kai-ge; Feng, Gai-feng

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin (PUE), an isoflavone purified from the root of Pueraria lobata (Chinese herb), has been reported to attenuate learning and memory impairments in the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested PUE in a sporadic AD (SAD) mouse model which was induced by the intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The mice were administrated PUE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg/d) for 28 days. Learning and memory abilities were assessed by the Morris water maze test. After behavioral test, the biochemical parameters of oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutases (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were measured in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The SAD mice exhibited significantly decreased learning and memory ability, while PUE attenuated these impairments. The activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased while MDA was increased in the SAD animals. After PUE treatment, the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were elevated, and the level of MDA was decreased. The middle dose PUE was more effective than others. These results indicate that PUE attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice. PUE may be a promising therapeutic agent for SAD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Systems Biology Approach to Uncovering Pharmacological Synergy in Herbal Medicines with Applications to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Xue; Tao, Weiyang; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Background. Clinical trials reveal that multiherb prescriptions of herbal medicine often exhibit pharmacological and therapeutic superiority in comparison to isolated single constituents. However, the synergistic mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. To address this question, a novel systems biology model integrating oral bioavailability and drug-likeness screening, target identification, and network pharmacology method has been constructed and applied to four clinically widely used herbs Radix Astragali Mongolici, Radix Puerariae Lobatae, Radix Ophiopogonis Japonici, and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiza which exert synergistic effects of combined treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results. The results show that the structural properties of molecules in four herbs have substantial differences, and each herb can interact with significant target proteins related to CVD. Moreover, the bioactive ingredients from different herbs potentially act on the same molecular target (multiple-drug-one-target) and/or the functionally diverse targets but with potentially clinically relevant associations (multiple-drug-multiple-target-one-disease). From a molecular/systematic level, this explains why the herbs within a concoction could mutually enhance pharmacological synergy on a disease. Conclusions. The present work provides a new strategy not only for the understanding of pharmacological synergy in herbal medicine, but also for the rational discovery of potent drug/herb combinations that are individually subtherapeutic. PMID:23243453

  16. Puerarin attenuates airway inflammation by regulation of eotaxin-3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Tianzhu; Ma, Chunhua; Wang, Shumin

    2015-02-01

    Puerarin is an isoflavonoid isolated from the root of the plant Pueraria lobata and has been used as a prescribed drug in China for the treatment of many diseases in the clinical practice. The present study aimed to determine the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of puerarin on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Asthma mice model was established by ovalbumin. A total of 50 mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: control, model, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), and puerarin (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg). Airway resistance (Raw) was measured by the forced oscillation technique, differential cell count in BAL fluid (BALF) was measured by Wright-Giemsa staining, histological assessment was measured by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, BALF levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, eotaxin-3 was evaluated by western blotting. Our study demonstrated that, compared with model group, puerarin inhibited OVA-induced increases in Raw and eosinophil count; interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13 levels were recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared; increased IFN-γ level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; histological studies demonstrated that puerarin substantially inhibited OVA-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue compared with model group. Western blotting studies demonstrated that puerarin substantially inhibited eotaxin-3 compared with model group. Our findings support puerarin can prevent some signs of allergic asthma in the mouse model. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Puerarin concurrently stimulates osteoprotegerin and inhibits receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and interleukin-6 production in human osteoblastic MG-63 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Yang, Cheng; Xie, Wen Li; Zhao, Yan Wei; Li, Zong Min; Sun, Wei Jia; Li, Ling Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Puerarin, a daidzein-8-C-glucoside, is the major isoflavone glycoside found in the Chinese herb radix of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and has received increasing attention because of its possible role in the prevention of osteoporosis. In our previous studies, puerarin reduced the bone resorption of osteoclasts and promoted long bone growth in fetal mouse in vitro. Further study confirmed that puerarin stimulated proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in rat. However, the mechanisms underlying its actions on human bone cells have remained largely unknown. Here we show that puerarin concurrently stimulates osteoprotegerin (OPG) and inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by human osteoblastic MG-63 cells containing two estrogen receptor (ER) isotypes. Treatment with the ER antagonist ICI 182,780 abrogates the above actions of puerarin on osteoblast-derived cells. Using small interfering double-stranded RNAs technology, we further demonstrate that the effects of puerarin on OPG and RANKL expression are mediated by both ERα and ERβ but those on IL-6 production primarily by ERα. Moreover, we demonstrate that puerarin may promote activation of the classic estrogen response element (ERE) pathway through increasing ERα, ERβ and steroid hormone receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 expression. Therefore, puerarin will be a promising agent that prevents or retards osteoporosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. A systems biology approach to uncovering pharmacological synergy in herbal medicines with applications to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Xue; Tao, Weiyang; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Background. Clinical trials reveal that multiherb prescriptions of herbal medicine often exhibit pharmacological and therapeutic superiority in comparison to isolated single constituents. However, the synergistic mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. To address this question, a novel systems biology model integrating oral bioavailability and drug-likeness screening, target identification, and network pharmacology method has been constructed and applied to four clinically widely used herbs Radix Astragali Mongolici, Radix Puerariae Lobatae, Radix Ophiopogonis Japonici, and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiza which exert synergistic effects of combined treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results. The results show that the structural properties of molecules in four herbs have substantial differences, and each herb can interact with significant target proteins related to CVD. Moreover, the bioactive ingredients from different herbs potentially act on the same molecular target (multiple-drug-one-target) and/or the functionally diverse targets but with potentially clinically relevant associations (multiple-drug-multiple-target-one-disease). From a molecular/systematic level, this explains why the herbs within a concoction could mutually enhance pharmacological synergy on a disease. Conclusions. The present work provides a new strategy not only for the understanding of pharmacological synergy in herbal medicine, but also for the rational discovery of potent drug/herb combinations that are individually subtherapeutic.

  19. Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi by plant extracts used in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lirussi, D; Li, J; Prieto, J M; Gennari, M; Buschiazzo, H; Ríos, J L; Zaidenberg, A

    2004-12-01

    In this work, we assessed the effect of extracts obtained from 17 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. These extracts were tested in vitro with the epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, clone Bra C(15) C(2), at 27 degrees C in F-29 medium at a concentration of 100 microg/ml in axenic cultures. Allopurinol was used as reference drug. Seven plant extracts showed inhibitory activities lower than 25%. Pueraria lobata, Mahonia beaei, Dictamus dasycarpus, Kochia scoparia, Sophora flavescens and Ligustrum lucidum showed effects with inhibition values between 25% and 60%, whereas Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Saussurea lappa, Melia toosendan and Cinnamomum cassia showed the greatest inhibitory activity of 100%. The IC(50) of these extracts were: 0.4, 2.4, 1.8 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. The MTT assay was made and did not show cytotoxic activity. These results allowed us to suggest that L. erythrorhizon, S. lappa, M. toosendan and C. cassia could be a source of new compounds against T. cruzi.

  20. Urinary and biliary metabolites of daidzin and daidzein in rats.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, T; Kano, Y; Saito, K; Ohsawa, K

    1994-10-01

    Examination was made of the urinary and biliary excretion of metabolites of daidzin and daidzein, the major components of roots of Pueraria lobata Ohwi (Leguminosae) in rats. The urine of rats administered daidzin orally contained four major metabolites, daidzein 7,4'-di-O-sulfate (M-1), daidzein 7-O-beta-D-glucuronide (M-2), daidzein 4'-O-sulfate (M-3), daidzein (M-4), as determined from spectroscopic and chemical data. The urine of rats treated with daidzein contained M-2--M-4 in the above metabolites. Total cumulative amounts of the four metabolites excreted in the urine at 48 h following the oral administration of daidzin and daidzein were approximately 4.8% and 4.6% of the doses administered, respectively. The bile of rats administered daidzin orally contained M-1--M-4. Daidzein 7-O-beta-D-glucuronide 4'-O-sulfate (M-5), a major biliary metabolite, was identified by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. At least daidzin appeared to be hydrolyzed to aglycone after absorption in the body, and as a part of metabolites, M-1--M-4 having free hydroxyl, glucuronided or sulfated hydroxyls at the C-7 position, may then be excreted in the urine and bile.

  1. Estrogenic Plant Extracts Reverse Weight Gain and Fat Accumulation without Causing Mammary Gland or Uterine Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Saunier, Elise F.; Vivar, Omar I.; Rubenstein, Andrea; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Olshansky, Moshe; Baggett, Scott; Staub, Richard E.; Tagliaferri, Mary; Cohen, Isaac; Speed, Terence P.; Baxter, John D.; Leitman, Dale C.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term estrogen deficiency increases the risk of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy containing estrogens might prevent these conditions, but its prolonged use increases the risk of breast cancer, as wells as endometrial cancer if used without progestins. Animal studies indicate that beneficial effects of estrogens in adipose tissue and adverse effects on mammary gland and uterus are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). One strategy to improve the safety of estrogens to prevent/treat obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is to develop estrogens that act as agonists in adipose tissue, but not in mammary gland and uterus. We considered plant extracts, which have been the source of many pharmaceuticals, as a source of tissue selective estrogens. Extracts from two plants, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (RG) and Pueraria montana var. lobata (RP) bound to ERα, activated ERα responsive reporters, and reversed weight gain and fat accumulation comparable to estradiol in ovariectomized obese mice maintained on a high fat diet. Unlike estradiol, RG and RP did not induce proliferative effects on mammary gland and uterus. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that RG and RP induced estradiol-like regulation of genes in abdominal fat, but not in mammary gland and uterus. The compounds in extracts from RG and RP might constitute a new class of tissue selective estrogens to reverse weight gain, fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. PMID:22163294

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24696703

  3. A Network Pharmacology Approach to Determine Active Compounds and Action Mechanisms of Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian Decoction for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiying; Zhao, Linhua; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Yuyu; Wang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Liu, Hongxing; Li, Shao; Tong, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulae can be valuable therapeutic strategies and drug discovery resources. However, the active ingredients and action mechanisms of most TCM formulae remain unclear. Therefore, the identification of potent ingredients and their actions is a major challenge in TCM research. In this study, we used a network pharmacology approach we previously developed to help determine the potential antidiabetic ingredients from the traditional Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction (GGQLD) formula. We predicted the target profiles of all available GGQLD ingredients to infer the active ingredients by clustering the target profile of ingredients with FDA-approved antidiabetic drugs. We also applied network target analysis to evaluate the links between herbal ingredients and pharmacological actions to help explain the action mechanisms of GGQLD. According to the predicted results, we confirmed that a novel antidiabetic ingredient from Puerariae Lobatae radix (Ge-Gen), 4-Hydroxymephenytoin, increased the insulin secretion in RIN-5F cells and improved insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The network pharmacology strategy used here provided a powerful means for identifying bioactive ingredients and mechanisms of action for TCM herbal formulae, including Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction. PMID:24527048

  4. Effects of a multi-herbal extract on type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An aqueous extract of multi-hypoglycemic herbs of Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer, Pueraria lobata, Dioscorea batatas Decaisne, Rehmannia glutinosa, Amomum cadamomum Linné, Poncirus fructus and Evodia officinalis was investigated for its anti-diabetic effects in cell and animal models. Methods Activities of PPARγ agonist, anti-inflammation, AMPK activator and anti-ER stress were measured in cell models and in db/db mice (a genetic animal model for type 2 diabetes). Results While the extract stimulated PPARγ-dependent luciferase activity and activated AMPK in C2C12 cells, it inhibited TNF-α-stimulated IKKβ/NFkB signaling and attenuated ER stress in HepG2 cells. The db/db mice treated with the extract showed reduced fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels, improved postprandial glucose levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity and significantly decreased plasma free fatty acid, triglyceride and total cholesterol. Conclusion The aqueous extract of these seven hypoglycemic herbs demonstrated many therapeutic effects for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in cell and animal models. PMID:21375727

  5. In vitro estrogenic activities of Chinese medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C Z; Wang, S X; Zhang, Y; Chen, J P; Liang, X M

    2005-04-26

    The estrogenic activity of 70% EtOH extracts of 32 traditional Chinese medicinal plants, selected according to their reported efficacy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, was assessed using a recombinant yeast system with both a human estrogen receptor expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Among them, 11 (34%) species proved to be active. Polygonum cuspidatum had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP) (3.28 x 10(-3)), followed by Rheumpalmatum (3.85 x 10(-4)), Cassia obtusifolia (3.49 x 10(-4)), Polygonum multiflorum (2.87 x 10(-4)), Epimedium brevicornum (2.30 x 10(-4)), Psoralea corylifolia (1.90 x 10(-4)), Cynomorium songaricum (1.78 x 10(-4)), Belamcanda chinensis (1.26 x 10(-4)), Scutellaria baicalensis (8.77 x 10(-5)), Astragalus membranaceus (8.47 x 10(-5)) and Pueraria lobata (6.17 x 10(-5)). The EC(50) value of 17beta-estradiol used as the positive control was 0.205+/-0.025 ng/ml (RP=100). This study gave support to the reported efficacy of Chinese medicines used for hormone replacement therapy.

  6. Management of SAH with traditional Chinese medicine in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxue; Zhao, Xingquan; Mao, Shujing; Wang, Yongjun; Cui, Xiangning; Pu, Yuehua

    2006-06-01

    China lacks large scale authorized epidemiological study results in allusion to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) within recent 15 years since MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) study revealed SAH situation in China in 2000. The main cause of SAH in China is aneurysm which takes up 30-50%, while over 90% aneurysm locates at Willis circle. Early surgery for SAH after aneurysm rupture is the dominant procedure to deal with SAH in China. Moreover, calcium antagonists rank the absolute leading position for cerebral vascular spasm (CVS) among medication-based treatment options. However, traditional Chinese medicine such as Salvia miltiorrhiza, Acanthopanax senticosus, Ginkgo biloba, Pueraria lobata, Liguisticum chuanxiong, cow bezoar, Diospyros kaki and Gynostemma pentaphyllum have been proven beneficial in CVS prevention and treatment, while Salvia miltiorrhiza and TCM soup have unique effects on bleeding absorption. In addition, aescine and some TCM soup might relieve strong headache after SAH. In general, TCM integrated with western medicine have shown unique advantages in the current treatment of SAH in China. However, it is a pity that China still lacks larger scale randomized controlled trials and research on SAH treatment focusing on TCM and the related mechanism of TCM on SAH still need to be investigated further.

  7. [Amebicidal plants extracts].

    PubMed

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Thiem, Barbara; Sułek, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The free-living amoebae from genus Acanthamoeba are the causative agents of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system; amebic keratitis (AK), a chronic eye infection; amebic pneumitis (AP), a chronic lung infection, and skin infection. Chemotherapy of Acanthamoeba infection is problematic. The majority of infections have been fatal. Only a few cases are reported to have been treated successfully with very highly toxic drugs. The therapy might be succeed, if the diagnosis and therapy is made at very early stage of infection. In our experiments we used the following plant extracts: Solidago virgaurea, Solidago graminifolia, Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, and natural plants products as ellagic acid and puerarin. Those therapeutic agents and plants extracts have been tested in vitro for amebicidal or amebostatic activity against pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. Our results showed that methanol extracts obtained from plants are active against axenic pathogenic Acanthamoeba sp. trophozoites in vitro at concentration below 0.1 mg/ml. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these extracts are also effective in vivo in animal model of infection with Acanthamoeba sp.

  8. [Essence of professor SHI Xin-de's experience in application of persicae ramulus-associated prescriptions].

    PubMed

    Du, Xin-Liang

    2014-07-01

    Persicae Ramulus decoction, as the first prescription in Treatise on febrile Diseases, has been recommended by physicians of successive generations. It is also the general prescription for harmonizing yingfen and weifen, yin and yang, qi and blood. Although it only consists of five herbal medicines, it has a wider range of application and more categorized formulas than other prescriptions. Though Persicae Ramulus decoction was originally formulated to treat taiyang apoplexy, it has functions beyond the treatment of exopathic diseases. This formula is also effective in treating internal diseases, surgical diseases, gynecologic diseases, paediatric diseases, etc. KE Yun-bo praised it as the No. 1 formula among ZHANG Zhong-jin's formulas as well as the general prescription for harmonizing Yin and Yang, yingfen and weifen, resolving fleshy exterior and inducing perspiration. Professor SHI Xin-de has been expert at treating intractable diseases by using Persicae Ramulus-associated prescriptions, such as Xiaojianzhong decoction and Baohe pill for children's chronic eczema, Persicae Ramulus and Puerariae Lobatae Radix decoction and Yupingfeng powder for chronic nephritis, and Persicae Ramulus and Longgu Muli decoction for insomnia. Instead of being restricted to Chinese or Western disease names, he prescribed appropriate formulas according to syndromes, thereby achieving a good efficacy.

  9. (Almost) Automatic Semantic Feature Extraction from Technical Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    independent manner. The next section will describe an existing NLP system ( KUDZU ) which has been developed at Mississippi State Uni- versity...EXISTING KUDZU SYSTEM The research described in this paper is part of a larger on- going project called the KUDZU (Knowledge Under Devel- opment from...Zero Understanding) project. This project is aimed at exploring the automation of extraction of infor- mation from technical texts. The KUDZU system

  10. Antibacterial effect of crude water-soluble arrowroot (Puerariae radix) tea extracts on food-borne pathogens in liquid medium.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Fung, D Y C

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of crude water-soluble arrowroot tea extracts on microbial growth of food-borne pathogens in liquid medium and to confirm the damage to bacterial cells using Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM). Inhibition of growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated using Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth containing 0 (control), 0.63, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0% (w/v) arrowroot tea. Bacterial cell counts were performed on specific selective agar on days 0, 1, 3 and 5. BHI containing 5.0% arrowroot tea extract showed a 6-7 log suppression of growth for all test strains on days 3 and 5, compared with the control. Even 0.63% arrowroot tea effectively inhibited microbial growth of all test strains on day 5. TEM images of the samples treated with 5.0% arrowroot tea revealed the rupture of cell walls and nonhomogeneous disposition of cytoplasmic materials within treated bacteria. Crude water-soluble arrowroot tea extract strongly inhibited microbial growth of all test pathogens in liquid medium. Water-soluble arrowroot tea extract has the potential to be used directly on foods or as a spray on the surfaces of food handling and processing facilities in order to prevent microbial growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  11. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble arrowroot (Puerariae radix) tea extracts on foodborne pathogens in ground beef and mushroom soup.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Fung, D Y C

    2004-09-01

    Antimicrobial activity of water-soluble arrowroot tea extract was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in ground beef and mushroom soup. The concentrations of arrowroot tea used were 0, 3, and 6% (wt/wt) for ground beef and 0, 1, 5, and 10% (wt/vol) for mushroom soup. Samples without tea extract were considered controls. Each sample was stored for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days at 7 degrees C for ground beef and for 0, 1, 3, and 5 days at 35 degrees C for mushroom soup. On each sampling time, proper dilutions were spread plated on each pathogen-specific agar. Viable cell counts of each pathogen were performed after incubation at 35 degrees C for 24 to 48 h. For ground beef, Salmonella Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes were slightly suppressed by approximately 1.5 log, compared with the control, on day 7 at 3 and 6% arrowroot tea treatment. For mushroom soup, all test pathogens were suppressed by 6.5, 4.7, 3.4, and 4.3 log at 5% and 6.0, 4.7, 5.0, and 4.3 log at 10% against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. Mushroom soup with 1% arrowroot tea also showed 2.3- and 2.7-log growth suppression of Salmonella Enteritidis and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. This study showed that the use of arrowroot tea would effectively inhibit the microbial growth of both gram-negative and gram-positive foodborne pathogens in various foods, especially liquid foods.

  12. Analysis of predatory behaviors of the soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris towards the kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria and genetic profile of M. cribraria in the Southern US

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Megacopta cribraria is a serious agricultural pest that causes damage to numerous economical important crops such as soybean, lablab bean, and vetch. Megacopta cribraria is a newly introduced invasive pest species that has a few predators and parasitoids that control it in nature. Podisus maculivent...

  13. Management of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) at Different Stages of Soybean (Fabales: Fabaceae) Development.

    PubMed

    Seiter, Nicholas J; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Greene, Jeremy K; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Roberts, Phillip M; Reisig, Dominic D

    2016-03-29

    The invasive plataspidMegacopta cribraria(F.) is now distributed throughout much of the southeastern United States. While it readily feeds and develops on the invasive weed kudzu,Puereria montana(Loureiro) Merrill var.lobata(Willdenow),M. cribrariais an economic pest of soybean,Glycine max(L.) Merrill. Differences in the susceptibility of soybean toM. cribraria-induced yield reductions based on plant phenology were assessed using two experimental protocols in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina from 2011 to 2013 in which soybeans were protected fromM. cribrariausing insecticides during different stages of plant phenology. In the first protocol, where insecticide applications were initiated at progressively later stages in soybean development depending on treatment, yields in the untreated plots were reduced by an average of 13% compared with plots that were protected beginning at full flowering (R2). Soybean plots that were protected beginning at 4 wk after full flowering or earlier did not suffer yield reductions fromM. cribraria In the second protocol, where insecticide applications began at R2 and were discontinued at progressively later stages in soybean development depending on treatment, yields in the untreated plots were reduced by an average of 12% compared with plots that were protected until 8 wk after R2. Plots in which protection was discontinued beginning at 4 wk after full flowering or later did not suffer yield reductions. The period from two to 6 wk after R2 (generally coinciding with pod and seed development - stages R3-R5) was identified as critical for management ofM. cribraria. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Diffusion-based process for carbon dioxide uptake and isoprene emission in gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactors by photosynthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Fiona K; Melis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthesis for the generation of fuels and chemicals from cyanobacteria and microalgae offers the promise of a single host organism acting both as photocatalyst and processor, performing sunlight absorption and utilization, as well as CO(2) assimilation and conversion into product. However, there is a need to develop methods for generating, sequestering, and trapping such bio-products in an efficient and cost-effective manner that is suitable for industrial scale-up and exploitation. A sealed gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactor was designed and applied for the photosynthetic generation of volatile isoprene (C(5)H(8)) hydrocarbons, which operates on the principle of spontaneous diffusion of CO(2) from the gaseous headspace into the microalgal or cyanobacterial-containing aqueous phase, followed by photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation and isoprene production by the transgenic microorganisms. Volatile isoprene hydrocarbons were emitted from the aqueous phase and were sequestered into the gaseous headspace. Periodic replacement (flushing) of the isoprene (C(5)H(8)) and oxygen (O(2)) content of the gaseous headspace with CO(2) allowed for the simultaneous harvesting of the photoproducts and replenishment of the CO(2) supply in the gaseous headspace. Reduction in practice of the gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactor is offered in this work with a fed-batch and a semi-continuous culturing system using Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 heterologously expressing the Pueraria montana (kudzu) isoprene synthase (IspS) gene. Constitutive isoprene production was observed over 192 h of experimentation, coupled with cyanobacterial biomass accumulation. The diffusion-based process in gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactors has the potential to be applied to other high-value photosynthetically derived volatile molecules, emanating from a variety of photosynthetic microorganisms. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Other Intestinal Parasites in Young Children in Lobata Province, Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Maria Luísa; Augusto, João; Antunes, Francisco; Ceita, José; Xiao, Lihua; Codices, Vera; Matos, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Rare systemic studies concerning prevalence of intestinal parasites in children have been conducted in the second smallest country in Africa, the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. Fecal specimens from 348 children (214 in-hospital attending the Aires de Menezes Hospital and 134 from Agostinho Neto village) in São Tome Island were studied by parasitological and molecular methods. Of the 134 children from Agostinho Neto, 52.2% presented intestinal parasites. 32.1% and 20.2% of these children had monoparasitism and polyparasitism, respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides (27.6%), G. duodenalis (7.5%), T. trichiura (4.5%) and Entamoeba coli (10.5%) were the more frequent species identified in the children of this village. Giardia duodenalis (7.5%) and E. bieneusi (5.2%) were identified by PCR. Nested-PCR targeting G. duodenalis TPI identified Assemblage A (60%) and Assemblage B (40%). The E. bieneusi ITS-based sequence identified genotypes K (57.1%), KIN1 (28.6%) and KIN3 (14.3%). Among the 214 in-hospital children, 29.4% presented intestinal parasites. In 22.4% and 7.0% of the parasitized children, respectively, one or more species were concurrently detected. By microscopy, A. lumbricoides (10.3%) and Trichiuris trichiura (6.5%) were the most prevalent species among these children, and Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR in 8.9% of children. GP60 locus analysis identified 6.5% of C. hominis (subtypes IaA27R3 [35.7%], IaA23R3 [14.3%], IeA11G3T3 [28.6%] and IeA11G3T3R1 [21.4%]) and 2.3% of C. parvum (subtypes IIaA16G2R1 [20.0%], IIaA15G2R1 [20.0%], IIdA26G1 [40.0%] and IIdA21G1a [20.0%]). G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi were identified in 0.5% and 8.9% of the in-hospital children, respectively. G. duodenalis Assemblage B was characterized. The E. bieneusi genotypes K (52.6%), D (26.4%), A (10.5%) and KIN1 (10.5%) were identified. Although further studies are required to clarify the epidemiology of these infectious diseases in this endemic region the significance of the present results highlights that it is crucial to strength surveillance on intestinal pathogens. PMID:24846205

  16. Physiological and Biogeochemical Traits of Bleaching and Recovery in the Mounding Species of Coral Porites lobata: Implications for Resilience in Mounding Corals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-02

    biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not...coming decades [4,6,7], and are already causing mass coral reef decline worldwide [8]. Coral bleaching suscepti- bility has been directly linked to the... bleaching in mounding and branching corals is essential to projecting how coral reef assemblages will change in the future. Thus, to determine how

  17. The Use of Chinese Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Liao, Yen-Nung; Hu, Wen-Long; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Hung, Yu-Chiang

    2017-01-01

    In Oriental countries, combinations of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) are often utilized as therapeutic agents for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The effects of CHPs on COPD have been previously reported. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of prescription and usage of CHPs in patients with COPD in Taiwan. In this nationwide population-based cross-sectional study, 19,142 patients from a random sample of one million individuals in the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID 2000) of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) were enrolled from 2000 to 2011. The multiple logistic regression method was used to evaluate the adjusted odds ratios for the utilization of CHPs. For patients with COPD, there was an average of 6.31 CHPs in a single prescription. The most frequently prescribed CHP for COPD was Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (XQLT) (2.6%), and the most commonly used combination of two formula CHPs was XQLT with Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST) (1.28%). The most commonly used single CHP for COPD was Bulbus Fritillariae (3.65%), and the most commonly used combination of two single CHPs was Bulbus Fritillariae with Puerariae Lobatae (1.09%). These results provide information regarding personalized therapies and may promote further clinical experiments and pharmacologic research on the use of CHPs for the management of COPD. Furthermore, we found that TCM usage was more prevalent among men, younger, manual workers, residents of Northern Taiwan, and patients with chronic bronchitis and asthma. This information on the distribution of TCM usage around the country is valuable to public health policymakers and clinicians.

  18. Mechanism of phytoestrogen puerarin-mediated cytoprotection following oxidative injury: Estrogen receptor-dependent up-regulation of PI3K/Akt and HO-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2008-12-15

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenolic non-steroidal plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. The phytoestrogen puerarin, the main isoflavone glycoside found in the root of Pueraria lobata, has been used for various medicinal purposes in traditional Chinese medicines for thousands of years. Recent studies have indicated that the estrogen receptor (ER), through interaction with p85, regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, revealing a physiologic, non-nuclear function of ER that may be relevant in cytoprotection. In this study, we demonstrate that the phytoestrogen puerarin inhibits tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury via an ER-dependent G{beta}1/PI3K/Akt and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. Pretreatment of Hepa1c1c7 and HepG2 cells with puerarin significantly reduced t-BHP-induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent cell death. Also, puerarin up-regulated HO-1 expression and this expression conferred cytoprotection against oxidative injury induced by t-BHP. Moreover, puerarin induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which is upstream of puerarin-induced HO-1 expression, and PI3K activation, a pathway that is involved in induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression and cytoprotection. Puerarin-induced up-regulation of HO-1 and cytoprotection against t-BHP were abolished by silencing Nrf2 expression with specific siRNA. Also, puerarin-mediated increases in PI3K activation and HO-1 induction were reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780 and pertussis toxin. Taken together, these results suggest that puerarin augments cellular antioxidant defense capacity through ER-dependent HO-1 induction via the G{beta}1/PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress.

  19. Reversal of chemical-induced liver fibrosis in Wistar rats by puerarin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuihua; Ji, Guang; Liu, Jianwen

    2006-07-01

    Puerarin is a major isoflavonoid compound isolated from Pueraria lobata, an edible vine used widely for various medicinal purposes. It has been used for centuries in China to counteract alcohol intoxication. However, the effects of puerarin on chemical-induced liver fibrosis have not been reported. In the present study, we investigated the effects of puerarin on liver fibrosis in Wistar rats induced by alcohol plus carbon tetrachloride administration. Liver fibrosis was produced in rats by treatment with a mixture (50% alcohol, 8 g/kg per day; corn oil, 2 g/kg per day; pyrazole, 24 mg/kg per day; ig) once a day and by intraperitoneal injection of 0.25 ml/kg of a 25% solution of carbon tetrachloride in olive oil twice a week for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, treatment with puerarin (0.4 and 0.8 g/kg ig, daily for 4 weeks) was conducted to examine its therapeutic effects. At the same time, the model group and treatment group continued to receive the chemical mixture, while the control group received saline instead of the chemical mixture. Upon pathological examination, the puerarin-treated rats significantly reversed the symptoms of liver fibrosis and other hepatic lesions. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), as indexes of hepatic cell disruption, were reduced with puerarin treatment, whereas no significant effect was discovered in the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities. A significant increase in apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) was found by flow cytometric analysis of the hepatic tissues. And the expression of bcl-2 mRNA was down-regulated after puerarin administration. Consequently, all these results showed that puerarin could effectively reverse chemical-induced liver fibrosis in experimental rats, via the recovery of hepatic injury as well as the induction of apoptosis in activated HSC.

  20. [Comparative study on eight trace elements in twelve flower medicines].

    PubMed

    Niu, Ying-Feng; Han, Chun-Mei; Shao, Yun; Tao, Yan-Duo

    2009-07-01

    Eight trace elements such as Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, K, Mg and Na in twelve kinds of flower medicines were determined by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry with air-acetylene flame. The flower medicines include Pueraria lobata Ohwi., Gomphrena globosa L., Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., Canna indica L., Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd P. spp, Rosa chinensis Jacq., Celosia cristata L., Sophora japonica L., Saussurea medusa Maxim. , Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. All of the flowers were commonly used in Tibetan medicines. Three kinds of the flowers were bought in the market and the others were picked in Qinghai province. These flower medicines were selected, dried and powdered, 4.000 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and five portions were used for each kind of sample. The content of eight trace elements in these flower medicines was determined and the difference in the content was observed. The recovery rate obtained by the standard addition method was between 96.76% and 102.93%, and the RSD was between 1.13% and 3.46%, so the accuracy of the method was better and the precision of the method was good. The results of the experiment indicated that the contents of the eight trace elements were rich in the twelve kinds of flower medicines, and the content of three trace elements including K, Mg, Na were more than other trace elements in the twelve flower medicines. There were considerable differences in the content of the eight trace elements in different flower medicines and there were more trace elements in Saussure medusa Maxim., Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. Canna indica L. and Celosia cristata L. and less trace elements in Sophora japonica L. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. The data of the experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these flower medicines.

  1. The antithrombotic effect of RSNK in blood-stasis model rats.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xuan; Miao, Jing-Jing; Chen, An-Qi; Li, Peng; Chen, Lin; Liang, Jin-Ru; Xie, Ren-Ming; Zhao, Ye

    2015-09-15

    Reduction of Sheng-Nao-Kang decoction (RSNK), composed of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge., Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi., Paeonia lactiflora Pall. and Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen., is a modified traditional Chinese medicinal formula of Sheng-Nao-Kang pill preparation, which has been investigated its protective effect on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat in our previous report. To evaluate the antithrombotic effect of RSNK in blood stasis model rats and explore the potential mechanisms. Subcutaneous injection of norepinephrine and bovine serum albumin combined with ice water bath was used to establish the acute blood stasis rat model. The anticoagulant activities were investigated by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), and the content of fibrinogen (FIB). Meanwhile, the levels of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), prostaglandins I2 (PGI2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelin (ET) were detected. The treatment of RSNK was able to prolong APTT, TT and PT, and decrease FIB content obviously. Furthermore, it markedly suppressed TXB2 level and up-regulated 6-keto-PGF1α level of the blood-stasis model rats, accompanied with the decrease of T/K. The level of ET and TXA2 in plasma was down-regulated and the levels of eNOS in plasma and PGI2 in serum was up-regulated in RSNK-treated rats compared with model rats (P<0.05). The present study suggested that RSNK possessed remarkable antithrombotic property in blood stasis model rats induced by ice water bath and subcutaneous injection of norepinephrine and bovine serum albumin. This property could be associated with its anticoagulation activity, the regulation of active substances in vascular endothelium and maintaining the balance of TXA2 and PGI2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Involvements of calcium channel and potassium channel in Danshen and Gegen decoction induced vasodilation in porcine coronary LAD artery.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fan; Koon, Chi Man; Chan, Judy Yuet Wa; Lau, Kit Man; Kwan, Y W; Fung, Kwok Pui

    2012-09-15

    Danshen (Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix) and Gegen (Puerariae Lobatae Radix) have been widely used in treating cardiovascular diseases for thousands of years in China. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of a Danshen and Gegen decoction (DG) on the vascular reactivity of a porcine isolated coronary artery and the underlying mechanisms involved. Porcine coronary rings were precontracted with 15 nM U46619. The involvement of endothelium-dependent mechanisms was explored by removing the endothelium; the involvement of potassium channels was investigated by the pretreatment of the artery rings with various blockers, and the involvement of the calcium channels was investigated by incubating the artery rings with Ca²⁺-free buffer and priming them with high [K⁺] prior to adding CaCl₂ to elicit contraction. The involvement of Ca²⁺ sensitization was explored by evaluating the Rho-activity expression. The results revealed that DG elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation on a U46619-precontracted coronary artery ring. These relaxation responses were not altered by the pretreatment of inhibitors of endothelium-related dilator synthases, cGMP and cAMP pathway inhibitors, potassium channel (BK(Ca), SK(Ca), K(V) and K(ATP)) blockers and endothelium removal. The K(IR) channel blocker BaCl₂ only slightly attenuated the DG-induced relaxation. However, the Ca²⁺-induced artery contraction was inhibited by DG. Additionally, the expression of the phosphorylated myosin light chain was inhibited by DG whereas the activity of RhoA was not affected. Therefore, DG could be a useful cardioprotective agent for vasodilation in patients who have hypertension. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreased expression of aromatase in the Ishikawa and RL95-2 cells by the isoflavone, puerarin, is associated with inhibition of c-jun expression and AP-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chaoqin; Li, Yanwei; Chen, Huan; Yang, Shengsheng; Xie, Guangru

    2008-12-01

    Aromatase P450 (P450(arom)) is overexpressed in endometriosis, endometrial cancers and uterine fibroids. With weak estrogen agonists/antagonists and some other enzymatic activities, isoflavones are increasingly advocated as a natural alternative to estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and are available as dietary supplements. Puerarin is major isoflavonoid compound isolated from Pueraria lobata, a Chinese medicine known as Gegen. Our clinical study shows that puerarin can be used in the treatment of endometriosis, which improves pain and infertility. Assuming that the effect of puerarin on endometriosis may result from the regulation of aromatase expression or activity, we carried out this study to test the effects of puerarin on aromatase in Ishikawa and RL95-2 cell lines. Our data have demonstrated a significant decrease of P450(arom) expression at both mRNA and protein levels by low dose puerarin treatment in both cell lines. Besides, we found that the -410/-401bp and -565/-559bp regions of aromatase promoter II contained the critical cis-acting elements, binding AP-1 and c-jun. We also found that puerarin exerted a time-course effect on the inhibition of c-jun mRNA, which parallelled that of P450(arom). To further confirm if c-jun is responsible for the P450(arom) regulation by puerarin, we knocked down c-jun expression using siRNA and it indicates that c-jun acts as a considerable transcription factor in regulating P450(arom) expression and activity. Accordingly, the suppression of P450(arom) expression and activity by puerarin treatment may associate with the downregulation of transcription factor AP-1 or c-jun.

  4. Puerarin offsets the anticoagulation effect of warfarin in rats by inducing rCyps, upregulating vitamin K epoxide reductase and inhibiting thrombomodulin.

    PubMed

    Ge, Beikang; Zhang, Zhen; Lam, Teddy Taining; Zuo, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between warfarin and puerarin which is the most abundant component in Pueraria lobata (Gegen). In vivo and ex vivo rat models were used to reveal the underlying mechanisms of such interactions. Apart from one control group, five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with warfarin, oral puerarin, oral puerarin with warfarin, intravenous puerarin, intravenous puerarin with warfarin. The treatment lasted for 5 consecutive days. Thereafter, the levels of warfarin, warfarin metabolites and puerarin in plasma of these rats were monitored and compared. The rCyps activity and expression in rat livers of different treatment groups were assessed. The prothrombin time was observed. The vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) activity and expression in rat livers were evaluated. Thrombomodulin activity and expression in the rat lung and rat plasma were assessed. The soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) concentrations of different treatment groups were examined. Intravenously administered puerarin altered the pharmacokinetics of warfarin significantly by shortening t1/2 , decreasing AUC0-96 h and increasing the clearance of warfarin. Further mechanistic studies suggested that both oral and intravenous administration of puerarin significantly induced the activities and expressions of rCyp2b1, rCyp2c6 and rCyp1a1. In addition, co-administration of puerarin reduced the prothrombin time of rat plasma by enhancing VKOR and inhibiting thrombomodulin. Puerarin increased warfarin metabolism and offset warfarin anticoagulation by inducing rCyps, upregulating VKOR and inhibiting thrombomodulin in rats. The clinical impact of such potential interactions warrants further verification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Puerarin prevents isoprenaline-induced myocardial fibrosis in mice by reduction of myocardial TGF-β1 expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Xue, Jie; Xie, Meilin

    2012-09-01

    It has been reported that soy isoflavones could significantly increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/γ gene expressions, while the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/γ may attenuate myocardial fibrosis. Puerarin is the main isoflavone isolated from the root of the wild leguminous creeper Pueraria lobata (Willd) Ohwi, so we thought that puerarin could inhibit myocardial fibrotic formation. A mouse myocardial fibrotic model was induced by hypodermic injection of isoprenaline when these mice were simultaneously treated with puerarin 600 and 1200 mg/kg by gavage for 40 days, respectively. The results showed that puerarin could significantly improve myocardial fibrosis and decrease the collagen accumulation, collagen volume fraction, hydroxyproline content in myocardial tissue and cardiac weight index. The results from reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction indicated that the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of transforming growth factor-β1 in myocardial tissue was decreased, while the mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/γ were increased, in the puerarin groups as compared with the model group. Importantly, puerarin could significantly decrease the protein expressions of transforming growth factor-β1 and nuclear factor-κB in myocardial tissue. These results suggested that puerarin could prevent isoprenaline-induced myocardial fibrosis in mice, and its mechanisms might be related to reduction of transforming growth factor-β1 expression via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/γ and subsequent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB in myocardial tissue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental Assessment of Invasive Weed Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    the proposed action which involves using herbicides to control privet and kudzu . The second altem ative is to use mechanical methods to control the...with herbicides, and reh·eating armually as required to maintain control . Over a 2 to 3 year period, one area with kudzu , fi fteen areas with privet... control and eradicate kudzu is the most effective method currently known (The Forestry Source 2003). The following measures would be in1plemented as part

  7. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by enhanced chemiluminescence detection for the standardization of estrogenic miroestrol in Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth.

    PubMed

    Yusakul, Gorawit; Udomsin, Orapin; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn

    2015-08-01

    Miroestrol (ME) is a potent phytoestrogen from the P. candollei tuberous root. It has been approved for use in clinical trials due to its beneficial effect on disorders associated with estrogen deficiency. To ensure medical efficacy and safety, high performance analytical methods for ME analysis are required to standardize products from the P. candollei root. An enhanced chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ECL-ELISA) was developed and validated using a polyclonal antibody against ME and a chemiluminescent system of luminol-H2 O2 -horseradish peroxidase-4-(1-imidazolyl) phenol. The ECL-ELISA system exhibited linearity over a concentration range of 0.31-10.00 ng mL(-1) , for which the relative standard variation (%RSD) was less than 10% for both intra- and interplate determinations. The ECL-ELISA is reliable for the determination of ME as reflected by the high recovery percentage (101.22-103.06%). As a comparative analysis, the ME content in each sample determined by ECL-ELISA was correlated with high coefficients of determination with colorimetric ELISA (R(2)  = 0.998) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (R(2)  = 0.998) methods. The ECL-ELISA method could be applied to all of the commercial products containing P. candollei root, when the products contain between 0.706 ± 0.046 and 13.123 ± 0.794 µg g(-1) dry wt. of ME. This method is useful as a high performance analytical method for the quantity control of ME in raw materials and end products at both the research and industrial levels. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Puerarin, isolated from Kudzu root (Willd.), attenuates hepatocellular cytotoxicity and regulates the GSK-3β/NF-κB pathway for exerting the hepatoprotection against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Liang, Tao; He, Qiaoling; Guo, Chao; Xu, Lingyuan; Zhang, Kefeng; Duan, Xiaoqun

    2013-09-01

    Puerarin (PR) has been utilized as a phytomedicine to managing liver disease in China. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potential PR-mediated hepatoprotective role against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. The results indicated that serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly reduced following PR treatment, while the albumin (ALB) level was increased. Meanwhile, intrahepatic contents of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were elevated. Pathological examination showed that alcohol-lesioned hepatocytes were mitigated through the PR treatment. In addition, the endogenous levels of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) at the protein level and β-catenin expression at the mRNA level were notably down-regulated, whereas the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) proteins in the liver tissue were effectively decreased following the PR treatment. Together, these findings demonstrate that PR mediates hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced liver injury. The mechanisms underlying the cytoprotective effects of PR are associated with inhibiting immunotoxicity in hepatocytes and regulating the GSK-3β/NF-κB pathway, thereby maintaining metabolic homeostasis in the liver tissue.

  9. Impacts of Tillage, Maturity Group, and Insecticide Use on Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) Populations in Double-Cropped Soybean.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Reisig, Dominic D; Bacheler, Jack S

    2017-02-01

    Megacopta cribraria (F.), also known as the kudzu bug, is a soybean pest in the United States, and it can cause up to a 60% yield reduction if not controlled. Insecticides are commonly used to manage this pest in commercial soybean fields. However, other soybean production practices may also affect kudzu bug populations. This study investigated the effect of soil tillage, maturity group selection, and insecticide use on kudzu bug densities in soybean. During 2012 and 2013, at two locations each year in North Carolina, four varieties of soybean maturity groups were planted in June into conventionally tilled plots and into plots with cereal crop residue under reduced tillage conditions (mimicking double-crop production). Plots were further split as insecticide-protected and untreated. Four times more kudzu bugs were found in conventionally tilled than reduced till plots throughout the growing season. Selection of the maturity group influenced the attractiveness of the kudzu bug to oviposit on soybean. A 56% reduction of kudzu bug densities was achieved through insecticide treatment, with an ∼6% increase in yield. Information on how production practices, including soil tillage, affect kudzu bug populations in soybean may help growers select practices to minimize kudzu bug injury and protect yield. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Predation of the newly invasive pest Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in soybean habitats adjacent to cotton by a complex of predators

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic insect found primarily on kudzu, but also on soybean, in the southeastern United States. We used molecular gut-content analysis to document predation on this pest by insects and spiders in soybean; and to d...

  11. Parasitism of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in organic soybean plots in Georgia, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...

  12. Assessment of Nonnative Invasive Plants in the DOE Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, S.J.

    2002-11-05

    The Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Research Park at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is composed of second-growth forest stands characteristic of much of the eastern deciduous forest of the Ridge and Valley Province of Tennessee. Human use of natural ecosystems in this region has facilitated the establishment of at least 167 nonnative, invasive plant species on the Research Park. Our objective was to assess the distribution, abundance, impact, and potential for control of the 18 most abundant invasive species on the Research Park. In 2000, field surveys were conducted of 16 management areas on the Research Park (14 Natural Areas, 1 Reference Area, and Walker Branch Watershed) and the Research Park as a whole to acquire qualitative and quantitative data on the distribution and abundance of these taxa. Data from the surveys were used to rank the relative importance of these species using the ''Alien Plant Ranking System, Version 5.1'' developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Microstegium (Microstegium vimineum) was ranked highest, or most problematic, for the entire Research Park because of its potential impact on natural systems, its tendency to become a management problem, and how difficult it is to control. Microstegium was present in 12 of the 16 individual sites surveyed; when present, it consistently ranked as the most problematic invasive species, particularly in terms of its potential impact on natural systems. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) were the second- and third-most problematic plant species on the Research Park; these two species were present in 12 and 9 of the 16 sites surveyed, respectively, and often ranked second- or third-most problematic. Other nonnative, invasive species, in decreasing rank order, included kudzu (Pueraria montma), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), Chinese lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneara), and other species representing a variety of life forms and growth forms. Results of

  13. New synonyms in the highly diverse caddisfly genus Smicridea (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae)

    PubMed Central

    Rázuri-Gonzales, Ernesto; Holzenthal, Ralph W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) repula Oláh & Johanson, 2012 is synonymized with Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) lobata (Ulmer, 1909), and the species Leptonema islamarga Botosaneanu, 2002 is transferred to Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) as a synonym of Smicridea lobata. Additionally, we present more detailed illustrations of the male genitalia of Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) lobata and Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) signata (Banks, 1903), and include notes on their distributions to aid in the identification of these two, often-confused species. PMID:28138272

  14. New synonyms in the highly diverse caddisfly genus Smicridea (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae).

    PubMed

    Rázuri-Gonzales, Ernesto; Holzenthal, Ralph W

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) repula Oláh & Johanson, 2012 is synonymized with Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) lobata (Ulmer, 1909), and the species Leptonema islamarga Botosaneanu, 2002 is transferred to Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) as a synonym of Smicridea lobata. Additionally, we present more detailed illustrations of the male genitalia of Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) lobata and Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) signata (Banks, 1903), and include notes on their distributions to aid in the identification of these two, often-confused species.

  15. Decreased risk of stroke in patients receiving traditional Chinese medicine for vertigo: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Li, Chung-Yi; Livneh, Hanoch; Lin, I-Hsin; Lu, Ming-Chi; Yeh, Chia-Chou

    2016-05-26

    Patients with vertigo are reported to exhibit a higher risk of subsequent stroke. However, it remains unclear if Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the most common form of complementary and alternative medicine, can help lower the risk of stroke for these patients. So the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of TCM on stroke risk among patients with vertigo. This longitudinal cohort study used the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify 112,458 newly diagnosed vertigo patients aged ≥20 years who received treatment between 1998 and 2007. Among these patients, 53,203 (47.31%) received TCM after vertigo onset (TCM users), and the remaining 59,201 patients were designated as a control group (non-TCM users). All enrollees received follow-up until the end of 2012 to measure stroke incidence. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute the hazard ratio (HR) of stroke in recipients of TCM services. During 15-year follow-up, 5532 TCM users and 12,295 non-TCM users developed stroke, representing an incidence rate of 13.10% and 25.71% per 1000 person-years. TCM users had a significantly reduced risk of stroke compared to non-TCM users (adjusted HR=0.64; 95% confidence interval CI=0.59-0.74). The predominant effect was observed for those receiving TCM for more than 180 days (adjusted HR=0.52; 95% CI=0.49-0.56). Commonly used TCM formulae, including Ban-Xia-Bai-Zhu-Tian-Ma-Tang, Ling-Gui-Zhu-Gan-Tang, Bai Zhi (Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Franch. & Sav., root), Ge Gen (Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, root) and Hai Piao Xiao (Endoconcha Sepiae, Cuttlefish Bone) were significantly associated with lower risk of stroke. Results of this population-based study support the effects of TCM on reducing stroke risk, and may provide a reference for stroke prevention strategies. The study results may also help to integrate TCM into clinical intervention programs that provide a favorable prognosis for vertigo patients

  16. Prediction of the Passive Intestinal Absorption of Medicinal Plant Extract Constituents with the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA).

    PubMed

    Petit, Charlotte; Bujard, Alban; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Cretton, Sylvian; Houriet, Joëlle; Christen, Philippe; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2016-03-01

    At the early drug discovery stage, the high-throughput parallel artificial membrane permeability assay is one of the most frequently used in vitro models to predict transcellular passive absorption. While thousands of new chemical entities have been screened with the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay, in general, permeation properties of natural products have been scarcely evaluated. In this study, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was used to predict the passive intestinal absorption of a representative set of frequently occurring natural products. Since natural products are usually ingested for medicinal use as components of complex extracts in traditional herbal preparations or as phytopharmaceuticals, the applicability of such an assay to study the constituents directly in medicinal crude plant extracts was further investigated. Three representative crude plant extracts with different natural product compositions were chosen for this study. The first extract was composed of furanocoumarins (Angelica archangelica), the second extract included alkaloids (Waltheria indica), and the third extract contained flavonoid glycosides (Pueraria montana var. lobata). For each medicinal plant, the effective passive permeability values Pe (cm/s) of the main natural products of interest were rapidly calculated thanks to a generic ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-UV detection method and because Pe calculations do not require knowing precisely the concentration of each natural product within the extracts. The original parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was found to keep its predictive power when applied to constituents directly in crude plant extracts provided that higher quantities of the extract were initially loaded in the assay in order to ensure suitable detection of the individual constituents of the extracts. Such an approach is thus valuable for the high

  17. Puerarin attenuates renal fibrosis by reducing oxidative stress induced-epithelial cell apoptosis via MAPK signal pathways in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Bai, Chen; Sun, Xinbo; Gong, Xiaoxin; Yang, Yong; Chen, Congbo; Shan, Guang; Yao, Qisheng

    2017-11-01

    Puerarin (PR) is an isoflavonoid isolated from the root of the plant Pueraria lobata and has been widely used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Oxidative stress and epithelial cell apoptosis play important roles in the renal fibrotic process. The present study aimed to determine whether or not PR inhibits renal fibrosis by reducing oxidative stress induced-epithelial cell apoptosis. In vivo, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) induced renal fibrosis, and epithelial cell apoptosis. A total of 24 mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: sham, UUO alone, UUO +50 mg/kg PR, and UUO +100 mg/kg PR. In vitro, 200 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced epithelial cell apoptosis. The experiments were dived into four groups: control, H2O2 alone, H2O2+50 μM PR, and H2O2+100 μM PR. Tubular injury was measured in the renal cortex of the mice through periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) was measured through Sirius red (SR), immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, and Western blot. Renal epithelial cell apoptosis was measured through terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP Nick-End labeling (TUNEL), flow cytometry (FCM), and Hoechst assays. The protein expression of NOX4, caspase3, ERK, P38, and JNK was assessed through Western blot. PAS staining showed that PR decreased renal tubular injury in UUO mice. SR and IHC staining demonstrated that PR decreased the accumulation of ECM. PR treatment significantly inhibited epithelial cell apoptosis according to the results of TUNEL, FCM, Hoechst, and Western blot. Furthermore, NOX4 increased in UUO mice and decreased with PR treatment. H2O2-derived oxidative stress activated epithelial apoptosis and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and PR treatment significantly reversed it. These results suggest that PR treatment ameliorates renal fibrosis by inhibiting oxidative stress induced-epithelial cell apoptosis through

  18. JPRS Report Science & Technology USSR: Earth Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-19

    Earth Sciences New Settler in Black Sea: Ctenophore Mnemiopsis Leidyi (A. Agassiz) ( Ctenophora : Lobata) [M. Ye. Vinogradov, E. A. Shushkina, et al...Leidyi (A. Agassiz) ( Ctenophora : Lobata) 18650134g Moscow OKEANOLOGIYA in Russian Vol 29 No 2, Mar-Apr 89 (manuscript received 5 Dec 88) pp 293-299

  19. 78 FR 56192 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Arabis georgiana (Georgia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ..., Housing, Chinese privet and Hydropower. Japanese honeysuckle. Portland Landing River Slopes....... Dallas/AL Timber harvest, China berrytree, Hydropower. Japanese honeysuckle, and kudzu. Durant Bend Dallas/AL Timber harvest......... Chinese privet and Japanese honeysuckle. Murphys Bluff Bridge Cahaba...

  20. Controlling exotic plants in your forest

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1999-01-01

    The author discusses the impacts of exotic plants and suggests control and rehabilitation measures. Trees, shrubs, and vines addressed include silk tree or mimosa, Chinese and Japanese privet, kudzu, multiflora rose, Japanese honeysuckle, and Chinese wisteria.

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., celery, Chinese cabbage, citrus fruits, eggplant, grapes, lettuce, melons, okra, parsley, peas... potatoes from the Philippine Islands. (v) Carrots (without tops), celery, lettuce, peas, potatoes, and..., kale, kudzu, leek, lettuce, onions, Portuguese cabbage, turnip, udo, water chestnut,...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., celery, Chinese cabbage, citrus fruits, eggplant, grapes, lettuce, melons, okra, parsley, peas... potatoes from the Philippine Islands. (v) Carrots (without tops), celery, lettuce, peas, potatoes, and..., kale, kudzu, leek, lettuce, onions, Portuguese cabbage, turnip, udo, water chestnut,...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., cabbage, carrots, celery, Chinese cabbage, citrus fruits, eggplant, grapes, lettuce, melons, okra, parsley..., celery, and potatoes from the Philippine Islands. (v) Carrots (without tops), celery, lettuce, peas..., gingerroot, horseradish, kale, kudzu, leek, lettuce, onions, Portuguese cabbage, turnip, udo, water...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., celery, Chinese cabbage, citrus fruits, eggplant, grapes, lettuce, melons, okra, parsley, peas... potatoes from the Philippine Islands. (v) Carrots (without tops), celery, lettuce, peas, potatoes, and..., kale, kudzu, leek, lettuce, onions, Portuguese cabbage, turnip, udo, water chestnut,...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., celery, Chinese cabbage, citrus fruits, eggplant, grapes, lettuce, melons, okra, parsley, peas... potatoes from the Philippine Islands. (v) Carrots (without tops), celery, lettuce, peas, potatoes, and..., kale, kudzu, leek, lettuce, onions, Portuguese cabbage, turnip, udo, water chestnut,...

  6. Strongygaster triangulifera (Diptera: Tachinidae) as a parasitoid of adults of the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Alabama

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strongygaster triangulifera (Loew) (Diptera:Tachinidae) is reported for the first time as a parasitoid of Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, an introduced pest of soybeans and other legume crops in the southeastern U.S....

  7. Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles: Examining the Political, Moral, and Social Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    even the White House if desired.9 Admittedly, current UCAVs like the Predator are not impervious to ground and airborne threats such as surface-to-air...Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences, (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996), 1-5. 91 Other examples concern the introduction of kudzu ...vine and technology driven devices. Kudzu vine was introduced in the 1950s as a way to prevent erosion. It is now a huge problem in the south because

  8. Rehabilitation of Military Training Areas Damaged by Tracked Vehicles at Fort Carson, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    cont’d) Lygodesmia spp. Skeletonweed Melilotus alba White sweetclover Opuntia polycantha Plains prickly pear cactus Physalis hederaefolia Ivy-leaved...groundcherry Physalis lobata Purple-flowered ground cherry Psoralea tenuiflora Slimflower scurfpea Ratibida columnifera Upright prairie coneflower

  9. Danshen-Gegen decoction exerts proliferative effect on rat cardiac myoblasts H9c2 via MAPK and insulin pathways.

    PubMed

    Fong, Chi Chun; Wei, Fan; Chen, Yao; Yu, Wai Kin; Koon, Chi Man; Leung, Ping Chung; Fung, Kwok Pui; Lau, Clara Bik San; Yang, Mengsu

    2011-10-31

    Danshen (root of Salvia miltiorrhiza) and Gegen (roots of Pueraria lobata) are traditional Chinese medicines that have been used in combination for cardiovascular disease treatment. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Danshen-Gegen decoction on rat myocardium cell line H9c2 and the possible molecular mechanisms. Rat heart myocardium H9c2 cells were treated with or without Danshen-Gegen decoction (DG) ranging from 10 to 1000μg/ml for 24h. Cell viability was measured by Alarma blue assay and cell proliferation assay was performed by BrdU Cell Proliferation ELISA kit. The activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and insulin pathways was analyzed by Luminex technology and the growth factors and cytokine expression of H9c2 cells induced by DG was evaluated by protein array. Moreover, a rat functional specific cDNA microarray was constructed to study the gene expression profiles of H9c2 cells upon the DG treatment at 50μg/ml for 24h. DG promoted H9c2 cell viability and cell proliferation at dose-dependent manner within the range between 0 and 250μg/ml. A Bio-Plex assay kit (Bio-Rad Bioscience) was used to detect the expression level of phosphoprotein as well as total proteins involved in the MAPK and insulin pathways. Significant phosphorylation of ERK, c-Jun, JNK, p38, AKT, IGF-IR, IRS-1and I kappa B were observed after DG treatment at 2h or 4h. A rat cytokine antibody array was used to detect and quantify 22 growth factors and cytokines in samples collected from the control and DG treated H9c2 cells. In the category of growth factors, GM-CSF, CNIF and b-NGF were stimulated by DG, while the expression of TIMP-1 was suppressed. For cytokine expression, it was found that DG stimulated three interleukin subclasses, IL-1α, 1X and 6, respectively. However, the expression of pro-inflammatory factors such as TNF-α and IFN-γ were down-regulated significantly. Moreover, the microarray analysis revealed that DG significantly up-regulated anti

  10. Clues to unraveling the coral species problem: distinguishing species from geographic variation in Porites across the Pacific with molecular markers and microskeletal traits.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Zac; Wellington, Gerrard M; Fox, George E; Toonen, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Morphological variation in the geographically widespread coral Porites lobata can make it difficult to distinguish from other massive congeneric species. This morphological variation could be attributed to geographic variability, phenotypic plasticity, or a combination of such factors. We examined genetic and microscopic morphological variability in P. lobata samples from the Galápagos, Easter Island, Tahiti, Fiji, Rarotonga, and Australia. Panamanian P. evermanni specimens were used as a previously established distinct outgroup against which to test genetic and morphological methods of discrimination. We employed a molecular analysis of variance (AMOVA) based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence, principal component analysis (PCA) of skeletal landmarks, and Mantel tests to compare genetic and morphological variation. Both genetic and morphometric methods clearly distinguished P. lobata and P. evermanni, while significant genetic and morphological variance was attributed to differences among geographic regions for P. lobata. Mantel tests indicate a correlation between genetic and morphological variation for P. lobata across the Pacific. Here we highlight landmark morphometric measures that correlate well with genetic differences, showing promise for resolving species of Porites, one of the most ubiquitous yet challenging to identify architects of coral reefs.

  11. Clues to unraveling the coral species problem: distinguishing species from geographic variation in Porites across the Pacific with molecular markers and microskeletal traits

    PubMed Central

    Wellington, Gerrard M.; Fox, George E.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Morphological variation in the geographically widespread coral Porites lobata can make it difficult to distinguish from other massive congeneric species. This morphological variation could be attributed to geographic variability, phenotypic plasticity, or a combination of such factors. We examined genetic and microscopic morphological variability in P. lobata samples from the Galápagos, Easter Island, Tahiti, Fiji, Rarotonga, and Australia. Panamanian P. evermanni specimens were used as a previously established distinct outgroup against which to test genetic and morphological methods of discrimination. We employed a molecular analysis of variance (AMOVA) based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence, principal component analysis (PCA) of skeletal landmarks, and Mantel tests to compare genetic and morphological variation. Both genetic and morphometric methods clearly distinguished P. lobata and P. evermanni, while significant genetic and morphological variance was attributed to differences among geographic regions for P. lobata. Mantel tests indicate a correlation between genetic and morphological variation for P. lobata across the Pacific. Here we highlight landmark morphometric measures that correlate well with genetic differences, showing promise for resolving species of Porites, one of the most ubiquitous yet challenging to identify architects of coral reefs. PMID:25674364

  12. Environmental Planning and Management Alternatives for the Tennessee-Tombigbee Corridor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    SPECIES, HERBACEOUS VEGETATION E.G., POISON IVY, KUDZU 2. PERCENTAGE OF FLOODPLAIN B. FILL OR EXCAVATION AREAS COVERED, CLEARED LAND VERSUS NATURAL...401.34). The Board has issued rules for siting landfill facilities for the protection of the ecosystem and public health (Environmental Regulations, Part

  13. Proceedings of the regional cogongrass conference: a cogongrass management guide

    Treesearch

    Nancy J. Loewenstein; James H. Miller

    2007-01-01

    This Regional Cogongrass Conference was organized because of the deep concerns expressed by many over the unrelenting invasion of this bold, unwanted, and hard-to-control grass, this cogongrass. Even though many seem acquiescent to the spread of kudzu, privets, or honeysuckle, the takeover by cogongrass drives well deserved fears and dire predictions by land users,...

  14. Picloram Movement in Soil Solution and Streamflow from a Coastal Plain Forest

    Treesearch

    Jerry L. Michael; D.G. Neary; M.J.M. Wells

    1989-01-01

    Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) was aerially applied to P longleaf pine (Pinus palustris L.) site in the upper constnl plain of Alabama to control kudzu [Purraria lobota (Willd.) Ohwi]. Pellets (10% a.i.) were spread at the rate of 56 kg ha-1 on loamy sand Typic Knnhspludult soils....

  15. From Asian curiosity to eruptive American pest: Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) and prospects for biological control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The kudzu bug or bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius), is native to Asia where it appears to be widely distributed (although the taxonomy is not entirely clear), but is infrequently a pest of legumes. This bug appeared in 2009 in the southeastern United States, where it is closely associa...

  16. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet

    PubMed Central

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-01-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard® (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 106, n × 107) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 104, n × 105) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98–4.98 viable spores per mm2). PMID:27376335

  17. Herbicide Orange Site Characterization Study, Eglin AFB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    from the pond has been planted in Kudzu (Puereria Loboto) to stabiiize the soil and minimize erosion. The areas to the northwest and southwest of the...performance evaluation (PE) samples, and the analysis of samples split between the analytical laboratory and the Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA

  18. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet.

    PubMed

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-06-30

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard(®) (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 10⁶, n × 10⁷) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 10⁴, n × 10⁵) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98-4.98 viable spores per mm²).

  19. Estimation of median lethal concentration of three isolates of Beauveria bassiana for control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) bioassayed on solid Lugys Spp. Diet²

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is a potential candidate for biological control of a variety of pests. The objectives of this study were isolate and identify the fungus from Kudzu bugs and determine its infectivity comparing with two highly pathogenic isolates including the Mississipp...

  20. Paradise lost: alien plant invaders compromising productive, rich state forests

    Treesearch

    Nancy J. Loewenstein; James H. Miller; Erwin Chamblis

    2008-01-01

    Kudzu and Chinese privet along Alabama roadways are a familiar sight and Japanese honeysuckle is so commonplace it has practically become a part of Southern culture. But are these and other invasive plants really having a negative impact on forests? Just how bad is the invasive plant problem? What are the most effective ways to combat invasive plants?

  1. Invasive plant species how they can affect trail access (and how you can help prevent their access)

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    2004-01-01

    The natural beauty of our southern forest landscapes is under attack and our access to lands and trails are becoming increasingly restricted. Alien invasive plants are the culprits and they are spreading, occupying and controlling our lands like armies of invaders that they are. Kudzu is a world-wide recognized invader of the South, but few people sense the threat from...

  2. Effects of surfactants on conidial germination of Myrothecium verrucaria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Myrothecium verrucaria has been employed as a unique biological control agent because it is highly effective against several annual and perennial weeds, including red vine, trumpet creeper, redroot pigweed, kudzu, hempsesbania and sicklepod. Although aerial conidia of M. verrucaria are hydrophilic, ...

  3. Physiological specialization of Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates on soybean in the United States from 2006 to 2009

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, cause of soybean rust, represents a classic case of a pathogen introduction that became established to a new geographical region on a perennial overwintering host (kudzu). The objective of our study was to classify the pathogenic variation in P. pachyrhizi isolates collected f...

  4. Submerged Culture of a Mycelial Formulation of a Bioherbicidal Strain of Myrothecium verrucaria with Mitigated Mycotoxin Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A mycelial formulation of the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (IMI 361390) was shown to be highly efficacious in controlling the exotic invasive weed kudzu. The mycelium can be rapidly (48 h) produced in several media including soy flour-cornmeal medium. HPLC analyses revealed that the mycelial formu...

  5. New Legume Hosts of Phakopsora pachyrhizi Based on Greenhouse Evaluations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal organism of soybean rust, was first found in the continental U.S. in 2004, and has been found on soybean, kudzu, Florida beggarweed, and three Phaseolus species in the field. The pathogen has been reported to occur on over 90 legume species worldwide, and it is lik...

  6. Unrecognized coral species diversity masks differences in functional ecology

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Jennifer N.; Hellberg, Michael E.; Cortés, Jorge; Baums, Iliana B.

    2014-01-01

    Porites corals are foundation species on Pacific reefs but a confused taxonomy hinders understanding of their ecosystem function and responses to climate change. Here, we show that what has been considered a single species in the eastern tropical Pacific, Porites lobata, includes a morphologically similar yet ecologically distinct species, Porites evermanni. While P. lobata reproduces mainly sexually, P. evermanni dominates in areas where triggerfish prey on bioeroding mussels living within the coral skeleton, thereby generating asexual coral fragments. These fragments proliferate in marginal habitat not colonized by P. lobata. The two Porites species also show a differential bleaching response despite hosting the same dominant symbiont subclade. Thus, hidden diversity within these reef-builders has until now obscured differences in trophic interactions, reproductive dynamics and bleaching susceptibility, indicative of differential responses when confronted with future climate change. PMID:24335977

  7. Unrecognized coral species diversity masks differences in functional ecology.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Jennifer N; Hellberg, Michael E; Cortés, Jorge; Baums, Iliana B

    2014-02-07

    Porites corals are foundation species on Pacific reefs but a confused taxonomy hinders understanding of their ecosystem function and responses to climate change. Here, we show that what has been considered a single species in the eastern tropical Pacific, Porites lobata, includes a morphologically similar yet ecologically distinct species, Porites evermanni. While P. lobata reproduces mainly sexually, P. evermanni dominates in areas where triggerfish prey on bioeroding mussels living within the coral skeleton, thereby generating asexual coral fragments. These fragments proliferate in marginal habitat not colonized by P. lobata. The two Porites species also show a differential bleaching response despite hosting the same dominant symbiont subclade. Thus, hidden diversity within these reef-builders has until now obscured differences in trophic interactions, reproductive dynamics and bleaching susceptibility, indicative of differential responses when confronted with future climate change.

  8. Stand-level growth and yield component models for red oak-sweetgum forests on Mid-South minor stream bottoms

    Treesearch

    Emily B. Schultz; J. Clint Iles; Thomas G. Matney; Andrew W. Ezell; James S. Meadows; Theodor D. Leininger; al. et.

    2010-01-01

    Greater emphasis is being placed on Southern bottomland hardwood management, but relatively few growth and yield prediction systems exist that are based on sufficient measurements. We present the aggregate stand-level expected yield and structural component equations for a red oak (Quercus section Lobatae)-sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) growth and yield model....

  9. A review of oak wilt management: a summary of treatment options and their efficacy

    Treesearch

    Karrie A. Koch; Gina L. Quiram; Robert C. Venette

    2010-01-01

    Oak wilt, caused by the invasive fungal pathogen Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt, is a serious and fatal disease of oaks, Quercus spp., with red oaks (section Lobatae) generally being more susceptible than white oaks (section Quercus). Oak wilt was first recognized in North America in 1944...

  10. Hybridization and Introgression in a Sympatric Pair of Oak Species (Fagaceae) Studied with Morphology and Chloroplast and Nuclear SSR Markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chloroplast and nuclear SSR markers and morphology were used to study hybridization and introgression between Quercus douglasii and Q. lobata, two sympatric oak species native to California. Chloroplast SSR markers provided strong evidence of gene exchange via ongoing introgression between these sp...

  11. Risk factors of oak decline and regional mortality patterns in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; Zhaofei Fan; Xiuli Fan; Hong He; Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser

    2011-01-01

    Since the late 1970s, oak decline and mortality have plagued Midwestern-upland oak-hickory forests, particularly species in the red oak group (Quercus Section Lobatae) across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma (Dwyer and others 1995). Drought is a common inciting factor in oak decline, while advanced tree age is considered a...

  12. Minimum Input Techniques for Valley Oak Restocking

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth A. Bernhardt; Tedmund J. Swiecki

    1991-01-01

    We set up experiments at four locations in northern California to demonstrate minimum input techniques for restocking valley oak, Quercus lobata. Overall emergence of acorns planted in 1989 ranged from 47 to 61 percent. Use of supplemental irrigation had a significant positive effect on seedling growth at two of three sites. Mulch, of organic...

  13. Arboreal seed removal and insect damage in three California oaks

    Treesearch

    Walter D. Koenig; Johannes M. H. Knops; William J. Carmen

    2002-01-01

    We investigated arboreal removal and insect damage to acorns in an undisturbed oak woodland in central coastal California. Arboreal seed removal was determined for four to eight individual Quercus lobata trees over a period of 14 years by comparing visual estimates of the acorn crop with the number of acorns caught in seed traps. Insect damage was...

  14. Rooting Responses of Three Oak Species to Low Oxygen Stress

    Treesearch

    Karel A. Jacobs; James D. MacDonald; Alison M. Berry; Laurence R. Costello

    1997-01-01

    Rooting characteristics were compared in blue (Q. douglasii), valley (Q. lobata), and cork oak (Q. suber) seedlings under hypoxic (low oxygen) conditions. A 50 percent reduction in root growth occurred in all species at an oxygen level of 4 percent, or an oxygen diffusion rate of 0.3 mg cm-2...

  15. Oak decline across the Ozark Highlands- from stand to landscape and regional scale processes

    Treesearch

    Marty Spetich; Zhaofei Fan; Hong S. He; Wen J. Wang; Michael K. Crosby; Stephen R. Shifley

    2016-01-01

    Oak decline has been a problem in forests of the Ozark Highlands (OzH) for decades. It has impacted upland oak-hickory forests, particularly species in the red oak group (Quercus section Lobatae) across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. The oak decline complex is often described in terms of predisposing...

  16. Whole-tree silvic identifications and the microsatellite genetic structure of a red oak species complex in an Indiana old-growth forest

    Treesearch

    Preston R. Aldrich; George R. Parker; Charles H. Michler; Jeanne Romero-Severson

    2003-01-01

    The red oaks (Quercus section Lobatae) include important timber species, but we know little about their gene pools. Red oak species can be difficult to identify, possibly because of extensive interspecific hybridization, although most evidence of this is morphological. We used 15 microsatellite loci to examine the genetic...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of a Novel Luteimonas sp. Strain from Coral Mucus, Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Miller, James M.; Rowley, Sonia J.

    2016-01-01

    Luteimonas sp. strain JM171 was cultivated from mucus collected around the coral Porites lobata. The JM171 draft genome of 2,992,353 bp contains 2,672 protein-coding open reading frames, 45 tRNA coding regions, and encodes a putative globin-coupled diguanylate cyclase, JmGReg. PMID:27811107

  18. Effect of Acorn Planting Depth on Depredation, Emergence, and Survival of Valley and Blue Oak

    Treesearch

    William D. Tietje; Sherryl L. Nives; Jennifer A. Honig; William H. Weitkamp

    1991-01-01

    During 1989 in east-central San Luis Obispo County, California, we studied the relationship of valley oak (Quercus lobata) and blue oak (Q. douglasii) acorn planting depth and number of acorns per planting site to acorn depredation, seedling emergence, survival, and height. Acorns were planted at three depths (1.3, 5.1, and 10.2 cm...

  19. Oak mortality risk factors and mortality estimation

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Randy G. Jensen

    2006-01-01

    Managers are often concerned about oak mortality in maturing mixed-oak forests, but they often lack explicit information about mortality risk for oaks that differ in species, size, crown class, competitive status, and growth rate. In eastern North America, tree species in the red oak group (Quercus Section Lobatae) are typically...

  20. Wildfire and Oak Regeneration at the Urban Fringe

    Treesearch

    Joan L. Schwan; Herb Fong; Hilary K. Hug

    1997-01-01

    In July 1992, wildfire burned 500 acres of rural lands owned by Stanford University. Within the fire zone are five plots, ranging in size from 0.1 acre to more than 1 acre, on which nearly 600 naturally established juvenile California oaks (Q. agrifolia, Q. douglasii, and Q. lobata) have been monitored since 1990. Surveys following...