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Sample records for kudzu pueraria lobata

  1. Isolation of radiolabeled isoflavones from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Adam; Yousef, Gad G; Rogers, Randy B; Lila, Mary Ann

    2008-09-10

    Isoflavones have potential for preventing and treating several chronic health conditions, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this study, radiolabeled isoflavones were recovered from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures after incubation with uniformly labeled (14)C-sucrose in the culture medium for 21 days. Approximately 19% of administered label was recovered in the isoflavone-rich dried extracts of kudzu root cultures (90.2 microCi/g or 3.3 MBq/g extract). HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the predominant isoflavones isolated from kudzu root cultures to be puerarin, daidzin, and malonyl-daidzin. The average concentration of the major isoflavone puerarin in kudzu root cultures was 33.6 mg/g extract, with a specific activity of 63.5 microCi/g (2.3 MBq/g). The isolated isoflavones were sufficiently (14)C-labeled to permit utilization for subsequent in vivo metabolic tracking studies.

  2. Isolation of Radiolabeled Isoflavones from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) Root Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Reppert, Adam; Yousef, Gad G.; Rogers, Randy B.; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Isoflavones have potential for preventing and treating several chronic health conditions, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this study, radiolabeled isoflavones were recovered from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures after incubation with uniformly labeled 14C-sucrose in the culture medium for 21 days. Approximately 19% of administered label was recovered in the isoflavone-rich dried extracts of kudzu root cultures (90.2 μCi/g or 3.3 MBq/g extract). HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the predominant isoflavones isolated from kudzu root cultures to be puerarin, daidzin, and malonyl-daidzin. The average concentration of the major isoflavone puerarin in kudzu root cultures was 33.6 mg/g extract, with a specific activity of 63.5 μCi/g (2.3 MBq/g). The isolated isoflavones were sufficiently 14C-labeled to permit utilization for subsequent in vivo metabolic tracking studies PMID:18690681

  3. A genomic approach to isoflavone biosynthesis in kudzu (Pueraria lobata).

    PubMed

    He, XianZhi; Blount, Jack W; Ge, Shujun; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A

    2011-04-01

    Roots of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) are a rich source of isoflavone O- and C-glycosides. Although O-glycosylation of (iso)flavonoids has been well characterized at the molecular level, no plant isoflavonoid C-glycosyltransferase genes have yet been isolated. To address the biosynthesis of kudzu isoflavonoids, we generated 6,365 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a subtraction cDNA library constructed using RNA from roots that differentially accumulate puerarin. The ESTs were clustered into 722 TCs and 3,913 singletons, from which 15 family I glycosyltransferases (UGTs) were identified. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the expression patterns of these UGTs with isoflavone synthase (IFS) in a range of tissues identified UGTs with potential functions in isoflavone glycosylation. The open reading frames of these UGTs were expressed in E. coli for functional analysis, and one was shown to preferentially glycosylate isoflavones at the 7-O-position. In addition, ESTs corresponding to chalcone synthase, chalcone reductase, chalcone isomerase (CHI) and 2-hydroxyisoflavanone dehydratase were identified. Recombinant CHI proteins had high activities with both 6'-deoxy- and 6'-hydroxy chalcones, typical of Type II CHIs. Establishment of this EST database and identification of genes associated with kudzu isoflavone biosynthesis and glycosylation provide a new resource for metabolic engineering of bioactive kudzu isoflavones.

  4. Batch foam fractionation of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) vine retting solution.

    PubMed

    Eiamwat, J; Loha, V; Prokop, A; Tanner, R D

    1998-01-01

    The aqueous protein solution from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) vine retting broth, without the addition of other surfactants, was foam-fractionated in a vertical tubular column with multiple sampling ports. Time-varying trajectories of the total protein levels were determined to describe the protein behavior at six positions along the 1-m column. The lowest two trajectories of this batch process represented a loss of proteins from the bulk liquid and tended to merge and decay together in time; the other trajectories displayed a gain in proteins in the foam phase. These upper column port protein concentration trajectories generally increased in time up to 45 mm, followed by a decrease, reflecting the removal of proteins from the column ports. The foam became dryer as it passed up the column to the top port. The protein concentration was about 5-8x higher in the top port foam than in the initial bulk solution, mainly as a result of liquid drainage from the foam along the column axis. This concentration increase in the collected foam was dependent on the initial pH of the bulk solution. The mol-wt profile of the proteins in the concentrated foam effluent was determined by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. An analysis of the gel electropherograms indicated that the most abundant proteins could be cellulases and pectinases.

  5. Pueraria lobata (Kudzu root) hangover remedies and acetaldehyde-associated neoplasm risk.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Neil R

    2007-11-01

    Recent introduction of several commercial Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) containing hangover remedies has occurred in western countries. The available data is reviewed to assess if there are any potential concerns in relationship to the development of neoplasm if these products are used chronically. The herb Pueraria has two components that are used as traditional therapies; Pueraria lobata, the root based herb and Pueraria flos, the flower based herb. Both of these herbal components have different traditional claims and constituents. Pueraria flos, which enhances acetaldehyde removal, is the traditional hangover remedy. Conversely, Pueraria lobata is a known inhibitor of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and increases acetaldehyde. Pueraria lobata is being investigated for use as an aversion therapy for alcoholics due to these characteristics. Pueraria lobata is not a traditional hangover therapy yet has been accepted as the registered active component in many of these hangover products. The risk of development of acetaldehyde pathology, including neoplasms, is associated with genetic polymorphism with enhanced alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) or reduced ALDH activity leading to increased acetaldehyde levels in the tissues. The chronic usage of Pueraria lobata at times of high ethanol consumption, such as in hangover remedies, may predispose subjects to an increased risk of acetaldehyde-related neoplasm and pathology. The guidelines for Disulfiram, an ALDH2 inhibitor, provide a set of guidelines for use with the herb Pueraria lobata. Pueraria lobata appears to be an inappropriate herb for use in herbal hangover remedies as it is an inhibitor of ALDH2. The recommendations for its use should be similar to those for the ALDH2 inhibitor, Disulfiram.

  6. Kudzu [Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. Var lobata]: a new source of carbohydrate for bioethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the amount of standing biomass of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in naturally-infested fields in Maryland and Alabama, USA. At each site, we evaluated carbohydrate content of root, stems and leaves. For a third site from Georgia, we evaluated the carbohydrate content of roots o...

  7. An evidence-based systematic review of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Costa, Dawn; Dam, Chi; D'Auria, Denise; Giese, Nicole; Isaac, Richard; LeBlanc, Yvonne; Rusie, Erica; Weissner, Wendy; Windsor, Regina C

    2015-03-01

    An evidence-based systematic review of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

  8. First Report of Soybean Rust, Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, on Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first observed on soybean (Glycine max) in the continental United States in Louisiana in 2004, and on kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in the United States in 2005. Kudzu is a leguminous weed that is prevalent in the southern United States with ...

  9. A glycoside flavonoid in Kudzu (Pueraria lobata): identification, quantification, and determination of antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ching S; Carrier, Danielle J; Beitle, Robert R; Howard, Luke R; Lay, Jackson O; Liyanage, Rohana; Clausen, Edgar C

    2005-01-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) foliage has been touted as a possible energy crop. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of the methanolic kudzu foliage extracts confirmed the presence of robinin (kaempferol-3-O-robinoside-7-O-rhamnoside). Robinin accounted for 0.65 +/- 0.16% (dry basis) of kudzu biomass. Fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC) was employed to fractionate robinin from the crude extract. The antioxidant capacity of robinin was evaluated by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The ORAC values of pure standard were compared with those of the extract fractions. One milligram of the FPLC-fractionated robinin generated an ORAC value of 5.15 +/- 2.00 micromol/mg of Trolox, whereas 1 mg of pure robinin generated an ORAC value of 12.34 +/- 0.45 micromol/mg of Trolox. Because of its antioxidant properties, robinin may be a flavonoid worth extracting prior to energy production.

  10. Heterogeneity of clonal patterns among patches of kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, an invasive plant

    PubMed Central

    Kartzinel, Tyler R.; Hamrick, J. L.; Wang, Chongyun; Bowsher, Alan W.; Quigley, Bryan G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Viny species are among the most serious invasive plants, and better knowledge of how vines grow to dominate landscapes is needed. Patches may contain a single genotype (i.e. genet), a competitively dominant genet or many independent but interacting genets, yet the clonal structure of vining species is often not apparent. Molecular markers can discriminate among the genetic identities of entwined vines to reveal the number and spatial distribution of genets. This study investigated how genets are spatially distributed within and among discrete patches of the invasive vine kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, in the United States. It was expected that ramets of genets would be spatially clustered within patches, and that an increase in the number of genets within a patch would be associated with a decrease in the average size of each genet. Methods Six discrete kudzu patches were sampled across 2 years, and 1257 samples were genotyped at 21 polymorphic allozyme loci. Variation in genotypic and genetic diversity among patches was quantified and patterns of genet interdigitation were analysed. Key Results Substantial genotypic and genetic variation occurred within and among patches. As few as ten overlapping genets spanned up to 68 m2 in one patch, while >90 % of samples were genetically unique in another patch. Genotypic diversity within patches increased as mean clone size decreased, although spatially widespread genets did not preclude interdigitation. Eight genets were shared across ≥2 patches, suggesting that vegetative dispersal can occur among patches. Conclusions Genetically unique kudzu vines are highly interdigitated. Multiple vegetative propagules have become established in spatially discrete patches, probably through the movement of highway construction or maintenance machinery. The results suggest that common methods for controlling invasive vines (e.g. mowing) may inadvertently increase genotypic diversity. Thus, understanding

  11. Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect of a Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) Vine Extract in Ovariectomized Mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Teruyoshi; Yokota, Yukihiro; Tang, Hanjun; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Postmenopausal diabetes is exacerbated by estrogen deficiency. Ovariectomized (OVX) animal models can be used to develop strategies for preventing or treating postmenopausal symptoms. We previously found that a diet containing kudzu (Pueraria lobata) vine ethanol extract (PVEE) suppressed weight gain in OVX mice. Therefore, this study further elucidated how PVEE affected OVX mice. Ten-week-old OVX or sham-operated mice were fed diets containing either no PVEE (control) or 20 mg•kg(-1)•d(-1) PVEE for 8 wk, 5 mg•kg(-1)•d(-1) PVEE for 24 wk, or 20 mg•kg(-1)•d(-1) puerarin (daidzein-8-C-glucoside), a major isoflavone present in PVEE, for 10 wk. The effects of puerarin on glucose tolerance were also tested in OVX mice. The experimental diets were not associated with any abnormalities in any mice tested in the present study. Weight gain and serum glucose levels were increased in OVX mice and these effects were significantly attenuated in OVX mice that consumed PVEE (5 or 20 mg•kg(-1)•d(-1)) or puerarin. Puerarin-treated OVX mice also showed reduced serum glucose levels following administration of 1,000 mg•kg(-1) glucose. These results suggested that puerarin contributed to PVEE-mediated improvements in glucose metabolism in OVX mice. Although further studies are needed to clarify the molecular mechanism underlying these observations, PVEE and puerarin could provide effective approaches to the amelioration of postmenopausal diabetes.

  12. In vivo metabolic tracking of 14C-radiolabelled isoflavones in kudzu (Pueraria lobata) and red clover (Trifolium pratense) extracts.

    PubMed

    Mun, Jonathan G; Grannan, Michael D; Lachcik, Pamela J; Reppert, Adam; Yousef, Gad G; Rogers, Randy B; Janle, Elsa M; Weaver, Connie M; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-11-01

    Absorption, distribution and elimination of 14C-labelled isoflavone-containing extracts from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root culture and red clover (Trifolium pratense) cell culture were investigated in an in vivo rat model. The predominant isoflavones in the kudzu extract were the glycosides puerarin, daidzin and malonyl daidzin, while in the red clover extract, the major isoflavones were formononetin and its derivatives, genistein and biochanin A, with radioactivities of 3.770 and 7.256 MBq/g, respectively. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, implanted with a jugular catheter and a subcutaneous ultrafiltrate probe, were orally administered with 14C-labelled isoflavone extracts from either kudzu or clover cell cultures. Serum, interstitial fluid (ISF), urine and faeces were collected using a Culex Automated Blood Collection System for 24 h. Analysis of bone tissues revealed that radiolabel accumulated in the femur, tibia and vertebrae at 0.04, 0.03 and 0.01 % of the administered dose, respectively, in both kudzu and red clover treatments. The liver accumulated the greatest concentration of radiolabel among the tissues tested, at 1.99 and 1.54 % of the administered kudzu and red clover extracts, respectively. Serum and ISF analysis showed that both extracts were rapidly absorbed, distributed in various tissues, and largely eliminated in the urine and faeces. Urine and faeces contained 8.53 and 9.06 % of the kudzu dose, respectively, and 3.60 and 5.64 % of the red clover dose, respectively. Serum pharmacokinetics suggest that extracts from kudzu may undergo enterohepatic circulation.

  13. Effects of Myrothecium verrucaria on ultrastructural integrity of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) and phytotoxin implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (MV), originally isolated from diseased sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia L.), has bioherbicial activity against kudzu and several other weeds when applied with low concentrations of the surfactant Silwet L-77. Ultrastructural investigations of MV effe...

  14. Rapid determination of major bioactive isoflavonoid compounds during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Hailong; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2015-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed into an indispensable tool for both academic research and industrial quality control in a wide field of applications. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to monitor the concentration of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein and total isoflavonoid (TIF) during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) was verified in this work. NIR spectra were collected in transmission mode and pretreated with smoothing and derivative. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models. Three different variable selection methods, including correlation coefficient method, interval partial least squares (iPLS), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were performed and compared with models based on all of the variables. The results showed that the approach was very efficient and environmentally friendly for rapid determination of the four quality indices (QIs) in the kudzu extraction process. This method established may have the potential to be used as a process analytical technological (PAT) tool in the future.

  15. Rapid determination of major bioactive isoflavonoid compounds during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Hailong; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2015-02-25

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed into an indispensable tool for both academic research and industrial quality control in a wide field of applications. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to monitor the concentration of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein and total isoflavonoid (TIF) during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) was verified in this work. NIR spectra were collected in transmission mode and pretreated with smoothing and derivative. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models. Three different variable selection methods, including correlation coefficient method, interval partial least squares (iPLS), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were performed and compared with models based on all of the variables. The results showed that the approach was very efficient and environmentally friendly for rapid determination of the four quality indices (QIs) in the kudzu extraction process. This method established may have the potential to be used as a process analytical technological (PAT) tool in the future.

  16. Effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on the expansion and size of kudzu (pueraria lobata) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sasek, T.W.; Strain, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    Seedlings of kudzu were grown at 350, 675, or 1000 ..mu..l/L CO/sub 2/ in controlled-environment chambers. At elevated CO/sub 2/ in controlled-environment chambers. At elevated CO/sub 2/ concentrations, maximum leaf expansion rates were approximately 40% greater, leaves were fully expanded several days sooner, fully expanded leaves were larger at each leaf position, and leaf production rates were increased 12%. Peak starch accumulation was much greater in plants grown at elevated CO/sub 2/ concentrations. Total xylem water potentials were higher (less negative) at full hydration, and osmotic potentials were decreased (more negative) by CO/sub 2/ enrichment. At 1000 ..mu..l/L CO/sub 2/, leaf trigger pressure was twice that at 350 ..mu..l/L CO/sub 2/. Results suggest that leaf expansion rates and leaf expansivity may have been increased due to higher trigger pressure at the higher CO/sub 2/ concentrations. The potential for successful seedling establishment may be enhanced as the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration continues to rise, increasing kudzu invasiveness.

  17. Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) vine ethanol extracts improve ovariectomy-induced bone loss in female mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Teruyoshi; Tang, Hanjun; Yu, Fengnian; Michihara, Seiwa; Uzawa, Yuki; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio

    2011-12-28

    Bone-loss-improving action of kudzu vine ethanol extracts (PVEE) was clarified. PVEE was composed roughly of 80% fiber, 10% puerarin, 3.6% daidzin, 2.5% 6″-O-malonyldaidzin, and the other minor isoflavones. Ten-week-old ovariectomized (OVX) mice were fed diets containing PVEE (20 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 weeks. The bone resorption markers (urinary deoxypyridinoline and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity) was elevated in OVX mice and was significantly decreased in OVX mice that consumed PVEE for 8 weeks. Consistent with the decrease in the markers, the number of matured osteoclasts in the distal femur was diminished in OVX mice fed PVEE diets. PVEE diets also suppressed the decrease in femoral bone mineral density (BMD) by OVX. PVEE showed the affinity for estrogen receptor α and β nearly 1/10000 weaker than 17β-estradiol. No hypertrophy in the uterus by the PVEE diet was observed. These results suggest that PVEE could be a promising resource for a functional food that improves osteoporosis.

  18. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two divergent 4-coumarate : coenzyme A ligases from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Bo; Li, Chang-Fu; Li, Jia; Zhang, Yan-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    As part of the efforts to understand isoflavonoid metabolism in Pueraria lobata at the molecular level, the cDNAs encoding two divergent 4-coumarate : coenzyme A ligases (4CLs, designated Pl4CL1 and Pl4CL2, respectively) were isolated from P. lobata roots. Sequence analysis revealed that Pl4CL1 had an N-terminal extension of twenty-one amino acid residues compared to Pl4CL2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Pl4CL1 and Pl4CL2 fell into angiosperm Class II and Class I, respectively. Through in vitro biochemical assays, both Pl4CLs were found to have the capacity to utilize 4-coumarate and trans-cinnamate as substrates, while neither of them could convert sinapate. Pl4CL2 had a broader substrate specificity than Pl4CL1. The affinity of Pl4CL1 for 4-coumarate was 2.6-fold higher than that of Pl4CL2 (with the Km values of 3.5 µM and 9.1 µM, respectively). Combining the dataset including gene expression profiles, metabolites measurements, and biochemical properties, our results indicated that Pl4CL1, just as other angiosperm Class II 4CLs, might play a role in isoflavone biosynthesis in P. lobata, while Pl4CL2 belongs to angiosperm Class I, and may function as a housekeeping enzyme concerning lignification.

  19. Leaf-lamina conductance contributes to an equal distribution of water delivery in current-year shoots of kudzu-vine shoot, Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Taneda, Haruhiko; Tateno, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Leaf-lamina resistance, R(L), accounts for a large fraction of branch resistance across a wide range of plant species. This work hypothesized that large R(L) is essential for distributing water equally to leaves on the shoot, and tested this hypothesis through theoretical analyses and measurements using over 10-m-long current-year shoots of kudzu vine, Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi. First, the hydraulic architecture and the distribution of the motive force achieving equal distribution of water delivery were theoretically obtained by simulating water flow through a hypothetical shoot comprising an axial pathway and several lateral pathways as a stem and leaves, respectively, in a kudzu-vine shoot. The model predicts that large resistance of the lateral pathway relative to that of the axial pathway is associated strongly with small variation in the hydraulic conductance of a pathway from the base of the axial pathways to the lateral pathway among the nodes, rendering water delivery to each lateral pathway equal under small variation in motive force for water flow. For the kudzu-vine shoot, the measured ratio of the lateral (a petiole) to the axial (a stem) resistance was 115. When R(L) was added to the lateral pathway, the ratio increased to 1136. According to the model prediction, these values imply that the hydraulic conductance of a pathway comprising a stem and a petiole, K(BP), is favored strongly at the basal nodes, while the hydraulic conductance of a pathway including a stem, a petiole and a lamina, K(SL), is slightly different across the nodes. For the shoots with leaf lamina, the diurnal change in transpiration rate was not different between the leaves on the three nodes dividing the shoot into four parts. K(SL) was not related significantly to node number. Conversely, K(BP) at the distal node was ~0.06-fold that at the basal node. Furthermore, the motive force for water flow should vary by 6.64-fold among nodes to compensate for the favored distribution of

  20. Differentiation of Pueraria lobata and Pueraria thomsonii using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA).

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka H; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Li, Kong M; Li, George Q; Chan, Kelvin

    2013-10-01

    The aims of the study were to differentiate Pueraria lobata from its related species Pueraria thomsonii and to examine the raw herbal material used in manufacturing kudzu root granules using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Sixty-four raw materials of P. lobata and P. thomsonii and kudzu root-labelled granules were analysed by ultra performance liquid chromatography. To differentiate P. lobata from P. thomsonii, PLS-DA models using the variables selected from the entire chromatograms, genetic algorithm (GA), successive projection algorithm (SPA), puerarin alone and six selected peaks were employed. The models constructed by GA and SPA demonstrated superior classification ability and lower model's complexity as compared to the model based on the entire chromatographic matrix, whilst the model constructed by the six selected peaks was comparable to the entire chromatographic model. The model established by puerarin alone showed inferior classification ability. In addition, the PLS-DA models constructed by the entire chromatographic matrix, GA, SPA and the six selected peaks showed that four brands out of seventeen granules were mislabelled as P. lobata. In conclusion, PLS-DA is a promising procedure for differentiating Pueraria species and determining raw material used in commercial products.

  1. Isoflavonoids production in callus culture of Pueraria tuberosa, the Indian kudzu.

    PubMed

    Vaishnav, Kamlesh; Goyal, Shaily; Ramawat, K G

    2006-12-01

    Isoflavonoid contents of different plant parts and callus tissues of the Indian Kudzu, Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb.ex.Willd.) DC are presented. The initial cultures were slow growing, associated with browning of the tissues. The production of four isoflavonoids (puerarin, genistin, genistein and daidzein) in the callus cultures of P. tuberosa was studied by manipulating the plant growth regulators and sucrose concentration in the medium. Organogenesis was not recorded in callus on any of these treatments. Tuber and stem accumulated puerarin, a glycoside of daidzein, at high amounts, 0.65% and 0.054% respectively. However, the daidzein content of the callus tissues grown on Murashige and Skoog medium containing BA (20.9 microM) and sucrose (60 gl(-1)) was significantly higher (0.056%) than in vivo plant material (0.02%) and other comparable culture systems like Genista and Pueraria lobata.

  2. Identification of isoflavone glycosides in Pueraria lobata cultures by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Prasain, Jeevan K; Reppert, Adam; Jones, Kenneth; Moore, D Ray; Barnes, Stephen; Lila, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    Isoflavones in the methanolic extracts of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) callus, suspension and root cultures were compared in order to develop an experimental system in which puerarin (daidzein 8-C-glucoside) and other isoflavones could be synthesised in vitro. Quantitative variation of puerarin and other known isoflavones was estimated in kudzu culture extracts using HPLC-UV. The highest and lowest amounts of puerarin (14.56 and 0.33 mg/g) were present in in vitro root cultures and leaf tissue-derived callus cultures, respectively. A total of 48 isoflavone metabolites were detected in extracts of kudzu root cultures by HPLC-MS/MS, and the structures of 33 of them were tentatively assigned. Amongst these, 12 isoflavone C-glycosides were identified. Hydroxyderivatives of puerarin in several isomeric forms were detected, some of which have not been previously reported in kudzu root. The molecular weights, interpretation of characteristic fragment ions obtained from HPLC-MS/MS and comparison with reported data allowed the putative identification of the isoflavone metabolites.

  3. Thermal stability of kudzu root (Pueraria Radix) isoflavones as additives to beef patties.

    PubMed

    Kumari, S; Raines, J M; Martin, J M; Rodriguez, J M

    2015-03-01

    Kudzu root, Pueraria radix, extracts are a rich source of isoflavones. This study investigates the thermal stability of Pueraria radix extracts as a natural nutraceutical supplement in beef patties. The extract contained puerarin, diadzin, genistin, ononin, daidzein, glycitein, calycosin, genistein, formononetin and biochanin A; however, puerarin, daidzein and glycitein were the main components. The isoflavones concentrations in the spiked beef patties with kudzu root extracts were unaffected by cooking.

  4. An Alternative Pathway for Formononetin Biosynthesis in Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    The O-methylation is an important tailing process in Pueraria lobata isoflavone metabolism, but the molecular mechanism governing it remains not elucidated. This manuscript describes the mining of key O-methyltransferases (OMTs) involved in the process. Using our previously constructed P. lobata transcriptome, the OMT candidates were searched, extensively analyzed, and their functions were investigated by expression in yeast, Escherichia coli, or Glycine max hairy roots. Here, we report the identification of the key OMT gene responsible for formononetin production in P. lobata (designated as PlOMT9). PlOMT9 primarily functions as an isoflavone-specific 4′-O-methyltransferase, although it shows high sequence identities with isoflavone 7-O-methyltransferases. Moreover, unlike the previously reported OMTs that catalyze the 4′-O-methylation for formononetin biosynthesis at the isoflavanone stage, PlOMT9 performs this modifying step at the isoflavone level, using daidzein rather than 2,7,4′-trihydroxy-isoflavanone as the substrate. Gene expression analyses and metabolite profiling supported its proposed roles in P. lobata. Using the system of transgenic G. max hairy roots, the role of PlOMT9 in the biosynthesis of formononetin was further demonstrated in vivo. PMID:27379141

  5. Genetic variation in Pueraria lobata (Fabaceae), an introduced, clonal, invasive plant of the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Pappert, R A; Hamrick, J L; Donovan, L A

    2000-09-01

    Pueraria lobata (kudzu), a clonal, leguminous vine, is invading the southeastern United States at a rate of 50 000 ha per year. Genetic variability and clonal diversity were measured in 20 southeastern U.S. populations using 14 allozyme loci. Within its U.S. range, 92.9% of the loci were polymorphic and overall genetic diversity was 0.290. Such high levels of genetic diversity are consistent with its history of multiple introductions over an extended period of time. The average proportions of polymorphic loci and genetic diversity within populations were 55.7% (range = 28.6-85.7%) and 0.213 (range = 0.114-0.317), respectively. The proportion of total genetic diversity found among populations was similar to species with equivalent life history characters (G(ST) = 0.199). No regional patterns of variation were seen. The number of putative genotypes in each population ranged from 2 to 26. Mean genotypic diversity was 0.694, ranging from 0.223 to 0.955. Such high levels of genotypic diversity indicate that local sites are often colonized by several propagules (most likely seeds) and/or that sexual reproduction occurs within populations after establishment. An excess of heterozygosity was observed in populations with few unique genets, implying that selection for highly heterozygous individuals may occur in populations of P. lobata.

  6. Kudzu--Wonder Weed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is a high climbing, exceedingly vigorous vine with twining stems (no tendrils or aerial holdfasts). The plant, introduced from the Orient and currently found in southeastern United States, has been known to choke valuable strands of trees, short electrical wires, and even creep up the sides of high rise buildings. Although…

  7. Transcriptomic landscape of Pueraria lobata demonstrates potential for phytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Han, Rongchun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi has a long and broad application in the treatment of disease. However, in the US and EU, it is treated as a notorious weed. The information to be gained from decoding the deep transcriptome profile would facilitate further research on P. lobata. In this study, more than 93 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina's next-generation sequencing approach using five types of P. lobata tissue, followed by CLC de novo assembly methods, ultimately yielding about 83,041 contigs in total. Then BLASTx similarity searches against the NCBI NR database and UniProtKB database were conducted. Once the duplicates among BLASTx hits were eliminated, ID mapping against the UniProt database was conducted online to retrieve Gene Ontology information. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential biosynthesis pathways, all 1,348 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Enzymes related to the isoflavonoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were focused for detailed investigation and subsequently, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted for biological validation. Metabolites of interest, puerarin and daidzin were studied by HPLC. The findings in this report may serve as a footstone for further research into this promising medicinal plant.

  8. Transcriptomic landscape of Pueraria lobata demonstrates potential for phytochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rongchun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi has a long and broad application in the treatment of disease. However, in the US and EU, it is treated as a notorious weed. The information to be gained from decoding the deep transcriptome profile would facilitate further research on P. lobata. In this study, more than 93 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina’s next-generation sequencing approach using five types of P. lobata tissue, followed by CLC de novo assembly methods, ultimately yielding about 83,041 contigs in total. Then BLASTx similarity searches against the NCBI NR database and UniProtKB database were conducted. Once the duplicates among BLASTx hits were eliminated, ID mapping against the UniProt database was conducted online to retrieve Gene Ontology information. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential biosynthesis pathways, all 1,348 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Enzymes related to the isoflavonoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were focused for detailed investigation and subsequently, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted for biological validation. Metabolites of interest, puerarin and daidzin were studied by HPLC. The findings in this report may serve as a footstone for further research into this promising medicinal plant. PMID:26157443

  9. Ovularia puerariae Sawada is the hyphomycetous anamorph of a new Marasmius species on living leaves of kudzu (Pueraria montana, Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Roland; Lee, I-Shu; Chen, Chee-Jen

    2013-01-01

    An arthroconidial hyphomycete on living leaves of kudzu (Pueraria montana, Fabaceae), originally described by Sawada in 1959 as Ovularia puerariae, was rediscovered. This anamorph is connected to an unknown Marasmius teleomorph belonging to section Globulares, which develops on the same living leaves. Ultrastructure and LSU rDNA sequence analysis of the anamorph confirm this connection. The fungus does not have only a unique biology among agarics, comparable only to Mycena citricolor, but also has the potential for application as a control agent of kudzu. During comparison with similar anamorph genera, Illosporium graminicola was found to be a synonym for Beniowskia sphaeroidea.

  10. Kudzu Suppression by Herbicides in Two-Year Field trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicides are currently the principle means of halting the spread of kudzu (Pueraria montana var lobata) and reclaiming kudzu-infested lands. The efficacy of several herbicides on this invasive weed has been well-established, but these chemicals can be prohibitively expensive, come with significan...

  11. Characterization of kudzu (Pueraria spp.) resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of soybean rust.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Stephen A; Mailhot, Daniel J; Gevens, Amanda J; Marois, Jim J; Wright, David L; Harmon, Carrie L; Harmon, Philip F

    2010-09-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria spp.) is an accessory host for soybean rust (SBR) (caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi) that is widespread throughout the southeastern United States. An expanded survey of kudzu sites was conducted in 2008 to determine the proportion of natural resistance in the north-Florida kudzu population. Of the 139 sites evaluated, approximately 18% were found to be free of SBR infection, while 23% had reduced sporulation. Ten accessions of kudzu from north-central Florida were characterized for their response to challenge by a single isolate of P. pachyrhizi under laboratory conditions. Three outcomes were observed: tan lesions with profuse sporulation (susceptible); reddish-brown lesions with delayed, reduced sporulation (resistant); and an immune response in which no lesions developed (immune). Of the 10 accessions, 6 were susceptible, 3 were immune, and 1 was resistant. Cytological examination revealed that resistant interactions were typified by early onset of a multicell hypersensitive response (HR) while typical immune interactions were the result of cell wall depositions that blocked penetration in combination with early onset of the HR. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the extent of colonization. After 15 days, there was 10-fold less P. pachyrhizi DNA present in resistant compared with susceptible kudzu, while the amount of P. pachyrhizi DNA present in the immune kudzu was below the detection level. Susceptible kudzu had approximately half the amount of P. pachyrhizi DNA present when compared with a susceptible soybean cultivar.

  12. Interaction of the bioherbicide Myrothecium verrucarria and glyphosate for kudzu control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spore and mycelial formulations of the bioherbicidal fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (MV) were tested alone and in combination with glyphosate for control of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) under greenhouse and field conditions in naturally-infested sites at Lexington and Eden, MS. Control of kudzu increased...

  13. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) Invasion Doubles Emissions of Nitric Oxide, a Precursor to Tropospheric Ozone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, J. E.; Wu, S.; Mickley, L. J.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen-fixing plants can increase rates of nitrogen (N) cycling in soils, fluxes of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluxes of the ozone precursor nitric oxide (NO). Invasion by the nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) across millions of hectares in the southeastern United States could be contributing to increased ozone concentrations. Ozone formation in the Southeast is broadly limited by atmospheric NO concentrations, so perturbations to the N cycle by kudzu have the potential to increase ozone concentrations in the region. At three sites in Madison County, Georgia, kudzu invasion increased rates of net N mineralization by up to an order of magnitude and rates of net nitrification and soil pools of NO3- and NO2- by up to 500%. Emissions of NO from soils invaded by kudzu averaged 2.81 ng NO-N cm-2 h-1, significantly higher than emissions from soil dominated by native vegetation, which averaged 1.24 ng NO-N cm-2 h-1. Emissions of N2O display a trend towards increasing under kudzu invasion, but N2O emissions at these sites were three orders of magnitude smaller than emissions of NO. Atmospheric chemical modeling suggests that these higher NO emissions could increase ozone concentrations in the region by up to 2 ppb. We propose that kudzu invasion in the southeastern United States represents a novel threat to air quality and could increase the frequency with which federal ozone standards are exceeded.

  14. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract.

  15. [Microscopic anatomy of abnormal structure in root tuber of Pueraria lobata].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hai-yan; Cheng, Ming-en; Peng, Hua-sheng; Zhang, He-ting; Zhao, Yu-jiao

    2015-11-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix, also known as Gegen, is a root derived from Pueraria lobata. Based on field investigation and the developmental anatomy of root tuber, we have elucidated the relationship between the growth of root tuber and the anomalous structure. The results of analysis showed that the root system of P. lobata was developed from seed and adventitious root and there existed root tuber, adventitious root and conductive root according to morphology and function. The root tuber was developed from adventitious root, its secondary structure conformed to the secondary structure of dicotyledon's root. With the development of root, the secondary phloem of root tuber appeared abnormal vascular tissue, which was distributed like ring in the outside of secondary vascular tissue. The root tuber might have 4-6 concentric circular permutation abnormal vascular tissuelobate, and was formed by the internal development of abnormal vascular tissue. The xylem and phloem of abnormal vascular tissue were the main body of the root tuber. The results reveal the abnormal anatomical structure development of P. lobata, also provides the theoretical basis for reasonable harvest medicinal parts and promoting sustainable utilization of resources of P. lobata.

  16. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Jonathan E; Wu, Shiliang; Mickley, Loretta J; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2010-06-01

    The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a widespread invasive plant in the southeastern United States with physiological traits that may lead to important impacts on ecosystems and the atmosphere. Its spread has the potential to raise ozone levels in the region by increasing nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils as a consequence of increasing nitrogen (N) inputs and cycling in soils. We studied the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia in 2007 and used the results to model the effects of kudzu invasion on regional air quality. We found that rates of net N mineralization increased by up to 1,000%, and net nitrification increased by up to 500% in invaded soils in Georgia. Nitric oxide emissions from invaded soils were more than 100% higher (2.81 vs. 1.24 ng NO-N cm(-2) h(-1)). We used the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate the potential impact of kudzu invasion on regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality. In an extreme scenario, extensive kudzu invasion leads directly to an increase in the number of high ozone events (above 70 ppb) of up to 7 days each summer in some areas, up from 10 to 20 days in a control scenario with no kudzu invasion. These results establish a quantitative link between a biological invasion and ozone formation and suggest that in this extreme scenario, kudzu invasion can overcome some of the air quality benefits of legislative control.

  17. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Jonathan E.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Lerdau, Manuel T.

    2010-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a widespread invasive plant in the southeastern United States with physiological traits that may lead to important impacts on ecosystems and the atmosphere. Its spread has the potential to raise ozone levels in the region by increasing nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils as a consequence of increasing nitrogen (N) inputs and cycling in soils. We studied the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia in 2007 and used the results to model the effects of kudzu invasion on regional air quality. We found that rates of net N mineralization increased by up to 1,000%, and net nitrification increased by up to 500% in invaded soils in Georgia. Nitric oxide emissions from invaded soils were more than 100% higher (2.81 vs. 1.24 ng NO-N cm−2 h−1). We used the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate the potential impact of kudzu invasion on regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality. In an extreme scenario, extensive kudzu invasion leads directly to an increase in the number of high ozone events (above 70 ppb) of up to 7 days each summer in some areas, up from 10 to 20 days in a control scenario with no kudzu invasion. These results establish a quantitative link between a biological invasion and ozone formation and suggest that in this extreme scenario, kudzu invasion can overcome some of the air quality benefits of legislative control. PMID:20479252

  18. Metabolic differentiations of Pueraria lobata and Pueraria thomsonii using ¹H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Gan; Song, Yue-Lin; Wang, Ying; Yuan, Yun-Fei; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Ye, Wen-Cai; Wang, Yi-Tao; Zhang, Qing-Wen

    2014-05-01

    Puerariae Radix was a widely used herbal medicine. Pueraria lobata (PL) and Pueraria thomsonii (PT) were the two authorized sources of Puerariae Radix (gegen) in China. In this study, metabolic differentiations between these two species were investigated using NMR spectroscopy followed by principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The content of puerarin in PL and PT was also determined using quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Thirteen isoflavones were tentatively identified based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data in two species. The (1)H NMR spectra of PL and PT were obviously different. PL and PT could also be markedly discriminated from (1)H NMR spectroscopic data by PCA and PLS-DA. For the crude drug resources, isoflavones, in which puerarin is the most important one, were regarded as the reasonable markers for the discrimination of the two species. The contents of puerarin and total isoflavones in PL were quantitated much higher than those in PT. Above all, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, which can provide comprehensive profiles of the metabolites and achieve convenient determinations of puerarin and total isoflavones in a single run, is an efficient means for evaluating the medicinal samples and achieving a better quality control of Puerariae Radix.

  19. Effect of invader litter chemistries on soil organic matter compositions: consequences of Polygonum cuspidatum and Pueraria lobata invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharayil, N.; Tamura, M.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon fixation during photosynthesis forms the precursor of all organic carbon in soil and the predominant source of energy that drives soil microbial processes; hence the molecular identity of the fixed carbon could influence the formation of soil organic matter (SOM). Due to their high resource acquisition and resource use efficiencies, some invasive plants can input disproportionately high quantities of litter that are qualitatively distinctive, and this could influence the accrual of organic carbon and overall carbon cycling in invaded habitats. Hence, we hypothesized that invasive plants with unique litter chemistries would significantly influence the overall carbon cycling in the invaded soils. We tested this hypothesis by comparing plants exhibiting recalcitrant vs. labile litter chemistries using japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) and kudzu (Pueraria lobata), respectively. Japanese knotweed produces low litter abundant in polyphenols which selectively hinders microbially mediated decomposition and re-synthesis; whereas kudzu produces low C:N, high quality litter that can stimulate microbial decomposition. Soil samples were collected at 5-cm intervals and from inside and outside 15 to 20 year old stands of the invasive species. The novelty of our study was that both of our study species were invading into soils of contrasting substrate qualities relative to the invading litter quality. The molecular composition of carbon in the soils and the degradation stage of the SOM were assessed with a biomarker approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the source of biomolecules (plant or microbes). Stability of SOM fractions was assessed through oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, serving as a proxy of biological degradation, followed by stable isotope analysis. Fungal communities dominated the uppermost soils under knotweed whereas kudzu litter suppressed fungal biomass in the top 10-cm. In constrast, increase in active microbial biomass C

  20. Hepatotoxicity of tubers of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa) in rats.

    PubMed

    Santosh, Nagwani; Mohan, Kumar; Royana, Singh; Yamini, Tripathi B

    2010-04-01

    Methanolic extract of tubers of Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) (PTME) has been tested for hepatoxicity in rats. In acute study, PTME (100-400 mg/100 g BW, given orally) showed LD(50) at 227.5 mg. For sub-chronic study, its repeated doses (5-100 mg/100 g BW, for 30 days), significantly increased hepatic enzymes in blood, sinusoidal congestion, disruption of central vein, inflammatory cell infiltration and hepatocellular necrosis in liver in dose dependent manner, with increase in NO, iNOS and ROS levels. In a kinetic study (single dose 227.5 mg/100 g BW), there was sequential decrease in GSH and enhanced NO suggesting free-radical generation as the primary cause of cell damage. It is concluded that the higher dosing of PTME or its continuous use for longer period (even in low doses) is hepatotoxicity by inducing oxidative stress.

  1. Isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata suppress alcohol preference in a pharmacogenetic rat model of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lin, R C; Guthrie, S; Xie, C Y; Mai, K; Lee, D Y; Lumeng, L; Li, T K

    1996-06-01

    The extract from an edible vine, Pueraria lobata, has long been used in China to lessen alcohol intoxication. We have previously shown that daidzin, one of the major components from this plant extract, is efficacious in lowering blood alcohol levels and shortens sleep time induced by alcohol ingestion. This study was conducted to test the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin and two other major isoflavonoids, daidzein and puerarin, from Pueraria lobata administered by the oral route. An alcohol-preferring rat model, the selectively-bred P line of rats, was used for the study. All three isoflavonoid compounds were effective in suppressing voluntary alcohol consumption by the P rats. When given orally to P rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day, daidzein, daidzin, and puerarin decreased ethanol intake by 75%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. The decrease in alcohol consumption was accompanied by an increase in water intake, so that the total fluid volume consumed daily remained unchanged. The effects of these isoflavonoid compounds on alcohol and water intake were reversible. Suppression of alcohol consumption was evident after 1 day of administration and became maximal after 2 days. Similarly, alcohol preference returned to baseline levels 2 days after discontinuation of the isoflavonoids. Rats receiving the herbal extracts ate the same amounts of food as control animals, and they gained weight normally during the experiments. When administered orally, none of these compounds affected the activities of liver alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Therefore, the reversal of alcohol preference produced by these compounds may be mediated via the CNS. Data demonstrate that isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata is effective in suppressing the appetite for alcohol when taken orally, raising the possibility that other constituents of edible plants may exert similar and more potent actions.

  2. Phenolic compounds from Pueraria lobata protect PC12 cells against Aβ-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-hyeok; Hong, Seong Su; Shin, Yu Su; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Park, So-Young; Lee, Dongho

    2010-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc-soluble extract of Pueraria lobata based on the inhibition of Aβ-induced toxicity in PC12 cells resulted in the isolation of four known active compounds, genistein (8), biochanin A (9), sissotrin (10), and puerol B (11). Of these, genistein (8) and biochanin A (9) exhibited potent neuroprotective effects with ED(50) values of 33.7 and 27.8 μM, respectively. In addition, a new coumestan, 2-(α,α-dimethylallyl)coumestrol (1) was isolated and characterized, but proved to be inactive, as were additional seven known compounds. The structure of new compound 1 was determined using spectroscopic techniques.

  3. Extraction technology of isoflavone from Dabie Mountain's Pueraria lobata and determination of its reducing power.

    PubMed

    Renshu, Huang; Huili, He; Jiaojiao, Fang; Yuanjun, Ren

    2014-11-01

    In order to determine the optimum extracting process of the isoflavone from Dabie Mountain's Pueraria lobata and its reducing power, a 5-level, 4-factor Box-Behnken center-united experiment was conducted on the basis of single factor experiment. The Box-Behnken experiment analyzed and optimized the processing conditions by response surface methodology, and determined the reducing power of the Pueraria Isoflavone's extract under the optimum conditions. The results showed that the extraction rate of the Pueraria Isoflavone was 24.87%, of which the relative error was only 0.4% compared with the predicted value of 24.77%, under the optimum conditions of ethanol concentration 7.5%, liquid-to-solid ratio17.50 mL/g, treatment temperature 94.30°C, treatment time 47.36 min. The experiment also concluded that response surface methodology was suitable for the regression analysis of isoflavone's extraction rate and parameter optimization; the reducing power of Pueraria Isoflavone's EC50 value was 0.098 mg/mL.

  4. The Chinese Pueraria root extract (Pueraria lobata) ameliorates impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Prasain, Jeevan K; Peng, Ning; Rajbhandari, Rajani; Wyss, J Michael

    2012-12-15

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic disease is rapidly increasing, but effective therapies for their prevention and treatment have been poorly tolerated or minimally effective. In this study, chronic administration of kudzu root extract (8 months, 0.2%, w/w, in diet) decreased baseline fasting plasma glucose (183±14 vs. 148±11 mg/dl) and improved glucose and insulin tolerance in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice (1.67±0.17 ng/ml [kudzu treated] vs. 2.35±0.63 ng/ml [control]), but such treatment did not alter these parameters in lean control mice. Among the mice on the kudzu supplementation, plasma levels of isoflavone metabolites were significantly higher in ob/ob versus lean control mice, and unmetabolized puerarin (11.50±5.63 ng/g) was found in adipose tissue only in the treated mice. Together, these data demonstrate that a puerarin containing kudzu diet improves glucose and insulin responsiveness in ob/ob mice, suggesting that puerarin may be a beneficial adjuvant for treating metabolic disease.

  5. A novel and effective chromatographic approach to the separation of isoflavone derivatives from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiang; Jing, Wenguang; Wang, Weihao; Chen, Sha; Zhang, Jun; Liu, An

    2015-03-05

    A novel and effective chromatographic approach to the separation and purification of isoflavone compounds from Pueraria lobata is described. The method is based on flash chromatography (FC), coupled to preparative high performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) via a six-way valve. The FC step comprised tandem reversed phase columns, pre-packed with MCI gel (Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo, Japan) and C18 (Fuji Silysia Chemical Ltd, Osaka, Japan) resin, respectively, and was designed to separate a crude Pueraria lobata extract into several preliminary fractions. Fractions containing the target compounds were then directly injected via the six-way valve into prep-HPLC columns, without further treatment, for final isolation and purification. Nine isoflavonoids were successfully isolated, three through an online mode and the other six through an offline mode. The purities of all compounds exceeded 95.0%, as determined by HPLC with an UV-vis photodiode array detector. The convenience, low solvent consumption, and time-saving advantages of this method offer an attractive and promising approach to the isolation of natural products.

  6. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B; Rawat, A K S

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods.

  7. Acute interstitial nephritis following kudzu root juice ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Myun; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Dong Cheol; Jeon, Jin Seok; Jin, So Young

    2013-10-01

    Recently, the use of herbal remedies and complementary and alternative medicine has increased globally. Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) is a plant commonly used in traditional medicine to promote health. A middle-aged woman consumed kudzu root juice to promote health and well-being for 10 days. Subsequently, she developed anorexia, epigastric discomfort and azotemia. These symptoms improved rapidly within several days after discontinuation of the suspected offending agent and conservative treatment. Acute interstitial nephritis was diagnosed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing acute interstitial nephritis following the ingestion of kudzu root juice.

  8. Rapid kudzu eradication and switchgrass establishment though herbicide, bioherbicide and integrated programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the most important and visible weeds in the Southeatern U.S. is the exotic invasive vine, kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata). Efforts to eradicate it typically involve many years of application of restricted-use pesticides. Recent availability of effective, non-restricted use pesticides and...

  9. Comparative susceptibility of kudzu accessions from Southeastern United States to infection by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first discovered in the United States (U.S.), in the fall of 2004. The potential for economic loss in the U.S. hinges largely on whether or not the pathogen can readily survive winters in the absence of soybean. Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata...

  10. Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and methotrexate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, H.-M.; Fang, S.-H.; Wen, K.-C.; Hsiu, S.-L.; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Hou, Y.-C.; Chi, Y.-C.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn . E-mail: pdlee@mail.cmu.edu.tw

    2005-12-15

    Isoflavone supplements are nowadays widely used as alternative for hormone replacement therapy. However, the safety remains unanswered. This study attempted to investigate the effect of Pueraria lobata root decoction (PLRD), an isoflavone-rich herb, on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX), a bicarboxylate antimetabolite with narrow therapeutic window. Rats were orally and intravenously given methotrexate alone and coadministered with PLRD. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time points after drug administration. Serum methotrexate concentrations were assayed by specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartment model of WINNONLIN for both oral and intravenous data of MTX. Our results showed that coadministration of 4.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg of PLRD significantly increased the AUC{sub 0-t} by 207.8% and 127.9%, prolonged the mean residence time (MRT) by 237.8 and 155.2%, respectively, finally resulted in surprisingly high mortalities of 57.1% and 14.3% in rats. When MTX was given intravenously, the coadministration of PLRD at 4.0 g/kg significantly increased the half-life by 53.9% and decreased the clearance by 47.9%. In conclusion, the coadministration of PLRD significantly decreased the elimination and resulted in markedly increased exposure of MTX in rats.

  11. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) community responses to herbicides, burning, and high-density loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect

    T.B. Harrington; L.T. Rader-Dixon; J.W. Taylor, Jr.

    2003-11-01

    Kudzu is an aggressive, nonnative vine that currently dominates an estimated 810,000 ha of mesic forest communities in the eastern United States. To test an integrated method of weed control, abundances of kudzu and other plant species were compared during 4 yr after six herbicide treatments (clopyralid, triclopyr, metsulfuron, picloram 1 2,4-D, tebuthiuron, and a nonsprayed check), in which loblolly pines were planted at three densities (0, 1, and 4 seedlings m22) to induce competition and potentially delay kudzu recovery. This split-plot design was replicated on each of the four kudzu-dominated sites near Aiken, SC. Relative light intensity (RLI) and soil water content (SWC) were measured periodically to identify mechanisms of interference among plant species. Two years after treatment (1999), crown coverage of kudzu averaged , 2% in herbicide plots compared with 93% in the nonsprayed check, and these differences were maintained through 2001, except in clopyralid plots where kudzu cover increased to 15%. In 2001, pine interference was associated with 33, 56, and 67% reductions in biomass of kudzu, blackberry, and herbaceous vegetation, respectively. RLI in kudzu-dominated plots (4 to 15% of full sun) generally was less than half that of herbicide-treated plots. SWC was greatest in tebuthiuron plots, where total vegetation cover averaged 26% compared with 77 to 111% in other plots. None of the treatments eradicated kudzu, but combinations of herbicides and induced pine competition delayed its recovery.

  12. Simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Cheng, Ling; Ji, Shen; Wang, Ke

    2014-09-01

    This work reported an efficient and accurate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins in Puerariae lobatae radix, a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The effects of four different clean-up methods, including TC-M160, TC-T220, Mycosep 227, and QuEChERS method, on the recoveries of mycotoxins were investigated and compared. Finally, TC-M160 was chosen for better recovery and repeatability for mycotoxins analysis. The analytes were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C18 column (4.6mm×250mm, 5μm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The separated compounds were detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results of method validation accorded with the requirement of analytical method for mycotoxins in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 401/2006. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of mycotoxins in seventeen batches of Puerariae lobatae radix collected from different provinces of China. Three batches of them were found with contamination of mycotoxins AFB1 at (0.751±0.176)μg/kg, T-2 at (1.10±0.01)μg/kg, and T-2 at (0.853±0.044)μg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for monitoring mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix.

  13. Regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana (kudzu) by cork pieces, XAD-4, and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Chang, Soo Chul; Warber, Sara; Bolling, Steven; Vardapetyan, Hrachik

    2006-12-01

    A mini-hydroponic growing system was employed for seedlings of kudzu vine (Pueraria montana) and contents of isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, daidzin, genistin, and puerarin) from shoot and root parts of seedlings were analyzed quantitatively. In addition, exogenous cork pieces, polymeric adsorbent, XAD-4, and universal elicitor, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), were used to regulate the production of these isoflavones. It was shown that cork pieces up-regulate the production of daidzein and genistein up to seven- and eight-fold greater than the levels obtained for control roots. In contrast, levels of glucosyl conjugates, daidzin and genistin, decrease up to five- and eight-fold, respectively. Cork treatment also induces the excretion of the root isoflavone constituents into the growth medium. Minimal levels of isoflavones are absorbed by the cork pieces. XAD-4 stimulates the production of glucosyl conjugates, daidzin and genistin, in root parts about 1.5-fold greater than that obtained in control roots. These are the highest amounts of daidzin and genistin that are observed (5.101 and 6.759 mg g(-1) dry weight, respectively). In contrast to these two adsorbents, MeJA increases the accumulation of isoflavones in shoot rather than in root parts of seedlings, about three- to four-fold over control levels, with the exception of genistein. These studies reveal new observations on the regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana plants by two adsorbents (cork pieces and XAD-4) and MeJA elicitor.

  14. Leaching and persistence of herbicides for kudzu (Pueraria montana) control on pine regeneration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Berisford, Yvette, C.; Bush, Parshall, B.; Taylor, John, W.

    2006-03-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens forests in the southeastern United States. It can climb, overtop, and subsequently kill new seedlings or mature trees. Herbicides are commonly used to control kudzu; however, eradication might require retreatment for 3 to 10 yr in young stands and 7 to 10 yr for mature stands. Clopyralid, picloram, triclopyr, metsulfuron, and tebuthiuron exert various degrees of control, depending on soil type, meteorological conditions, herbicide formulation, seasonal application, characteristics of the kudzu stand, and frequency and number of herbicide. Field residue data for soil or leachate are lacking for all of these herbicides when they are used in actual forest regeneration programs in the Coastal Plain. These data are needed to assess the relative potential for the herbicides to leach into groundwater or to move off-site into sensitive ecological areas of the Coastal Plain in which sandy soils predominate and the groundwater tends to be shallow. As part of an integrated pest management program to control kudzu on forest regeneration areas at the Savannah River Site near New Ellenton, SC, five herbicides were evaluated from the standpoints of herbicide leaching, kudzu control, and plant community development. Three herbicide chemical families were represented. This included pyridinecarboxylic acid herbicides (clopyralid, picloram 1 2,4-D, and triclopyr), a sulfonylurea herbicide (metsulfuron), and a substituted urea herbicide (tebuthiuron).

  15. Invasive Species Biology, Control, and Research. Part 1: Kudzu (Pueraria montana)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    3 Reproduction ...overtop trees and surrounding vegetation. Reproduction Kudzu reportedly reproduces readily through vegetative spread (Foresth and Innis 2004...Vegetative reproduction occurs when stems come into contact with the ground, roots will develop at stem nodes. When plants senesce or stems are broken due

  16. Parsing polyphyletic Pueraria: Delimiting distinct evolutionary lineages through phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Egan, Ashley N; Vatanparast, Mohammad; Cagle, William

    2016-11-01

    Several taxonomic and phylogenetic studies have hypothesized polyphyly within Pueraria DC., a genus comprising 19 species (24 with varieties) including the highly invasive Pueraria montana var. lobata (Kudzu) introduced to the U.S.A. about 150years ago. Previous efforts to investigate monophyly of the genus have been hampered by limited taxon sampling or a lack of comprehensive evolutionary context that would enable definitive taxonomic associations. This work presents a comprehensive phylogenetic investigation of Pueraria within the context of tribe Phaseoleae (Leguminosae). Polyphyly was found to be more extensive than previously thought, with five distinct lineages spread across the tribe and spanning over 25mya of divergence strongly supported by two chloroplast and one nuclear marker, AS2, presented here as a phylogenetic marker for the first time. Our phylogenies support taxonomic revisions to rectify polyphyly within Pueraria, including the resurrection of Neustanthus, moving one species to Teyleria, and the creation of two new genera, Haymondia and Toxicopueraria (taxonomic revisions published elsewhere).

  17. Effect of Pueraria tuberosa DC. (Indian Kudzu) on blood pressure, fibrinolysis and oxidative stress in patients with stage 1 hypertension.

    PubMed

    Verma, S K; Jain, Vartika; Singh, D P

    2012-08-01

    The Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa DC.) is an important medicinal plant widely used in Indian and Chinese traditional systems of medicine. The present study is an attempt to evaluate effect of its tubers on blood pressure, coagulation parameters and antioxidant status in patients with stage 1 (primary) hypertension. In a long-term, single blinded, placebo controlled study; 15 patients with stage 1 hypertension (group 1), were administered 3 g P. tuberosa in two divided doses while another 15 patients (group II) were administered matched placebo for a period of twelve weeks. A significant fall of 25, 11 and 16 mmHg was observed in systolic (p < 0.001), diastolic (p < 0.05) and mean (p < 0.001) blood pressure, respectively at the end of the study. Along with blood pressure reduction, there was a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in plasma fibrinogen and significant enhancement of plasma fibrinolytic activity (p < 0.001) and serum total antioxidant status (p < 0.05). It was tolerated well without any untoward side effects.

  18. Water extract of Pueraria lobata Ohwi has anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzeng-Jih; Yeh, Chia-Feng; Wang, Kuo-Chih; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Chang, Jung-San

    2013-12-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) infects all age groups and causes bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome with a significant mortality rate. To date, only ribavirin has been used to manage HRSV infection. However, ribavirin is expensive with an only modest effect. Furthermore, ribavirin has several side effects, which means it has limited clinical benefit. Pueraria lobata Ohwi (P. lobata) is a common ingredient of Ge-Gen-Tang (Kakkon-to) and Sheng-Ma-Ge-Gen-Tang (Shoma-kakkon-to), which are prescriptions of Chinese traditional medicine proven to have antiviral activity against HRSV. Therefore, it was hypothesized that P. lobata might be effective against HRSV. To find a cost-effective therapeutic modality, both human upper (HEp-2) and lower (A549) respiratory tract cell lines were used to test the hypothesis that P. lobata could inhibit HRSV-induced plaque formation. Results showed that the water extract of P. lobata was effective (p < 0.0001) against HRSV-induced plaque formation. P. lobata was more effective when given prior to viral inoculation (p < 0.0001) by inhibiting viral attachment (p < 0.0001) and penetration (p < 0.0001). However, supplementation with P. lobata could not stimulate interferon secretion after HRSV infection. In conclusion, P. lobata has antiviral activity against HRSV-induced plaque formation in airway mucosa mainly by inhibiting viral attachment and internalization. Further identification of effective constituents could contribute to the prevention of HRSV infection.

  19. Isolation and characterization of nonrhizobial plant growth promoting bacteria from nodules of Kudzu (Pueraria thunbergiana) and their effect on wheat seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, G; Kundu, S; Gupta, Anand D; Shouche, Yogesh S; Gupta, Hari S

    2008-02-01

    The leguminous vine Kudzu (Pueraria thunbergiana) is an introduction into the N. W. Himalayan region of India. Despite its value as a fodder and cover crop, little is known about the nature of the nodule microflora. In an attempt to study the nodule bacteria, we isolated and characterized three nonrhizobial plant growth promoting bacteria from surface sterilized nodules of Kudzu. Based on the sequencing of the 16 S r RNA gene, the isolates were designated as Bacillus thuringiensis KR-1, Enterobacter asburiae KR-3, and Serratia marcescens KR-4. Crystalline bodies were detected in the isolate KR-1, confirming its identity as B. thuringiensis. Under in vitro conditions, all three isolates were found to produce indole acetic acid. Other plant growth promotion attributes such as P solubilization, hydrogen cyanide production, and ammonia production varied among the isolates. All of the three isolates promoted growth and positively influenced nutrient uptake parameters of wheat seedlings.

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Pueraria lobata Extract in Gray Hair Prevention: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Na, Sun Jae; Jin, Yingji; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Su Na

    2013-01-01

    Background Graying of hair-a sign of aging-raises cosmetic concerns. Individuals with gray hair often look older than others their age; therefore, some dye their hair for aesthetic purposes. However, hair colorants can induce many problems including skin irritation, allergic reaction and hair-breakage. Objective This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in order to examine the effects of APHG-1001, a compound including an extract from Pueraria lobata, on graying hair. Methods A total of 44 female subjects were randomly treated with either APHG-1001 or placebo twice daily for 24 weeks. Using the phototrichogram analysis, a count of newly developed gray hair was estimated. Investigator assessment and subject self-assessment were also performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the compound. Results The mean number of newly developed gray hair at 24 weeks was 6.3/cm2 in the APHG-1001 group and 11.4/cm2 in the placebo group; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). However, the investigator assessment and subject self-assessment did not show any significant change in the gross appearance of hair grayness by the end of the study. No severe adverse events in either group were observed. Moreover, the incidence of adverse events did not differ between the groups. Conclusion This clinical trial revealed that APHG-1001, which contains an extract of P. lobata, could prevent the development of new gray hair without any remarkable adverse effects. Thus, it can be considered as a viable treatment option for the prevention of gray hair. PMID:23717015

  1. Red-purple flower color and delphinidin-type pigments in the flowers of Pueraria lobata (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Tanikawa, Natsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2017-05-01

    A previously undescribed acylated anthocyanin was extracted from the red-purple flowers of Pueraria lobata with 5% HOAc-H2O, and determined to be petunidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside], by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, two known acylated anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] and malvidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] were identified. Delphinidin 3,5-di-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-glucoside, and malvidin 3,5-di-glucoside, have been known as major components of P. lobata in the former study. However, malonyl esters amounts were detected over 10 times compared with non-malonyl esters amounts. In those anthocyanins the most abundant anthocyanin was petunidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] in total flowers. On the visible absorption spectral curve of fresh red-purple petals, one characteristic absorption maximum was observed at 520 nm, which is similar to those of flowers containing pelargonidin derivatives. In contrast, the absorption spectral curve of old violet petals was observed at 500(sh), 536, 564(sh), and 613(sh) nm, which are similar to those of violet flowers containing delphinidin-type pigments. Pressed juices of both fresh red-purple petals and old violet petals had pH5.2 and 5.5 respectively, and had the same flavonoid constitution. Crude fresh red-purple petal pigments extracted by pH 2.2 and pH 5.2 buffers exhibited the same color and spectral curves as fresh red-purple petals and old violet petals, respectively. Moreover, in a cross-TLC experiment of crude extracted pigments, red-purple color was exhibited by the anthocyanin region and the crossed region of anthocyanins and isoflavone. Thus, it may be assumed that the unusually low pH in the vacuole of fresh petals plays an important role to form red-purple flower color against weak acidic pH in the vacuole of old violet P. lobata

  2. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel (Iso)flavone 4′,7-O-diglucoside Glucosyltransferase from Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate a rich source of isoflavonoid glycosides, including 7-O- and 4′-O-mono-glucosides, and 4′,7-O-diglucosides, which have numerous human health benefits. Although, isoflavonoid 7-O-glucosyltranferases (7-O-UGTs) have been well-characterized at molecular levels in legume plants, genes, or enzymes that are required for isoflavonoid 4′-O- and 4′,7-O-glucosylation have not been identified in P. lobata to date. Especially for the 4′,7-O-di-glucosylations, the genetic control for this tailing process has never been elucidated from any plant species. Through transcriptome mining, we describe here the identification and characterization of a novel UGT (designated PlUGT2) governing the isoflavonoid 4′,7-O-di-glucosylations in P. lobata. Biochemical roles of PlUGT2 were assessed by in vitro assays with PlUGT2 protein produced in Escherichia coli and analyzed for its qualitative substrate specificity. PlUGT2 was active with various (iso)flavonoid acceptors, catalyzing consecutive glucosylation activities at their O-4′ and O-7 positions. PlUGT2 was most active with genistein, a general isoflavone in legume plants. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PlUGT2 is preferentially transcribed in roots relative to other organs of P. lobata, which is coincident with the accumulation pattern of 4′-O-glucosides and 4′,7-O-diglucosides in P. lobata. The identification of PlUGT2 would help to decipher the P. lobata isoflavonoid glucosylations in vivo and may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for an efficient biotransformation of isoflavones or other natural products for food or pharmacological purposes. PMID:27066037

  3. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel (Iso)flavone 4',7-O-diglucoside Glucosyltransferase from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate a rich source of isoflavonoid glycosides, including 7-O- and 4'-O-mono-glucosides, and 4',7-O-diglucosides, which have numerous human health benefits. Although, isoflavonoid 7-O-glucosyltranferases (7-O-UGTs) have been well-characterized at molecular levels in legume plants, genes, or enzymes that are required for isoflavonoid 4'-O- and 4',7-O-glucosylation have not been identified in P. lobata to date. Especially for the 4',7-O-di-glucosylations, the genetic control for this tailing process has never been elucidated from any plant species. Through transcriptome mining, we describe here the identification and characterization of a novel UGT (designated PlUGT2) governing the isoflavonoid 4',7-O-di-glucosylations in P. lobata. Biochemical roles of PlUGT2 were assessed by in vitro assays with PlUGT2 protein produced in Escherichia coli and analyzed for its qualitative substrate specificity. PlUGT2 was active with various (iso)flavonoid acceptors, catalyzing consecutive glucosylation activities at their O-4' and O-7 positions. PlUGT2 was most active with genistein, a general isoflavone in legume plants. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PlUGT2 is preferentially transcribed in roots relative to other organs of P. lobata, which is coincident with the accumulation pattern of 4'-O-glucosides and 4',7-O-diglucosides in P. lobata. The identification of PlUGT2 would help to decipher the P. lobata isoflavonoid glucosylations in vivo and may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for an efficient biotransformation of isoflavones or other natural products for food or pharmacological purposes.

  4. Metabolism of Isoflavones Found in the Pueraria thomsonii Flower by Human Intestinal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Kazuhiro; Matsuzuka, Yuki; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Itoh, Kikuji

    2011-01-01

    Isoflavones contained in the root and flower of Kudzu (Pueraria lobata and related species) are suggested to be the critical component for its effects. Although metabolism of soy isoflavones has been well studied, the composition of isoflavones found in Kudzu is completely different from that of soy isoflavones. In the present study, we investigated whether isoflavones found in the flower of Pueraria thomsonii, a species of Kudzu, were metabolized by human fecal microbiota and murine small intestinal enzymes. Among 5 glycosidic isoflavones of the Pueraria thomsonii flower, tectorigenin 7-O-xylosylglucoside, tectoridin, genistin and glycitin were completely hydrolyzed by a homogenate of germfree mouse small intestine without contribution of bacteria. Released aglycones were not further metabolized, except that up to half of glycitein disappeared. Mouse small intestinal enzymes did not metabolize 6-hydroxygenistein 6,7-di-O-glucoside. Isoflavone aglycones as well as 6-hydroxygenistein 6,7-di-O-glucoside were highly metabolized by most of the human fecal suspensions. Metabolites were not detected with the present analytical methods in most cases. Although further investigations of the pharmacokinetics of Pueraria thomsonii flower isoflavones are needed, the results of the present study indicate active metabolism of Pueraria thomsonii flower isoflavones in the human intestine.

  5. The Effect of Pueraria Lobata/Rehmannia Glutinosa and Exercise on Fatty Acid Transporters Expression in Ovariectomized Rats Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Jin; Yoon, Hae Min; Kwon, Oran; Lee, Won Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Pueraria lobata/rehmannia glutinosa (PR) and exercise have been receiving a lot of attention from postmenopausal women, as a result of the side effects of estrogen replacement therapy. However, the effects of PR and exercise on fatty acid transporters (FATPs), which play essential role in fatty acid transport, have not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PR and aerobic exercise on FATP1, FABPpm and FAT/CD36 expression in ovariectomized rat skeletal muscles. [Methods] Sixty rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: (1)HSV; high fat diet (HFD)+sedentary+vehicle, (2)HSP; HFD+sedentary+PR, (3)HSH; HFD+sedentary+17β-estradiol, (4)HEV; HFD+exercise+vehicle, (5) HEP; HFD+exercise+PR, (6)HEH; HFD+exercise+17β-estradiol. Exercise consisted of treadmill exercise (1-4th week: 15 m/min for 30 min, 5-8th week: 18 m/min for 40 min, 5 times/week). [Results] Exercise does not alter FATP1 and FAT/CD36 gene levels in soleus and plantaris muscles. In contrast, exercise had main effect on up-regulation of FABPpm mRNA expression in both muscles. However, FABPpm level was not increased by exercise combined with treatments, indicative of no additive effects of PR or hormone on FABPpm gene expression. On the other hand, immunohistochemistry result showed that translocation of FATPs proteins to plasma membrane were higher in PR, exercise groups, and exercise combined with PR groups in both muscles. [Conclusion] These result showed that aerobic exercise and PR may help increase fat-oxidation through the induction of FABPpm, a muscle specific transporter, in OVX rat skeletal muscles. In addition, FABPpm expression is possibly regulated post-transcriptionally in exercise, or pre-translationally in PR. PMID:27757385

  6. Kudzu root: traditional uses and potential medicinal benefits in diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka H; Li, George Q; Li, Kong M; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Chan, Kelvin

    2011-04-12

    Kudzu root (Gegen in Chinese) is the dried root of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, a semi-woody, perennial and leguminous vine native to South East Asia. It is often used interchangeably in traditional Chinese medicine with thomson kudzu root (Fengen in Chinese), the dried root of P. thomsonii, although the Chinese Pharmacopoeia has separated them into two monographs since the 2005 edition. For more than 2000 years, kudzu root has been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of fever, acute dysentery, diarrhoea, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Both English and Chinese literatures on the traditional applications, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicology, quality control and potential interactions with conventional drugs of both species have been included in the present review. Over seventy phytochemicals have been identified in kudzu root, with isoflavonoids and triterpenoids as the major constituents. Isoflavonoids, in particular puerarin, have been used in most of the pharmacological studies. Animal and cellular studies have provided support for the traditional uses of kudzu root on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and endocrine systems, including diabetes and its complications. Further studies to define the active phytochemical compositions, quality standards and clinical efficacy are warranted. Strong interdisciplinary collaboration to bridge the gap between traditional medicine and modern biomedical medicine is therefore needed for the development of kudzu root as an effective medicine for the management of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  7. The biology and preliminary host range of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) and its impact on kudzu growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Hanula, James L; Horn, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (F.), recently was discovered in the United States feeding on kudzu, Pueraria montana Lour. (Merr.) variety lobata (Willd.), an economically important invasive vine. We studied its biology on kudzu and its impact on kudzu growth. We also tested its ability to use other common forest legumes for oviposition and development. Flight intercept traps operated from 17 May 2010 to 31 May 2011 in a kudzu field near Athens, GA showed three peaks of adult flight activity suggesting there are two generations per year on kudzu. Vine samples examined for eggs from April 2010 to April 2011 and June to October 2011 showed two periods of oviposition activity in 2010, which coincided with the peaks in adult activity. In 2011, the second period of oviposition began on or before 24 June and then egg abundance declined gradually thereafter until late August when we recovered <2 eggs/0.5 m of vine. Samples of the five nymphal instars and adults on vines did not show similar trends in abundance. Adults did not lay eggs on the various legume species tested in 2010 in a no-choice test possibly because the cages were too small. In the 2011 field host range experiments conducted in a kudzu field by using 12 legume species, M. cribraria preferentially oviposited on kudzu over soybean, Glycine max Merrill., but they still laid 320 eggs per plant on soybean. Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem. and Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don had 122.2 and 108.4 eggs per plant, respectively. Kudzu and soybean were the only species M. cribraria completed development on. Plots protected from M. cribraria feeding by biweekly insecticide applications had 32.8% more kudzu biomass than unprotected plots. Our results show that M. cribraria has a significant impact on kudzu growth and could help suppress this pest weed.

  8. Extraction and isolation of potential anti-stroke compounds from flowers of Pueraria lobata guided by in vitro PC12 cell model.

    PubMed

    Li, Sainan; Li, Senlin; Liu, Chengyu; Liu, Chunming; Zhang, Yuchi

    2017-03-24

    A simple and efficient method based on ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS) was applied to rapidly screen and identify ligands for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the flowers of Pueraria lobata, and the compounds were assessed for anti-stroke activity using a PC12 cell model. Seven major isoflavones, kakkalide, 3'-hydroxy puerarin, puerarin, puerarin xyloside, tectoridin, tectorigenin, and ononin, were identified as potent LDH inhibitors. A continuous online method, which consisted of microwave-assisted extraction and countercurrent chromatography (MAE-CCC), was newly developed for scaled-up production of these compounds with high purity and efficiency. This novel approach, using UFLC-MS coupled with MAE-CCC and a PC12 cell model, provided a powerful tool for screening, extraction, and separation of LDH inhibitors from complex samples, and a useful platform for the large-scale production of functional food and nutraceutical ingredients.

  9. Puerarin, isolated from Pueraria lobata (Willd.), protects against hepatotoxicity via specific inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, thereby leading to anti-fibrotic effect.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingyuan; Zheng, Ni; He, Qiaoling; Li, Rong; Zhang, Kefeng; Liang, Tao

    2013-10-15

    Recently, the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway has been investigated in the pathogenesis of hepatofibrosis, and pharmacological treatment of liver fibrosis targeted this pathway to determine its contribution to the inhibition of fibrotic development. Importantly, ethnopharmacology-derived Pueraria lobata has been reported to effectively reverse the fibrotic process in the liver. In the present study, we performed dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats to assess the benefits of puerarin (PR), which was isolated from Pueraria lobata (Willd.), on ECM-derived hepatocytes associated with the TGF-β1/Smad pathway. Our results showed that the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), type III precollagen (PCIII) and type IV collagen (CIV) were significantly reduced by PR treatment, while hepatic homogenates showed decreased levels of hydroxyproline (Hyp) and collagen I (Col I). Masson's trichrome staining indicated that the DMN-induced liver fibrosis was alleviated. In addition, the protein expression levels of transforming growth factor-β l (TGF-β l), smad2, smad3, α-SMA and TIMP-1 were downregulated specifically by PR treatment, whereas the protein expression levels of smad7 and MMP-1 were upregulated. Furthermore, we evaluated the PR-mediated inhibitory effect on TGF-β1-treated proliferation and activation in a rat liver stellate cell line (HSC-T6). These data resulted in inhibition of the cell growth of HSC-T6 in a dose-dependent manner and a reduction in TβRI, smad2 and smad3 expressed proteins in the presence of PR on TGF-β1-treated HSC-T6 cells, while smad7 levels were downregulated. Taken together, these findings identify a unique effect for PR-regulation of the TGF-β1/Smad pathway in blocking fibrotic development and provide a promising strategy for hepatofibrosis treatment.

  10. Plant architecture and growth response of kudzu (fabaceae: Fabaceae) to simulated insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Frye, M J; Hough-Goldstein, J

    2013-10-01

    Kudzu [Pueraria montana variety lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. M. Almeida] plant architecture and growth were compared for plants subjected to 4 wk of simulated herbivory (75% leaf cutting) and no damage. Simulated herbivory reduced above-ground and root biomass by 40 and 47%, respectively, whereas total vine length and average length of the 10 longest vines were reduced by 48 and 43%, respectively, compared with control plants. Plant architecture was also affected, with damaged plants showing a significantly reduced proportion of primary vines, shorter secondary vines, and reduced average internode distances compared with the control plants. In natural situations, these changes would reduce the ability of kudzu to compete for light and other resources by affecting the plant's climbing habit.

  11. Macrocyclic trichothecenes are undetectable in kudzu (Pueraria montana) plants treated with a high-producing isolate of Myrothecium verrucaria.

    PubMed

    Abbas, H K; Tak, H; Boyette, C D; Shier, W T; Jarvis, B B

    2001-09-01

    Myrothecium verrucaria was found to be an effective pathogen against kudzu grown in the greenhouse and the field. M. verrucaria produced large amounts of macrocyclic trichothecenes when cultured on solid rice medium, including epiroridin E (16.8 mg/g crude extract), epiisororidin E (1 mg/g), roridin E (8.7 mg/g), roridin H (31.3 mg/g), trichoverrin A (0.6 mg/g), trichoverrin B (0.1 mg/g), verrucarin A (37.4 mg/g), and verrucarin J (2.2 mg/g). Most of these toxins were also isolated from M. verrucaria spores and mycelia grown on potato dextrose agar medium, including epiroridin E (32.3 mg/g), epiisororidin E (28.6 mg/g), roridin E (0 mg/g), roridin H (60 mg/g), trichoverrin A (1.3 mg/g), trichoverrin B (1.8 mg/g), verrucarin A (13.8 mg/g), and verrucarin J (131 mg/g). When M. verrucaria was cultured on liquid media, the numbers but not the amounts of toxins decreased. Only epiroridin E (28.3 mg/g), epiisororidin E (29.6 mg/g), verrucarin B (195 mg/g) and verrucarin J (52.6 mg/g) were measured when the fungus was cultured on cornsteep medium. On soyflour-cornmeal broth M. verrucaria produced several toxins, including epiroridin E (58.1 mg/g), epiisororidin E (5.8 mg/g), verrucarin B (29.9 mg/g) and verrucarin J (32 mg/g). In contrast, no macrocyclic trichothecenes were detected by HPLC analysis of plant tissues of kudzu, sicklepod, and soybean treated with aqueous suspensions of M. verrucaria spores formulated with a surfactant. Chloroform-methanol extracts of kudzu leaves and stems treated with M. verrucaria spores were less cytotoxic to four cultured mammalian cell lines than the corresponding extracts from control plants. Purified macrocyclic trichothecenes (verrucarin A and T-2 toxin) were very cytotoxic to the same cell lines (< or = 2 ng/ml). These results show that neither intact macrocyclic trichothecenes nor toxic metabolites could be detected in plant tissues after treatment with M. verrucaria spores. These results argue for both safety and efficacy for the

  12. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  13. The Root Extract of Pueraria lobata and Its Main Compound, Puerarin, Prevent Obesity by Increasing the Energy Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyo Won; Kang, An Na; Kang, Seok Yong; Park, Yong-Ki; Song, Mi Young

    2017-01-01

    Radix Pueraria lobata (RP) has been reported to prevent obesity and improve glucose metabolism; however, the mechanism responsible for these effects has not been elucidated. The mechanism underlying anti-obesity effect of RP was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice and skeletal muscle cells (C2C12). Five-week-old C5BL/6 mice were fed a HFD containing or not containing RP (100 or 300 mg/kg) or metformin (250 mg/kg) for 16 weeks. RP reduced body weight gain, lipid accumulation in liver, and adipocyte and blood lipid levels. In addition, RP dose-dependently improved hyperglycemia, insulinemia, and glucose tolerance, and prevented the skeletal muscle atrophy induced by HFD. Furthermore, RP increased the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) expression and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in skeletal muscle tissues. RP and its main component, puerarin, increased mitochondrial biogenesis and myotube hypertrophy in C2C12 cells. The present study demonstrates that RP can prevent diet-induced obesity, glucose tolerance, and skeletal muscle atrophy in mouse models of obesity. The mechanism responsible for the effect of RP appears to be related to the upregulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, which at the molecular level may be associated with PGC-1α and AMPK activation. PMID:28054981

  14. Biology and preliminary host range assessment of two potential kudzu biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Frye, Matthew J; Hough-Goldstein, Judith; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2007-12-01

    Two insect species from China, Gonioctena tredecimmaculata (Jacoby) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Ornatalcides (Mesalcidodes) trifidus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were studied in quarantine in the United States as potential biological control agents for kudzu, Pueraria montana variety lobata (Willd.) Maesen and S. Almeida. Adults of G. tredecimmaculata were ovoviviparous and reproduced throughout the summer, producing offspring that had an obligate adult diapause. In no-choice tests, adult and larval G. tredecimmaculata rejected most of the plant species tested, but consumed foliage and completed their life cycle on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and on a native woodland plant, hog-peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata L. Fernald), which are in the same subtribe as kudzu (Glycininae). Insects showed similar responses to field- and greenhouse-grown soybean and kudzu foliage, despite measurable differences in leaf traits: field-grown foliage of both plants had greater leaf toughness, higher total carbon content, higher trichome density, and lower water content than greenhouse foliage. O. trifidus adults also rejected most of the plants tested but fed on and severely damaged potted soybean and hog-peanut plants in addition to kudzu. Further tests in China are needed to determine whether these species will accept nontarget host plants under open-field conditions.

  15. Separation and determination of isoflavonoids in several kudzu samples by high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE).

    PubMed

    Fang, Congbing; Wan, Xiaochun; Tan, Huarong; Jiang, Changjun

    2006-01-01

    Pueraria lobata is a rich source of isoflavonoids. The detection and identification of isoflavonoid components from root, stem, leaf, callus and cell samples, is very important for the best, safest and most efficacious use of kudzu as a medicinal plant, and for the studies on quantitative analysis in the secondary metabolism of isoflavonoids. In this paper, a simple, rapid and precise high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) method with diode array detection (DAD) has been developed for separation and determination of isoflavonoids in several kudzu samples. The isoflavonoids could be well separated within 15 min in a 40 cm length capillary at a separation voltage of 15kV in a 30 mmol L(-1) borax buffer (pH9.29), and this proposed method demonstrated excellent reproducibility and accuracy with relative standard deviations of less than 5% for isoflavonoid content (n = 5) of different kudzu samples. The relationship between peak areas and isoflavone concentrations, in a specified working range with linear response, was determined by first-order polynomial regression over the range 0.05-0.5 mg mL(-1) for puerarin and 2.5-50 microg mL(-1) for 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin and daidzein, respectively, and quantitative evaluation of those four main isoflavonoid components was determined by ultraviolet absorption at lambda = 192 nm. The differences were also illustrated by comparison of the determination of isoflavonoid components from kudzu root, stem, leaf samples and plant tissue cultures in vitro.

  16. Tracking deposition of a 14C-radiolabeled kudzu hairy root-derived isoflavone-rich fraction into bone.

    PubMed

    Mun, Jonathan G; Grannan, Michael D; Lachcik, Pamela J; Rogers, Randy B; Yousef, Gad G; Grace, Mary H; Janle, Elsa M; Wu, Qing Li; Simon, James E; Weaver, Connie M; Lila, Mary Ann

    2010-10-01

    Hairy roots were induced in four genotypes from three kudzu species (Pueraria montana var. lobata, P. lobata and P. phaseoloides) in vitro using Agrobacterium rhizogenes to stimulate rapid secondary metabolite synthesis. Hairy roots from P. montana var. lobata (United States Department of Agriculture no. PI 434246) yielded the highest puerarin and total isoflavone content and the greatest new biomass per growth cycle among the genotypes evaluated. Hairy roots from this genotype were selected for radiolabeling using (14)C-sucrose as a carbon source. Isoflavones from radiolabeled kudzu hairy root cultures were extracted with 80% methanol, partitioned by solvent extraction, and then subfractionated by Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration. Radiolabeled isoflavones were isolated in a highly enriched fraction, which contained predominantly puerarin, daidzin and malonyl-daidzin and had an average radioactivity of 8.614 MBq/g (232.8 μCi/g) dry fraction. The (14)C-radiolabeled, isoflavone-rich fraction was orally administered at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight to male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with a jugular catheter, a subcutaneous ultrafiltrate probe and a brain microdialysate probe. Serum, interstitial fluid, brain microdialysate, urine and feces were collected using a Culex(®) Automated Blood Collection System for 24 h. At the end of this period, rats were sacrificed and major tissues were collected. Analysis by a scintillation counter confirmed that a bolus dose of (14)C-radiolabeled, isoflavone-rich kudzu fraction reached bone tissues, which accumulated 0.011%, 0.09% and 0.003% of the administered dose in femur, tibia and vertebrae, respectively. Femurs extracted with 80% methanol were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and were found to contain trace quantities of puerarin, daidzein and puerarin glucuronide. This study demonstrates that kudzu isoflavones and metabolites are capable of reaching bone tissues

  17. Rapid Determination of Puerarin by Near-infrared Spectroscopy During Percolation and Concentration Process of Puerariae Lobatae Radix

    PubMed Central

    Jintao, Xue; Quanwei, Yang; Yun, Jing; Yufei, Liu; Chunyan, Li; Jing, Yang; Yanfang, Wu; Peng, Li; Guangrui, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gegen (Puerariae Labatae Radix) is one of the important medicines in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The studies showed that Gegen and its preparation had effective actions for atherosclerosis. Objective: Near-infrared (NIR) was used to develop a method for rapid determination of puerarin during percolation and concentration process of Gegen. Materials and Methods: About ten batches of samples were collected with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis values as reference, calibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression, and artificial neural networks (ANN) as nonlinear regression. Results: The root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Conclusions: The NIR model for the rapid analysis of puerarin can be used for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process. SUMMARY Near-infrared was used to develop a method for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process of GegenCalibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression and artificial neural networks (ANN) as non-linear regressionThe root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Abbreviations used: NIR: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy; Gegen: Puerariae Loabatae Radix; TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine; PLS: Partial least-squares; ANN: Artificial neural networks; RMSEP: Root mean square error of validation; R2: Correlation coefficients; PAT: Process analytical technology; FDA: The Food and Drug Administration; Rcal: Calibration set; RMSECV: Root mean square errors of cross-validation; RPD: Residual predictive deviation; SLS: Straight Line Subtraction; MLP: Multi-Layer Perceptron; MSE: Mean square error. PMID:27601848

  18. Relevance of the Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Puerariae lobatae Radix to Aggregation of Multi-Component Molecules in Aqueous Decoctions.

    PubMed

    Su, Bili; Kan, Yongjun; Xie, Jianwei; Hu, Juan; Pang, Wensheng

    2016-06-28

    The complexity of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is related to their multi-component system. TCM aqueous decoction is a common clinical oral formulation. Between molecules in solution, there exist intermolecular strong interactions to form chemical bonds or weak non-bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces, which hold molecules together to form "molecular aggregates". Taking the TCM Puerariae lobatae Radix (Gegen) as an example, we explored four Gegen decoctions of different concentration of 0.019, 0.038, 0.075, and 0.30 g/mL, named G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4. In order of molecular aggregate size (diameter) the four kinds of solution were ranked G-1 < G-2 < G-3 < G-4 by Flow Cell 200S IPAC image analysis. A rabbit vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency (VBI) model was set up and they were given Gegen decoction (GGD) at a clinical dosage of 0.82 g/kg (achieved by adjusting the gastric perfusion volume depending on the concentration). The HPLC fingerprint of rabbit plasma showed that the chemical component absorption into blood in order of peak area values was G-1 < G-2 > G-3 > G-4. Puerarin and daidzin are the major constituents of Gegen, and the pharmacokinetics of G-1 and G-2 puerarin conformed with the two compartment open model, while for G-3 and G-4, they conformed to a one compartment open model. For all four GGDs the pharmacokinetics of daidzin complied with a one compartment open model. FQ-PCR assays of rabbits' vertebrobasilar arterial tissue were performed to determine the pharmacodynamic profiles of the four GGDs. GGD markedly lowered the level of AT₁R mRNA, while the AT₂R mRNA level was increased significantly vs. the VBI model, and G-2 was the most effective. In theory the dosage was equal to the blood drug concentration and should be consistent; however, the formation of molecular aggregates affects drug absorption and metabolism, and therefore influences drugs' effects. Our data provided references for the rational use

  19. Influence of an extract from kudzu symbiosomes containing leghemoglobin on in vitro cutaneous procollagen production.

    PubMed

    Gruber, James V; Holtz, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Cytoglobin is a hexacoordinate globin protein that was recently discovered in mammals. Interestingly, of the four human globin proteins that are now known, hemoglobin, myoglobin, neuroglobin and cytoglobin, the latter appears to have the closest resemblance to strikingly similar proteins expressed in plants. In legumes, these proteins accumulate in symbiosomes (root nodules) of various legumes and are called leghemoglobin. The paper will discuss the ability of an aqueous extract from Pueraria lobata (kudzu) symbiosomes that contains leghemoglobin to stimulate procollagen production in human dermal fibroblasts. This effect may be partly due to the possibility that leghemoglobin may mimic the function of cytoglobin by shuttling oxygen to prolyl-4-hydroxylase, the enzyme responsible for oxidizing proline residues in procollagen bundles. This hypothesis is supported by DNA microarray sequencing data that demonstrate that treatment of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) with highly purified cytoglobin or leghemoglobin upregulates a number of key collagen-related genes including COL1A1 and COL1A2.

  20. Dual high-resolution α-glucosidase and radical scavenging profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for identification of minor and major constituents directly from the crude extract of Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingrui; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Qinglei, Sun; Nyberg, Nils T; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2015-02-27

    The crude methanol extract of Pueraria lobata was investigated by dual high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition and radical scavenging profiling combined with hyphenated HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. Direct analysis of the crude extract without preceding purification was facilitated by combining chromatograms from two analytical-scale HPLC separations of 120 and 600 μg on-column, respectively. High-resolution α-glucosidase and radical scavenging profiles were obtained after microfractionation of the eluate in 96-well microplates. This allowed full bioactivity profiling of individual peaks in the HPLC chromatogram of the crude methanol extract. Subsequent HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR analysis allowed identification of 21 known compounds in addition to two new compounds, i.e., 3'-methoxydaidzein 8-C-[α-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside and 6″-O-malonyl-3'-methoxydaidzin, as well as an unstable compound tentatively identified as 3'-de-O-methylpuerariafuran.

  1. Light and CO sub 2 effects on photosynthesis and growth in Kudzu

    SciTech Connect

    Schweder, M.; Bowes, G. ); Cure, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata Willd.) was grown for 28 days under four permutations of light (1,500 or 450 {mu}mol quanta m{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}) and CO{sub 2} (700 or 350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}). Total biomass and leaf area were up to 55% and 52% respectively greater in the high CO{sub 2} treatments. When measured at the growth CO{sub 2} concentration, photosynthetic rates showed little reduction over the 28 day period, and remained up to 29% higher in the high CO{sub 2} treatments. Under high light, soluble protein was 27% greater in the plants grown at high CO{sub 2}. Neither light nor CO{sub 2} had a significant effect on the initial or total rubisco activities. However, phosphoribulokinase activity was decreased under the high CO{sub 2} treatments. These data indicate that photosynthesis in kudzu shows little acclimation when grown at elevated CO{sub 2}.

  2. The application of kudzu as a medium for the adsorption of heavy metals from dilute aqueous wastestreams.

    PubMed

    Brown, P A; Brown, J M; Allen, S J

    2001-06-01

    This study assessed the use of kudzu (Pueraria lobata ohwi) as a medium for the capture of copper, cadmium, and zinc from low concentration solutions. The rate and extent of uptake was studied using a system of standardized batch adsorbers under steady-state and transient-rate conditions. All plant components were tested. Residual metals analyses were performed on an ICP-AES/OES (Optima 3000 DV). The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson isotherms were determined; the Langmuir isotherm was found to best represent the data for copper and cadmium uptake. The Redlich-Peterson best represented the data for zinc. Kudzu was determined to be an effective adsorbent for removal of heavy metals. Though its capacity for metals removal is less than commercial grade ion exchange resins, it could be used at much lower cost, and may find application in the treatment of dilute mixed-matrix metal wastestreams, such as urban runoff, where the application of resins would be expensive and subject to premature poisoning by interfering contaminants.

  3. Impact of kudzu and puerarin on sperm function.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sandra L; Lackey, Brett R; Boone, William R

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of kudzu (Pueraria mirifica) and the isoflavone puerarin in functional toxicological tests on spermatozoa and to assess the affinity of extracts and pure isoflavones for estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and -beta (ERα, ERβ) in receptor binding assays. Capacitation, acrosome reaction and chromatin decondensation in spermatozoa were analyzed using microscopic analysis. Kudzu, but not puerarin, reduced motility of sperm. Puerarin reduced the percent spontaneous acrosome reaction in spermatozoa. The pathways used by kudzu that affect sperm function are not fully mirrored by puerarin. Puerarin, kudzu and its other phytoestrogenic components displayed preferential affinity for ERβ, however the diverse effects of kudzu and puerarin on sperm function implicate the involvement of multiple signaling systems.

  4. Fermented Pueraria Lobata extract ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and recovering intestinal barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seungho; Woo, Jong-Kyu; Jang, Yeong-Su; Kang, Ju-Hee; Jang, Jung-Eun; Yi, Tae-Hoo; Park, Sang-Yong; Kim, Sun-Yeou; Yoon, Yeo-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder occurring in the gastrointestinal track. However, the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies has been limited and accompanied by side effects. In order to eliminate the limitations, herbal medicines have recently been developed for treatment of IBD. Peuraria Lobata (Peuraria L.) is one of the traditional herbal medicines that have anti-inflammatory effects. Bioavailability of Peuraria L., which is rich in isoflavones, is lower than that of their fermented forms. In this study, we generated fermented Peuraria L. extracts (fPue) and investigated the role of fPue in inflammation and intestinal barrier function in vitro and in vivo. As the mice or intestinal epithelial cells were treated with DSS/fPue, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was reduced and the architecture and expression of tight junction proteins were recovered, compared to the DSS-treated group. In summary, fPue treatment resulted in amelioration of DSS-induced inflammation in the colon, and the disrupted intestinal barrier was recovered as the expression and architecture of tight junction proteins were retrieved. These results suggest that use of fPue could be a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of IBD. PMID:27729931

  5. Water stress, temperature, and light effects on the capacity for isoprene emission and photosynthesis of kudzu leaves.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Thomas D; Loreto, Francesco

    1993-09-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd) Ohwi.) is a vine which forms large, monospecific stands in disturbed areas of the southeastern United States. Kudzu also emits isoprene, a hydrocarbon which can significantly affect atmospheric chemistry including reactions leading to tropospheric ozone. We have studied physiological aspects of isoprene emission from kudzu so the ecological consequences of isoprene emission can be better understood. We examined: (a) the development of isoprene emission as leaves developed, (b) the interaction between photon flux density and temperature effects on isoprene emission, (c) isoprene emission during and after water stress, and (d) the induction of isoprene emission from leaves grown at low temperature by water stress or elevated temperature. Isoprene emission under standard conditions of 1000 μmol photons·m(-2)·s(-1) and 30°C developed only after the leaf had reached full expansion, and was not complete until up to two weeks past the point of full expansion of the leaf. The effect of temperature on isoprene emission was much greater than found for other species, with a 10°C increase in temperature causing a eight-fold increase in the rate of isoprene emission. Isoprene emission from kudzu was stimulated by increases in photon flux density up to 3000 μmol photons·m(-2)·s(-1). In contrast, photosynthesis of kudzu was saturated at less than 1000 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) photon flux density and was reduced at high temperature, so that up to 20% of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis was reemitted as isoprene gas at 1000 μmol photons·m(-2)·s(-1) and 35°C. Withholding water caused photosynthesis to decline nearly to zero after several days but had a much smaller effect on isoprene emission. Following the relief of water stress, photosynthesis recovered to the prestress level but isoprene emission increased to about five times the prestress rate. At 1000 μmol photons·m(-2)·s(-1) and 35°C as much as 67% of the carbon fixed in

  6. Modeling landscape-scale pathogen spillover between domesticated and wild hosts: Asian soybean rust and kudzu.

    PubMed

    Fabiszewski, Anna M; Umbanhowar, James; Mitchell, Charles E

    2010-03-01

    Many emerging pathogens infect both domesticated and wild host species, creating the potential for pathogen transmission between domesticated and wild populations. This common situation raises the question of whether managing negative impacts of disease on a focal host population (whether domesticated, endangered, or pest) requires management of only the domesticated host, only the wild host, or both. To evaluate the roles of domesticated and wild hosts in the dynamics of shared pathogens, we developed a spatially implicit model of a pathogen transmitted by airborne spores between two host species restricted to two different landscape patch types. As well as exploring the general dynamics and implications of the model, we fully parameterized our model for Asian soybean rust, a multihost infectious disease that emerged in the United States in 2004. The rust fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi infects many legume species, including soybeans (Glycine max) and the nonnative invasive species kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata). Our model predicts that epidemics are driven by the host species that is more abundant in the landscape. In managed landscapes, this will generally be the domesticated host. However, many pathogens overwinter on a wild host, which acts as the source of initial inoculum at the start of the growing season. Our model predicts that very low local densities of infected wild hosts, surviving in landscape patches separate from the domesticated host, are sufficient to initiate epidemics in the domesticated host, such that managing epidemics by reducing wild host local density may not be feasible. In contrast, managing to reduce pathogen infection of a domesticated host can reduce disease impacts on wild host populations.

  7. Natural and human dimensions of a quasi-wild species: The case of kudzu

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Z.; Dong, Q.; Albright, T.P.; Guo, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The human dimensions of biotic invasion are generally poorly understood, even among the most familiar invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.) is a prominent invasive plant and an example of quasi-wild species, which has experienced repeated introduction, cultivation, and escape back to the wild. Here, we review a large body of primary scientific and historic records spanning thousands of years to characterize the complex relationships among kudzu, its natural enemies, and humans, and provide a synthesis and conceptual model relevant to the ecology and management of quasi-wild invasive species. We documented over 350, mostly insect, natural enemy species and their impacts on kudzu in its native East Asian range. These natural enemies play a minor role in limiting kudzu in its native range, rarely generating severe impacts on populations of wild kudzu. We identified a number of significant influences of humans including dispersal, diverse cultural selection, and facilitation through disturbances, which catalyzed the expansion and exuberance of kudzu. On the other hand, harvest by humans appears to be the major control mechanism in its native areas. Humans thus have a complex relationship with kudzu. They have acted as both friend and foe, affecting the distribution and abundance of kudzu in ways that vary across its range and over time. Our conceptual model of kudzu emphasizes the importance of multiple human dimensions in shaping the biogeography of a species and illustrates how kudzu and other quasi-wild species are more likely to be successful invaders. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.(outside the USA).

  8. Seasonal variations in the isoflavonoids of radix Puerariae.

    PubMed

    Sibao, Chen; Dajian, Yang; Shilin, Chen; Hongx, Xu; Chan, Albert S C

    2007-01-01

    The variations in isoflavonoid content in Radix Puerariae, the root of Pueraria lobata (Wild) Ohwi, have been examined in order to determine the optimum time to harvest the herb. Total isoflavonoid contents have been analysed by a UV spectrophotometric method whilst HPLC with photodiode array detection has been used to monitor the contents of seven major individual isoflavonoids, namely, 3'-hydroxypuerarin, puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, genistin, formononetin-7-glucoside and daidzein. Ninety-six samples of Radix Puerariae of different ages and harvested in different months were collected and analysed. The results clearly showed that 3-year-old roots harvested in January have the highest yields of isoflavonoid compounds. Moreover, the results obtained by both methods have a strong correlation. This suggested that the simple and fast UV spectrophotometric method could be used for monitoring the phytochemical quality of Radix Puerariae.

  9. Consumption of Pueraria flower extract reduces body mass index via a decrease in the visceral fat area in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Takano, Akira; Matsuzuka, Yuki; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Kondo, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, kudzu is a familiar plant, well-known as an ingredient in the Japanese-style confections kudzu-kiri and kudzu-mochi. In this study, we focused on the flower of kudzu (Pueraria thomsonii) and conducted a clinical trial to investigate the effects of Pueraria thomsonii flower extract (PFE) on obesity using obese Japanese males and females (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Eighty-one obese subjects were randomly divided into three groups and consumed test food containing 300 mg of PFE, 200 mg of PFE, and a placebo over 12 weeks. The results indicate that PFE intake reduces BMI and decreases, the visceral fat area, but not the subcutaneous fat area. In addition, the decrease in visceral fat area showed no sexual dimorphism. Consequently, we propose that PFE intake expresses its BMI reduction effects via a decrease in visceral fat area.

  10. Evolution of the isoprene biosynthetic pathway in kudzu.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Thomas D; Yeh, Sansun; Wiberley, Amy E; Falbel, Tanya G; Gong, Deming; Fernandez, Donna E

    2005-02-01

    Isoprene synthase converts dimethylallyl diphosphate, derived from the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, to isoprene. Isoprene is made by some plants in substantial amounts, which affects atmospheric chemistry, while other plants make no isoprene. As part of our long-term study of isoprene synthesis, the genetics of the isoprene biosynthetic pathway of the isoprene emitter, kudzu (Pueraria montana), was compared with similar genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which does not make isoprene. The MEP pathway genes in kudzu were similar to the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. Isoprene synthase genes of kudzu and aspen (Populus tremuloides) were cloned to compare their divergence with the divergence seen in MEP pathway genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the terpene synthase gene family indicated that isoprene synthases are either within the monoterpene synthase clade or sister to it. In Arabidopsis, the gene most similar to isoprene synthase is a myrcene/ocimene (acyclic monoterpenes) synthase. Two phenylalanine residues found exclusively in isoprene synthases make the active site smaller than other terpene synthase enzymes, possibly conferring specificity for the five-carbon substrate rather than precursors of the larger isoprenoids. Expression of the kudzu isoprene synthase gene in Arabidopsis caused Arabidopsis to emit isoprene, indicating that whether or not a plant emits isoprene depends on whether or not it has a terpene synthase capable of using dimethylallyl diphosphate.

  11. Rapid analysis of Radix puerariae by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ching-Ching; Chan, Chi-On; Chau, Foo-Tim; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah

    2009-03-13

    A new, rapid analytical method using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was developed to differentiate two species of Radix puerariae (GG), Pueraria lobata (YG) and Pueraria thomsonii (FG), and to determine the contents of puerarin, daidzin and total isoflavonoid in the samples. Five isoflavonoids, puerarin, daidzin, daidzein, genistin and genistein were analyzed simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The total isoflavonoid content was exploited as critical parameter for successful discrimination of the two species. Scattering effect and baseline shift in the NIR spectra were corrected and the spectral features were enhanced by several pre-processing methods. By using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling class analogy (SIMCA), samples were separated successfully into two different clusters corresponding to the two GG species. Furthermore, sensitivity and specificity of the classification models were determined to evaluate the performance. Finally, partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to build the correlation models. The results showed that the correlation coefficients of the prediction models are R=0.970 for the puerarin, R=0.939 for daidzin and R=0.969 for total isoflavonoid. The outcome showed that NIRS can serve as routine screening in the quality control of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM).

  12. Kudzu response to foliar applied herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical control is presently the most cost-effective means to control kudzu, however, many of the herbicides labeled for kudzu control have substantial non-target toxicity, poor selectivity, high cost, long soil persistence, high soil mobility and / or high use rates. The present study evaluated ot...

  13. Seasonal occurrence and interspecific interactions of egg parasitoids of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Japan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a field study to determine seasonal egg parasitism rates of the kudzu bug Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) on the kudzu plant, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen et Almeida ex Sanjappa and Pradeep in Tokyo, Japan during the period from May 2014 to September 2014. ...

  14. Towards Biological Control of Kudzu Through an Improved Understanding of Insect-Kudzu Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, D.; Barber, G.; DeBarr, G.; Thornton, M.

    2001-08-03

    The authors evaluated various approaches to the biological control of kudzu and exotic weed that infests the SRS. A large number of native pollinators were found to be attracted to kudzu. The viability of seed was found to be low, between 2% and 11%. This is the result of native Hemiptera. The results suggest that seed feeding insects should not be targeted for importation. Both kudzu and soybeans had the same level of abundance and diversity of herbivore insects and the same levels of defoliation. No vine or root damaging species were found. Efforts should be targeted to the latter insects to control kudzu.

  15. A rapid method for simultaneous determination of 14 phenolic compounds in Radix Puerariae using microwave-assisted extraction and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Du, G; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, Q W; Li, G H; Yang, F Q; Wang, Y; Li, Y C; Wang, Y T

    2010-01-29

    A microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-TOF-MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 14 phenolic compounds in the root of Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi and Pueraria thomsonii Benth. Operational conditions of MAE were optimized by central composite design (CCD). The optimized result was 65% ethanol as extraction solvent, 17mL of extraction volume, 100 degrees C of extraction temperature and 2min of hold time. A Zorbax SB C(18) (50mmx4.6mm I.D., 1.8microm) and gradient elution were used during the analysis. The chromatographic peaks of 14 investigated compounds in samples were successfully identified by comparing their retention time, UV spectra and TOF mass data with the reference substances. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.9997) within the test ranges. The intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 1.77% and 2.88%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to determine the investigated compounds in 10 samples of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii, respectively. The result indicated that MAE and UHPLC-DAD-TOF-MS system might provide a rapid method for the quality control of Radix Puerariae.

  16. Oral toxicological studies of pueraria flower extract: acute toxicity study in mice and subchronic toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Takano, Akira; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Kinjo, Junei

    2013-11-01

    Kudzu has been widely used as an herbal medicine in China. The root of the kudzu is also well known as an antipyretic and analgesic in treatment of the common cold, while its flower has been used to treat alcohol intoxication, alcohol abuse, and dysentery. Pueraria flower extract (PFE) is a hot water extract derived from the flower of the kudzu, Pueraria thomsonii Benth. (Fabaceae), oral intake of which exhibits anti-obesity properties in mice and humans. In this study, we conducted acute and subchronic toxicity studies for an evaluation of safety. In the acute study, PFE (5 g/kg body weight) was orally administered to ddY mice. For 14 d after administration, no deaths or abnormal changes were observed in general signs, body weight (BW), or food consumption, and no abnormal findings were observed in the major organs and tissues of either males or females at necropsy. The oral LD50 of PFE was therefore estimated to be higher than 5 g/kg BW. In the subchronic study, PFE was mixed into the diet in place of powdered CRF-1 and administered at concentrations of 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.5%, and 5.0% to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 d. No mortality or toxicological changes were observed during the experimental period. Blood biochemical, hematological, and urinary parameters revealed no toxicologically significant changes. Furthermore, no anatomical or histopathological changes due to PFE were observed. The no-observed adverse-effect-level of PFE was thus estimated to be 5.0% in the diet (male: 3.0 g/kg BW/d; female: 3.5 g/kg BW/d).

  17. Profiling and quantification of isoflavonoids in kudzu dietary supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Prasain, Jeevan K; Jones, Kenneth; Kirk, Marion; Wilson, Landon; Smith-Johnson, Michelle; Weaver, Connie; Barnes, Stephen

    2003-07-16

    The kudzu vine (Pueraria sp.) is a rich source of isoflavones. Dietary supplements based on kudzu have become commercially available. In the present study, liquid chromatography coupled with negative and positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and diode array detection (DAD) has been used for the detection and characterization of isoflavonoids in kudzu dietary supplements (KDS). The MS/MS spectrum of the protonated ion of puerarin showed characteristic product ions of the C-glycoside unit itself, whereas daidzin generated an abundant Y(0)(+) aglycon ion in its product ion spectrum. A base peak due to the loss of 120 Da [M + H - 120](+) is the diagnostic ion for C-glycosides. Neutral loss scans allowed for the detection of other C- and O-glycosides in the methanolic extract of KDS, and their structures have been proposed. The concentration of isoflavonoids in the methanolic extract of commercially available KDS was quantified by using DAD-HPLC. Puerarin, rather than daidzin, was the most abundant component (8.44-30.60 mg/capsule) in commercially available KDS.

  18. Interactions of Quinclorac with a bioherbicidal strain of Myrothecium verrucaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our laboratory, the fungus, Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (IMI Accession No. 3601690) (MV), is being developed as a bioherbicide for kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi] and other invasive weeds. We have found that spore and mycelial formulations of MV exhibit relatively rapid bioher...

  19. Puerarin, isolated from Pueraria lobata (Willd.), protects against diabetic nephropathy by attenuating oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Zheng, Ni; Chen, Zhaoni; Huang, Wansu; Liang, Tao; Kuang, Hai

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of puerarin (PR) on diabetic nephropathy (DN) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr), as well as 24-hour urine protein levels were effectively ameliorated in DN mice treated with PR (20, 40, 80mg/kg/day). Furthermore, PR treatment markedly resulted in down-regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in kidney. Interestingly, the activities of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased by PR. An improvement in kidney tissue damage could be observed after PR administration. Further ultrastructural investigation revealed a dramatically ameliorative effect of PR on mitochondrial damage. Meanwhile, the silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and alpha subunit of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) expressions were significantly up-regulated at protein level by PR administration in renal cortex. However, the protein expression of nuclear-factor kappa B (NF-κB) was down-regulated in PR groups. Our present study demonstrates the hypoglycemic and renal protective effects of PR in DN mice, which support its anti-diabetic property. PR exerts its renal protection effect probably via the mechanism of attenuating SIRT1/FOXO1 pathway for renal protection.

  20. The crude extract from puerariae flower exerts antiobesity and antifatty liver effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Sameshima-Kamiya, Mayu; Nagamine, Rika; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Shimada, Tsutomu; Aburada, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu, a leguminous plant, has long been used in folk medicine. In particular, its flowers are used in Japanese and Chinese folk medicine for treating hangovers. We focused on the flower of Kudzu (Puerariae thomsonii), and we previously reported the antiobesity effect of Puerariae thomsonii flower extract (PFE) in humans. In this study, we conducted an animal study to investigate the effect of PFE on visceral fat and hepatic lipid levels in mice with diet-induced obesity. In addition, we focused on gene expression profiles to investigate the antiobesity mechanism of PFE. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or an HFD supplemented with 5% PFE for 14 days. PFE supplementation significantly reduced body weight and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight. Moreover, in the histological analysis, PFE supplementation improved fatty liver. Hepatic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that PFE supplementation downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression. For adipose tissue, the expressions of hormone-sensitive lipase in WAT and uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) were significantly upregulated. These results suggest that PFE exerts antiobesity and antifatty liver effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice through suppressing lipogenesis in the liver, stimulating lipolysis in WAT, and promoting thermogenesis in BAT.

  1. Water stress, temperature, and light effects on isoprene emission and photosynthesis of Kudzu leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, T.D.; Loreto, F. )

    1993-05-01

    Kudzu (Pueraia lobata (Willd) Ohwi.) emits isoprene, a hydrocarbon which can significantly affect atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene emission under standard conditions of 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1] and 30[degrees]C developed only after the leaf bad reached full expansion and was not maximal until up to two weeks past the point of full expansion of the leaf. Isoprene emission from kudzu was stimulated by increases in temperature and photon flux density (up to 3000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]s[sup [minus]1]). For unstressed plants, 20 % of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis was reemitted as isoprene at 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1]. Following the relief of water stress, photosynthesis recovered to the prestress rate but isoprene emission increased up to five times the prestress rate. At 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1] and 35[degrees]C, 67% of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis was reemitted as isoprene eight days after water stress. For some leaves the rate of isoprene emission exceeded 500 nmol[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1], substantially higher than ever reported before. Leaves of plants grown at less than 20[degrees]C did not make isoprene until an inductive treatment was given. Withholding water from plants or keeping leaves at 30[degrees]C induced isoprene emission. The observation of rapid and dramatic changes in the rate of isoprene emission from leaves in response to water stress and temperature may indicate that isoprene emission improves the ability of plants to cope with these conditions. With the new information on temperature and water stress effects on isoprene emission we speculate on possible reasons for isoprene emission from plants.

  2. Population census of Megacopta cribraria in kudzu in Georgia, USA, 2013-2016

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kudzu bug populations, predators, and parasitoid and fungal infection rates in 7 kudzu patches were censused from 2013 through 2016 in north-central and southern Georgia. Within these sites, the terminal growth where most eggs are oviposited of 25 randomly selected kudzu vines at the patch edge, fr...

  3. Comparative Feeding and Development of Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera Noctuidae) on Kudzu and Soybean Foliage

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, K.A.; Orr, D.B.

    2000-04-10

    Kudzu is a close relative of soybean and is a widely distributed exotic weed in the southern U.S. The biology of the soybean looper was studied to better understand the foraging behavior of this species on kudzu. Insects feeding on kudzu had higher mortality, longer development and lower pupal weights than those fed on soybean. Foliage consumption did not differ between treatments and nutritional quality between soybean and kudzu did not differ. In an oviposition test, females readily used kudzu if it was the only species available, but when soybean was provided more eggs were deposited on soybean.

  4. Simultaneous determination of isoflavones, saponins and flavones in Flos Puerariae by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Xie, Yuanyuan; Tan, Yao; Qu, Jialin; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Yuan, Dan

    2013-01-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF/MS) method is established for the rapid analysis of isoflavones, saponins and flavones in 16 samples originated from the flowers of Pueraria lobata and P. thomsonii. A total of 25 isoflavones, 13 saponins and 3 flavones were identified by co-chromatography of sample extract with authentic standards and comparing the retention time, UV spectra, characteristic molecular ions and fragment ions with those of authentic standards, or tentatively identified by MS/MS determination along with Mass Fragment software. Moreover, the method was validated for the simultaneous quantification of 29 components. The samples from two Pueraria flowers significantly differed in the quality and quantity of isoflavones, saponins and flavones, which allows the possibility of showing their chemical distinctness, and may be useful in their standardization and quality control. Dataset obtained from UPLC-MS was processed with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to holistically compare the difference between both Pueraria flowers.

  5. Preparation of monomeric and polymeric β-cyclodextrin functionalized monoliths for rapid isolation and purification of puerarin from Radix puerariae.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yongqin; Hughes, Timothy C; Hao, Xiaojuan; Mei, Danping; Tan, Tianwei

    2011-08-01

    Monomeric and epichlorohydrin polymerized β-CD functionalized monoliths were prepared for the rapid isolation and purification of the isoflavonoid puerarin, a well-known traditional Chinese drug, from a crude extract of Radix puerariae (root of the plant Pueraria lobata). Two copolymers poly(isocyanatoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(IEM-co-MMA-co-EDMA)) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-EDMA) (poly(GMA-co-EDMA)) were developed as facile, highly reactive and versatile monolithic matrix. SEM characterization demonstrated that the modified monoliths had homogenous porous structure and morphology. The success of the chemical modification of the monolithic matrix was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), solid-state (13) C NMR and elemental analysis. It was demonstrated that polymeric β-CD modified monoliths had better separation and selectivity for puerarin, recovering puerarin with a purity of 96% (m%) and a yield of 93% (m%). Compared with poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-EDMA), poly(isocyanatoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co-EDMA) monolithic matrix had higher reactivity, which significantly improved the β-CD ligand density and thus the selectivity of the monoliths. Puerarin with a purity of 96% (m%) and with a yield of 89% (m%) was recovered on the monolith.

  6. A new isoflavone glycoside from Pueraria alopecuroides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junlin; Fan, Qingfei; Zhang, Huanli; Song, Qishi

    2016-01-01

    A new isoflavone glycoside, (-)-tuberosin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), along with 10 known compounds 1a-10, was isolated from Pueraria alopecuroides. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS. These compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  7. Kinetic modeling of the adsorption of basic dyes by kudzu.

    PubMed

    Allen, Stephen J; Gan, Quan; Matthews, Ronan; Johnson, Pauline A

    2005-06-01

    The use of kudzu, a rapidly growing, high-climbing perennial leguminous vine, for the adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution has been investigated at various initial dye concentrations, masses of kudzu, and agitation rates. The extent and rate of adsorption of the three basic dyes (Basic Red 22, Basic Yellow 21, and Basic Blue 3) were analyzed using a pseudo-first-order and a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. While both rate mechanisms provided an acceptable degree of correlation with the experimental sorption rate data, the pseudo-second-order model gave a much higher degree of correlation, suggesting that this model could be used in design and simulation applications.

  8. ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF Sida retusa, Urena lobata AND Triumfetta rhomboidea.

    PubMed

    Lissy, K P; Simon, Thara K; Lathab, M S

    2006-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Sida retusa Linn.(Malvaceae),Urena lobata Linn.(Malvaceae)and Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.(Teliaceae) roots were found to inhibit lipid peroxidation, scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The quantity of S.retusa root extract required for 50% inhibition of lipid peroxidation, scavenging hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical was 1130.24 ug/ml respectively. IC 50 of root extract of U.lobata was 470.60 ug/ml, 1627.35ug/ml and 1109.24 ug/ml for superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation respectively. T.rhomboidea root extract required for IC 50 was 336.65 ug/ml, 1346.03 ug/ml and 1004.22 ug/ml for superoxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation respectively. The present investigation indicated that S. retusa, U.lobata and T.rhomboidea possessed significant antioxidant activity.

  9. A comparative survey of leguminous plants as sources of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein: implications for human nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, P B; Duke, J A; Brielmann, H; Boik, J; Hoyt, J E

    1997-01-01

    Over 80 taxa of mostly agriculturally important legumes were surveyed as sources of the metabolites, genistein and daidzein. Remarkably high concentrations (over 2 g.kg-1 dry weight) of the anticancer metabolite, genistein, were found in the leaves of Psoralea corylifolia (Indian bread root). All other legumes, with the exception of fermented soybean miso, had genistein levels < 400 mg.kg-1 dry weight. Concentrations of over 1 g.kg-1 dry weight and 0.95 g.kg-1 dry weight of the anticancer metabolite, daidzein, were found in the stems of the fava bean (Vicia faba) and roots of kudzu vine (Pueraria lobata), respectively. From this survey, our results indicate that the legumes, lupine (Lupinus spp.), fava bean, (Vicia faba), soybeans (Glycine max), kudzu (Pueraria lobata), and psoralea (Psoralea corylifolia), are excellent food sources for both genistein and daidzein. Miso, a fermented soybean product, is also a rich source of both isoflavones.

  10. Management of kudzu by the bioherbicide, Myrothecium verrucaria, herbicides and integrated control programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replicated field plots were established and monitored for two years to evaluate management practices for kudzu. The bioherbical plant pathogen, Myrothecium verrucaria, several herbicides and a variety of integrated control programs achieved a high level of kudzu suppression, although no system test...

  11. Acute and Chronic Kudzu Improves Plasma Glucose Tolerance in Non-Diabetic CD-1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Scott; Prasain, Jeevan K; Peng, Ning; Dai, Yanying; Wyss, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that kudzu root extract and its major isoflavone (puerarin) improve glucose metabolism in animal models of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, these beneficial effects have not been investigated in normal glycemic mice. The present study investigates the effect of acute and chronic kudzu root extract supplementation on glucose tolerance in normoglycemic CD-1 mice. Male, adult CD-1 mice were fed a phytoestrogen-free diet containing 0.2% or 0.0% kudzu root extract for 6 weeks. Thereafter, they were acutely administered kudzu root extract (75 mg/kg BW; oral) or vehicle followed by a glucose challenge (2 g/kg BW; oral). In control fed mice, the acute glucose challenge increased blood glucose ~300% after 30 minutes, and acute kudzu root extract administration significantly blunted this response by ~50%. In mice chronically fed a kudzu-supplemented diet, glucose tolerance was improved, and acute treatment caused no additional improvement. Irrespective of treatment, all mice were normoglycemic at the start of each glucose challenge. Administration of insulin resulted in a larger decrease in blood glucose in chronic kudzu-supplemented compared to control mice. Co-administration of phloridzin (a specific inhibitor of SGLT-mediated glucose uptake), improved glucose tolerance in acutely kudzu-treated mice but had no significant effect on glucose tolerance in chronically treated mice. These results indicate that both acute and chronic administration of kudzu root extract improves glucose tolerance in a normal glycemic mouse strain and that the effects of chronic kudzu feeding may be mediated, in part, by enhanced insulin sensitivity (chronic) and inhibition of sodium dependent glucose transport.

  12. Acute and Chronic Kudzu Improves Plasma Glucose Tolerance in Non-Diabetic CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Scott; Prasain, Jeevan K.; Peng, Ning; Dai, Yanying; Wyss, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that kudzu root extract and its major isoflavone (puerarin) improve glucose metabolism in animal models of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, these beneficial effects have not been investigated in normal glycemic mice. The present study investigates the effect of acute and chronic kudzu root extract supplementation on glucose tolerance in normoglycemic CD-1 mice. Male, adult CD-1 mice were fed a phytoestrogen-free diet containing 0.2% or 0.0% kudzu root extract for 6 weeks. Thereafter, they were acutely administered kudzu root extract (75 mg/kg BW; oral) or vehicle followed by a glucose challenge (2 g/kg BW; oral). In control fed mice, the acute glucose challenge increased blood glucose ~300% after 30 minutes, and acute kudzu root extract administration significantly blunted this response by ~50%. In mice chronically fed a kudzu-supplemented diet, glucose tolerance was improved, and acute treatment caused no additional improvement. Irrespective of treatment, all mice were normoglycemic at the start of each glucose challenge. Administration of insulin resulted in a larger decrease in blood glucose in chronic kudzu-supplemented compared to control mice. Co-administration of phloridzin (a specific inhibitor of SGLT-mediated glucose uptake), improved glucose tolerance in acutely kudzu-treated mice but had no significant effect on glucose tolerance in chronically treated mice. These results indicate that both acute and chronic administration of kudzu root extract improves glucose tolerance in a normal glycemic mouse strain and that the effects of chronic kudzu feeding may be mediated, in part, by enhanced insulin sensitivity (chronic) and inhibition of sodium dependent glucose transport.

  13. Cardiovascular Protective Effects of Adjunctive Alternative Medicine (Salvia miltiorrhiza and Pueraria lobata) in High-Risk Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Woo, K. S.; Yip, Thomas W. C.; Chook, Ping; Kwong, S. K.; Szeto, C. C.; Li, June K. Y.; Yu, Alex W. Y.; Cheng, William K. F.; Chan, Thomas Y. K.; Fung, K. P.; Leung, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Hypertension in association with diabetes (DM), renal impairment (RI), and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) increases the risk of future cardiovascular events. We hypothesize, traditional herbal medicines Danshen and Gegen (D&G) have beneficial effects on atherogenesis in these high-risk hypertensive subjects. Subjects and Methods. 90 asymptomatic hypertensive subjects associated with LVH (63.3%), DM (62.2%), or RI (30%) were randomized to receive D&G herbal capsules 1 gm/day, 2 gm/day, or identical placebo capsules in double-blind and parallel fashion for 12 months. Brachial flow-mediated dilation (endothelium-dependent dilation, FMD) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured by ultrasound. All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences in Windows 16.0. Results. Their mean age was 55 ± 8 years, and 74.4% were male. After 12 months of adjunctive therapies and compared with baseline, there were no significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate, hematological, glucose, and creatinine profiles in both placebo and D&G groups. FMD improved significantly during D&G (P = 0.0001) and less so after placebo treatment (P = 0.001). There was a mild but significant decrease in carotid IMT after D&G (P < 0.001) but no significant changes after placebo. A trend of better improvement in FMD after higher versus lower D&G dosages was seen. D&G were well tolerated, with no significant adverse events or blood biochemistry changes. Conclusion. D&G adjunctive treatment was well tolerated and significantly improved atherogenesis in high-risk hypertensive patients, with potential in primary atherosclerosis prevention. PMID:23533460

  14. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  15. Chronic dietary kudzu isoflavones improve components of metabolic syndrome in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ning; Prasain, Jeevan K; Dai, Yanying; Moore, Ray; Arabshahi, Alireza; Barnes, Stephen; Carlson, Scott; Wyss, J Michael

    2009-08-26

    The present study tested the long-term effects of dietary kudzu root extract supplementation on the regulation of arterial pressure, plasma glucose, and circulating cholesterol in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SP-SHR). Female SP-SHR were maintained for 2 months on a polyphenol-free diet, with or without the addition of 0.2% kudzu root extract. Half of the rats in each diet group were ovariectomized, whereas the other half remained intact. Following 2 months on the diets, the 0.2% kudzu root extract supplementation (compared to control diet) significantly lowered arterial pressure (11-15 mmHg), plasma cholesterol, fasting blood glucose (20-30%), and fasting plasma insulin in both the ovariectomized and intact SP-SHR. These results indicate that long-term dietary kudzu root extract supplementation can improve glucose, lipid, and blood pressure control in intact and ovariectomized SP-SHR.

  16. A Single Dose of Kudzu Extract Reduces Alcohol Consumption in a Binge Drinking Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Penetar, David M.; Toto, Lindsay H.; Lee, David Y.-W.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overconsumption of alcohol has significant negative effects on an individual's health and contributes to an enormous economic impact on society as a whole. Pharmacotherapies to curb excessive drinking are important for treating alcohol use disorders. Methods Twenty (20) men participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, between subjects design experiment (n=10/group) that tested the effects of kudzu extract (Alkontrol-Herbal™) for its ability to alter alcohol consumption in a natural settings laboratory. A single dose of kudzu extract (2 grams total with an active isoflavone content of 520 mg) or placebo was administered 2.5 hours before the onset of a 90 minute afternoon drinking session during which participants had the opportunity to drink up to 6 beers ad libitum; water and juice were always available as alternative beverages. Results During the baseline session, the placebo-randomized group consumed 2.7 ± 0.78 beers before treatment and increased consumption to 3.4 ± 1.1 beers after treatment. The kudzu group significantly reduced consumption from 3.0 ± 1.7 at baseline to 1.9 ± 1.3 beers after treatment. The placebo-treated group opened 33 beers during baseline conditions and 38 following treatment whereas the kudzu-treated group opened 32 beers during baseline conditions and only 21 following treatment. Additionally, kudzu-treated participants drank slower. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that a single dose of kudzu extract quickly reduces alcohol consumption in a binge drinking paradigm. These data add to the mounting clinical evidence that kudzu extract may be a safe and effective adjunctive pharmacotherapy for alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:26048637

  17. Both soybean and kudzu phytoestrogens modify favorably the blood lipoprotein profile in ovariectomized and castrated hamsters.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lei; Yeung, Sai Ying Venus; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2006-06-28

    The present study compared the hypolipidemic activity of kudzu phytoestrogens with that of soybean phytoestrogen in estrogen- and androgen-deficient hamsters. In the first experiment, ovariectomized hamsters (n = 37) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 9-10 each group). The first group was the control group, whereas the second group had the time-releasing estradiol-17beta subcutaneous (pellet) implants as a positive control. The third and fourth groups were orally administered soybean or kudzu phytoestrogen extracts (30 mg/kg of body weight) per day. In the second experiments, the first group of male hamsters (n = 9) received a sham operation, whereas the other three groups of male hamsters (n = 9 each) were castrated. The castrated control group received orally distilled water, whereas the second and third castrated groups were orally given 30 mg/kg soybean or kudzu phytoestrogen extracts. The results for the first experiment showed that the ovariectomized hamsters orally given soybean and kudzu phytoestrogen extracts had significantly decreased serum total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) with HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) being unaffected. The data from the second experiment demonstrated that administration of soybean but not kudzu phytoestrogen extracts decreased significantly serum TC. However, administration of kudzu phytoestrogens caused redistribution of cholesterol among lipoproteins, leading to a significant decrease in the ratio of non-HDL-C to HDL-C. It was concluded that both soybean and kudzu phytoestrogens could modify favorably lipoprotein profiles in ovariectomized and castrated hamsters.

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata on paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichosanthes lobata (family cucurbitaceae) is used to treat malarial fever and liver disorders. This study aims to investigate possible hepatoprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar male rats by oral administration, 2 g/kg body weight on 7th day after the administration of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata and silymarin (100 mg/kg). Ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata was administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days. Several serum markers, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, total protein was measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced hepatic damage. The study included histopathological examination of liver sections. Results Blood samples from rats treated with ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata (200 mg/kg body weight and 400 mg/kg body weight) had significant reductions in serum markers in paracetamol administered animals, indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a reference drug. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata exhibits protective effects against paracetamol‒induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:22607721

  19. Ecology and Management of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Southeastern Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Sriyanka

    2016-01-01

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive exotic pest of soybeans that has been present in the southeastern United States since 2009 and has been rapidly spreading through soybean-producing states. Their primary reproductive hosts in the United States are soybean, kudzu, pigeon pea, black eye pea, lima bean, pinto bean, wisteria, white sweet clover, white clover, red clover, alfalfa, perennial peanut, and American joint vetch. In soybeans, the kudzu bug feeds on vascular fluids at the stem, petiole, and nodes, causing yield losses of up to 60%. The current management recommendation for this pest includes spraying of pyrethroids such as bifenthrin, but this method is not environmentally friendly, as this negatively impacts beneficial insect populations. Sustainable management tactics, including the development of economic thresholds for insecticide sprays, assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of this pest, manipulating cultivation practices, use of biological control, and host plant resistance, are currently being explored. We present an overview of the ecology of the kudzu bug in soybeans and available management tactics to assist with the management of this potentially devastating pest of soybeans as it spreads westward. PMID:27812397

  20. Ecology and Management of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Southeastern Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Sriyanka; Reisig, Dominic D

    2016-01-01

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive exotic pest of soybeans that has been present in the southeastern United States since 2009 and has been rapidly spreading through soybean-producing states. Their primary reproductive hosts in the United States are soybean, kudzu, pigeon pea, black eye pea, lima bean, pinto bean, wisteria, white sweet clover, white clover, red clover, alfalfa, perennial peanut, and American joint vetch. In soybeans, the kudzu bug feeds on vascular fluids at the stem, petiole, and nodes, causing yield losses of up to 60%. The current management recommendation for this pest includes spraying of pyrethroids such as bifenthrin, but this method is not environmentally friendly, as this negatively impacts beneficial insect populations. Sustainable management tactics, including the development of economic thresholds for insecticide sprays, assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of this pest, manipulating cultivation practices, use of biological control, and host plant resistance, are currently being explored. We present an overview of the ecology of the kudzu bug in soybeans and available management tactics to assist with the management of this potentially devastating pest of soybeans as it spreads westward.

  1. Energy from aquatic plant wastewater treatment systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Spirodela sp. and Lemma sp.), water pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides), and kudzu (Pueraria lobata) were anaerobically fermented using an anaerobic filter technique that reduced the total digestion time from 90 days to an average of 23 days and produced 0.14-0.28 cu m CH4/kg (dry weight) (2.3-4.5 cu ft/lb) from mature filters. The anaerobic filter provided a large surface area for the anaerobic bacteria to establish and maintain an optimum balance of facultative, acid-forming, and methane-producing bacteria. Consequently the efficiency of the process was greatly improved over prior batch fermentations.

  2. The isoflavone-rich fraction of the crude extract of the Puerariae flower increases oxygen consumption and BAT UCP1 expression in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Nagamine, Rika; Sameshima-Kamiya, Mayu; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya

    2012-08-12

    Puerariae flower extract (PFE) is a crude extract of the Kudzu flower. Previous studies have shown that PFE supplementation exerts anti-obesity and anti-fatty liver effects in high-fat diet-fed mice. In this study, we aimed to identify the PFE components responsible for these effects and to determine their influence on energy expenditure and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. Experiments were conducted on C57BL/6J male mice classified into 3 groups: (1) high-fat diet-fed (HFD), (2) high-fat diet-fed given PFE (HFD + PFE), and (3) high-fat diet-fed given the PFE isoflavone-rich fraction (HFD + ISOF). All groups were fed for 42 days. The HFD + PFE and HFD + ISOF groups showed significant resistance to increases in body weight, hepatic triglyceride level, and visceral fat compared to the HFD group. These groups also exhibited significant increases in oxygen consumption and UCP1-positive brown adipose tissue (BAT) area. Our results demonstrate that the active ingredients in PFE are present in the ISOF and that these compounds may increase energy expenditure by upregulation of BAT UCP1 expression. These findings provide valuable information regarding the anti-obesity effects of isoflavones.

  3. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for identification of isoflavones and description of the biotransformation of kudzu root.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Chen, Jiping; Liang, Xinmiao; Kettrup, Antonius

    2005-11-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been used to identify isoflavone aglycones and glycosides in kudzu root. Fourteen isoflavones were detected. Among these, six were identified by comparison with authentic standards. Tentative identifications of the other isoflavones are based on UV spectra, mass spectra of protonated and deprotonated molecules, and MS-MS data. Several are reported for the first time in kudzu root. The bioactivity and bioavailability of isoflavone aglycones are usually greater than those of their glycosides. To improve the bioavailability of kudzu root isoflavones, crude beta-glycosidases prepared from microbes were used to hydrolyze the isoflavone glycosides. Several MS modes are combined not only to identify the isoflavones in kudzu root, but also to describe the biotransformation of kudzu root isoflavone glycosides. It is also proved that crude beta-glycosidases have high selectivity toward the O-glycosides of isoflavones.

  4. Variability in anthocyanin content among Abutilon theophrasti, and Urena lobata genetic resources .

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants contain bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceuticals to be utilized in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. Sixty-two accessions of Abutilon theophrasti, Basella alba, and Urena lobata are conserved at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA. Anthocyanins...

  5. Discovery of a Potent Anti-Yeast Triterpenoid Saponin, Clematoside-S from Urena lobata L.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiao-Ling; Liao, Ying; Wang, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong; Gao, Bo; Xu, Zheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Urena lobata has been used as a traditional medicinal plant in India and China. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity and isolated the active compound from the leaves of U. lobata. The 80% ethanol extract from U. lobata leaves showed an effective anti-yeast activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) strains. Using a combination of chromatographic methods, (−)-trachelogenin (1) and clematoside-S (2) were isolated from this plant for the first time, and their chemical structure was identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data analysis. In addition, 1 was found to be inactive against all of the test microorganisms in the antimicrobial assay, whereas 2 exhibits a specific anti-yeast activity against S. cerevisiae strains with diameter of inhibition zones in the range from 11 to 20 mm. Furthermore, the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) values of 2 against S. cerevisiae strains were detected to be in the ranges of 0.61 to 9.8 μg/mL and 2.42 to 9.8 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of 2 with a specific anti-yeast activity. The above result suggests the potential application of U. lobata to be used as a natural anti-yeast agent in food preservation. PMID:25739085

  6. Hydrology of a zero-order Southern Piedmont watershed through 45 years of changing agricultural land use. Part 1. Monthly and seasonal rainfall-runoff relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endale, Dinku M.; Fisher, Dwight S.; Steiner, Jean L.

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported runoff from small agricultural watersheds over sufficiently long period so that the effect of different cover types on runoff can be examined. We analyzed 45-yrs of monthly and annual rainfall-runoff characteristics of a small (7.8 ha) zero-order typical Southern Piedmont watershed in southeastern United States. Agricultural land use varied as follows: 1. Row cropping (5-yrs); 2. Kudzu ( Pueraria lobata; 5-yrs); 3. Grazed kudzu and rescuegrass ( Bromus catharticus; 7-yrs); and 4. Grazed bermudagrass and winter annuals ( Cynodon dactylon; 28-yrs). Land use and rainfall variability influenced runoff characteristics. Row cropping produced the largest runoff amount, percentage of the rainfall partitioned into runoff, and peak flow rates. Kudzu reduced spring runoff and almost eliminated summer runoff, as did a mixture of kudzu and rescuegrass (KR) compared to row cropping. Peak flow rates were also reduced during the kudzu and KR. Peak flow rates increased under bermudagrass but were lower than during row cropping. A simple process-based 'tanh' model modified to take the previous month's rainfall into account produced monthly rainfall and runoff correlations with coefficient of determination ( R2) of 0.74. The model was tested on independent data collected during drought. Mean monthly runoff was 1.65 times the observed runoff. Sustained hydrologic monitoring is essential to understanding long-term rainfall-runoff relationships in agricultural watersheds.

  7. Proteome analysis of Pueraria mirifica tubers collected in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Jungsukcharoen, Jutarmas; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Sangvanich, Polkit

    2016-06-01

    Pueraria mirifica-derived tuberous powder has been long-term consumed in Thailand as female hormone-replacement traditional remedies. The protein profiles of tubers collected in different seasons were evaluated. Phenol extraction, 2D-PAGE, and mass spectrometry were employed for tuberous proteome analysis. Out of the 322 proteins detected, over 59% were functionally classified as being involved in metabolism. The rest proteins were involved in defense, protein synthesis, cell structure, transportation, stress, storage, and also unidentified function. The proteins were found to be differentially expressed with respect to harvest season. Importantly, chalcone isomerase, isoflavone synthase, cytochrome p450, UDP-glycosyltransferase, and isoflavone reductase, which are all involved in the biosynthesis pathway of bioactive isoflavonoids, were most abundantly expressed in the summer-collected tubers. This is the first report on the proteomic patterns in P. mirifica tubers in relevant with seasonal variation. The study enlights the understanding of variance isoflavonoid production in P. mirifica tubers.

  8. Estrogenic activity of the dichloromethane extract from Pueraria mirifica.

    PubMed

    Sookvanichsilp, N; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Boonleang, C

    2008-12-01

    Pueraria mirifica and its extracts are widely used as the ingredient(s) in many rejuvenating products. Up to now, the extract of P. mirifica roots that has been used in most studies, is the alcoholic extract. In the present study, we investigated the estrogenic activity using uterotropic and MCF-7 cell proliferation models of the dichloromethane extract as well as the water extract which was obtained from partitioning the ethanolic extract. The results indicated that among the three extracts, i.e. the ethanolic extract (PM1), the water extract (PM2) and dichloromethane extract (PM3), PM3 exhibited the most potent estrogenic activity in both models, followed by PM1. The extracts produced uterotropic activity associated with the increase of water content while uterotropic activity of 17beta-estradiol was related to the increase of muscle mass. The two isoflavonoids, genistein and daidzein, were not the major active phytoestrogens involving the estrogenic activity of these extracts.

  9. Energy from vascular plant wastewater treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wolverton, B.C.; McDonald, R.C.

    1981-04-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) duckweed (Spirodela sp. and Lemna sp.), water pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides), and kudzu (Pueraria lobata) were anaerobically fermented using an anaerobic filter technique that reduced the total digestion time from 90 d to an average of 23 d and produced 0.14 to 0.22 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//kg (dry weight) (2.3 to 3.6 ft/sup 3//lb) from mature filters for the 3 aquatic species. Kudzu required an average digestion time of 33 d and produced an average of 0.21 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//kg (dry weight) (3.4 ft/sup 3//lb). The anaerobic filter provided a large surface area for the anaerobic bacteria to establish and maintain an optimal balance of facultative, acid-forming, and methane-producing bacteria. Consequently the efficiency of the process was greatly improved over prior batch fermentations.

  10. Field Evaluation of a Kudzu/Cottonseed Oil Formulation on the Persistence of the Beet Armyworm Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A plant extract (kudzu) was tested as a UV protectant for SeMNPV, with and without the addition of an oil/emulsifier (cottonseed oil/lecithin) formulation. Aqueous and oil emulsion formulations of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), nucleopolyhedrovirus SeMNPV were applied to collards an...

  11. No gene flow across the Eastern Pacific Barrier in the reef-building coral Porites lobata.

    PubMed

    Baums, Iliana B; Boulay, Jennifer N; Polato, Nicholas R; Hellberg, Michael E

    2012-11-01

    The expanse of deep water between the central Pacific islands and the continental shelf of the Eastern Tropical Pacific is regarded as the world's most potent marine biogeographic barrier. During recurrent climatic fluctuations (ENSO, El Niño Southern Oscillation), however, changes in water temperature and the speed and direction of currents become favourable for trans-oceanic dispersal of larvae from central Pacific to marginal eastern Pacific reefs. Here, we investigate the population connectivity of the reef-building coral Porites lobata across the Eastern Pacific Barrier (EPB). Patterns of recent gene flow in samples (n = 1173) from the central Pacific and the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) were analysed with 12 microsatellite loci. Results indicated that P. lobata from the ETP are strongly isolated from those in the central Pacific and Hawaii (F(ct) ' = 0.509; P < 0.001). However, samples from Clipperton Atoll, an oceanic island on the eastern side of the EPB, grouped with the central Pacific. Within the central Pacific, Hawaiian populations were strongly isolated from three co-occurring clusters found throughout the remainder of the central Pacific. No further substructure was evident in the ETP. Changes in oceanographic conditions during ENSO over the past several thousand years thus appear insufficient to support larval deliveries from the central Pacific to the ETP or strong postsettlement selection acts on ETP settlers from the central Pacific. Recovery of P. lobata populations in the frequently disturbed ETP thus must depend on local larval sources.

  12. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S.; Reisig, Dominic D.; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I.; Roe, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27649166

  13. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S; Reisig, Dominic D; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Roe, R Michael

    2016-09-16

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  14. Evaluation of the estrogenic activity of the wild Pueraria mirifica by vaginal cornification assay.

    PubMed

    Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Kitsamai, Yosaporn; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the estrogenic activity of tuberous samples of phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica collected from 25 of 76 provinces in Thailand by vaginal cornification assay. Tuberous powders were prepared and administered to ovariectomized rats for 14 consecutive days at dosages of 10, 100 and 1,000 mg/kg BW respectively, and were compared with a daily treatment with 2 mg/kg BW 17beta-estradiol (E(2)). Rats treated with 10 mg/kg BW Pueraria mirifica showed no vaginal cornification. Treatment with 100 mg/kg BW Pueraria mirifica from 13 out of 25 plant samples resulted in development of vaginal cornification. The cell count percentages of the vaginal smeared cells for the treatment with the 2 plant samples that exhibited the fastest vaginal cornification revealed large variation in their estrogenic activities. Treatment with 1,000 mg/kg BW Pueraria mirifica from all plant samples produced vaginal cornification with the mean value for the period (day) of first appearance of cornified cells being 4.08 days compared to 2 days with 2 mg/kg BW E(2). The overall appearance period (day) of cornified cells during the treatment and post-treatment period with 1,000 mg/kg BW per day Pueraria mirifica was shorter than treatment with 2 mg/kg BW E(2). The results demonstrate that the plant population shows differential estrogenic activity as evaluated by vaginal cornification assay.

  15. Pueraria tuberosa: a review on its phytochemical and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Maji, Amal K; Pandit, Subrata; Banerji, Pratim; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2014-01-01

    Pueraria tuberosa (Willd.) DC is a perennial herb commonly known as 'vidarikanda', distributed throughout south east Asia. The plant's tuber is widely used in ethanomedicine as well as in traditional systems of medicine, particularly in ayurveda. It has been used in various ayurvedic formulations as restorative tonic, antiaging, spermatogenic and immune booster and has been recommended for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, hepatosplenomegaly, fertility disorders, menopausal syndrome, sexual debility and spermatorrhoea. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals, mostly isoflavonoids such as puerarin, genistein, daidzein, tuberosin and so on have been identified in the tuber. In vivo and in vitro studies have provided the support against traditional demands of the tuber as spermatogenic, immune booster, aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic and brain tonic. However, further studies are required to define the active phytochemical compositions and to validate its clinical utilisation in the herbal formulations for human uses. This review provides an overview of traditional applications, current knowledge on the phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of P. tuberosa. This review also provides plausible hypotheses about how various isoflavones particularly puerarin, genistein and daidzein, individually or collectively, may be responsible for the therapeutic potential against a wide range of ailments.

  16. Pueraria mirifica leaves, an alternative potential isoflavonoid source.

    PubMed

    Jungsukcharoen, Jutarmas; Dhiani, Binar Asrining; Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Vinayavekhin, Nawaporn; Sangvanich, Polkit; Boonchird, Chuenchit

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the major leaf isoflavonoid contents of Pueraria mirifica from three different cultivars (PM-III, PM-IV, and PM-V) using reverse RP-HPLC analysis. The proportions and net levels of puerarin, daidzin, genistin, and daidzein in P. mirifica leaves were found to depend on the plant cultivar and to correlate with cultivation temperature and rainfall amount. The crude leaf-extracts were tested using the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay with both human estrogen receptors (hERα and hERβ). Their estrogenic activity was higher when determined by the YES system containing hERβ than that with hERα and was also higher when the Δsnq2 than the wildtype yeast was employed. The results open the possibility of selecting and cultivating certain P. mirifica cultivars at a farm scale to produce a sufficient supply of leaf material to act as a starting source for the commercial scale extraction of these major isoflavonoids.

  17. Medical applications of phytoestrogens from the Thai herb Pueraria mirifica.

    PubMed

    Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2012-03-01

    Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw et Suvatabandhu is a medicinal plant endemic to Thailand. It has been used in Thai folklore medicine for its rejuvenating qualities in aged women and men for nearly one hundred years. Indeed, it has been claimed that P. mirifica contains active phytoestrogens (plant substances with estrogen-like activity). Using high performance liquid chromatography, at least 17 phytoestrogens, mainly isoflavones, have been isolated. Thus, fairly considerable scientific researches, both in vitro in cell lines and in vivo in various species of animals including humans, have been conducted to date to address its estrogenic activity on the reproductive organs, bones, cardiovascular diseases and other climacteric related symptoms. The antioxidative capacity and antiproliferative effect on tumor cell lines have also been assessed. In general, P. mirifica could be applicable for preventing, or as a therapeutic for, the symptoms related to estrogen deficiency in menopausal women as well as in andropausal men. However, the optimal doses for each desirable effect and the balance to avoid undesired side effects need to be calculated before use.

  18. Physicochemical properties and micro-structural characteristics in starch from kudzu root as affected by cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Boru; Dang, Leping; Zhang, Xiao; Fang, Wenzhi; Hou, Mengna; Liu, Tiankuo; Wang, Zhanzhong

    2017-03-15

    Kudzu starch was cross-linked with sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) at different temperatures, time and of STMP concentrations in this work. The cross-linked starches (CLSs) were fractionated further into cross-linked amylose and amylopectin in order to compare the effect of cross-linking on the microstructure. According to scanning electron microscope (SEM), CLSs displayed the resemble appearance of spherical and polygonal shapes like NS. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that amylose of native starch (A), NS and CLS displayed a combination of A-type and B-type structure, while that was not found in amylose of cross-linked starch (CLA). The deconvoluted fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) indicated that crystal structure of kudzu starch was losing with the proceeding of cross-linking reaction. The CLSs exhibited a higher retrogradation and freeze-thaw stability than NS. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in sedimentation, transparency, swelling power and solubility.

  19. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Germination of Urena lobata L. and Its Response to Herbicides

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Tahir Hussain; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Cruz, Pompe C. Sta.

    2014-01-01

    Urena lobata is becoming a noxious and invasive weed in rangelands, pastures, and undisturbed areas in the Philippines. This study determined the effects of seed scarification, light, salt and water stress, amount of rice residue, and seed burial depth on seed germination and emergence of U. lobata; and evaluated the weed's response to post-emergence herbicides. Germination was stimulated by both mechanical and chemical seed scarifications. The combination of the two scarification methods provided maximum (99%) seed germination. Germination was slightly stimulated when seeds were placed in light (65%) compared with when seeds were kept in the dark (46%). Sodium chloride concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 mM and osmotic potential ranging from 0 to −1.6 MPa affected the germination of U. lobata seeds significantly. The osmotic potential required for 50% inhibition of the maximum germination was −0.1 MPa; however, some seeds germinated at −0.8 MPa, but none germinated at −1.6 MPa. Seedling emergence and biomass increased with increase in rice residue amount up to 4 t ha−1, but declined beyond this amount. Soil surface placement of weed seeds resulted in the highest seedling emergence (84%), which declined with increase in burial depth. The burial depth required for 50% inhibition of maximum emergence was 2 cm; emergence was greatly reduced (93%) at burial depth of 4 cm or more. Weed seedling biomass also decreased with increase in burial depth. Bispyribac-sodium, a commonly used herbicide in rice, sprayed at the 4-leaf stage of the weed, provided 100% control, which did not differ much with 2,4-D (98%), glyphosate (97%), and thiobencarb + 2,4-D (98%). These herbicides reduced shoot and root biomass by 99–100%. PMID:24658143

  20. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Kudzu and Soybean, and Implication for Insecticidal Management in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Blount, J L; Roberts, P M; Toews, M D; Gardner, W A; Buntin, G D; Davis, J W; All, J N

    2016-12-29

    Megacopta cribraria (F.), an invasive species introduced from Asia in 2009, is now prolific in the southeastern United States. Megacopta cribraria develops primarily on kudzu and soybean completing two generations. It is not well understood how this economic pest is affected by changes in geographic distribution in the United States or how population levels have changed since its establishment. The effect of insecticide application timing on field populations of M. cribraria is not well documented. These studies seek to understand how population dynamics of M. cribraria vary with geographic regions in Georgia. Effect of application timing on populations throughout the growing season was also examined. Weekly from 2012 to 2013, all life stages were enumerated from kudzu and soybean environments at several locations throughout Georgia from sweeps samples and flight intercept captures. Coordinates were recorded for locations, and classified as belonging to the Piedmont or Coastal Plain region of the state. Single spray trials were conducted from 2011-2014, and applications were made to soybean at intervals throughout the season. From 2012 to 2015, two kudzu patches near Griffin, GA, were monitored to detect population changes. Differences in population dynamics from locations around the state were found, but no clear effect of latitude, longitude, or region was observed. Insecticide applications applied in July suppressed nymph populations significantly better than treatments made earlier or later. Megacopta cribraria populations declined in 2014 and 2015 compared with 2012 and 2013. These studies provide the critical information for M. cribraria management in soybean in the southeastern United States.

  1. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Boué, Stephen M; Wiese, Thomas E; Nehls, Suzanne; Burow, Matthew E; Elliott, Steven; Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Shih, Betty Y; McLachlan, John A; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2003-04-09

    Seven legume extracts containing phytoestrogens were analyzed for estrogenic activity. Methanol extracts were prepared from soybean (Glycine max L.), green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), alfalfa sprout (Medicago sativa L.), mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.), kudzu root (Pueraria lobata L.), and red clover blossom and red clover sprout (Trifolium pratense L.). Extracts of kudzu root and red clover blossom showed significant competitive binding to estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta). Estrogenic activity was determined using an estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Kudzu root, red clover blossom and sprout, mung bean sprout, and alfalfa sprout extracts displayed increased cell proliferation above levels observed with estradiol. The pure estrogen antagonist, ICI 182,780, suppressed cell proliferation induced by the extracts, suggesting an ER-related signaling pathway was involved. The ER subtype-selective activities of legume extracts were examined using transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. All seven of the extracts exhibited preferential agonist activity toward ERbeta. Using HPLC to collect fractions and MCF-7 cell proliferation, the active components in kudzu root extract were determined to be the isoflavones puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein. These results show that several legumes are a source of phytoestrogens with high levels of estrogenic activity.

  2. 75 FR 78932 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...) Steud.'', ``Hardinggrass--Phalaris stenoptera Hack.'', ``Hemp--Cannabis sativa L.'', ``Kudzu--Pueraria... gracilis ] (Kunth) Griffiths'', ``Hardinggrass--Phalaris aquatica L.'', ``Hemp-- Cannabis sativa L....

  3. 76 FR 31790 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...--Phalaris stenoptera Hack.'', ``Hemp--Cannabis sativa L.'', ``Kudzu--Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var... gracilis (Kunth) Griffiths'', ``Hardinggrass--Phalaris aquatica L.'', ``Hemp--Cannabis sativa L....

  4. Environmental versus genetic influences on growth rates of the corals Pocillopora eydouxi and Porites lobata (Anthozoa: Scleractinia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.W.; Wirshing, H.H.; Baker, A.C.; Birkeland, C.

    2008-01-01

    Reciprocal transplant experiments of the corals Pocillopora eydouxi Milne Edwards & Haime and Porites lobata Dana were carried out for an 18-month period from September 2004 to March 2006 between two back reef pools on Ofu Island, American Samoa, to test environmental versus genetic effects on skeletal growth rates. Skeletal growth of P. eydouxi showed environmental but not genetic effects, resulting in doubling of growth in Pool 300 compared with Pool 400. There were no environmental or genetic effects on skeletal growth of P. lobata. Pool 300 had more frequent and longer durations of elevated seawater temperatures than Pool 400, characteristics likely to decrease rather than increase skeletal growth. Pool 300 also had higher nutrient levels and flow velocities than Pool 400, characteristics that may increase skeletal growth. However, higher nutrient levels would be expected to increase skeletal growth in both species, but there was no difference between the pools in P. lobata growth. P. eydouxi is much more common in high-energy environments than P. lobata; thus the higher flow velocities in Pool 300 than in Pool 400 may have positively affected skeletal growth of P. eydouxi while not having a detectable effect on P. lobata. The greater skeletal growth of P. eydouxi in Pool 300 occurred despite the presence of clade D zooxanthellae in several source colonies in Pool 300, a genotype known to result in greater heat resistance but slower skeletal growth. Increased skeletal growth rates in higher water motion may provide P. eydouxi a competitive advantage in shallow, high-energy enviromnents where competition for space is intense. ?? 2008 by University of Hawai'i Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Coral hybridization or phenotypic variation? Genomic data reveal gene flow between Porites lobata and P. Compressa.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Z H; Knapp, I S S; Tisthammer, K; Eaton, D A R; Belcaid, M; Toonen, R J

    2017-03-31

    Major gaps remain in our understanding of the ecology, evolution, biodiversity, biogeography, extinction risk, and adaptive potential of reef building corals. One of the central challenges remains that there are few informative genetic markers for studying boundaries between species, and variation within species. Reduced representation sequencing approaches, such as RADseq (Restriction site Associated DNA sequencing) have great potential for resolving such relationships. However, it is necessary to identify loci in order to make inferences for endosymbiotic organisms such as corals. Here, we examined twenty-one coral holobiont ezRAD libraries from Hawai'i, focusing on P. lobata and P. compressa, two species with contrasting morphology and habitat preference that previous studies have not resolved. We used a combination of de novo assembly and reference mapping approaches to identify and compare loci: we used reference mapping to extract and compare nearly complete mitochondrial genomes, ribosomal arrays, and histone genes. We used de novo clustering and phylogenomic methods to compare the complete holobiont data set with coral and symbiont subsets that map to transcriptomic data. In addition, we used reference assemblies to examine genetic structure from SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms). All approaches resolved outgroup taxa but failed to resolve P. lobata and P. compressa as distinct, with mito-nuclear discordance and shared mitochondrial haplotypes within the species complex. The holobiont and 'coral transcriptomic' datasets were highly concordant, revealing stronger genetic structure between sites than between coral morphospecies. These results suggest that either branching morphology is a polymorphic trait, or that these species frequently hybridize. This study provides examples of several approaches to acquire, identify, and compare loci across metagenomic samples such as the coral holobiont while providing insights into the nature of coral variability.

  6. Anti-Endometriotic Effects of Pueraria Flower Extract in Human Endometriotic Cells and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Woo, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Hye Mi; Oh, Myung Sook; Jang, Dae Sik; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2017-01-01

    Pueraria flowers have been used as a vegetable and an ingredient for tea and jelly. In this study, we investigated the effects of Pueraria flower extract (PFE) on endometriosis, a common gynaecological disease characterised by local sterile inflammation of peritoneal cavity. PFE suppressed the adhesion of human endometriotic cells 11Z and 12Z to human mesothelial Met5A cells. In addition, PFE significantly inhibited the migration of 11Z and 12Z cells as shown by wound-healing and transwell migration assays. PFE reduced the protein and mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in endometriotic cells. Moreover, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 was activated by PFE treatment, and an ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, significantly inhibited PFE-inhibited cell migration in endometriotic cells. Furthermore, PFE significantly suppressed endometriotic lesion formation in a mouse model. These data suggest that Pueraria flower is a potential anti-endometriotic agent for the inhibition of endometriotic cell adhesion, migration, and MMP expression. PMID:28264481

  7. Analysis of functional and numerical responses of spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris when reared on kudzu bug, Megacopta cribaria (Hemiptera: Plataspididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spined solder bug (Podisus maculiventris) is a predatory insect that feeds on a wide array of species. The immatures of this predatory species have five instars. All stages are predatory except for the 1st instar nymphs. Kudzu bugs (Megacopta cribaria) are shield bugs that are deemed a pest of ...

  8. Isoorientin, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) from the Tubers of Pueraria tuberosa.

    PubMed

    Sumalatha, Manne; Munikishore, Rachakunta; Rammohan, Aluru; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Kumar, Kotha Anil; Reddy, Kakularam Kumar; Azad, Rajaram; Reddanna, Pallu; Bodo, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fraction of the methanol extract of the roots of Pueraria tuberose DC yielded puerarin, an isoflavone C-glycoside (PT-1), isoorientin, a flavone C-glycoside (PT-2) and mangiferin, a xanthone C-glycoside (PT-3). The extracts and the isolated compounds were screened for potent anti-inflammatory components inhibiting the cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), the target enzymes of inflammation, by employing spectroscopic/polorographic methods. Among these, isoorientin was found to be a potent inhibitor of COX-2with an IC50 value of 39 μM. Docking studies were carried out to understand the interactions of isorientin (PT-2) with COX-2.The structures of the isolates were determined by mass spectrometry and 2D-NMR techniques including HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and 1H-1H COSY experiments. Although isoorientin and mangiferin have been reported from several plant sources, this is the first report of their isolation from a Pueraria species.

  9. Stable mucus-associated bacterial communities in bleached and healthy corals of Porites lobata from the Arabian Seas.

    PubMed

    Hadaidi, Ghaida; Röthig, Till; Yum, Lauren K; Ziegler, Maren; Arif, Chatchanit; Roder, Cornelia; Burt, John; Voolstra, Christian R

    2017-03-31

    Coral reefs are subject to coral bleaching manifested by the loss of endosymbiotic algae from coral host tissue. Besides algae, corals associate with bacteria. In particular, bacteria residing in the surface mucus layer are thought to mediate coral health, but their role in coral bleaching is unknown. We collected mucus from bleached and healthy Porites lobata colonies in the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) and the Red Sea (RS) to investigate bacterial microbiome composition using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We found that bacterial community structure was notably similar in bleached and healthy corals, and the most abundant bacterial taxa were identical. However, fine-scale differences in bacterial community composition between the PAG and RS were present and aligned with predicted differences in sulfur- and nitrogen-cycling processes. Based on our data, we argue that bleached corals benefit from the stable composition of mucus bacteria that resemble their healthy coral counterparts and presumably provide a conserved suite of protective functions, but monitoring of post-bleaching survival is needed to further confirm this assumption. Conversely, fine-scale site-specific differences highlight flexibility of the bacterial microbiome that may underlie adjustment to local environmental conditions and contribute to the widespread success of Porites lobata.

  10. Stable mucus-associated bacterial communities in bleached and healthy corals of Porites lobata from the Arabian Seas

    PubMed Central

    Hadaidi, Ghaida; Röthig, Till; Yum, Lauren K.; Ziegler, Maren; Arif, Chatchanit; Roder, Cornelia; Burt, John; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs are subject to coral bleaching manifested by the loss of endosymbiotic algae from coral host tissue. Besides algae, corals associate with bacteria. In particular, bacteria residing in the surface mucus layer are thought to mediate coral health, but their role in coral bleaching is unknown. We collected mucus from bleached and healthy Porites lobata colonies in the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) and the Red Sea (RS) to investigate bacterial microbiome composition using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We found that bacterial community structure was notably similar in bleached and healthy corals, and the most abundant bacterial taxa were identical. However, fine-scale differences in bacterial community composition between the PAG and RS were present and aligned with predicted differences in sulfur- and nitrogen-cycling processes. Based on our data, we argue that bleached corals benefit from the stable composition of mucus bacteria that resemble their healthy coral counterparts and presumably provide a conserved suite of protective functions, but monitoring of post-bleaching survival is needed to further confirm this assumption. Conversely, fine-scale site-specific differences highlight flexibility of the bacterial microbiome that may underlie adjustment to local environmental conditions and contribute to the widespread success of Porites lobata. PMID:28361923

  11. Limited hybridization between Quercus lobata and Quercus douglasii (Fagaceae) in a mixed stand in central coastal California.

    PubMed

    Craft, Kathleen J; Ashley, Mary V; Koenig, Walter D

    2002-11-01

    Many oak species are interfertile, and morphological and genetic evidence for hybridization is widespread. Here we use DNA microsatellite markers to characterize hybridization between two closely related oak species in a mixed stand in central coastal California, Quercus lobata (valley oak) and Q. douglasii (blue oak) (Fagaceae). Genotypes from four microsatellite loci indicate that many alleles are shared between the two species. However, each species harbors unique alleles, and allele frequencies differ significantly. A Bayesian analysis of genetic structure in the stand identified two highly differentiated genetic clusters, essentially corresponding to species assignment based on morphology. Data from the four loci were sufficient to assign all 135 trees to one of the two species. In addition, five putative hybrid individuals having intermediate morphologies could be assigned genetically to one or the other species, and all but one had low probability of hybrid ancestry. Overally, only six (4.6%) trees showed >0.05 probability of hybrid ancestry, in all cases their probabilities for nonhybrid ancestry were substantially higher. We conclude that adult hybrids of Q. douglasii × Q. lobata are rare at this site and plasticity in morphological characters may lead to overestimates of hybridization among Quercus species.

  12. Symbiotic N2-Fixation Estimated by the 15N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m2 of 15N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  13. Foraging patterns of acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) on valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) in two California oak savanna-woodlands.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Douglas G; Alfaro, Victor Ryan; Sork, Victoria L; Grivet, Delphine; Martinez, Edith; Papp, Jeannette; Pluess, Andrea R; Koenig, Walter D; Smouse, Peter E

    2011-05-01

    Landscape characteristics and social behavior can affect the foraging patterns of seed-dependent animals. We examine the movement of acorns from valley oak (Quercus lobata) trees to granaries maintained by acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) in two California oak savanna-woodlands differing in the distribution of Q. lobata within each site. In 2004, we sampled Q. lobata acorns from 16 granaries at Sedgwick Reserve in Santa Barbara County and 18 granaries at Hastings Reserve in Monterey County. Sedgwick has lower site-wide density of Q. lobata than Hastings as well as different frequencies of other Quercus species common to both sites. We found acorn woodpeckers foraged from fewer Q. lobata seed source trees (K(g) = 4.1 ± 0.5) at Sedgwick than at Hastings (K(g) = 7.6 ± 0.6) and from fewer effective seed sources (N(em)* = 2.00 and 5.78, respectively). The differences between sites are due to a greater number of incidental seed sources used per granary at Hastings than at Sedgwick. We also found very low levels of seed source sharing between adjacent granaries, indicating that territoriality is strong at both sites and that each social group forages on its own subset of trees. We discovered an interesting spatial pattern in the location of granaries. At Sedgwick, acorn woodpeckers situated their granaries within areas of higher-than-average tree density, while at Hastings, they placed them within areas of lower-than-average tree density, with the outcome that granaries at the two sites were located in areas of similar valley oak density. Our results illustrate that landscape characteristics might influence the number of trees visited by acorn woodpeckers and the locations of territories, while woodpecker social behavior, such as territoriality, shapes which trees are visited and whether they are shared with other social groups.

  14. Whole-transcriptome response to water stress in a California endemic oak, Quercus lobata.

    PubMed

    Gugger, Paul F; Peñaloza-Ramírez, Juan Manuel; Wright, Jessica W; Sork, Victoria L

    2016-12-21

    Reduced water availability during drought can create major stress for many plant species. Within a species, populations with a history of seasonal drought may have evolved the ability to tolerate drought more than those in areas of high precipitation and low seasonality. In this study, we assessed response to water stress in a California oak species, Quercus lobata Née, by measuring changes in gene expression profiles before and after a simulated drought stress treatment through water deprivation of seedlings in a greenhouse setting. Using whole-transcriptome sequencing from nine samples from three collection localities, we identified which genes are involved in response to drought stress and tested the hypothesis that seedlings sampled from climatically different regions of the species range respond to water stress differently. We observed a surprisingly massive transcriptional response to drought: 35,347 of 68,434 contigs (52%) were differentially expressed before versus after drought treatment, of which 18,111 were down-regulated and 17,236 were up-regulated. Genes functionally associated with abiotic stresses and death were enriched among the up-regulated genes, whereas metabolic and cell part-related genes were enriched among the down-regulated. We found 56 contigs that exhibited significantly different expression responses to the drought treatment among the three populations (treatment × population interaction), suggesting that those genes may be involved in local adaptation to drought stress. These genes have stress response (e.g., WRKY DNA-binding protein 51 and HSP20-like chaperones superfamily protein), metabolic (e.g., phosphoglycerate kinase and protein kinase superfamily protein), transport/transfer (e.g., cationic amino acid transporter 7 and K(+) transporter) and regulatory functions (e.g., WRKY51 and Homeodomain-like transcriptional regulator). Baseline expression levels of 1310 unique contigs also differed among pairs of populations, and they

  15. Molecular differentiation and diversity among the California red oaks (Fagaceae; Quercus section Lobatae).

    PubMed

    Dodd, Richard S; Kashani, Nasser

    2003-09-01

    A recent epidemic of Phytopthora (Sudden Oak Death) in coastal woodlands of California is causing severe mortality in some oak species belonging to the red oak (Lobatae) group. To predict the risks of spread of this disease, an understanding of the relationships among California's red oak species and of their population genetic structure is needed. We focus here on relationships among the four species of red oak. Whereas morphological distinction of Quercus wislizeni and Quercus parvula can pose problems, Quercus kelloggii and Quercus agrifolia in pure forms are easily distinguishable from one another and from Q. wislizeni and Q. parvula in the field. However, hybrids among all species combinations are known to occur in nature and these can confound data from ecological studies. Our results revealed greatest differentiation of the deciduous Q. kelloggii, with only weak AFLP fragment differentiation of the three remaining evergreen species. The molecular data suggest a closer affinity of Q. agrifolia with Q. wislizeni and Q. parvula contrary to earlier suggestions that its origins are likely to have been with northern deciduous oaks probably through a common ancestor with Q. kelloggii. Interior and coastal populations of Q. wislizeni separated in dendrograms based on phenetic and genetic distances suggesting probable isolation in different glacial refugia. The position of Q. parvula remains ambiguous, having a closer affinity with interior populations of Q. wislizeni and with Q. agrifolia, than with coastal populations of Q. wislizeni. Mean population differentiation in Q. wislizeni was 0.18, which is somewhat higher than the average for other oak species, suggesting that range fragmentation has occurred in the past, resulting in a metapopulation structure. Our results provide evidence that introgression among these species may be causing reticulation, further confounding species separation. Whereas Phytopthora has been reported on Q. agrifolia, Q. parvula and Q

  16. Intestinal bacteria activate estrogenic effect of main constituents puerarin and daidzin of Pueraria thunbergiana.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Kyung; Shin, Jieun; Bae, Eun-Ah; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2006-12-01

    To understand the relationship between the metabolites and estrogenic activity of the main isoflavones puerarin and daidzin of the rhizome of Pueraria thunbergiana (PT, family Leguminosae), PT and its isoflavones were transformed by human intestinal bacteria and their estrogenic effects were investigated. All human fecal specimens hydrolyzed puerarin and daidzin to daidzein, but their hydrolyzing activities varied depending on the individuals. All intestinal bacteria isolated from human also hydrolyzed daidzin to daidzein, but a few bacteria transformed puerarin to daidzein. When the estrogenic effect of PT, puerarin and daidzin was compared with those of their metabolites, the metabolites more potently increased proliferation of MCF-7 cells than PT, puerarin and daidzin. The metabolite daidzein also potently increased estrogen-response c-fos mRNA and PR protein expressions. These findings suggest that intestinal bacteria, which can hydrolyze puerarin and/or daidzin, may activate a potent estrogenic activity of PT.

  17. Comparative analysis of the chemical constituents of two varieties of Pueraria candollei.

    PubMed

    Yusakul, Gorawit; Putalun, Waraporn; Udomsin, Orapin; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

    2011-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to determine the contents of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol in the tubers of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica and P. candollei var. candollei. The linear detection ranges were 0.78-25.00 μg/mL for miroestrol and 1.56-25.00 μg/mL for deoxymiroestrol. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.2 and 0.78 μg/mL, respectively, for miroestrol and 0.78 and 1.56 μg/mL, respectively, for deoxymiroestrol. Our results suggest that both varieties of P. candollei can produce miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol and that the developed HPLC method can be applied for quality control of plants and their products.

  18. Production of isoflavonoids in callus cultures of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2009-01-01

    Pueraria candollei Wall. ex Benth. var. mirifica (Airy Shaw & Suvat.) Niyomdham was investigated for callus induction using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different plant growth regulators. After 8 weeks of culture, 66-100% of leaf or stem explants formed calli. Calli from stem explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) gave the maximum of shoot induction (16%) and the highest level of total isoflavonoids [(50.39 +/- 7.06) mg/g dry wt], which was 7-fold higher than that of the native tuber [(7.04 +/- 0.29) mg/g dry wt]. These results suggest that addition of TDZ to the culture medium markedly enhances the production of isoflavonoids in calli induced from stem explants of P. candollei var. mirifica.

  19. Potential Skin Regeneration Activity and Chemical Composition of Absolute from Pueraria thunbergiana Flower.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Yoon; Won, Kyung-Jong; Hwang, Dae-Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Su Jin; Park, Joo-Hoon; Yoon, Myeong Sik; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-11-01

    The flower of Pueraria thunbergiana BENTH (PTBF) contains isoflavonoids and essential oil components. It has many biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-diabetes, anti-oxidant, and weight loss. However, its effect on skin regeneration remains unknown. In the present study, we isolated the absolute from PTBF through solvent extraction and determined the role of the absolute on skin regeneration-associated responses in human epidermal-keratinocytes (HaCats). The PTBF absolute, which contained 10 compounds, stimulated migration and proliferation and increased the phosphorylation of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 in HaCats. It induced type I and IV collagen synthesis in HaCats. In addition, treatment with PTBF absolute resulted in increased sprout outgrowth in HaCats. These findings suggest that PTBF absolute may participate in skin regeneration, probably through promotion of migration, proliferation, and collagen synthesis.

  20. Antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of flavonoids from Puerariae radix.

    PubMed

    Xiaoming, Wang; Ling, Lei; Jinghang, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of flavonoids from Puerariae radix (FPR). In vitro antioxidant activities of FPR were investigated through hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of FPR was investigated through loaded swimming exercise of mice. Results showed that FPR had not only in vitro antioxidant activities, but also an in vivo anti-fatigue activity in mice. FPR possessed superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in in vitro experimental studies. In vivo experimental studies, FPR could evidently extend exhaustive swimming time of mice, inhibit the increase of blood lactic acid (BLA), decrease serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, promote increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) of mice after swimming. The results provided an important basis for developing the FPR as a novel antioxidant and anti-fatigue compound.

  1. Mechanisms Controlling Species Responses to Climate Change: Thermal Tolerances and Shifting Range Limits. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, R. F.; Bykova, O.; Coiner, H.

    2010-12-01

    One of the main effects of anthropogenic climate change will be widespread shifts in species distribution, with the common assumption that they will migrate to higher elevation and latitude. While this assumption is supported by migration patterns following climate warming in the past 20,000 years, it has not been rigorously evaluated in terms of physiological mechanism, despite the implication that migration in response to climate warming is controlled by some form of thermal adaptation. We have been evaluating the degree to which species range limits are controlled by physiological patterns of thermal tolerance in bioinvaders of North America. Bioinvaders presumably have few biotic controls over their distribution and thus are more likely to fully exploit their thermal niche. In cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), the minimum lethal temperature in winter is -32C, which corresponds to the mean winter minimum temperature at its northern range limit. In red brome (Bromus rubens), the minimum lethal temperature is also near -32C, which is well below the minimum winter temperature near -20C that corresponds to its northern distribution limit. In kudzu (Pueraria lobata), the minimum lethal temperature is near -20C, which corresponds to the midwinter minimum at its northern distribution limit; however, overwintering kudzu tissues are insulated by soil and snow cover, and thus do not experience lethal temperatures at kudzu's northern range limit. These results demonstrate that some invasive species can exploit the potential range defined by their low temperature tolerance and thus can be predicted by mechanistic models to migrate to higher latitudes with moderation of winter cold. The distribution of other invaders such as kudzu and red brome are not controlled by tolerance of midwinter cold. Developing mechanistic models of their distributions, and how these might change with climate warming, will require extensive physiological study.

  2. Linking sewage pollution and water quality to spatial patterns of Porites lobata growth anomalies in Puako, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Reyn M; Kim, Catherine J S; Tracy, Allison M; Most, Rebecca; Harvell, C Drew

    2016-03-15

    Sewage pollution threatens the health of coastal populations and ecosystems, including coral reefs. We investigated spatial patterns of sewage pollution in Puako, Hawaii using enterococci concentrations and δ(15)N Ulva fasciata macroalgal bioassays to assess relationships with the coral disease Porites lobata growth anomalies (PGAs). PGA severity and enterococci concentrations were high, spatially variable, and positively related. Bioassay algal δ(15)N showed low sewage pollution at the reef edge while high values of resident algae indicated sewage pollution nearshore. Neither δ(15)N metric predicted PGA measures, though bioassay δ(15)N was negatively related to coral cover. Furthermore, PGA prevalence was much higher than previously recorded in Hawaii and the greater Indo-Pacific, highlighting Puako as an area of concern. Although further work is needed to resolve the relationship between sewage pollution and coral cover and disease, these results implicate sewage pollution as a contributor to diminished reef health.

  3. First Draft Assembly and Annotation of the Genome of a California Endemic Oak Quercus lobata Née (Fagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sork, Victoria L.; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel T.; Puiu, Daniela; Crepeau, Marc; Gugger, Paul F.; Sherman, Rachel; Stevens, Kristian; Langley, Charles H.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Salzberg, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Oak represents a valuable natural resource across Northern Hemisphere ecosystems, attracting a large research community studying its genetics, ecology, conservation, and management. Here we introduce a draft genome assembly of valley oak (Quercus lobata) using Illumina sequencing of adult leaf tissue of a tree found in an accessible, well-studied, natural southern California population. Our assembly includes a nuclear genome and a complete chloroplast genome, along with annotation of encoded genes. The assembly contains 94,394 scaffolds, totaling 1.17 Gb with 18,512 scaffolds of length 2 kb or longer, with a total length of 1.15 Gb, and a N50 scaffold size of 278,077 kb. The k-mer histograms indicate an diploid genome size of ∼720–730 Mb, which is smaller than the total length due to high heterozygosity, estimated at 1.25%. A comparison with a recently published European oak (Q. robur) nuclear sequence indicates 93% similarity. The Q. lobata chloroplast genome has 99% identity with another North American oak, Q. rubra. Preliminary annotation yielded an estimate of 61,773 predicted protein-coding genes, of which 71% had similarity to known protein domains. We searched 956 Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs, and found 863 complete orthologs, of which 450 were present in > 1 copy. We also examined an earlier version (v0.5) where duplicate haplotypes were removed to discover variants. These additional sources indicate that the predicted gene count in Version 1.0 is overestimated by 37–52%. Nonetheless, this first draft valley oak genome assembly represents a high-quality, well-annotated genome that provides a tool for forest restoration and management practices. PMID:27621377

  4. Physiological and biogeochemical traits of bleaching and recovery in the mounding species of coral Porites lobata: implications for resilience in mounding corals.

    PubMed

    Levas, Stephen J; Grottoli, Andréa G; Hughes, Adam; Osburn, Christopher L; Matsui, Yohei

    2013-01-01

    Mounding corals survive bleaching events in greater numbers than branching corals. However, no study to date has determined the underlying physiological and biogeochemical trait(s) that are responsible for mounding coral holobiont resilience to bleaching. Furthermore, the potential of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as a source of fixed carbon to bleached corals has never been determined. Here, Porites lobata corals were experimentally bleached for 23 days and then allowed to recover for 0, 1, 5, and 11 months. At each recovery interval a suite of analyses were performed to assess their recovery (photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll a, energy reserves, tissue biomass, calcification, δ(13)C of the skeletal, δ(13)C, and δ(15)N of the animal host and endosymbiont fractions). Furthermore, at 0 months of recovery, the assimilation of photosynthetically acquired and zooplankton-feeding acquired carbon into the animal host, endosymbiont, skeleton, and coral-mediated DOC were measured via (13)C-pulse-chase labeling. During the first month of recovery, energy reserves and tissue biomass in bleached corals were maintained despite reductions in chlorophyll a, photosynthesis, and the assimilation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. At the same time, P. lobata corals catabolized carbon acquired from zooplankton and seemed to take up DOC as a source of fixed carbon. All variables that were negatively affected by bleaching recovered within 5 to 11 months. Thus, bleaching resilience in the mounding coral P. lobata is driven by its ability to actively catabolize zooplankton-acquired carbon and seemingly utilize DOC as a significant fixed carbon source, facilitating the maintenance of energy reserves and tissue biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not only mounding morphologies but species like P. lobata, which have the ability to utilize heterotrophic sources of

  5. Physiological and Biogeochemical Traits of Bleaching and Recovery in the Mounding Species of Coral Porites lobata: Implications for Resilience in Mounding Corals

    PubMed Central

    Levas, Stephen J.; Grottoli, Andréa G.; Hughes, Adam; Osburn, Christopher L.; Matsui, Yohei

    2013-01-01

    Mounding corals survive bleaching events in greater numbers than branching corals. However, no study to date has determined the underlying physiological and biogeochemical trait(s) that are responsible for mounding coral holobiont resilience to bleaching. Furthermore, the potential of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as a source of fixed carbon to bleached corals has never been determined. Here, Porites lobata corals were experimentally bleached for 23 days and then allowed to recover for 0, 1, 5, and 11 months. At each recovery interval a suite of analyses were performed to assess their recovery (photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll a, energy reserves, tissue biomass, calcification, δ13C of the skeletal, δ13C, and δ15N of the animal host and endosymbiont fractions). Furthermore, at 0 months of recovery, the assimilation of photosynthetically acquired and zooplankton-feeding acquired carbon into the animal host, endosymbiont, skeleton, and coral-mediated DOC were measured via 13C-pulse-chase labeling. During the first month of recovery, energy reserves and tissue biomass in bleached corals were maintained despite reductions in chlorophyll a, photosynthesis, and the assimilation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. At the same time, P. lobata corals catabolized carbon acquired from zooplankton and seemed to take up DOC as a source of fixed carbon. All variables that were negatively affected by bleaching recovered within 5 to 11 months. Thus, bleaching resilience in the mounding coral P. lobata is driven by its ability to actively catabolize zooplankton-acquired carbon and seemingly utilize DOC as a significant fixed carbon source, facilitating the maintenance of energy reserves and tissue biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not only mounding morphologies but species like P. lobata, which have the ability to utilize heterotrophic sources of fixed carbon

  6. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass., a Q'eqchi' Maya traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Choueiri, Christine; Saleem, Ammar; Asim, Muhammd; Caal, Federico; Cal, Victor; Rojas, Marco Otarola; Pesek, Todd; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John Thor

    2013-08-01

    The widespread use of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass. by Q'eqchi' Maya and indigenous healers throughout the Caribbean for inflammatory conditions prompted the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of this traditional medicine. The objectives of this study were to conduct a detailed ethnobotanical investigation of the uses of N. lobata by the Q'eqchi' Maya of Belize for a variety of inflammatory symptoms and to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract and isolated sesquiterpene lactones. The crude 80% EtOH extract of N. lobata leaves administered at 100 μg/mL reduced LPS-stimulated TNF-α production in THP-1 monocytes by 72% relative to the stimulated vehicle control. Isolated sesquiterpene lactones, neurolenins B, C+D, lobatin B and 9α-hydroxy-8β-isovalerianyloxy-calyculatolide were more active (IC50=0.17-2.32 μM) than the positive control parthenolide (IC50=4.79 μM). The results provide a pharmacological and phytochemical basis for the traditional use of this leaf for inflammatory conditions.

  7. Mangiferin from Pueraria tuberosa reduces inflammation via inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Bulugonda, Ramakrishna K.; kumar, Kotha Anil; Gangappa, D.; Beeda, Harshavardhan; Philip, Gundala Harold; Muralidhara Rao, Dowlathabad; Faisal, Syed M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated the role of phyto-constituents in modulating inflammatory responses. Mangiferin isolated from Mangifera indica is known to induce potent anti-oxidative, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity is not properly understood. In this study we have isolated Mangiferin from the tubers of Pueraria tuberosa (PT-Mangiferin) and analysed the mechanism of its potent anti-inflammatory effects in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line and in a carrageenan induced air pouch model. PT-Mangiferin was non-toxic to primary cells but showed significant toxicity and apoptotic effect on cancerous cells. It significantly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (COX-2, iNOS and TNF-α) in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Further, it has also reduced the generation of ROS and inhibited LPS induced NF-kB translocation in these cells. Additionally, PT-Mangiferin significantly reduced inflammation in a mouse air pouch model by inhibiting the infiltration of monocytes and neutrophils and reducing the production of cytokines. These effects were mediated via inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome complex and its downstream signalling molecules. Taken together these results suggest that PT-Mangiferin is potent anti-inflammatory compound that reduces inflammation and holds promise in development of herbal based anti-inflammatory therapeutics in future. PMID:28218280

  8. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Isoorientin Isolated from Tubers of Pueraria tuberosa

    PubMed Central

    Anilkumar, Kotha; Reddy, Gorla V.; Azad, Rajaram; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Dharmapuri, Gangappa; Srivastava, Anand

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is the major causative factor of different diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. Anti-inflammatory drugs are often the first step of treatment in many of these diseases. The present study is aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory properties of isoorientin, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor isolated from the tubers of Pueraria tuberosa, in vitro on mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and in vivo on mouse paw edema and air pouch models of inflammation. Isoorientin reduced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cell line in vitro and carrageenan induced inflammatory animal model systems in vivo. Cellular infiltration into pouch tissue was reduced in isoorientin treated mice compared to carrageenan treated mice. Isoorientin treated RAW 264.7 cells and animals showed reduced expression of inflammatory proteins like COX-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and interleukin 1-β (IL-1-β) both in vitro and in vivo. The antioxidant enzyme levels of catalase and GST were markedly increased in isoorientin treated mice compared to carrageenan treated mice. These results suggest that isoorientin, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, not only exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS induced RAW cells and carrageenan induced inflammatory model systems but also exhibits potent antioxidant properties. PMID:28243356

  9. Phenotypic plasticity of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo D T; Da Cruz, Leandro R; Dos Santos, Samuel A; Sant'anna-Santos, Bruno F; Dos Santos, Izabela T; De Oliveira, Ariane M; Barros, Rodrigo E; Santos, Márcia V; Faria, Rodrigo M

    2015-03-01

    Plants have the ability to undergo morphophysiological changes based on availability of light. The present study evaluated biomass accumulation, leaf morphoanatomy and physiology of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown in full sunlight, as well as in 30% and 50% shade. Two assays were performed, one for each species, using a randomized block design with 10 replicates. A higher accumulation of fresh mass in the shoot of the plants was observed for both species under cultivation in 50% shade, while no differences were detected between the full sunlight and 30% shade. N. wightii and P. phaseoloides showed increase in area and reduction in thickness leaf when cultivated in 50% shade. There were no changes in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and evapotranspiration of P. phaseoloides plants because growth environment. However, the shade treatments caused alterations in physiological parameters of N. wightii. In both species, structural changes in the mesophyll occurred depending on the availability of light; however, the amount of leaf blade tissue remained unaltered. Despite the influence of light intensity variation on the morphophysiological plasticity of N. wightii and P. phaseoloides, no effects on biomass accumulation were observed in response to light.

  10. Preventive effect of Pueraria mirifica on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Masrudin, S S; Mohamad, J

    2015-12-01

    Pueraria mirifica (PM) extract contains phytoestrogen daidzein and genistein. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of PM extract, daidzein and genistein on a testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Testosterone was administered at 3 mg kg(-1) to rats followed by the PM extract, daidzein and genistein for a period of 30 days with finasteride as positive control. The testosterone level was increased, indicating inhibition of 5α-reductase converting testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. This was confirmed by prostate-specific antigen level that significantly decreased when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein. The PM extract, daidzein and genistein reduced the increase in the prostate/body weight ratio in testosterone-induced rats. This gives indication that PM extract, daidzein and genistein possessed protective activity for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The analysis of histoarchitechture of the prostate has also shown that there was a significant improvement in prostatic cells of the testosterone-induced rats when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein.

  11. Ethylene Production by Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars In Vitro and In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Weingart, H.; Volksch, B.

    1997-01-01

    Significant amounts of ethylene were produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, pv. phaseolicola (which had been isolated from viny weed Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi [common name, kudzu]), and pv. pisi in synthetic medium. On the other hand, the bean strains of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola and strains of 17 other pathovars did not produce ethylene. P. syringae pv. glycinea and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola produced nearly identical levels of ethylene (about 5 x 10(sup-7) nl h(sup-1) cell(sup-1)), which were about 10 times higher than the ethylene level of P. syringae pv. pisi. Two 22-bp oligonucleotide primers derived from the ethylene-forming enzyme (efe) gene of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola PK2 were investigated for their ability to detect ethylene-producing P. syringae strains by PCR analysis. PCR amplification with this primer set resulted in a specific 0.99-kb fragment in all ethylene-producing strains with the exception of the P. syringae pv. pisi strains. Therefore, P. syringae pv. pisi may use a different biosynthetic pathway for ethylene production or the sequence of the efe gene is less conserved in this bacterium. P. syringae pv. phaseolicola isolated from kudzu and P. syringae pv. glycinea also produced ethylene in planta. It could be shown that the enhanced ethylene production in diseased tissue was due to the production of ethylene by the inoculated bacteria. Ethylene production in vitro and in planta was strictly growth associated. PMID:16535480

  12. East-west genetic differentiation in Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) of Australia suggests late Pleistocene divergence at the Nullarbor Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guay, P.-J.; Chesser, R.T.; Mulder, R.A.; Afton, A.D.; Paton, D.C.; McCracken, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) are endemic to Australia and occur as two geographically isolated populations separated by the Nullarbor Plain, a vast arid region in southern Australia. We studied genetic variation in Musk Duck populations at coarse (eastern versus western Australia) and fine scales (four sites within eastern Australia). We found significant genetic structure between eastern and western Australia in the mtDNA control region (??ST = 0. 747), one nuclear intron (??ST = 0.193) and eight microsatellite loci (FST = 0.035). In contrast, there was little genetic structure between Kangaroo Island and adjacent mainland regions within eastern Australia. One small population of Musk Ducks in Victoria (Lake Wendouree) differed from both Kangaroo Island and the remainder of mainland eastern Australia, possibly due to genetic drift exacerbated by inbreeding and small population size. The observed low pairwise distance between the eastern and western mtDNA lineages (0.36%) suggests that they diverged near the end of the Pleistocene, a period characterised by frequent shifts between wet and arid conditions in central Australia. Our genetic results corroborate the display call divergence and Mathews' (Austral Avian Record 2:83-107, 1914) subspecies classification, and confirm that eastern and western populations of Musk Duck are currently isolated from each other. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Cellular physiological effects of the MV Kyowa violet fuel-oil spill on the hard coral, Porites lobata.

    PubMed

    Downs, Craig A; Richmond, Robert H; Mendiola, Woon Jaye; Rougée, Luc; Ostrander, Gary K

    2006-12-01

    The grounding of the Merchant Vessel (MV) Kyowa Violet on a coral reef near Yap, Federated States of Micronesia, in December 2002 resulted in the release of an estimated 55,000 to 80,000 gallons of intermediate fuel oil grade 180. The immediate impact was the widespread coating of mangroves and the intertidal zone along more than 8 km of coastline. Of greater concern, however, was the partitioning of the fuel oil in the water column, leading to chronic exposure of organisms in the ecosystem for a considerable period after the initial event. Herein, we report on our examination of one coral species, Porites lobata, nearly three months after the initial exposure. We investigated whether changes in cellular physiology were consistent with the pathological profile that results from the interaction of corals with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the principal constituent of fuel oil. Specifically, we document, to our knowledge for the first time, changes in the cellular physiological condition of an exposed coral population affected by a fuel-oil spill. We also provide evidence that the observed changes are consistent with a recent exposure to fuel oil, as evidenced by the presence of characteristic cellular lesions attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Finally, our data support a model for a mechanistic relationship between the cellular pathological profile of the coral and a recent petroleum exposure, such as the MV Kyowa Violet fuel oil spill.

  14. Reformation of tissue balls from tentacle explants of coral Goniopora lobata: self-organization process and response to environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiongxuan; Liu, Tao; Tang, Xianming; Dong, Bo; Guo, Huarong

    2017-02-01

    Coral has strong regeneration ability, which has been applied for coral production and biodiversity protection via tissue ball (TB) culture. However, the architecture, morphological processes, and effects of environmental factors on TB formation have not been well investigated. In this study, we first observed TB formation from the cutting tentacle of scleractinia coral Goniopora lobata and uncovered its inner organization and architecture by confocal microscopy. We then found that the cutting tentacle TB could self-organize and reform a solid TB (sTB) in the culture media. Using chemical drug treatment and dissection manipulation approaches, we demonstrated that the mechanical forces for bending and rounding of the cutting fragments came from the epithelial cells, and the cilia of epithelial cell played indispensable roles for the rounding process. Environmental stress experiments showed that high temperature, not CO2-induced acidification, affected TB and sTB formation. However, the combination of high temperature and acidification caused additional severe effects on sTB reformation. Our studies indicate that coral TB has strong regeneration ability and therefore could serve as a new model to further explore the molecular mechanism of TB formation and the effects of environmental stresses on coral survival and regeneration.

  15. Endosperm degradation during seed development of Echinocystis lobata (Cucurbitaceae) as a manifestation of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, Marzena; Olszewska, Maria J

    2003-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an active, genetically controlled process that ultimately leads to elimination of unnecessary or damaged cells from multicellular organism. It occurs during normal growth and development or in response to a variety of environmental triggers and is indispensable for survival of the organism. In Echinocystis lobata the endosperm, an ephemeral tissue in angiosperm plants, undergoes distinct cytological, physiological and molecular changes during seed development and maturation. As a result, mature seeds are deprived of this tissue. The endosperm was analyzed at the consecutive stages of seed development. The morphological changes of cells were studied at light and electron microscope levels. In this paper we report that endosperm cells undergo morphological and biochemical changes characteristic of apoptosis, a particular type of PCD, i.e. cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, and cytoplasm degradation, while the ultrastructure of mitochondria seems to be less changed. Furthermore, the progression of DNA degradation has been shown by agarose gel electrophoresis (ladder pattern of DNA fragmentseparation), TUNEL and comet assay. It isconcluded that during seed maturation, endosperm degradation process is accompanied by typical PCD-related changes of cell morphology and internucleosomal DNA cleavage.

  16. Herbivore handling of a Plants trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Márcio Z

    2008-01-01

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plants defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes.

  17. Potentiation of the bioavailability of daidzin by an extract of Radix puerariae.

    PubMed

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

    1996-04-30

    The dose effect of pure daidzin on the suppression of ethanol intake in Syrian golden hamsters was compared with that of crude daidzin contained in a methanol extract of Radix puerariae (RP). EC50 values estimated from the graded dose-response curves for pure daidzin and RP extract daidzin are 23 and 2.3 mg per hamster per day, respectively. Apparently the antidipsotropic activity of the RP extract cannot be accounted for solely by its daidzin content (22 mg/g). In addition to daidzin, six other isoflavones were identified in the RP extract and quantified--namely, puerarin (160 mg per g of extract), genistin (3.7 mg/g), daidzein (2.6 mg/g), daidzein-4',7-diglucoside (1.2 mg/g), genistein (0.2 mg/g), and formononetin (0.16 mg/g). None of these, administered either alone or combined, contributes in any significant way to the antidipsotropic activity of the extract. Plasma daidzin concentration-time curves determined in hamsters administered various doses of pure daidzin or RP extract by i.p.injection indicate that the crude extract daidzin has approximately 10 times greater bioavailability than the pure compound. Reconstruction of the dose-response effects for pure and crude daidzin using bioavailable daidzin rather than administered dose gives a single curve. Synthetic daidzin added to the RP extract acquires the bioavailability of the endogenous daidzin that exists naturally in the extract. These results show that (i) daidzin is the major active principle in methanol extracts of RP, and (ii) additional constituents in the methanol extract of RP assist uptake of daidzin in golden hamsters.

  18. Melanogenesis inhibitory effect of aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Han, EunByeol; Chang, BoYoon; Kim, DaeSung; Cho, HyoungKwon; Kim, SungYeon

    2015-01-01

    Melanin is major factor that determines skin color as well as one of the defense systems that prevent the UV-induced damage. In case of abnormal concentration of melanin, skin diseases or problems occur such as albinism, leukoplakia, melasma, freckles, moles, and lentigo. With the lifespan of humans has been extended, importance of 'life quality' has been increased. White and clean skin is very important part of the satisfaction of appearance, especially for Asia women. The aim of this study was to find an anti-melanogenesis activity for which the aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana can be utilized based on the increase in demands for cosmetics, particularly natural products. We demonstrated anti-pigmentation effects of aerial part of P. thunbergiana by measuring melanin content and through staining in the B16F10 melanoma cell line. The aerial part of P. thunbergiana decreased tyrosinase activity significantly in B16F10 cell cultures, while there is no direct effect on enzyme in cell-free conditions. To define the mechanisms, real-time PCR, western blot, glucosidase activity and antioxidant activity assay were implemented. As results, we demonstrated that aerial part of P. thunbergiana has anti-melanogenesis activity via two mechanisms. One is downgrading microphthalmia-associated transcription factor by activating Akt/GSK-3β. Consequently, transcription of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 is decreased. Another is interrupting maturation of tyrosinase through inhibiting α-glucosidase. Furthermore, aerial part of P. thunbergiana showed great efficacy on pigmentation in vivo. These results suggest that aerial part of P. thunbergiana can be used as an anti-melanogenic agent.

  19. A first integrative study of the identity and origins of the British Dwarf Pill Millipede populations, Trachysphaera cf. lobata (Diplopoda, Glomerida, Glomeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Lee, Paul; Read, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three populations of the pill millipede genus Trachysphaera Heller 1858 are present in Great Britain, one on the Isle of Wight, one in South Wales and one in mid-Wales. To identify and characterize the British Trachysphaera populations, the intraspecific and interspecific variation of the populations in South Wales and on the Isle of Wight were studied and evaluated in a first integrative study of members of Trachysphaera, utilizing barcoding and SEM. DNA was extracted from 28 British Trachysphaera and 10 French T. lobata (Ribaut 1954) specimens, one each of French T. cf. drescoi (Conde and Demange 1961) and T. pyrenaica (Ribaut 1908), and one of Spanish T. cf. rousseti (Demange 1959); the barcoding fragment of the COI gene was amplified and their genetic intra- and interpopulation distances compared with one another using two Italian T. spp. and one Croatian T. schmidti Heller 1858 specimens as near outgroups. To compare the genetic distances with the morphological characters, 15 characters of a total of 13 British Trachysphaera, together with two specimens of T. pyrenaica, two T. cf. drescoi and one of T. cf. rousseti were imaged, using the same individuals utilized for DNA extraction. Albeit both British populations are genetically distant, they are closely related (1.9–2.5% p-distance) to French T. lobata, corroborating results of earlier studies. Between different Trachysphaera species, genetic distance was high (16.7–18.8%). The morphological study showed the non-reliability of key taxonomic characters in Trachysphaera, with genetically identical individuals exhibiting morphological variation, especially on the telopods. The only observed morphological characters constant within and different between species were the number of rows of sclerotized bacilli on the tergites, as well as the shape of the male and female anal shield. Both, barcoding and the morphological study identify the British Trachysphaera populations as T. lobata. PMID:26175612

  20. Influence of late Quaternary climate change on present patterns of genetic variation in valley oak, Quercus lobata Née.

    PubMed

    Gugger, Paul F; Ikegami, Makihiko; Sork, Victoria L

    2013-07-01

    Phylogeography and ecological niche models (ENMs) suggest that late Quaternary glacial cycles have played a prominent role in shaping present population genetic structure and diversity, but have not applied quantitative methods to dissect the relative contribution of past and present climate vs. other forces. We integrate multilocus phylogeography, climate-based ENMs and multivariate statistical approaches to infer the effects of late Quaternary climate change on contemporary genetic variation of valley oak (Quercus lobata Née). ENMs indicated that valley oak maintained a stable distribution with local migration from the last interglacial period (~120 ka) to the Last Glacial Maximum (~21 ka, LGM) to the present compared with large-scale range shifts for an eastern North American white oak (Quercus alba L.). Coast Range and Sierra Nevada foothill populations diverged in the late Pleistocene before the LGM [104 ka (28-1622)] and have occupied somewhat distinct climate niches, according to ENMs and coalescent analyses of divergence time. In accordance with neutral expectations for stable populations, nuclear microsatellite diversity positively correlated with niche stability from the LGM to present. Most strikingly, nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite variation significantly correlated with LGM climate, even after controlling for associations with geographic location and present climate using partial redundancy analyses. Variance partitioning showed that LGM climate uniquely explains a similar proportion of genetic variance as present climate (16% vs. 11-18%), and together, past and present climate explains more than geography (19%). Climate can influence local expansion-contraction dynamics, flowering phenology and thus gene flow, and/or impose selective pressures. These results highlight the lingering effect of past climate on genetic variation in species with stable distributions.

  1. Suppression of BSEP and MRP2 in mouse liver by miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol isolated from Pueraria candollei.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2012-11-15

    Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol are highly active phytoestrogens isolated from the tuberous root of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica (Leguminosae). Modulatory effects of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol on the mRNAs of BSEP and MRP2 genes involved in bile salt transportation, in C57BL/6 mice were investigated. In contrast to estradiol, miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol suppressed the expression of BSEP and MRP2 mRNA in both male and female mice. The results suggest for the first time that the use of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol-containing products as alternative medicines or health supplements should be concerned according to their effects on key genes that regulate the bile salt export pump, which could result in the risk of hepatotoxicity and intrahepatic cholestasis.

  2. Road systems, land use, and related patterns of valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) populations, seedling recruitment, and herbivory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Bill Ahlering

    This research investigates the interactions of road systems and land use on the population dynamics and recruitment of a long-lived tree in Mediterranean climate California. In the case of Valley oak (Quercus lobata), habitat conversion and limited recruitment of new individuals has resulted in widespread declines throughout Santa Barbara County and California. This pattern contrasts with high recruitment rates along roadsides, offering a unique opportunity to examine the effects of roads on the population dynamics of a native species. The pattern of roadside recruits is described, mapped, and a complete survey of the biophysical environment along 109 kilometers of road was conducted. The biophysical factors of the road and road system were of four types: (1) the general roadside environment; (2) the acorn supply; (3) a measure of ungulate deterrence; and, (4) roadside management. Seven individual or aggregate factors were then related to the pattern of seedling and sapling densities along roads. Univariate analysis and regression trees determined that acorn supply and total woody cover within the roadside plots explained 49% of the variation in Valley oak seedling densities. These results support the conclusion that the recruitment pattern is due to the roadsides serving as refugia from browsers (cattle and deer). The change in Valley oak populations within roadsides, croplands, rangelands, and urban/suburban lands over a 59 year period is examined using georeferenced aerial photos from 1938 and 1997. While population per capita growth rates were less than one (declining) within both rangelands and croplands, rates were greater than one (increasing) in urban/suburban populations. While roadside growth rates were even higher than those in urban/suburban areas, high variance resulted in a rate neither positive nor negative. Finally, seedlings were planted along roadsides and within adjacent grazed and ungrazed uplands to test browsing pressure. Seedlings within

  3. Anti-Endometriotic Effects of Pueraria Flower Extract  in Human Endometriotic Cells and Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Woo, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Hye Mi; Oh, Myung Sook; Jang, Dae Sik; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2017-02-28

    Pueraria flowers have been used as a vegetable and an ingredient for tea and jelly. In this study, we investigated the effects of Pueraria flower extract (PFE) on endometriosis, a common gynaecological disease characterised by local sterile inflammation of peritoneal cavity. PFE suppressed the adhesion of human endometriotic cells 11Z and 12Z to human mesothelial Met5A cells. In addition, PFE significantly inhibited the migration of 11Z and 12Z cells as shown by woundhealing and transwell migration assays. PFE reduced the protein and mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in endometriotic cells. Moreover, extracellular signalregulated kinase (ERK)1/2 was activated by PFE treatment, and an ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, significantly inhibited PFE-inhibited cell migration in endometriotic cells. Furthermore, PFE significantly suppressed endometriotic lesion formation in a mouse model. These data suggest that Pueraria flower is a potential anti-endometriotic agent for the inhibition of endometriotic cell adhesion, migration, and MMP expression.

  4. Determination of isoflavone content in soy, red clover, and kudzu dietary supplement materials by liquid chromatography-particle beam/electron ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Burdette, Carolyn Q; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Increased consumption of dietary supplements brings about important requirements of analytical methods to allow accurate and precise measurements of the chemical composition of these botanical materials. Presented here is the isoflavone content in proposed National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference materials (SRMs) determined by LC-particle beam/electron ionization MS. Botanical materials (soy, red clover, and kudzu) are characterized for the content of a suite of five isoflavones (puerarin, daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and biochanin A). These compounds are of interest due to correlations with certain health benefits. An RP chromatographic separation was first optimized using UV-Vis spectrophotometric detection. The LC output was then introduced to an electron ionization source using a particle beam interface on an Extrel Benchmark MS system. The separation was carried out using a commercial C18 column and a linear gradient using water and methanol (both containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid as mobile phases A and B, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min over 40 min. LOD values for the isoflavones were determined to be at the ng level. Quantitation was performed using an internal standard (IS) approach with 7-hydroxy-4-chromone as the IS compound. The levels of isoflavones in the botanical products were determined for the proposed SRMs.

  5. [Determination of trace elements in new food sources by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li E; Ding, Li; Qi, Min; Han, Xiu Li; Zhang, Hong-Quan

    2007-07-01

    Samples were digested by HNO3 + HClO4. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) was successfully used to determine copper, zinc and iron in new resource food. Under our experimental conditions, the recovery ratio was 94.66%-108.80%; the precision was 0.71%-4.78%. This method of measuring elements is convenient, rapid and accurate. The results showed that there are profitable elements, such as copper, zinc and iron in new resourse food in Henan province. By F test and SNK test, the content sequence of metal elements was found as follows: copper, Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat = Silkworm pupa > flowers of Pueraria lobata Ohwin = Wheat germ = Codonopsis lanceolata = roots of Pueraria lobata Ohwi > Opuntia dillenii Haw. Zinc, Opuntia dillenii Haw > Silkworm pupa = flowers of Pueraria lobata Ohwi = roots of Pueraria lobata Ohwi = Wheat germ = Codonopsis lanceolata = Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. Iron, Silkworm pupa = C hrysanthemum morifolium Ramat = roots of Pueraria lobata Ohwi > flowers of Pueraria lobata Ohwi = Wheat germ = Codonopis lanceolata = Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  6. Supplementation with soybean peptides, taurine, Pueraria isoflavone, and ginseng saponin complex improves endurance exercise capacity in humans.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Chan, Kuei-Hui; Hsu, Mei-Chich; Liu, Jen-Fang

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a proprietary blend of soybean peptides, taurine, Pueraria isoflavone, and ginseng saponin complex (STPG capsule) on exercise performance in humans. Fourteen male volunteers were randomly assigned to two crossover treatments in which they consumed either four STPG capsules (STPG treatment) or placebo (P treatment) for 15 days before a 75% maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) exhaustive cycling test. Blood samples and respiratory gas were collected prior to the exercise (Pre-Ex), at 10 (Ex-10), 15 (Ex-15), 20 (Ex-20), and 25 (Ex-25) minutes during exercise, and immediately after exercise (exhaustion) to assess the blood metabolites, cardiorespiratory responses, and energy substrate utilization. The result showed that exercise time to exhaustion of the 75% (VO(2max)) exhaustive cycling test of the STPG-treated subjects was significantly greater than with the P treatment (30.99 ± 2.01 vs. 28.05 ± 1.48 minutes). The plasma lactate concentrations at Ex-20 and Ex-25 in the STPG treatment were significantly lower with STPG treatment than with P treatment (10.5 ± 0.7 vs. 11.5 ± 0.8 and 10.7 ± 0.9 vs.12.3 ± 1.0 mmol/L, respectively). Nonesterified fatty acid levels at Ex-15, Ex-20, Ex-25, and exhaustion in the STPG group (0.27 ± 0.03, 0.32 ± 0.04, 0.32 ± 0.06, and 0.37 ± 0.05 mmol/L, respectively) were significantly higher than those in the P treatment (0.21 ± 0.03, 0.23 ± 0.03, 0.24 ± 0.03, and 0.25 ± 0.03 mmol/L, respectively). It was concluded that supplementation of four capsules (2 g) of STPG complex, consisting of soybean peptides, taurine, Pueraria isoflavone, and ginseng saponin, for 15 days was effective in promoting utilization of free fatty acids and improving exhaustive cycling test performance in humans.

  7. [Effects of 6-benzylaminopurine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid on growth and isoflavone contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots].

    PubMed

    He, Hanjie; Shi, Heping

    2014-10-01

    In order to study the effect of phytohormone on growth and isoflavones contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots, we cultured the hairy roots with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) alone or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Then we determined the effects of 6-BA alone or in combination with NAA on the growth and the contents of isoflavones compounds and levels of antioxidase activities of hairy roots by spectrophotometry. The results show that 6-BA inhibited the growth, and decreased biomass and total isoflavones compounds of P. phaseoloides hairy roots. Furthermore, the inhibition was increased with the concentrations of 6-BA. Compared with the controls, different concentrations of 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L could inhibit the growth of hairy roots and decrease the content of total isoflavone compounds, and also significantly enhanced the contents of soluble protein and levels of peroxidase (POD) activities, but decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD). DNA ladders detected by agarose gel electrophoresis can be observed after hairy roots of P. phaseoloides were cultured with 6-BA alone for 30 days, but can appear on the 20th day after culture with 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L. This result indicates that 6-BA or 6-BA in combination with NAA can both stimulate appearance of programmed cell death (PCD), and NAA may play a synergistic role on PCD.

  8. Protection of HT22 neuronal cells against glutamate toxicity mediated by the antioxidant activity of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica extracts.

    PubMed

    Sucontphunt, Apirada; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Nimmannit, Ubonthip; Dan Dimitrijevich, S; Gracy, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal degeneration is known to be due to oxidative stress acting through a pathway involving the excessive activation of glutamate receptors. We studied the neuroprotection potential of an ethyl acetate-ethanol extract of Pueraria mirifica (P. candollei var. mirifica) root (PM extract). PM extract was evaluated for its antioxidant and neuroprotective activities against glutamate toxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 neuronal cells. The extract at concentrations of 10 and 50 μg/ml exhibited considerable antioxidant activity with significant neuroprotection, based on the microscopic observations of cell morphology and the determination of cell viability and cell number. Studies of the possible mechanisms of action indicated that the neuroprotection exerted by PM extract was related to its scavenging activity against H(2)O(2) and related reactive oxygen species. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analyses showed that the extract contained daidzein and genistein as identified constituents, as well as additional components with antioxidant activity. While daidzein and genistein individually and in combination were observed not to be neuroprotective, we propose that the antioxidant and neuroprotective activities of PM extract are derived from the combined properties of its constituents.

  9. Involvement of abscisic acid in ozone-induced puerarin production of Pueraria thomsnii Benth. suspension cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lina; Su, Hu; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Maojun

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ozone induced a rapid increase in the levels of the sesquiterpene phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the isoflavone puerarin in suspension cell cultures of Pueraria thomsnii Benth. The observed increases in ABA and puerarin were dependent on the concentration of ozone applied to P. thomsnii cell cultures. In order to examine the role of ABA in ozone-induced puerarin production, cell suspensions were pretreated with the ABA biosynthetic inhibitor fluridone. Following ozone exposure, fluridone treatment suppressed ABA accumulation suggesting ABA was normally synthesized de novo through the carotenoid pathway. Fluridone also blocked ozone-induced puerarin production, which could be reversed through application of exogenous ABA. However, in the absence of ozone, ABA itself had no effect on puerarin accumulation in the suspension cells. Taken together, the data indicate that ozone is an efficient elicitor of puerarin production and may be particularly applicable for improving puerarin production in plant cell cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ABA is one factor associated with ozone-induced puerarin production in P. thomsnii cell cultures.

  10. Determination of the estrogenic activity of wild phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica by MCF-7 proliferation assay.

    PubMed

    Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Traisup, Virasinee; Picha, Porntipa

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the estrogenic activity of tuberous samples of wild, phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica collected from 28 out of 76 provinces of Thailand by MCF-7 proliferation assay. The plant extracts were administered to MCF-7, ER alpha positive human mammary adenocarcinoma cell cultures, for 3 days at dosages of 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 microg/ml and were compared with 17 beta-estradiol at concentrations of 10(-12)-10(-6) M. The mean P. mirifica population at 1 mug/ml exhibited significant proliferation. Two plant samples exhibited levels of proliferation in MCF-7 that were similar to 17beta-estradiol. The mean P. mirifica populations at 100 and 1,000 microg/ml exhibited significant cytotoxicity in MCF-7. Analysis of the estrogenic activity of puerarin, representative of major isoflavonoids in P. mirifica tubers, revealed proliferation in MCF-7 only at the highest dose (10(-6) M) that was 10(2)-10(5) times less active than 17 beta-estradiol. Puerarin and 17 beta-estradiol at concentration of 10(-12)-10(-6) M exhibited no cytotoxicity in MCF-7.

  11. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis.

    PubMed

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Kiatoko, Honoré; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P < 0.05) was observed decreasing from 126 for 0 % to approximately 84 g/kg of body weight for the 40 % forage diets, except for V. unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility.

  12. Pueraria mirifica Exerts Estrogenic Effects in the Mammary Gland and Uterus and Promotes Mammary Carcinogenesis in Donryu Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kakehashi, Anna; Yoshida, Midori; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Naomi; Okuno, Takahiro; Gi, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria mirifica (PM), a plant whose dried and powdered tuberous roots are now widely used in rejuvenating preparations to promote youthfulness in both men and women, may have major estrogenic influence. In this study, we investigated modifying effects of PM at various doses on mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis in female Donryu rats. Firstly, PM administered to ovariectomized animals at doses of 0.03%, 0.3%, and 3% in a phytoestrogen-low diet for 2 weeks caused significant increase in uterus weight. Secondly, a 4 week PM application to non-operated rats at a dose of 3% after 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) initiation resulted in significant elevation of cell proliferation in the mammary glands. In a third experiment, postpubertal administration of 0.3% (200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day) PM to 5-week-old non-operated animals for 36 weeks following initiation of mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis with DMBA and N-ethyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG), respectively, resulted in significant increase of mammary adenocarcinoma incidence. A significant increase of endometrial atypical hyperplasia multiplicity was also observed. Furthermore, PM at doses of 0.3%, and more pronouncedly, at 1% induced dilatation, hemorrhage and inflammation of the uterine wall. In conclusion, postpubertal long-term PM administration to Donryu rats exerts estrogenic effects in the mammary gland and uterus, and at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w./day was found to promote mammary carcinogenesis initiated by DMBA. PMID:27827907

  13. Pueraria mirifica extract and puerarin enhance proliferation and expression of alkaline phosphatase and type I collagen in primary baboon osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Tiyasatkulkovit, Wacharaporn; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Havill, Lorena M; Ford, Allen L; VandeBerg, John L

    2014-10-15

    Phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica (PM) tuberous extract is a promising candidate for the development of anti-osteoporosis drugs for postmenopausal women, but its action has never been validated in humans or in non-human primates, which are more closely related to humans than rodents. In vitro study of non-human primate osteoblasts is thus fundamental to prepare for in vivo studies of phytoestrogen effects on primate bone. This study aimed to establish a culture system of baboon primary osteoblasts and to investigate the effects of PM extract and its phytoestrogens on these cells. Primary osteoblasts from adult baboon fibulae exhibited osteoblast characteristics in regard to proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and estrogen receptor expression. They responded to 17β-estradiol by increased proliferation rate and mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen, and osteocalcin. After being exposed for 48 h to 100 μg/ml PM extract, 1000 nM genistein, or 1000 nM puerarin, primary baboon osteoblasts markedly increased the rate of proliferation and mRNA levels of ALP and type I collagen without changes in Runx2, osterix, or osteocalcin expression. PM extract, genistein, and puerarin also decreased the RANKL/OPG ratio, suggesting that they could decrease osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. However, neither PM extract nor its phytoestrogens altered calcium deposition in osteoblast culture. In conclusion, we have established baboon primary osteoblast culture, which is a new tool for bone research and drug discovery. Furthermore, the present results provide substantial support for the potential of PM extract and its phytoestrogens to be developed as therapeutic agents against bone fragility.

  14. Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Pueraria Flavones by a Novel Solid Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SMEDDS) Dropping Pills.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingxiang; Zhang, Guangyuan; Sun, Shilin; Fan, Hongbo; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Shaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To improve bioavailability of pueraria flavones (PF), a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) dropping pills composed of PF, Crodamol GTCC, Maisine 35-1, Cremophor RH 40, 1,2-propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) was developed. Particle size, zeta potential, morphology and in vitro drug release were investigated, respectively. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills were also evaluated and compared in rats. Puerarin treated as the representative component of PF was analyzed. Dynamic light scattering showed the ability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills to form a nanoemulsion droplet size in aqueous media. The type of media showed no significant effects on the release rate of PF. PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were able to improve the in vitro release rate of PF, and the in vitro release of these dropping pills was significantly faster than that of Yufengningxin dropping pills. There was a dramatic difference between the mean value of t1/2, peak concentration (Cmax), the area of concentration-time curve from 0 to 6 h (AUC0-6 h) of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and that of commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills. A pharmacokinetic study showed that the bioavailability of PF was greatly enhanced by PF-SMEDDS dropping pills. The value of Cmax and relative bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were dramatically improved by an average of 1.69- and 2.36-fold compared with that of Yufengningxin dropping pills after gavage administration, respectively. It was concluded that bioavailability of PF was greatly improved and that PF-SMEDDS dropping pills might be an encouraging strategy to enhance the oral bioavailability of PF.

  15. Puerariae flos alleviates metabolic diseases in Western diet-loaded, spontaneously obese type 2 diabetic model mice.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Koshi; Shimada, Tsutomu; Onishi, Rei; Tsubata, Masahito; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Nagamine, Rika; Iizuka, Seiichi; Sai, Yoshimichi; Amagaya, Sakae; Aburada, Masaki; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Puerariae flos extract (PFE) has been reported to have many effects, including preventing the development of hangovers, liver protective effects, and an estrogenic effect. In addition, some papers reported that PFE is effective against metabolic diseases, with hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects. However, the mechanism underlying such effects remains unclear. For the purpose of clarifying the effect of PFE on metabolic diseases related to the accumulation of visceral fat and to determine the mechanism of such action, TSOD mice, a multifactorial genetic disease animal model that spontaneously develops various metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, were given a Western diet (WTD) as an environmental factor to prepare a disease model (TSOD-WTD). When TSOD mice were loaded with WTD, it was confirmed that metabolic diseases such as obesity and abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism are aggravated. In contrast, PFE treatment to TSOD-WTD mice was shown to suppress body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation, alleviated the abnormal glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia, as well as causing an increase in blood adiponectin. Furthermore, the suppression of liver enlargement was observed in PFE-treated mice, with suppression of fatty degeneration and anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, to clarify the mechanism of the hyperlipidemia-alleviating effects in the liver, we investigated the effect of PFE on the expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. PFE was associated with a significant increase in gene expression for cholesterol synthesis rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, cholesterol catabolization enzyme Cyp7A1, bile salt export pump adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter B11, and low-density lipoprotein receptor involved in cholesterol uptake. The above results suggest that PFE acts to alleviate the effects of various metabolic diseases based on the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue, including obesity, diabetes

  16. Anti-osteoporotic effects of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica on bone mineral density and histomorphometry in estrogen-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Suthon, Sarocha; Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-04-01

    Although it has been clearly shown that Pueraria mirifica and its phytoestrogens can mimic estrogen in preventing bone loss, as osteoporosis is an asymptomatic disease, the therapeutic effects of P. mirifica should be acknowledged. In this study, 6-month-old female rats were ovariectomized, kept for 4 weeks to induce bone loss, divided into five groups, and treated with P. mirifica at doses of 0, 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg BW/day (PM0, PM5, PM25, and PM50 groups, respectively) or 7 mg/kg BW/day of puerarin (PU group) for 12 weeks. Only the trabecular bone mineral densities (BMDs) of tibia metaphysis (at the 12th, 14th, and 16th week) and total and trabecular BMDs of L4 (at the 16th week) of the PM50 group were significantly higher than those of the PM0 group. However, the BMDs of tibia metaphysis and L4 at the 16th week of the study period were kept significantly lower than those of the 0 week, and the BMD was also significantly lower than that of the 4th week for tibia metaphysis. The trabecular bone area (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and osteoblast surface (Ob.S/BS) were significantly higher, and trabecular space (Tb.Sp) was significantly lower in the PM50 group, as compared with those of the PM0 group. This study indicates that P. mirifica could be used as an anti-osteoporotic agent for postmenopausal women. Since P. mirifica could mainly retain bone mass at the levels before bone loss is initiated, the use of other anabolic agents in combination with P. mirifica is recommended for osteoporotic patients.

  17. Protein expression and genetic structure of the coral Porites lobata in an environmentally extreme Samoan back reef: Does host genotype limit phenotypic plasticity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barshis, D.J.; Stillman, J.H.; Gates, R.D.; Toonen, R.J.; Smith, L.W.; Birkeland, C.

    2010-01-01

    The degree to which coral reef ecosystems will be impacted by global climate change depends on regional and local differences in corals' susceptibility and resilience to environmental stressors. Here, we present data from a reciprocal transplant experiment using the common reef building coral Porites lobata between a highly fluctuating back reef environment that reaches stressful daily extremes, and a more stable, neighbouring forereef. Protein biomarker analyses assessing physiological contributions to stress resistance showed evidence for both fixed and environmental influence on biomarker response. Fixed influences were strongest for ubiquitin-conjugated proteins with consistently higher levels found in back reef source colonies both pre and post-transplant when compared with their forereef conspecifics. Additionally, genetic comparisons of back reef and forereef populations revealed significant population structure of both the nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial genomes of the coral host (FST = 0.146 P < 0.0001, FST = 0.335 P < 0.0001 for rDNA and mtDNA, respectively), whereas algal endosymbiont populations were genetically indistinguishable between the two sites. We propose that the genotype of the coral host may drive limitations to the physiological responses of these corals when faced with new environmental conditions. This result is important in understanding genotypic and environmental interactions in the coral algal symbiosis and how corals may respond to future environmental changes. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) Population Dynamics in Soybeans as Influenced by Planting Date, Maturity Group, and Insecticide Use.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Seiter, Nicholas J; Reisig, Dominic D; Greene, Jeremy K; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Bacheler, Jack S

    2016-02-18

    Since its unintentional introduction during 2009, Megacopta cribraria (F.) has spread rapidly throughout the southeastern United States, mainly feeding and reproducing on kudzu, Pueraria montana Loureiro (Merr.) variety lobata (Willdenow), and soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Megacopta cribraria has become a serious economic pest in soybeans, forcing growers to rely solely on insecticide applications to control this insect. The main objective of this study was to investigate if variation in planting date and maturity group of soybeans had an impact on management of M. cribraria populations. Three experimental fields were located in North Carolina (2) and South Carolina (1), and the tests replicated during 2012 and 2013. Treatments consisted of three planting dates, four maturity groups, and insecticide treated versus untreated, at each location. More M. cribraria were found in untreated early planted soybeans than late planted soybeans. Generally, maturity group did not influence population densities of M. cribraria. Yield was significantly influenced by the interaction between planting date and maturity group. There was a negative linear relationship between M. cribraria populations and soybean yield. Although early planted soybeans may avoid drought conditions and potentially large populations of defoliators, these fields may be at greater risk for infestation by M. cribraria.

  19. Supercritical fluid chromatography for the separation of isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Ganzera, Markus

    2015-03-25

    The first protocol for the analysis of isoflavones by supercritical fluid chromatography is reported. Optimum results were obtained on an Acquity UPC(2) BEH 1.7 μm column, using a solvent gradient of supercritical carbon dioxide and methanol (with phosphoric acid as additive) for elution. The method enables the baseline separation of nine isoflavones (aglyca and glycosides) in 8 min, and is suitable for their quantitative determination in dietary supplements containing soy (Glycine max), red glover (Trifolium pratense) and kudzu (Pueraria lobata). Method validation confirmed that the assay is selective, linear (R(2)≥0.9994), accurate (recovery rates from 97.6 to 102.4%), as well as precise on the short- and long-term level (intra-day precision ≤2.1%), and shows an on-column detection limit of 0.2 ng and below. This, together with an excellent performance shown in the analysis of real samples, indicates that SFC is well suited for the fast and accurate determination of isoflavones in complex matrices. Disadvantages compared to the established approaches were not observed, so that SFC has to be considered in this case as an (at least) equivalent analytical alternative.

  20. Declinol, a Complex Containing Kudzu, Bitter Herbs (Gentian, Tangerine Peel) and Bupleurum, Significantly Reduced Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) Scores in Moderate to Heavy Drinkers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Steven; Han, David; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; William Downs, B; Madigan, Margaret A; Giordano, John; Beley, Thomas; Jones, Scott; Barh, Debmayla; Simpatico, Thomas; Dushaj, Kristina; Lohmann, Raquel; Braverman, Eric R; Schoenthaler, Stephen; Ellison, David; Blum, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that inherited human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2) deficiency reduces the risk for alcoholism. Kudzu plants and extracts have been used for 1,000 years in traditional Chinese medicine to treat alcoholism. Kudzu contains daidzin, which inhibits ALDH-2 and suppresses heavy drinking in rodents. Decreased drinking due to ALDH-2 inhibition is attributed to aversive properties of acetaldehyde accumulated during alcohol consumption. However not all of the anti-alcohol properties of diadzin are due to inhibition of ALDH-2. This is in agreement with our earlier work showing significant interaction effects of both pyrozole (ALDH-2 inhibitor) and methyl-pyrozole (non-inhibitor) and ethanol’s depressant effects. Moreover, it has been suggested that selective ALDH 2 inhibitors reduce craving for alcohol by increasing dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In addition there is significant evidence related to the role of the genetics of bitter receptors (TAS2R) and its stimulation as an aversive mechanism against alcohol intake. The inclusion of bitters such as Gentian & Tangerine Peel in Declinol provides stimulation of gut TAS2R receptors which is potentially synergistic with the effects of Kudzu. Finally the addition of Radix Bupleuri in the Declinol formula may have some protective benefits not only in terms of ethanol induced liver toxicity but neurochemical actions involving endorphins, dopamine and epinephrine. With this information as a rationale, we report herein that this combination significantly reduced Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores administered to ten heavy drinkers (M=8, F=2; 43.2 ± 14.6 years) attending a recovery program. Specifically, from the pre-post comparison of the AUD scores, it was found that the score of every participant decreased after the intervention which ranged from 1 to 31. The decrease in the scores was found to be statistically significant with the p-value of 0.00298 (two-sided paired

  1. Gene movement and genetic association with regional climate gradients in California valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) in the face of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sork, Victoria L.; Davis, Frank W.; Westfall, Robert; Flint, Alan L.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Wang, Hongfang; Grivet, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    Rapid climate change jeopardizes tree populations by shifting current climate zones. To avoid extinction, tree populations must tolerate, adapt, or migrate. Here we investigate geographic patterns of genetic variation in valley oak, Quercus lobata N??e, to assess how underlying genetic structure of populations might influence this species' ability to survive climate change. First, to understand how genetic lineages shape spatial genetic patterns, we examine historical patterns of colonization. Second, we examine the correlation between multivariate nuclear genetic variation and climatic variation. Third, to illustrate how geographic genetic variation could interact with regional patterns of 21st Century climate change, we produce region-specific bioclimatic distributions of valley oak using Maximum Entropy (MAXENT) models based on downscaled historical (1971-2000) and future (2070-2100) climate grids. Future climatologies are based on a moderate-high (A2) carbon emission scenario and two different global climate models. Chloroplast markers indicate historical range-wide connectivity via colonization, especially in the north. Multivariate nuclear genotypes show a strong association with climate variation that provides opportunity for local adaptation to the conditions within their climatic envelope. Comparison of regional current and projected patterns of climate suitability indicates that valley oaks grow in distinctly different climate conditions in different parts of their range. Our models predict widely different regional outcomes from local displacement of a few kilometres to hundreds of kilometres. We conclude that the relative importance of migration, adaptation, and tolerance are likely to vary widely for populations among regions, and that late 21st Century conditions could lead to regional extinctions. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. [A simultaneous determination of daidzin and puerarin and determination of daidzein in Oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing puerariae radix by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, T; Momma, N; Ohsawa, K

    1993-12-01

    A simple and precise method was established for the simultaneous determination of daidzin and puerarin and the determination of daidzein in oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing Puerariae Radix using high-performance liquid chromatography with tetra-n-heptylammonium bromide (THA) as an ion-pair reagent. Daidzin and puerarin were eluted within 45 min without interference with co-existing components using an ODS column and a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5)-methanol (68:32) containing 5 mM THA as a mobile phase. Daidzein was eluted within 35 min without interference with co-existing components using an ODS column and a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5)-acetonitrile (72:28 or 68:32) containing 5 mM THA as a mobile phase.

  3. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for total isoflavonoids in Pueraria candollei using anti-puerarin and anti-daidzin polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pongkitwitoon, Benyakan; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Kinjo, Junei; Morimoto, Satoshi; Putalun, Waraporn

    2010-05-01

    Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khuer) is a medicinal plant containing puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein as major isoflavonoids used for its rejuvenating and estrogenic effects. In order to analyze these compounds, a single enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for total isoflavonoids was developed using anti-puerarin and anti-daidzin polyclonal antibodies (PAbs). The range for calibration of isoflavonoids by ELISA was 0.05-6.25 microg/mL. Total isoflavonoid concentrations in P. candollei samples determined by the newly developed assay system showed good agreement with those analyzed by HPLC. Based on validation analysis, this analytical method by ELISA is a precise, accurate, and sensitive method for the determination of total isoflavonoids in P. candollei.

  4. Suitability of Pueraria phaseoloides, Chromolaena odorata and Tithonia diversifolia as in-situ mulch for nematode management in musa cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Schösser, B; Hauser, S; Sikora, R A

    2006-01-01

    Mulching with plant organic matter has been shown to reduce nematode population densities in various cropping systems. The level of nematode control is increased when such mulches are incorporated into the soil as organic amendments. Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides are common cover crops in West and Central Africa that produce large quantities of nutrient rich biomass. The aim of this study was to determine, if in-situ mulching of C. odorata, T. diversifolia and P. phaseoloides is suitable for nematode control in Musa production. In a pot trial, the susceptibility of these plants to spiral nematodes was investigated. The effects of different quantities of surface mulch on nematode population densities in the soil and in banana roots also were determined. All mulch types and all quantities led to a reduction in nematode population densities in the soil. The strongest nematode reductions were observed in the Pueraria treatments. In treatments containing banana plants mulching improved plant growth compared to the clean-fallowed soil and induced lower root infestation rates. However, nematode soil populations were higher in mulched than in non-mulched banana treatments. Plant parasitic nematodes also were isolated from roots of all three cover crop species and all three plants caused an increase in nematode numbers in the soil. Therefore, the tested cover crops proved unsuitable for nematode control in a system with the highly susceptible bananas. Further examinations are needed to determine whether or not the positive effects of surface mulching on plantain plant growth and root infestation rates also have positive effects on yield in an in-situ mulching system in the presence of nematodes.

  5. Kudzu, Rabbits, and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlad, John I.

    2002-01-01

    Essay on school reform argues that quality teachers are key to successful reform, not reform rhetoric by state governors and U.S. Presidents. Asserts that primary mission of schooling is to provide students an educational apprenticeship in democracy. Qualified, caring, competent teachers are essential to accomplish this mission. (PKP)

  6. An investigation on the germination of seeds of Kwao Kreu Kao (Pueraria candollei Grah. ex Benth) as affected by both water soakings and hot air oven treatments.

    PubMed

    Benjawan, Chutichudet; Chutichudet, P; Kaewsit, S

    2007-12-01

    This experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 4400, Thailand to investigate effects of different water-soaking durations and hot air oven treatments on the germination of seeds of Kwao Kreu Kao (Pueraria candollei Grah. ex Benth) plants. The experiment was laid in a Randomised Complete Block Design with four replications. The results showed that after tested for Electrical Conductivity (EC) values for cracking of seeds, all seeds being used were at a normal condition (with an average EC value of 28.56 microS cm(-1) g(-1)) and all seeds were ready for germination. Strength on impermeability of seeds declined after soaking in water for 10 h and onwards then the treated seeds had increased in weights. However, after treated under hot air oven, dry weights of all seeds became similar. Germination percentage of all treatments was most rapid during the first three weeks of germination period and later slowly increased with time. At day 91 after sowing, T2 gave the highest percentage of germination (52%) and the lowest was found with T1 (control) with 31.25%. Again at day 91 after sowing, T2 gave the highest mean value of plant numbers (16.38) and the lowest was found with T1 (7.28). Numbers of abnormal seedlings determined at day 63 after sowing were lowest with T2 (6.25%) and worst with T4 (20.14%). Again at day 63 after sowing, plant height was significantly tallest with T2 (3.88 cm) and the lowest was found with T4 (2.71 cm). Numbers of leaves were not significantly different among the treated plants reaching a highest value of 11.25 leaves plant(-1) for T3. It may be concluded that T2 was the best treatment for use in germinating seeds of Pueraria candollei Grah. ex Benth plants. Further improvements on longevity and high percentage of germination of seeds were discussed and suggested.

  7. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF) in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg). At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage. PMID:27042190

  8. Impact of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica and its potent phytoestrogen miroestrol on expression of bone-specific genes in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Monthakantirat, Orawan; Churikhit, Yaowared; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2012-12-01

    Miroestrol (MR) is a highly active phytoestrogen isolated from tuberous root of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica (PM). Modulatory effects of PM and MR on osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) mRNAs which are bone-specific genes were investigated in ovariectomized female ICR mice. After ovariectomy, expression of OPG mRNA was suppressed but that of RANKL was induced. Estradiol benzoate (E2) recovered OPG expression to the level comparable to the sham while that of RANKL was suppressed in ovariectomized mice. PM crude extract (PME) significantly down-regulated the expression of RANKL mRNA with no change in the OPG level whereas MR elevated the expression of OPG mRNA with lowering level of RANKL mRNA, resulting in the increased OPG/RANKL ratio, and consequently lead to lowering progression of osteoporosis at molecular level. These findings revealed potential of PME and MR on bone loss prevention via increasing the ratio of OPG to RANKL (osteoformation/osteoresorption) in liver of ovariectomized mice. Therefore, using PME and MR as alternative hormone replacement therapy of E2 might be beneficial recommended due to advantageous on regulation of osteoporosis related genes.

  9. Discrimination of the Thai rejuvenating herbs Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna collettii (Black Kwao Khruea) using PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Yodpetch, Woraluk; Komatsu, Katsuko; Zhu, Shu; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Sukrong, Suchada

    2013-07-01

    The tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea) and Mucuna collettii (Black Kwao Khruea), which belong to the family Leguminosae, are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional Thai medicine. Although all of these species have an indication for rejuvenation, each differs in its medicinal properties. Two varieties of P. candollei, var. mirifica and var. candollei, affect females, whereas B. superba and M. collettii exhibit effects on males. However, the identification of these roots according to the name "Kwao Khruea" is confusing due to the similarity in their features. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was utilised to identify plant origin. The partial matK gene was amplified and subjected to restriction enzyme digestion with DdeI and TaqI. The restriction fragments generated differed in number and size. To test the reliability of the method, an admixture of the different Kwao Khruea species containing equal amounts of DNA was tested. The results showed combined restriction patterns, and each species could be detected in the background of the others. The method was also used to authenticate eight different crude drugs sold as various types of Kwao Khruea in Thai markets. The results showed that the misidentification of commercial drugs remains a problem in crude drug markets. The PCR-RFLP analysis developed here provides a simple and accurate discrimination of these rejuvenating "Kwao Khruea" species.

  10. Using vaginal cytology to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb.

    PubMed

    Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Chansri, Kullakanya; Kijkuokul, Pisamai; Urasopon, Nontakorn; Cherdshewasart, Wichai

    2006-10-11

    To assess the estrogenic activities of synthetic estrogen, synthetic phytoestrogen, Pueraria lobata and three distinct cultivars of Pueraria mirifica, a phytoestrogen-rich herb, a vaginal cytology assay in ovariectomized rats were used. Rats were ovariectomized and treated with DW, estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg BW), genistein (0.25-2.5 mg/kg BW), Pueraria lobata and Pueraria mirifica (10-1,000 mg/kg BW) for 14 days. The vaginal cytology was checked daily and the uteri were dissected and weighed at the end of treatment or post-treatment periods. The treatments of DW, genistein and Pueraria lobata did not influence the vaginal epithelium, but the injection of estradiol valerate induced a vaginal cornification from day-3 of treatment to day-14 of post-treatment period. The occurrence of vaginal cornification after treatment and the recovery after the cessation was dependent on dosages and cultivars of Pueraria mirifica. The increments of uterus weight in all rats agreed with the cornification of vaginal epithelium. Although both uterotropic and vaginal cytology assays can be used to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb, however, using vaginal cytology assay has two advantages: (1) we do not need to kill the animals and (2) we can follow up the recovery after the cessation of treatment.

  11. Improvements of vaginal atrophy without systemic side effects after topical application of Pueraria mirifica, a phytoestrogen-rich herb, in postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Urasopon, Nontakorn; Watanabe, Gen; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2014-01-01

    The estrogenic efficacy of topical vaginal application of Pueraria mirifica extract (PM) on the restoration of vaginal atrophy, and the presence of any systemic side effects, were investigated in postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques. Twelve postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques, with complete cessation of menstruation for at least 5 years before start of this experiment, were divided into three groups. They received a topical vaginal application daily of 0.1 or 1% (w/w) PM cream or a conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) cream (a mixture of estrone, equilin, 17β-dihydroequilin, 17α-estradiol and 17α-dihydroequilin at 0.625 mg total estrogen/g cream) for 28 days. Estrogenic efficacy was assessed weekly by vaginal cytology assay and vaginal pH measurement, whilst the plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and sex skin coloration levels were determined at the end of each treatment period to evaluate the systemic side effects. PM significantly increased the proportion of superficial cells in a dose-dependent manner, with a similar efficacy between 1% (w/w) PM and CEE. Together with increased vaginal maturation, PM decreased the vaginal pH to acidic levels, as observed in the CEE group. PM induced no detected systemic side effects, whilst CEE decreased the plasma LH level and increased the reddish color of the sex skin during the posttreatment period. Topical vaginal treatment with PM stimulated the maturation of the vaginal epithelium without causing systemic side effects in postmenopausal monkeys. The implication is that PM could be a safer alternative to treat vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women.

  12. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women’s health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women’s Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  13. Puerarin ameliorates experimental alcoholic liver injury by inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing-Hua; Cui, Tuan; Huang, Fu; Chen, Liang; Zhao, Yu; Xu, Lin; Xu, Li-Li; Feng, Qin; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2013-03-01

    Puerarin, an isoflavone component extracted from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata), has been demonstrated to alleviate alcohol-related disorders. Our study examined whether puerarin ameliorates chronic alcoholic liver injury through inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, the subsequent Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression. Rats were provided with the Liber-DeCarli liquid diet for 8 weeks. Puerarin (90 mg/kg or 180 mg/kg daily) was orally administered from the beginning of the third week until the end of the experiment. Chronic alcohol intake caused increased serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and triglyceride levels as well as fatty liver and neutrophil infiltration in hepatic lobules as determined by biochemical and histologic assays. A significant increase of liver tumor necrosis factor α was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These pathologic effects correlated with increased endotoxin level in portal vein and upregulated protein expression of hepatic CD68, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, CD14, Toll-like receptor 2, and Toll-like receptor 4. Meanwhile, the intestinal microvilli were observed to be sparse, shortened, and irregularity in distribution under the transmission electron microscope in conjunction with the downregulated intestinal zonula occludens-1 protein expression. These hepatic pathologic changes were significantly inhibited in puerarin-treated animals as were the endotoxin levels and hepatic CD68 and endotoxin receptors. Moreover, the pathologic changes in intestinal microvillus and the decreased intestinal zonula occludens-1 were also ameliorated with puerarin treatment. These results thus demonstrate that puerarin inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression is involved in the alleviation of chronic alcoholic liver injury in rats.

  14. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Birgit M; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L; Bolton, Judy L

    2016-10-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women's health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women's Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  15. Comparative analysis of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. phaseolicola based on phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase gene (argK) and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer sequences.

    PubMed

    Sawada, H; Takeuchi, T; Matsuda, I

    1997-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, which causes halo blight on various legumes, and pv. actinidiae, responsible for canker or leaf spot on actinidia plants, are known as phaseolotoxin producers, and the former possesses phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ROCT) which confers resistance to the toxin. We confirmed that the latter is also resistant to phaseolotoxin and possesses ROCT, and we compared the two pathovars by using sequence data of the ROCT gene and the intergenic spacer region located between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (16S-23S spacer region) as an index. It was found that the identical ROCT gene (argK) is contained not only in bean isolates of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola in Mexico and the United States but also in bean isolates in Japan and Canada, and that it is also distributed in the kudzu (Pueraria lobata) isolates of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola. Moreover, the kiwifruit and tara vine isolates of P. syringae pv. actinidiae were also found to possess the identical argK. On the contrary, the 16S-23S spacer regions showed a significant level of sequence variation between P. syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. phaseolicola, suggesting that these two pathovars evolved differently from each other in the phylogenetic development. The fact that even synonymous substitution has not occurred in argK among these strains despite their extreme differences in phylogenetic evolution and geographical distribution suggests that it was only recently in evolutionary time that argK was transferred from its origin to P. syringae pv. actinidiae and/or pv. phaseolicola.

  16. Comparative analysis of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. phaseolicola based on phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase gene (argK) and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, H; Takeuchi, T; Matsuda, I

    1997-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, which causes halo blight on various legumes, and pv. actinidiae, responsible for canker or leaf spot on actinidia plants, are known as phaseolotoxin producers, and the former possesses phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ROCT) which confers resistance to the toxin. We confirmed that the latter is also resistant to phaseolotoxin and possesses ROCT, and we compared the two pathovars by using sequence data of the ROCT gene and the intergenic spacer region located between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (16S-23S spacer region) as an index. It was found that the identical ROCT gene (argK) is contained not only in bean isolates of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola in Mexico and the United States but also in bean isolates in Japan and Canada, and that it is also distributed in the kudzu (Pueraria lobata) isolates of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola. Moreover, the kiwifruit and tara vine isolates of P. syringae pv. actinidiae were also found to possess the identical argK. On the contrary, the 16S-23S spacer regions showed a significant level of sequence variation between P. syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. phaseolicola, suggesting that these two pathovars evolved differently from each other in the phylogenetic development. The fact that even synonymous substitution has not occurred in argK among these strains despite their extreme differences in phylogenetic evolution and geographical distribution suggests that it was only recently in evolutionary time that argK was transferred from its origin to P. syringae pv. actinidiae and/or pv. phaseolicola. PMID:8979356

  17. Archaeophytopathology of Global Soybean Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae are two rust species that infect soybean (Glycine max). A number of other hosts support the uredinial growth of these Phakopsora, including Pachyrhizus erosus, Pueraria lobata, and Vigna unguiculata, but no aecial host is known. Traditionally, these two species...

  18. Selenium speciation in radix puerariae using ultrasonic assisted extraction combined with reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after magnetic solid-phase extraction with 5-sulfosalicylic acid functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yupin; Yan, Lizhen; Huang, Hongli; Deng, Biyang

    2016-08-01

    A new method for determination of selenium species in radix puerariae was described. The method consists of sample enrichment with 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SSA)-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, and online detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium species were extracted using ultrasonic extraction system with a mixture of protease K and lipase. The SSA-SMNPs were used to enrich trace amounts of selenite [Se(IV)], selenate [Se(VI)], selenomethionine (SeMet), and selenocystine (SeCys2) from lower selenium containing samples. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (3σ) for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were observed as 0.0023, 0.0015, 0.0043, and 0.0016 ng mL- 1, respectively. The RSD values (n = 6) of method for intraday were observed between 0.5% and 0.9%. The RSD values of method for interday were less than 1.3%. The linear concentration ranges for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were 0.008-1000, 0.005-200, 0.015-500 and 0.006-200 ng mL- 1, respectively. The detection limits of this method were improved by 10 times due to the enrichment with the SSA-SMNP extraction. The contents of SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet, and Se(VI) in radix puerariae were determined as 0.0140, 0.171, 0.0178, and 0.0344 μg g- 1, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 95.6%-99.4% and the RSDs (n = 6) of recoveries were less than 1.5%.

  19. A strategy for fast screening and identification of sulfur derivatives in medicinal Pueraria species based on the fine isotopic pattern filtering method using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Guo, De-an

    2015-09-24

    Sulfurous compounds are commonly present in plants, fungi, and animals. Most of them were reported to possess various bioactivities. Isotopic pattern filter (IPF) is a powerful tool for screening compounds with distinct isotope pattern. Over the past decades, the IPF was used mainly to study Cl- and Br-containing compounds. To our knowledge, the algorithm was scarcely used to screen S-containing compounds, especially when combined with chromatography analyses, because the (34)S isotopic ion is drastically affected by (13)C2 and (18)O. Thus, we present a new method for a fine isotopic pattern filter (FIPF) based on the separated M + 2 ions ((12)C(x)(1)H(y)(16)O(z)(32)S(13)C2(18)O, (12)C(x+2)(1)H(y)(16)O(z+1)(34)S, tentatively named M + 2OC and M + 2S) with an ultra-high-resolution mass (100,000 FWHM @ 400 m/z) to screen sulfur derivatives in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM).This finer algorithm operates through convenient filters, including an accurate mass shift of M + 2OC and M + 2S from M and their relative intensity compared to M. The method was validated at various mass resolutions, mass accuracies, and screening thresholds of flexible elemental compositions. Using the established FIPF method, twelve S-derivatives were found in the popular medicinal used Pueraria species, and 9 of them were tentatively identified by high-resolution multiple stage mass spectrometry (HRMS(n)). The compounds were used to evaluate the sulfurous compounds' situation in commercially purchased Pueraria products. The strategy presented here provides a promising application of the IPF method in a new field.

  20. Bimodal action of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol, phytoestrogens from Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, on hepatic CYP2B9 and CYP1A2 expressions and antilipid peroxidation in mice.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2012-01-01

    Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol are phytoestrogens isolated from Pueraria candollei var. mirifica. The influence of miroestrol and dexoymirosestrol on hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes and antioxidative activity in brain was examined in C57BL/6 mice compared with that of a synthetic female sex hormone estradiol. We hypothesized that miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol would induce CYP2B9 expression, whereas CYP1A2 expression would be suppressed compared with estradiol. Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol treatment significantly increased uterus weight and volume. In addition, both of these phytoestrogens induced the expression of CYP2B9 and suppressed the expression of CYP1A2, as expected. Hepatic P450 activities correspondingly showed that both compounds increased benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity, whereas methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity was reduced. These observations suggested that miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol might affect hepatic P450 enzymes, including the CYP2B9 and CYP1A2 P450 isoforms. Assessment of lipid peroxidation demonstrated that miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol markedly decreased levels of malondialdehyde formation in the mouse brain. This is the first report suggesting miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol as potential alternative medicines to estradiol because of their distinctive ability to regulate mouse hepatic P450 expression and their beneficial antioxidative activities.

  1. Evaluation of oriental medicinal herbs for estrogenic and antiproliferative activities.

    PubMed

    Kang, Se Chan; Lee, Chang Min; Choi, Han; Lee, Jae Hyun; Oh, Joa Sub; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2006-11-01

    Herb extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic activity with a recombinant yeast system with both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 17-estradiol = 1.00) (7.8e-3) (RP for + control), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.3e-3), Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum palmatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum and Pueraria lobata (root) (9.5e-4-1.0e-4), and Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus and Adenophora stricta (9.0e-5-8.0e-5). In the antiproliferative assay, five human cancer cell lines representing different tissues (breast, lung and ovary) were used. Eriobotrya japonica showed strong cytotoxicity in ER-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), cervix epitheloid (HeLa) and lung (A549) carcinoma cell lines.

  2. Plant Growth Under Light Emitting Diode Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennessen, Daniel John

    Plant growth under light emitting diodes (LEDs) was investigated to determine if LEDs would be useful to provide radiant energy for two plant processes, photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis. Photosynthesis of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and Kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd) Ohwi.) was measured using photons from LEDs to answer the following: (1) Are leaves able to use red LED light for photosynthesis? and (2) Is the efficiency of photosynthesis in pulsed light equal to that of continuous light? In 175 Pa CO _2, or in response to changes in CO _2,<=af photosynthesis and ATP status were the same in LED as in white xenon arc light. In 35 Pa CO_2, photosynthesis was 10% lower in LED than in xenon arc light due to lowered stomatal conductance. The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in pulsed light was equal to continuous light, even when pulses were twice as bright as sunlight. Xanthophyll pigments were not affected by these bright pulses. Photomorphogenesis of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and transformed tobacco and tomato (expressing oat phytochrome-A) was assessed by growing plants under red LED lamps in an attempt to answer the following: (1) What is the developmental response of non-transformed and transformed tobacco to red LED light? and (2) Can tomato plants that grow tall and spindly in red LED light be made to grow short by increasing the amount of phytochrome-A? The short phenotype of transformed tobacco was not evident when plants were grown in LED light. Addition of photons of far-red or blue light to red light resulted in short transformed tobacco. Tomato plants grew three times as tall and lacked leaf development in LED versus white light, but transformed tomato remained short and produced fruit under LED light. I have determined that the LED photons are useful for photosynthesis and that the photon efficiency of photosynthesis is the same in pulsed as in continuous light. From responses of tobacco, I

  3. Puerarin Attenuates Cerebral Damage by Improving Cerebral Microcirculation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xu-Dong; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Fu, Yan; Liu, Feng-Ying; Liu, Xiu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix (Gegen in Chinese) is the dried root of Pueraria lobata, a semiwoody, perennial, and leguminous vine native to China. Puerarin is one of the effective components of isoflavones isolated from the root of Pueraria lobata. Previous studies showed that extracts derived from the root of Pueraria lobata possessed antihypertensive effect. Our study is to investigate whether puerarin contributes to prevention of stroke by improving cerebral microcirculation in rats. Materials and Methods. Video microscopy and laser Doppler perfusion imaging on the pia mater were used to measure the diameter of microvessel and blood perfusion in 12-week old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and age-matched normotensive WKY rats. Histological alterations were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and microvessel density in cerebral tissue was measured by immunohistochemical analysis with anti-Factor VIII antibody. Cell proliferation was detected by [3H]-TdR incorporation, and activities of p42/44 mitogen activated protein kinases (p42/44 MAPKs) were detected by western blot analysis in cultured cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (MECs). Results. Intravenous injection of puerarin relaxed arterioles and increased the blood flow perfusion in the pia mater in SHRs. Puerarin treatment for 14 days reduced the blood pressure to a normal level in SHRs (P < 0.05) and increased the arteriole diameter in the pia mater significantly as compared with vehicle treatment. Arteriole remodeling, edema, and ischemia in cerebral tissue were attenuated in puerarin-treated SHRs. Microvessel density in cerebral tissue was greater with puerarin than with vehicle treatment. Puerarin-treated MECs showed greater proliferation and p42/44 MAPKs activities than vehicle treatment. Conclusions. Puerarin possesses effects of antihypertension and stroke prevention by improved microcirculation in SHRs, which results from the increase in cerebral blood perfusion both by arteriole

  4. Puerarin attenuates cerebral damage by improving cerebral microcirculation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu-Dong; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Fu, Yan; Liu, Feng-Ying; Liu, Xiu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix (Gegen in Chinese) is the dried root of Pueraria lobata, a semiwoody, perennial, and leguminous vine native to China. Puerarin is one of the effective components of isoflavones isolated from the root of Pueraria lobata. Previous studies showed that extracts derived from the root of Pueraria lobata possessed antihypertensive effect. Our study is to investigate whether puerarin contributes to prevention of stroke by improving cerebral microcirculation in rats. Materials and Methods. Video microscopy and laser Doppler perfusion imaging on the pia mater were used to measure the diameter of microvessel and blood perfusion in 12-week old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and age-matched normotensive WKY rats. Histological alterations were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and microvessel density in cerebral tissue was measured by immunohistochemical analysis with anti-Factor VIII antibody. Cell proliferation was detected by [(3)H]-TdR incorporation, and activities of p42/44 mitogen activated protein kinases (p42/44 MAPKs) were detected by western blot analysis in cultured cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (MECs). Results. Intravenous injection of puerarin relaxed arterioles and increased the blood flow perfusion in the pia mater in SHRs. Puerarin treatment for 14 days reduced the blood pressure to a normal level in SHRs (P < 0.05) and increased the arteriole diameter in the pia mater significantly as compared with vehicle treatment. Arteriole remodeling, edema, and ischemia in cerebral tissue were attenuated in puerarin-treated SHRs. Microvessel density in cerebral tissue was greater with puerarin than with vehicle treatment. Puerarin-treated MECs showed greater proliferation and p42/44 MAPKs activities than vehicle treatment. Conclusions. Puerarin possesses effects of antihypertension and stroke prevention by improved microcirculation in SHRs, which results from the increase in cerebral blood perfusion both by arteriole

  5. All Wrapped Up in Kudzu and Other Ecological Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine E.; Cummo, Evelyn

    1999-01-01

    Introduces activities to reinforce the concept of and problems involved with introduced, nonnative or alien species. Provides seven vignettes about seven different plant and animal species that have become or currently are near ecological disasters. (CCM)

  6. The use of cycleave PCR for the differentiation of the rejuvenating herb species Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa (Black Kwao Khruea), and the simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets in a DNA admixture.

    PubMed

    Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Sukrong, Suchada

    2014-01-01

    Kwao Khruea, the tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth. (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba Roxb. (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa Wall. (Black Kwao Khruea), are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional medicine in many tropical countries. Although Kwao Khruea has attracted strong interest because of its rejuvenation properties, each species is used for specific purposes and effects. P. candollei shows estrogenic effects in females. In contrast, B. superba and M. macrocarpa show androgenic effects in males. The potential misidentification of dried tuberous roots of various Kwao Khruea species might cause problems in the drug market, especially when they are reduced into powders. A cycleave PCR, which is based on the sequence of chloroplast matK gene, was developed to differentiate P. candollei, B. superba, and M. macrocarpa. The results showed that cycleave PCR is able to identify specific Kwao Khruea species. A multiplex cycleave PCR was optimized for the simultaneous detection of two different DNA targets in a DNA admixture. The specificity of this technique was confirmed by its ability to distinguish M. macrocarpa from five related Mucuna species. Cycleave PCR can be a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for the identification of medicinal plants and crude plant samples.

  7. Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Gyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, Kug Chan; Choung, Eui Su; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2008-01-01

    The medicinal plant extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in a recombinant yeast system featuring both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 7.75×10(-3); RP of 17β-estradiol=1), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.25×10(-3)). Next potent were a group consisting of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum undulatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum, and Pueraria lobata (root) (ranging from 9.5×10(-4) to 1.0×10(-4)). Least potent were Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus, and Adenophora stricta (ranging from 9.0×10(-5) to 8.0×10(-5)). The extracts exerting antiestrogenic effects, Cinnamomum cassia and Prunus persica, had relative potencies of 1.14×10(-3) and 7.4×10(-4), respectively (RP of tamoxifen=1). The solvent fractions from selected estrogenic or antiestrogenic herbs had higher estrogenic relative potencies, with their RP ranging from 9.3×10(-1) to 2.7×10(-4) and from 8.2×10(-1) to 9.1×10(-3), respectively. These results support previous reports on the efficacy of Oriental medicinal plants used or not used as phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy.

  8. Antithrombotic and antiallergic activities of daidzein, a metabolite of puerarin and daidzin produced by human intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Choo, Min-Kyung; Park, Eun-Kyung; Yoon, Hae-Kyung; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2002-10-01

    To evaluate the antithrombotic activities of puerarin and daidzin from the rhizome of Pueraria lobata, in vitro and ex vivo inhibitory activities of these compounds and their metabolite, daidzein, were measured. These compounds inhibited ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Daidzein was the most potent. However, when puerarin and daidzin were intraperitoneally administered, their antiaggregation activities were weaker than when these compounds were administered orally. When in vivo antithrombotic activities of these compounds against collagen and epinephrine were measured, these compounds showed significant protection from death due to pulmonary thrombosis in mice. To evaluate the antiallergic activity of puerarin, daidzin, and daidzein, their inhibitory effects on the release of beta-hexosaminidase from RBL 2H3 cells and on the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice were examined. Daidzein exhibited potent inhibitory activity on the beta-hexosaminidase release induced by DNP-BSA and potently inhibited the PCA reaction in rats. Daidzein administered intraperitoneally showed the strongest inhibitory activity and significantly inhibited the PCA reaction at doses of 25 and 50mg/kg with inhibitory activity of 37 and 73%, respectively. The inhibitory activity of intraperitoneally administered daidzein was stronger than those of intraperitoneally and orally administered puerarin and daidzin. Therefore we believe that puerarin and daidzin in the rhizome of Pueraria lobata are prodrugs, which have antiallergic and antithrombotic activities, produced by intestinal microflora.

  9. Nootropic activity of tuber extract of Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb).

    PubMed

    Rao, N Venkata; Pujar, Basavaraj; Nimbal, S K; Shantakumar, S M; Satyanarayana, S

    2008-08-01

    Nootropic effect of alcoholic (ALE; 50, 75, 100 mg/kg) and aqueous (AQE; 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) extracts of P. tuberosa was evaluated by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), scopolamine-induced amnesia (SIA), diazepam-induced amnesia (DIA), clonidine-induced (NA-mediated) hypothermia (CIH), lithium-induced (5-HT mediated) head twitches (LIH) and haloperidol-induced (DA- mediated) catalepsy (HIC) models. Piracetam was used as the standard drug. A significant increase in inflexion ratio (IR) was recorded in EPM, SIA and DIA models. A significant reversal effect was observed on rectal temperature in CIH model, reduction of head twitches in LIH models. However no significant reduction in catalepsy scores in HIC models were observed with test extracts and standard piracetam. The results indicate that nootropic activity observed with ALE and AQE of tuber extracts of P. tuberosa could be through improved learning and memory either by augmenting the noradrenaline (NA) transmission or by interfering with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release. Further, the extracts neither facilitated nor blocked release of the dopamine (DA). Thus ALE and AQE elicited significant nootropic effect in mice and rats by interacting with cholinergic, GABAnergic, adrenergic and serotonergic systems. Phytoconstituents like flavonoids have been reported for their nootropic effect and these are present in both ALE and AQE extracts of tubers of P. tuberosa (Roxb) and these active principles may be responsible for nootropic activity.

  10. Plant litter chemistry and microbial priming regulate the accrual, composition and stability of soil carbon in invaded ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Mioko; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2014-07-01

    Soil carbon (C) sequestration, as an ecosystem property, may be strongly influenced by invasive plants capable of depositing disproportionately high quantities of chemically distinct litter that disrupt ecosystem processes. However, a mechanistic understanding of the processes that regulate soil C storage in invaded ecosystems remains surprisingly elusive. Here, we studied the impact of the invasion of two noxious nonnative species, Polygonum cuspidatum, which produces recalcitrant litter, and Pueraria lobata, which produces labile litter, on the quantity, molecular composition, and stability of C in the soils they invade. Compared with an adjacent noninvaded old-field, P. cuspidatum-invaded soils exhibited a 26% increase in C, partially through selective preservation of plant polymers. Despite receiving a 22% higher litter input, P. lobata-invaded Pinus stands exhibited a 28% decrease in soil C and a twofold decrease in plant biomarkers, indicating microbial priming of native soil C. The stability of C exhibited an opposite trend: the proportion of C that was resistant to oxidation was 21% lower in P. cuspidatum-invaded soils and 50% higher in P. lobata-invaded soils. Our results highlight the capacity of invasive plants to feed back to climate change by destabilizing native soil C stocks and indicate that environments that promote the biochemical decomposition of plant litter would enhance the long-term storage of soil C. Further, our study highlights the concurrent influence of dominant plant species on both selective preservation and humification of soil organic matter.

  11. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weihua; Luo, Jianning; Tian, Xingshan; Soon Chow, Wah; Sun, Zhongyu; Zhang, Taijie; Peng, Shaolin; Peng, Changlian

    2015-01-01

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects on its photosynthetic characteristics, including suppression of leaf biomass and the abundance of the CO2-fixing enzyme RUBISCO. The field experiment demonstrated that sowing seeds of P. lobata or P. scandens in plots where the weed had been largely cleared produced 11.8-fold or 2.5-fold as much leaf biomass of the two natives, respectively, as the weed. Replacement control by valuable native species is potentially a feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica. PMID:26047489

  12. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihua; Luo, Jianning; Tian, Xingshan; Soon Chow, Wah; Sun, Zhongyu; Zhang, Taijie; Peng, Shaolin; Peng, Changlian

    2015-06-05

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects on its photosynthetic characteristics, including suppression of leaf biomass and the abundance of the CO2-fixing enzyme RUBISCO. The field experiment demonstrated that sowing seeds of P. lobata or P. scandens in plots where the weed had been largely cleared produced 11.8-fold or 2.5-fold as much leaf biomass of the two natives, respectively, as the weed. Replacement control by valuable native species is potentially a feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica.

  13. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weihua; Luo, Jianning; Tian, Xingshan; Soon Chow, Wah; Sun, Zhongyu; Zhang, Taijie; Peng, Shaolin; Peng, Changlian

    2015-06-01

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects on its photosynthetic characteristics, including suppression of leaf biomass and the abundance of the CO2-fixing enzyme RUBISCO. The field experiment demonstrated that sowing seeds of P. lobata or P. scandens in plots where the weed had been largely cleared produced 11.8-fold or 2.5-fold as much leaf biomass of the two natives, respectively, as the weed. Replacement control by valuable native species is potentially a feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica.

  14. Near term climate projections for invasive species distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and invasive species pose important conservation issues separately, and should be examined together. We used existing long term climate datasets for the US to project potential climate change into the future at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than the climate change scenarios generally available. These fine scale projections, along with new species distribution modeling techniques to forecast the potential extent of invasive species, can provide useful information to aide conservation and invasive species management efforts. We created habitat suitability maps for Pueraria montana (kudzu) under current climatic conditions and potential average conditions up to 30 years in the future. We examined how the potential distribution of this species will be affected by changing climate, and the management implications associated with these changes. Our models indicated that P. montana may increase its distribution particularly in the Northeast with climate change and may decrease in other areas. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Inventory of forest and rangeland and detection of forest stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, R. C.; Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. At the Atlanta site (226B) it was found that bulk color composites for October 15, 1972, and April 13, 1973, can be interpreted together to disclose the location of the perennial Kudzu vine (Pyeraria lobata). Land managers concerned with Kudzu eradication could use ERTS-1 to inventory locations over 200 meters (660 feet) square. Microdensitometer data collected on ERTS-1 Bulk photographic products for the Manitou test site (226C) have shown that the 15-step gray-scale tablets are not of systematic equal values corresponding to 1/14 the maximum radiant energy incident on the MSS sensor. The gray-scale values present a third-order polynomial function rather than a direct linear relationship. Although data collected on step tablets for precision photographic products appear more discrete, the density variation within blocks in almost as great as variations between blocks. These system errors will cause problems when attempting to analyze radiometric variances among vegetation and land use classes.

  16. Population Genetic Baseline of the First Plataspid Stink Bug Symbiosis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Reported in North America.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Tracie M Jenkins; Eaton, Tyler D

    2011-06-24

    The stink bug, Megacopta cribraria, has an obligate relationship with a bacterial endosymbiont which allows it to feed on legumes. The insect is a pest of soybeans in Asia and was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in October 2009 on kudzu vine, Pueraria montana, in North Georgia, USA. By October 2010 M. cribraria had been confirmed in 80 counties in Georgia actively feeding on kudzu vine and soybean plants. Since the symbiosis may support the bug's ecological expansions, a population genetic baseline for the symbiosis was developed from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nuDNA) gene sequence collected from each insect and its primary g- proteobacterium and secondary a -proteobacterium endosymbionts. A single mitochondrial DNA haplotype was found in all insects sampled in Georgia and South Carolina identified as GA1. The GAI haplotype appears to be rapidly dispersing across Georgia and into contiguous states. Primary and secondary endosymbiont gene sequences from M. cribraria in Georgia were the same as those found in recently collected Megacopta samples from Japan. The implications of these data are discussed.

  17. Population Genetic Baseline of the First Plataspid Stink Bug Symbiosis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Reported in North America

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Tracie M.; Eaton, Tyler D.

    2011-01-01

    The stink bug, Megacopta cribraria, has an obligate relationship with a bacterial endosymbiont which allows it to feed on legumes. The insect is a pest of soybeans in Asia and was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in October 2009 on kudzu vine, Pueraria montana, in North Georgia, USA. By October 2010 M. cribraria had been confirmed in 80 counties in Georgia actively feeding on kudzu vine and soybean plants. Since the symbiosis may support the bug's ecological expansions, a population genetic baseline for the symbiosis was developed from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nuDNA) gene sequence collected from each insect and its primary γ- proteobacterium and secondary α -proteobacterium endosymbionts. A single mitochondrial DNA haplotype was found in all insects sampled in Georgia and South Carolina identified as GA1. The GAI haplotype appears to be rapidly dispersing across Georgia and into contiguous states. Primary and secondary endosymbiont gene sequences from M. cribraria in Georgia were the same as those found in recently collected Megacopta samples from Japan. The implications of these data are discussed. PMID:26467727

  18. Screening inhibitors of xanthine oxidase from natural products using enzyme immobilized magnetic beads by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Li, Dapeng; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2017-03-06

    In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess the results of bioactive compound screening from natural products using immobilized enzyme magnetic beads. We compared three commercial magnetic beads with modified amino, carboxy and N-hydroxysuccinimide groups, respectively. Amino magnetic beads performed best for immobilization and were selected for further experiments. Xanthine oxidase was immobilized on amino magnetic beads and applied to screen potential inhibitors in fresh Zingiber officinale Roscoe, extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Pueraria lobata Ohwi. In total, 12 potential xanthine oxidase ligands were identified from fresh Zingiber root and Scutellaria root extracts, of which eight were characterized and the concentration required for 50% inhibition was determined. Preliminary structure-function relationships were discussed based on these results. A convenient and effective method was therefore developed for the identification of active compounds from complex natural product mixtures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of daidzin and its aglycon, daidzein, on the scopolamine-induced memory impairment in male mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Jung, Hyun Ah; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Seungjoo; Choi, Jae Su; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ko, Kwang Ho; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the effect of daidzin or daidzein isolated from Pueraria lobata on the memory impairments induced by scopolamine was assessed in male mice using the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze tasks. Administration of daidzin (5 mg/kg) or daidzein (5 mg/kg) significantly reversed the scopolamine (1 mg/kg)-induced cognitive impairments in male mice as evidenced by the passive avoidance test (p < 0.05) and on the Morris water maze test (p < 0.05). Moreover, the ameliorating effects of daidzin or daidzein were antagonized by tamoxifen (1 mg/kg), the nonspecific estrogen receptor antagonist. These results indicate that daidzin or daidzein may be useful in cognitive impairment induced by cholinergic dysfunction, and this beneficial effect is mediated, in part, via estrogen receptor.

  20. Determination of toxic metals by ICP-MS in Asiatic and European medicinal plants and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kurzawa, Marzanna; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The potentially toxic metals content was determined in selected plants, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Angelica sinensis, Bacopa monnieri, Bupleurum sinensis, Curcuma longa, Cola accuminata, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Pueraria lobata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Schisandra sinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis, Siraitia grosvenorii, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia chebula), and some European herbs (Echinacea purpurea, Hypericum perforatum, Vitis vinifera). Samples were mineralized in a closed microwave system using HNO3 and the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Al, As, Ba, Ni and Sb were determined by ICP-MS method. Some relevant aspects of potential toxicity of metallic elements and their compounds were also discussed. Results of metal content analysis in dietary supplements available on Polish market, containing studied plants, are presented as well. The results were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis.

  1. Biological control of weeds: research by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: selected case studies.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Paul C; DeLoach, C Jack; Wineriter, Susan A; Goolsby, John A; Sobhian, Rouhollah; Boyette, C Douglas; Abbas, Hamed K

    2003-01-01

    Research by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on biological control of weeds has been practiced for many years because of its inherent ecological and economic advantages. Today, it is further driven by ARS adherence to Presidential Executive Order 13112 (3 February 1999) on invasive species and to USDA-ARS policy toward developing technology in support of sustainable agriculture with reduced dependence on non-renewable petrochemical resources. This paper reports examples or case studies selected to demonstrate the traditional or classical approach for biological control programs using Old World arthropods against Tamarix spp, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) ST Blake and Galium spurium L/G aparine L, and the augmentative approach with a native plant pathogen against Pueraria lobata Ohwi = P montana. The examples illustrated various conflicts of interest with endangered species and ecological complexities of arthropods with associated microbes such as nematodes.

  2. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua) water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE) and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR) assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders. PMID:20974012

  3. Growing Embedded Librarians Like Kudzu: How the Embedded Extension Service Creates More Embedded Librarians without Creating New Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coltrain, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In an era of exploding online enrollment and tight budgets, Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC) struggles to meet the needs of online students. CPCC librarians went one step towards solving that problem in 2009-2010 by launching an embedded librarian program. CPCC's program became so successful that it struggled to meet demand. In 2013, CPCC…

  4. A new invasive species in maryland: the biology and distribution of kudzu bug, megacopta cribraria (fabricius) (femiptera: plataspidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relaxation of trade restrictions in the 1960s and 70s led to an unintended exchange of invasive insect species as well as manufactured goods between the United States and its new trade partners. Consequently, the number of exotic insect pests accidently entering and taking up residence in the U...

  5. Structure of daidzin, a naturally occurring anti-alcohol-addiction agent, in complex with human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Edward D; Gao, Guang-Yao; Johnson, Louise N; Keung, Wing Ming

    2008-08-14

    The ALDH2*2 gene encoding the inactive variant form of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) protects nearly all carriers of this gene from alcoholism. Inhibition of ALDH2 has hence become a possible strategy to treat alcoholism. The natural product 7-O-glucosyl-4'-hydroxyisoflavone (daidzin), isolated from the kudzu vine ( Peruraria lobata), is a specific inhibitor of ALDH2 and suppresses ethanol consumption. Daidzin is the active principle in a herbal remedy for "alcohol addiction" and provides a lead for the design of improved ALDH2. The structure of daidzin/ALDH2 in complex at 2.4 A resolution shows the isoflavone moiety of daidzin binding close to the aldehyde substrate-binding site in a hydrophobic cleft and the glucosyl function binding to a hydrophobic patch immediately outside the isoflavone-binding pocket. These observations provide an explanation for both the specificity and affinity of daidzin (IC50 =80 nM) and the affinity of analogues with different substituents at the glucosyl position.

  6. First Draft Assembly and Annotation of the Genome of a California Endemic Oak Quercus lobata Née (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Sork, Victoria L; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel T; Puiu, Daniela; Crepeau, Marc; Gugger, Paul F; Sherman, Rachel; Stevens, Kristian; Langley, Charles H; Pellegrini, Matteo; Salzberg, Steven L

    2016-09-12

    Oaks represent a valuable natural resource across Northern Hemisphere ecosystems attracting a large research community studying its genetics, ecology, conservation, and management. Here we introduce a draft genome assembly of valley oak (Quercus lobate) using Illumina sequencing of adult leaf tissue of an tree found in an accessible, well-studied, natural southern California population. Our assembly includes a nuclear and complete chloroplast genome, along with annotation of encoded genes. The assembly contains 94,394 scaffolds totaling 1.17 Gb with 18,512 scaffolds of length 2 kb or longer, with a total length of 1.15 Gb and a N50 scaffold size of 278,077 kb. The k-mer histograms indicate an approximate diploid genome size of 720-730 Mb, which is smaller than the total length due to high heterozygosity, estimated at 1.25%. A comparison with a recently published European oak (Q. robur) nuclear sequence indicates 93% similarity. The Q. lobate chloroplast genome has 99% identity with another North American oak, Q. rubra Preliminary annotation yielded an estimate of 61,773 predicted protein-coding genes, of which 71% had similarity to known protein domains. We searched 956 Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs and found 863 complete orthologs of which 450 were present in more than one copy. We also examined an earlier version (v0.5) where duplicate haplotypes were removed to discover variants. These additional sources indicate that the predicted gene count in Version1.0 is over-estimated by 37-52%. Nonetheless, this first draft valley oak genome assembly represents a high-quality, well-annotated genome that provides a tool for forest restoration and management practices.

  7. Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi by plant extracts used in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lirussi, D; Li, J; Prieto, J M; Gennari, M; Buschiazzo, H; Ríos, J L; Zaidenberg, A

    2004-12-01

    In this work, we assessed the effect of extracts obtained from 17 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. These extracts were tested in vitro with the epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, clone Bra C(15) C(2), at 27 degrees C in F-29 medium at a concentration of 100 microg/ml in axenic cultures. Allopurinol was used as reference drug. Seven plant extracts showed inhibitory activities lower than 25%. Pueraria lobata, Mahonia beaei, Dictamus dasycarpus, Kochia scoparia, Sophora flavescens and Ligustrum lucidum showed effects with inhibition values between 25% and 60%, whereas Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Saussurea lappa, Melia toosendan and Cinnamomum cassia showed the greatest inhibitory activity of 100%. The IC(50) of these extracts were: 0.4, 2.4, 1.8 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. The MTT assay was made and did not show cytotoxic activity. These results allowed us to suggest that L. erythrorhizon, S. lappa, M. toosendan and C. cassia could be a source of new compounds against T. cruzi.

  8. Urinary and biliary metabolites of daidzin and daidzein in rats.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, T; Kano, Y; Saito, K; Ohsawa, K

    1994-10-01

    Examination was made of the urinary and biliary excretion of metabolites of daidzin and daidzein, the major components of roots of Pueraria lobata Ohwi (Leguminosae) in rats. The urine of rats administered daidzin orally contained four major metabolites, daidzein 7,4'-di-O-sulfate (M-1), daidzein 7-O-beta-D-glucuronide (M-2), daidzein 4'-O-sulfate (M-3), daidzein (M-4), as determined from spectroscopic and chemical data. The urine of rats treated with daidzein contained M-2--M-4 in the above metabolites. Total cumulative amounts of the four metabolites excreted in the urine at 48 h following the oral administration of daidzin and daidzein were approximately 4.8% and 4.6% of the doses administered, respectively. The bile of rats administered daidzin orally contained M-1--M-4. Daidzein 7-O-beta-D-glucuronide 4'-O-sulfate (M-5), a major biliary metabolite, was identified by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. At least daidzin appeared to be hydrolyzed to aglycone after absorption in the body, and as a part of metabolites, M-1--M-4 having free hydroxyl, glucuronided or sulfated hydroxyls at the C-7 position, may then be excreted in the urine and bile.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24696703

  10. Estrogenic Plant Extracts Reverse Weight Gain and Fat Accumulation without Causing Mammary Gland or Uterine Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Saunier, Elise F.; Vivar, Omar I.; Rubenstein, Andrea; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Olshansky, Moshe; Baggett, Scott; Staub, Richard E.; Tagliaferri, Mary; Cohen, Isaac; Speed, Terence P.; Baxter, John D.; Leitman, Dale C.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term estrogen deficiency increases the risk of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy containing estrogens might prevent these conditions, but its prolonged use increases the risk of breast cancer, as wells as endometrial cancer if used without progestins. Animal studies indicate that beneficial effects of estrogens in adipose tissue and adverse effects on mammary gland and uterus are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). One strategy to improve the safety of estrogens to prevent/treat obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is to develop estrogens that act as agonists in adipose tissue, but not in mammary gland and uterus. We considered plant extracts, which have been the source of many pharmaceuticals, as a source of tissue selective estrogens. Extracts from two plants, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (RG) and Pueraria montana var. lobata (RP) bound to ERα, activated ERα responsive reporters, and reversed weight gain and fat accumulation comparable to estradiol in ovariectomized obese mice maintained on a high fat diet. Unlike estradiol, RG and RP did not induce proliferative effects on mammary gland and uterus. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that RG and RP induced estradiol-like regulation of genes in abdominal fat, but not in mammary gland and uterus. The compounds in extracts from RG and RP might constitute a new class of tissue selective estrogens to reverse weight gain, fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. PMID:22163294

  11. Effects of a multi-herbal extract on type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An aqueous extract of multi-hypoglycemic herbs of Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer, Pueraria lobata, Dioscorea batatas Decaisne, Rehmannia glutinosa, Amomum cadamomum Linné, Poncirus fructus and Evodia officinalis was investigated for its anti-diabetic effects in cell and animal models. Methods Activities of PPARγ agonist, anti-inflammation, AMPK activator and anti-ER stress were measured in cell models and in db/db mice (a genetic animal model for type 2 diabetes). Results While the extract stimulated PPARγ-dependent luciferase activity and activated AMPK in C2C12 cells, it inhibited TNF-α-stimulated IKKβ/NFkB signaling and attenuated ER stress in HepG2 cells. The db/db mice treated with the extract showed reduced fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels, improved postprandial glucose levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity and significantly decreased plasma free fatty acid, triglyceride and total cholesterol. Conclusion The aqueous extract of these seven hypoglycemic herbs demonstrated many therapeutic effects for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in cell and animal models. PMID:21375727

  12. Puerarin attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan-shan; Yang, Wei-na; Jin, Hui; Ma, Kai-ge; Feng, Gai-feng

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin (PUE), an isoflavone purified from the root of Pueraria lobata (Chinese herb), has been reported to attenuate learning and memory impairments in the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested PUE in a sporadic AD (SAD) mouse model which was induced by the intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The mice were administrated PUE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg/d) for 28 days. Learning and memory abilities were assessed by the Morris water maze test. After behavioral test, the biochemical parameters of oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutases (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were measured in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The SAD mice exhibited significantly decreased learning and memory ability, while PUE attenuated these impairments. The activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased while MDA was increased in the SAD animals. After PUE treatment, the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were elevated, and the level of MDA was decreased. The middle dose PUE was more effective than others. These results indicate that PUE attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice. PUE may be a promising therapeutic agent for SAD.

  13. A Systems Biology Approach to Uncovering Pharmacological Synergy in Herbal Medicines with Applications to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Xue; Tao, Weiyang; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Background. Clinical trials reveal that multiherb prescriptions of herbal medicine often exhibit pharmacological and therapeutic superiority in comparison to isolated single constituents. However, the synergistic mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. To address this question, a novel systems biology model integrating oral bioavailability and drug-likeness screening, target identification, and network pharmacology method has been constructed and applied to four clinically widely used herbs Radix Astragali Mongolici, Radix Puerariae Lobatae, Radix Ophiopogonis Japonici, and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiza which exert synergistic effects of combined treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results. The results show that the structural properties of molecules in four herbs have substantial differences, and each herb can interact with significant target proteins related to CVD. Moreover, the bioactive ingredients from different herbs potentially act on the same molecular target (multiple-drug-one-target) and/or the functionally diverse targets but with potentially clinically relevant associations (multiple-drug-multiple-target-one-disease). From a molecular/systematic level, this explains why the herbs within a concoction could mutually enhance pharmacological synergy on a disease. Conclusions. The present work provides a new strategy not only for the understanding of pharmacological synergy in herbal medicine, but also for the rational discovery of potent drug/herb combinations that are individually subtherapeutic. PMID:23243453

  14. Online screening of nitric oxide scavengers in natural products using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem diode array and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Wang, Ting; Guo, Yujie; Hu, Yuanjia; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2015-12-18

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important cellular signaling molecule with extensive physiological and pathophysiological effects. NO scavengers have the potential to treat inflammation, septic shock and other related diseases, and numerous examples have been chemically synthesized or isolated from natural products. The chemical diversity of natural products, however, means that a huge effort is necessary to efficiently screen and identify bioactive compounds, especially NO scavengers. In this article, we propose an effective analytical method to screen for NO scavengers in three natural products using an online system that couples high performance liquid chromatography with tandem diode array and fluorescence detection (HPLC-DAD-FLD). Eighteen compounds from radix of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and green tea displayed significant NO scavenging activity whereas components of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi had no discernable activity. The structures of the active compounds were elucidated using Agilent Accurate-Mass Q-TOF LC/MS system. Preliminary analysis of structure-activity relationships indicated that, in flavonoids, a 2,3-double bond and a 3-H atom or a 3-OH group are essential for activity. In tannins, poly-hydroxyl groups are important for NO scavenging activity. Method validation indicated that the newly developed method is both reliable and repeatable. The online method that we present provides a simple, rapid and effective way to identify and characterize NO scavengers present in natural products.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of 81 chinese herb extracts and their correlation with the characteristics of traditional chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  16. [Essence of professor SHI Xin-de's experience in application of persicae ramulus-associated prescriptions].

    PubMed

    Du, Xin-Liang

    2014-07-01

    Persicae Ramulus decoction, as the first prescription in Treatise on febrile Diseases, has been recommended by physicians of successive generations. It is also the general prescription for harmonizing yingfen and weifen, yin and yang, qi and blood. Although it only consists of five herbal medicines, it has a wider range of application and more categorized formulas than other prescriptions. Though Persicae Ramulus decoction was originally formulated to treat taiyang apoplexy, it has functions beyond the treatment of exopathic diseases. This formula is also effective in treating internal diseases, surgical diseases, gynecologic diseases, paediatric diseases, etc. KE Yun-bo praised it as the No. 1 formula among ZHANG Zhong-jin's formulas as well as the general prescription for harmonizing Yin and Yang, yingfen and weifen, resolving fleshy exterior and inducing perspiration. Professor SHI Xin-de has been expert at treating intractable diseases by using Persicae Ramulus-associated prescriptions, such as Xiaojianzhong decoction and Baohe pill for children's chronic eczema, Persicae Ramulus and Puerariae Lobatae Radix decoction and Yupingfeng powder for chronic nephritis, and Persicae Ramulus and Longgu Muli decoction for insomnia. Instead of being restricted to Chinese or Western disease names, he prescribed appropriate formulas according to syndromes, thereby achieving a good efficacy.

  17. Effects of isoflavones on alcohol pharmacokinetics and alcohol-drinking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, R C; Li, T K

    1998-12-01

    Puerarin, daidzin, and daidzein are 3 major isoflavonoid compounds isolated from Pueraria lobata, an edible vine used widely in China for various medicinal purposes. We studied the antiinebriation and the antidipsotropic effects of these antioxidants in rats. Daidzin and daidzein shortened alcohol-induced sleep time (loss of righting reflex) in rats that were given ethanol intragastrically but not in those given ethanol intraperitoneally. When daidzin was given to animals intragastrically with the ethanol solution, the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was found to peak later and be lower than in control rats that were given only the ethanol solution. BACs also receded more slowly if daidzin was fed to the animals. None of the 3 isoflavonoid compounds administered orally affected liver alcohol dehydrogenase or aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, as was reported for intraperitoneal administration. Further experiments indicated that the suppression of the BAC by daidzin was due mainly to delay of stomach emptying. All 3 compounds suppressed voluntary alcohol consumption in alcohol-preferring rats. The decrease in alcohol consumption was accompanied by an increase in water intake, so that the total volume of liquid consumed daily remained unchanged. Daily food consumption and body weight gain were not affected. Alcohol preference returned to baseline levels after the isoflavonoids were discontinued. We postulate that the suppression of alcohol reinforcement produced by these compounds is mediated centrally in the brain reward pathway.

  18. Management of SAH with traditional Chinese medicine in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxue; Zhao, Xingquan; Mao, Shujing; Wang, Yongjun; Cui, Xiangning; Pu, Yuehua

    2006-06-01

    China lacks large scale authorized epidemiological study results in allusion to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) within recent 15 years since MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) study revealed SAH situation in China in 2000. The main cause of SAH in China is aneurysm which takes up 30-50%, while over 90% aneurysm locates at Willis circle. Early surgery for SAH after aneurysm rupture is the dominant procedure to deal with SAH in China. Moreover, calcium antagonists rank the absolute leading position for cerebral vascular spasm (CVS) among medication-based treatment options. However, traditional Chinese medicine such as Salvia miltiorrhiza, Acanthopanax senticosus, Ginkgo biloba, Pueraria lobata, Liguisticum chuanxiong, cow bezoar, Diospyros kaki and Gynostemma pentaphyllum have been proven beneficial in CVS prevention and treatment, while Salvia miltiorrhiza and TCM soup have unique effects on bleeding absorption. In addition, aescine and some TCM soup might relieve strong headache after SAH. In general, TCM integrated with western medicine have shown unique advantages in the current treatment of SAH in China. However, it is a pity that China still lacks larger scale randomized controlled trials and research on SAH treatment focusing on TCM and the related mechanism of TCM on SAH still need to be investigated further.

  19. [Amebicidal plants extracts].

    PubMed

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Thiem, Barbara; Sułek, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The free-living amoebae from genus Acanthamoeba are the causative agents of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system; amebic keratitis (AK), a chronic eye infection; amebic pneumitis (AP), a chronic lung infection, and skin infection. Chemotherapy of Acanthamoeba infection is problematic. The majority of infections have been fatal. Only a few cases are reported to have been treated successfully with very highly toxic drugs. The therapy might be succeed, if the diagnosis and therapy is made at very early stage of infection. In our experiments we used the following plant extracts: Solidago virgaurea, Solidago graminifolia, Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, and natural plants products as ellagic acid and puerarin. Those therapeutic agents and plants extracts have been tested in vitro for amebicidal or amebostatic activity against pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. Our results showed that methanol extracts obtained from plants are active against axenic pathogenic Acanthamoeba sp. trophozoites in vitro at concentration below 0.1 mg/ml. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these extracts are also effective in vivo in animal model of infection with Acanthamoeba sp.

  20. (Almost) Automatic Semantic Feature Extraction from Technical Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    independent manner. The next section will describe an existing NLP system ( KUDZU ) which has been developed at Mississippi State Uni- versity...EXISTING KUDZU SYSTEM The research described in this paper is part of a larger on- going project called the KUDZU (Knowledge Under Devel- opment from...Zero Understanding) project. This project is aimed at exploring the automation of extraction of infor- mation from technical texts. The KUDZU system

  1. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble arrowroot (Puerariae radix) tea extracts on foodborne pathogens in ground beef and mushroom soup.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Fung, D Y C

    2004-09-01

    Antimicrobial activity of water-soluble arrowroot tea extract was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in ground beef and mushroom soup. The concentrations of arrowroot tea used were 0, 3, and 6% (wt/wt) for ground beef and 0, 1, 5, and 10% (wt/vol) for mushroom soup. Samples without tea extract were considered controls. Each sample was stored for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days at 7 degrees C for ground beef and for 0, 1, 3, and 5 days at 35 degrees C for mushroom soup. On each sampling time, proper dilutions were spread plated on each pathogen-specific agar. Viable cell counts of each pathogen were performed after incubation at 35 degrees C for 24 to 48 h. For ground beef, Salmonella Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes were slightly suppressed by approximately 1.5 log, compared with the control, on day 7 at 3 and 6% arrowroot tea treatment. For mushroom soup, all test pathogens were suppressed by 6.5, 4.7, 3.4, and 4.3 log at 5% and 6.0, 4.7, 5.0, and 4.3 log at 10% against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. Mushroom soup with 1% arrowroot tea also showed 2.3- and 2.7-log growth suppression of Salmonella Enteritidis and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. This study showed that the use of arrowroot tea would effectively inhibit the microbial growth of both gram-negative and gram-positive foodborne pathogens in various foods, especially liquid foods.

  2. Management of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) at Different Stages of Soybean (Fabales: Fabaceae) Development.

    PubMed

    Seiter, Nicholas J; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Greene, Jeremy K; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Roberts, Phillip M; Reisig, Dominic D

    2016-03-29

    The invasive plataspidMegacopta cribraria(F.) is now distributed throughout much of the southeastern United States. While it readily feeds and develops on the invasive weed kudzu,Puereria montana(Loureiro) Merrill var.lobata(Willdenow),M. cribrariais an economic pest of soybean,Glycine max(L.) Merrill. Differences in the susceptibility of soybean toM. cribraria-induced yield reductions based on plant phenology were assessed using two experimental protocols in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina from 2011 to 2013 in which soybeans were protected fromM. cribrariausing insecticides during different stages of plant phenology. In the first protocol, where insecticide applications were initiated at progressively later stages in soybean development depending on treatment, yields in the untreated plots were reduced by an average of 13% compared with plots that were protected beginning at full flowering (R2). Soybean plots that were protected beginning at 4 wk after full flowering or earlier did not suffer yield reductions fromM. cribraria In the second protocol, where insecticide applications began at R2 and were discontinued at progressively later stages in soybean development depending on treatment, yields in the untreated plots were reduced by an average of 12% compared with plots that were protected until 8 wk after R2. Plots in which protection was discontinued beginning at 4 wk after full flowering or later did not suffer yield reductions. The period from two to 6 wk after R2 (generally coinciding with pod and seed development - stages R3-R5) was identified as critical for management ofM. cribraria.

  3. Diffusion-based process for carbon dioxide uptake and isoprene emission in gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactors by photosynthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Fiona K; Melis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthesis for the generation of fuels and chemicals from cyanobacteria and microalgae offers the promise of a single host organism acting both as photocatalyst and processor, performing sunlight absorption and utilization, as well as CO(2) assimilation and conversion into product. However, there is a need to develop methods for generating, sequestering, and trapping such bio-products in an efficient and cost-effective manner that is suitable for industrial scale-up and exploitation. A sealed gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactor was designed and applied for the photosynthetic generation of volatile isoprene (C(5)H(8)) hydrocarbons, which operates on the principle of spontaneous diffusion of CO(2) from the gaseous headspace into the microalgal or cyanobacterial-containing aqueous phase, followed by photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation and isoprene production by the transgenic microorganisms. Volatile isoprene hydrocarbons were emitted from the aqueous phase and were sequestered into the gaseous headspace. Periodic replacement (flushing) of the isoprene (C(5)H(8)) and oxygen (O(2)) content of the gaseous headspace with CO(2) allowed for the simultaneous harvesting of the photoproducts and replenishment of the CO(2) supply in the gaseous headspace. Reduction in practice of the gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactor is offered in this work with a fed-batch and a semi-continuous culturing system using Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 heterologously expressing the Pueraria montana (kudzu) isoprene synthase (IspS) gene. Constitutive isoprene production was observed over 192 h of experimentation, coupled with cyanobacterial biomass accumulation. The diffusion-based process in gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactors has the potential to be applied to other high-value photosynthetically derived volatile molecules, emanating from a variety of photosynthetic microorganisms.

  4. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Other Intestinal Parasites in Young Children in Lobata Province, Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Maria Luísa; Augusto, João; Antunes, Francisco; Ceita, José; Xiao, Lihua; Codices, Vera; Matos, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Rare systemic studies concerning prevalence of intestinal parasites in children have been conducted in the second smallest country in Africa, the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. Fecal specimens from 348 children (214 in-hospital attending the Aires de Menezes Hospital and 134 from Agostinho Neto village) in São Tome Island were studied by parasitological and molecular methods. Of the 134 children from Agostinho Neto, 52.2% presented intestinal parasites. 32.1% and 20.2% of these children had monoparasitism and polyparasitism, respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides (27.6%), G. duodenalis (7.5%), T. trichiura (4.5%) and Entamoeba coli (10.5%) were the more frequent species identified in the children of this village. Giardia duodenalis (7.5%) and E. bieneusi (5.2%) were identified by PCR. Nested-PCR targeting G. duodenalis TPI identified Assemblage A (60%) and Assemblage B (40%). The E. bieneusi ITS-based sequence identified genotypes K (57.1%), KIN1 (28.6%) and KIN3 (14.3%). Among the 214 in-hospital children, 29.4% presented intestinal parasites. In 22.4% and 7.0% of the parasitized children, respectively, one or more species were concurrently detected. By microscopy, A. lumbricoides (10.3%) and Trichiuris trichiura (6.5%) were the most prevalent species among these children, and Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR in 8.9% of children. GP60 locus analysis identified 6.5% of C. hominis (subtypes IaA27R3 [35.7%], IaA23R3 [14.3%], IeA11G3T3 [28.6%] and IeA11G3T3R1 [21.4%]) and 2.3% of C. parvum (subtypes IIaA16G2R1 [20.0%], IIaA15G2R1 [20.0%], IIdA26G1 [40.0%] and IIdA21G1a [20.0%]). G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi were identified in 0.5% and 8.9% of the in-hospital children, respectively. G. duodenalis Assemblage B was characterized. The E. bieneusi genotypes K (52.6%), D (26.4%), A (10.5%) and KIN1 (10.5%) were identified. Although further studies are required to clarify the epidemiology of these infectious diseases in this endemic region the significance of the present results highlights that it is crucial to strength surveillance on intestinal pathogens. PMID:24846205

  5. Physiological and Biogeochemical Traits of Bleaching and Recovery in the Mounding Species of Coral Porites lobata: Implications for Resilience in Mounding Corals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-02

    biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not...Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America Introduction Coral reefs are...coming decades [4,6,7], and are already causing mass coral reef decline worldwide [8]. Coral bleaching suscepti- bility has been directly linked to the

  6. Mechanism of phytoestrogen puerarin-mediated cytoprotection following oxidative injury: Estrogen receptor-dependent up-regulation of PI3K/Akt and HO-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2008-12-15

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenolic non-steroidal plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. The phytoestrogen puerarin, the main isoflavone glycoside found in the root of Pueraria lobata, has been used for various medicinal purposes in traditional Chinese medicines for thousands of years. Recent studies have indicated that the estrogen receptor (ER), through interaction with p85, regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, revealing a physiologic, non-nuclear function of ER that may be relevant in cytoprotection. In this study, we demonstrate that the phytoestrogen puerarin inhibits tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury via an ER-dependent G{beta}1/PI3K/Akt and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. Pretreatment of Hepa1c1c7 and HepG2 cells with puerarin significantly reduced t-BHP-induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent cell death. Also, puerarin up-regulated HO-1 expression and this expression conferred cytoprotection against oxidative injury induced by t-BHP. Moreover, puerarin induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which is upstream of puerarin-induced HO-1 expression, and PI3K activation, a pathway that is involved in induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression and cytoprotection. Puerarin-induced up-regulation of HO-1 and cytoprotection against t-BHP were abolished by silencing Nrf2 expression with specific siRNA. Also, puerarin-mediated increases in PI3K activation and HO-1 induction were reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780 and pertussis toxin. Taken together, these results suggest that puerarin augments cellular antioxidant defense capacity through ER-dependent HO-1 induction via the G{beta}1/PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress.

  7. Decreased expression of aromatase in the Ishikawa and RL95-2 cells by the isoflavone, puerarin, is associated with inhibition of c-jun expression and AP-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chaoqin; Li, Yanwei; Chen, Huan; Yang, Shengsheng; Xie, Guangru

    2008-12-01

    Aromatase P450 (P450(arom)) is overexpressed in endometriosis, endometrial cancers and uterine fibroids. With weak estrogen agonists/antagonists and some other enzymatic activities, isoflavones are increasingly advocated as a natural alternative to estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and are available as dietary supplements. Puerarin is major isoflavonoid compound isolated from Pueraria lobata, a Chinese medicine known as Gegen. Our clinical study shows that puerarin can be used in the treatment of endometriosis, which improves pain and infertility. Assuming that the effect of puerarin on endometriosis may result from the regulation of aromatase expression or activity, we carried out this study to test the effects of puerarin on aromatase in Ishikawa and RL95-2 cell lines. Our data have demonstrated a significant decrease of P450(arom) expression at both mRNA and protein levels by low dose puerarin treatment in both cell lines. Besides, we found that the -410/-401bp and -565/-559bp regions of aromatase promoter II contained the critical cis-acting elements, binding AP-1 and c-jun. We also found that puerarin exerted a time-course effect on the inhibition of c-jun mRNA, which parallelled that of P450(arom). To further confirm if c-jun is responsible for the P450(arom) regulation by puerarin, we knocked down c-jun expression using siRNA and it indicates that c-jun acts as a considerable transcription factor in regulating P450(arom) expression and activity. Accordingly, the suppression of P450(arom) expression and activity by puerarin treatment may associate with the downregulation of transcription factor AP-1 or c-jun.

  8. Reversal of chemical-induced liver fibrosis in Wistar rats by puerarin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuihua; Ji, Guang; Liu, Jianwen

    2006-07-01

    Puerarin is a major isoflavonoid compound isolated from Pueraria lobata, an edible vine used widely for various medicinal purposes. It has been used for centuries in China to counteract alcohol intoxication. However, the effects of puerarin on chemical-induced liver fibrosis have not been reported. In the present study, we investigated the effects of puerarin on liver fibrosis in Wistar rats induced by alcohol plus carbon tetrachloride administration. Liver fibrosis was produced in rats by treatment with a mixture (50% alcohol, 8 g/kg per day; corn oil, 2 g/kg per day; pyrazole, 24 mg/kg per day; ig) once a day and by intraperitoneal injection of 0.25 ml/kg of a 25% solution of carbon tetrachloride in olive oil twice a week for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, treatment with puerarin (0.4 and 0.8 g/kg ig, daily for 4 weeks) was conducted to examine its therapeutic effects. At the same time, the model group and treatment group continued to receive the chemical mixture, while the control group received saline instead of the chemical mixture. Upon pathological examination, the puerarin-treated rats significantly reversed the symptoms of liver fibrosis and other hepatic lesions. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), as indexes of hepatic cell disruption, were reduced with puerarin treatment, whereas no significant effect was discovered in the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities. A significant increase in apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) was found by flow cytometric analysis of the hepatic tissues. And the expression of bcl-2 mRNA was down-regulated after puerarin administration. Consequently, all these results showed that puerarin could effectively reverse chemical-induced liver fibrosis in experimental rats, via the recovery of hepatic injury as well as the induction of apoptosis in activated HSC.

  9. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., clovers (Trifolium spp.), cowpea, crotalarias, crownvetch, guar, hairy indigo, kudzu, lentil, lespedezas..., asparagusbean, and cowpea. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food...

  10. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., clovers (Trifolium spp.), cowpea, crotalarias, crownvetch, guar, hairy indigo, kudzu, lentil, lespedezas..., asparagusbean, and cowpea. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food...

  11. Puerarin, isolated from Kudzu root (Willd.), attenuates hepatocellular cytotoxicity and regulates the GSK-3β/NF-κB pathway for exerting the hepatoprotection against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Liang, Tao; He, Qiaoling; Guo, Chao; Xu, Lingyuan; Zhang, Kefeng; Duan, Xiaoqun

    2013-09-01

    Puerarin (PR) has been utilized as a phytomedicine to managing liver disease in China. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potential PR-mediated hepatoprotective role against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. The results indicated that serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly reduced following PR treatment, while the albumin (ALB) level was increased. Meanwhile, intrahepatic contents of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were elevated. Pathological examination showed that alcohol-lesioned hepatocytes were mitigated through the PR treatment. In addition, the endogenous levels of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) at the protein level and β-catenin expression at the mRNA level were notably down-regulated, whereas the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) proteins in the liver tissue were effectively decreased following the PR treatment. Together, these findings demonstrate that PR mediates hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced liver injury. The mechanisms underlying the cytoprotective effects of PR are associated with inhibiting immunotoxicity in hepatocytes and regulating the GSK-3β/NF-κB pathway, thereby maintaining metabolic homeostasis in the liver tissue.

  12. Predation of the newly invasive pest Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in soybean habitats adjacent to cotton by a complex of predators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic insect found primarily on kudzu, but also on soybean, in the southeastern United States. We used molecular gut-content analysis to document predation on this pest by insects and spiders in soybean; and to d...

  13. Design of Roadside Channels with Flexible Linings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    average 36") (91 am) Kudzu ..................... Very dense growth, uncut Bermuda grass ............. Good stand, tall (average 12") (30 am) Native grass...stand, uncut (average 11") (28 cm) Weeping lovegrass ......... Good stand, unmowed (average 13") (33 am) Kudzu ..................... Dense growth

  14. Parasitism of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in organic soybean plots in Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...

  15. Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles: Examining the Political, Moral, and Social Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    vine and technology driven devices. Kudzu vine was introduced in the 1950s as a way to prevent erosion. It is now a huge problem in the south because...Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences, (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996), 1-5. 91 Other examples concern the introduction of kudzu

  16. Assessment of Nonnative Invasive Plants in the DOE Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, S.J.

    2002-11-05

    The Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Research Park at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is composed of second-growth forest stands characteristic of much of the eastern deciduous forest of the Ridge and Valley Province of Tennessee. Human use of natural ecosystems in this region has facilitated the establishment of at least 167 nonnative, invasive plant species on the Research Park. Our objective was to assess the distribution, abundance, impact, and potential for control of the 18 most abundant invasive species on the Research Park. In 2000, field surveys were conducted of 16 management areas on the Research Park (14 Natural Areas, 1 Reference Area, and Walker Branch Watershed) and the Research Park as a whole to acquire qualitative and quantitative data on the distribution and abundance of these taxa. Data from the surveys were used to rank the relative importance of these species using the ''Alien Plant Ranking System, Version 5.1'' developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Microstegium (Microstegium vimineum) was ranked highest, or most problematic, for the entire Research Park because of its potential impact on natural systems, its tendency to become a management problem, and how difficult it is to control. Microstegium was present in 12 of the 16 individual sites surveyed; when present, it consistently ranked as the most problematic invasive species, particularly in terms of its potential impact on natural systems. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) were the second- and third-most problematic plant species on the Research Park; these two species were present in 12 and 9 of the 16 sites surveyed, respectively, and often ranked second- or third-most problematic. Other nonnative, invasive species, in decreasing rank order, included kudzu (Pueraria montma), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), Chinese lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneara), and other species representing a variety of life forms and growth forms. Results of

  17. New synonyms in the highly diverse caddisfly genus Smicridea (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae)

    PubMed Central

    Rázuri-Gonzales, Ernesto; Holzenthal, Ralph W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) repula Oláh & Johanson, 2012 is synonymized with Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) lobata (Ulmer, 1909), and the species Leptonema islamarga Botosaneanu, 2002 is transferred to Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) as a synonym of Smicridea lobata. Additionally, we present more detailed illustrations of the male genitalia of Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) lobata and Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) signata (Banks, 1903), and include notes on their distributions to aid in the identification of these two, often-confused species. PMID:28138272

  18. Puerarin attenuates renal fibrosis by reducing oxidative stress induced-epithelial cell apoptosis via MAPK signal pathways in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Bai, Chen; Sun, Xinbo; Gong, Xiaoxin; Yang, Yong; Chen, Congbo; Shan, Guang; Yao, Qisheng

    2017-11-01

    Puerarin (PR) is an isoflavonoid isolated from the root of the plant Pueraria lobata and has been widely used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Oxidative stress and epithelial cell apoptosis play important roles in the renal fibrotic process. The present study aimed to determine whether or not PR inhibits renal fibrosis by reducing oxidative stress induced-epithelial cell apoptosis. In vivo, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) induced renal fibrosis, and epithelial cell apoptosis. A total of 24 mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: sham, UUO alone, UUO +50 mg/kg PR, and UUO +100 mg/kg PR. In vitro, 200 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced epithelial cell apoptosis. The experiments were dived into four groups: control, H2O2 alone, H2O2+50 μM PR, and H2O2+100 μM PR. Tubular injury was measured in the renal cortex of the mice through periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) was measured through Sirius red (SR), immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, and Western blot. Renal epithelial cell apoptosis was measured through terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP Nick-End labeling (TUNEL), flow cytometry (FCM), and Hoechst assays. The protein expression of NOX4, caspase3, ERK, P38, and JNK was assessed through Western blot. PAS staining showed that PR decreased renal tubular injury in UUO mice. SR and IHC staining demonstrated that PR decreased the accumulation of ECM. PR treatment significantly inhibited epithelial cell apoptosis according to the results of TUNEL, FCM, Hoechst, and Western blot. Furthermore, NOX4 increased in UUO mice and decreased with PR treatment. H2O2-derived oxidative stress activated epithelial apoptosis and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and PR treatment significantly reversed it. These results suggest that PR treatment ameliorates renal fibrosis by inhibiting oxidative stress induced-epithelial cell apoptosis through

  19. JPRS Report Science & Technology USSR: Earth Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-19

    Earth Sciences New Settler in Black Sea: Ctenophore Mnemiopsis Leidyi (A. Agassiz) ( Ctenophora : Lobata) [M. Ye. Vinogradov, E. A. Shushkina, et al...Leidyi (A. Agassiz) ( Ctenophora : Lobata) 18650134g Moscow OKEANOLOGIYA in Russian Vol 29 No 2, Mar-Apr 89 (manuscript received 5 Dec 88) pp 293-299

  20. Goji

    MedlinePlus

    ... too much. Some of these products include danshen, ginger, Panax ginseng, turmeric, valerian, and others.Herbs and ... much. Some of these products include bitter melon, ginger, goat's rue, fenugreek, kudzu, willow bark, and others.

  1. Strongygaster triangulifera (Diptera: Tachinidae) as a parasitoid of adults of the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strongygaster triangulifera (Loew) (Diptera:Tachinidae) is reported for the first time as a parasitoid of Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, an introduced pest of soybeans and other legume crops in the southeastern U.S....

  2. Impacts of Tillage, Maturity Group, and Insecticide Use on Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) Populations in Double-Cropped Soybean.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Reisig, Dominic D; Bacheler, Jack S

    2017-01-04

    Megacopta cribraria (F.), also known as the kudzu bug, is a soybean pest in the United States, and it can cause up to a 60% yield reduction if not controlled. Insecticides are commonly used to manage this pest in commercial soybean fields. However, other soybean production practices may also affect kudzu bug populations. This study investigated the effect of soil tillage, maturity group selection, and insecticide use on kudzu bug densities in soybean. During 2012 and 2013, at two locations each year in North Carolina, four varieties of soybean maturity groups were planted in June into conventionally tilled plots and into plots with cereal crop residue under reduced tillage conditions (mimicking double-crop production). Plots were further split as insecticide-protected and untreated. Four times more kudzu bugs were found in conventionally tilled than reduced till plots throughout the growing season. Selection of the maturity group influenced the attractiveness of the kudzu bug to oviposit on soybean. A 56% reduction of kudzu bug densities was achieved through insecticide treatment, with an ∼6% increase in yield. Information on how production practices, including soil tillage, affect kudzu bug populations in soybean may help growers select practices to minimize kudzu bug injury and protect yield.ResumenMegacopta cribraria (F.), conocido como el bicho del kudzu, es una plaga de la soja en los Estados Unidos que puede reducir el rendimiento hasta un 60% si no es controlado oportunamente con insecticidas en campos comerciales de soja. Sin embargo, otras prácticas de producción en la soja pueden afectar las poblaciones del bicho del kudzu. El presente estudio investigó el efecto de la labranza del campo, la selección del grupo de madurez en soja, y el uso de insecticidas en la densidad del bicho del kudzu. Durante el 2012 y el 2013, cuatro diferentes grupos de madurez de soja fueron plantados en Junio bajo el sistema tradicional de labranza y con labranza reducida

  3. Rehabilitation of Military Training Areas Damaged by Tracked Vehicles at Fort Carson, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    cont’d) Lygodesmia spp. Skeletonweed Melilotus alba White sweetclover Opuntia polycantha Plains prickly pear cactus Physalis hederaefolia Ivy-leaved...groundcherry Physalis lobata Purple-flowered ground cherry Psoralea tenuiflora Slimflower scurfpea Ratibida columnifera Upright prairie coneflower

  4. Clues to unraveling the coral species problem: distinguishing species from geographic variation in Porites across the Pacific with molecular markers and microskeletal traits

    PubMed Central

    Wellington, Gerrard M.; Fox, George E.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Morphological variation in the geographically widespread coral Porites lobata can make it difficult to distinguish from other massive congeneric species. This morphological variation could be attributed to geographic variability, phenotypic plasticity, or a combination of such factors. We examined genetic and microscopic morphological variability in P. lobata samples from the Galápagos, Easter Island, Tahiti, Fiji, Rarotonga, and Australia. Panamanian P. evermanni specimens were used as a previously established distinct outgroup against which to test genetic and morphological methods of discrimination. We employed a molecular analysis of variance (AMOVA) based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence, principal component analysis (PCA) of skeletal landmarks, and Mantel tests to compare genetic and morphological variation. Both genetic and morphometric methods clearly distinguished P. lobata and P. evermanni, while significant genetic and morphological variance was attributed to differences among geographic regions for P. lobata. Mantel tests indicate a correlation between genetic and morphological variation for P. lobata across the Pacific. Here we highlight landmark morphometric measures that correlate well with genetic differences, showing promise for resolving species of Porites, one of the most ubiquitous yet challenging to identify architects of coral reefs. PMID:25674364

  5. Clues to unraveling the coral species problem: distinguishing species from geographic variation in Porites across the Pacific with molecular markers and microskeletal traits.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Zac; Wellington, Gerrard M; Fox, George E; Toonen, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Morphological variation in the geographically widespread coral Porites lobata can make it difficult to distinguish from other massive congeneric species. This morphological variation could be attributed to geographic variability, phenotypic plasticity, or a combination of such factors. We examined genetic and microscopic morphological variability in P. lobata samples from the Galápagos, Easter Island, Tahiti, Fiji, Rarotonga, and Australia. Panamanian P. evermanni specimens were used as a previously established distinct outgroup against which to test genetic and morphological methods of discrimination. We employed a molecular analysis of variance (AMOVA) based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence, principal component analysis (PCA) of skeletal landmarks, and Mantel tests to compare genetic and morphological variation. Both genetic and morphometric methods clearly distinguished P. lobata and P. evermanni, while significant genetic and morphological variance was attributed to differences among geographic regions for P. lobata. Mantel tests indicate a correlation between genetic and morphological variation for P. lobata across the Pacific. Here we highlight landmark morphometric measures that correlate well with genetic differences, showing promise for resolving species of Porites, one of the most ubiquitous yet challenging to identify architects of coral reefs.

  6. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet

    PubMed Central

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-01-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard® (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 106, n × 107) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 104, n × 105) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98–4.98 viable spores per mm2). PMID:27376335

  7. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet.

    PubMed

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-06-30

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard(®) (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 10⁶, n × 10⁷) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 10⁴, n × 10⁵) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98-4.98 viable spores per mm²).

  8. Effects of surfactants on conidial germination of Myrothecium verrucaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myrothecium verrucaria has been employed as a unique biological control agent because it is highly effective against several annual and perennial weeds, including red vine, trumpet creeper, redroot pigweed, kudzu, hempsesbania and sicklepod. Although aerial conidia of M. verrucaria are hydrophilic, ...

  9. Estimation of median lethal concentration of three isolates of Beauveria bassiana for control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) bioassayed on solid Lugys Spp. Diet²

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is a potential candidate for biological control of a variety of pests. The objectives of this study were isolate and identify the fungus from Kudzu bugs and determine its infectivity comparing with two highly pathogenic isolates including the Mississipp...

  10. Physiological specialization of Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates on soybean in the United States from 2006 to 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, cause of soybean rust, represents a classic case of a pathogen introduction that became established to a new geographical region on a perennial overwintering host (kudzu). The objective of our study was to classify the pathogenic variation in P. pachyrhizi isolates collected f...

  11. Submerged Culture of a Mycelial Formulation of a Bioherbicidal Strain of Myrothecium verrucaria with Mitigated Mycotoxin Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mycelial formulation of the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (IMI 361390) was shown to be highly efficacious in controlling the exotic invasive weed kudzu. The mycelium can be rapidly (48 h) produced in several media including soy flour-cornmeal medium. HPLC analyses revealed that the mycelial formu...

  12. New Legume Hosts of Phakopsora pachyrhizi Based on Greenhouse Evaluations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal organism of soybean rust, was first found in the continental U.S. in 2004, and has been found on soybean, kudzu, Florida beggarweed, and three Phaseolus species in the field. The pathogen has been reported to occur on over 90 legume species worldwide, and it is lik...

  13. From Asian curiosity to eruptive American pest: Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) and prospects for biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug or bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius), is native to Asia where it appears to be widely distributed (although the taxonomy is not entirely clear), but is infrequently a pest of legumes. This bug appeared in 2009 in the southeastern United States, where it is closely associa...

  14. Unrecognized coral species diversity masks differences in functional ecology.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Jennifer N; Hellberg, Michael E; Cortés, Jorge; Baums, Iliana B

    2014-02-07

    Porites corals are foundation species on Pacific reefs but a confused taxonomy hinders understanding of their ecosystem function and responses to climate change. Here, we show that what has been considered a single species in the eastern tropical Pacific, Porites lobata, includes a morphologically similar yet ecologically distinct species, Porites evermanni. While P. lobata reproduces mainly sexually, P. evermanni dominates in areas where triggerfish prey on bioeroding mussels living within the coral skeleton, thereby generating asexual coral fragments. These fragments proliferate in marginal habitat not colonized by P. lobata. The two Porites species also show a differential bleaching response despite hosting the same dominant symbiont subclade. Thus, hidden diversity within these reef-builders has until now obscured differences in trophic interactions, reproductive dynamics and bleaching susceptibility, indicative of differential responses when confronted with future climate change.

  15. Unrecognized coral species diversity masks differences in functional ecology

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Jennifer N.; Hellberg, Michael E.; Cortés, Jorge; Baums, Iliana B.

    2014-01-01

    Porites corals are foundation species on Pacific reefs but a confused taxonomy hinders understanding of their ecosystem function and responses to climate change. Here, we show that what has been considered a single species in the eastern tropical Pacific, Porites lobata, includes a morphologically similar yet ecologically distinct species, Porites evermanni. While P. lobata reproduces mainly sexually, P. evermanni dominates in areas where triggerfish prey on bioeroding mussels living within the coral skeleton, thereby generating asexual coral fragments. These fragments proliferate in marginal habitat not colonized by P. lobata. The two Porites species also show a differential bleaching response despite hosting the same dominant symbiont subclade. Thus, hidden diversity within these reef-builders has until now obscured differences in trophic interactions, reproductive dynamics and bleaching susceptibility, indicative of differential responses when confronted with future climate change. PMID:24335977

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of a Novel Luteimonas sp. Strain from Coral Mucus, Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Miller, James M.; Rowley, Sonia J.

    2016-01-01

    Luteimonas sp. strain JM171 was cultivated from mucus collected around the coral Porites lobata. The JM171 draft genome of 2,992,353 bp contains 2,672 protein-coding open reading frames, 45 tRNA coding regions, and encodes a putative globin-coupled diguanylate cyclase, JmGReg. PMID:27811107

  17. Hybridization and Introgression in a Sympatric Pair of Oak Species (Fagaceae) Studied with Morphology and Chloroplast and Nuclear SSR Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chloroplast and nuclear SSR markers and morphology were used to study hybridization and introgression between Quercus douglasii and Q. lobata, two sympatric oak species native to California. Chloroplast SSR markers provided strong evidence of gene exchange via ongoing introgression between these sp...

  18. A comparative study of oak (Quercus, Fagaceae) seedling physiology during summer drought in southern California.

    PubMed

    Mahall, Bruce E; Tyler, Claudia M; Cole, E Shelly; Mata, Catarina

    2009-04-01

    Natural recruitment of oaks appears to be declining throughout the northern hemisphere. Summer drought poses a potentially important barrier to oak recruitment in southern California. To evaluate this barrier, we grew evergreen Quercus agrifolia and deciduous Q. lobata from seeds near parental trees. We measured water relations, chlorophyll fluorescence, and gas exchange during these seedlings' fourth and fifth summers and compared them to neighboring adults. Most seedlings had substantially lower values for predawn xylem pressure potential (Ψ(pd)), minimum photosystem II (PSII) quantum efficiency (Φ(PSIIMIN)), maximum quantum efficiency for PSII under dark-adapted leaf conditions (Fv/Fm), and maximum photosynthetic assimilation (Amax), and higher values for maximum nonphotochemical quenching (NPQmax) than did conspecific adults. The high, unvarying Ψ(pd) values of the adults suggest they use perennially available groundwater. Quercus lobata seedlings commonly had lower values for Ψ(pd) than did Q. agrifolia, and values for Ψ(pd) and Φ(PSIIMIN) were significantly related to size in Q. lobata but not in Q. agrifolia. These data suggest important interspecific differences in root architecture. Lower values for Φ(PSIIMIN), Fv/Fm, and higher NPQmax in Q. agrifolia indicate that Q. agrifolia seedlings were usually under more stress than Q. lobata, which typically had higher Amax rates than did Q. agrifolia seedlings. Diurnal photosynthesis curves were quite flat for Q. agrifolia, but they peaked in the morning for Q. lobata. Established seedlings appeared to be under more stress than adults, but this stress did not appear severe enough to cause death. Access to perennially available groundwater may be crucial for the seedling to sapling transition.

  19. Screening for oestrogenic activity of plant and food extracts using in vitro trout hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Bennetau-Pelissero, C; Latonnelle, K Gontier; Lamothe, V; Shinkaruk-Poix, S; Kaushik, S J

    2004-01-01

    The use of in vitro trout hepatocyte cultures is shown to provide a simple and effective way to screen plant and food products for oestrogenic activity. The relative oestrogenic activities of 0.1 g each of extracts of phytosterol, soy isoflavone, red clover, kudzu and soybean extracts were determined using this assay and found to be equivalent to 212, 1, 3.2, 132 and 1025 nM of 17beta-estradiol, respectively. Controls were performed on soybean and kudzu extracts using specific ELISAs for isoflavones and these confirmed the validity of the cell culture assay. The method described offers an advantage over current methods in that it can detect increased oestrogenic activity that may occur as a result of metabolic activation of pre- or pro-oestrogens liver cells.

  20. Willamette River Basin Streambank Stabilization by Natural Means.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    lamette and its tributaries (43). Kudzu and honeysuckle have been effec- tive plantings in cultivated fields near streams in the Southeast (24). Where...for streambank protection in Western Oregon include salal, dwarf, willow, dogwoods, rose, hazel, vine maple, black- berry, poison oak, swordfern...quite adequate to protect the embankment, even though the relative bend curvature is only 3 or 4. Areas densely covered by berry vines are also well

  1. Evaluation of the estrogenic activity of Leguminosae plants.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hye Hyun; Kim, Taehyeong; Ahn, Soyun; Kim, Yoon Jung; Kim, Hyun Young; Piao, Xiang Lan; Park, Jeong Hill

    2005-03-01

    The plant extracts of the Leguminosae family were screened for their estrogenic activity with the Ishikawa cell system. Of the tested plants, Desmodium oxyphyllum, Dunbaria villosa, Kummerowia striata, Lespedeza bicolor, Maackia amurensis, Maackia fauriei, Pueraria thunbergiana, and Sophora flavescens were highly estrogenic with EC50 values of less than 10 microg/ml.

  2. Case Studies Due to Invasive Plants on the Vegetation Retardation Succession in Landslide Areas of Shimen reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Shin-Hwei

    2014-05-01

    The steep terrain and the fragile geology in Taiwan have caused large landslides in the reservoir watershed in the season with typhoons and heavy rain. Management, restoration strategies, and vegetation succession mechanism of landslide areas are distinct due to different attributes and locations of landslide areas. Aiming at 50 landslide areas in Shihmen reservoir watershed from 2004 to 2012, because of the Typhoon Aere occurred in 2004, this study clusters with the primary vegetation data and ortho image, and discusses the primary vegetation type in landslide areas. The successive management engineering in the watershed and the case data in Sule and Shaluntzu are analyzed the vegetation development and plant competition to evaluate the plant succession mechanism and the vegetation restoration results for the reference of successive design of vegetation engineering in landslide areas. The result shows that Shaluntzu area used invasive plants Rhodesgrass and Rhodesian kudzu when slope land vegetation restoration and secondary planting seedlings. Rhodesian kudzu has property of binding plant and causes for vegetation death. Currently, cutting down Rhodesian kudzu to reduce its interference is the most effective prevention and management method. Carefully choose the pre-grass species for vegetation in the have to carry out artificial vegetation restoration area, and continue to monitor the status currently. It would increase biodiversity for slope land due to select the indicator species of vegetation restoration and know successional trends of invasive plant species.

  3. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Berger, I; Barrientos, A C; Cáceres, A; Hernández, M; Rastrelli, L; Passreiter, C M; Kubelka, W

    1998-09-01

    The activities of crude plant extracts of five plants popularly used in Guatemala against bacterial and protozoal infections and some of their fractions have been evaluated against the trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. The most active fraction of Neurolaena lobata has also been screened in vivo. Main in vitro activities against trypomastigotes have been observed for the hexane and ethanol extracts of N. lobata (Asteraceae). Both extracts were also active against epimastigotes, whereas all other extracts tested had no effect on epimastigotes. For the hexane extracts of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) and Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes has been found. Also the ethanol extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) leafs and Gliricidia sepium (Papilionaceae) bark showed some trypanocidal activity. Fraction 2 of the ethanol extract of N. lobata was highly active against T. cruzi as well in vitro as in vivo. The chloroforme fraction of P. alliacea showed a high inhibition of trypomastigotes in vitro. Also three fractions of the active extract of B. crassifolia inhibited T. cruzi trypomastigotes. No fraction of G. sepium bark extract showed a marked trypanocidal activity.

  4. The distribution of the thermally tolerant symbiont lineage (Symbiodinium clade D) in corals from Hawaii: correlations with host and the history of ocean thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Stat, Michael; Pochon, Xavier; Franklin, Erik C; Bruno, John F; Casey, Kenneth S; Selig, Elizabeth R; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-05-01

    Spatially intimate symbioses, such as those between scleractinian corals and unicellular algae belonging to the genus Symbiodinium, can potentially adapt to changes in the environment by altering the taxonomic composition of their endosymbiont communities. We quantified the spatial relationship between the cumulative frequency of thermal stress anomalies (TSAs) and the taxonomic composition of Symbiodinium in the corals Montipora capitata, Porites lobata, and Porites compressa across the Hawaiian archipelago. Specifically, we investigated whether thermally tolerant clade D Symbiodinium was in greater abundance in corals from sites with high frequencies of TSAs. We recovered 2305 Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences from 242 coral colonies in lagoonal reef habitats at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, French Frigate Shoals, and Kaneohe Bay, Oahu in 2007. Sequences were grouped into 26 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 12 OTUs associated with Montipora and 21 with Porites. Both coral genera associated with Symbiodinium in clade C, and these co-occurred with clade D in M. capitata and clade G in P. lobata. The latter represents the first report of clade G Symbiodinium in P. lobata. In M. capitata (but not Porites spp.), there was a significant correlation between the presence of Symbiodinium in clade D and a thermal history characterized by high cumulative frequency of TSAs. The endogenous community composition of Symbiodinium and an association with clade D symbionts after long-term thermal disturbance appear strongly dependent on the taxa of the coral host.

  5. The distribution of the thermally tolerant symbiont lineage (Symbiodinium clade D) in corals from Hawaii: correlations with host and the history of ocean thermal stress

    PubMed Central

    Stat, Michael; Pochon, Xavier; Franklin, Erik C; Bruno, John F; Casey, Kenneth S; Selig, Elizabeth R; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-01-01

    Spatially intimate symbioses, such as those between scleractinian corals and unicellular algae belonging to the genus Symbiodinium, can potentially adapt to changes in the environment by altering the taxonomic composition of their endosymbiont communities. We quantified the spatial relationship between the cumulative frequency of thermal stress anomalies (TSAs) and the taxonomic composition of Symbiodinium in the corals Montipora capitata, Porites lobata, and Porites compressa across the Hawaiian archipelago. Specifically, we investigated whether thermally tolerant clade D Symbiodinium was in greater abundance in corals from sites with high frequencies of TSAs. We recovered 2305 Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences from 242 coral colonies in lagoonal reef habitats at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, French Frigate Shoals, and Kaneohe Bay, Oahu in 2007. Sequences were grouped into 26 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 12 OTUs associated with Montipora and 21 with Porites. Both coral genera associated with Symbiodinium in clade C, and these co-occurred with clade D in M. capitata and clade G in P. lobata. The latter represents the first report of clade G Symbiodinium in P. lobata. In M. capitata (but not Porites spp.), there was a significant correlation between the presence of Symbiodinium in clade D and a thermal history characterized by high cumulative frequency of TSAs. The endogenous community composition of Symbiodinium and an association with clade D symbionts after long-term thermal disturbance appear strongly dependent on the taxa of the coral host. PMID:23762518

  6. A molecular phylogenetic study of the subtribe Glycininae (Leguminosae) derived from the chloroplast DNA rps16 intron sequences.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Hymowitz, T

    2001-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 13 genera of the subtribe Glycininae, two genera of the allied subtribe Diocleinae that were included within Glycininae by Polhill, and two genera of the subtribe Erythrininae as outgroups were inferred from chloroplast DNA rps16 intron sequence variation. Pairwise sequence divergence values ranged from identity between Teramnus mollis and T. micans and between T. flexilis and T. labialis to 7.89% between Pueraria wallichii and Pseudeminia comosa across all accessions. Phylogenies estimated using parsimony and neighbor-joining methods revealed that (1) Glycininae is monophyletic if Pachyrhizus and Calopogonium (both Diocleinae) are included within Glycininae; (2) the genus Teramnus is closely related to Glycine, and Amphicarpaea showed a sister relationship to the clade comprising Teramnus and Glycine; (3) the expanded Glycininae including two genera of Diocleinae is divided into three branches, temporarily named I (comprising the rest of the examined taxa), II (Pueraria wallichii), and III (Mastersia), but their relationships are equivocal; and (4) the genus Pueraria, regarded as a closely related genus to Glycine, is not monophyletic and should be divided into at least four genera (a hypothesis supported previously by Lackey).

  7. Botanical modulation of menopausal symptoms: Mechanisms of action?

    PubMed Central

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    Menopausal women suffer from a variety of symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats which can affect quality of life. Although hormone therapy (HT) has been the treatment of choice for relieving these symptoms, HT has been associated with increased breast cancer risk leading many women to search for natural, efficacious, and safe alternatives such as botanical supplements. Data from clinical trials suggesting that botanicals have efficacy for menopausal symptom relief, have been controversial and several mechanisms of action have been proposed including estrogenic, progestogenic, and serotonergic pathways. Plant extracts with potential estrogenic activities include soy, red clover, kudzu, hops, licorice, rhubarb, yam, and chasteberry. Botanicals with reported progestogenic activities are red clover, hops, yam, and chasteberry. Serotonergic mechanisms have also been proposed since women taking antidepressants often report reduction in hot flashes and night sweats. Black cohosh, kudzu, kava, licorice, and dong quai all either have reported 5-HT7 ligands or inhibit serotonin re-uptake, therefore have potential serotonergic activities. Understanding the mechanisms of action of these natural remedies used for women’s health, could lead to more efficacious formulations and to the isolation of active components which have the potential of becoming effective medications in the future. PMID:23408273

  8. Flavonoids and Age Related Disease: Risk, benefits and critical windows

    PubMed Central

    Prasain, JK; Carlson, SH; Wyss, JM

    2010-01-01

    Plant derived products are consumed by a large percentage of the population to prevent, delay and ameliorate disease burden; however, relatively little is known about the efficacy, safety and underlying mechanisms of these traditional health products, especially when taken in concert with pharmaceutical agents. The flavonoids are a group of plant metabolites that are common in the diet and appear to provide some health benefits. While flavonoids are primarily derived from soy, many are found in fruits, nuts and more exotic sources, e.g., kudzu. Perhaps the strongest evidence for the benefits of flavonoids in diseases of aging relates to their effect on components of the metabolic syndrome. Flavonoids from soy, grape seed, kudzu and other sources all lower arterial pressure in hypertensive animal models and in a limited number of tests in humans. They also decrease the plasma concentration of lipids and buffer plasma glucose. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant actions, central nervous system effects, gut transport alterations, fatty acid sequestration and processing, PPAR activation and increases in insulin sensitivity. In animal models of disease, dietary flavonoids also demonstrate a protective effect against cognitive decline, cancer and metabolic disease. However, research also indicates that the flavonoids can be detrimental in some settings and, therefore, are not universally safe. Thus, as the population ages, it is important to determine the impact of these agents on prevention/attenuation of disease, including optimal exposure (intake, timing/duration) and potential contraindications. PMID:20181448

  9. Flavonoid-rich plants used as sole substrate to induce the solid-state fermentation of laccase.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weihua; Zhang, Wenyan; Chen, Hongzhang

    2014-04-01

    High cost becomes the major obstacle for the industrial application of laccase. Many approaches have been applied to enhance the yield and decrease the cost of laccase. Since flavonoids are the natural inducers for laccase production, in this article, flavonoid-rich plants were taken as the sole substrate for the solid-state fermentation of Funalia trogii (Cui 3676). It indicated that flavonoid-rich plants can effectively promote the production of F. trogii laccase without the addition of inducers. The laccase activity was 42.5 IU g(-1) substrate when kudzu vine root was used as the substrate, which was enhanced by 4.46 times than that when bran was used as the substrate. Meanwhile, the solid-state fermentation of laccase could enrich flavonoids, benefiting their extraction. The content of flavonoids extracted from fermented kudzu vine root and Ginkgo biloba leaves was enhanced by 56.41 and 24.11 %, respectively, compared to the unfermented substrate, and the relative reductive ability and scavenging ability of hydroxyl radicals of flavonoids in the fermented residues were essentially unchanged. Thus, flavonoid-rich plants will become a kind of potential substrate for laccase fermentation which is beneficial in enhancing the yield and reducing the cost of laccase.

  10. A sea water barrier to coral gene flow.

    PubMed

    Lessios, H A

    2012-11-01

    Land is not the only barrier to dispersal encountered by marine organisms. For sedentary shallow water species, there is an additional, marine barrier, 5000 km of uninterrupted deep-water stretch between the central and the eastern Pacific. This expanse of water, known as the ‘Eastern Pacific Barrier’, has been separating faunas of the two oceanic regions since the beginning of the Cenozoic. Species with larvae that cannot stay in the plankton for the time it takes to cross between the two sides have been evolving independently. That the eastern Pacific does not share species with the rest of the Pacific was obvious to naturalists two centuries ago (Darwin 1860). Yet, this rule has exceptions. A small minority of species are known to straddle the Eastern Pacific Barrier. One such exception is the scleractinian coral Porites lobata (Fig. 1). This species is spread widely throughout the Indo-Pacific, where it is one of the major reef-builders, but it is also encountered in the eastern Pacific. Are eastern and central Pacific populations of this coral connected by gene flow? In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Baums et al. (2012) use microsatellite data to answer this question. They show that P. lobata populations in the eastern Pacific are cut off from genetic influx from the rest of the Pacific. Populations within each of the two oceanic regions are genetically connected (though those in the Hawaiian islands are also isolated). Significantly, the population in the Clipperton Atoll, the westernmost island in the eastern Pacific, genetically groups with populations from the central Pacific, suggesting that crossing the Eastern Pacific Barrier by P. lobata propagules does occasionally occur.

  11. Capture methods for Musk Ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Hemmings, J.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Musk Ducks Biziura lobata are endemic to wetlands, river systems and coastal oceanic waters of temperate Australia. Individuals of this species are difficult to capture because of their excellent swimming and diving abilities and frequent use of deep-water habitats. Night-lighting, baited clover-leaf traps and walk-in-nest-traps were used to capture Musk Ducks at Murray Lagoon, Cape Gantheaume Conservation Park, Kangaroo Island, South Australia. These techniques should be useful for capturing Musk Ducks at other locations in Australia.

  12. Invasive vascular plant species of limnocrenic karst springs in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spałek, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in Poland. Among them, the most important for preservation of biodiversity of flora are limnocrenic karst springs. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbance of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearance of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to appear numerous invasive plant species. They are: Acorus calamus, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Fielworks were conducted in 2010-2014.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of the active components of three Chinese herbs on brain iron load in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xian-Hui; Gao, Wei-Juan; Kong, Wei-Na; Xie, Hong-Lin; Peng, Yan; Shao, Tie-Mei; Yu, Wen-Guo; Chai, Xi-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder and the most common cause of dementia. New treatments for AD are required due to its increasing prevalence in aging populations. The present study evaluated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on learning and memory impairment, β-amyloid (Aβ) reduction and brain iron load in an APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Increasing evidence indicates that a disturbance of normal iron homeostasis may contribute to the pathology of AD. However, the underlying mechanisms resulting in abnormal iron load in the AD brain remain unclear. It has been hypothesized that the brain iron load is influenced by the deregulation of certain proteins associated with brain iron metabolism, including divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1). The present study investigated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on the expression levels of DMT1 and FPN1. The treatment with the active components reduced cognitive deficits, inhibited Aβ plaque accumulation, reversed Aβ burden and reduced the brain iron load in AD model mice. A significant increase was observed in the levels of DMT1-iron-responsive element (IRE) and DMT1-nonIRE in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain, which was reduced by treatment with the active components. In addition, the levels of FPN1 were significantly reduced in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain compared with those of control mice, and these levels were increased following treatment with the active components. Thus, the present study indicated that the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae may exert a neuroprotective effect against AD by reducing iron overload in the AD brain and may provide a novel approach for the development of drugs for the treatment of AD.

  14. Neuroprotective effect of the active components of three Chinese herbs on brain iron load in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    DONG, XIAN-HUI; GAO, WEI-JUAN; KONG, WEI-NA; XIE, HONG-LIN; PENG, YAN; SHAO, TIE-MEI; YU, WEN-GUO; CHAI, XI-QING

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder and the most common cause of dementia. New treatments for AD are required due to its increasing prevalence in aging populations. The present study evaluated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on learning and memory impairment, β-amyloid (Aβ) reduction and brain iron load in an APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Increasing evidence indicates that a disturbance of normal iron homeostasis may contribute to the pathology of AD. However, the underlying mechanisms resulting in abnormal iron load in the AD brain remain unclear. It has been hypothesized that the brain iron load is influenced by the deregulation of certain proteins associated with brain iron metabolism, including divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1). The present study investigated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on the expression levels of DMT1 and FPN1. The treatment with the active components reduced cognitive deficits, inhibited Aβ plaque accumulation, reversed Aβ burden and reduced the brain iron load in AD model mice. A significant increase was observed in the levels of DMT1-iron-responsive element (IRE) and DMT1-nonIRE in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain, which was reduced by treatment with the active components. In addition, the levels of FPN1 were significantly reduced in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain compared with those of control mice, and these levels were increased following treatment with the active components. Thus, the present study indicated that the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae may exert a neuroprotective effect against AD by reducing iron overload in the AD brain and may provide a novel approach for the development of drugs for the treatment of AD. PMID:25780429

  15. Anti-miroestrol polyclonal antibodies: a comparison of immunogen preparations used to obtain desired antibody properties.

    PubMed

    Kitisripanya, Tharita; Jutathis, Kamonthip; Inyai, Chadathorn; Komaikul, Jukrapun; Udomsin, Orapin; Yusakul, Gorawit; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2016-04-01

    Immunogen quality is one important factor that contributes to desirable antibody characteristics. Highly specific antibodies against miroestrol can be used to develop a quality control immunoassay for Pueraria candollei products. In this study, we investigated how various immunogen preparations affect antibody properties. The results show that immunogen prepared using the Mannich reaction provides antibodies with higher specificity and sensitivity against miroestrol than immunogen prepared with the periodate reaction. The results suggest the Mannich reaction maintains the original structure of miroestrol and generates useful antibodies for developing immunoassays.

  16. Effects of two sediment types on the fluorescence yield of two Hawaiian scleractinian corals.

    PubMed

    Piniak, Gregory A

    2007-10-01

    This study used non-invasive pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry to measure the maximum fluorescence yield (F(v)/F(m)) of two Hawaiian scleractinian coral species exposed to short-term sedimentation stress. Beach sand or harbor mud was applied to coral fragments in a flow-through aquarium system for 0-45 h, and changes in F(v)/F(m) were measured as a function of sediment type and length of exposure. Corals were monitored for up to 90 h to document recovery after sediment removal. Sediment deposition significantly decreased F(v)/F(m) in both species and was a function of sediment type and time. Corals that received sediment for 30 h or more had the greatest reduction in yield and exhibited little recovery over the course of the experiment. Harbor mud caused a greater reduction in Porites lobata yield than beach sand, whereas both sediment types had equally deleterious effects on Montipora capitata. Colony morphology and sediment type were important factors in determining yield reduction--P. lobata minimized damage from coarse sand grains by passive sediment rejection or accumulation in depressions in the skeleton, and fluorescence yield decreased most in corals exposed to sticky harbor mud or in colonies with flattened morphologies. Species-specific differences could not be tested due to differences in colony morphology and surface area.

  17. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Zac H; Page, Christopher A; Toonen, Robert J; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1-3 cm(2)) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm(2) per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration.

  18. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover

    PubMed Central

    Page, Christopher A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1–3 cm2) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm2 per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration. PMID:26500822

  19. Effects of two sediment types on the fluorescence yield of two Hawaiian scleractinian corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piniak, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    This study used non-invasive pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry to measure the maximum fluorescence yield (Fv/Fm) of two Hawaiian scleractinian coral species exposed to short-term sedimentation stress. Beach sand or harbor mud was applied to coral fragments in a flow-through aquarium system for 0-45 h, and changes in Fv/Fm were measured as a function of sediment type and length of exposure. Corals were monitored for up to 90 h to document recovery after sediment removal. Sediment deposition significantly decreased Fv/Fm in both species and was a function of sediment type and time. Corals that received sediment for 30 h or more had the greatest reduction in yield and exhibited little recovery over the course of the experiment. Harbor mud caused a greater reduction in Porites lobata yield than beach sand, whereas both sediment types had equally deleterious effects on Montipora capitata. Colony morphology and sediment type were important factors in determining yield reduction-P. lobata minimized damage from coarse sand grains by passive sediment rejection or accumulation in depressions in the skeleton, and fluorescence yield decreased most in corals exposed to sticky harbor mud or in colonies with flattened morphologies. Species-specific differences could not be tested due to differences in colony morphology and surface area. ?? 2007.

  20. In vitro cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of five medicinal plants of Malvaceae family from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Pieme, C A; Penlap, V N; Ngogang, J; Costache, M

    2010-05-01

    The potential antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of extracts from five medicinal plants from Cameroon were evaluated in vitro on HepG-2 cells. The results showed the significant decrease of the viability of the cells in a concentration-dependent manner. According to the IC(50) obtained, the extracts of S. acuta (461.53±0.23) and U. lobata (454.93±0.12) showed significant antiproliferative activity. At fixed concentration (250μgmL(-1)), extracts demonstrated higher antiproliferative activity (67.05%; 65.42%), (52.62%; 56.64%) and (32.98%; 36.85%) respectively during 24, 48 and 72h. Extracts of S. cordifolia and V. album demonstrated significant antiproliferative property after 48h while S. rhombifolia exhibited weak cytotoxicity. The results of the antioxidant properties showed that theses extracts induced significantly increase of SOD, CAT and GsT activity after 48h. Taken together, the results extracts showed that of S. acuta and U. lobata may be a promising alternative to synthetic substances as natural compound with high antiproliferative and antioxidant activities.

  1. Release of phenols by plant roots and their potential importance as substrates for PCB-degrading bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.S.; Hedge, R.S.

    1994-12-31

    A comparison of the amount of phenols released into the soil by different plant species showed major differences. Total phenols recovered in the leachate following a single flush ranged from a low of 0.09 {mu}g morin equivalents per g of dry sand for indian grass and big blue stem to a high of 0.38 {mu}g morin equivalents per g sand for crabapple. From the values observed for total phenols, the plant species examined can be grouped into the following categories: (1) Low: big blue stem, cottonwood, eupatorium, indian grass, stephanandra, and sumac; (2) Moderate: asparagus, barberry, kudzu, licorice, mulberry, osage orange, perennial sunflower, rose, staghorn, sumac, and tall fescue; (3) High: crabapple. The relationship of these concentrations to microbial growth will be discussed.

  2. 3′-Daidzein sulfonate sodium improves mitochondrial functions after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wa; Chen, Qin; Zeng, Jing; Xiao, Hai; Huang, Zhi-hua; Li, Xiao; Lei, Qiong

    2017-01-01

    3′-Daidzein sulfonate sodium is a new synthetic water-soluble compound derived from daidzein (an active ingredient of the kudzu vine root). It has been shown to have a protective effect on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. We plan to study the mechanism of its protective effect. 3′-Daidzein sulfonate sodium was injected in rats after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Results showed that 3′-daidzein sulfonate sodium significantly reduced mitochondrial swelling, significantly elevated the mitochondrial membrane potential, increased mitochondrial superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and decreased mitochondrial malondialdehyde levels. 3′-Daidzein sulfonate sodium improved the structural integrity of the blood-brain barrier and reduced blood-brain barrier permeability. These findings confirmed that 3′-daidzein sulfonate sodium has a protective effect on mitochondrial functions after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, improves brain energy metabolism, and provides protection against blood-brain barrier damage.

  3. Climate Change, Carbon Dioxide, and Pest Biology: Monitor, Mitigate, Manage.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H; McConnell, Laura L

    2016-01-13

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both managed and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a region) or negative (new introductions), but are likely to be accompanied by significant economic and environmental consequences. Recent studies indicate the range of invasive weeds such as kudzu and insects such as mountain pine beetle have already expanded to more northern regions as temperatures have risen. To reduce these consequences, a better understanding of the link between CO2/climate and pest biology is needed in the context of existing and new strategies for pest management. This paper provides an overview of the probable biological links and the vulnerabilities of existing pest management (especially chemical control) and provides a preliminary synthesis of research needs that could potentially improve the ability to monitor, mitigate, and manage pest impacts.

  4. Content of methylated inositols in familiar edible plants.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Osamu; Mun'im, Abdul; Negishi, Yukiko

    2015-03-18

    Familiar plants contain large amounts of inositols; soybean, white clover, red clover, bush clover, locust tree, wisteria, and kudzu of the legume family contain pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) at approximately 200-600 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The contents of pinitol in other plants were 260 mg/100 g FW for sticky mouse-ear, 275 mg/100 g FW for chickweed, and 332 mg/100 g FW for ginkgo. chiro-Inositol of 191 and 156 mg/100 g FW was also found in dandelion and Japanese mallotus, respectively. Ononitol (4-O-methyl-myo-inositol) of 166 mg/100 g FW was found in sticky mouse-ear. Furthermore, young leaves of ginkgo contained sequoyitol (5-O-methyl-myo-inositol) of 287 mg/100 g FW. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the methylated inositols were higher than those of the original inositols. Effective uses of these familiar edible plants are expected to promote good health.

  5. Isolation, sequence identification and tissue expression profile of two novel soybean (glycine max) genes-vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase.

    PubMed

    Liu, G Y

    2009-09-01

    The complete mRNA sequences of two soybean (glycine max) genes-vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase, were amplified using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. The sequence analysis of these two genes revealed that soybean vestitone reductase gene encodes a protein of 327 amino acids which has high homology with the vestitone reductase of Medicago sativa (77%). The soybean chalcone reductase gene encodes a protein of 314 amino acids that has high homology with the chalcone reductase of kudzu vine (88%) and medicago sativa (83%). The expression profiles of the soybean vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase genes were studied and the results indicated that these two soybean genes were differentially expressed in detected soybean tissues including leaves, stems, roots, inflorescences, embryos and endosperm. Our experiment established the foundation for further research on these two soybean genes.

  6. Population genomics of a symbiont in the early stages of a pest invasion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amanda M V; Huynh, Lynn Y; Bolender, Caitlin M; Nelson, Kelly G; McCutcheon, John P

    2014-03-01

    Invasive species often depend on microbial symbionts, but few studies have examined the evolutionary dynamics of symbionts during the early stages of an invasion. The insect Megacopta cribraria and its bacterial nutritional symbiont Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata invaded the southeastern US in 2009. While M. cribraria was initially discovered on wild kudzu plants, it was found as a pest on soybeans within 1 year of infestation. Because prior research suggests Ishikawaella confers the pest status--that is, the ability to thrive on soybeans--in some Megacopta species, we performed a genomic study on Ishikawaella from US. Megacopta cribraria populations to understand the role of the symbiont in driving host plant preferences. We included Ishikawaella samples collected in the first days of the invasion in 2009 and from 23 locations across the insect's 2011 US range. The 0.75 Mb symbiont genome revealed only 47 fixed differences from the pest-conferring Ishikawaella in Japan, with only one amino acid change in a nutrition-provisioning gene. This similarity, along with a lack of fixed substitutions in the US symbiont population, indicates that Ishikawella likely arrived in the US capable of being a soybean pest. Analyses of allele frequency changes between 2009 and 2011 uncover signatures of both positive and negative selection and suggest that symbionts on soybeans and kudzu experience differential selection for genes related to nutrient provisioning. Our data reveal the evolutionary trajectory of an important insect-bacteria symbiosis in the early stages of an invasion, highlighting the role microbial symbionts may play in the spread of invasive species.

  7. Predation of the newly invasive pest Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in soybean habitats adjacent to cotton by a complex of predators.

    PubMed

    Greenstone, M H; Tillman, P G; Hu, J S

    2014-06-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae),is a newly invasive exotic insect found primarily on kudzu, but also on soybean, in the southeastern United States. We used molecular gut-content analysis to document predation on this pest by insects and spiders in soybean, and to detect remains of crop-specific alternative prey in predators' guts as markers of predator migration between soybean and adjacent cotton. M. cribraria was found exclusively on soybean. Eight native generalist predators over both crops screened positive by specific PCR for DNA of the pest: Geocoris punctipes (Say), Geocoris uliginosus (Say), Orius insidiosus (Say), Podisus maculicentris (Say), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Zelus renardii (Kolenati), Oxyopes salticus Hentz, and Peucetia viridans (Hentz); a ninth predator, the exotic Solenopsis invicta Buren, also screened positive for M. cribraria DNA. P. viridans was the only arthropod that tested positive for DNA of this invasive pest in only one crop, cotton. Two plant-feeding pentatomid species, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) and Thyanta custator (F.), were found exclusively on soybean, and another, Euschistus tristigmus (Say), was specific to cotton in the context of this study. Detection of predation on a combination of M. cribraria and P. guildinii and T. custator in cotton and M. cribraria and E. tristigmus in soybean demonstrated that these predators dispersed between crops. These results strongly support the use of soybean habitats adjacent to cotton as part of a conservation biological control strategy against M. cribraria. This is the first report documenting predation on this exotic pest in the field via molecular gut-content analysis.

  8. Rheology of lyocell solutions from different cellulosic sources and development of regenerated cellulosic microfibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuopan

    2003-10-01

    The primary goals of the study were to develop manufactured cellulosic fibers and microfibers from wood pulps as well as from lignocellulosic agricultural by-products and to investigate alternative cellulosic sources as raw materials for lyocell solutions. A protocol was developed for the lyocell preparation from different cellulose sources. The cellulose sources included commercial dissolving pulps, commercial bleached hardwood, unbleached hardwood, bleached softwood, unbleached softwood, bleached thermomechanical pulp, unbleached thermomechanical pulp, bleached recycled newsprint, unbleached recycled newsprint, bagasse and kudzu. The rheological behavior of solutions was characterized. Complex viscosities and effective elongational viscosities were measured and the influences of parameters such as cellulose source, concentration, bleaching, and temperature were studied. One-way ANOVA post hoc tests were carried out to identify which cellulose sources have the potential to produce lyocell solutions having similar complex viscosities to those from commercial dissolving pulps. Lyocell solutions from both bleached and unbleached softwood and hardwood were classified as one homogenous subset that had the lowest complex viscosity. Kudzu solutions had the highest complex viscosity. The results showed the potential to substitute DP 1457 dissolving pulp with unbleached recycled newsprint pulps, to substitute DP 1195 dissolving pulp with bleached and unbleached thermomechanical pulps, to substitute DP 932 dissolving pulp with bleached thermomechanical pulps or bleached recycled newsprint pulps, to substitute DP 670 dissolving pulp with bagasse. Lyocell fibers were produced from selected solutions and were treated to produce microfibers. Water, sulfuric acid solutions and sodium hydroxide solutions were used. The treatment of lyocell fibers in 17.5% NaOH solutions for five minutes at 20°C successfully broke the fibers into fibrils along fiber axis. The diameters of the

  9. Effect of miroestrol on ovariectomy-induced cognitive impairment and lipid peroxidation in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Monthakantirat, Orawan; Sukano, Wichitsak; Umehara, Kaoru; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Chulikhit, Yaowared; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2014-09-25

    Miroestrol (MR) is a phytoestrogen isolated from Pueraria candollei var. mirifica (KwaoKrueaKhao), a Thai medicinal plant used for rejuvenation. We examined the effects of MR on cognitive function, oxidative brain damage, and the expression of genes encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), factors implicated in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. OVX decreased serum 17β-estradiol level and uterine weight. OVX also impaired object recognition performance in the novel object recognition test and spatial cognitive performance in the Y-maze test and the water maze test. Daily treatment of MR dose-dependently attenuated OVX-induced cognitive dysfunction. Moreover, OVX mice had a significantly increased level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and down-regulated expression levels of BDNF and CREB mRNAs in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. MR treatment as well as hormone replacement therapy with 17β-estradiol significantly reversed these neurochemical alterations caused by OVX. These results suggest that MR ameliorates cognitive deficits in OVX animals via attenuation of OVX-induced oxidative stress and down-regulation of BDNF and CREB mRNA transcription in the brain. Our findings raise the possibility that MR and Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, the plant of origin of MR, may have a beneficial effect on cognitive deficits like AD in which menopause/ovariectomy are implicated as risk factors.

  10. In vivo and in vitro antiplasmodial activities of some plants traditionally used in Guatemala against malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Franssen, F F; Smeijsters, L J; Berger, I; Medinilla Aldana, B E

    1997-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic effects of four plants commonly used in Guatemalan folk medicine against malaria. Methanol extracts of Simarouba glauca D. C., Sansevieria guineensis Willd, Croton guatemalensis Lotsy, and Neurolaena lobata (L.)R.Br. significantly reduced parasitemias in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Dichloromethane fractions were screened for their cytotoxicities on Artemia salina (brine shrimp) larvae, and 50% inhibitory concentrations were determined for Plasmodium falciparum in in vitro cultures. Both chloroquine-susceptible and -resistant strains of P. falciparum were significantly inhibited by these extracts. Of all dichloromethane extracts, only the S. glauca cortex extract was considered to be toxic to nauplii of A. salina in the brine shrimp test. PMID:9210673

  11. Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of fifty-eight ethnomedicinal plants used in Trinidad and Tobago for skin problems, stomach problems, pain and internal parasites for safety and possible efficacy. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000 on medicinal plant use for health problems. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad and one in Tobago. The uses are compared to those current in Asia. Bambusa vulgaris, Bidens alba, Jatropha curcas, Neurolaena lobata, Peperomia rotundifolia and Phyllanthus urinaria are possibly efficacous for stomach problems, pain and internal parasites. Further scientific study of these plants is warranted. PMID:17207273

  12. Seaweed-coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience.

    PubMed

    Bonaldo, Roberta M; Hay, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70-80% lower, macroalgal cover 4-9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5-15 fold more frequent and 23-67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae), and coral cover 51-68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa) against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals.

  13. Seaweed-Coral Interactions: Variance in Seaweed Allelopathy, Coral Susceptibility, and Potential Effects on Coral Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Bonaldo, Roberta M.; Hay, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70–80% lower, macroalgal cover 4–9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5–15 fold more frequent and 23–67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae), and coral cover 51–68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa) against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals. PMID:24465707

  14. Spatial refugia mediate juvenile coral survival during coral-predator interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Clare; Doropoulos, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Coral recruitment and juvenile growth are essential processes for coral population maintenance and recovery. A growing body of research has evaluated the influence of reef microstructure on coral settlement and post-settlement survival, showing that physical refugia enhance recruitment. These studies have evaluated coral recruit morality from competition with macroalgae and indirect predation by grazing organisms, but the impact of direct predation by corallivorous piscine species on juvenile corals and how this interacts with reef microstructure is relatively unknown. This study examined whether refugia provided by micro-crevices enhance juvenile coral survival from corallivory. Juvenile corals from two different functional groups, the slow-growing massive Porites lobata and fast-growing branching Pocillopora damicornis, with average nubbin sizes of 1.4 cm × 0.3 cm and 0.5 cm × 1.0 cm (diameter × height), respectively, were attached to experimental tiles using small (1.44 cm3) and large (8.0 cm3) crevice sizes and were monitored for 29 d on a forereef in Palau. Full crevices (four sided) enhanced coral survival compared to exposed microhabitats in both coral taxa, but crevice size did not alter survival rates. Corallivores targeted recruits within crevices regardless of crevice size; dominant predators included small triggerfish (Balistidae), butterflyfish ( Chaetodon), and wrasse ( Cheilinus). Overall, Pocillopora suffered much higher rates of mortality than Porites. All Pocillopora were consumed by day 8 of the experiment, but mortality was significantly delayed in full crevices compared to exposed and partial crevice (three sided) microhabitats. In contrast, Por. lobata located in all microhabitats survived the entire experiment up to 29 d, with high survival in full (>90%) and partial crevices (70%), but only 28% survival in exposed microhabitats. These findings show the importance of crevices as spatial refugia from predators for juvenile corals and

  15. Demography and recruitment limitations of three oak species in California.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Claudia M; Kuhn, Bill; Davis, Frank W

    2006-06-01

    We review published studies on the demography and recruitment of California oak trees and focus on the widespread dominant species of the foothill woodlands, Quercus douglasii, Q. lobata, and Q. agrifolia, to ascertain the nature and strength of evidence for a decline in populations of these species. The vast majority of studies have been of short duration (less than three years), focused on the acorn and seedling life stages, and conducted at few locations within each species geographic range. We summarize the extensive body of research that has been conducted on the biological and physical factors that limit natural seedling recruitment of oaks. The oak "regeneration problem" has largely been inferred from current stand structure rather than by demographic analyses, which in part reflects the short-term nature of most oak research. When viewed over longer periods of time usingfield surveys or historical photos, the evidence for a regeneration problem in foothill oaks is mixed. Q. douglasii shows very limited seedling or sapling recruitment at present, but longer term studies do not suggest a decline in tree density, presumably because rare recruitment is sufficient to offset low rates of mortality of overstory individuals. Q. agrifolia appears to be stable or increasing in some areas, but decreasing in areas recently impacted by the disease Phytophthora ramorum. Evidence from the few available studies is more consistent in suggesting long-term declines in foothill populations of Q. lobata. Long-term monitoring, age structure analysis, and population models are needed to resolve the current uncertainty over the sustainability of oak woodlands in California.

  16. soil carbon pools within oak forest is endangered by global climate change in central mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Oliva, Felipe; Merino, Agustín; González-Rodriguez, Antonio; Chávez-Vergara, Bruno; Tapia-Torres, Yunuen; Oyama, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Forest soil represents the main C pool in terrestrial ecosystems. In particular, temperate forest ecosystems play an important role in the C budget among tropical countries, such as Mexico. For example, the temperate forest ecosystem contains higher C contents on average (295 Mg C ha-1) than the soil C associated with other ecosystems in Mexico (between 56 to 287 Mg C ha-1). At a regional scale, oak forest has the highest C content (460 Mg C ha-1) among the forest ecosystem in Michoacán State at Central Mexico. At the local scale, the soil C content is strongly affected by the composition of organic matter produced by the plant species. The oak species are very diverse in Mexico, distributed within two sections: Quercus sensu stricto and Lobatae. The oak species from Quercus s.s. section produced litterfall with lower concentrations of recalcitrant and thermostable compounds than oak species from Lobatae section, therefore the soil under the former species had higher microbial activity and nutrient availability than the soil under the later species. However, the forest fragment with higher amount of oak species from Quercus s.s. section increases the amount of soil C contents. Unfortunately, Quercus species distribution models for the central western region of Mexico predict a decrease of distribution area of the majority of oak species by the year 2080, as a consequence of higher temperatures and lower precipitation expected under climate change scenarios. Additionally to these scenarios, the remnant oak forest fragments suffer strong degradation due to uncontrolled wood extraction and deforestation. For this reason, the conservation of oak forest fragments is a priority to mitigate the greenhouse gases emission to the atmosphere. In order to enhance the protection of these forest fragments it is required that the society identify the ecosystem services that are provided by these forest fragments.

  17. Coral reef recovery in the Galápagos Islands: the northernmost islands (Darwin and Wenman)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, Peter W.; Riegl, Bernhard; Purkis, Samuel; Kerr, Jeremy M.; Smith, Tyler B.

    2015-06-01

    The remote northernmost Galápagos Islands, Darwin and Wenman, exhibited well-developed coral communities in 1975, which were severely degraded during the 1982-1983 El Niño warming event. Mapping of the coral reef at Darwin, herein Wellington Reef, shows it presently to be the largest known structural reef in the Galápagos. It consists of numerous 1- to 3-m-high Porites framework towers or stacks and overlies a carbonate (coral/calcareous sediments) basement. Pre-disturbance Wellington Reef was constructed chiefly by Porites lobata and Pocillopora elegans, and Wenman coral cover was dominated by Pavona clavus and Porites lobata. Subsequent surveys in 2012 have demonstrated robust recovery in spite of ENSO thermal shock events, involving both high and low stressful temperatures that have caused tissue bleaching and mortality. No losses of coral species have been observed. Radiocarbon dating of 1- to 3-m-high poritid framework stacks, from their peaks to bases, revealed modern ages of up to 690 yr. Incremental stack growth rates ranged from 0.15-0.39 to 1.04-2.40 cm yr-1. The former are equivalent to framework accretion rates of 1.5-3.9 m Kyr-1, the latter to coral skeletal growth rates of 1.0-2.4 cm yr-1. Coral recovery in the central and southern Galápagos has been nonexistent to low compared with the northern islands, due chiefly to much higher population densities and destructive grazing pressure of the echinoid Eucidaris galapagensis. Thus, coral reef resistance to ENSO perturbations and recovery potential in the Galápagos are influenced by echinoid bioerosion that varies significantly among islands.

  18. NMR Study on the Inclusion Complexes of β-Cyclodextrin with Isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Sandström, Corine; Zhang, Haiyang; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-03-28

    The structure of the inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with daidzein and daidzin in D2O were investigated using NMR spectroscopy. For the β-CD and daidzein system, two types of 1:1 complexes were formed with the daidzein deeply inserted into the CD cavity with different orientations. For the β-CD/daidzin system, a 1:1 complex was formed with the flavonoid part of daidzin entering the CD cavity from the wide rim. The inclusion complexes determined by NMR were constructed using molecular docking. Furthermore, the mixture of puerarin, daidzein and daidzin, which are the major isoflavonoid components present in Radix puerariae, was analyzed by diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) alone and upon addition of β-CD in order to mimic chromatographic conditions and compare their binding affinities.

  19. Investigation of the inclusions of puerarin and daidzin with beta-cyclodextrin by molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyang; Feng, Wei; Li, Cong; Tan, Tianwei

    2010-04-15

    Puerarin and daidzin, two major isoflavonoids of Radix puerariae , are widely adopted in traditional Chinese medicine. Foundational aspects related to separating the two compounds are essential to develop a more economical purification process. Inclusion models of the two compounds with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Computational results reveal that both puerarin and daidzin can induce a conformational change of beta-CD, which is compressed in one direction and stretched in the other. The effect of solvent and media on the conformational change of beta-CD and the movement of guest molecules inside the cavity has been investigated. Furthermore, hydrogen bonding interactions have been analyzed, and the results have been utilized for the explanation of separating puerarin from daidzin.

  20. Down regulation of gene related sex hormone synthesis pathway in mouse testes by miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2011-12-01

    Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol are phytoestrogens isolated from tuberous root of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica. Modulatory effects of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol on enzymes involved in sex-hormone synthesis pathway in male C57BL/6 mice were investigated using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol suppressed the expressions of 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD1, and CYP17 while CYP19 mRNA expression was slightly decreased. In addition, the expression of 17β-HSD2 was induced in correlation with those did by estradiol. These observations supported that miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol could exhibit the same effect as estradiol regarding regulation of testicular gene related sex hormone synthesis pathway.

  1. [Safety of health foods and importance of their origin].

    PubMed

    Goda, Yukihiro

    2008-06-01

    The safety guideline for voluntary inspections on the ingredients used for capsulated or pellet food, announced by the director of the department of food safety of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare on February 1, 2008 states that "how to guarantee the origin" is the top priority to ensure safety. However, in the course of our continuous investigation of the origin of natural products, the ingredients of some health food products such as chondroitin sulfate, white kwao keur (Pueraria candollei var. mirifica) and black cohosh did not originate from the labeled material. The usage of the correct origin is the fist step for the quality assurance of "health food". Therefore, we believe that regulatory requirements for accurately indicating the origin of "health foods" and effective enforcement of these requirements are needed.

  2. Therapeutic Potential of Chinese Herbal Medicines in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Chun-Ting; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a complex chronic disease and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from steatosis and steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Since effective therapies for ALD are still limited, Chinese herbal medicine is thought to be an important and alternative approach. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence of ALD by ten Chinese Materia Medica (中藥 zhōng yào), including Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (丹參 dān shēn), Notoginseng Radix (三七 sān qī), Lycii Fructus (枸杞子 gǒu qǐ zǐ), Cnidii Fructus (蛇床子 shé chuáng zǐ), Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn), Puerariae Radix (葛根 gé gēn), Puerariae Flos (葛花 gé huā), Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex (厚朴 hòu pò), Platycodonis Radix (桔梗 jié gěng), and Trigonellae Semen (胡蘆巴 hú lú bā). Potential mechanisms of these herbal medicines in ALD are involved in amelioration of enhanced inflammation, reduction of hepatic oxidative stress and lipogenesis, and enhancement of intestinal permeability in alcohol-induced liver injury models in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, the evidenced therapeutic potential suggests that these herbs are promising candidates for prevention and development of new drugs for ALD in the future. PMID:24716123

  3. Alcohol use disorders and current pharmacological therapies: the role of GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Olsen, Richard W

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are defined as alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, which create large problems both for society and for the drinkers themselves. To date, no therapeutic can effectively solve these problems. Understanding the underlying mechanisms leading to AUD is critically important for developing effective and safe pharmacological therapies. Benzodiazepines (BZs) are used to reduce the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. However, frequent use of BZs causes cross-tolerance, dependence, and cross-addiction to alcohol. The FDA-approved naltrexone and acamprosate have shown mixed results in clinical trials. Naltrexone is effective to treat alcohol dependence (decreased length and frequency of drinking bouts), but its severe side effects, including withdrawal symptoms, are difficult to overcome. Acamprosate showed efficacy for treating alcohol dependence in European trials, but two large US trials have failed to confirm the efficacy. Another FDA-approved medication, disulfiram, does not diminish craving, and it causes a peripheral neuropathy. Kudzu is the only natural medication mentioned by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, but its mechanisms of action are not yet established. It has been recently shown that dihydromyricetin, a flavonoid purified from Hovenia, has unique effects on GABAA receptors and blocks ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in alcoholic animal models. In this article, we review the role of GABAA receptors in the treatment of AUD and currently available and potentially novel pharmacological agents.

  4. Fine-scale geographical origin of an insect pest invading North America.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may rapidly spread throughout new areas once introduced, which may potentially lead to serious damage to local fauna and flora. Information on geographical origins, introduction routes, and biology in native regions of such invasive species is of critical importance in identifying means of transport, preventing reintroduction, and establishing control/eradication methods. The plataspid stinkbug Megacopta cribraria, known as kudzu bug, recently invaded North America and now has become not only an agricultural pest of soybean but also a nuisance pest. Here we investigate the geographical origin of the invasive M. cribraria populations. Phylogeographical analyses based on 8.7 kb mitochondrial DNA sequences of the introduced and East Asian native Megacopta populations identified a well-supported clade consisting of the introduced populations and M. punctatissima populations in the Kyushu region of Japan, which strongly suggests that the invading M. cribraria populations are derived from a M. punctatissima population in the Kyushu region. Therefore, the region is proposed as a promising source of natural enemies for biological control of the invasive pest. Based on the phylogenetic information, relationship and treatment of the two Megacopta species are discussed.

  5. Invasive Plant Species: Inventory, Mapping, and Monitoring - A National Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludke, J. Larry; D'Erchia, Frank; Coffelt, Jan; Hanson, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    America is under siege by invasive species of plants and animals, and by diseases. The current environmental, economic, and health-related costs of invasive species could exceed $138 billion per year-more than all other natural disasters combined. Notorious examples include West Nile virus, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, and purple loose- strife in the Northeast; kudzu, Brazilian peppertree, water hyacinth, nutria, and fire ants in the Southeast; zebra mussels, leafy spurge, and Asian long-horn beetles in the Midwest; salt cedar, Russian olive, and Africanized bees in the Southwest; yellow star thistle, European wild oats, oak wilt disease, Asian clams, and white pine blister rust in California; cheatgrass, various knapweeds, and thistles in the Great Basin; whirling disease of salmonids in the Northwest; hundreds of invasive species from microbes to mammals in Hawaii; and the brown tree snake in Guam. Thousands of species from other countries are introduced intentionally or accidentally into the United States each year. Based on past experience, 10-15 percent can be expected to establish free-living populations and about 1 percent can be expected to cause significant impacts to ecosystems, native species, economic productivity, and (or) human health.

  6. Host Preference of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) on Selected Edible Beans and Soybean.

    PubMed

    Blount, J L; Buntin, G D; Sparks, A N

    2015-06-01

    Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) is an Old World pest of legumes in Asia. Since its 2009 discovery in Georgia, it has become an economic pest of soybeans in the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to determine the host preference of M. cribraria on edible legumes that might incur economic damage from injury of this pest. From 2012 to 2013 choice, no-choice, and field trials were conducted to evaluate the host suitability of several beans of commercial interest including pinto bean, lima bean, winter pea, and black-eyed pea. Choice and no-choice studies were conducted under greenhouse conditions. Plants in greenhouse trials were infested with adults and egg masses collected from kudzu and soybean and monitored for ∼2 wk. Field trials were allowed to be infested by naturally occurring M. cribraria populations. Sweep and whole plant counts of adults, egg masses, and nymphs were used to quantify field infestations. The legume crops found to be suitable developmental hosts are soybean, edamame, and pigeon pea. Low levels of development were seen on fava bean and none on the remaining entries.

  7. Neuroprotective Effect of Puerarin on Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Y-79 Cells via Inhibition of ROS Generation and Ca2+ Influx

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhifeng; Sun, Song; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate toxicity is estimated to be the key cause of photoreceptor degeneration in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and Ca2+ influx induced by glutamate are responsible for the apoptosis process of photoreceptor degeneration. Puerarin, a primary component of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of puerarin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells was first investigated through cytotoxicity assay. Then the molecular mechanism of this effect regarding anti-oxidative stress and Ca2+ hemostasis was further explored with indirect immunofluorescence, flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis. Our study showed that glutamate induced cell viability loss, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, calcium overload and up-regulated cell apoptosis in differentiated Y-79 cells, which effect was significantly attenuated with the pre-treatment of puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data indicated that the neuroprotective effect of puerarin was potentially mediated through the inhibition of glutamate-induced activation of mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathway and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1(ASK-1)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 signaling pathway. The present study supports the notion that puerarin may be a promising neuroprotective agent in the prevention of retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27409614

  8. Puerarin suppresses production of nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase in lipopolysaccharide-induced N9 microglial cells through regulating MAPK phosphorylation, O-GlcNAcylation and NF-κB translocation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gao-Ming; Yu, Chao; Yang, Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Microglial cells play a critical role in mediating central nervous system inflammatory processes. Activated microglial cells induced by proinflammatory factor, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), release many kinds of neurotoxic cytokines including reactive oxygen species (ROS) which contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Puerarin, extracted from kudzu root, possesses the characteristic of neuroprotection, antioxidation and anticancer. In the present study, we observed that LPS induced over-production of nitric oxide (NO) and increased the level of intracellular ROS in N9 microglial cells, but it was inhibited by puerarin. Furthermore, treatment with puerarin on N9 cells suppressed the over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced by LPS which is implicated in intracellular O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) level, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. We also observed that the enhanced phosphorylation of p38, JNK and ERK1/2 in N9 cells induced by LPS were inhibited by puerarin, otherwise the down-regulation of O-GlcNAcylation level of protein in N9 cell induced by LPS was up-regulated by pretreatment with puerarin. These results indicate that puerarin effectively inhibits microglia activation induced by LPS through inhibiting expression of iNOS, production of NO and ROS which was mediated via regulating O-GlcNAcylation, phosphorylation of MAPK and NF-κB translocation.

  9. Alcohol use disorders and current pharmacological therapies: the role of GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jing; Olsen, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are defined as alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, which create large problems both for society and for the drinkers themselves. To date, no therapeutic can effectively solve these problems. Understanding the underlying mechanisms leading to AUD is critically important for developing effective and safe pharmacological therapies. Benzodiazepines (BZs) are used to reduce the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. However, frequent use of BZs causes cross-tolerance, dependence, and cross-addiction to alcohol. The FDA-approved naltrexone and acamprosate have shown mixed results in clinical trials. Naltrexone is effective to treat alcohol dependence (decreased length and frequency of drinking bouts), but its severe side effects, including withdrawal symptoms, are difficult to overcome. Acamprosate showed efficacy for treating alcohol dependence in European trials, but two large US trials have failed to confirm the efficacy. Another FDA-approved medication, disulfiram, does not diminish craving, and it causes a peripheral neuropathy. Kudzu is the only natural medication mentioned by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, but its mechanisms of action are not yet established. It has been recently shown that dihydromyricetin, a flavonoid purified from Hovenia, has unique effects on GABAA receptors and blocks ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in alcoholic animal models. In this article, we review the role of GABAA receptors in the treatment of AUD and currently available and potentially novel pharmacological agents. PMID:25066321

  10. The monstering of tamarisk: how scientists made a plant into a problem.

    PubMed

    Chew, Matthew K

    2009-01-01

    Dispersal of biota by humans is a hallmark of civilization, but the results are often unforeseen and sometimes costly. Like kudzu vine in the American South, some examples become the stuff of regional folklore. In recent decades, "invasion biology," conservation-motivated scientists and their allies have focused largely on the most negative outcomes and often promoted the perception that introduced species are monsters. However, cases of monstering by scientists preceded the rise of popular environmentalism. The story of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), flowering trees and shrubs imported to New England sometime before 1818, provides an example of scientific "monstering" and shows how slaying the monster, rather than allaying its impacts, became a goal in itself. Tamarisks' drought and salt tolerance suggested usefulness for both coastal and inland erosion control, and politicians as well as academic and agency scientists promoted planting them in the southern Great Plains and Southwest. But when erosion control efforts in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas became entangled with water shortages, economic development during the Depression and copper mining for national defense during World War Two, federal hydrologists moved quickly to recast tamarisks as water-wasting foreign monsters. Demonstrating significant water salvage was difficult and became subsidiary to focusing on ways to eradicate the plants, and a federal interagency effort devoted specifically to the latter purpose was organized and continued until it, in turn, conflicted with regional environmental concerns in the late 1960s.

  11. Sublethal Effects of Insecticide Exposure on Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) Nymphs: Key Biological Traits and Acetylcholinesterase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Jin; Reisig, Dominic D.; Li, Guoping; Wu, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Megacopta cribraria F. (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, is an invasive insect pest of U.S. soybean. At present, insecticide application is the primary and most effective control option for M. cribraria. In this study, the potential effects of sublethal and low-lethal concentrations (LC10 and LC40) of three common insecticides on key biological traits and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the treated nymphal stage of insect were assessed. The results show that the sublethal concentration of imidacloprid significantly reduced adult emergence rate of M. cribraria. A low-lethal concentration of imidacloprid significantly increased nymphal development time, but significantly decreased adult emergence rate and adult longevity. Both sublethal and low-lethal concentrations of acephate caused an increase in nymphal development time and a reduction in adult emergence rate and adult longevity. Fecundity of females was significantly reduced only by exposure to low-lethal concentrations of acephate. Sublethal and low-lethal concentrations of bifenthrin increased nymphal development time, but significantly decreased adult emergence rate. In addition, we found that the AChE activity of M. cribraria was significantly increased only by LC40 imidacloprid, but strongly inhibited by acephate. PMID:27638957

  12. Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Zhang, Li; Long, Hongzhu; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schmidt-Taenzer, Wolfgang; Genthner, Alexander; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use became popular worldwide. Treatment was perceived as safe, with neglect of rare adverse reactions including liver injury. To compile worldwide cases of liver injury by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database and searched for the items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, Traditional Asian Medicine, and Traditional Oriental Medicine, also combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury. The search focused primarily on English-language case reports, case series, and clinical reviews. We identified reported hepatotoxicity cases in 77 relevant publications with 57 different herbs and herbal mixtures of TCM, which were further analyzed for causality by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale, positive reexposure test results, or both. Causality was established for 28/57 different herbs or herbal mixtures, Bai Xian Pi, Bo He, Ci Wu Jia, Chuan Lian Zi, Da Huang, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Huang Qin, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Xue Cao, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Jiguja, Kudzu, Ling Yang Qing Fei Keli, Lu Cha, Rhen Shen, Ma Huang, Shou Wu Pian, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Syo Saiko To, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, and Zhen Chu Cao. In conclusion, this compilation of liver injury cases establishes causality for 28/57 different TCM herbs and herbal mixtures, aiding diagnosis for physicians who care for patients with liver disease possibly related to herbal TCM.

  13. Antiresorptive Effects of Phytoestrogen Supplements Compared with Estradiol or Risedronate in Postmenopausal Women Using 41Ca Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, C. M.; Martin, B. R.; Jackson, G. S.; McCabe, G. P.; Nolan, J. R.; McCabe, L. D.; Barnes, S.; Reinwald, S.; Boris, M. E.; Peacock, M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Reduction of ovarian estrogen secretion at menopause increases net bone resorption and leads to bone loss. Isoflavones have been reported to protect bone from estrogen deficiency, but their modest effects on bone resorption have been difficult to measure with traditional analytical methods. Methods: In this randomized-order, crossover, blinded trial in 11 healthy postmenopausal women, we compared four commercial sources of isoflavones from soy cotyledon, soy germ, kudzu, and red clover and a positive control of oral 1 mg estradiol combined with 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone or 5 mg/d oral risedronate (Actonel®) for their antiresorptive effects on bone using novel 41Ca methodology. Results: Risedronate and estrogen plus progesterone decreased net bone resorption measured by urinary 41Ca by 22 and 24%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Despite serum isoflavone profiles indicating bioavailability of the phytoestrogens, only soy isoflavones from the cotyledon and germ significantly decreased net bone resorption by 9% (P = 0.0002) and 5% (P = 0.03), respectively. Calcium absorption and biochemical markers of bone turnover were not influenced by interventions. Conclusions: Dietary supplements containing genistein-like isoflavones demonstrated a significant but modest ability to suppress net bone resorption in postmenopausal women at the doses supplied in this study over a 50-d intervention period. PMID:19584189

  14. Puerarin attenuates inflammation and oxidation in mice with collagen antibody-induced arthritis via TLR4/NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changxing; Wang, Weidong; Jin, Xiaping; Shen, Jianguo; Hu, Weifeng; Jiang, Tao

    2016-08-01

    Puerarin is an important active ingredient in the root of kudzu vine due to its pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study is to contribute to the existing knowledge of the effect of puerarin in the attenuation of inflammation and oxidation in mice with collagen antibody-induced arthritis via toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. Arthritis was induced using injection of anti‑type II collagen antibodies. Treatment with puerarin was observed to significantly decrease clinical scoring of the collagen antibody‑induced arthritis and suppress oxidative stress and the inflammatory response in mice. Furthermore, puerarin was demonstrated to inhibit mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase‑9 and protein expression of TLR4 following collagen antibody-induced arthritis in mice. The effect of puerarin may be associated with the suppression of NF‑κB activity in collagen antibody‑induced arthritis mice. Furthermore, upregulation of phosphorylated (p)‑Janus kinase 2 and p‑signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein expression was suppressed by puerarin. The results of the present study indicate, for the first time, the effect of puerarin to attenuate inflammation and oxidation in mice with collagen antibody‑induced arthritis via TLR4/NF-κB signaling.

  15. Isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate/isopentenyl diphosphate ratio measured with recombinant isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase and isoprene synthase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changfang; Li, Ziru; Wiberley-Bradford, Amy E; Weise, Sean E; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2013-09-15

    Isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP) and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) are building units for all isoprenoids; thus, intracellular pool sizes of IDP and DMADP play important roles in living organisms. Several methods have been used to quantify the amount of DMADP or the combined amount of IDP plus DMADP, but measuring the DMADP/IDP ratio has been difficult. In this study, a method was developed to measure the ratio of DMADP/IDP. Catalyzed by a recombinant IDP isomerase (IDI) together with a recombinant isoprene synthase (IspS), IDP was converted to isoprene, which was then detected by chemiluminescence. With this method, the in vitro equilibrium ratio of DMADP/IDP was found to be 2.11:1. IDP and DMADP pools were significantly increased in Escherichia coli transformed with methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway genes; the ratio of DMADP/IDP was 3.85. An E. coli strain transformed with IspS but no additional IDI had a lower DMADP level and a DMADP/IDP ratio of 1.05. Approximately 90% of the IDP and DMADP pools in light-adapted kudzu leaves were light dependent and so presumably were located in the chloroplasts; the DMADP/IDP ratios in chloroplasts and cytosol were the same as the in vitro ratio (2.04 in the light and 2.32 in the dark).

  16. Mean age, concentrations and usage of nonstructural carbon in California oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, C. I.; Muhr, J.; Xu, X.; Druffel-Rodriguez, K. C.; Trumbore, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies show that plants transport, accumulate, and store significant amounts of photosynthetic assimilates as nonstructural carbon (NSC). However, the temporal dynamics of the NSC pool and its role as energy source, in particular during times of stress, are not well known. Taking advantage of the bomb radiocarbon (14C) tracer, we determined the mean age (here defined as mean time elapsed since C was initially fixed from the atmosphere) of soluble and insoluble NSC pools within the stem and of stem-emitted CO2 in mature, sympatric deciduous and evergreen oaks in California. In 2008, we quantified the 14C content and concentration of soluble and insoluble NSC in up to 20 cm long stem increment cores of sympatric evergreen (Quercus agrifolia, wislizeni) and deciduous (Q. lobata, douglasii) oaks during the wet (deciduous dormant) and dry (deciduous growing) seasons. Samples were taken along a coastal precipitation gradient at five nature reserves. In 2010 and 2011, we monitored the rate and 14C content of CO2 emissions from tree trunks of sympatric evergreen Q. agrifolia and deciduous Q. lobata and douglasii at two of the reserves. In all cores, we found that the NSC associated with a given depth averaged several years younger than the structural C (cellulose) in the wood at the same depth. For example, in wood made of structural C fixed before 1950, we detected modern NSC that was clearly fixed during the decades since the testing of atomic weapons in the atmosphere (peak 1950-1960s). These patterns can be explained by a model in which NSC in a given location in the stem is derived from a component that was fixed in the same year as the structural C, mixed with younger NSC that has been transported inward. Despite differences in growth rates, we found no differences in the mean age of NSC pools between life strategies or locations. Within a given stem core increment, there was no difference between the mean age of soluble and insoluble NSC. Concentrations of

  17. Coral Pigments: Quantification Using HPLC and Detection by Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottone, Mary C.

    1995-01-01

    Widespread coral bleaching (loss of pigments of symbiotic dinoflagellates), and the corresponding decline in coral reef health worldwide, mandates the monitoring of coral pigmentation. Samples of the corals Porites compressa and P. lobata were collected from a healthy reef at Puako, Hawaii, and chlorophyll (chl) a, peridinin, and Beta-carotene (Beta-car) were quantified using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detailed procedures are presented for the extraction of the coral pigments in 90% acetone, and the separation, identification, and quantification of the major zooxanthellar pigments using spectrophotometry and a modification of the HPLC system described by Mantoura and Llewellyn (1983). Beta-apo-8-carotenal was found to be inadequate as in internal standard, due to coelution with chl b and/or chl a allomer in the sample extracts. Improvements are suggested, which may result in better resolution of the major pigments and greater accuracy in quantification. Average concentrations of peridinin, chl a, and Beta-car in corals on the reef were 5.01, 8.59, and 0.29, micro-grams/cm(exp 2), respectively. Average concentrations of peridinin and Beta-car did not differ significantly between the two coral species sampled; however, the mean chl a concentration in P. compressa specimens (7.81 ,micro-grams/cm(exp 2) was significantly lower than that in P. lobata specimens (9.96 11g/cm2). Chl a concentrations determined spectrophotometrically were significantly higher than those generated through HPLC, suggesting that spectrophotometry overestimates chl a concentrations. The average ratio of chl a-to-peridinin concentrations was 1.90, with a large (53%) coefficient of variation and a significant difference between the two species sampled. Additional data are needed before conclusions can be drawn regarding average pigment concentrations in healthy corals and the consistency of the chl a/peridinin ratio. The HPLC pigment concentration values

  18. Decadal Variations in Western Pacific Warm Pool Dynamics as Evidenced by Porites Corals from Chuuk Atoll, Federated States of Micronesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoll, J. L.; Wagner, A. J.; Anderson, D. M.; Lane, C.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) encompasses some of the warmest sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the world oceans. This region influences seasonal and decadal variability of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and climate anomalies such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Long-term changes coupled with anomalous events like El Niño can greatly influence the position of the ITCZ and subsequently alter weather patterns on a global scale. WPWP dynamics may have contributed to the slowdown in global warming during the last decade. The processes that control these variations are complex, and gaining insight into these systems on decadal to centennial timescales is necessary to improve climate modeling and future predictions for drought or floods associated with global climate change. Chuuk Atoll (7°N, 152°E), located in the Federated States of Micronesia, is positioned within the WPWP at the northern extent of the mean boreal summer position of the ITCZ, making this location optimal for studying WPWP dynamics and ocean-atmosphere linkages. Two coral cores from the species Porites lobata were collected from the outer-atoll at Fannuk Island and the inner-atoll at Lobata Reef. Using stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) composition and Sr/Ca trace metal analysis, the sites were identified as distinct hydrologic environments. Low seasonal variability in δ18O and Sr/Ca values at the outer-atoll site indicates a hydrologically-open system that is strongly influenced by the WPWP. At the inner-atoll site, δ18O and Sr/Ca values reflect a small seasonal SST cycle. In this hydrologically-restricted basin, the δ18O record is likely responding to salinity variations influenced by local climatology, specifically anomalously high or low precipitation events associated with ENSO. The average δ18O between 2003-2011 was 0.5‰ lighter at the inner-atoll site. These values can be interpreted as warmer sea surface temperatures and/or lower sea surface salinities

  19. How to improve fertility of African soils? Leguminous fallows (Cameroon), addition of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer (Kenya), organic residues management and introduction of N2 fixing species in forest plantations (Congo).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Mareschal, Louis; Mouanda, Cadeau; Epron, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Most of African soils are inherently infertile and poor in nutrients mainly nitrogen and phosphorus. Several practices are used to improve soil fertility, increase productivity and ensure their sustainability. Soil fertility in the leguminous fallows was evaluated through particulate organic matter (POM), the more active part of soil organic matter (SOM) in Cameroon. The combination of mineral and organic (manure) fertilizers increased microbial P biomass allowing the release of P along the plant growing period in the Kenyan soils. Organic residues management and introduction of nitrogen fixing species (Acacia) were used to improve soil fertility and sustain forest productivity on the coastal plains of Congo. SOM fractionation was made under Pueraria, Mucuna fallows and natural regrowth mainly Chromolaena and under 3 forest plantation treatments installed in previous savanna: 1) no input, 2) normal input, and 3) double input of organic residues. Microbial P biomass and sequential P fractionation were evaluated in high and low P fixing soils. N, C, available P and pH were determined on soil sampled in acacia (100A), eucalypt (100E) and mixed-species (50A:50E) stands. N and P were determined in aboveground litters and in leaves, bark and wood of trees. The two leguminous fallows increased N content in POM fractions i.e., N >1% for Pueraria and Mucuna against N<1% for natural regrowth in the 0-0.10m depth, probably through N input from N2 fixation from the atmosphere (Cameroon).The addition of mineral fertilizers and farmyard manure increases P biomass (4.8 after 2 weeks to 15.2 after 16 weeks), and then decreased to 9.7 mg P g-1 soil (week 32). It also changes the P Hedley fractions partition in the high P fixing Kenyan soil (0-0.10m). After two rotations (14 years), SOM mineralization was the highest in the double input of organic residues treatment (low coarse POM 5.6 g kg-1 of soil and high organo-mineral fraction (OMF) 115 g kg-1 of soil). The introduction of A

  20. A novel herbal treatment reduces depressive-like behaviors and increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the brain of type 2 diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chun; Ke, Yuting; Yuan, Yanyan; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Fuyan; Zhang, Yisheng; Bu, Shizhong

    2016-01-01

    Background Radix Puerariae and hawthorn fruit have been demonstrated to treat diabetes. They offer potential benefits for preventing depression in diabetes. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether the combination of Radix Puerariae and hawthorn fruit (CRPHF) could prevent depression in a diabetic rat model generated by feeding the rats with a high-fat diet and a low-dose streptozotocin (STZ). Methods The CRPHF was provided by the Shanghai Chinese Traditional Medical University. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, normal-given-CRPHF (NC), diabetic control, and diabetic-given-CRPHF (DC) groups. The type 2 diabetic model was created by feeding the rats with a high-fat diet for 4 weeks followed by injection of 25 mg/kg STZ. CRPHF was given at 2 g/kg/d to the rats of NC and DC groups by intragastric gavage daily for 4 weeks after the type 2 diabetic model was successfully created. Body weight, random blood glucose (RBG), oral glucose tolerance test, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured during the study. Depressive-like behavior was evaluated at the end of the treatment by using the open field test (OFT), the elevated plus-maze test (EPMT), locomotor activity test (LAT), and forced swimming test (FST). Levels of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the prefrontal cortex were evaluated by using Western blot. Results 1) CRPHF reduced RBG and improved glucose tolerance in diabetic rats; 2) CRPHF reduced TC and TG but did not significantly change HDL-C or LDL-C in diabetic rats; 3) CRPHF reversed the loss in body weights observed in diabetic rats; 4) CRPHF reduced depressive-like behavior as measured by OFT, EPMT, LAT, and FST; 5) BDNF was upregulated, and ERK was activated in the prefrontal cortex of diabetic rats treated with CRPHF. Conclusion

  1. Endocytotic uptake of nutrients in carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Koller-Peroutka, Marianne; Bauer, Sonja; Koshkin, Edith; Lendl, Thomas; Lichtscheidl, Irene K

    2012-07-01

    Carnivorous plants trap, digest and absorb animals in order to supplement their mineral nutrition. Nutrients absorbed by the plant include different nitrogen species, phosphate, potassium, trace elements and small organic compounds. Uptake is usually thought to be performed via specific channels, but this study provides evidence that endocytosis is involved as well. Traps of the carnivorous plants Nepenthes coccinea, Nepenthes ventrata, Cephalotus follicularis, Drosophyllum lusitanicum, Drosera capensis, Dionaea muscipula, Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Genlisea violacea × lobata, Sarracenia psittacina and Sarracenia purpurea were stained with methylene blue in order to identify possible sites of uptake. The permeable parts of the traps were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and other fluorescent endocytosis markers, combined with the soluble protein BSA or respiratory inhibitors. Uptake was studied by confocal microscopy. In Nepenthes, small fluorescent vesicles became visible 1 h after incubation with FITC-BSA. These vesicles fused to larger compartments within 30 h. A similar behaviour was found in the related genera Drosera, Dionaea, Aldrovanda and Drosophyllum but also in Cephalotus with glands of different evolutionary origin. In Genlisea and Sarracenia, no evidence for endocytosis was found. We propose that in many carnivorous plants, nutrient uptake by carriers is supplemented by endocytosis, which enables absorption and intracellular digestion of whole proteins. The advantage for the plant of reducing secretion of enzymes for extracellular digestion is evident.

  2. Effects of intermittent flow and irradiance level on back reef Porites corals at elevated seawater temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.W.; Birkeland, C.

    2007-01-01

    Corals inhabiting shallow back reef habitats are often simultaneously exposed to elevated seawater temperatures and high irradiance levels, conditions known to cause coral bleaching. Water flow in many tropical back reef systems is tidally influenced, resulting in semi-diurnal or diurnal flow patterns. Controlled experiments were conducted to test effects of semi-diurnally intermittent water flow on photoinhibition and bleaching of the corals Porites lobata and P. cylindrica kept at elevated seawater temperatures and different irradiance levels. All coral colonies were collected from a shallow back reef pool on Ofu Island, American Samoa. In the high irradiance experiments, photoinhibition and bleaching were less for both species in the intermittent high-low flow treatment than in the constant low flow treatment. In the low irradiance experiments, there were no differences in photoinhibition or bleaching for either species between the flow treatments, despite continuously elevated seawater temperatures. These results suggest that intermittent flow associated with semi-diurnal tides, and low irradiances caused by turbidity or shading, may reduce photoinhibition and bleaching of back reef corals during warming events. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neutral Loss Ion Mapping Experiment Combined with Precursor Mass List and Dynamic Exclusion for Screening Unstable Malonyl Glucoside Conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Yao, Shuai; Li, Shangrong; Yang, Wenzhi; Jiang, Baohong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wanying; Qv, Hua; Guo, De-an

    2016-01-01

    Malonates are one type of the acylation conjugates and found abundantly in ginseng and soybean. Malonyl conjugates of ginsenosides and isoflavone glycosides were often considered as the characteristic components to evaluate various species and different forms of ginseng and soybean products because of their thermal instability. Another famous isoflavonoid-rich leguminous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), named Puerarin lobata (Gegen), has also been reported to contain malonyl daidzin and malonyl genistin. However, the conjugates were found to present in very low amount and particularly unstable in the negative ion mode scan using LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI). In order to screen and characterize the malonyl conjugates in Gegen, a specific method was designed and developed combining neutral loss ion mapping (NLIM) experiment and precursor mass list (PL) triggered data dependent acquisition (DDA). Along with the activation of dynamic exclusion (DE), the method was proven to be specific and efficient for searching the malonate derivatives from Gegen. Two samples were examined by the established method. A total of 66 compounds were found, and 43 of them were malonates of isoflavone glycoside. Very few compounds were reported previously in Gegen. The results are helpful to understand the constituents of Gegen with more insight. The study not only provided a method for analyzing the malonyl conjugates from complex matrices but also explored a way to trace other low amount components in TCMs.

  4. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2015-10-27

    Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulata n. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida.

  5. Modeling Surface Water Transport in the Central Pacific Ocean With 129I Records From Coral Skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, W.; Biddulph, D. L.; Russell, J. L.; Burr, G. S.; Jull, T. J.; Correge, T.; Roeder, B.

    2008-12-01

    129I occurs naturally in extremely low abundance via cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere as well as by spontaneous fission of uranium. Oceanic concentrations of 129I have risen by several orders of magnitude during the last half century largely from environmental pollution coming from several point-source nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. In the Pacific basin, much of the increase has apparently come from the Hanford Nuclear reprocessing plant in the United States, with iodine primarily arriving via the Columbia River. Coral skeletons preserve records of 129I concentration of the surface waters from which they were deposited, yielding records with annual resolution or better. We will present three such records from different locations in the Pacific Ocean: the Solomon Islands, Easter Island and Clipperton Atoll. For this study, drill cores from living massive coral skeletons of the species Porites Lobata were collected from these sites. 129I/127I values were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Arizona with an NEC 3 MV Pelletron accelerator. Results from the analysis of the corals will be compared to the distribution of other mixed-layer tracers (chloro-fluorocarbons and tritium) collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment cruises conducted between 1990 and 2002. The 129I/127I records observed in these corals will also be compared to tracer transit time calculations determined from a 20th century simulation of the GFDL coupled-climate passive-tracer model.

  6. Effects of flow and colony morphology on the thermal boundary layer of corals

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Isabel M.; Kühl, Michael; Larkum, Anthony W. D.; Ralph, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal microenvironment of corals and the thermal effects of changing flow and radiation are critical to understanding heat-induced coral bleaching, a stress response resulting from the destruction of the symbiosis between corals and their photosynthetic microalgae. Temperature microsensor measurements at the surface of illuminated stony corals with uneven surface topography (Leptastrea purpurea and Platygyra sinensis) revealed millimetre-scale variations in surface temperature and thermal boundary layer (TBL) that may help understand the patchy nature of coral bleaching within single colonies. The effect of water flow on the thermal microenvironment was investigated in hemispherical and branching corals (Porites lobata and Stylophora pistillata, respectively) in a flow chamber experiment. For both coral types, the thickness of the TBL decreased exponentially from 2.5 mm at quasi-stagnant flow (0.3 cm s−1), to 1 mm at 5 cm s−1, with an exponent approximately 0.5 consistent with predictions from the heat transfer theory for simple geometrical objects and typical of laminar boundary layer processes. Measurements of mass transfer across the diffusive boundary layer using O2 microelectrodes revealed a greater exponent for mass transfer when compared with heat transfer, indicating that heat and mass transfer at the surface of corals are not exactly analogous processes. PMID:21602322

  7. Visualization of embolism formation in the xylem of liana stems using neutron radiography

    PubMed Central

    Tötzke, Christian; Miranda, Tatiana; Konrad, Wilfried; Gout, Julien; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Dawson, Martin; Manke, Ingo; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Cold neutron radiography was applied to directly observe embolism in conduits of liana stems with the aim to evaluate the suitability of this method for studying embolism formation and repair. Potential advantages of this method are a principally non-invasive imaging approach with low energy dose compared with synchrotron X-ray radiation, a good spatial and temporal resolution, and the possibility to observe the entire volume of stem portions with a length of several centimetres at one time. Methods Complete and cut stems of Adenia lobata, Aristolochia macrophylla and Parthenocissus tricuspidata were radiographed at the neutron imaging facility CONRAD at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, with each measurement cycle lasting several hours. Low attenuation gas spaces were separated from the high attenuation (water-containing) plant tissue using image processing. Key results Severe cuts into the stem were necessary to induce embolism. The formation and temporal course of an embolism event could then be successfully observed in individual conduits. It was found that complete emptying of a vessel with a diameter of 100 µm required a time interval of 4 min. Furthermore, dehydration of the whole stem section could be monitored via decreasing attenuation of the neutrons. Conclusions The results suggest that cold neutron radiography represents a useful tool for studying water relations in plant stems that has the potential to complement other non-invasive methods. PMID:23393096

  8. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs.

  9. Benthic composition of a healthy subtropical reef: baseline species-level cover, with an emphasis on algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Vroom, Peter S; Braun, Cristi L

    2010-03-17

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a "healthy" reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated.

  10. Effects of frequent fish predation on corals in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayewardene, D.; Donahue, M. J.; Birkeland, C.

    2009-06-01

    The abundance of lesions from fish bites on corals was quantified at nine shallow reefs in the main Hawaiian Islands. There were on average 117 bite scars m-2 on Pocillopora meandrina tissue from the barred filefish Cantherhines dumerilii, 69 bites m-2 on Porites compressa tissue, and 4 bites m-2 on Porites lobata tissue from the spotted puffer Arothron meleagris. Across sites, the frequency of A. meleagris bites on P. compressa per unit area of living coral cover declined exponentially with increasing coral cover. P. compressa nubbins in two size classes (1-2 cm and 4-5 cm) were transplanted onto six study reefs. Nubbins in the small size class were entirely removed by bites from A. meleagris, while nubbins ≥4 cm were only partially consumed, leaving them able to recover. At sites with abundant P. compressa, predation had little effect on transplanted nubbins; at sites where P. compressa comprised less than 5% of living cover, all nubbins were preyed upon. A. meleagris bite lesions on P. compressa were monitored through time and fully recovered in 42 ± 4 days. A model of the risk of over-predation (a second predation event before the first is healed) decreased exponentially with increasing coral cover and increased linearly with increasing lesion healing time. The increased risk of over-predation at low coral cover could indicate an Allee effect limiting the recovery of coral populations if coral cover is substantially reduced by natural or anthropogenic disturbances.

  11. Advertising displays of male Musk Ducks indicate population subdivision across the Nullarbor Plain of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Fullagar, P.J.; Slater, E.C.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic advertising displays (n=75) of male Musk Ducks Biziura lobata were analysed at ten widely spaced geographic localities in South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia. Vocalisations differed in a fixed, non-overlapping pattern between allopatric Musk Duck populations in southeastern and southwestern Australia. These findings suggest that Musk Duck populations are subdivided by the Nullarbor Plain, the arid treeless desert at the head of the Great Australian Bight. Three vocalisations performed by male Musk Ducks not previously reported in the literature were documented also. Vocalisations of captive Musk Ducks collected from different geographic regions (southeast and southwest) differed between regions from which captives originally were collected and were unlike those performed by wild birds. Based on calls of immature Musk Ducks, acoustic variation within regional populations and the apparent inability of captive Musk Ducks reared in isolation to develop the wild type adult call, regional dialects seemingly are acquired in a social context by repeated observance of adult males and some combination of social imprinting, learning, or practice.

  12. Fagaceae pollen from the early Cenozoic of West Greenland: revisiting Engler's and Chaney's Arcto-Tertiary hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Grimm, Guido W; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup; Pedersen, Asger Ken; Denk, Thomas

    In this paper we document Fagaceae pollen from the Eocene of western Greenland. The pollen record suggests a remarkable diversity of the family in the early Cenozoic of Greenland. Extinct Fagaceae pollen types include Eotrigonobalanus, which extends at least back to the Paleocene, and two ancestral pollen types with affinities to the Eurasian Quercus Group Ilex and the western North American Quercus Group Protobalanus. In addition, modern lineages of Fagaceae are unambiguously represented by pollen of Fagus, Quercus Group Lobatae/Quercus, and three Castaneoideae pollen types. These findings corroborate earlier findings from Axel Heiberg Island that Fagaceae were a dominant element at high latitudes during the early Cenozoic. Comparison with coeval or older mid-latitude records of modern lineages of Fagaceae shows that modern lineages found in western Greenland and Axel Heiberg likely originated at lower latitudes. Further examples comprise (possibly) Acer, Aesculus, Alnus, Ulmus, and others. Thus, before fossils belonging to modern northern temperate lineages will have been recovered from older (early Eocene, Paleocene) strata from high latitudes, Engler's hypothesis of an Arctic origin of the modern temperate woody flora of Eurasia, termed 'Arcto-Tertiary Element', and later modification by R. W. Chaney and H. D. Mai ('Arcto-Tertiary Geoflora') needs to be modified.

  13. Evolutionary lessons from California plant phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Sork, Victoria L.; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Phylogeography documents the spatial distribution of genetic lineages that result from demographic processes, such as population expansion, population contraction, and gene movement, shaped by climate fluctuations and the physical landscape. Because most phylogeographic studies have used neutral markers, the role of selection may have been undervalued. In this paper, we contend that plants provide a useful evolutionary lesson about the impact of selection on spatial patterns of neutral genetic variation, when the environment affects which individuals can colonize new sites, and on adaptive genetic variation, when environmental heterogeneity creates divergence at specific loci underlying local adaptation. Specifically, we discuss five characteristics found in plants that intensify the impact of selection: sessile growth form, high reproductive output, leptokurtic dispersal, isolation by environment, and the potential to evolve longevity. Collectively, these traits exacerbate the impact of environment on movement between populations and local selection pressures—both of which influence phylogeographic structure. We illustrate how these unique traits shape these processes with case studies of the California endemic oak, Quercus lobata, and the western North American lichen, Ramalina menziesii. Obviously, the lessons we learn from plant traits are not unique to plants, but they highlight the need for future animal, plant, and microbe studies to incorporate its impact. Modern tools that generate genome-wide sequence data are now allowing us to decipher how evolutionary processes affect the spatial distribution of different kinds of genes and also to better model future spatial distribution of species in response to climate change. PMID:27432984

  14. Phylogenetic and trait similarity to a native species predict herbivory on non-native oaks

    PubMed Central

    Pearse, Ian S.; Hipp, Andrew L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduced plants tend to experience less herbivory than natives, although herbivore loads vary widely. Herbivores may switch hosts onto an introduced plant for at least two reasons. They may recognize the novel plant as a potential host based on similarity of the plant's traits to the traits of one of its native hosts, a similarity that may or may not exhibit phylogenetic signal. Alternatively, herbivores may feed optimally, assessing which introduced plants provide the best nutrition irrespective of similarity to native species. Here, we created a phylogeny of 57 oak (Quercus) taxa, which were grown outside of their ranges in a common botanical garden that contained one abundant native oak (Quercus lobata). We used the phylogeny to estimate the phylogenetic conservatism of herbivory by two feeding guilds of insects (leaf chewers and leaf miners) and 11 plant traits expected to affect herbivore performance. We found high phylogenetic signal in chewing damage but not mining damage and all traits except for leaf maturation time. Introduced oaks that are more closely related to the native oak received more chewing and mining damage than distantly related oaks, and introduced oaks that had greater overall similarity in leaf traits also received higher chewing damage but not mining damage. These results demonstrate that interactions between introduced plants and their herbivores are driven independently by traits that track plant phylogeny and leaf traits that likely affect herbivore performance. PMID:19841257

  15. Key to Holarctic species of Epitrix flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) with review of their distribution, host plants and history of invasions.

    PubMed

    Bieńkowski, Andrzej O; Orlova-Bienkowskaja, Marina J

    2016-10-17

    The genus Epitrix Foudras, 1860a has a worldwide distribution. Some species of Epitrix are major pests of potato, tomato, eggplant, tobacco and other plants in North America and Europe. Some pest species have been inadvertently introduced from North America to Europe, from Europe to North America and from both continents to some islands in Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Therefore, a key for the identification of all Holarctic species is necessary for plant quarantine and protection services. We have compiled the key for distinguishing Epitrix from genera that could be confused with it and a key for all Holarctic species of Epitrix with the figures of spermathecae and aedeagi and the checklist with a review of the geographical distribution, host plants and history of invasions. The following species are included: E. abeillei (Bauduer), E. allardii (Wollaston), E. atropae Foudras, E. brevis Schwarz, E. caucasica (Heikertinger), E. cucumeris (Harris), E. dieckmanni (Mohr), E. ermischi (Mohr), E. fasciata Blatchley, E. flavotestacea Horn, E. fuscula Crotch, E. hirtipennis (Melsheimer), E. humeralis Dury, E. intermedia Foudras, E. krali Döberl, E. lobata Crotch, E. muehlei Döberl, E. priesneri (Heikertinger), E. pubescens (Koch), E. ogloblini (Iablokov-Khnzorian), E. robusta Jacoby, E. setosella (Fairmaire), E. similaris Gentner, E. solani (Blatchley), E. subcrinita (LeConte), E. tuberis Gentner, E. warchalowskii (Mohr) and E. papa Orlova-Bienkowskaja.

  16. Development of Gene Expression Markers of Acute Heat-Light Stress in Reef-Building Corals of the Genus Porites

    PubMed Central

    Kenkel, Carly D.; Aglyamova, Galina; Alamaru, Ada; Bhagooli, Ranjeet; Capper, Roxana; Cunning, Ross; deVillers, Amanda; Haslun, Joshua A.; Hédouin, Laetitia; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Kuehl, Kristin A.; Mahmoud, Huda; McGinty, Elizabeth S.; Montoya-Maya, Phanor H.; Palmer, Caroline V.; Pantile, Raffaella; Sánchez, Juan A.; Schils, Tom; Silverstein, Rachel N.; Squiers, Logan B.; Tang, Pei-Ciao; Goulet, Tamar L.; Matz, Mikhail V.

    2011-01-01

    Coral reefs are declining worldwide due to increased incidence of climate-induced coral bleaching, which will have widespread biodiversity and economic impacts. A simple method to measure the sub-bleaching level of heat-light stress experienced by corals would greatly inform reef management practices by making it possible to assess the distribution of bleaching risks among individual reef sites. Gene expression analysis based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used as a diagnostic tool to determine coral condition in situ. We evaluated the expression of 13 candidate genes during heat-light stress in a common Caribbean coral Porites astreoides, and observed strong and consistent changes in gene expression in two independent experiments. Furthermore, we found that the apparent return to baseline expression levels during a recovery phase was rapid, despite visible signs of colony bleaching. We show that the response to acute heat-light stress in P. astreoides can be monitored by measuring the difference in expression of only two genes: Hsp16 and actin. We demonstrate that this assay discriminates between corals sampled from two field sites experiencing different temperatures. We also show that the assay is applicable to an Indo-Pacific congener, P. lobata, and therefore could potentially be used to diagnose acute heat-light stress on coral reefs worldwide. PMID:22046408

  17. A comparative flower and fruit anatomical study of Quercus acutissima, a biennial-fruiting oak from the Cerris group (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Borgardt, Sandra J; Nixon, Kevin C

    2003-11-01

    A developmental series of flowers and fruits of Quercus acutissima (subgenus Quercus section Cerris) was collected over a growing season and examined for an intersectional, comparative anatomical study. Pistillate flowers of the current growing season, each consisting of a pistil with three long, slightly recurved styles, six tepals, and an inconspicuous ovary subtended by a few cycles of cupule scales, emerged in early May, were pollinated by mid-May, and then were quiescent for the remainder of the growing season. Flowers from the previous growing season resumed growth in mid-May, each forming three locules delimited by septa in the ovary, with two bitegmic, epitropous ovules developing in each locule. Mature embryo sacs were present by mid-July of the second growing season, although embryos were not observed until early August. Fruit maturation was complete by late September. Features that have not been described previously for the section Cerris include early-lignifying endocarp trichomes, persistent septa, and leaf primordia buttresses on the embryo. A comparison of flower and fruit developmental features with sections Quercus sensu stricto and Lobatae revealed a mosaic of shared features among the three sections.

  18. Simultaneous extension of both basic microstructural components in scleractinian coral skeleton during night and daytime, visualized by in situ 86Sr pulse labeling.

    PubMed

    Domart-Coulon, I; Stolarski, J; Brahmi, C; Gutner-Hoch, E; Janiszewska, K; Shemesh, A; Meibom, A

    2014-01-01

    Using in situ (12 h) pulse-labeling of scleractinian coral aragonitic skeleton with stable 86Sr isotope, the diel pattern of skeletal extension was investigated in the massive Porites lobata species, grown at 5 m depth in the Gulf of Eilat. Several microstructural aspects of coral biomineralization were elucidated, among which the most significant is simultaneous extension of the two basic microstructural components Rapid Accretion Deposits (RAD; also called Centers of Calcification) and Thickening Deposits (TD; also called fibers), both at night and during daytime. Increased thickness of the 86Sr-labeled growth-front in the RADs compared to the adjacent TDs revealed that in this species RADs extend on average twice as fast as TDs. At the level of the individual corallite, skeletal extension is spatially highly heterogeneous, with sporadic slowing or cessation depending on growth directions and skeletal structure morphology. Daytime photosynthesis by symbiotic dinoflagellates is widely acknowledged to substantially increase calcification rates at the colony and the corallite level in reef-building corals. However, in our study, the average night-time extension rate (visualized in three successive 12 h pulses) was similar to the average daytime extension (visualized in the initial 12 h pulse), in all growth directions and skeletal structures. This research provides a platform for further investigations into the temporal calibration of coral skeletal extension via cyclic growth increment deposition, which is a hallmark of coral biomineralization.

  19. Modeled regional climate change and California endemic oak ranges

    PubMed Central

    Kueppers, Lara M.; Snyder, Mark A.; Sloan, Lisa C.; Zavaleta, Erika S.; Fulfrost, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In the coming century, anthropogenic climate change will threaten the persistence of restricted endemic species, complicating conservation planning. Although most efforts to quantify potential shifts in species' ranges use global climate model (GCM) output, regional climate model (RCM) output may be better suited to predicting shifts by restricted species, particularly in regions with complex topography or other regionally important climate-forcing factors. Using a RCM-based future climate scenario, we found that potential ranges of two California endemic oaks, Quercus douglasii and Quercus lobata, shrink considerably (to 59% and 54% of modern potential range sizes, respectively) and shift northward. This result is markedly different from that obtained by using a comparable GCM-based scenario, under which these species retain 81% and 73% of their modern potential range sizes, respectively. The difference between RCM- and GCM-based scenarios is due to greater warming and larger precipitation decreases during the growing season predicted by the RCM in these species' potential ranges. Based on the modeled regional climate change, <50% of protected land area currently containing these species is expected to contain them under a future midrange “business-as-usual” path of greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:16260750

  20. Species composition and morphologic variation of Porites in the Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Pérez, R. A.

    2013-09-01

    Morphometric analysis of corallite calices confirmed that from the late Miocene to the Recent, four species of Porites have inhabited the Gulf of California: the extinct Porites carrizensis, the locally extirpated Porites lobata and the extant Porites sverdrupi and Porites panamensis. Furthermore, large-scale spatial and temporal phenotypic plasticity was observed in the dominant species P. panamensis. Canonical discriminant analysis and ANOVA demonstrated that the calice structures of P. panamensis experienced size reduction between the late Pleistocene and Recent. Similarly, PERMANOVA, regression and correlation analyses demonstrated that across the 800 km north to south in the gulf, P. panamensis populations displayed a similar reduction in calice structures. Based on correlation analysis with environmental data, these large spatial changes are likely related to changes in nutrient concentration and sea surface temperature. As such, the large-scale spatial and temporal phenotypic variation recorded in populations of P. panamensis in the Gulf of California is likely related to optimization of corallite performance (energy acquisition) within various environmental scenarios. These findings may have relevance to modern conservation efforts within this ecological dominant genus.

  1. The Sr/Ca-temperature relationship in coralline aragonite: Influence of variability in (Sr/Ca)[sub seawater] and skeletal growth parameters

    SciTech Connect

    de Villiers, S.; Shen, G.T.; Nelson, B.K. )

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an evaluation of two of the most likely pitfalls of Sr/Ca thermometry, i.e., the effect of biogenic cycling of Sr vs. Ca in the surface ocean and the effect of variable extension rate on Sr incorporation in coralline aragonite. The authors also report calibration of the Sr/Ca-temperature relationship for three coral species, Porites lobata, Pocillopora eydouxi, and Pavona clavus, collected for the Hawaiian and Galapagos islands. Analyses of seawater samples show significant spatial and depth variability in the Sr:Ca ratio. The uncertainty introduced by this effect is estimated to be <0.2[degrees]C for corals located in tropical oligotrophic waters, and potentially larger for corals located in upwelling areas. Sr/Ca along two different growth axes of a Galapagos Pavona clavus, with annual extension rates of [approximately]6 and 12 mm/y, respectively, indicate an offset of 1-2[degrees]C, with higher Sr/Ca values associated with slower extension rates. The offset observed between the two growth axes may be the result of variations in extension and/or calcification rate. These results are important in determining past sea surface temperatures for reconstruction of paleoclimates.

  2. Screening of some medicinal plants from cameroon for beta-lactamase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Gangoué-Piéboji, Joseph; Baurin, Stéphane; Frère, Jean-Marie; Ngassam, Pierre; Ngameni, Bathelemy; Azebaze, Anatole; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Watchueng, Jean; Goffin, Colette; Galleni, Moreno

    2007-03-01

    In efforts to find new bioactive beta-lactamase inhibitors, this study investigated 16 Cameroonian plants belonging to 10 families which were evaluated for anti-beta-lactamase activity. The investigation showed that extracts 2, 6, 3 and 5 of the 16 plants investigated presented interesting in vitro beta-lactamase inhibition (over 90%), respectively, of the beta-lactamases TEM-1, OXA-10, IMP-1 and P99. These extracts were from Mammea africana (all beta-lactamases), Garcinia lucida, G. kola (OXA-10, IMP-1 and P99), Bridelia micrantha (OXA-10, P99), Ochna afzelii (OXA-10, P99), Prunus africana (IMP-1) and Adenia lobata (TEM-1). After elimination of tannins (according to the European Pharmacopoeia) the extracts from B. micrantha, G. lucida and M. africana were tested further for their anti-beta-lactamase activity. The extracts from B. micrantha and G. lucida exhibited potent inhibitory activity, respectively, of beta-lactamase OXA-10 (IC(50) = 0.02 mg/mL) and P99 (IC(50) = 0.01 mg/mL). The anti-beta-lactamase activity of M. africana extract was weak. The isolation and the structural elucidation of the active constituents of G. lucida and B. micrantha will provide useful leads in the development of beta-lactamase inhibitors.

  3. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jr., Jeffrey L.; Hao, Wei Min; Holden, Amanda S.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Malm, William C.; Moosmuller, Hans; Sullivan, Amy P.; Wold, Cyle E.

    2009-05-15

    We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly-burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern US (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2-4} hydrocarbons, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3} and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed EF for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements often spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates for individual fuels of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions.

  4. Contrasting effects of puerarin and daidzin on glucose homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Meezan, Elias; Meezan, Elisabeth M; Jones, Kenneth; Moore, Ray; Barnes, Stephen; Prasain, Jeevan K

    2005-11-02

    Puerarin and daidzin are the major isoflavone glucosides found in kudzu dietary supplements. In this study, we demonstrated that puerarin significantly improves glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J-ob/ob mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, blunting the rise in blood glucose levels after i.p. administration of glucose. In contrast, daidzin, the O-glucoside, had a significant but opposite effect, impairing glucose tolerance as compared to saline-treated controls. When they were administered i.p. with (14)C-glucose to C57BL/6J lean mice, puerarin inhibited glucose uptake into tissues and incorporation into glycogen, while daidzin stimulated glucose uptake, showing an opposite effect to puerarin. Puerarin also antagonized the stimulatory effect of decyl-beta-D-thiomaltoside, an artificial primer of glycogen synthesis, which increases (14)C-glucose uptake and incorporation into glycogen in mouse liver and heart. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry procedure was used to investigate the metabolism and bioavailability of puerarin and daidzin. The blood puerarin concentration-time curve by i.p. and oral administration indicated that puerarin was four times more bioavailable via i.p. injection than via the oral route of administration. This may account for the increased hypoglycemic effect seen in the i.p. glucose tolerance test vs that seen orally. Our results suggest that puerarin is rapidly absorbed from the intestine without metabolism, while daidzin is hydrolyzed to the aglycone daidzein. The opposing effects of puerarin and daidzin on glucose homeostasis may have implications for the activity of dietary supplements that contain both of these isoflavonoids.

  5. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Hao, Wei Min; Holden, Amanda S.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Malm, William C.; Moosmüller, Hans; Sullivan, Amy P.; Wold, Cyle E.

    2009-10-01

    We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern United States (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO2, CO, CH4, C2-4 hydrocarbons, NH3, SO2, NO, NO2, HNO3, and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, Na+, K+, and NH4+ generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed emission factors for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions for individual fuels.

  6. Effects of Puerarin on Lipid Accumulation and Metabolism in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guodong; Lin, Lezhen; Zhong, Shusheng; Zhang, Qingfeng; Li, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT) weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2) was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25822741

  7. Successful tree planting techniques for drastically disturbed lands: A case study of the propagation planting of container-grown oak and nut trees in Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.

    1998-12-31

    Successful tree seedling establishment on drastically disturbed lands is contingent on seven major variables: (1) selection of proper native species, (2) purchase of the best quality planting stock, (3) correct handling of planting stock, (4) correct planting techniques, (5) effective control of competing vegetation, (6) proper soil conditions and preparation, (7) weather. Exotic species should not be planted to avoid past mistakes such as kudzu, Japanese honeysuckle, sericea lespedeza and chestnut blight. A major concern of reclamation specialists and ecosystem restorationists is obtaining high-quality plant materials with the correct provenance. Ecosystem restorationists, reclamation specialists, park managers and private landowners can easily and cheaply propagate native oak or other hardwood species from local parent stock using Whitcomb bottomless containers. Proper seed collection, storage and preparation techniques as well as propagation methods are critical for seedling growth and development into quality air-pruned planting stock. Air-pruned seedlings of local provenance can be outplanted in the fall after one growing season with little transplanting shock while developing extensive root systems prior to soil freezing in winter. Establishment success of container-grown seedlings greatly exceeds that of spring-planted bare-root seedlings. Fall-planted, container-grown seedlings have a decided advantage since their roots continue to grow throughout the fall and much of the winter, enabling them to better withstand summer drought and weedy competitors. Container-grown seedlings also allow a five- to six-month planting season compared to bare-root seedlings` four to six weeks. Since propagation costs are minimal, planters who grow their own save money on the planting stock. Because the quality is higher, home-grown seedlings have greater establishment success, saving labor, time and money. With better survival rates, far fewer trees need be planted as compared

  8. Herbal mixtures consisting of puerarin and either polyenylphosphatidylcholine or curcumin provide comprehensive protection against alcohol-related disorders in P rats receiving free choice water and 15% ethanol in pure water.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok K; Jiang, Yin; Benlhabib, Elhabib; Gupta, Shveta

    2007-09-01

    Chronic alcohol drinking has been associated with the development of a number of abnormalities, including neuron-behavioral disorders, liver, pancreas, and heart-related diseases and inflammation and immune disorders. Because diverse mechanisms are involved in the development of these disorders, the commonly used receptor- or enzyme-specific drugs do not provide comprehensive protection against the adverse effects of alcoholism. This study describes possible therapeutic potency of puerarin (PU) from kudzu root, polyenylphosphatidylcholine from soy (SPCh), and curcumin (CU) from turmeric against alcohol's addiction-related and inflammatory-related abnormalities in alcohol-preferring P rats receiving free choice water and 15% ethanol in water. P-rats were fed once daily either the vehicle (for control) or different doses of PU, SPCh, CU, PU + SPCh, or PU + CU. The rats were divided in two groups: one received water alone, and the other free choice water and ethanol. Four rats from each group were fitted with electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes for EEG recording. After 70 days of alcohol drinking, alcohol was withdrawn for 2 weeks, and the withdrawal symptoms were assessed. This study showed that alcohol drinking for 70 days (1) caused liver inflammation characterized by elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and (2) dysregulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pleurisy. Alcohol withdrawal after 70 days of drinking generated severe withdrawal symptoms including seizure-type EEG activity. PU suppressed the addiction-mediated abnormalities but did not affect the inflammation-related abnormalities, while SPCh or CU suppressed only the inflammation-related abnormalities in alcohol-drinking rats subjected to LPS-induced pleurisy. A combination of PU with SPCh or CU suppressed both the addiction-related and inflammation-related abnormalities of alcohol drinking. Therefore, a mixture consisting of PU and either

  9. Botanical origin of dietary supplements labeled as "Kwao Keur", a folk medicine from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In the course of our study on the quality of dietary supplements in Japan, both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nrDNA and the rps16 intron sequence of cpDNA of products labeled as "Kwao Keur" were investigated. As a result, the DNA sequence of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, which is the source plant of Kwao Keur, was observed in only about half of the products. Inferred from the determined sequences, source plants in the other products included Medicago sativa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Ipomoea batatas, etc. These inferior products are estimated to lack the efficacy implied by their labeling. In order to guarantee the quality of dietary supplements, it is important to identify the source materials exactly; in addition, an infrastructure that can exclude these inferior products from the market is needed for the protection of consumers from potential damage to their health and finances. The DNA analysis performed in this study is useful for this purpose.

  10. Effects of Medicinal Herb Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbe Diversity and Fermentation System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Tae; Hwang, Hee Soon; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Shin Ja; Lee, Il Dong; Lee, Su Kyoung; Oh, Da Som; Lim, Jung Hwa; Yoon, Ho Baek; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Im, Seok Ki; Lee, Sung Sill

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of medicinal herb extracts (MHEs) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the inhibition of protozoa to reduce methane production in the rumen. A fistulated Hanwoo was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The MHEs (T1, Veratrum patulum; T2, Iris ensata var. spontanea; T3, Arisaema ringens; T4, Carduus crispus; T5, Pueraria thunbergiana) were added to the in vitro fermentation bottles containing the rumen fluid and medium. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA), total gas production, gas profiles, and the ruminal microbe communities were measured. The tVFA concentration was increased or decreased as compared to the control, and there was a significant (p<0.05) difference after 24 h incubation. pH and ruminal disappearance of dry matter did not show significant difference. As the in vitro ruminal fermentation progressed, total gas production in added MHEs was increased, while the methane production was decreased compared to the control. In particular, Arisaema ringens extract led to decrease methane production by more than 43%. In addition, the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction indicted that the protozoa population in all added MHEs decreased more than that of the control. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that MHEs could have properties that decrease ruminal methanogenesis by inhibiting protozoa species and might be promising feed additives for ruminants. PMID:27004810

  11. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of ephedrine in Kampo prescriptions: a study in healthy volunteers and clinical use of the pharmacokinetic results.

    PubMed

    Yafune, A; Cyong, J C

    2001-01-01

    We conducted a population pharmacokinetic analysis of ephedrine, the main effective constituent of the two Kampo prescriptions, Sho-seiryu-to (Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang, Formula divinitatis caeruleae minor) and Kakkon-to (Ge-Gen-Tang, Formula puerariae), which are routinely used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Major pharmacokinetic differences were found in AUC(0-infinity), Cmax and the averages of the distribution volume between the two prescriptions. Using the pharmacokinetic results, we also conducted a simulation-based study comparing the pharmacokinetic profiles of ephedrine for the usual dosage regimen, a constant dose D three times a day before meals, and two alternative dosage regimens which are often used when patients' symptoms are not improved in the morning using the usual dosage regimen. The results suggested that one of the two alternative dosage regimens, two times D before breakfast and D in the afternoon, was the most effective from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint. This result was in accordance with our clinical experience.

  12. Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents.

  13. Daidzin and daidzein suppress free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1993-11-01

    Syrian Golden hamsters prefer and consume large and remarkably constant amounts of ethanol in a simple two-bottle free-choice regimen. Ethanol intake is significantly suppressed by zimelidine, bromocriptine, buspirone, and lithium carbonate, pharmacological agents that have been shown to be beneficial in controlling ethanol intake in alcohol-dependent humans. These results suggest that this ethanol-drinking animal model has high "predictive validity" and can be used effectively in the search for and identification of new agents for the treatment of alcohol abuse. The model has enabled us to confirm the putative antidipsotropic effect of Radix puerariae (RP), an herb long used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of patients who abuse alcohol. A crude extract of RP at a dose of 1.5 g.kg-1 x day-1 significantly suppresses (> 50%) the free-choice ethanol intake of Golden hamsters. Moreover, two major constituents of RP, daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and daidzin (the 7-glucoside of daidzein), were also shown to suppress free-choice ethanol intake. Daidzin and daidzein, at doses of 150 and 230 mg.kg-1 x day-1, respectively, suppress ethanol intake by > 50%. RP, daidzein, and daidzin treatment do not significantly affect the body weight and water or food intake of the hamsters. These findings identify a class of compounds that offer promise as safe and effective therapeutic agents for alcohol abuse.

  14. Protective effect of daidzin against D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic failure in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hwa; Heo, Jeong-Haing; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kang, Sam Sik; Choi, Jae Sue; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the effects of daidzin, a major isoflavone from Puerariae Radix, on D-galactosamine (D-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver failure. Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of daidzin (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) 1 h before receiving an injection of D-GalN (700 mg/kg)/LPS (10 microg/kg). Daidzin markedly reduced the elevated serum aminotransferase activity and the levels of lipid peroxidation and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The glutathione content was lower in the D-GalN/LPS group, which was attenuated by daidzin. The daidzin pretreatment attenuated the swollen mitochondria observed in the d-GalN/LPS group. Daidzin attenuated the apoptosis of hepatocytes, which was confirmed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling method and a caspase-3 assay. Overall, these results suggest that the liver protection of daidzin is due to reduced oxidative stress and its antiapoptotic activity.

  15. Daidzin inhibits mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and suppresses ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Keung, W M; Klyosov, A A; Vallee, B L

    1997-03-04

    Daidzin is the major active principle in extracts of radix puerariae, a traditional Chinese medication that suppresses the ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters. It is the first isoflavone recognized to have this effect. Daidzin is also a potent and selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). To establish a link between these two activities, we have tested a series of synthetic structural analogs of daidzin. The results demonstrate a direct correlation between ALDH-2 inhibition and ethanol intake suppression and raise the possibility that daidzin may, in fact, suppress ethanol intake of golden hamsters by inhibiting ALDH-2. Hamster liver contains not only mitochondrial ALDH-2 but also high concentrations of a cytosolic form, ALDH-1, which is a very efficient catalyst of acetaldehyde oxidation. Further, the cytosolic isozyme is completely resistant to daidzin inhibition. This unusual property of the hamster ALDH-1 isozyme accounts for the fact we previously observed that daidzin can suppress ethanol intake of this species without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism. Thus, the mechanism by which daidzin suppresses ethanol intake in golden hamsters clearly differs from that proposed for the classic ALDH inhibitor disulfiram. We postulate that a physiological pathway catalyzed by ALDH-2, so far undefined, controls ethanol intake of golden hamsters and mediates the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin.

  16. Daidzin: a potent, selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1993-02-15

    Human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-I) is potently, reversibly, and selectively inhibited by an isoflavone isolated from Radix puerariae and identified as daidzin, the 7-glucoside of 4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone. Kinetic analysis with formaldehyde as substrate reveals that daidzin inhibits ALDH-I competitively with respect to formaldehyde with a Ki of 40 nM, and uncompetitively with respect to the coenzyme NAD+. The human cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme (ALDH-II) is nearly 3 orders of magnitude less sensitive to daidzin inhibition. Daidzin does not inhibit human class I, II, or III alcohol dehydrogenases, nor does it have any significant effect on biological systems that are known to be affected by other isoflavones. Among more than 40 structurally related compounds surveyed, 12 inhibit ALDH-I, but only prunetin and 5-hydroxydaidzin (genistin) combine high selectivity and potency, although they are 7- to 15-fold less potent than daidzin. Structure-function relationships have established a basis for the design and synthesis of additional ALDH inhibitors that could both be yet more potent and specific.

  17. Interaction of Some Commercial Teas with Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes Linked with Type-2 Diabetes: A Dietary Intervention in the Prevention of Type-2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ogunruku, Omodesola O.; Ogidiolu, Funke O.; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.; Adedayo, Bukola C.; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the inhibitory effect of teas on key enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) linked with type-2 diabetes and their antioxidant properties. Four samples of three brands were used; infusions of green tea (GT), 2 brands of black tea (BT), and a formulated herbal preparation for diabetes (ADT) (white tea, Radix Puerariae, Radix ophiopogonis, hawthorn berry, Chinese yam, and fragrant Solomon seal rhizome) were prepared and subsequently analyzed for their total phenol, ascorbic acid contents, antioxidant properties (2,2-Azizobis (3-Ethylbenzo-Thiazoline~6-sulfonate) “ABTS” scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property), and inhibition of pancreatic-α-amylase and intestinal-α-glucosidase in vitro. The study revealed that GT had the highest total phenol content, ascorbic acid content, ABTS∗ scavenging ability, and ferric reducing ability. Furthermore, all the teas inhibited Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in pancreas, with GT having the highest inhibitory effect. Conversely, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the inhibitory effects of the teas on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The antidiabetic property of the teas could be attributed to their inhibitory effect on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes implicated in diabetes and their antioxidant activities. PMID:24527218

  18. Puerarin accelerates neural regeneration after sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Minfei; Zhao, Guanjie; Yang, Xiaoyu; Peng, Chuangang; Zhao, Jianwu; Liu, Jun; Li, Rui; Gao, Zhongli

    2014-01-01

    Puerarin is a natural isoflavone isolated from plants of the genus Pueraria and functions as a protector against cerebral ischemia. We hypothesized that puerarin can be involved in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. To test this hypothesis, doses of 10, 5, or 2.5 mg/kg per day puerarin (8-(β-D-Glucopyranosyl-7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) were injected intraperitoneally into mouse models of sciatic nerve injury. Puerarin at the middle and high doses significantly up-regulated the expression of growth-associated protein 43 in the L4–6 segments of the spinal cord from mice at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after modeling, and reduced the atrophy of the triceps surae on the affected side and promoted the regeneration of nerve fibers of the damaged spinal cord at 8 weeks after injury. We conclude that puerarin exerts an ongoing role to activate growth-associated protein 43 in the corresponding segment of the spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury, thus contributing to neural regeneration after sciatic nerve injuries. PMID:25206860

  19. Yeast α-glucosidase inhibition by isoflavones from plants of Leguminosae as an in vitro alternative to acarbose.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chun Whan; Choi, Yeon Hee; Cha, Mi-Ran; Yoo, Dae Seok; Kim, Young Sup; Yon, Gyu Hwan; Hong, Kyung Sik; Kim, Young Ho; Ryu, Shi Yong

    2010-09-22

    In the course of searching for new classes of α-glucosidase inhibitors originated from natural resources, 11 kinds of isoflavones, i.e., medicarpin (1), formononetin (2), mucronulatol (3), (3R)-calussequinone (5), (3R)-5'-methoxyvestitol (6), tectorigenin (7), biochanin A (8), tuberosin (9), calycosin (10), daidzein (11), and genistein (12), as well as a flavone, liquritigenin (4), were isolated as active principles responsible for the yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory activity from two leguminous plant extracts, i.e., the heartwood extract of Dalbergia odorifera and the roots extract of Pueraria thunbergiana. Each components (1-12) demonstrated a significantly potent inhibition on yeast α-glucosidase in a dose dependent manner when the p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside was used as a substrate in vitro. The concentration required for 50% enzyme inhibition (IC50) were calculated as 2.93 mM (1), 0.51 mM (2), 3.52 mM (7) 0.35 mM (8), 3.52 mM (9), 0.85 mM (11), and 0.15 mM (12) when that of reference drug acarbose was evaluated as 9.11 mM, in vitro. However, isoflavone glycosides, i.e., puerarin (13), daidzin (14), formononetin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside (15), and genistin (16), exhibited a relatively poor inhibitory activity on yeast α-glucosidase as compared with the corresponding isoflavone (2, 11, 12), respectively.

  20. [Analysis on formula raw materials application of health food containing Gardeniae fructus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-guang; Tang, Shi-huan; Jia, Qiang; Meng, Fan-yun

    2014-11-01

    In this article we built formula database of health food containing Gardeniae Fructus with Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System (V2.0). And on this basis, use data mining method such as association rules of the software, to analyze commonly used formula raw materials or materials combination of formula containing Gardeniae Fructus and raw material application having assisted function formula to protect chemical liver injury. The result shows that of the 71 health food formulas containing Gardeniae Fructus, most used materials are Gardeniae Fructus, Lycii Fructus, Angelica Sinensis Radix, Poria and so on. Commonly used materials combination mostly are Gardeniae Fructus and Lycii Fructus, Gardeniae Fructus and Angelica Sinensis Radix, Gardeniae Fructus and Poria, Gardeniae Fructus and Paeonia. There are nearly 18 healthcare functions of the health food containing Gardeniae Fructus, and most of these are assisted functions to protect chemical liver injury, and then immune modulating function. Of 23 formulas containing Gardeniae Fructus having assisted function formula to protect chemical liver injury, Gardeniae Fructus usually combined with traditional Chinese medicine which nourishs blood and liver such as Pueraria, Lycii Fructus, Hawthorn, Paeonia and Turnjujube. Analyzing formula raw materials application of health food containing Gardeniae Fructus contributes a lot to the further development and utilization.

  1. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Bhatter, Purva D.; Gupta, Pooja D.; Birdi, Tannaz J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  2. Soil oribatid mite communities under three species of legumes in an ultisol in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Badejo, M Adetola; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; De Aquino, Adriana Maria; Correa, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    Oribatid mite densities in the topsoil and their activity at the soil surface were monitored under three species of perennial legume cover crops namely, Arachis pintoi, Macroptilium atropupureum and Pueraria phaseoloides, grass (Panicum maximum) and bare plots on three occasions in 1998 and 1999 in a derived savanna zone in Brazil. Both densities and activity at the soil surface were higher in the early but cool dry season in April 1998 than in the early wet but warm season in November 1998 and 1999. Three taxonomic groups of macropyline oribatid mites, namely Nothrus, Archegozetes and Masthermannia as well as a brachypyline taxon, Scheloribates were suggested as possible indicators of effect of legumes on soil biota because their populations increased under the legumes and/or the irresidues. Nothrus in particular increased in abundance more than any other taxon in the presence of residues of A. pintoi. Each legume supported a unique oribatid mite community in terms of species composition and relative abundance. The large numbers of Archegozeres trapped from all the legume and grass plots in April and November 1998 were also attributed to highly conducive conditions provided by the vegetation cover and their residues. The results suggest that the oribatid mite community of the study area was numerically stable as the peak populations of different species were not synchronized. Many taxonomic groups of pycnonotic brachypyline mites were absent. Legume cover crops, especially A. pintoi, and their residues have potential in restoring oribatid mite populations to precultivation levels.

  3. Characterisation and immuno-stimulating activity of polysaccharides from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Burana-Osot, J; Pattanapanyasat, K; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Sukapirom, K; Toida, T

    2010-09-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. and Pueraria candollei Wall. Ex Benth. var. mirifica (Shaw et Suvat.) C. Niyomdham, the leaves of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb, Ocimum basilicum L., Psidium guajava and Andrographis paniculata (Burn. f.) Nees, the stems of Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf ExG), and the fruits of Psidium guajava and Scaphium scaphigerum. The immunological impacts of the polysaccharides on T-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro was investigated by flow cytometric (immunofluorescence) analysis using staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) as a positive control. It was found that the polysaccharides enhanced T-lymphocyte proliferation, ranging from 4.5 to 27.0% at a concentration of 100 microg mL(-1), while the activity of SEB was 13.3%. The medicinal plants showing the highest immuno-stimulating activity were the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. The water-extracted tubers contained 60.0% (w/w) carbohydrates with 6.6% (w/w) uronic acid. The major constituent monosaccharides of the tubers were 28.2 mol% galactose, 10.5 mol% arabinose and 36.4 mol% glucose.

  4. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of isomiroestrol, an identical marker, in White Kwao Krua using a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Kitisripanya, Tharita; Jutathis, Kamonthip; Inyai, Chadathorn; Komaikul, Jukrapun; Udomsin, Orapin; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2017-04-15

    Pueraria candollei var. mirifica or White Kwao Krua (WKK) is a phytoestrogen-rich plant widely used among women to improve climacteric symptoms. Additionally, the tuberous roots of this plant have been added as an active ingredient for skin rejuvenation and breast enlargement effects in various functional foods. However, most of the products on the market containing WKK have not been sufficiently standardized with respect to the active compound or identical marker. To control the quality of these plant materials, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-isomiroestrol antibodies was established for the determination of isomiroestrol, an identical marker in WKK. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against isomiroestrol were generated and their specificity characterized in this study. Monoclonal antibody 12C1 showed higher specificity to isomiroestrol and was thus selected to develop the ELISA. Based on the validation analysis and the tested performance of the developed ELISA in variably sourced WKK samples, the assay can provide an alternative approach that is reliable and highly sensitive for the quantitative analysis of isomiroestrol in plant.

  5. Authentication of Chinese Materia Medica decoction dregs. Part II: comparison before and after decoction of four Chinese Materia Medica that mainly comprise storage tissue.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lailai; Liang, Zhitao; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2012-02-01

    Authentication of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) decoction dregs is important for ensuring the efficacy and safety of CMM when they are used in decoction. If someone got worse or poisoned after taking a decoction while the formula is appropriate, the authentication of CMM dregs is the effective method to explore the reasons. Therefore, a systematic study on the authentication of CMM dregs was carried out. In this study, two pairs of easily confused CMM dregs, Fenge (Puerariae Thomsonii Radix) and Shanyao (Dioscoreae Rhizoma), Dihuang (Rehmanniae Radix) and Huangjing (Polygonati Rhizoma), which mostly comprise storage tissues, were investigated by comparing the morphological and microscopic characteristics. Fenge and Shanyao contain abundant starch granules. After decoction their dregs were hard, nonstarchy and horn-like. Fully gelatinized starch granules were found in the powder of Fenge dregs while incompletely gelatinized starch granules were occasionally found in the Shanyao dregs. In contrast, Dihuang and Huangjing contain water-soluble sugars. After decoction, their dregs were hard and brittle. Their parenchymatous cells were shrunken and unknown crystals were found under microscope. Hence, the morphological and microscopic characteristics of CMM before and after decoction were different, and different changes in the CMM dregs can be illustrated by the different nature of their ergastic substance. These differences could be used to authenticate CMM dregs.

  6. Artificial soils from alluvial tin mining wastes in Malaysia--a study of soil chemistry following experimental treatments and the impact of mycorrhizal treatment on growth and foliar chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, David S; Bakar, Baki B; Hill, Steve J

    2012-01-01

    For decades Malaysia was the world's largest producer of Sn, but now the vast open cast mining operations have left a legacy of some 100,000 ha of what is effectively wasteland, covered with a mosaic of tailings and lagoons. Few plants naturally recolonise these areas. The demand for such land for both urban expansion and agricultural use has presented an urgent need for better characterisation. This study reports on the formation of artificial soils from alluvial Sn mining waste with a focus on the effects of experimental treatments on soil chemistry. Soil organic matter, clay, and pH were manipulated in a controlled environment. Adding both clay tailings and peat enhanced the cation exchange capacity of sand tailings but also reduced the pH. The addition of peat reduced the extractable levels of some elements but increased the availability of Ca and Mg, thus proving beneficial. The use of clay tailings increased the levels of macro and micronutrients but also released Al, As, La, Pb and U. Additionally, the effects of soil mix and mycorrhizal treatments on growth and foliar chemistry were studied. Two plant species were selected: Panicum milicaeum and Pueraria phaseoloides. Different growth patterns were observed with respect to the additions of peat and clay. The results for mycorrhizal treatment (live inoculum or sterile carrier medium) are more complex, but both resulted in improved growth. The use of mycorrhizal fungi could greatly enhance rehabilitation efforts on sand tailings.

  7. Development of a photosensitive, high-throughput chip-based superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay to explore the radioprotective activity of herbal plants.

    PubMed

    Naoghare, Pravin K; Kwon, Ho Taik; Song, Joon Myong

    2009-08-15

    Appropriate pharmacological interventions and modalities are needed to protect humans against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation. We disclose a rapid chip-based approach to elucidate the radioprotective/antioxidant potential of herbal plants using a photodiode array (PDA) microchip system. Red light absorption property of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) formazan was applied to chip-based superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity measurements of six herbal plant extracts in a high-throughput manner. SOD activities obtained via gel-based assays were in line with the data obtained through the chip-based assay and hence validated our approach. Compared to amifostine, all the tested herbal plant extracts, except apricot kernel, demonstrated greater radioprotective properties. Among the tested herbal extracts, pueraria root showed the highest antioxidant/radioprotective activity and can be considered a preferred radioprotector candidate. Low standard deviations and high statistical confidence obtained during the assay prove the sensitivity and consistency of this approach. The developed approach has several advantages (simplicity, rapidness and portability) over existing methods and can be applied to high-throughput screening of the radioprotective properties of various unexplored plants species.

  8. Kakkalide and its metabolite irisolidone ameliorate carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice by inhibiting NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Min, Sung-Won; Park, Young-Jun; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-10-01

    The anti-inflammatory activities of kakkalide, a major constituent of the flower of Pueraria thunbergiana, and irisolidone, a metabolite of kakkalide produced by intestinal microflora, against carrageenan-induced inflammation in air pouches on the backs of mice and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages were investigated. Kakkalide and irisolidone down-regulated the gene expression of cytokines [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)] and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, and inflammatory mediators, NO and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. These agents also inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Orally administered kakkalide and irisolidone significantly reduced carrageenan-induced inflammatory markers, leukocyte number, and protein amount in the exudates of the air pouch. These constituents also inhibited PGE(2) production and COX-2 inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression. These agents also inhibited NF-κB activation. The anti-inflammatory effects of irisolidone were more potent than those of kakkalide. Based on these findings, kakkalide and irisolidone may inhibit inflammatory reactions via NF-κB pathway, and irisolidone, a metabolite of kakkalide, may more potently inhibit these inflammatory reactions.

  9. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  10. A study of oak-pollen production and phenology in northern California: prediction of annual variation in pollen counts based on geographic and meterologic factors.

    PubMed

    Fairley, D; Batchelder, G L

    1986-08-01

    To assess the characteristics of oak-pollen production and dispersal, 9 years of weekly volumetric air sampling, with modified swing-shield rotoslide pollen samplers, were obtained in San Francisco and San Jose, Calif. The Mediterranean climate of coastal California supports 9 million acres of oaks of nine different species. The major pollen contributors in the two sampling areas are coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Neé) and valley oak (Quercus lobata neé). Sampling data indicate that grains may be wind transported at least 16 km (10 miles). A strong correlation exists between pollen capture and total rainfall a full year before pollen release. The correlation is statistically significant, based on a Spearman rank test. A positive regression line slope demonstrates that the greater the precipitation, the stronger the stimulus for pollen production. The median count can be predicted within a factor of two with high probability a full year before release. During most seasons, the peak pollen collection from coast live oak and valley oak occurs in early April. A second peak production period, in mid-May, represents the conglomerate of other oak-pollen types. However, there are major yearly differences in the relative amounts of pollen released during these two periods. Consequently, individual oak pollinosis may depend as much on variable production by the major species as on the total quantity of airborne oak pollen. These data will help clinicians predict and prepare for the intensity of the oak-pollen season and explain seasonal variations in clinical symptoms from year to year. The question of cross-reacting and specific allergens among oak species can be answered by RAST-inhibition studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands

    PubMed Central

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct “beads on a string” from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico. PMID:27199607

  12. Do David and Goliath Play the Same Game? Explanation of the Abundance of Rare and Frequent Invasive Alien Plants in Urban Woodlands in Warsaw, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Mędrzycki, Piotr; Kołaczkowska, Ewa; Ciurzycki, Wojciech; Marciszewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1) assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2) comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species. We hypothesized that the abundance of frequent species would be explained better than that of rare ones and that both rare and frequent species share a common hierarchy of the most important determinants. We found 15 taxa in almost two thirds of 1040 plots with a total number of 1068 occurrences. There were recorded 6 taxa of high frequency–Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens parviflora and Solidago spp.–and 9 taxa of low frequency: Acer saccharinum, Amelanchier spicata, Cornus spp., Fraxinus spp., Parthenocissus spp., Syringa vulgaris, Echinocystis lobata, Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria spp. Random Forest’s models’ quality grows with the number of occurrences of frequent taxa but not of the rare ones. Both frequent and rare taxa share a similar hierarchy of predictors’ importance: Land use > Tree stand > Seed source and, for frequent taxa, Forest properties as well. We conclude that there is an ‘explanation jump’ at higher species frequencies, but rare species are surprisingly similar to frequent ones in their determinant’s hierarchy, with differences conforming with their respective stages of invasion. PMID:27992516

  13. Betaines and dimethylsulfoniopropionate as major osmolytes in cnidaria with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yancey, Paul H; Heppenstall, Marina; Ly, Steven; Andrell, Raymond M; Gates, Ruth D; Carter, Virginia L; Hagedorn, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Most marine invertebrates and algae are osmoconformers whose cells accumulate organic osmolytes that provide half or more of cellular osmotic pressure. These solutes are primarily free amino acids and glycine betaine in most invertebrates and small carbohydrates and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in many algae. Corals with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) have been reported to obtain from the symbionts potential organic osmolytes such as glycerol, amino acids, and DMSP. However, corals and their endosymbionts have not been fully analyzed for osmolytes. We quantified small carbohydrates, free amino acids, methylamines, and DMSP in tissues of the corals Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis, Pocillopora meandrina, Montipora capitata, Porites compressa, and Porites lobata (all with symbionts) plus Tubastrea aurea (asymbiotic) from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu (Hawaii). Glycine betaine, at 33-69 mmol/kg wet mass, was found to constitute 90% or more of the measured organic solutes in all except the Porites species. Those were dominated by proline betaine and dimethyltaurine. DMSP was found at 0.5-3 mmol/kg in all species with endosymbionts. Freshly isolated Symbiodinium from Fungia, P. damicornis, and P. compressa were also analyzed. DMSP and glycine betaine dominated in the first two; Porites endosymbionts had DMSP, proline betaine, and dimethyltaurine. In all specimens, glycerol and glucose were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography only at 0-1 mmol/kg wet mass. An enzymatic assay for glycerol plus glycerol 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate yielded 1-10 mmol/kg. Cassiopeia andromeda (upside-down jelly; Scyphozoan) and Aiptasia puchella (solitary anemone; Anthozoan) were also analyzed; both have endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. In both, glycine betaine, taurine, and DMSP were the dominant osmolytes. In summary, methylated osmolytes dominate in many Cnidaria; in those with algal symbionts, host and symbiont have similar methylated amino

  14. Concentrations and 14C age of nonstructural carbon in California oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, C. I.; Druffel-Rodriguez, K.; Trumbore, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Plants store photosynthetic assimilates as nonstructural carbon (NSC), mainly glucose, fructose, sucrose, and starch. NSC fuels processes such as respiration and growth. Research suggests that NSC represents a significant fraction of a plant's annual C budget, but temporal dynamics of NSC are poorly understood. We used concentration and radiocarbon (14C) measurements of NSC to investigate how temporal dynamics of NSC vary with life strategy and throughout a species' range. In Mediterranean environments, oaks have developed two strategies (evergreen and deciduous) to cope with drought. Within California, the uncertainty of annual winter rain increases from north to south. We compared two evergreen and deciduous species: Coastal and Interior live oak (Quercus agrifolia and wislizenii) and Valley and Blue oak (Q. lobata and douglasii). Samples (4 mm cores to 20 cm depth at dbh) were taken in 2008 before leaf-out and fall at five sites which represent an inland to coast temperature gradient from high to low summer temperatures as well as a north- south precipitation gradient. Sugars were isolated by shaking in methanol-water and quantified using a spectrometric micro-plate technique. Starch was isolated by boiling in ethanol followed by HCl digestion and quantified manometrically. 14C contents were measured by AMS. Preliminary findings indicate that in live oaks, winter sugar concentrations are constant throughout the tree and across sites, while 14C concentrations increase towards a tree's center. This suggests that the NSC pool oaks is not well mixed. Future work will elucidate whether plants can access these older NSC stores.

  15. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

    PubMed Central

    Haavik, Laurel J.; Coleman, Tom W.; Flint, Mary Louise; Venette, Robert C.; Seybold, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole) of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae) produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus). On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface), yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2). In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus), exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae) that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative. PMID:26462589

  16. Do David and Goliath Play the Same Game? Explanation of the Abundance of Rare and Frequent Invasive Alien Plants in Urban Woodlands in Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Obidziński, Artur; Mędrzycki, Piotr; Kołaczkowska, Ewa; Ciurzycki, Wojciech; Marciszewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1) assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2) comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species. We hypothesized that the abundance of frequent species would be explained better than that of rare ones and that both rare and frequent species share a common hierarchy of the most important determinants. We found 15 taxa in almost two thirds of 1040 plots with a total number of 1068 occurrences. There were recorded 6 taxa of high frequency-Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens parviflora and Solidago spp.-and 9 taxa of low frequency: Acer saccharinum, Amelanchier spicata, Cornus spp., Fraxinus spp., Parthenocissus spp., Syringa vulgaris, Echinocystis lobata, Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria spp. Random Forest's models' quality grows with the number of occurrences of frequent taxa but not of the rare ones. Both frequent and rare taxa share a similar hierarchy of predictors' importance: Land use > Tree stand > Seed source and, for frequent taxa, Forest properties as well. We conclude that there is an 'explanation jump' at higher species frequencies, but rare species are surprisingly similar to frequent ones in their determinant's hierarchy, with differences conforming with their respective stages of invasion.

  17. Optimization of sampling methods for within-tree populations of red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Crook, D J; Fierke, M K; Mauromoustakos, A; Kinney, D L; Stephen, F M

    2007-06-01

    In the Ozark Mountains of northern Arkansas and southern Missouri, an oak decline event, coupled with epidemic populations of red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus Haldeman), has resulted in extensive red oak (Quercus spp., section Lobatae) mortality. Twenty-four northern red oak trees, Quercus rubra L., infested with red oak borer, were felled in the Ozark National Forest between March 2002 and June 2003. Infested tree boles were cut into 0.5-m sample bolts, and the following red oak borer population variables were measured: current generation galleries, live red oak borer, emergence holes, and previous generation galleries. Population density estimates from sampling plans using varying numbers of samples taken randomly and systematically were compared with total census measurements for the entire infested tree bole. Systematic sampling consistently yielded lower percent root mean square error (%RMSE) than random sampling. Systematic sampling of one half of the tree (every other 0.5-m sample along the tree bole) yielded the lowest values. Estimates from plans systematically sampling one half the tree and systematic proportional sampling using seven or nine samples did not differ significantly from each other and were within 25% RMSE of the "true" mean. Thus, we recommend systematically removing and dissecting seven 0.5-m samples from infested trees as an optimal sampling plan for monitoring red oak borer within-tree population densities. This optimal sampling plan should allow for collection of acceptably accurate within-tree population density data for this native wood-boring insect and reducing labor and costs of dissecting whole trees.

  18. The susceptibility and resilience of corals to thermal stress: adaptation, acclimatization or both?

    PubMed

    Weis, Virginia M

    2010-04-01

    Coral reefs are threatened with worldwide decline from multiple factors, chief among them climate change (Hughes et al. 2003; Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007). The foundation of coral reefs is an endosymbiosis between coral hosts and their resident photosynthetic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) and this partnership (or holobiont) is exquisitely sensitive to temperature stress. The primary response to hyperthermic stress is coral bleaching, which is the loss of symbionts from coral tissues-the collapse of the symbiosis (Weis 2008). Bleaching can result in increased coral mortality which can ultimately lead to severely compromised reef health (Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007). Despite this grim picture of coral bleaching and reef degradation, coral susceptibility to stress and bleaching is highly variable (Coles & Brown 2003). There is enormous interest in discovering the factors that determine susceptibility in order to help us predict if and how corals will survive a period of rapid global warming. In this issue, Barshis et al. (2010) examine the ecophysiological and genetic basis for differential responses to stress in Porites lobata in American Samoa. They combine a reciprocal transplant experimental design between two neighbouring, but very different reef environments with state-of-the-art physiological biomarkers and molecular genetic markers for both partners to tease apart the contribution of environmental and fixed influences on stress susceptibility. Their results suggest the presence of a fixed, rather than environmental effect on expression of ubiquitin conjugates, one key marker for physiological stress response. In addition, the authors show genetic differentiation in host populations between the two sites suggesting strong selection for physiological adaptation to differing environments across small geographic distances. These conclusions point the study of coral resilience and susceptibility in a new direction.

  19. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands.

    PubMed

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct "beads on a string" from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico.

  20. Exploring the potential of small RNA subunit and ITS sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the phylum Ctenophora.

    PubMed

    Simion, Paul; Bekkouche, Nicolas; Jager, Muriel; Quéinnec, Eric; Manuel, Michaël

    2015-04-01

    Ctenophores are a phylum of non-bilaterian marine (mostly planktonic) animals, characterised by several unique synapomorphies (e.g., comb rows, apical organ). Relationships between and within the nine recognised ctenophore orders are far from understood, notably due to a paucity of phylogenetically informative anatomical characters. Previous attempts to address ctenophore phylogeny using molecular data (18S rRNA) led to poorly resolved trees but demonstrated the paraphyly of the order Cydippida. Here we compiled an updated 18S rRNA data set, notably including a few newly sequenced species representing previously unsampled families (Lampeidae, Euryhamphaeidae), and we constructed an additional more rapidly evolving ITS1 + 5.8S rRNA + ITS2 alignment. These data sets were analysed separately and in combination under a probabilistic framework, using different methods (maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) and models (e.g., doublet model to accommodate secondary structure; data partitioning). An important lesson from our exploration of these datasets is that the fast-evolving internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions are useful markers for reconstructing high-level relationships within ctenophores. Our results confirm the paraphyly of the order Cydippida (and thus a "cydippid-like" ctenophore common ancestor) and suggest that the family Mertensiidae could be the sister group of all other ctenophores. The family Lampeidae (also part of the former "Cydippida") is probably the sister group of the order Platyctenida (benthic ctenophores). The order Beroida might not be monophyletic, due to the position of Beroe abyssicola outside of a clade grouping the other Beroe species and members of the "Cydippida" family Haeckeliidae. Many relationships (e.g. between Pleurobrachiidae, Beroida, Cestida, Lobata, Thalassocalycida) remain unresolved. Future progress in understanding ctenophore phylogeny will come from the use of additional rapidly evolving markers and improvement of

  1. Rigidity and Plasticity of Leaf Carbon and Nitrogen Systematics in California Oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, T.; Baldocchi, D.; Xu, L.

    2003-12-01

    Mapping photosynthesis from space requires an understanding of photosynthetic efficiency. Current data sets prescribe global maps of photosynthetic parameters and relate them to greenness. It is the seasonality of greenness, and not of photosynthetic efficiency itself, which is presumed to drive photosynthesis. In fact, both greenness and photosynthetic efficiency convolve to produce seasonality in photosynthesis. If the scientific community is to globally retrieve photosynthetic rates from space, it must take this seasonality into account. We examine the rigidity and plasticity of photosynthetic capacity, its correlation to leaf nitrogen, and other leaf properties across geographic gradients of precipitation, soil moisture, air temperature, relative humidity and other measurables. In particular, these measurements focus on different species of oaks: blue oak (Quercus douglasii), coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), black oak (Quercus velutina), and valley oak (Quercus lobata). Leaf chamber measurements with infrared gas analyzers and measurements of leaf specific mass, carbon isotope composition, and nitrogen content were performed in three Mediterranean ecosystems in California: Russell Reservation (coastal hills; oak woodland), Quail Ridge Reservation (near Lake Berryessa; Northern Coast Ranges; oak woodland), and Ione (Central Valley; oak savanna). Oaks of the same species adapted to more temperate microclimates such as shaded, north-facing slopes showed less pronounced seasonality in leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. The comparison of evergreen and deciduous oak species yields relationships among leaf life span, specific leaf mass, and photosynthetic capacity that are consistent with the results of Reich. Our results confirm that oaks exhibit plasticity in their adaptation to more and less extreme environments. These results also explain why the deciduous oaks are less successful than the evergreen oaks near the coast and more successful in the

  2. The potential origins and palaeoenvironmental implications of high temporal resolution δ 18O heterogeneity in coral skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Nicola; Finch, Adrian A.; EIMF

    2010-10-01

    δ 18O was determined at high spatial resolution (beam diameter ˜30 μm) by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) across 1-2 year sections of 2 modern Porites lobata coral skeletons from Hawaii. We observe large (>2‰) cyclical δ 18O variations that typically cover skeletal distances equivalent to periods of ˜20-30 days. These variations do not reflect seawater temperature or composition and we conclude that skeletal δ 18O is principally controlled by other processes. Calcification site pH in one coral record was estimated from previous SIMS measurements of skeletal δ 11B. We model predicted skeletal δ 18O as a function of calcification site pH, DIC residence time at the site and DIC source (reflecting the inputs of seawater and molecular CO 2 to the site). We assume that oxygen isotopic equilibration proceeds at the rates observed in seawater and that only the aqueous carbonate ion is incorporated into the precipitating aragonite. We reproduce successfully the observed skeletal δ 18O range by assuming that DIC is rapidly utilised at the calcification site (within 1 h) and that ˜80% of the skeletal carbonate is derived from seawater. If carbonic anhydrase catalyses the reversible hydration of CO 2 at the calcification site, then oxygen isotopic equilibration times may be substantially reduced and a larger proportion of the skeletal carbonate could be derived from molecular CO 2. Seasonal skeletal δ 18O variations are most pronounced in the skeleton deposited from late autumn to winter (and coincide with the high density skeletal bands) and are dampened in skeleton deposited from spring to summer. We observed no annual pattern in sea surface temperature or photosynthetically active radiation variability which could potentially correlate with the coral δ 18O. At present we are unable to resolve an environmental cue to drive seasonal patterns of short term skeletal δ 18O heterogeneity.

  3. Hexactinellid sponges reported from shallow waters in the Oligo-Miocene Pirabas Formation (N Brazil) are in fact cheilostome bryozoans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muricy, Guilherme; Domingos, Celso; Távora, Vladimir A.; Ramalho, Laís V.; Pisera, Andrzej; Taylor, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Although hexactinellid sponges occur exclusively in deep and/or cold waters, three species of hexactinellids have been reported from shallow and warm waters in Oligo-Miocene deposits of the Pirabas Formation in northern Brazil: Aphrocallistes estevoui, A. lobata and Manzonia aprutina. Here we re-examine these fossils and show that they are not hexactinellid sponges but instead comprise three species of cheilostome bryozoans of the genus Celleporaria (Family Lepraliellidae). Two of these are new to science, viz., Celleporaria pirabasensis sp. nov. and Celleporaria triangulavicularis sp. nov., and the third could not be identified to species level due to poor preservation. Colonies of all three species are massive and multilaminar, with irregular layers of zooids produced by frontal budding. Autozooids have marginal areolar pores and a rounded, asinuate primary orifice. All colonies also have suboral adventitious avicularia and interzooidal avicularia, although of different shapes and sizes. Celleporaria triangulavicularis sp. nov. has distinctive triangular interzooidal avicularia. The underside of the frontal shield was seen only in Celleporaria pirabasensis sp. nov. and Celleporaria sp., in which it is umbonuloid. Ovicells were only seen in Celleporaria pirabasensis sp. nov. and are cap-shaped. The three species differ among themselves mainly in the shape and position of the adventitious and interzooidal avicularia. The presence of several typical bryozoan traits and the absence of spicule traces or any other sponge features clearly demonstrate that these fossils are bryozoans, not sponges. The change in the classification of these fossils from hexactinellids to bryozoans of the genus Celleporaria eliminates the incongruence of the occurrence of deep-water species in the warm shallow water depositional environment of the Pirabas Formation.

  4. Multi-colony calibrations of coral Ba/Ca with a contemporaneous in situ seawater barium record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaVigne, Michèle; Grottoli, Andréa G.; Palardy, James E.; Sherrell, Robert M.

    2016-04-01

    The coral skeleton barium to calcium ratio (Ba/Cacoral), a proxy for seawater barium concentrations (BaSW), has been interpreted as a tracer of upwelling based on the characteristic "nutrient like" depth profile of BaSW. However, in some tropical regions, such as the Gulf of Panamá, substantial influence of terrestrial runoff inputs and differences between the vertical distribution of BaSW and that of the major nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) in the upper water column can complicate the interpretation of Ba/Cacoral as an upwelled nutrient proxy. In the Gulf of Panamá, contemporaneous Ba/Cacoral records from multiple colonies of Porites lobata, Pavona gigantea, and Pavona clavus corals record a nearly twofold change in surface water BaSW as a 20-70% increase in skeletal Ba/Ca with excellent correlation among Ba/Ca records from co-located colonies (r = 0.86-0.99). These results provide, for the first time, an absolute calibration of the coral Ba proxy with a contemporaneous BaSW record. Compiling the Ba/Cacoral records from three co-located colonies of each species into taxon-specific composite regressions reveals strong statistically significant correlations with the BaSW time-series record (p < 0.001). Differences among taxa in regression slope, y-intercept, and average distribution coefficient, as well as a demonstration of the application of the P. clavus calibration to a previously published Ba/Cacoral record, emphasize the necessity of using taxon-specific calibrations to reconstruct changes in BaSW with accuracy. These results support the application of Ba/Cacoral to reconstruct past changes in absolute BaSW concentrations, adding an important tool to the collection of geochemical proxies for reconstructing surface ocean biogeochemical processes in the past.

  5. Benthic Composition of a Healthy Subtropical Reef: Baseline Species-Level Cover, with an Emphasis on Algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Vroom, Peter S.; Braun, Cristi L.

    2010-01-01

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a “healthy” reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated. PMID:20305808

  6. Effects of Coral Reef Benthic Primary Producers on Dissolved Organic Carbon and Microbial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Andreas F.; Nelson, Craig E.; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Carlson, Craig A.; Rohwer, Forest; Leichter, James J.; Wyatt, Alex; Smith, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata – Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha – Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia – Chlorophyta), a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii) and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata). Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.0±2.8 µmol h−1 dm−2), stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.044±0.002 log10 cells h−1) and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.16±0.05 µmol L−1 h−1 dm−2). Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence reef

  7. Phylogeny, biogeography, and processes of molecular differentiation in Quercus subgenus Quercus (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Manos, P S; Doyle, J J; Nixon, K C

    1999-08-01

    Quercus is one of the most abundant and economically important genera of woody plants in the Northern Hemisphere. To infer phylogenetic relationships within Quercus subgenus Quercus, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) restriction sites and nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and the 5.8S coding region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA repeat were obtained for 44 individuals, including 25 species, intraspecific samples, and three outgroups. Separate parsimony analyses of each data set showed that individual gene trees were congruent and often complementary in supporting clades that generally corresponded to previously recognized taxonomic groups. Only one instance of strongly supported gene tree incongruence was detected and this anomalous pattern was explained best by ancient introgression of cpDNA across sectional boundaries. Simultaneous parsimony analysis of the pruned data sets supported the recognition of the strictly Eurasian section Cerris and resolved a novel hypothesis for the major infrageneric groups (Cerris- (Lobatae- (Protobalanus + Quercus sensu stricto))). The biogeographic hypothesis that all major oak lineages evolved locally at middle latitudes within the general distribution of their fossil ancestors was fully supported. This set of relationships also suggested a New World origin for the widespread white oaks of the Northern Hemisphere (section Quercus s. s.). For both data sets, inter- and intraspecific sampling within section Protobalanus showed little correspondence to morphological species. Greater cladistic structure among the samples was obtained by cpDNA restriction sites and two well-delimited plastomes types comprising a total of 15 distinct haplotypes were resolved. Haplotypes of 2 of the peripheral species in this species complex occupy terminal portions of one of the plastome clades, suggesting a more recent origin relative to those of more widespread species. The phylogeography of the two divergent plastome types suggested

  8. Species delimitation in the coral genus Goniopora (Scleractinia, Poritidae) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Terraneo, Tullia I; Benzoni, Francesca; Arrigoni, Roberto; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-09-01

    Variable skeletal morphology, genotype induced plasticity, and homoplasy of skeletal structures have presented major challenges for scleractinian coral taxonomy and systematics since the 18th century. Although the recent integration of genetic and micromorphological data is helping to clarify the taxonomic confusion within the order, phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation within most coral genera are still far from settled. In the present study, the species boundaries in the scleractinian coral genus Goniopora were investigated using 199 colonies from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea and sequencing of four molecular markers: the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between CytB and NAD2, the nuclear ribosomal ITS region, and two single-copy nuclear genes (ATPsβ and CalM). DNA sequence data were analyzed using a variety of methods and exploratory species-delimitation tools. The results were broadly congruent in identifying five distinct molecular lineages within the sequenced Goniopora samples: G. somaliensis/G. savignyi, G. djiboutiensis/G. lobata, G. stokesi, G. albiconus/G. tenuidens, and G. minor/G. gracilis. Although the traditional macromorphological characters used to identify these nine morphospecies were not able to discriminate the obtained molecular clades, informative micromorphological and microstructural features (such as the micro-ornamentation and the arrangement of the columella) were recovered among the five lineages. Moreover, unique in vivo morphologies were associated with the genetic-delimited lineages, further supporting the molecular findings. This study represents the first attempt to identify species boundaries within Goniopora using a combined morpho-molecular approach. The obtained data establish a basis for future taxonomic revision of the genus, which should include colonies across its entire geographical distribution in the Indo-Pacific.

  9. Nest-site selection in the acorn woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooge, P.N.; Stanback, M.T.; Koenig, Walter D.

    1999-01-01

    Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) at Hastings Reservation in central California prefer to nest in dead limbs in large, dead valley oaks (Quercus lobata) and California sycamores (Platanus racemosa) that are also frequently used as acorn storage trees. Based on 232 nest cavities used over an 18-year period, we tested whether preferred or modal nest-site characters were associated with increased reproductive success (the 'nest-site quality' hypothesis). We also examined whether more successful nests were likely to experience more favorable microclimatic conditions or to be less accessible to terrestrial predators. We found only equivocal support for the nest-site quality hypothesis: only 1 of 5 preferred characters and 2 of 10 characters exhibiting a clear modality were correlated with higher reproductive success. All three characteristics of nests known or likely to be associated with a more favorable microclimate, and two of five characteristics likely to render nests less accessible to predators, were correlated with higher reproductive success: These results suggest that nest cavities in this population are built in part to take advantage of favorable microclimatic conditions and, to a lesser extent, to reduce access to predators. However, despite benefits of particular nest characteristics, birds frequently nested in apparently suboptimal cavities. We also found a significant relationship between mean group size and the history of occupancy of particular territories and the probability of nest cavities being built in microclimatically favorable live limbs, suggesting that larger groups residing on more stable territories were better able to construct nests with optimal characteristics. This indicates that there may be demographic, as well as ecological, constraints on nest-site selection in this primary cavity nester.

  10. The effect of within-year variation in acorn crop size on seed harvesting by avian hoarders.

    PubMed

    Pesendorfer, Mario B; Koenig, Walter D

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in resource distribution affect the movement and foraging behavior of many animals. In the case of animal-dispersed trees, numerous studies have addressed masting-the synchronized variation in seed production between years-but the fitness consequences of spatial variation in seed production within a year are unclear. We investigated the effects of variable acorn production in a population of valley oaks (Quercus lobata) on the composition and behavior of the avian-disperser community. We found that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica), high-quality dispersers that store seeds in the ground, were attracted to, and exhibited increased per capita dispersal rates from, trees with large acorn crops. In contrast, acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus), low-quality dispersers that store acorns in trees where they are unlikely to germinate, increased per capita hoarding rates but did not attend trees with large seed crops in higher numbers, suggesting that the two species responded to resources on different spatial scales. Antagonistic interactions within and between species increased with the number of birds attending a tree, resulting in a potential cost for foraging birds, but did not reduce dispersal rates. Using a simulation model, we estimated that trees with large initial crops experienced a greater proportion (77 %) of high-quality seed dispersal events than trees with small crops (62 %). Our findings provide support for a mechanistic link between seed production and foraging behavior of seed dispersers as predicted by the predator dispersal hypothesis for the functional consequences of variable seed production in hoarder-dispersed trees.

  11. A novel approach to an old problem: tracking dispersed seeds.

    PubMed

    Grivet, Delphine; Smouse, Peter E; Sork, Victoria L

    2005-10-01

    Animals are the principal vectors of dispersal for a large number of plant species. Unfortunately it is not easy to discern their movement patterns or the fate of their dispersed seeds. Many animals transport seeds by consuming them and then, some time later, defecating them. Others gather seeds and then store them for later consumption. Both circumstances lead to a set of seeds that have been dispersed in a clumped pattern, which offers a unique opportunity to assess seed movements. We introduce a novel approach that uses maternally inherited seed tissue to quantify the genetic structure of dispersed seed pools. This direct approach measures the genetic variability within and among seed pools, and estimates the scale of seed movement, without requiring a highly polymorphic battery of markers or the location and genotypes of all possible seed parents. We demonstrate this approach with the specific case of seed transport of valley oak (Quercus lobata) acorns by acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus). These territorial birds store acorns in drilled holes in the bark of trees, called granaries. We sampled stored acorns from different granaries, extracted DNA from the maternally inherited pericarp, and then assessed individuals for three microsatellite markers. We found extremely high genetic structure among granaries, a low number of effective seed donors per granary, and restricted seed movement. A maternity analysis performed on the same sample with seven microsatellites confirms acorn transport is limited to approximately 100-m radius. Our findings provide insight into the foraging and seed-dispersal behaviour of acorn woodpeckers, with an approach that can be widely extended to other systems.

  12. Effects of coral reef benthic primary producers on dissolved organic carbon and microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andreas F; Nelson, Craig E; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Carlson, Craig A; Rohwer, Forest; Leichter, James J; Wyatt, Alex; Smith, Jennifer E

    2011-01-01

    Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata--Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha--Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia--Chlorophyta), a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii) and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata). Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.0±2.8 µmol h⁻¹ dm⁻²), stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.044±0.002 log10 cells h⁻¹) and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.16±0.05 µmol L⁻¹ h⁻¹ dm⁻²). Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence reef microbial

  13. Sedimentologic succession of uplifted coral community, Urvina Bay, Isabela Island, Galapagos Archipelago, Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, M.W.; Hollander, D.

    1987-05-01

    In March 1954, along the west-central coast of Isabela Island, an upward movement of magma suddenly raised Urvina Bay over 6 m and exposed several square kilometers of carbonate deposits covering a young aa lava flow (around 1000 years old). Results from 6 transect lines across the uplift, 30 cores, and 10 trenches describe the sedimentologic and ecologic transition from barren basalt to diverse carbonate sediments with small coral reefs. Along horizontal transects spanning from 0 to 7 m paleowater depth, there is a seaward progression from beaches, mangroves, and basalt to thick deposits (> 1.6 m) of carbonate sands and small coral reefs. Variation in water depth, degree of wave exposure, and irregularity of the aa lava topography provided many microhabitats where coral, calcareous algae, and mollusks settled and grew. Eight hermatypic coral species are found throughout the shelf, and three species (i.e., Pavona clavus, Pocillopora damicornis, and Porites lobata) produced five small, isolated, monospecific, coral-reef frameworks. The vertical section seen in cores and trenches shows that calcium carbonate increased upward, whereas volcanic sediments decreased; however, episodic layers occur with high concentrations of basaltic sands. In vertical samples from the central portion of the shelf, the coral population changed from small, isolated colonies of Psammocora (Plesioseris) superficalis near the basalt basement to large reef-forming colonies of Pocillopora damicornis farther upsection. Reefs of the Galapagos Islands are small and less diverse than most Pacific reefs. Nonetheless, understanding their temporal successional development should throw light on the origin and history of larger oceanic reefs in the Pacific.

  14. Differentiation in the water-use strategies among oak species from central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Romero, Rafael; Pineda-Garcia, Fernando; Paz, Horacio; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Oyama, Ken

    2017-03-23

    Oak species (Fagaceae: Quercus) differ in their distribution at the landscape scale, specializing to a certain portion of environmental gradients. This suggests that functional differentiation favors habitat partitioning among closely related species. To elucidate the mechanisms of species coexistence in oak forests, we explored patterns of interspecific variation in functional traits involved in water-use strategies. We tested the hypothesis that oak species segregate along key trade-offs between xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety, and between hydraulic safety and drought avoidance capacity, leading to species niche partitioning across a gradient of aridity. To do so, we quantified biophysical and physiological traits in four red and five white oak species (sections Lobatae and Quercus, respectively) across an aridity gradient in central Mexico. We also explored the trade-offs guiding species differentiation, particularly between the drought tolerance versus water acquisition capacity, and determined whether the water-use strategy was associated with the portion of the environmental gradient that the species occupy. In a trait-by-trait analysis, we detected differences between white and red oak species. However, a larger part of the variation was explained at the species rather than at the section level. We detected two primary axes of trait covariation. The first exhibited differences between species with dense tissues and species with soft tissues (the tissue construction cost axis); however, the oak sections did not constitute separate groups, while the second suggested a trade-off between xylem resistance to cavitation and tree deciduousness. As expected, the water-use strategies of the species were related to the environment; oak species from arid areas had more deciduousness and a higher instantaneous water-use efficiency. In contrast, their humid counterparts had less deciduousness and had a xylem that was more resistant to embolisms. Altogether, these

  15. Reef-coral refugia in a rapidly changing ocean.

    PubMed

    Cacciapaglia, Chris; van Woesik, Robert

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to identify climate-change thermal-stress refugia for reef corals in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. A species distribution modeling approach was used to identify refugia for 12 coral species that differed considerably in their local response to thermal stress. We hypothesized that the local response of coral species to thermal stress might be similarly reflected as a regional response to climate change. We assessed the contemporary geographic range of each species and determined their temperature and irradiance preferences using a k-fold algorithm to randomly select training and evaluation sites. That information was applied to downscaled outputs of global climate models to predict where each species is likely to exist by the year 2100. Our model was run with and without a 1°C capacity to adapt to the rising ocean temperature. The results show a positive exponential relationship between the current area of habitat that coral species occupy and the predicted area of habitat that they will occupy by 2100. There was considerable decoupling between scales of response, however, and with further ocean warming some 'winners' at local scales will likely become 'losers' at regional scales. We predicted that nine of the 12 species examined will lose 24-50% of their current habitat. Most reductions are predicted to occur between the latitudes 5-15°, in both hemispheres. Yet when we modeled a 1°C capacity to adapt, two ubiquitous species, Acropora hyacinthus and Acropora digitifera, were predicted to retain much of their current habitat. By contrast, the thermally tolerant Porites lobata is expected to increase its current distribution by 14%, particularly southward along the east and west coasts of Australia. Five areas were identified as Indian Ocean refugia, and seven areas were identified as Pacific Ocean refugia for reef corals under climate change. All 12 of these reef-coral refugia deserve high-conservation status.

  16. ArgTX-636, a polyamine isolated from spider venom: A novel class of melanogenesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Verdoni, Marion; Roudaut, Hermine; De Pomyers, Harold; Gigmes, Didier; Bertin, Denis; Luis, José; Bengeloune, Abd Haq; Mabrouk, Kamel

    2016-11-15

    To discover new molecules with an inhibitory activity of melanogenesis a hundred of scorpions, snakes, spiders and amphibians venoms were screened for their capacity to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase using 3,4-l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) as substrate. The Argiope lobata spider venom proved to be the most active. HPLC fraction containing Argiotoxine-636 (ArgTX-636), a polyamine known for its numerous biological activities, was found to also show a good regulation activity of melanogenesis by inhibiting DOPA and 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) oxidases activities, wore by tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), respectively. Our results demonstrate that ArgTX-636 reduced the mushroom tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent way with a maximal half inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 8.34μM, when l-DOPA is used as substrate. The Lineweaver-Burk study showed that ArgTX-636 is a mixed type inhibitor of the diphenolase activity. Moreover, ArgTX-636 inhibits DHICA oxydase activity of mushroom tyrosinase activity with IC50 at 41.3μM. ArgTX-636 has no cytotoxicity in B16F10 melanoma cells at concentrations up to 42.1μM. The effect of ArgTX-636 on melanogenesis showed that melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cell decreased by approximatively 70% compared to untreated cells. ArgTX-636 displayed no significant effect on the TYR expression while the protein level of TRP-1 decreased in B16F10 cells. Thus, ArgTX-636 could have particular interest for cosmetic and/or pharmaceutical use in order to reduce important dermatoses in black and mixed skins.

  17. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    PubMed

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered

  18. Puerarin ameliorates heat stress-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in bovine Sertoli cells by suppressing ROS production and upregulating Hsp72 expression.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xia; Zhang, Qian; Li, Huatao; Jiang, Zhongling; Cao, Rongfeng; Gao, Shansong; Tian, Wenru

    2017-01-15

    Puerarin, a bioactive isoflavone glucoside extracted from radix Puerariae, has been proven to possess many biological activities. However, the role of puerarin in protecting bovine Sertoli cells (bSCs) under heat stress conditions remains to be clarified. The present study aimed to explore the possible protective mechanism of puerarin for primary cultured bSCs subjected to heat stress. Bovine Sertoli cells were treated with 15 μM of puerarin before they were exposed to 42 °C for 1 hour. The dose of puerarin (15 μM) was determined on the basis of cell viability. The results showed that puerarin treatment suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species and decreased the oxidative damage of the bSCs subjected to heat stress, as indicated by changes in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and malondialdehyde content. Moreover, puerarin treatment also suppressed the initiation of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway, as revealed by changes in Bax to Bcl-2 ratio, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome C release, caspase-3 activation, and apoptotic rate compared with the heat stress group. In addition, puerarin treatment increased Hsp72 expression in the bSCs with no apparent cellular cytotoxicity compared with the control group. Furthermore, increased Hsp72 was detected in the heat stress plus puerarin group compared with the heat stress group. In conclusion, puerarin attenuates heat stress-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis of bSCs by suppressing reactive oxygen species production and upregulating Hsp72 expression.

  19. Phase 1 and Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interaction Study of Metformin, Losartan, and Linagliptin Coadministered With DW1029M in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seol Ju; Kim, Sun-Young; Lim, Cheol-Hee; Jang, Hwan Bong; Kim, Min-Gul; Jeon, Ji-Young

    2016-10-14

    We investigated botanical drug-pharmaceutical drug interactions between DW1029M (a botanical extract of Morus alba linne root bark and Puerariae radix) and metformin, losartan, and linagliptin in the steady state. Three studies were conducted as randomized, open-label, 2-period, 2-treatment, multiple-dose, 2-way crossover designs. Eligible subjects received metformin (500 mg twice daily), losartan (50 mg once daily), or linagliptin (5 mg once daily) with DW1029M (300 mg × 2T twice daily) every 12 hours on days 1 through 6 and a single dose on the morning of day 7. Coadministration of DW1029M with metformin, losartan, or linagliptin had no clinically relevant effects based on the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUCτ ) geometric least-squares mean ratio (GMR) - AUCτ GMR, 89.7; 90% confidence interval (CI), 81.0-99.4 for metformin; AUCτ GMR, 96.2; 90%CI, 86.3-107.1 for losartan; and AUCτ GMR, 89.7; 90%CI, 83.2-96.6 for linagliptin. In addition, coadministration of DW1029M did not have any clinically meaningful effect on the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax,ss ) - Cmax,ss GMR, 87.3; 90%CI, 76.2-100.0 for metformin; Cmax,ss GMR, 90.5; 90%CI, 78.3-104.6 for losartan; and Cmax,ss GMR, 81.4; 90%CI, 69.5-95.3 for linagliptin. Coadministration of DW1029M with metformin, losartan, or linagliptin was well tolerated.

  20. Daidzin and its antidipsotropic analogs inhibit serotonin and dopamine metabolism in isolated mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1998-03-03

    Daidzin, a major active principle of an ancient Chinese herbal treatment (Radix puerariae) for alcohol abuse, selectively suppresses ethanol intake in all rodent models tested. It also inhibits mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). Studies on ethanol intake suppression and ALDH-2 inhibition by structural analogs of daidzin established a link between these two activities and suggested that daidzin may suppress ethanol intake by inhibiting ALDH-2. ALDH-2 is a principal enzyme involved in serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) metabolism. Thus, daidzin may act by inhibiting 5-HT and DA metabolism. To evaluate this possibility, we have studied the effect of daidzin and its analogs on 5-HT and DA metabolism in isolated hamster and rat liver mitochondria. Daidzin potently inhibits the formation of 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) from their respective amines in isolated mitochondria. Inhibition is concentration-dependent and is accompanied by a concomitant accumulation of 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetaldehyde and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. Daidzin analogs that suppress hamster ethanol intake also inhibit 5-HIAA and DOPAC formation. Comparing their effects on mitochondria-catalyzed 5-HIAA or DOPAC formation and hamster ethanol intake reveals a positive correlation-the stronger the inhibition on 5-HIAA or DOPAC formation, the greater the ethanol intake suppression. Daidzin and its active analogs, at concentrations that significantly inhibit 5-HIAA formation, have little or no effect on mitochondria-catalyzed 5-HT depletion. It appears that the antidipsotropic action of daidzin is not mediated by 5-HT (or DA) but rather by its reactive intermediates 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetaldehyde and, presumably, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde as well, which accumulates in the presence of daidzin.

  1. Puerarin alleviates noise-induced hearing loss via affecting PKCγ and GABAB receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Qu, Juan; Liao, Yong-Hui; Kou, Zhen-Zhen; Wei, Yan-Yan; Huang, Jing; Chen, Jing; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Wu, Sheng-Xi; Shi, Ming; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-02-15

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) often results from prolonged exposure to high levels of noise. Our previous study revealed that during the development of NIHL, the expression of protein kinase C γ subunit (PKCγ) and GABAB receptor (GABABR) was changed within the cochlear nuclear complex (CNC), suggesting that these molecules might be the potential targets for the treatment of NIHL. As an extending study, here we focused on puerarin, a major isoflavonoid extracted from Pueraria lobota, which has been used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and investigated whether it could protect against NIHL by acting on PKCγ and GABABR. Transgenic GAD67-GFP knock-in mice were subjected to the NIHL model and their auditory functions were evaluated by the auditory brainstem response thresholds and distortion product oto-acoustic emission signals. Our results showed that 200mg/kg puerarin treatment ameliorated the thresholds of auditory brainstem response of NIHL mice significantly. Triple immunofluorescence staining and electron microscopy results revealed that GFP-positive neurons in the superficial layers of CNC expressed both PKCγ and GABABR1, and GAD67-positive terminals contacted PKCγ- or GABABR1-positive neurons. Immunoblotting and RT-PCR results showed that NIHL increased the expression of PKCγ but decreased that of GABABR1 and GABABR2 at both protein and mRNA levels in the CNC. Puerarin significantly attenuated the increased expression of PKCγ but elevated the reduced expression of GABABR1 and GABABR2 after noise exposure. Thus, we provided the first evidence that puerarin ameliorated the auditory functions of NIHL mice, and this effect may be due to its ability to regulate the expression of PKCγ and GABABR.

  2. Preparation, characterization and in vitro/vivo evaluation of tectorigenin solid dispersion with improved dissolution and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Shuping; Yue, Shanlan; Huang, Qingting; Wang, Wei; Yang, Junyi; Lan, Ke; Ye, Liming

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel amorphous solid dispersion system for tectorigenin (TG). TG is one of isoflavone aglycones extracted from Iris tectorum and flowers of Pueraria thunbergiana, but its poor water solubility and low membrane permeability have severely restricted the clinical application. To increase the aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of TG, we prepared the solid dispersions of tectorigenin (TG-SD) using a simple solvent evaporation process with TG, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and PEG4000 at weight ratio of 7:54:9 after tested in several ratios. The prepared solid dispersions of tectorigenin are duly characterized for drug morphological conversion, in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies have indicated the morphological conversion of tectorigenin to amorphous form. In vitro release profiles revealed that the % release of TG-SD was achieved 4.35-fold higher than that of the pure drug after 150 min. The oral bioavailability of the solid dispersion in rats was also increased based on AUC0-t and C max of TG-SD, which were 4.8- and 13.1-fold higher than that of TG crystal, respectively. It is worth noting that physical mixture containing TG, PEG4000 and PVP produced a similar level of oral exposure as TG-SD, suggesting that PEG4000 and PVP were able to enhance bioavailability of TG in rats. However, with the reduction of particle size, TG-SD provided the fastest oral absorption compared to physical mixture and pure drug. These results demonstrated that the efficacy of solid dispersions for the enhancement of TG oral bioavailability was by increasing its aqueous solubility and the solid dispersion formulation could be a viable option for enhancing the oral bioavailability of TG.

  3. Puerarin attenuates cisplatin-induced rat nephrotoxicity: The involvement of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xu; Yan, Lei; Zhu, Qing; Shao, Fengmin

    2017-01-01

    Puerarin was a major isoflavonoid derived from the Chinese medical herb radix puerariae (Gegen). In present study effect of puerarin on cisplatin nephrotoxicity was evaluated. Rat model of nephrotoxicity was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (7mg/kg). Puerarin was administrated through caudal vein injection once per day at the dose of 10mg/kg, 30mg/kg and 50mg/kg. Biochemical assays showed that after cisplatin treatment the serum urea and creatinine increased significantly compared with control (P<0.05). Cisplatin treatment significantly increased xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and significantly decreased the levels and /or activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH, GPx, GST, GR, SOD, CAT), in the kidney tissues. Renal levels of TNF-α and IL-6, two important inflammatory cytokines, were also upregulated by cisplatin. Histopathological examination indicated that cisplatin treatment resulted in severe necrosis and degeneration, hyaline casts in the tubules, intertubular hemorrhage, congestion and swelling in glomerulus and leukocytes infiltration in the kidney tissues. Western blot results demonstrated that cisplatin increased TLR4 and NF-κB protein expression in the kidney tissues. However, all these changes induced by cisplatin were significantly attenuated by puerarin treatment in dose-dependent manner, which indicated the renal protective effect of puerarin. Cell culture experiments illustrated that puerarin alone treatment concentration-dependently inhibited COLO205 and HeLa tumor cell growth and dose-dependently promoted the antitumor activity of cisplatin in COLO205 and HeLa tumor cells. The promotion effects might be attributed to suppression of cisplatin-increased NF-κB p65 expression by puerarin. Taken together, findings in this study suggested that puerarin exhibited renal protection against cisplatin nephrotoxicity via inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB signaling, with no

  4. Testing of the estrogenic activity and toxicity of Stephania venosa herb in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Gomuttapong, Sarawoot; Pewphong, Rangsima; Choeisiri, Sucha; Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2012-07-01

    Stephania venosa Spreng is a traditional herb which has been used for cancer treatment as well as an aphrodisiac. The scientific literature strongly supports its in vitro antiproliferative effects on cancer cell lines and has suggested developing this plant as a potential anticancer drug. However, the in vivo steroidogenic activity and toxicity of this plant have never been tested. We analyzed the levels of five key isoflavones in the plant extract by quantitative HPLC and then evaluated the in vivo estrogenic activity and toxicity in ovariectomized rats, in comparison with the phytoestrogen-rich plant, Pueraria mirifica. Twenty rats were first ovariectomized, and then seven days later divided into four groups and gavaged daily with 0, 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight/day of S. venosa, or 100 mg/kg body weight/day of P. mirifica for 28 days. A trace amount of puerarin, daidzin and daidzein with a subtle amount of genistein and genistin were isolated from the S. venosa tuber extract. S. venosa tuber powder, at both doses, did not exhibit any detectable estrogenic activity in ovariectomized rats, as assessed by the vaginal cytology and uterotropic assays, whilst P. mirifica induced a remarkable vaginal and uterine proliferation. S. venosa induced a toxicological effect on the hematological values and histopathological appearance of metabolic organs. Taken together, these results suggest that S. venosa has no discernable estrogenic activity but that it is toxic, at least to ovariectomized rats. Thus, the use of this plant for anticancer treatment needs to be reassessed or used with caution.

  5. Screening for in vitro metabolites of kakkalide and irisolidone in human and rat intestinal bacteria by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guozhe; Gong, Tianxing; Kano, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Dan

    2014-02-01

    Kakkalide and irisolidone, the main isoflavones of Flos Puerariae, exhibit a wide spectrum of bioactivities. Intestinal bacteria biotransformation plays an important role in the metabolic pathways of flavones, and is directly related to the bioactivities of the prodrugs after oral administration. To the best of our knowledge, the metabolic pathways of kakkalide and irisolidone in vitro have not been comprehensively studied yet. This paper describes the strategy using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF MS) for the rapid analysis of the metabolic profiles of kakkalide and irisolidone after incubated with human and rat intestinal bacteria. Bacteria incubated samples were prepared and analyzed after incubated under anaerobic conditions for 48 h. A total of 17 metabolites, including parent compounds, were detected in human and rat intestinal bacteria incubated samples. The results obtained indicate that hydrolysis, dehydroxylation, demethoxylation, demethylation, hydroxylation, decarbonylation, and reduction were the detected metabolic pathways of kakkalide and irisolidone in vitro. The conversion rate of irisolidone in human and rat bacteria was 8.57% and 6.51%, respectively. Biochanin A was the relatively main metabolite of irisolidone, and the content of biochanin A in human and rat bacteria was 3.68% and 4.25%, respectively. The conversion rate of kakkalide in human and rat bacteria was 99.92% and 98.58%, respectively. Irisolidone was the main metabolite of kakkalide, and the content of irisolidone in human and rat bacteria was 89.58% and 89.38%, respectively. This work not only provides the evidence of kakkalide and irisolidone metabolites in vivo, but also demonstrates a simple, fast, sensitive, and inexpensive method for identification of metabolites of other compounds transformed by intestinal bacteria.

  6. Daidzin, an antioxidant isoflavonoid, decreases blood alcohol levels and shortens sleep time induced by ethanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Xie, C I; Lin, R C; Antony, V; Lumeng, L; Li, T K; Mai, K; Liu, C; Wang, Q D; Zhao, Z H; Wang, G F

    1994-12-01

    The extract from an edible vine, Pueraria lebata, has been reported to be efficacious in lessening alcohol intoxication. In this study, we have tested the efficacy of one of the major components, daidzin, from this plant extract. When ethanol (40% solution, 3 g/kg body weight) was given to fasted rats intragastrically, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) peaked at 30 min after alcohol ingestion and reached 1.77 +/- 0.14 mg/ml (mean values +/- SD, n = 6). If daidzin (30 mg/kg) was mixed with the ethanol solution and given to animals intragastrically, BAC was found to peak at 90 min after alcohol ingestion and reached only 1.20 +/- 0.30 mg/ml (n = 6) (p < 0.05 vs. controls). The ability of daidzin to delay and decrease peak BAC level after ethanol ingestion was also observed in fed animals. In both fasted and fed rats given alcohol without daidzin, BAC quickly declined after reaching its peak at 30 min. By contrast, BAC levels receded more slowly if daidzin was also fed to the animals. Daidzin showed a chronic effect. Rats fed daidzin for 7 days before ethanol challenge, but not on the day of challenge, also produced lower and later peak BAC levels. Interestingly, daidzin, whether fed to rats only once or chronically for 7 days, did not significantly alter activities of either alcohol dehydrogenase or mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase in the liver. Further experiments demonstrated that daidzin shortened sleep time for rats receiving ethanol intragastrically (7 g/kg) but not intraperitoneally (2 g/kg). To test whether daidzin delayed stomach-emptying, [14C]polyethylene glycol was mixed with ethanol and fed to rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  8. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation and Aging in a Flow Reactor in the Forested Southeast US during SOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Palm, B. B.; Hacker, L.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Simoes de Sa, S.; Fry, J.; Ayres, B. R.; Draper, D. C.; Ortega, A. M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Panujoka, A.; Virtanen, A.; Miettinen, P.; Krechmer, J.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Thompson, S.; Yatavelli, L. R.; Stark, H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Lechner, M.; Martin, S. T.; Farmer, D.; Brown, S. S.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    compounds were observed when a pine branch was placed in front of the PAM, while oak and kudzu branches resulted in lower enhancement. Processing of ambient air by OH led to significant reductions in the bounce of ambient particles, indicating an effect on their phase.

  9. The metabolism and analysis of isoflavones and other dietary polyphenols in foods and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Stephen; Prasain, Jeevan; D'Alessandro, Tracy; Arabshahi, Ali; Botting, Nigel; Lila, Mary Ann; Jackson, George; Janle, Elsa M; Weaver, Connie M

    2011-05-01

    Polyphenols in dietary and botanical matrices are usually present as simple and complex O-glycosides. In fermented dietary materials, the glycosidic moiety is removed and accompanied in some cases by more complex changes to the polyphenol. As for most xenobiotics, polyphenols undergo phase II conjugation in the intestinal wall during their absorption from the gut. In contrast, a few polyphenols, such as puerarin in the kudzu vine, are C-glycosides and are stable in the gut and during absorption, distribution and excretion. Large bowel bacteria reduce polyphenol aglycones, causing opening of the heterocyclic B-ring and ring cleavage. The products are mostly absorbed and enter the bloodstream. Phase I and II metabolism events occur in the intestine and the liver - most polyphenols predominantly circulate as β-glucuronides and sulfate esters with very little as the aglycones, the presumed active forms. In addition, metabolism can occur in non-hepatic tissues and cells including breast tumor cells that have variable amounts of cytochrome P450s, sulfatase and sulfotransferase activities. Inflammatory cells produce chemical oxidants (HOCl, HOBr, ONO(2)(-)) that will react with polyphenols. The isoflavones daidzein and genistein and the flavonol quercetin form mono- and dichlorinated products in reaction with HOCl. Genistein is converted to 3'-nitrogenistein in the lung tissue of lipopolysaccharide-treated rats. Whereas polyphenols that can be converted to quinones or epoxides react with glutathione (GSH) to form adducts, chlorinated isoflavones do not react with GSH; instead, they are converted to β-glucuronides and are excreted in bile. Analysis of polyphenols and their metabolites is routinely carried out with great sensitivity, specificity and quantification by LC-tandem mass spectrometry. Critical questions about the absorption and tissue uptake of complex polyphenols such as the proanthocyanins can be answered by labeling these polyphenols with (14)C-sucrose in

  10. Two new 'legumoviruses' (genus Begomovirus) naturally infecting soybean in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Kumar, P Lava; Mgbechi-Ezeri, J U; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2010-05-01

    Two new 'legumoviruses' (genus Begomovirus; family Geminiviridae) naturally infecting soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in Nigeria were molecularly characterized. Based on characteristic symptoms in soybean, the two viruses are provisionally designated as Soybean mild mottle virus (SbMMV) and Soybean chlorotic blotch virus (SbCBV). SbCBV has a bipartite genome, whereas SbMMV has only a DNA A component. The DNA A component of SbMMV is 2,768 nucleotides (nt) long and the DNA A and DNA B components of SbCBV are 2,708 and 2,647 nt long, respectively. In pairwise comparisons, the DNA A component of SbMMV and SbCBV showed 62% nt sequence identity, indicating that these two viruses are distinct. Whereas the DNA A of SbMMV contains two virion- and four complementary-sense open reading frames, that of SbCBV lacks the virus-sense AV2, a signature gene present in 'Old World' begomoviruses. A pairwise comparison with the corresponding nucleotide sequence of other begomoviruses in the databases indicated that SbCBV had a maximum of 74% identity with cowpea golden mosaic virus and SbMMV had a maximum of 65% identity with mungbean yellow mosaic India virus and kudzu mosaic virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA A component of SbCBV and SbMMV together with those of other begomoviruses available in the databases showed clustering of the two viruses within the 'legumovirus' clade of the begomovirus phylogenetic tree. In addition, the DNA A and B components of SbCBV from Centrosema pubescens Benth were found to be identical to those from soybean, indicating that leguminous wild species are a potential alternative host for the virus. Since soybean is an introduced crop, the identification of two distinct begomoviruses naturally infecting soybean in Nigeria suggests the occurrence of 'legumoviruses' in plant species indigenous to Africa and underscores their potential threat to sustainable cultivation of soybean on the African continent.

  11. Synergistic effects of puerarin combined with 5-fluorouracil on esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Zi-Rong; Guo, Xu-Feng; Song, Jia; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Wang, Jing; Dong, Wei-Guo

    2014-11-01

    Puerarin is an isoflavone derived from kudzu roots with a wide range of biological and medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitive effects of puerarin combined with 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU) on Eca‑109 esophageal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Inhibitive effects of the treatments on Eca‑109 cells were detected by cell counting kit‑8, Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry. A tumor xenograft model was established in nude mice. Puerarin and 5‑FU, administered either in combination or individually, were injected into mice and the inhibitive effects along with any side effects were observed. Apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Puerarin and 5‑FU, administered as combined treatment or individual drugs, significantly inhibited proliferation and induced marked apoptosis. The mean growth inhibition rate (± standard deviation) reached 87.27±5.37% and the apoptotic rate at 48 h reached 36.18±1.24% in the combined treatment group. The percentages of apoptotic cells induced by puerarin and 5‑FU (combined or alone) were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). Puerarin or 5‑FU alone significantly inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors in comparison to the control group (P<0.05), with inhibition rates of 76.93 and 72.21%, respectively. The drugs combined exhibited a significantly greater effect than either drug alone (P<0.05), with the tumor inhibition rate reaching 89.06%. During the course of chemotherapy, no evident side effects were observed. The results suggested that the combined inhibitive effects of puerarin and 5‑FU were greater than the effects of the agents used individually. In addition, puerarin combined with 5‑FU exhibited synergistic effects at lower concentrations and promoted apoptosis, but did not increase the side effects of chemotherapy, which indicated that puerarin may be a safe and effective

  12. The metabolism and analysis of isoflavones and other dietary polyphenols in foods and biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Stephen; Prasain, Jeevan; D’Alessandro, Tracy; Arabshahi, Ali; Botting, Nigel; Lila, Mary Ann; Jackson, George; Janle, Elsa; Weaver, Connie M.

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols in dietary and botanical matrices are usually present as simple and complex O-glycosides. In fermented dietary materials, the glycosidic moiety is removed and accompanied in some cases by more complex changes to the polyphenol. As for most xenobiotics, polyphenols undergo phase II conjugation in the intestinal wall during their absorption from the gut. In contrast, a few polyphenols, such as puerarin in the kudzu vine, are C-glycosides and are stable in the gut and during absorption, distribution and excretion. Large bowel bacteria reduce polyphenol aglycones, causing opening of the heterocyclic B-ring and ring cleavage. The products are mostly absorbed and enter the bloodstream. Phase I and II metabolism events occur in the intestine and the liver – most polyphenols predominantly circulate as β-glucuronides and sulfate esters with very little as the aglycones, the presumed active forms. In addition, metabolism can occur in non-hepatic tissues and cells including breast tumor cells that have variable amounts of cytochrome P450s, sulfatase and sulfotransferase activities. Inflammatory cells produce chemical oxidants (HOCl, HOBr, ONO2−) that will react with polyphenols. The isoflavones daidzein and genistein and the flavonol quercetin form mono- and dichlorinated products in reaction with HOCl. Genistein is converted to 3′-nitrogenistein in the lung tissue of lipopolysaccharide-treated rats. Whereas polyphenols that can be converted to quinones or epoxides react with glutathione (GSH) to form adducts, chlorinated isoflavones do not react with GSH; instead, they are converted to β-glucuronides and are excreted in bile. Analysis of polyphenols and their metabolites is routinely carried out with great sensitivity, specificity and quantification by LC-tandem mass spectrometry. Critical questions about the absorption and tissue uptake of complex polyphenols such as the proanthocyanins can be answered by labeling these polyphenols with 14C-sucrose in

  13. Gimbals in the insect leg.

    PubMed

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Wang, Weiying

    2009-01-01

    We studied the common kinematic features of the coxa and trochanter in cursorial and raptorial legs, which are the short size of the podomers, predominantly monoaxial joints, and the approximate orthogonality of adjacent joint axes. The chain coxa-trochanter with its short elements and serial orthogonality of joint axes resembles the gimbals which combine versatility and tolerance to external perturbations. The geometry of legs was studied in 23 insect species of 12 orders. Insects with monoaxial joints were selected. The joint between the trochanter and the femur (TFJ) is defined either by two vestigial condyles or by a straight anterior hinge. Direction of the joint axes in the two basal podomers was assessed by 3D measurements or by goniometry in two planes. Length of the coxa is <15% (mostly <8%) of the total length of the cursorial leg, that of the trochanter <10%. Angles between the proximal and distal joint axes in the middle coxa range from 124 to 84 degrees (mean 97+/-14 degrees ), in the trochanter (in all legs studied) from 125 to 72 degrees (mean 90+/-13 degrees ). Vectors of the distal axis in the coxa are concentrated about the normal to the plane defined by the proximal axis and the midpoint between the distal condyles. These vectors in the trochanter lie at various angles to the normal; angles are correlated with the direction of the TFJ relative to the femur. Range of reduction about the TFJ is over 60 degrees in the foreleg of Ranatra linearis, Mantispa lobata and the hind leg in Carabus coriaceus (confirming observations of previous authors), 40-60 degrees in the foreleg of Vespa crabro and in the middle one in Ammophila campestris, 10-30 degrees in other studied specimens. The special role of the trochanter in autotomy and in active propulsion in some insect groups is discussed. The majority of insects possess small trochanters and slightly movable TFJs with the joint axis laying in the femur-tibia plane. We pose the hypothesis that the TFJ

  14. Stable isotope geochemistry of corals from Costa Rica as proxy indicator of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

    SciTech Connect

    Carriquiry, J.D.; Risk, M.J.; Schwarcz, H.P. )

    1994-01-01

    The authors analyzed the [delta][sup 18]O and [delta][sup 13]C time-series contained in coral skeletons collected from Isla de Cano, Costa Rica, that survived the 1982-1983 El Nino warming event. Coral [delta][sup 18]O give a record of thermal histories with a precision of [approximately]0.5[degrees]C. For this locality, the authors have determined that the average [Delta][delta][sub w] effect in the coral skeletons is equivalent to 33% of the skeletal [delta][sup 18]O range. Therefore, if [delta][sub w] effects are not compensated for, the annual skeletal-[delta][sup 18]O range displays a temperature range of 1[degrees]C lower than actual values. The isotopic record of Porites lobata skeletons shows simultaneous depletions in [sup 18]O and [sup 13]C at skeletal levels corresponding to 1983, coincident with the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. Therefore, the El Nino event is not only recorded as negative [delta][sup 18]O anomalies in the skeleton, suggesting the warming of ambient waters, but also in the [delta][sup 13]C signal as negative anomalies, indicating coral bleaching. Contrary to the predictions of the [open quotes][sup 13]C-insolation model[close quotes] that the annual carbon isotope variation should be attenuated with depth in proportion to the decrease in light-intensity variation with depth, the authors found a clear trend where [Delta][delta][minus][sup 13]C increases with depth. Coral bioenergetics, which depends on both coral physiology and ecology, may adequately explain the unexpected increase in [delta][sup 13]C range with depth, without contradicting the seasonal character of [delta][sup 13]C variability with the solar irradiance cycle. Although some authors have determined the presence of hiatuses in the skeletal record due to severe stress and growth cessation, in this study it has been found that skeletal growth was not seriously diminished during the El Nino year of 1983.

  15. Modern foraminiferal facies in a subtropical estuarine channel, Bertioga, São Paulo, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eichler, P.P.B.; Eichler, B.B.; De Miranda, L. B.; Rodrigues, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    other mostly of Textulariida (Facies 5 and 6). Facies 5 includes Ammonia beecarii, Elphidium excavatum, Arenoparrella mexicana, Haplophragmoides wilberti, Siphotrochammina lobata, Trochammina inflata and Trochammina sp., all of which are typical of mesohaline sites (mainly Crumau?? and Trindade rivers), and Facies 6 includes Bolivina sp., Ammoastuta salsa, Arenoparrella mexicana, Haplophragmoides wilberti and Trochammina sp., all of which are typical of oligohaline and mesohaline mangrove fringes. The foraminiferal species from the present study are frequently found in paralic environments in Brazil, western Africa and other estuaries around the world.

  16. Experimental and natural weed host-virus relations.

    PubMed

    Kazinczi, G; Horváth, J; Takács, A P; Gáborjányi, R; Béres, I

    2004-01-01

    Weeds, as alternative hosts of plant viruses and nutrient plants of virus vectors play important role in virus ecology and epidemiology. The aim of our study was to discover new weed-virus relations. Therefore some weed species were mechanically inoculated with 28 viruses (strains or isolates) maintained in our glasshouse. Different weed species with and without visible symptoms were collected from agro-, water ecosystems and wastelands of Hungary between 1997 and 2003. Virus infections were evaluated by biotests, DAS ELISA serological methods, electronmicroscopy and immunosorbent electronmicroscopy (ISEM). Under glasshouse conditions Ambrosia artemisifolia was considered as a virophob species, showing resistance to all viruses listed above. A series of new artificial (Chenopodium album--SoMV (LH+SH)*, AMV (LH+SH); C. berlandieri--PVY(NTN) (LH), AMV (LH+SH), CMV (LH), SoMV (LH+SH), ObPV (LH+SH), ZYMV-10 (LH): C. ugandae--ObPV (LH), SoMV (L); C. glaucum--ObPV (LH), SoMV (L); Echinocystis lobata--PVX (L), ZYMV (LH+SH); Solanum nigrum--MYFV (LH+SH), PVY(N) (L), PVY(NTN) (LH+SH), SoMV (LH), TMV (SH), CMV (SH); S. dulcamara--CMV-U/246 (SH), PVY(NTN) (LH), SoMV-H (L), TMV-O (L); S. luteum--PVY(N) (SH), PVY(NTN) (LH+L), TMV(SH).) and natural (Asclepias syriaca--TMV, AMV, TSWV; Alisma plantago-aquatica--PVY, SoMV; Ambrosia artemisiifolia--CMV; Chenopodium album--CMV, PVS, PLRV; C. hybridum--CMV; Cirsium canum--CMV, PVM; Carex vulpina--CMV; Comium maculatum--PVY; Datura stramonium--PVA, PVX, PVS, PVM, CMV, TMV; Lysimachia vulgaris--ArMV, BNYVV, CMV, TMV; Lythrum salicaria--ArMV; Malva neglecta--CMV; Mercurialis annua--SoMV; Solanum nigrum--CMV, PVY, PVY(N); Solidago gigantea--CMV, RpRSV, BNYVV; Stenactis annua--PVM, PVA) weed--virus relations were detected. The epidemiological role of perennial hosts (A. syriaca, A. planlago aquatica, C. canurm, L. vulgaris, L. salicaria, S. gigantea) is especially high, because they can serve as infection sources as well as overwintering

  17. Combining geochemical proxies in Porites coral cores from Chuuk Lagoon, Micronesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A. J.; Zivkovic, J.; Anderson, D.; Umling, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    Chuuk Lagoon (7°N, 152°E), part of the Federated States of Micronesia, is centrally located in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) and provides an ideal location for studies of El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Warm Pool processes. The WPWP is a key aspect of the global climate, exchanging heat and carbon with the atmosphere as well as with the surrounding ocean and the underlying water masses. Recent work has indicated long-term changes in the WPWP, including freshening and warming, that have been attributed to climate change. This region also experiences large fluctuations in precipitation and temperature due to interannual oscillations in ENSO. Oxygen isotope (δ18O) data from corals provides insight into the isotopic ratio of the water in which the corals grew their aragonitic skeletons. However, the oxygen isotope ratio of seawater varies with both changes in temperature and salinity. Sr/Ca ratios vary with seawater temperature and, when combined with δ18O, can be used to interpret both temperature and salinity variations. Three coral cores from large Porites lobata coral heads were collected from Chuuk Lagoon in June 2011, and one additional core was collected in 2008. Two cores (one in 2008 and another in 2011) were collected near the main island within the lagoon where they are subject to large precipitation and temperature variability due to fluctuations in ENSO. The remaining two cores were collected at the outer edge of the atoll, just inside of the barrier reef. These cores were collected in less than 3 m of water and were constantly being flushed with water from the open ocean warm pool. Seasonal variability in temperature and salinity are expected to be very low at this site. Stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) and trace element (Sr/Ca) analyses for the upper portion of these cores will be presented and compared to ENSO variability and observed trends in the WPWP. An adjacent lagoon coral is valuable in developing the lagoon history, while the

  18. Vasodilatory Effects of Combined Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs in Optimized Ratio.

    PubMed

    Loh, Yean Chun; Tan, Chu Shan; Ch'ng, Yung Sing; Ahmad, Mariam; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Yam, Mun Fei

    2017-03-01

    Recently, a new syndromic disease combination theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for hypertensive treatment has been introduced. In the wake of this new concept, a new science-based TCM formula that counteracts various syndromes is needed. The objective of this study was to develop such a formula. Five of the most clinically prescribed TCM herbs that work on different syndromes, namely Gastrodia elata, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Pueraria thomsonii, Panax notoginseng, and Alisma orientale, were selected for this study. The fingerprints of these five herbs were analyzed by tri-step Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Three different solvents, 95% ethanol, 50% ethanol, and distilled water, were used for the maceration of the herbs and their vasodilatory effects were studied using in vitro precontracted aortic ring model. Among these, the 50% ethanolic extracts of G. elata (GE50) and A. orientale (AO50), and 95% ethanolic extracts of U. rhynchophylla (UR95), P. thomsonii (PT95), and P. notoginseng (PN95) were found to be the most effective for eliciting vasodilation. Thus, these five extracts were used for orthogonal stimulus-response compatibility group studies by using L25 (5(5)) formula. The best combination ratio for GE50, UR95, PT95, PN95, and AO50, which was assigned as Formula 1 (F1), was found at EC0, EC25, EC20, EC20, and EC10, respectively. The vasodilatory effect of the extracts prepared from different extraction methods using F1 ratio was also studied. From the results, the EC50 and Rmax of total 50% ethanolic extract of five herbs using F1 ratio (F1-2) were 0.028 ± 0.005 mg/mL and 101.71% ± 3.64%, with better values than F1 (0.104 ± 0.014 mg/mL and 97.80% ± 3.12%, respectively). In conclusion, the optimum ratio and appropriate extraction method (F1-2) for the new TCM formula were revealed.

  19. The pharmacokinetic screening of multiple components of the Nao Mai Tong formula in rat plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry combined with pattern recognition method and its application to comparative pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunwei; Zhao, Lu; Rong, Yueying; Zhu, Guoxue; Liang, Shengwang; Wang, Shumei

    2016-11-30

    The Nao Mai Tong formula (NMT) is composed of Rhubarb, Ginseng, Ligusticum wallichii and Pueraria in a ratio of 3:3:2:2 (w/w) and is a well-known traditional Chinese prescription that has been clinically employed for treating ischemia cerebrovascular disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of multiple components (chryohol-8-O-β-D-glucoyroide, physcion-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rb3, ginsenoside Rc, senkyunolide I, ligustilide puerarin, daidzein, 3'-methoxy puerarin) after the oral administration of the NMT formula in rats. A rapid and sensitive UHPLC-Quadrupole-Orbitrap-MS with a sequential positive and negative ionization mode was developed to determine the 15 absorbed ingredients. After extraction from blood, the analytes and internal standards were subjected to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with Agela Venusil MPC18 (2.1mm×100mm, 3μm, Agela, USA). The mobile phase consisted of methanol and ammonium acetate (3mmolL(-1)) under gradient elution conditions. This validated method was successfully applied to a comparative pharmacokinetic study of fifteen components in rat plasma after oral administration of the NMT formula or single herb extracts to normal and stroke-afflicted rats. A principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to evaluate the differences in the pharmacokinetic behavior (time-course) of the absorbed components of NMT, and the absorbed components were assigned to 3 separate clusters. A comparison of the body dynamics of each group indicated that cluster B (ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rb3, ginsenoside Rc) might be the most important constituents controlling the pharmacological effects of NMT. The comparative pharmacokinetic study showed that the different groups had different pharmacokinetic characteristics. The pharmacokinetics-based UHPLC Quadrupole-Orbitrap-MS using a full-scan mode combined

  20. White Kwao Krua variety classification by botanical characteristics and ISSR-Touchdown PCR technique.

    PubMed

    Bunmanop, S; Sakuanrungsirikul, S; Manakasem, Y

    2011-07-01

    White Kwao Krua [Pueraria candollei Grah. var. mirifica (Airy Shaw et Suvatabandhu) Niyomdham] is a herb used as an ingredient in supplementary and cosmetic. The tuberous roots of White Kwao Krua (WKK) contain estrogen-like substances. Seeds of WKK, collected from Prachuab Khiri Khan, were planted and propagated in the farm of Suranaree University of Technology, and their genetic backgrounds were ambiguous. Thirty six plants of WKK in the same age were sampled for classification using 7 botanical characteristics and DNA fingerprint by ISSR-Touchdown PCR technique. The relationship of the 7 botanical characteristics, using principle component analysis (PCA), showed the WKK plants fell into 3 groups. In the first group was plant number 34, which was distinguished from the other plants by its small leaf size. The second group consisted of 23 plants with elliptic leaf shape, acute leaf base, and acuminate leaf apex. The third group consisted of 12 plants with ovate leaf shape, obtuse leaf base, and cuspidate leaf apex. The ISSR-Touchdown PCR technique with 41 primers detected 355 loci of DNA with an average of 8.6 loci per primer. The sizes of DNA ranged between 280 bp to 1550 bp. Two hundred ninety three loci exhibited polymorphisms (82.54%) and the rest 62 loci were monomorphic (17.46%). The polymorphism information content (PIC) was between 0.0315-0.9779 (average 0.4779) and number of effective alleles per locus (Ne) ranged between 1.1250-1.8541 (average 1.5544). Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), Jaccard similarity coefficient and PCA were used to find the construction of genetic relationship of WKK. The genetic similarity (GS) of WKK ranged between 0.50-0.86 (average 0.77). At the GS of 0.56 from cluster analysis, the WKK varieties could be divided into 2 major groups. The first group comprised of plant number 34 and 7, and the second group could be further divided in 2 subgroups at GS of 0.69. None of the WKK plants was identical in

  1. Environmental and biotic changes across the Permian Triassic boundary in western Tethys: The Bulla parastratotype, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farabegoli, Enzo; Perri, M. Cristina; Posenato, Renato

    2007-01-01

    of Meishan D section. The main decrease in abundance and biodiversity in the Southern Alps coincides with appearance of small oolites with crystalline outer cortex near the basal transgressive tract of the lower Tesero Mbr, a ca. 220 cm sedimentary cycle, that is followed by extension of microbialitic layers alternating with veritable biostromes with brachiopods and byssate bivalves as salient components among the algae. Vacated niches favored evolution of conodonts. Hindeodid conodont biodiversity increased with species developing characteristics of Isarcicella. This interval has been referred to the Changhsingian Late praeparvus Zone and correlated with Bed 27a-b of Meishan D section. The PTB has been identified in the Bulla section at 1.30 m from the base of the Werfen Fm. - with the first appearance of Hindeodus parvus defining the base of the parvus Zone - in a microbialitic layer correlated with Bed 27c of Meishan D section. Around the PTB the major part of the remaining Permian biota disappeared. Gymnocodiacean algae were the last group to undergo extinction within the Triassic layers. Biodiversity dropped severely in the succeeding bioturbated microbialitic interval from which conodonts are absent. More humid climate is reflected in a more sandy marine substrate inhabited by Lingula, Unionites and Claraia. Conodonts recurred in the schizohaline upper part. The succeeding entry of the biozonal markers Isarcicella lobata, Isarcicella staeschei and Isarcicella isarcica allow discrimination of three conodont biozones. The layer with entry of I. staeschei has been aligned with Bed 28 of Meishan D section. The main extinction phase in the western Tethys seems to correspond to a gradual but swift transition from acid-bath to alkaline-bath according to the Deev Jahi model of Heydari and Hassanzadeh [Heydari, E. and Hassanzadeh, J., 2003. Deev Jahi model of the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction: a case for gas hydrates as the main cause of biological crisis on

  2. Sex-associated variations in coral skeletal oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of Porites panamensis in the southern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral-Tena, Rafael A.; Sánchez, Alberto; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor; Ruvalcaba-Díaz, Angel H.; Balart, Eduardo F.

    2016-05-01

    variables; therefore, variations in skeletal δ13C appear to be driven mainly by metabolic effects. Our results support the hypothesis of a sex-associated difference in skeletal δ18O and δ13C signal, and suggest that environmental conditions and coral growth parameters affect skeletal isotopic signals differently in each sex. Although these findings relate to one gonochoric brooding species, they may have some implications for the more commonly used gonochoric spawning species such as Porites lutea and Porites lobata.

  3. Simultaneous determination of gastrodin and puerarin in rat plasma by HPLC and the application to their interaction on pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Dai, Jundong; Huang, Zhenlin; Du, Qinghua; Lin, Jiahao; Wang, Yurong

    2013-02-01

    Gastrodin (Gas) and puerarin (Pur) are bioactive substances derived from traditional Chinese medicine Gastrodia elata and Radix Puerariae, respectively, which were often used together in Chinese clinical prescriptions. Their injections were used in combined way for treatment of some cardiocerebrovascular diseases in clinic, especially for vertigo due to vertebrobasilar ischemia. In this paper, interaction of gastrodin and puerarin in rat plasma pharmacokinetics via intragastic (i.g.)/intravenous (i.v.) administration was investigated. A reliable HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of Gas and Pur in rat plasma with a linear range of 0.101-101 μg/mL for Gas and 0.0500-5.98 μg/mL for Pur (r(2)>0.993). The LLOQ, LOD of Gas and Pur were determined to be 0.101, 0.0486 μg/mL, and 0.05, 0.0245 μg/mL, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision were all less than 12.0%, whilst the accuracy were all within 96.4±6.00%. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the analytes in rats after i.g./i.v. administration of Gas and Pur alone or combined with each other (i.g.: 40 mg/kg Gas, 400 mg/kg Pur; i.v.: 20 mg/kg Gas, 20 mg/kg Pur). Blood samples were collected from retinal vein plexus of rats at predetermined time points and plasma containing the internal standard tyrosol (IS) were precipitated by methanol and chromatography was carried out on a C(18) column with a gradient mobile phase of ACN-H(2)O with 0.05% phosphoric acid as a modifier. The pharmacokinetic profiles of combined administration were found to be distinct from those of given alone. The C(max), T(max), T(1/2), MRT of Gas administrated alone or combined with Pur via i.g. were 21.7 μg/mL, 0.250 h, 2.81 h, 0.830 h and 18.4 μg/mL, 0.550 h, 0.970 h, 1.37 h, respectively, of Pur administrated alone or combined with Gas via i.g. were 0.490 μg/mL, 1.95 h, 1.33 h, 2.10 h and 2.01 μg/mL, 0.570 h, 4.00 h, 5.10 h, respectively. The relative oral