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Sample records for kui mss kohanemine

  1. Multispectral Scanner (MSS) Instrument Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Banks, G.

    1984-01-01

    The MSS sensor image processing and resolution capabilities as well as a general system description are presented in chart form. Emphasis is placed on absolute radiometric calibration, video and wedge level timing sequence, focal plane dimensions, sampling sequence, and a description of the mirror coordinate systems.

  2. LANDSAT-4 MSS interband registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieve, G.; Simard, R.

    1984-01-01

    Interband registration on raw LANDSAT-4 MSS data was measured in the four MSS bands of the Mistassini, Quebec scene (path-row 16-24, June 21, 1983). Statistical comparison between line-pixel locations of uniformly distributed ground control points in the four different bands permitted quantitative measures of the offset over the entire scene. The statistical distribution of the offset measures permitted evaluation of the standard error on the mean values, giving confidence on their precision. Results obtained using a manual ground control point done on a digital image correction system and those obtained using digital band-to-band correlation adapted from a digital stereographic correlation algorithm are tabulated. The pixel misrepresentation values obtained are compared with published NASA figures.

  3. Lansat MSS, Radiometric Processing Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunier, Sebastien; Salgues, Germain; Gascon, Ferran; Biaasutti, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The reprocessing campaigns of Landsat European Space Agency (ESA) data archive have been initiated since 3 years [1]. As part of this project, the processing algorithms have been upgraded. This article focuses on the radiometric processing of historical data observed with the Multi Spectral Scanner (MSS) instruments on board Landsat 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.The Landsat MSS data have been recorded data from 1972 up to 1990. The MSS instruments have been designed with four visible bands covering the near / infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, allowing the spatial sampling of our Earth surface at 60 meter.The current calibration method has shown some limitations in case of data observed out of mid latitude areas, where the Earth surface is bright because of desert or snow. The resulting image data suffers from saturations and is not fit for the potential application purposes.Although, when saturation exist, further investigations have shown that the radiometry of the raw data involved in the production of the Level 1 images is generally correct. As consequences, experiments have been undertaken to adapt the current processing in order to produce image data saturation free products.

  4. LANDSAT (MSS): Image demographic estimations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Foresti, C.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two sets of urban test sites, one with 35 cities and one with 70 cities, were selected in the State, Sao Paulo. A high degree of colinearity (0.96) was found between urban and areal measurements taken from aerial photographs and LANDSAT MSS imagery. High coefficients were observed when census data were regressed against aerial information (0.95) and LANDSAT data (0.92). The validity of population estimations was tested by regressing three urban variables, against three classes of cities. Results supported the effectiveness of LANDSAT to estimate large city populations with diminishing effectiveness as urban areas decrease in size.

  5. Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alland, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes my work with the Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS) team during the summer of 2011. It gives some background on the motivation for this project and describes the expected benefit to the Cassini program. It then introduces the two tasks that I worked on - an automatic system auditing tool and a series of corrections to the Cassini Sequence Generator (SEQ_GEN) - and the specific objectives these tasks were to accomplish. Next, it details the approach I took to meet these objectives and the results of this approach, followed by a discussion of how the outcome of the project compares with my initial expectations. The paper concludes with a summary of my experience working on this project, lists what the next steps are, and acknowledges the help of my Cassini colleagues.

  6. Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alland, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes my work with the Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS) team during the summer of 2011. It gives some background on the motivation for this project and describes the expected benefit to the Cassini program. It then introduces the two tasks that I worked on - an automatic system auditing tool and a series of corrections to the Cassini Sequence Generator (SEQ_GEN) - and the specific objectives these tasks were to accomplish. Next, it details the approach I took to meet these objectives and the results of this approach, followed by a discussion of how the outcome of the project compares with my initial expectations. The paper concludes with a summary of my experience working on this project, lists what the next steps are, and acknowledges the help of my Cassini colleagues.

  7. Integrated MSS Effects: An Empirical Health Care Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgionne, Guisseppi A.; Kohli, Rajiv

    1995-01-01

    Gives an overview of the decision-making process, presents a management support system (MSS) for supporting decision making, and assesses the influence of the MSS on the process and outcomes of health-care decision making. Findings indicate that an MSS improves both the outcomes from, and process of, hospital decision making. (Author/JMV)

  8. Magnetic seeding sedimentation (MSS) of coal slimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiqing; Yue, Tao; Dai, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic seeding sedimentation (MSS), i.e. adding magnetic seeds and pre-magnetization for sedimentation, is a technique especially for sedimentation of fine slimes, improving the sedimentation performance by introducing the magnetic interactions between particles in a suspension and enlarging the apparent size of the fine particles. The fine coal slimes with a size of 66.68%-38μm were investigated by the MSS. Sedimentation tests were conducted, and some measurements, such as laser size analysis, magnetic susceptibility by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), were also applied in order to probe the mechanism of the MSS. Based on the tests, measurements and calculations it was demonstrated that the sedimentation of coal slimes increased with the additions of the magnetic seeds, and in the presence of the polyacrylamide, and also there appeared a relatively large apparent size of slimes after additions of magnetic seeds and/or polyacrylamide. So, the reason for the influence of MSS lies in fact that the presence of the polyacrylamide intensified the adsorption of magnetic seeds on the coal particles and the coverage of the magnetic seeds on the coal surface from 0.2% wt. to1.3% wt., resulting in increased magnetic susceptibility of coal particles from 9.13×10-9m3/kg to 22.17×10-9m3/kg and thus a low magnetic field strength of pre-magnetization needed for the magnetic agglomeration to happen among the coal particles (the threshold of magnetic field strength for agglomeration) from 602mT to 24mT prior to proper sedimentation.

  9. Evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (Principal Investigator); Murphy, J. M.; Grieve, G.; Simard, R.; Horler, D.; Ahern, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    Interband line pixel misregistrations were determined for the four MSS bands of the Mistassini, Ontario scene and multitemporal registration of LANDSAT-4 products were tested for two different geocoded scenes. Line and pixel misregistrations are tabulated as determined by the manual ground control points and the digital band to band correlation techniques. A method was developed for determining the spectral information content of TM images for forestry applications.

  10. BOREAS Landsat MSS Imagery: Digital Counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) Program launched the first of a series of satellites (ERTS-1) in 1972. Part of the NASA Earth Resources Survey Program, the ERTS Program and the ERTS satellites were later renamed Landsat to better represent the civil satellite program's prime emphasis on remote sensing of land resources. Landsat satellites 1 through 5 carry the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) sensor. Canada for Remote Sensing (CCRS) and BOREAS personnel gathered a set of MSS images of the BOREAS region from Landsat satellites 1, 2, 4, and 5 covering the dates of 21 Aug 1972 to 05 Sep 1988. The data are provided in binary image format files of various formats. The Landsat MSS imagery is available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  11. Synthetic aperture radar/LANDSAT MSS image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, H. E. (Editor); Oberholtzer, J. D. (Editor); Anuta, P. E. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Algorithms and procedures necessary to merge aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery were determined. The design of a SAR/LANDSAT data merging system was developed. Aircraft SAR images were registered to the corresponding LANDSAT MSS scenes and were the subject of experimental investigations. Results indicate that the registration of SAR imagery with LANDSAT MSS imagery is feasible from a technical viewpoint, and useful from an information-content viewpoint.

  12. Comparison of Landsat MSS and merged MSS/RBV data for analysis of natural vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, N. E. G.; Cox, S.

    1980-01-01

    Improved resolution could make satellite remote sensing data more useful for surveys of natural vegetation. Although improved satellite/sensor systems appear to be several years away, one potential interim solution to the problem of achieving greater resolution without sacrificing spectral sensitivity is through the merging of Landsat RBV and MSS data. This paper describes the results of a study performed to obtain a preliminary evaluation of the usefulness of two types of products that can be made by merging Landsat RBV and MSS data. The products generated were a false color composite image and a computer recognition map. Of these two products, the false color composite image appears to be the most useful.

  13. Assessment of MSS spectral indexes for monitoring arid rangeland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, H. B.

    1983-01-01

    The utility of MSS spectral indexes for monitoring arid rangeland vegetation was tested by determining correlations between spectral indexes and vegetation parameters and by examining retrospective MSS data to determine if vegetation change could be detected and measured using spectral indexes. MSS Band 5, albedo, and the Kauth-Thomas Brightness component appear to be useful for monitoring total vegetation cover. Multiseasonal green vegetation indexes could be used to estimate changes in the shrub/grass ratio. In retrospective monitoring, spectral index change appeared to be offset from true change, indicating that the methods used to standardize data sets for differences in solar elevation and sensor radiometric response were not completely successful.

  14. Using HCMM Thermal Data to Improve Classification of MSS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, R. G.; Sekhon, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Spectral overlap between urban and rural land use/land cover categories can lead to unacceptable map accuracy levels in the classification of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data. The four MSS bands used alone are not always adequate to distinguish among various land uses and cover types having similar spectral responses. The use of thermal data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite as a means of improving MSS land cover classification accuracies for urban versus rural categories was investigated. The approaches used to integrate the HCMM data are described.

  15. CCRS proposal for evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (Principal Investigator); Guindon, B.; Murphy, J.; Butlin, J. M.; Duff, P.; Fitzgerald, A.; Grieve, G.

    1984-01-01

    The measurement of registration errors in LANDSAT MSS data is discussed as well as the development of a revised algorithm for the radiometric calibration of TM data and the production of a geocoded TM image.

  16. Radiometric calibration of the Landsat MSS sensor series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, Dennis L.; Karki, Sadhana; Bhatt, Rajendra; Micijevik, Esad; Aaron, David; Jasinski, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing of the Earth using Landsat sensors was ushered on July 23, 1972, with the launch of Landsat-1. Following that success, four more Landsat satellites were launched, and each of these carried the Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). These five sensors provided the only consistent multispectral space-based imagery of the Earth's surface from 1972 to 1982. This work focuses on developing both a consistent and absolute radiometric calibration of this sensor system. Cross-calibration of the MSS was performed through the use of pseudoinvariant calibration sites (PICSs). Since these sites have been shown to be stable for long periods of time, changes in MSS observations of these sites were attributed to changes in the sensors themselves. In addition, simultaneous data collections were available for some MSS sensor pairs, and these were also used for cross-calibration. Results indicated substantial differences existed between instruments, up to 16%, and these were reduced to 5% or less across all MSS sensors and bands. Lastly, this paper takes the calibration through the final step and places the MSS sensors on an absolute radiometric scale. The methodology used to achieve this was based on simultaneous data collections by the Landsat-5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments. Through analysis of image data from a PICS location and through compensating for the spectral differences between the two instruments, the Landsat-5 MSS sensor was placed on an absolute radiometric scale based on the Landsat-5 TM sensor. Uncertainties associated with this calibration are considered to be less than 5%.

  17. LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystem radiometric characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. (Editor); Barker, J. (Editor); Clark, B. P.; Dasgupta, R.

    1983-01-01

    The multispectral band scanner (mass) and its spectral characteristics are described and methods are given for relating video digital levels on computer compatible tapes to radiance into the sensor. Topics covered include prelaunch calibration procedures and postlaunch radiometric processng. Examples of current data resident on the MSS image processing system are included. The MSS on LANDSAT 4 is compared with the scanners on earlier LANDSAT satellites.

  18. SPOT: How good for geology? A comparison with LANDSAT MSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesoeren, A.

    1986-12-01

    Geological interpretation possibilities of SPOT MSS and LANDSAT MSS positive prints enlarged to the same scale were compared, using as a test area part of the Jebel Amour (Algeria). The SPOT imagery offers many advantages, filling the gap between remote sensing from space and aerial photography. The best results by visual interpretation are obtained in combining SPOT for the required details with LANDSAT for the synoptic veiw. Further improvements are expected from the use of SPOT stereo-pairs.

  19. Comparison of classification schemes for MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.; Bartolucci, L. A.; Lozano-Garcia, D. F.; Valdes, J. A.; Valenzuela, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    The launch of the Landsat-4 satellite in July 1982 provided the first full coverage from space of the 0.4-12 micron spectrum of the earth scene. In addition to the green, red, and near IR bands of the MSS, the TM provides a band in the blue, two in the middle IR, and one thermal IR. The paper describes spectral class analysis of coincident MSS and TM data to evaluate the contribution of the additional TM bands. In addition, various classifiers are available which were applied to the TM data. In the spectral class analysis, twice the number of separable classes was found in the TM data compared to the MSS data.

  20. Marine Seismic System (MSS). Development, Deployment and Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    Recommendations) * Although only 40 hours of seismic and hydroacoustic dan were collected with the system fu’lly deployed, the MSS program can certainly...GARBAGE RESULTS DESERVED FOR SUCH A BONEH - EAD MISTAKE. THE FORMAT OF THE COMMAND IS AS FOLLOWS:- STD<RET> COMPUTE STANDARD DEVIATION ; AND MEAN FOR ENTIRE

  1. Air quality indices from ERTS-1 MSS information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, E. L.; Stryker, S.; Ward, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Comparison between ground based atmospheric turbidity network measurements and the average scene grayness from MSS Channel 4 data is in progress. Correlation between these two sources is promising. If continued correlation occurs for other ERTS-1 overflight dates and ground test sites, a new operational use of ERTS-1 useful to Federal, state, and international organizations will become available.

  2. The Development of the Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canel, Azize Nilgun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the process of developing the Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS) aiming to support studies in the field of marital satisfaction and to obtain information about couples in a short time through psychological counseling is discussed. The scale including 101 yes-no items aiming to reveal couples' opinions about their marriages was…

  3. Impact of LANDSAT MSS sensor differences on change detection analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likens, W. C.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Some 512 by 512 pixel subwindows for simultaneously acquired scene pairs obtained by LANDSAT 2,3 and 4 multispectral band scanners were coregistered using LANDSAT 4 scenes as the base to which the other images were registered. Scattergrams between the coregistered scenes (a form of contingency analysis) were used to radiometrically compare data from the various sensors. Mode values were derived and used to visually fit a linear regression. Root mean square errors of the registration varied between .1 and 1.5 pixels. There appear to be no major problem preventing the use of LANDSAT 4 MSS with previous MSS sensors for change detection, provided the noise interference can be removed or minimized. Data normalizations for change detection should be based on the data rather than solely on calibration information. This allows simultaneous normalization of the atmosphere as well as the radiometry.

  4. Regression and ratio estimators to integrate AVHRR and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Ross

    1989-01-01

    Regression and ratio estimators are used to integrate AVHRR-Global Area Coverage (GAC) and Landsat MSS digital data to estimate forest area in the continental United States. Forestlands are enumerated for the 48 contiguous states using five different AVHRR-GAC data sets. Results indicated that the GAC and MSS forest estimates were not highly correlated. Although the ratio of means and linear regression corrections were, on the average, closer to national U.S. Forest Service forest area estimates, these correction procedures did not consistently improve GAC estimates of forest area. GAC forest area estimates tended to be high in densely forested regions such as the northeast and low in sparsely forested areas.

  5. Regression and ratio estimators to integrate AVHRR and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Ross

    1989-01-01

    Regression and ratio estimators are used to integrate AVHRR-Global Area Coverage (GAC) and Landsat MSS digital data to estimate forest area in the continental United States. Forestlands are enumerated for the 48 contiguous states using five different AVHRR-GAC data sets. Results indicated that the GAC and MSS forest estimates were not highly correlated. Although the ratio of means and linear regression corrections were, on the average, closer to national U.S. Forest Service forest area estimates, these correction procedures did not consistently improve GAC estimates of forest area. GAC forest area estimates tended to be high in densely forested regions such as the northeast and low in sparsely forested areas.

  6. Continental land cover assessment using Landsat MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Ross; Case, David; Horning, Ned; Anderson, Virgil; Pillai, Sree

    1987-01-01

    A statistical procedure to assess level-II continental resources using Landsat MSS digital data is presented. The statistical procedure involves a two-stage cluster sample within a stratified random sample. The utility of this procedure is assessed by using it to estimate the areal extent of the conifer and hardwood resources of the continental U.S. National estimates of conifer and hardwood derived using this sampling procedure were within 3 percent of U.S. Forest Service (USFS) figures. According to the Landsat-based study, 11 percent of the country is conifer forest and 12 percent is hardwood. The corresponding USFS figures are 13 and 15 percent, respectively. Comparison of the MSS classification products and airphotos showed that the conifer cover class was correctly identified 74 percent of the time and hardwood 80 percent of the time. The average classification accuracy countrywide for the four cover types considered (conifer, hardwood, water, and 'other') is 74 percent, and the overall accuracy is 85 percent. The statistical procedure provides a method of incorporating Landsat MSS digital data as a second state for level-II continental resource assessment. Alternate data sources, e.g., satellite and aircraft photographic imagery, may also be used in conjunction with this statistical model.

  7. The Marker State Space (MSS) method for classifying clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Brian P; Curnutte, Bryan; Maupin, Kevin A; Partyka, Katie; Choi, Sunguk; Brand, Randall E; Langmead, Christopher J; Tembe, Waibhav; Haab, Brian B

    2013-01-01

    The development of accurate clinical biomarkers has been challenging in part due to the diversity between patients and diseases. One approach to account for the diversity is to use multiple markers to classify patients, based on the concept that each individual marker contributes information from its respective subclass of patients. Here we present a new strategy for developing biomarker panels that accounts for completely distinct patient subclasses. Marker State Space (MSS) defines "marker states" based on all possible patterns of high and low values among a panel of markers. Each marker state is defined as either a case state or a control state, and a sample is classified as case or control based on the state it occupies. MSS was used to define multi-marker panels that were robust in cross validation and training-set/test-set analyses and that yielded similar classification accuracy to several other classification algorithms. A three-marker panel for discriminating pancreatic cancer patients from control subjects revealed subclasses of patients based on distinct marker states. MSS provides a straightforward approach for modeling highly divergent subclasses of patients, which may be adaptable for diverse applications.

  8. Geometric Accuracy of LANDSAT-4 MSS Image Data. [Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R.; Usery, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Analyses of the LANDSAT-4 MSS image data of North Georgia provided by the EDC in CTT-p formats reveal that errors of approximately + or - 30 m in the raw data can be reduced to about + or - 55 m based on rectification procedures involving the use of 20 to 30 well-distributed GCPs and 2nd or 3rd degree polynomial equations. Higher order polynomials do not appear to improve the rectification accuracy. A subscene area of 256 by 256 pixels was rectified with a 1st degree polynomial to yield an RMSE sub xy value of + or - 40 m, indicating that USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangle-sized areas of LANDSAT-4 data can be fitted to a map base with relatively few control points and simple equations. The errors in the rectification process are caused by the spatial resolution of the MSS data, by errors in the maps and GCP digitizing process, and by displacements caused by terrain relief. Overall, due to the improved pointing and attitude control of the spacecraft, the geometric quality of the LANDSAT-4 MSS data appears much improved over that of LANDSAT-1, -2 AND -3.

  9. Geometric accuracy of LANDSAT-4 MSS image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R.; Usery, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of the LANDSAT-4 MSS image data of North Georgia provided by the EDC in CCT-p formats reveal that errors of approximately + or - 30 m in the raw data can be reduced to about + or - 55 m based on rectification procedures involving the use of 20 to 30 well-distributed GCPs and 2nd or 3rd degree polynomial equations. Higher order polynomials do not appear to improve the rectification accuracy. A subscene area of 256 x 256 pixels was rectified with a 1st degree polynomial to yield an RMSE sub xy value of + or - 40 m, indicating that USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangle-sized areas of LANDSAT-4 data can be fitted to a map base with relatively few control points and simple equations. The errors in the rectification process are caused by the spatial resolution of the MSS data, by errors in the maps and GCP digitizing process, and by displacements caused by terrain relief. Overall, due to the improved pointing and attitude control of the spacecraft, the geometric quality of the LANDSAT-4 MSS data appears much improved over that of LANDSATS -1, -2 and -3.

  10. Specific interactions of Mss4 with members of the Rab GTPase subfamily.

    PubMed

    Burton, J L; Burns, M E; Gatti, E; Augustine, G J; De Camilli, P

    1994-12-01

    Mss4 is a mammalian protein that was identified as a suppressor of a yeast secretory mutant harboring a mutation in the GTPase Sec4 and was found to stimulate GDP release from this protein. We have now performed a biochemical characterization of the Mss4 protein and examined the specificity of its association with mammalian GTPases. Mss4 is primarily a soluble protein with a widespread tissue distribution. Recombinant Mss4 binds GTPases present in tissue extracts, and by a gel overlay assay binds specifically Rab Rab10proteins. We further define the Mss4-GTPase interaction to a subset of Rabs belonging to the same subfamily branch which include Rab1, Rab3, Rab8, Rab10, Sec4 and Ypt1 but not Rab2, Rab4, Rab5, Rab6, Rab9 and Rab11. Accordingly, Mss4 co-precipitates from a brain extract with Rab3a but not Rab5. Mss4 only stimulates GDP release from, and the association of GTP gamma S with, this Rab subset. Recombinant Mss4 and Rab3a form a stable complex in solution that is dissociated with either GDP or GTP gamma S. Injection of Mss4 into the squid giant nerve terminal enhances neurotransmitter release. These results suggest that Mss4 behaves as a guanylnucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for a subset of Rabs to influence distinct vesicular transport steps along the secretory pathway.

  11. Performance of DA/FDMA architecture proposed for MSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles; Yan, Tsun-Yee; Dessouky, Khaled

    1989-01-01

    The system architecture proposed for the Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/JPL is presented. The demand assigned Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) scheme is described, and results for the associated network access protocol developed by JPL are presented. Both the total number of users that the system can support and the system spectral efficiency are given for a variety of traffic conditions, including those postulated for the Mobile Satellite System Architectures and Multiple Access Techniques Workshop. The results are given for both first- and second-generation one- and two-satellite systems.

  12. Terrain type recognition using ERTS-1 MSS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramenopoulos, N.

    1973-01-01

    For the automatic recognition of earth resources from ERTS-1 digital tapes, both multispectral and spatial pattern recognition techniques are important. Recognition of terrain types is based on spatial signatures that become evident by processing small portions of an image through selected algorithms. An investigation of spatial signatures that are applicable to ERTS-1 MSS images is described. Artifacts in the spatial signatures seem to be related to the multispectral scanner. A method for suppressing such artifacts is presented. Finally, results of terrain type recognition for one ERTS-1 image are presented.

  13. Shade images of forested areas obtained from LANDSAT MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Smith, James A.

    1989-01-01

    The pixel size in the present day Remote Sensing systems is large enough to include different types of land cover. Depending upon the target area, several components may be present within the pixel. In forested areas, generally, three main components are present: tree canopy, soil (understory), and shadow. The objective is to generate a shade (shadow) image of forested areas from multispectral measurements of LANDSAT MSS (Multispectral Scanner) data by implementing a linear mixing model, where shadow is considered as one of the primary components in a pixel. The shade images are related to the observed variation in forest structure, i.e., the proportion of inferred shadow in a pixel is related to different forest ages, forest types, and tree crown cover. The Constrained Least Squares (CLS) method is used to generate shade images for forest of eucalyptus and vegetation of cerrado using LANDSAT MSS imagery over Itapeva study area in Brazil. The resulted shade images may explain the difference on ages for forest of eucalyptus and the difference on three crown cover for vegetation of cerrado.

  14. Impact of LANDSAT MSS Sensor Differences on Change Detection Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likens, W. C.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Change detection techniques were used to pinpoint differences in the multispectral band scanners on LANDSAT 2, 3, and 4 satellites. The method of analysis was to co-register 512 by 512 pixel subwindows for all data pairs followed by scattergram generation and analysis. In all cases, the LANDSAT-4 data were used as the base to which other images were registered. There appear to be no major problems preventing use of LANDSAT-4 MSS with previous MSS sensors for charge detection, provided the interference noise can be removed or minimized. This noise may result in detection of spurious changes, as well as affect other uses of the data, including image classification. Analysis of dark (water and forests), rather than light features will be most impacted because the noise will form a higher percentage of the total response at low DN values. Any data normalizations for change detection should be based upon the data, rather than solely upon calibration information. While the observed relative radiometric transfer function between LANDSAT 3 and 4 was approximately as predicted, there were still significant deviations. Normalizing based upon data content also can have the advantage of allowing simultaneous normalization of the atmosphere as well as the radiometry.

  15. Correlation of ERTS MSS data and earth coordinate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Hieber, R. H.; Mccleer, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Experience has revealed a problem in the analysis and interpretation of ERTS-1 multispectral scanner (MSS) data. The problem is one of accurately correlating ERTS-1 MSS pixels with analysis areas specified on aerial photographs or topographic maps for training recognition computers and/or evaluating recognition results. It is difficult for an analyst to accurately identify which ERTS-1 pixels on a digital image display belong to specific areas and test plots, especially when they are small. A computer-aided procedure to correlate coordinates from topographic maps and/or aerial photographs with ERTS-1 data coordinates has been developed. In the procedure, a map transformation from earth coordinates to ERTS-1 scan line and point numbers is calculated using selected ground control points nad the method of least squares. The map transformation is then applied to the earth coordinates of selected areas to obtain the corresponding ERTS-1 point and line numbers. An optional provision allows moving the boundaries of the plots inward by variable distances so the selected pixels will not overlap adjacent features.

  16. Application of digital analysis of MSS to agro-environmental studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, S. N.; Lewis, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Topics of investigation include infrared analysis of vegetation canopies, urban/rural albedo studies, analysis of Field Spectrometer System (ESS) observations, geometric and radiometric processing techniques of aircraft MSS data, and the use of LANDSAT MSS observations to map wetlands and snow cover.

  17. Final Comparison of TM and MSS Data for Surface Mine Assessment in Logan County, West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, R. G.; Blodget, H. W.; Marcell, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of classifications during both raw and transformed MSS and TM data sets from 4 September 1982 were performed for the Logan County, West Virginia study area. The object was to compare the utility of TM and MSS data for delineating small, irregular ground features, particularly surface mines, and also to test data reduction/transformation techniques (band selection, canonical analysis, and principal components) in relation to a traditional means of unsupervised classification. Statistical results demonstrate that, on the average, the TM classifications yielded an overall .53 factor of improvement relative to the MSS classifications. When the accuracies for only three minor (in terms of areal extent) land use categories are examined, the factor of improvement for TM over MSS increases to 1.48; i.e., the TM is nearly one and one-half times better than the MSS for delineating small and irregular ground features such as contour strip mines.

  18. Vegetation density as deduced from ERTS-1 MSS response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Cuellar, J. A.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Richardson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Reflectance from vegetation increases with increasing vegetation density in the 0.75- to 1.35 micron wavelength interval. Therefore, ERTS-1 bands 6 (0.7 to 0.8 micron) and 7 (0.8 to 1.1 micron) contain information that should relate to the probable yield of crops and the animal carrying capacity of rangeland. The results of an experiment designed specifically to test the relations among leaf area index (LAI), plant population, plant cover and plant height, and the ERTS-1 MSS responses for 3 corn, 10 sorghum, and 10 cotton fields are given. Plant population was as useful as LAI for characterizing the sorghum and corn fields, and plant height was as good as LAI for characterizing cotton fields. These findings generally support the utility of ERTS-1 data for explaining variability in green biomass, harvestable forage and other indicators of productivity.

  19. Calculations of water depth from ERTS-MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 MSS data taken on October 10, 1972 of the Little Bahama Bank are being used to demonstrate the use of ERTS-1 data for mapping of shallow water features for the purpose of upgrading world navigation charts. Marked reflectance differences occur for the shallow water areas in Bands 4, 5, and 6. Digital processing of two adjacent data tapes within the ERTS frame covering an area of about 40 by 40 miles has been completed. Correlation of depth measurements to 5 meters has been successful. A mathematical model for depth measurements using ratio of voltages in Band 4 and 5 has been successfully developed and is being tested for accuracy. Additional studies for areas near Puerto Rico and in Northern Lake Michigan will be undertaken. Satellite data will also provide geographical evidence for verifying existence or nonexistence of doubtful shoal waters now appearing on world charts and considered to be hazardous to shipping.

  20. Shade images of forested areas obtained from Landsat MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Smith, James A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this report is to generate a shade (shadow) image of forested areas from Landsat MSS data by implementing a linear mixing model, where shadow is considered as one of the primary components in a pixel. The shade images are related to the observed variation in forest structure; i.e., the proportion of inferred shadow in a pixel is related to different forest ages, forest types, and tree crown cover. The constrained least-squares method is used to generate shade images for forest of eucalyptus and vegetation of 'cerrado' over the Itapeva study area in Brazil. The resulted shade images may explain the difference on ages for forest of eucalyptus and the difference on tree crown cover for vegetation of cerrado.

  1. Ecology and sampling techniques of an understudied subterranean habitat: the Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS).

    PubMed

    Mammola, Stefano; Giachino, Pier Mauro; Piano, Elena; Jones, Alexandra; Barberis, Marcel; Badino, Giovanni; Isaia, Marco

    2016-12-01

    The term Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS) has been used since the early 1980s in subterranean biology to categorize an array of different hypogean habitats. In general terms, a MSS habitat represents the underground network of empty air-filled voids and cracks developing within multiple layers of rock fragments. Its origins can be diverse and is generally covered by topsoil. The MSS habitat is often connected both with the deep hypogean domain-caves and deep rock cracks-and the superficial soil horizon. A MSS is usually characterized by peculiar microclimatic conditions, and it can harbor specialized hypogean, endogean, and surface-dwelling species. In light of the many interpretations given by different authors, we reviewed 235 papers regarding the MSS in order to provide a state-of-the-art description of these habitats and facilitate their study. We have briefly described the different types of MSS mentioned in the scientific literature (alluvial, bedrock, colluvial, volcanic, and other types) and synthesized the advances in the study of the physical and ecological factors affecting this habitat-i.e., microclimate, energy flows, animal communities, and trophic interactions. We finally described and reviewed the available sampling methods used to investigate MSS fauna.

  2. Two dimensional array of piezoresistive nanomechanical Membrane-type Surface Stress Sensor (MSS) with improved sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Genki; Akiyama, Terunobu; Loizeau, Frederic; Shiba, Kota; Gautsch, Sebastian; Nakayama, Tomonobu; Vettiger, Peter; de Rooij, Nico F; Aono, Masakazu

    2012-11-16

    We present a new generation of piezoresistive nanomechanical Membrane-type Surface stress Sensor (MSS) chips, which consist of a two dimensional array of MSS on a single chip. The implementation of several optimization techniques in the design and microfabrication improved the piezoresistive sensitivity by 3~4 times compared to the first generation MSS chip, resulting in a sensitivity about ~100 times better than a standard cantilever-type sensor and a few times better than optical read-out methods in terms of experimental signal-to-noise ratio. Since the integrated piezoresistive read-out of the MSS can meet practical requirements, such as compactness and not requiring bulky and expensive peripheral devices, the MSS is a promising transducer for nanomechanical sensing in the rapidly growing application fields in medicine, biology, security, and the environment. Specifically, its system compactness due to the integrated piezoresistive sensing makes the MSS concept attractive for the instruments used in mobile applications. In addition, the MSS can operate in opaque liquids, such as blood, where optical read-out techniques cannot be applied.

  3. Ecology and sampling techniques of an understudied subterranean habitat: the Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammola, Stefano; Giachino, Pier Mauro; Piano, Elena; Jones, Alexandra; Barberis, Marcel; Badino, Giovanni; Isaia, Marco

    2016-12-01

    The term Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS) has been used since the early 1980s in subterranean biology to categorize an array of different hypogean habitats. In general terms, a MSS habitat represents the underground network of empty air-filled voids and cracks developing within multiple layers of rock fragments. Its origins can be diverse and is generally covered by topsoil. The MSS habitat is often connected both with the deep hypogean domain—caves and deep rock cracks—and the superficial soil horizon. A MSS is usually characterized by peculiar microclimatic conditions, and it can harbor specialized hypogean, endogean, and surface-dwelling species. In light of the many interpretations given by different authors, we reviewed 235 papers regarding the MSS in order to provide a state-of-the-art description of these habitats and facilitate their study. We have briefly described the different types of MSS mentioned in the scientific literature (alluvial, bedrock, colluvial, volcanic, and other types) and synthesized the advances in the study of the physical and ecological factors affecting this habitat—i.e., microclimate, energy flows, animal communities, and trophic interactions. We finally described and reviewed the available sampling methods used to investigate MSS fauna.

  4. CCRS proposal for evaluating LANDSAT-D MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (Principal Investigator); Collins, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    Accomplishments in the evaluation of LANDSAT 4 data are reported. The objectives of the Canadian proposal are: (1) to quantify the LANDSAT-4 sensors and system performance for the purpose of updating the radiometric and geometric correction algorithms for MSS and for developing and evaluating new correction algorithms to be used for TM data processing; (2) to compare and access the degree to which LANDSAT-4 MSS data can be integrated with MSS imagery acquired from earlier LANDSAT missions; and (3) to apply image analysis and information extraction techniques for specific user applications such as forestry or agriculture.

  5. LANDSAT-D MSS/TM tuned orbital jitter analysis model LDS900

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollak, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    The final LANDSAT-D orbital dynamic math model (LSD900), comprised of all test validated substructures, was used to evaluate the jitter response of the MSS/TM experiments. A dynamic forced response analysis was performed at both the MSS and TM locations on all structural modes considered (thru 200 Hz). The analysis determined the roll angular response of the MSS/TM experiments to improve excitation generated by component operation. Cross axis and cross experiment responses were also calculated. The excitations were analytically represented by seven and nine term Fourier series approximations, for the MSS and TM experiment respectively, which enabled linear harmonic solution techniques to be applied to response calculations. Single worst case jitter was estimated by variations of the eigenvalue spectrum of model LSD 900. The probability of any worst case mode occurrence was investigated.

  6. Mean Sea Surface (mss) Model Determination for Malaysian Seas Using Multi-Mission Satellite Altimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, N. A. Z.; Musa, T. A.; Omar, K. M.; Din, A. H. M.; Omar, A. H.; Tugi, A.; Yazid, N. M.; Abdullah, N. M.; Wahab, M. I. A.

    2016-09-01

    The advancement of satellite altimeter technology has generated many evolutions to oceanographic and geophysical studies. A multi-mission satellite altimeter consists with TOPEX, Jason-1 and Jason-2, ERS-2, Envisat-1, CryoSat-2 and Saral are extracted in this study and has been processed using Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS) for the period of January 2005 to December 2015 to produce the sea surface height (hereinafter referred to SSH). The monthly climatology data from SSH is generated and averaged to understand the variation of SSH during monsoon season. Then, SSH data are required to determine the localised and new mean sea surface (MSS). The differences between Localised MSS and DTU13 MSS Global Model is plotted with root mean square error value is 2.217 metres. The localised MSS is important towards several applications for instance, as a reference for sea level variation, bathymetry prediction and derivation of mean dynamic topography.

  7. Precision annotation of predetermined primary sampling units on ERTS-1 MSS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanroessel, J. W.; Langley, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    Resectioning programs were developed for projecting the boundary corners of sample units, management units, and counties into U2 RC-10 and ERTS-1 MSS images. The technique used includes corrections for earth curvature, terrain elevation, and MSS distortions. The minimum standard error obtained was about 0.15 mm or 150 meters on the ground. This technique now makes it possible to include land ownership as an integral part of forest resource sampling plans using ERTS imagery.

  8. Preliminary Comparisons of the Information Content and Utility of TM Versus MSS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    Comparisons were made between subscenes from the first TM scene acquired of the Washington, D.C. area and a MSS scene acquired approximately one year earlier. Three types of analyses were conducted to compare TM and MSS data: a water body analysis, a principal components analysis and a spectral clustering analysis. The water body analysis compared the capability of the TM to the MSS for detecting small uniform targets. Of the 59 ponds located on aerial photographs 34 (58%) were detected by the TM with six commission errors (15%) and 13 (22%) were detected by the MSS with three commission errors (19%). The smallest water body detected by the TM was 16 meters; the smallest detected by the MSS was 40 meters. For the principal components analysis, means and covariance matrices were calculated for each subscene, and principal components images generated and characterized. In the spectral clustering comparison each scene was independently clustered and the clusters were assigned to informational classes. The preliminary comparison indicated that TM data provides enhancements over MSS in terms of (1) small target detection and (2) data dimensionality (even with 4-band data). The extra dimension, partially resultant from TM band 1, appears useful for built-up/non-built-up area separation.

  9. The DEAD-box helicase Mss116 plays distinct roles in mitochondrial ribogenesis and mRNA-specific translation

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Dasmanthie; Poliquin, Sarah; Zeng, Rui; Zamudio-Ochoa, Angelica; Marrero, Natalie; Perez-Martinez, Xochitl; Fontanesi, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Members of the DEAD-box family are often multifunctional proteins involved in several RNA transactions. Among them, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mss116 participates in mitochondrial intron splicing and, under cold stress, also in mitochondrial transcription elongation. Here, we show that Mss116 interacts with the mitoribosome assembly factor Mrh4, is required for efficient mitoribosome biogenesis, and consequently, maintenance of the overall mitochondrial protein synthesis rate. Additionally, Mss116 is required for efficient COX1 mRNA translation initiation and elongation. Mss116 interacts with a COX1 mRNA-specific translational activator, the pentatricopeptide repeat protein Pet309. In the absence of Mss116, Pet309 is virtually absent, and although mitoribosome loading onto COX1 mRNA can occur, activation of COX1 mRNA translation is impaired. Mutations abolishing the helicase activity of Mss116 do not prevent the interaction of Mss116 with Pet309 but also do not allow COX1 mRNA translation. We propose that Pet309 acts as an adaptor protein for Mss116 action on the COX1 mRNA 5΄-UTR to promote efficient Cox1 synthesis. Overall, we conclude that the different functions of Mss116 in the biogenesis and functioning of the mitochondrial translation machinery depend on Mss116 interplay with its protein cofactors. PMID:28520979

  10. Single-molecule analysis of Mss116-mediated group II intron folding

    PubMed Central

    Karunatilaka, Krishanthi S.; Solem, Amanda; Pyle, Anna Marie; Rueda, David

    2015-01-01

    DEAD-box helicases are conserved enzymes involved in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism, but their mechanisms of action remain unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the DEAD-box protein Mss116 on its natural substrate, the group II intron ai5γ. Group II introns are structurally complex catalytic RNAs considered evolutionarily related to the eukaryotic spliceosome, and an interesting paradigm for large RNA folding. We used single-molecule fluorescence to monitor the effect of Mss116 on folding dynamics of a minimal active construct, ai5γ–D135. The data show that Mss116 stimulates dynamic sampling between states along the folding pathway, an effect previously observed only with high Mg2+ concentrations. Furthermore, the data indicate that Mss116 promotes folding through discrete ATP-independent and ATP-dependent steps. We propose that Mss116 stimulates group II intron folding through a multi-step process that involves electrostatic stabilization of early intermediates and ATP hydrolysis during the final stages of native state assembly. PMID:20944626

  11. Sensitivity of Landsat MSS and TM to land cover change in the Golden Horseshoe, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGibbon, Jamie; Chen, Dongmei

    2008-10-01

    An ideal situation for conducting change detection is to use multi-temporal images acquired from the same sensor. However, many conditions (such as the discontinuity of sensors, weather conditions) would bring an end to the ideal temporal change detection. Imagery availability issues will force change detection studies in the future to increasingly incorporate multiple sensors. This study conducted change detection between Landsat TM (TM) and Landsat MSS (MSS) images from July 30, 1995 to June 2, 2003. The study area was centered on the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in south-central Ontario, Canada. Post-classification change detection was used to determine the type of change between the images. Results demonstrated that despite the different spatial resolution of the MSS and TM data, the change detection using both MSS and TM was similar in results to that of TM alone. A change detection where MSS is resampled to 30 meters was most effective in capturing the amount and type of change in the TM change study.

  12. Mapping of hydrothermal alternation zones and regional rock types using computer enhanced ERTS MSS images. [Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C.; Wetlaufer, P. H.; Billingsley, F. C.; Goetz, A. F. H.

    1974-01-01

    A combination of digital computer processing and color compositing of ERTS MSS images has been used to map hydrothermal alternation zones and regional rock types in south-central Nevada. The technique is based on enhancement of subtle visible and near infrared reflectivity differences between mineralogically dissimilar rocks, especially unaltered and altered rocks. MSS spectral bands are ratioed, pixel by pixel, in the computer and subsequently stretched. These ratio values are used to produce a new black and white image which shows the subtle spectral reflectivity differences. Additional enhancement is achieved by preparing color composites of two or more stretched ratio images. The choice of MSS bands for rationing depends on the spectral reflectance properties of the rocks to be discriminated. Although this technique is in the initial stage of development and is untested in other areas, it already appears to have considerable potential for targeting mineral prospects and for regional geologic mapping.

  13. LANDSAT-4 MSS and Thematic Mapper data quality and information content analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P.; Bartolucci, L.; Dean, E.; Lozano, F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Valdes, J.; Valenzuela, C.

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data were analyzed to obtain information on data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations were performed to test band-to-band registration accuracy. Thematic mapper overall system resolution was evaluated using scene objects which demonstrated sharp high contrast edge responses. Radiometric evaluation included detector relative calibration, effects of resampling, and coherent noise effects. Information content evaluation was carried out using clustering, principal components, transformed divergence separability measure, and supervised classifiers on test data. A detailed spectral class analysis (multispectral classification) was carried out to compare the information content of the MSS and TM for a large number of scene classes. A temperature-mapping experiment was carried out for a cooling pond to test the quality of thermal-band calibration. Overall TM data quality is very good. The MSS data are noisier than previous LANDSAT results.

  14. LANDSAT-4 MSS and Thematic Mapper data quality and information content analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P.; Bartolucci, L.; Dean, E.; Lozano, F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Valdes, J.; Valenzuela, C.

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data were analyzed to obtain information on data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations were performed to test band-to-band registration accuracy. Thematic mapper overall system resolution was evaluated using scene objects which demonstrated sharp high contrast edge responses. Radiometric evaluation included detector relative calibration, effects of resampling, and coherent noise effects. Information content evaluation was carried out using clustering, principal components, transformed divergence separability measure, and supervised classifiers on test data. A detailed spectral class analysis (multispectral classification) was carried out to compare the information content of the MSS and TM for a large number of scene classes. A temperature-mapping experiment was carried out for a cooling pond to test the quality of thermal-band calibration. Overall TM data quality is very good. The MSS data are noisier than previous LANDSAT results.

  15. Correlation between aircraft MSS and LIDAR remotely sensed data on a forested wetland in South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, John R.; Hodgson, Michael E.; Mackey, Halkard E., Jr.; Krabill, William

    1987-01-01

    Wetlands in a portion of the Savannah River swamp forest, the Steel Creek Delta, were mapped using April 26, 1985 high-resolution aircraft multispectral scanner (MSS) data. Due to the complex spectral characteristics of the wetland vegetation, it was necessary to implement several techniques in the classification of the MSS imagery of the Steel Creek Delta. In particular, when performing unsupervised classification, an iterative cluster busting technique was used which simplified the cluster labeling process. In addition to the MSS data, light detecting and ranging (LIDAR) data were acquired by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) personnel along two flightlines over the Steel Creek Delta. These data were registered with the wetland classification map and correlated. Statistical analyses demonstrated that the laser derived canopy height information was significantly correlated with the Steel Creek Delta wetland classes encountered along the profiling transect of the LIDAR data.

  16. Correlation between aircraft MSS and LIDAR remotely sensed data on a forested wetland in South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, John R.; Hodgson, Michael E.; Mackey, Halkard E., Jr.; Krabill, William

    1987-01-01

    Wetlands in a portion of the Savannah River swamp forest, the Steel Creek Delta, were mapped using April 26, 1985 high-resolution aircraft multispectral scanner (MSS) data. Due to the complex spectral characteristics of the wetland vegetation, it was necessary to implement several techniques in the classification of the MSS imagery of the Steel Creek Delta. In particular, when performing unsupervised classification, an iterative cluster busting technique was used which simplified the cluster labeling process. In addition to the MSS data, light detecting and ranging (LIDAR) data were acquired by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) personnel along two flightlines over the Steel Creek Delta. These data were registered with the wetland classification map and correlated. Statistical analyses demonstrated that the laser derived canopy height information was significantly correlated with the Steel Creek Delta wetland classes encountered along the profiling transect of the LIDAR data.

  17. Information content of data from the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS). [Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Software was constructed to reformat data to band interlevel format and analysis software was developed in an effort to quantify the increased information content (statistical variability within a data set) of thematic mapper data as compared to that from the LANDSAT 4 multispectral band scanner. Computer runs were carried out for several subareas from a data set acquired simultaneously by TM and MSS over a test area in northeast Arkansas, one of the most agriculturally diverse sea areas in the country. The 6 visible-near IR channels of the TM provide more information than the 4 channels of the MSS. A rough estimate of 20 bits per pixel for TM, and 10 bits per pixel for the MSS was computed for these subareas. These numbers are to be revised downward when allowance is made for noise in the data.

  18. CANADARM to the MSS - Unique verification features of the Canadian Mobile Servicing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, K.

    The integration and verification of the Mobile Servicing System (MSS), the Canadian contribution to the International Space Station Freedom Program, are described. First, the MSS and its performance requirements are discussed, with attention given to salient features essential to the integration and verification strategy. The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System and its performace requirements are then presented, and the integration and verification approach for both programs is summarized. Particular attention is given to the testing approach and the complementary analysis needs for design verification and acceptance. The discussion also covers anticipated changes to the verification strategy resulting from the recent restructuring of the Space Station Freedom program.

  19. A 400-MS/s 12-bit current-steering D/A converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaopeng, Wang; Yannan, Ren; Fule, Li; Zhihua, Wang

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a 400-MS/s 12-bit CMOS current-steering digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The proposed DAC adapts 6+2+4 segmented architecture and a modified switching scheme to improve dynamic and static performance. The measured spurious-free dynamic range is up to 77.18 dB at 400 MS/s with a 10 MHz input signal. The full-scale output current is 20 mA with a 1.8 V single power supply. The core area occupies 0.6 mm2 in a standard 1P-6M 0.18-μm CMOS process.

  20. Information theoretic comparisons of original and transformed data from Landsat MSS and TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The dispersion and concentration of signal values in transformed data from the Landsat-4 MSS and TM instruments are analyzed using a communications theory approach. The definition of entropy of Shannon was used to quantify information, and the concept of mutual information was employed to develop a measure of information contained in several subsets of variables. Several comparisons of information content are made on the basis of the information content measure, including: system design capacities; data volume occupied by agricultural data; and the information content of original bands and Tasseled Cap variables. A method for analyzing noise effects in MSS and TM data is proposed.

  1. Application of LANDSAT MSS data to the study of oceanographical environment. [Seto Inland Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator); Tsuchiya, K.; Ochiai, H.; Takeda, K.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT MSS data of a three year time lapse indicate change of sea surface condition in Seto Inland Sea and coastal region. The red tide which formerly concentrated in the bay or inland sea now extends into an open sea. A small ocean vortex similar to mesoscale atmospheric vortex is revealed by the band 4 image of the satellite data. A manual photographic method applied to a single band image of MSS is effective in detecting sea surface pollution.

  2. A determination of sampling intensity to characterize a Landsat MSS scene using two block sizes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horning, N.; Case, D.; Nelson, R.

    1986-01-01

    Three Landsat MSS scenes were processed to empirically determine the sampling intensity needed to characterize various land cover types including water, conifer, and hardwood. The block sizes used as the sampling units were 497 by 500 pixels (picture elements) and 248 by 250 pixels. It is found that, for a given accuracy criterion, the sampling intensity is dependent on the abundance of the cover type of interest in the MSS scene. The results also indicate that, when using the smaller block size, a smaller percentage of the scene has to be classified to obtain a given level of accuracy.

  3. Information theoretic comparisons of original and transformed data from Landsat MSS and TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The dispersion and concentration of signal values in transformed data from the Landsat-4 MSS and TM instruments are analyzed using a communications theory approach. The definition of entropy of Shannon was used to quantify information, and the concept of mutual information was employed to develop a measure of information contained in several subsets of variables. Several comparisons of information content are made on the basis of the information content measure, including: system design capacities; data volume occupied by agricultural data; and the information content of original bands and Tasseled Cap variables. A method for analyzing noise effects in MSS and TM data is proposed.

  4. Dual functions of Mss51 couple synthesis of Cox1 to assembly of cytochrome c oxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Perez-Martinez, Xochitl; Butler, Christine A; Shingu-Vazquez, Miguel; Fox, Thomas D

    2009-10-01

    Functional interactions of the translational activator Mss51 with both the mitochondrially encoded COX1 mRNA 5'-untranslated region and with newly synthesized unassembled Cox1 protein suggest that it has a key role in coupling Cox1 synthesis with assembly of cytochrome c oxidase. Mss51 is present at levels that are near rate limiting for expression of a reporter gene inserted at COX1 in mitochondrial DNA, and a substantial fraction of Mss51 is associated with Cox1 protein in assembly intermediates. Thus, sequestration of Mss51 in assembly intermediates could limit Cox1 synthesis in wild type, and account for the reduced Cox1 synthesis caused by most yeast mutations that block assembly. Mss51 does not stably interact with newly synthesized Cox1 in a mutant lacking Cox14, suggesting that the failure of nuclear cox14 mutants to decrease Cox1 synthesis, despite their inability to assemble cytochrome c oxidase, is due to a failure to sequester Mss51. The physical interaction between Mss51 and Cox14 is dependent upon Cox1 synthesis, indicating dynamic assembly of early cytochrome c oxidase intermediates nucleated by Cox1. Regulation of COX1 mRNA translation by Mss51 seems to be an example of a homeostatic mechanism in which a positive effector of gene expression interacts with the product it regulates in a posttranslational assembly process.

  5. Deforestation in Mwanza District, Malawi, from 1981 to 1992 as determined from Landsat MSS imagery

    Treesearch

    Andrew T. Hudak; Carol A. Wessman

    2000-01-01

    Malawi is critically short of fuelwood, the primary energy source for its poverty-stricken populace. Deforestation from 1981 to 1992 in Mwanza District in southern Malawi was assessed using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values calculated from multitemporal Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images. A control site, where vegetation change was assumed to...

  6. Satellite geological and geophysical remote sensing of Iceland: Preliminary results from analysis of MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.; Boedvarsson, A.; Fridriksson, S.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Thorarinsson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.

    1973-01-01

    A binational, multidisciplinary research effort in Iceland is directed at an analysis of MSS imagery from ERTS-1 to study a variety of geologic, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural phenomena. A preliminary evaluation of available MSS imagery of Iceland has yielded several significant results - some of which may have direct importance to the Icelandic economy. Initial findings can be summarized as follows: (1) recent lava flows can be delineated from older flows at Askja and Hekla; (2) MSS imagery from ERTS-1 and VHRR visible and infrared imagery from NOAA-2 recorded the vocanic eruption on Heimaey, Vestmann Islands; (3) coastline changes, particularly changes in the position of bars and beaches along the south coast are mappable; and (4) areas covered with new and residual snow can be mapped, and the appearance of newly fallen snow on ERTS-1, MSS band 7 appears dark where it is melting. ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of updating various types of maps of Iceland and will permit the compilation of special maps specifically aimed at those dynamic environmental phenomena which impact on the Icelandic economy.

  7. Change detection using NALC MSS triplicates to set forest planning context

    Treesearch

    D. R. Grey; P. E. Gessler; M. Hoppus; S. L. Boudreau

    2000-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service has purchased the North American Landscape Characterization (NALC) Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) triplicates (70's, 80's, and 90's) for every national forest in the United States. To encourage analysis and use of these data for forest planning, a change-detection training course was developed. The course covers basic methods...

  8. Ground truth management system to support multispectral scanner /MSS/ digital analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coiner, J. C.; Ungar, S. G.

    1977-01-01

    A computerized geographic information system for management of ground truth has been designed and implemented to relate MSS classification results to in situ observations. The ground truth system transforms, generalizes and rectifies ground observations to conform to the pixel size and shape of high resolution MSS aircraft data. These observations can then be aggregated for comparison to lower resolution sensor data. Construction of a digital ground truth array allows direct pixel by pixel comparison between classification results of MSS data and ground truth. By making comparisons, analysts can identify spatial distribution of error within the MSS data as well as usual figures of merit for the classifications. Use of the ground truth system permits investigators to compare a variety of environmental or anthropogenic data, such as soil color or tillage patterns, with classification results and allows direct inclusion of such data into classification operations. To illustrate the system, examples from classification of simulated Thematic Mapper data for agricultural test sites in North Dakota and Kansas are provided.

  9. [On-board medical support system (MSS) of flights of promising aerospace sets (design)].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Bednenko, V S

    2010-01-01

    It was suggested as the main compositive fractions MSS to consider the base system of automated evaluation of blood redistribution (BR) in body means of crew members protection and prophylaxis (CMPP) of unfavourable effects of flight factors to organism and also the automated circuit of CMPP' control. The advanced MSS includes 4 original measuring channels for registration of the base physiologic indices (electrocardiogram, venous-arterial pulsegram of neck vessels, reogram of head, earlap vessels pulsegram) the dynamic of which allows to determine with the help of computer the BR-integral parameter. The CMPP automated control circuit unites the separate protecting means in common system and executes the individual selection of regimes and CM PP-composition in accord with, first of all, body reactions manifestation and, secondly, individual physiologic status of spaceman. As CMPP was selected the negative pressure production around lower body part. Approlation of constructed active laboratory engineering mock-up MSS has performed investigations with participation of 29 subjects (Volunteers) under the modeling of hemodynamic shifts, developing in human body in short-term antiorthostatic hypokinesia (-10 degrees), as well as, in combined effect of antiorthostatic hypokinesia (-10 degrees), Coriolis acceleration and optokinetic stimulation. Results of investigations have showed, that the use of advanced MSS gives the indices of operator professional activity on the average of 17-32% under the decrease of hemodynamic stressful.

  10. Information content of data from the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    The progress of an investigation to quantify the increased information content of thematic mapper (TM) data as compared to that from the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner (MSS) is reported. Two night infrared images were examined and compared with Heat Capacity Mapping Mission data.

  11. Functional biomarkers of musculoskeletal syndrome (MSS) for early in vivo screening of selective MMP-13 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Suzanne G Nodop; Li, Jun; Nabozny, Gerald H; Reinhart, Glenn A; Muthukumarana, Akalushi C; Harrison, Paul C; Fryer, Ryan M

    2011-01-01

    Long-term administration of non-selective matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors, such as marimastat, in humans elicits musculoskeletal syndrome (MSS), a syndrome characterized by joint damage including pain, stiffness, and inflammation. This pathology is a significant obstacle to the clinical development of MMP inhibitors and in pre-clinical models MSS can be verified only after terminal histopathology. Consequently, we devised a longitudinal and functional readout of MSS in conscious rats treated with marimastat that was validated against terminal histological assessment. MSS was induced by minipump infusion of marimastat (5-10mg/kg/day). In marimastat-treated or vehicle-control groups, three possible functional biomarkers were assessed: paw volume (PV), landing foot splay separation (LFSS), and rotarod performance (n=6 rats/group for each endpoint). Histologically, fibrosis scores in the synovium and ligament increased from 0 on Day 1 (D1) to 4.6±0.2 and 4.7±0.1, respectively, on D15; growth plate thickness was also elevated from 215.0±6.3μm (D1) to 253.3±8.0μm (D15). While neither PV nor LFSS were correlative with MSS histopathology, marimastat (10mg/kg/day) reduced rotarod performance from 180±0s (D0) to 135±30s (D9) using a constant speed protocol (10rpm, 180s) and from 180±0s (D0) to 96±6s (D6) employing a variable speed protocol (increasing from 5 to 25rpm over 180s). Results of the present study demonstrate that rotarod performance can be used as a predictive longitudinal, in vivo functional biomarker of MSS concomitant with histological evidence of joint damage to effectively facilitate compound selection during drug discovery. Moreover, for targets with a mechanistic risk for MSS, the model is also conducive to inclusion in secondary pharmacodynamic studies during lead optimization to identify the best (safest) compounds for advancement into clinical trials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Combining DEM parameters with Landsat MSS and TM imagery in a GIS for mountain glacier characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratton, Denis J.; Howarth, Philip J.; Marceau, Danielle J.

    1990-07-01

    The building of a glaciological database is explored as an answer to the management of multisource and multiscale information required for the study of mountain glacier variations. Topographic information is derived from the 1:250,000 scale digital elevation model (DEM) of the Surveys and Mapping Branch of Energy, Mines and Resources, Canada. The interfacing of a geographic information system (GIS) and an image-analysis system (IAS) permits the inclusion of ancillary glaciological information in the automated sampling of training and test data for multispectral classification of Landsat MSS and TM imagery. The combination of visually and automatically classified covers increases the classification accuracy of MSS and TM data by 24 percent and 13 percent, respectively. Slope and aspect coverages are extracted from the raster DEM. The integration of satellite image classifications and DEM features in SPANS permits the subdivision of glacier basin covers into physiographic units. An example is presented for the ablation zone covers of the Columbia Icefield.

  13. Aircraft MSS data registration and vegetation classification of wetland change detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, E.J.; Jensen, J.R.; Ramsey, Elijah W.; Mackey, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    Portions of the Savannah River floodplain swamp were evaluated for vegetation change using high resolution (5a??6 m) aircraft multispectral scanner (MSS) data. Image distortion from aircraft movement prevented precise image-to-image registration in some areas. However, when small scenes were used (200-250 ha), a first-order linear transformation provided registration accuracies of less than or equal to one pixel. A larger area was registered using a piecewise linear method. Five major wetland classes were identified and evaluated for change. Phenological differences and the variable distribution of vegetation limited wetland type discrimination. Using unsupervised methods and ground-collected vegetation data, overall classification accuracies ranged from 84 per cent to 87 per cent for each scene. Results suggest that high-resolution aircraft MSS data can be precisely registered, if small areas are used, and that wetland vegetation change can be accurately detected and monitored.

  14. The Control Point Library Building System. [for Landsat MSS and RBV geometric image correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niblack, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota distributes precision corrected Landsat MSS and RBV data. These data are derived from master data tapes produced by the Master Data Processor (MDP), NASA's system for computing and applying corrections to the data. Included in the MDP is the Control Point Library Building System (CPLBS), an interactive, menu-driven system which permits a user to build and maintain libraries of control points. The control points are required to achieve the high geometric accuracy desired in the output MSS and RBV data. This paper describes the processing performed by CPLBS, the accuracy of the system, and the host computer and special image viewing equipment employed.

  15. A 14-bit 250-MS/s current-steering CMOS digital-to-analog converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueqing, Li; Hua, Fan; Qi, Wei; Zhen, Xu; Jianan, Liu; Huazhong, Yang

    2013-08-01

    A 14-bit 250-MS/s current-steering digital-to-analog converter (DAC) was fabricated in a 0.13 μm CMOS process. In conventional high-speed current-steering DACs, the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) is limited by nonlinear distortions in the code-dependent switching glitches. In this paper, the bottleneck is mitigated by the time-relaxed interleaving digital-random-return-to-zero (TRI-DRRZ). Under 250-MS/s sampling rate, the measured SFDR is 86.2 dB at 5.5-MHz signal frequency and 77.8 dB up to 122 MHz. The DAC occupies an active area of 1.58 mm2 and consumes 226 mW from a mixed power supply of 1.2/2.5 V.

  16. Parametric and Nonparametric Analysis of LANDSAT TM and MSS Imagery for Detecting Submerged Plant Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of LANDSAT TM and MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation are assessed. The problem is approached from two perspectives; purely stochastic or nonparametric in a radiative sense and theoretical in which radiative transfer equations are used to predict upwelling radiance at satellite altitude. The spectral and radiometric aspects of the theoretical approach are addressed with which a submerged plant canopy is distinguished from a surrounding bottom of sand or mud.

  17. Parametric and Nonparametric Analysis of LANDSAT TM and MSS Imagery for Detecting Submerged Plant Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of LANDSAT TM and MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation are assessed. The problem is approached from two perspectives; purely stochastic or nonparametric in a radiative sense and theoretical in which radiative transfer equations are used to predict upwelling radiance at satellite altitude. The spectral and radiometric aspects of the theoretical approach are addressed with which a submerged plant canopy is distinguished from a surrounding bottom of sand or mud.

  18. Structure of the Yeast DEAD Box Protein Mss116p Reveals Two Wedges that Crimp RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Del Campo, Mark; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2010-01-12

    The yeast DEAD box protein Mss116p is a general RNA chaperone that functions in mitochondrial group I and II intron splicing, translational activation, and RNA end processing. Here we determined high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of Mss116p complexed with an RNA oligonucleotide and ATP analogs AMP-PNP, ADP-BeF{sub 3}, or ADP-AlF{sub 4}{sup -}. The structures show the entire helicase core acting together with a functionally important C-terminal extension. In all structures, the helicase core is in a closed conformation with a wedge {alpha} helix bending RNA 3' of the central bound nucleotides, as in previous DEAD box protein structures. Notably, Mss116p's C-terminal extension also bends RNA 5' of the central nucleotides, resulting in RNA crimping. Despite reported functional differences, we observe few structural changes in ternary complexes with different ATP analogs. The structures constrain models of DEAD box protein function and reveal a strand separation mechanism in which a protein uses two wedges to act as a molecular crimper.

  19. Determining the rate of forest conversion in Mato Grosso, Brazil, using Landsat MSS and AVHRR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Ross; Horning, Ned; Stone, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    AVHRR-LAC thermal data and Landsat MSS and TM spectral data were used to estimate the rate of forest clearing in Mato Grosso, Brazil, between 1981 and 1984. The Brazilian state was stratified into forest and nonforest. A list sampling procedure was used in the forest stratum to select Landsat MSS scenes for processing based on estimates of fire activity in the scenes. Fire activity in 1984 was estimated using AVHRR-LAC thermal data. State-wide estimates of forest conversion indicate that between 1981 and 1984, 353,966 ha + or - 77,000 ha (0.4 percent of the state area) were converted per year. No evidence of reforestation was found in this digital sample. The relationship between forest clearing rate (based on MSS-TM analysis) and fire activity (estimated using AVHRR data) was noisy (R-squared = 0.41). The results suggest that AVHRR data may be put to better use as a stratification tool than as a subsidiary variable in list sampling.

  20. DISCRIMINATION OF GRANITOIDS AND MINERALIZED GRANITOIDS IN THE MIDYAN REGION, NORTHWESTERN ARABIAN SHIELD, SAUDI ARABIA, BY LANDSAT MSS DATA-ANALYSIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Grolier, Maurice J.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) band and band-ratio databases of two scenes covering the Midyan region of northwestern Saudi Arabia were examined quantitatively and qualitatively to determine which databases best discriminate the geologic units of this semi-arid and arid region. Unsupervised, linear-discriminant cluster-analysis was performed on these two band-ratio combinations and on the MSS bands for both scenes. The results for granitoid-rock discrimination indicated that the classification images using the MSS bands are superior to the band-ratio classification images for two reasons, discussed in the paper. Yet, the effects of topography and material type (including desert varnish) on the MSS-band data produced ambiguities in the MSS-band classification results. However, these ambiguities were clarified by using a simulated natural-color image in conjunction with the MSS-band classification image.

  1. Yeast DEAD Box Protein Mss116p Is a Transcription Elongation Factor That Modulates the Activity of Mitochondrial RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Wojtas, Ireneusz D.; Tessitore, Kassandra; Henderson, Simmone; McAllister, William T.

    2014-01-01

    DEAD box proteins have been widely implicated in regulation of gene expression. Here, we show that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae DEAD box protein Mss116p, previously known as a mitochondrial splicing factor, also acts as a transcription factor that modulates the activity of the single-subunit mitochondrial RNA polymerase encoded by RPO41. Binding of Mss116p stabilizes paused mitochondrial RNA polymerase elongation complexes in vitro and favors the posttranslocated state of the enzyme, resulting in a lower concentration of nucleotide substrate required to escape the pause; this mechanism of action is similar to that of elongation factors that enhance the processivity of multisubunit RNA polymerases. In a yeast strain in which the RNA splicing-related functions of Mss116p are dispensable, overexpression of RPO41 or MSS116 increases cell survival from colonies that were exposed to low temperature, suggesting a role for Mss116p in enhancing the efficiency of mitochondrial transcription under stress conditions. PMID:24732805

  2. Summary of Current Radiometric Calibration Coefficients for Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and EO-1 ALI Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Markham, Brian L.; Helder, Dennis L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the current equations and rescaling factors for converting calibrated Digital Numbers (DNs) to absolute units of at-sensor spectral radiance, Top-Of- Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, and at-sensor brightness temperature. It tabulates the necessary constants for the Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) sensors. These conversions provide a basis for standardized comparison of data in a single scene or between images acquired on different dates or by different sensors. This paper forms a needed guide for Landsat data users who now have access to the entire Landsat archive at no cost.

  3. Second generation digital techniques for processing LANDSAT MSS data. [Chesapeake Bay and Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rifman, S. S.; Simon, K. W.; Caron, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported for precision corrected LANDSAT MSS full scene registration of better than 0.5 picture element (rms), utilizing all digital methods. Examples of such registered full scene images are presented and evaluated by two methods: (1) change detection imagery which represents pixel by pixel the difference of corresponding pixel values in the registered data; and (2) direct measurement of registration errors throughout the imagery by means of a highly accurate cross correlation algorithm. Subscene image details illustrate the impact on registration accuracy of two interpolation algorithms.

  4. Crop identification and area estimation over large geographic areas using LANDSAT MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT MSS data was adequate to accurately identify wheat in Kansas; corn and soybean estimates in Indiana were less accurate. Computer-aided analysis techniques were effectively used to extract crop identification information from LANDSAT data. Systematic sampling of entire counties made possible by computer classification methods resulted in very precise area estimates at county, district, and state levels. Training statistics were successfully extended from one county to other counties having similar crops and soils if the training areas sampled the total variation of the area to be classified.

  5. Summary of current radiometric calibration coefficients for Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and EO-1 ALI sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Helder, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the current equations and rescaling factors for converting calibrated Digital Numbers (DNs) to absolute units of at-sensor spectral radiance, Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, and at-sensor brightness temperature. It tabulates the necessary constants for the Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) sensors. These conversions provide a basis for standardized comparison of data in a single scene or between images acquired on different dates or by different sensors. This paper forms a needed guide for Landsat data users who now have access to the entire Landsat archive at no cost.

  6. Snowcover mapping by machine processing of Skylab and LANDSAT MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolucci, L. A.; Hoffer, R. M.; Luther, S. G.

    1975-01-01

    Skylab and LANDSAT MSS data were analyzed using computer-aided analysis techniques (CAAT). Results indicated that the middle infrared wavelength bands of the Skylab S-192 scanner would allow effective discrimination between snowcover and water-droplet clouds, whereas the limited spectral response of the LANDSAT-1 or 2 scanners do not allow such spectral discrimination. Five spectral classes of snowcover were defined and mapped. These classes were found to be related to differences in the proportion of snow and forest cover in the individual resolution elements.

  7. Machine processing of Landsat MSS data and DMA topographic data for forest cover type mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, M. D.; Hoffer, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    A study with the objective of developing and testing techniques which utilize both digital topographic data and Landsat MSS spectral data to map forest cover types is examined. Emphasis is given to the topographic distribution model (TDM), which combines point-by-point information about forest species, elevation, slope, and aspect to quantitatively describe topographic positions. Results show the stratified random sample approach to be very effective for developing the TDM, while the use of topographic data significantly improved the overall classification accuracy of forest cover types as compared to using spectral data alone.

  8. A noble track-and-hold amplifier with 10-b 120-MS/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon, J. K.

    2010-07-01

    A novel track-and-hold (T&H) employing an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) with two cross-coupled differential pairs (CCDPs) is proposed for high-accuracy and high-frequency applications. The T&H has a simple architecture requiring smaller capacitors and fewer switches and offers higher speed, lower distortion and lower power dissipation than its op-amp-based counterparts. The chip implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS process operates from a single 1.8 V supply and achieves more than 10-bits precision for sampling rate in excess of 120 MS/s.

  9. Digital mapping of limonitic rocks by using Landsat MSS radio data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, Melvin H.; Segal, Donald B.; Simpson, Shirley; Barringer, Anthony R.

    1980-01-01

    Color-ratio composite images of Landsat MSS (multi-spectral scanner) bands have been used by other workers to map the distribution of limonitic rocks in semi-arid and arid areas as possible indicators of hydrothermal alteration (Rowan et al, 1974). The images are particularly useful for broad overviews, but detailed analysis at large scales requires both numerical analysis of the ratio values to distinguish consistently among categories of limonitic rocks and a precise transfer of the data to large-scale base maps. Both requirements can be met by digital classification followed by a precise geometric registration of the classified data.

  10. The identification of cloud types in LANDSAT MSS images. [Great Britain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, E. C. (Principal Investigator); Grant, C. K.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Five general families of clouds were identified: cumulonimbiform, cumuliform, stratiform, stratocumuliform, and cirriform. Four members of this five-fold primary division of clouds were further divided into a number of subgroups. The MSS observed and recorded earth radiation in four different wavebands. Two of these bands (4 and 5) image in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, while the others (6 and 7) image the short wave portion, or just into the infrared. The main differences between the appearances of clouds in the four wavebands are related to the background brightness of land and sea surfaces.

  11. Classification of vegetation communities in the Battle Mountain SE quadrangle, Nevada with MSS digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridd, M. K.; Ramsey, R. D.; Douglass, G. E.; Merola, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT MSS digital data were utilized to identify vegetation types in an area of Battle Mountain SE in northern Nevada. Ways in which terrain data may improve spectral classification were investigated. The basic data set was a CCT of LANDSAT scene 82233617450, dated 15 June 1981. Seventeen ecotypic classifications were identified in the study area on the basis of field investigations. The percent cover by life form and non-living material for the 17 classes is summarized along with the percent cover by species for the 17 classes.

  12. Musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) and their associations with ergonomic physical risk factors of the women engaging in regular rural household activities: A picture from a rural village in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Habib, Md Monjuru; Rahman, Saleh Ur

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal complaints among housewives are very common around the world. In Bangladesh, although the majority of women are involved in various household activities, no studies were found related to musculoskeletal health and ergonomic risk factors for this work. This study explored the prevalence of commonly affected body parts where the women experienced Musculoskeletal Symptoms (MSS), the disruption of normal activities due to the MSS, and the association of MSS with ergonomic physical risk factors among women engaging in regular household activities in a rural village of Bangladesh. Participants were women aged 20-45 in a small village in Bangladesh who were involved in regular household activities for at least 5 hours a day for the past year. A total of 73 women were found eligible though door-to-door home visits to determine the prevalence of MSS. Women who had already been diagnosed with any arthritic conditions like rheumatoid and osteoarthritis were excluded for the study. The Standardized Nordic Questionnaire (SNQ) was used to determine the prevalence of MSS. Forty-six women out of 73 who reported MSS in the past 12 months were voluntarily assessed using the Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD) risk assessment to determine the association between physical risk factors and MSS. 68.49% (n=50) women reported having MSS during the last 12 months and 50.68% (n=37) of the respondents were prevented from normal daily activities due to MSS. Most commonly affected regions were upper and lower back, wrist, knees and elbows. Awkward posture, such as bending, lifting and working in squatting position, movements of repetition were associated with MSS in different body parts. The prevalence of MSS and the resultant disruption of regular activities among rural women indicate that ergonomic attention is needed to improve their well-being.

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of mammalian MSS4–Rab8 GTPase protein complex

    SciTech Connect

    Itzen, Aymelt; Bleimling, Nathalie; Ignatev, Alexander; Pylypenko, Olena; Rak, Alexey

    2006-02-01

    The MSS4 (mammalian suppressor of Sec4) protein in complex with nucleotide-free Rab8 GTPase has been purified and crystallized in a form suitable for structure analysis and a complete data set has been collected to 2 Å resolution. Rab GTPases function as ubiquitous key regulators of membrane-vesicle transport in eukaryotic cells. MSS4 is an evolutionarily conserved protein that binds to exocytotic Rabs and facilitates nucleotide release. The MSS4 protein in complex with nucleotide-free Rab8 GTPase has been purified and crystallized in a form suitable for structure analysis. The crystals belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 40.92, b = 49.85, c = 83.48 Å, α = 102.88, β = 97.46, γ = 90.12°. A complete data set has been collected to 2 Å resolution.

  14. A high capacity mobile communications satellite system for the first generation MSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedeman, R. A.

    A low-cost high-capacity dual-band mobile communications satellite system using existing equipment is proposed for the first generation MSS. Cost effectiveness and the requirements of beam optimization and passive intermodulation avoidance dictated the choice of two single band satellites for separate UHF and L-band coverage of North America. Similar designs for the two satellites, based on the Intelsat V and Insat/Arabsat configurations, will achieve over 6000 5-kHz SCPC, communications channels for the system. The 12 beam UHF and 17 beam L-band satellites achieve up to a three-fold frequency reuse of the FCC allocated MSS frequency spectrum. Spacecraft design features include separate 9.1 m antennas for sending and receiving, SAW filters for channel noise attenuation, an integrated bipropellant propulsion system, and a 3.8 kW 10-year electrical power subsystem with a solar array. The satellites are compatible with the STS, Ariane, and other expendable boosters.

  15. Comparative assessment of LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data quality for mapping applications in the southeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R.

    1983-01-01

    The initial objectives of analyses of the MSS data are two-fold: (1) to evaluate the geodetic accuracy of CCT-P data of the test sites; and (2) to improve the geodetic accuracy by additional processing if the original data either do not meet pre-launch specifications or mapping requirements. The location of 45 ground control points (GCP) digitized from 35 U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale quadrangles (UTM coordinates) were identified in terms of pixel and scan line values. These 46 points are used to establish UTM position error vector distributions in the scene. As an initial check on the geometric reliability of the MSS data, 28 well-distributed GCPs were input to a program which compares the scaled image distances between all possible point pairs with the corresponding map distances and computes the distance differences; that is, the relative positional errors. The relative errors obtained from initial computations averaged about +/- 200 m. These errors could result from a number of sources, including misidentification of GCP locations, UTM coordinate errors introduced by the map digitizing process or errors resulting from data acquisition and geometric processing.

  16. Bulk Processing of the Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ Archive of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northrop, A.; Lavender, S.; Saunier, S.; Gascon, F.; Biasutti, R.; Fischer, P.; Hoersch, B.; Colamussi, G.; Meloni, M.; Paciucci, A.; Galli, L.; Ferrara, R.; Mica, S.

    2016-08-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has acquired Landsat data over Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East during the last 40 years.A new ESA Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) processor was developed to align historical products to the highest quality standards.Achievements include the processing of >900,000 TM/ETM+ high-quality products between 1984 and 2011 from the Kiruna (KSE), Maspalomas (MPS) and Matera (MTI) archives.The reprocessed TM/ETM+ datasets are available for free, immediate download through ESA's fast and simple dissemination service (https://landsat- ds.eo.esa.int/app/), and browsing system, EOLI. During 2016 a new version of the processor is being developed for MSS data, which dates back more than 40 years, with the data gradually becoming available during 2016 and 2017.The ESA Landsat processor algorithm enhancement, together with the results of the ESA archive bulk- processing regarding production, quality control and data validation are herein presented.

  17. AToxMss — From a space proven payload to a validated testsystem in ecotoxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slenzka, K.; Duenne, M.; Jastorff, B.; Schirmer, M.

    The C.E.B.A.S.-Minimodule ( Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System) is a space qualified aquatic microcosm of 8.6 liters volume of water. Several aquatic species can be reared in parallel. Based on its characteristics (closed system, highly standardized, testruns longer than 4 weeks are possible, organisms of different trophic levels can be investigated) an improved module (C.B.R.U. = Closed Biological Research Unit) is under development for scientific and commercial use in ecotoxicology. In a two year project named AToxMss ( Aquatic EcoToxicology in a Multispecies Stem) this goal can be reached. AToxMss is a R&D project of an industry team and two teams of the University of Bremen, funded by industry (OHB-System AG) and the state of Bremen, Germany. Three project phases are already completed: The parameter determination to indicate potential impact of chemicals on biological systems, the selection of test substances, as well as the manufacturing of 3 functional modules, each verified for use in ecotoxicological research. The next phase starts with a series of test runs calibrating the system by using well known toxic substances and chemicals.

  18. Image restoration techniques as applied to Landsat MSS and TM data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, David

    1987-01-01

    Two factors are primarily responsible for the loss of image sharpness in processing digital Landsat images. The first factor is inherent in the data because the sensor's optics and electronics, along with other sensor elements, blur and smear the data. Digital image restoration can be used to reduce this degradation. The second factor, which further degrades by blurring or aliasing, is the resampling performed during geometric correction. An image restoration procedure, when used in place of typical resampled techniques, reduces sensor degradation without introducing the artifacts associated with resampling. The EROS Data Center (EDC) has implemented the restoration proceed for Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) data. This capability, developed at the University of Arizona by Dr. Robert Schowengerdt and Lynette Wood, combines restoration and resampling in a single step to produce geometrically corrected MSS and TM imagery. As with resampling, restoration demands a tradeoff be made between aliasing, which occurs when attempting to extract maximum sharpness from an image, and blurring, which reduces the aliasing problem but sacrifices image sharpness. The restoration procedure used at EDC minimizes these artifacts by being adaptive, tailoring the tradeoff to be optimal for individual images.

  19. Change detection in rangeland environments using Landsat MSS data: a quantitative approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, David C.; Haas, Robert H.

    1985-01-01

    A range forage utilization study on the Crow Creek Indian Reservation in central South Dakota provided the opportunity to use Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data for examining range condition trends. A procedure was developed to compare change in spectral reflectance over time for polygon areas, defined by resource type within management units. A t-test was used to evaluate changes in brightness and greenness within pastures between September 27, 1978, and September 18, 1983. The first principal component transformation from four-band MSS images for both dates was used as a measure of brightness. Greenness was measure using the second principal component transformation for both dates. Examination of the brightness date showed that the assumptions required for a valid t-test were met. The greenness data violated the assumption of independence between dates and was not used for trend comparisons. The t-values calculated from each polygon were coded into three groups: (1) those indicating significant brightness decrease, (2) those indicating significant brightness increase, and (3) those indicating no significant brightness change. Significance was determine at the 5-percent level. These results were formatted into an image, which is a preliminary product for evaluating range condition trends over a 5-year period.

  20. Comparison of Land Cover Information from LANDSAT MSS and Airborne TMS for Hydrological Applications: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Hallada, W. A.; Marcell, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    Land cover information for the Clinton River Basin (Michigan) derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data was compared with that from airborne thematic mapper simulator (TMS) to investigate the probable capabilities of the thematic mapper (TM) launched aboard LANDSAT-4 in July 1982. The preliminary findings for one 7.5 minute topographic map, Mt. Clemens West, are reported. Significant improvements in land cover classification accuracy were obtained using TMS data as compared with MSS data. Overall mapping accuracy increased from 49 to 61 percent with an improvement from 71 to 84 percent in the residential category. A combination of four bands with one band in each major region of the spectrum (visible, near IR, middle IR and thermal IR) provided as good a discrimination of land cover as all seven TM bands. Based on the improved land cover classification accuracy of TM, TM data has the potential to provide more useful and effective input to US Army Corps of Engineers flood forecasting and flood damage prediction/assessment models.

  1. Land use classification using texture information in ERTS-A MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Shanmugam, K. S.; Bosley, R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary digital analysis of ERTS-1 MSS imagery reveals that the textural features of the imagery are very useful for land use classification. A procedure for extracting the textural features of ERTS-1 imagery is presented and the results of a land use classification scheme based on the textural features are also presented. The land use classification algorithm using textural features was tested on a 5100 square mile area covered by part of an ERTS-1 MSS band 5 image over the California coastline. The image covering this area was blocked into 648 subimages of size 8.9 square miles each. Based on a color composite of the image set, a total of 7 land use categories were identified. These land use categories are: coastal forest, woodlands, annual grasslands, urban areas, large irrigated fields, small irrigated fields, and water. The automatic classifier was trained to identify the land use categories using only the textural characteristics of the subimages; 75 percent of the subimages were assigned correct identifications. Since texture and spectral features provide completely different kinds of information, a significant increase in identification accuracy will take place when both features are used together.

  2. An 8 bit 1 MS/s SAR ADC with 7.72-ENOB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jihai; Zhu, Zhiyong; Deng, Jinli; Xu, Weilin

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a low power 8-bit 1 MS/s SAR ADC with 7.72-bit ENOB. Without an op-amp, an improved segmented capacitor DAC is proposed to reduce the capacitance and the chip area. A dynamic latch comparator with output offset voltage storage technology is used to improve the precision. Adding an extra positive feedback in the latch is to increase the speed. What is more, two pairs of CMOS switches are utilized to eliminate the kickback noise introduced by the latch. The proposed SAR ADC was fabricated in SMIC 0.18 {{μ }}{{m}} CMOS technology. The measured results show that this design achieves an SFDR of 61.8 dB and an ENOB of 7.72 bits, and it consumes 67.5 μW with the FOM of 312 fJ/conversion-step at 1 MS/s sample under 1.8 V power supply. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61161003, 61264001, 61166004) and the Guangxi Key Laboratory of Precision Navigation Technology and Application Foundation (No. DH201501).

  3. Results of agroclimatological studies using multiple satellite sensors like NOAA AVHRR; GMS IR and LANDSAT MSS and TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, A. M.

    1992-07-01

    Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization (SPARRSO) routinely receives NOAA and GMS imagery and uses them in agrometeorological monitoring, it also uses LANDSAT MSS and TM data for this purpose. Analysis of multiple satellite sensor data shows advantages for high resolution sensors. However, in the ease of crop monitoring, a good correlation has been obtained between results obtained with NOAA AVHRR and LANDSAT MSS for vegetation index. Crop estimation has been made using all kinds of sensors and it has been found that higher resolution data always give more accurate results. Permanent address : Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization (SPARRSO), Mohakash Biggyan Bhaban, G.P.O. Box No. 529, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  4. 47 CFR 25.258 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands. 25.258 Section 25.258 Telecommunication FEDERAL....258 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) Operators of NGSO MSS feeder link earth stations and GSO FSS earth stations in the band 29.25 to...

  5. 47 CFR 25.258 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) Operators of NGSO MSS feeder link earth stations and GSO FSS earth stations in the band 29.25 to... MSS feeder link earth station complexes, that will minimize instances of unacceptable interference to the GSO FSS space stations. Earth station licensees operating with GSO FSS systems shall be capable...

  6. 47 CFR 25.258 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (a) Operators of NGSO MSS feeder link earth stations and GSO FSS earth stations in the band 29.25 to... MSS feeder link earth station complexes, that will minimize instances of unacceptable interference to the GSO FSS space stations. Earth station licensees operating with GSO FSS systems shall be capable...

  7. 47 CFR 25.258 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (a) Operators of NGSO MSS feeder link earth stations and GSO FSS earth stations in the band 29.25 to... MSS feeder link earth station complexes, that will minimize instances of unacceptable interference to the GSO FSS space stations. Earth station licensees operating with GSO FSS systems shall be capable...

  8. 47 CFR 25.258 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (a) Operators of NGSO MSS feeder link earth stations and GSO FSS earth stations in the band 29.25 to... MSS feeder link earth station complexes, that will minimize instances of unacceptable interference to the GSO FSS space stations. Earth station licensees operating with GSO FSS systems shall be capable...

  9. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for...

  10. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for...

  11. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for...

  12. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for...

  13. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for...

  14. 47 CFR 25.147 - Licensing provision for NGSO MSS feeder downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz. 25.147 Section 25.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space... MSS satellite transmitting in the band 6700-6875 MHz causes harmful interference to previously...

  15. 47 CFR 25.147 - Licensing provision for NGSO MSS feeder downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz. 25.147 Section 25.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space... MSS satellite transmitting in the band 6700-6875 MHz causes harmful interference to previously...

  16. 47 CFR 25.147 - Licensing provision for NGSO MSS feeder downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz. 25.147 Section 25.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space... MSS satellite transmitting in the band 6700-6875 MHz causes harmful interference to previously...

  17. 47 CFR 25.147 - Licensing provision for NGSO MSS feeder downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz. 25.147 Section 25.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space... MSS satellite transmitting in the band 6700-6875 MHz causes harmful interference to previously...

  18. 47 CFR 25.147 - Licensing provision for NGSO MSS feeder downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space... MSS satellite transmitting in the band 6700-6875 MHz causes harmful interference to previously licensed co-frequency Public Safety facilities, then that satellite licensee is obligated to remedy...

  19. An Analysis of Minimum Service Standards (MSS) in Basic Education: A Case Study at Magelang Municipality, Central Java, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haryati, Sri

    2014-01-01

    The study aims at analyzing the achievement of Minimum Service Standards (MSS) in Basic Education through a case study at Magelang Municipality. The findings shall be used as a starting point to predict the needs to meet MMS by 2015 and to provide strategies for achievement. Both primary and secondary data were used in the study investigating the…

  20. A comparison of LANDSAT TM to MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation in lower Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery generated simultaneously over Guinea Marsh, Virginia, are assessed in the ability to detect submerged aquatic, bottom-adhering plant canopies (SAV). An unsupervised clustering algorithm is applied to both image types and the resulting classifications compared to SAV distributions derived from color aerial photography. Class confidence and accuracy are first computed for all water areas and then only shallow areas where water depth is less than 6 feet. In both the TM and MSS imagery, masking water areas deeper than 6 ft. resulted in greater classification accuracy at confidence levels greater than 50%. Both systems perform poorly in detecting SAV with crown cover densities less than 70%. On the basis of the spectral resolution, radiometric sensitivity, and location of visible bands, TM imagery does not offer a significant advantage over MSS data for detecting SAV in Lower Chesapeake Bay. However, because the TM imagery represents a higher spatial resolution, smaller SAV canopies may be detected than is possible with MSS data.

  1. Landuse Change Analysis of Tama River Basin with Different Spatial Resolution Sensor Data by Landsat/MSS and TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiba, H.; Kameda, K.; Uesugi, S.; Tanaka, S.

    A lot of engineering problems which cannot be solved occur if the change process of the land use in the object basin is not understood over a long term when the land use in river basin is planned and social base is maintained. It is necessary to use the images observed with Landsat MSS and TM sensor for the time series to investigate the land use over a long term from the first half of 1970's. In this study, the classification method for the area of mixed land cover influenced easily by the difference of the TM and MSS was examined. It was verified how there was the classification difference between TM and MSS in the whole of actual basin. The investigation possibility for a long term of the land use change in river basin was verified by using both TM and MSS. In addition, the land use change in the Tama basin was able to be shown for the past 25 years

  2. Automatic interpretation of MSS-LANDSAT data applied to coal refuse site studies in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Valeriano, D. D. M.

    1982-01-01

    The coal mining district in southeastern Santa Catarina State is considered one of the most polluted areas of Brazil. The author has identified significant preliminary results on the application of MSS-LANDSAT digital data to monitor the coal refuse areas and its environmental consequences in this region.

  3. Prognostic Value of BRAF and KRAS Mutations in MSI and MSS Stage III Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Taieb, Julien; Le Malicot, Karine; Shi, Qian; Penault Lorca, Frédérique; Bouché, Olivier; Tabernero, Josep; Mini, Enrico; Goldberg, Richard M; Folprecht, Gunnar; Luc Van Laethem, Jean; Sargent, Daniel J; Alberts, Steven R; Emile, Jean Francois; Laurent Puig, Pierre; Sinicrope, Frank A

    2017-05-01

    The prognostic value of BRAF and KRAS mutations within microsatellite-unstable (MSI) and microsatellite-stable (MSS) subgroups of resected colon carcinoma patients remains controversial. We examined this question in prospectively collected biospecimens from stage III colon cancer with separate analysis of MSI and MSS tumors from patients receiving adjuvant FOLFOX +/- cetuximab in two adjuvant therapy trials. Three groups were defined: BRAF Mutant, KRAS Mutant, and double wild-type. The analytic strategy involved estimation of study-specific effects, assessment of homogeneity of results, and then analysis of pooled data as no differences in patient outcome were found between treatment arms in both trials. Associations of mutations with patient outcome were analyzed, and multivariable models were adjusted for treatment and relevant factors. Four thousand four hundred eleven tumors were evaluable for BRAF and KRAS mutations and mismatch repair status; 3934 were MSS and 477 were MSI. In MSS patients, all BRAF V600E mutations (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23 to 1.92, P < .001), KRAS codon 12 alterations, and p.G13D mutations (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.40 to 1.83, P < .001) were associated with shorter time to recurrence (TTR) and shorter survival after relapse (SAR; HR = 3.02 , 95% CI = 2.32 to 3.93, P < .001, and HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.44, P = .04, respectively). Overall survival (OS) in MSS patients was poorer for BRAF-mutant patients (HR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.56 to 2.57, P < .001) and KRAS-mutant patients (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.38 to 1.91, P < .001) vs wild-type. No prognostic role of KRAS or BRAF mutations was seen in MSI patients. Furthermore, no interaction was found between treatment arm (with or without cetuximab) and KRAS and BRAF mutations for TTR or OS in MSS patients. In a pooled analysis of resected stage III colon cancer patients receiving adjuvant FOLFOX, BRAF or KRAS mutations are

  4. The essential phosphoinositide kinase MSS-4 is required for polar hyphal morphogenesis, localizing to sites of growth and cell fusion in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Mähs, Anette; Ischebeck, Till; Heilig, Yvonne; Stenzel, Irene; Hempel, Franziska; Seiler, Stephan; Heilmann, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Fungal hyphae and plant pollen tubes are among the most highly polarized cells known and pose extraordinary requirements on their cell polarity machinery. Cellular morphogenesis is driven through the phospholipid-dependent organization at the apical plasma membrane. We characterized the contribution of phosphoinositides (PIs) in hyphal growth of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora crassa. MSS-4 is an essential gene and its deletion resulted in spherically growing cells that ultimately lyse. Two conditional mss-4-mutants exhibited altered hyphal morphology and aberrant branching at restrictive conditions that were complemented by expression of wild type MSS-4. Recombinant MSS-4 was characterized as a phosphatidylinositolmonophosphate-kinase phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)). PtdIns3P was also used as a substrate. Sequencing of two conditional mss-4 alleles identified a single substitution of a highly conserved Y750 to N. The biochemical characterization of recombinant protein variants revealed Y750 as critical for PI4P 5-kinase activity of MSS-4 and of plant PI4P 5-kinases. The conditional growth defects of mss-4 mutants were caused by severely reduced activity of MSS-4(Y750N), enabling the formation of only trace amounts of PtdIns(4,5)P(2). In N. crassa hyphae, PtdIns(4,5)P(2) localized predominantly in the plasma membrane of hyphae and along septa. Fluorescence-tagged MSS-4 formed a subapical collar at hyphal tips, localized to constricting septa and accumulated at contact points of fusing N. crassa germlings, indicating MSS-4 is responsible for the formation of relevant pools of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) that control polar and directional growth and septation. N. crassa MSS-4 differs from yeast, plant and mammalian PI4P 5-kinases by containing additional protein domains. The N-terminal domain of N. crassa MSS-4 was required for correct membrane association. The data presented for N

  5. Estimating total standing herbaceous biomass production with LANDSAT MSS digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Everitt, J. H.; Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Rangeland biomass data were correlated with spectral vegetation indices, derived from LANDSAT MSS data. LANDSAT data from five range and three other land use sites in Willacv and Cameron Counties were collected on October 17 and December 10, 1975, and on July 31 and September 23, 1976. The overall linear correlation of total standing herbaceous biomass with the LANDSAT derived perpendicular vegetation index was highly significant (r = 0.90**) for these four dates. The standard error of estimate was 722 kg/ha. Biomass data were recorded for two of these range sites for 8 months (March through October) during the 1976 growing season. Standing green biomass accounted for most of the increase in herbage, starting in June and ending about September and October. These results indicate that satellite data may be useful for the estimation of total standing herbaceous biomass production that could aid range managers in assessing range condition and animal carrying capacities of large and inaccessible range holdings.

  6. Correlation between aircraft MSS and lidar remotely sensed data on a forested wetland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, John R.; Hodgson, Michael E.; Mackey, Halkard E., Jr.; Krabill, William

    1987-01-01

    Inland wetland in a portion of the Savannah River swamp forest were mapped with an overall accuracy of 88.5 percent on April 26,l985 using high resolution aircraft Daedalus AADS-1268 MSS data. In addition, data were acquired using a NASA sensor system flown along two flight lines over the Steel Creek Delta. The data were significantly correlated with in situ tree height measurements. The data were registered to the wetland classification map and correlated. Statistical analyses demonstrated that the laser derived canopy height information was significantly associated with the Steel Creek Delta wetland classes encountered along the transect (an F-value of 58.46 at the 0.0001 level of confidence). The relationship between vegetation height and vegetation type was then used to produce a three-dimensional model of the landscape which can be of value when computing biomass or canopy density in this forested wetland environment.

  7. Coastal wetlands analysis from ERTS MSS digital data and field spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, V.; Schubert, J.

    1974-01-01

    Classification, delineation and evaluation of coastal wetlands can be made on the basis of major vegetative associations. To produce wetland maps, two vegetation-analysis look-up tables were developed for use in the ERTS ANALYSIS System. These look-up tables are based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) digital values in Multispectral Scanner (MSS) bands 4, 5, and 7 and were developed using seasonal spectral reflectance measurements from field observations. Computer-generated maps at an approximate scale of 1:20,000 were produced for the primary test site, Chincoteague Marsh, Virginia. There is a high degree of accuracy in the identification of wetland features and plant associations. The classification was also tested on other Atlantic coast salt marshes and a brackish marsh in the Chesapeake Bay.

  8. Digital overlay of cartographic information on Landsat MSS data for soil surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Irons, J. R.; Petersen, G. W.; Sykes, S. G.

    1982-01-01

    Cartographic soils data were digitized, spatially registered, and merged with processed Landsat image data. The Landsat Multispectral Scanner Subsystem (MSS) image data were used to generate a thematic map representing different soil surface characteristics and an enhanced image. The thematic map was generated using supervised and unsupervised classification procedures. The enhanced image was generated by performing a linear contrast stretch on data altered by a principal components transformation. Although both procedures yielded images useful for soil unit delineation, image enhancement was determined to be more suitable because it was more expedient and inexpensive. Enhanced images cost $0.06 per hectare, spectral classifications cost $0.08 per hectare. The overlay of cartographic data on Landsat data facilitates comparisons between the various processing methods used for soil unit boundary determination, delineation, and verification. This technique also provides for accurate and expedient spatial referencing for field observations and cartographic correlation.

  9. Structural mapping from MSS-LANDSAT imagery: A proposed methodology for international geological correlation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Crepani, E.; Martini, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for international geological correlation studies based on LANDSAT-MSS imagery, Bullard's model of continental fit and compatible structural trends between Northeast Brazil and the West African counterpart. Six extensive lineaments in the Brazilian study area are mapped and discussed according to their regional behavior and in relation to the adjacent continental margin. Among the first conclusions, correlations were found between the Sobral Pedro II Lineament and the megafaults that surround the West African craton; and the Pernambuco Lineament with the Ngaurandere Linemanet in Cameroon. Ongoing research to complete the methodological stages includes the mapping of the West African structural framework, reconstruction of the pre-drift puzzle, and an analysis of the counterpart correlations.

  10. Mapping forest vegetation with ERTS-1 MSS data and automatic data processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messmore, J.; Copeland, G. E.; Levy, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the intent of elucidating the forest mapping capabilities of ERTS-1 MSS data when analyzed with the aid of LARS' automatic data processing techniques. The site for this investigation was the Great Dismal Swamp, a 210,000 acre wilderness area located on the Middle Atlantic coastal plain. Due to inadequate ground truth information on the distribution of vegetation within the swamp, an unsupervised classification scheme was utilized. Initially pictureprints, resembling low resolution photographs, were generated in each of the four ERTS-1 channels. Data found within rectangular training fields was then clustered into 13 spectral groups and defined statistically. Using a maximum likelihood classification scheme, the unknown data points were subsequently classified into one of the designated training classes. Training field data was classified with a high degree of accuracy (greater than 95 percent), and progress is being made towards identifying the mapped spectral classes.

  11. Blob - An unsupervised clustering approach to spatial preprocessing of MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauth, R. J.; Pentland, A. P.; Thomas, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    A basic concept of MSS data processing has been developed for use in agricultural inventories; namely, to introduce spatial coordinates of each pixel into the vector description of the pixel and to use this information along with the spectral channel values in a conventional unsupervised clustering of the scene. The result is to isolate spectrally homogeneous field-like patches (called 'blobs'). The spectral mean vector of a blob can be regarded as a defined feature and used in a conventional pattern recognition procedure. The benefits of use are: ease in locating training units in imagery; data compression of from 10 to 30 depending on the application; reduction of scanner noise and consequently potential improvements in classification/proportion estimation performances.

  12. Coastal and submarine features on MSS imagery of Southeastern Massachusetts: Comparison with conventional maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Three ERTS-1, MSS images of southeastern Massachusetts, including Cape Cod Bay, Cape Cod, and Nantucket Sound, show a variety of dynamic geologic and hydrologic phenomena. Coastal features imaged include the coastline at different time in the tidal cycle, harbors, lakes and ponds, marshes (wetlands), and beach and dune areas; submarine features include tidal flats, shoals, dredged and natural channels, and bars. Comparison with conventional maps at 1:1,000,000 and 1:250,000 scales show many inaccuracies between the ERTS imagery and the two map scales. The ERTS-1 imagery can be used to increase the accuracy of these maps, portray additional environmental information, and provide the capability for frequent updating of maps at such scales. ERTS-1 imagery provides a very cost effective method for provision of certain types of environmental data for Cape Cod and environs.

  13. Landsat-4 MSS and Thematic Mapper data quality and information content analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.; Bartolucci, L. A.; Dean, M. E.; Lozano, D. F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Valdes, J. A.; Valenzuela, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner data were analyzed to obtain information on data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations were performed to test band-to-band registration accuracy. Thematic Mapper overall system resolution was evaluated using scene objects which demonstrated sharp high contrast edge responses. Radiometric evaluation included detector relative calibration, effects of resampling, and coherent noise effects. Information content evaluation was carried out using clustering, principal components, transformed divergence separability measure, and numerous supervised classifiers on data from Iowa and Illinois. A detailed spectral class analysis (multispectral classification) was carried out on data from the Des Moines, IA area to compare the information content of the MSS and TM for a large number of scene classes.

  14. Landsat-4 MSS and Thematic Mapper data quality and information content analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.; Bartolucci, L. A.; Dean, M. E.; Lozano, D. F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Valdes, J. A.; Valenzuela, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner data were analyzed to obtain information on data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations were performed to test band-to-band registration accuracy. Thematic Mapper overall system resolution was evaluated using scene objects which demonstrated sharp high contrast edge responses. Radiometric evaluation included detector relative calibration, effects of resampling, and coherent noise effects. Information content evaluation was carried out using clustering, principal components, transformed divergence separability measure, and numerous supervised classifiers on data from Iowa and Illinois. A detailed spectral class analysis (multispectral classification) was carried out on data from the Des Moines, IA area to compare the information content of the MSS and TM for a large number of scene classes.

  15. Evaluation of ERTS MSS digital data for monitoring water in the lower Chesapeake Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Water samples collected during the ERTS overpasses of the lower Chesapeake Bay area have been analyzed for chlorophyll, particles, and sediment. Five ERTS images were sufficiently cloud free that a correlation analysis of radiance values from the MSS bands with the water parameters could be performed. A low correlation was established for chlorophyll, except during algal blooms, when band 6 was responsive. There was a fair to good correlation with particles for combinations of band 5, particularly bands (5 minus 6). Sediment correlations were excellent for band 5 or combinations of band 5 with bands 4 and 6. It was evident that such factors as the atmosphere, tide, and different water masses were tending to confuse the data.

  16. Preparation of urban land use inventories by machine-processing of ERTS MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, W.; Mausel, P. E.; Wenner, K. A.

    1973-01-01

    Spectral classes of urban phenomena identified from ERTS multispectral scanner data in Milwaukee included Surburban, Inner City, Industry, Grassy (open area), Road, Wooded Suburb, Water, Cloud, and Shadow. The Milwaukee spectral class statistics were used to classify the Chicago area, within the same ERTS frame, and similar results were achieved. In another ERTS frame, Marion County (Indianapolis) data were classified into similar classes. The Marion County ERTS study was supported by a land use classification of an area near downtown Indianapolis that utilized 12-band MSS data collected by aircraft from 3000 feet. The results of the ERTS analyses suggest that satellite data will be a useful tool for the urban planner for monitoring urban land use.

  17. Preparation of urban land use inventories by machine processing of ERTS MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, W.; Mausel, P. E.; Wenner, K. A.

    1973-01-01

    Spectral classes of urban phenomena identified from Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) multispectral scanner data in Milwaukee included suburban inner city, industry, grassy (open area), road, wooded suburb, water cloud, and shadow. The Milwaukee spectral class statistics were used to classify the Chicago area, within the same ERTS frame, and similar results were achieved. In another ERTS frame, Marion County (Indianapolis) data were classified into similar classes. The Marion County ERTS study was supported by a land use classification of an area near downtown Indianapolis that utilized 12-band MSS data collected by aircraft from 3000 feet. The results of the ERTS analyses suggest that satellite data will be a useful tool for the urban planner for monitoring urban land use.

  18. Comparison of the information contents of Landsat TM and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    A communications-theory approach is taken to analyze the dispersion and concentration of signal values in various data spaces, irrespective of specific class membership. Entropy is used to quantify information, and mutual information is used to measure the information represented by subsets of spectral variables. Several different comparisons of information content are made. These include comparisons of system design capacities, of data volumes occupied by agricultural data in the spaces defined by original bands and by transformed spectral (Tasseled Cap) variables, of the information contents of original bands and Tasseled Cap variables, and of the information contents of TM and MSS for the given agricultural data sets. Also, the effects of sample size, scene content, and quantization level are examined.

  19. Comparison of the information contents of LANDSAT TM and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    A communications-theory approach is taken to analyze the dispersion and concentration of signal values in various data spaces, irrespective of specific class membership. Entropy is used to quantify information, and mutual information is used to measure the information represented by subsets of spectral variables. Several different comparisons of information content are made. These include comparisons of system design capacities, of data volumes occupied by agricultural data in the spaces defined by original bands and by transformed spectral (Tasseled Cap) variables, of the information contents of original bands and Tasseled Cap variables, and of the information contents of TM and MSS for the given agricultural data sets. Also, the effects of sample size, scene content, and quantization level are examined.

  20. Fusion of declassified airphotos and Landsat MSS data for old landslides detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Kavoura, Katerina; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos; Vaiopoulos, Aristides D.

    2014-10-01

    In this study eight commercial available fusion techniques and more especially the Ehlers, High Pass Filter, HCS (Hyperspherical Color Space), Modified IHS (ModIHS), Pansharp, Pansharp2, PCA, and Wavelet were used for the fusion of a Declassified KH-7 airphoto and a Landsat1 MSS image. Both images were acquired on 1972. The panchromatic data have a spatial resolution of 8m while the multispectral data have a spatial resolution of 80m. The optical result, the statistical parameters and different quality indexes such as ERGAS, Q, entropy were examined and the results are presented. As the ultimate purpose of the data fusion is to help in the detection of old landslides, two small areas where historical landslides have been occurred were selected for the evaluation of the fusion algorithms. Both areas are located in western Peloponnese in Achaia Prefecture.

  1. Using Landsat MSS data with soils information to identify wetland habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, C. L.; Hoffer, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    A previous study showed that certain fresh water wetland vegetation types can be spectrally separated when a maximum likelihood classification procedure is applied to Landsat spectral data. However, wetland and upland types which have similar vegetative life forms (e.g., upland hardwoods and hardwood swamps) are often confused because of spectral similarity. Therefore, the current investigation attempts to differentiate similar wetland and upland types by combining Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data with soils information. The Pigeon River area in northern Indiana used in the earlier study was also employed in this investigation. A layered classification algorithm which combined soils and spectral data was used to generate a wetland classification. The results of the spectral/soils wetland classification are compared to the previous classification that had been based on spectral data alone. The results indicate wetland habitat mapping can be improved by combining soils and other ancillary data with Landsat spectral data.

  2. Evaluation of ERTS MSS digital data for monitoring water in the lower Chesapeake Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Water samples collected during the ERTS overpasses of the lower Chesapeake Bay area have been analyzed for chlorophyll, particles, and sediment. Five ERTS images were sufficiently cloud free that a correlation analysis of radiance values from the MSS bands with the water parameters could be performed. A low correlation was established for chlorophyll, except during algal blooms, when band 6 was responsive. There was a fair to good correlation with particles for combinations of band 5, particularly bands (5 minus 6). Sediment correlations were excellent for band 5 or combinations of band 5 with bands 4 and 6. It was evident that such factors as the atmosphere, tide, and different water masses were tending to confuse the data.

  3. Assessing LANDSAT TM and MSS Data for Detecting Submerged Plant Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    The spectra, spacial, and radiometric characteristics of LANDSAT TM and MSS data for detecting and monitoring submerged plant communities were assessed. The following preliminary results focus upon the spectral aspects of the problem in which a submerged plant canopy is to be distinguished from a surrounding bottom of sand or mud. The effectiveness of an orbiting sensor in discriminating between submerged features and how strongly the bottom signal is attenuated by the water column. In optically shallow water the inherent contrast is the controlling factor. Thus, the optimum sensor band is that which correlates with the greatest inherent contrast between the submerged features. In optically deeper water, the optimum sensor band is that in which the bottom signal is attenuated the least.

  4. Characterization of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS Image Quality for Interpretation of Agricultural and Forest Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degloria, S. D.; Colwell, R. N.

    1984-01-01

    Systematic analysis of both image and numeric data shows that the overall spectral, spatial, and radiometric quality of the TM data are excellent. Spectral variations in fallow fields are due to the vaiability in soil moisture and surface roughness resulting from the various stages of field preparation for small grains production. Spectrally, the addition of the first TM short wave infrared band (Band 5) significantly enhanced ability to discriminate different crop types. Bands 1, 5, and 6 contain saturated pixels due to high albedo effects, low moisture conditions, and high radiant temperatures of granite and dry, bare soil on south facing slopes, respectively. Spatially, the two fold decrease in interpixel distance and four fold decrease in area per pixel between the TM and MSS allow for improved discrimination of small fields, boundary conditions, road and stream networks in rough terrain, and small forest clearings resulting from various forest management practices.

  5. A 14-bit 50 MS/s sample-and-hold circuit for pipelined ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Yue; Yiqiang, Zhao; Ruilong, Pang; Yun, Sheng

    2014-05-01

    A high performance sample-and-hold (S/H) circuit used in a pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is presented. Capacitor flip-around architecture is used in this S/H circuit with a novel gain-boosted differential folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier. A double-bootstrapped switch is designed to improve the performance of the circuit. The circuit is implemented using a 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process. Measurement results show that the effective number of bits is 14.03 bits, the spurious free dynamic range is 94.62 dB, the signal to noise and distortion ratio is 86.28 dB, and the total harmonic distortion is -91:84 dB for a 5 MHz input signal with 50 MS/s sampling rate. A pipeline ADC with the designed S/H circuit has been implemented.

  6. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A low power 12-b 40-MS/s pipeline ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiumei, Yin; Qi, Wei; Lai, Xu; Huazhong, Yang

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes a 12-bit, 40-MS/s pipelined A/D converter (ADC) which is implemented in 0.18-μm CMOS process drawing 76-mW power from 3.3-V supply. Multi-bit architectures as well as telescopic operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) are adopted in all pipeline stages for good power efficiency. In the first two stages, particularly, 3-bit/stage architectures are used to improve the ADC's linearity performance. The ADC is calibration-free and achieves a DNL of less than 0.51 LSB and an INL of less than 1 LSB. The SNDR performance is above 67 dB below Nyquist. The 80-dB SFDR performance is maintained within 1 dB for input frequencies up to 49 MHz at full sampling rate.

  7. TAOS (S80): A (LEO-MSS) system for position reporting and telemanagement services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, A.; Dumont, P.

    1993-01-01

    A position reporting and telemanagement system based on the use of minisatellites (mass less than 150 kg) with limited investment and operation costs is presented. The system is designed from an analyses of market study results. The space segment is composed of a LEO-MSS (Low Earth Orbit Mini Satellite System) constellation: solution advantages are reviewed. Frequency band regulations and frequency allotment are specified. The space segment (constellation, satellite platforms), ground segment (mission and control), mobile terminal stations (connecting links, position reporting through Doppler/distance or external measurements) are described. Forward and return link budgets and communication protocols are presented. The system performances as regards capacity, response time, availability, and reliability are specified. A feasibility study using S80T, a meteorological satellite, investigates the two critical points underlined in the preliminary study.

  8. Digital overlay of cartographic information on Landsat MSS data for soil surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Irons, J. R.; Petersen, G. W.; Sykes, S. G.

    1982-01-01

    Cartographic soils data were digitized, spatially registered, and merged with processed Landsat image data. The Landsat Multispectral Scanner Subsystem (MSS) image data were used to generate a thematic map representing different soil surface characteristics and an enhanced image. The thematic map was generated using supervised and unsupervised classification procedures. The enhanced image was generated by performing a linear contrast stretch on data altered by a principal components transformation. Although both procedures yielded images useful for soil unit delineation, image enhancement was determined to be more suitable because it was more expedient and inexpensive. Enhanced images cost $0.06 per hectare, spectral classifications cost $0.08 per hectare. The overlay of cartographic data on Landsat data facilitates comparisons between the various processing methods used for soil unit boundary determination, delineation, and verification. This technique also provides for accurate and expedient spatial referencing for field observations and cartographic correlation.

  9. Coastal wetlands analysis from ERTS MSS digital data and field spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, V.; Schubert, J.

    1974-01-01

    Classification, delineation and evaluation of coastal wetlands can be made on the basis of major vegetative associations. To produce wetland maps, two vegetation-analysis look-up tables were developed for use in the ERTS ANALYSIS System. These look-up tables are based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) digital values in Multispectral Scanner (MSS) bands 4, 5, and 7 and were developed using seasonal spectral reflectance measurements from field observations. Computer-generated maps at an approximate scale of 1:20,000 were produced for the primary test site, Chincoteague Marsh, Virginia. There is a high degree of accuracy in the identification of wetland features and plant associations. The classification was also tested on other Atlantic coast salt marshes and a brackish marsh in the Chesapeake Bay.

  10. An integrated software system for geometric correction of LANDSAT MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Esilva, A. J. F. M.; Camara-Neto, G.; Serra, P. R. M.; Desousa, R. C. M.; Mitsuo, Fernando Augusta, II

    1984-01-01

    A system for geometrically correcting LANDSAT MSS imagery includes all phases of processing, from receiving a raw computer compatible tape (CCT) to the generation of a corrected CCT (or UTM mosaic). The system comprises modules for: (1) control of the processing flow; (2) calculation of satellite ephemeris and attitude parameters, (3) generation of uncorrected files from raw CCT data; (4) creation, management and maintenance of a ground control point library; (5) determination of the image correction equations, using attitude and ephemeris parameters and existing ground control points; (6) generation of corrected LANDSAT file, using the equations determined beforehand; (7) union of LANDSAT scenes to produce and UTM mosaic; and (8) generation of output tape, in super-structure format.

  11. Comparison of the information contents of LANDSAT TM and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    A communications-theory approach is taken to analyze the dispersion and concentration of signal values in various data spaces, irrespective of specific class membership. Entropy is used to quantify information, and mutual information is used to measure the information represented by subsets of spectral variables. Several different comparisons of information content are made. These include comparisons of system design capacities, of data volumes occupied by agricultural data in the spaces defined by original bands and by transformed spectral (Tasseled Cap) variables, of the information contents of original bands and Tasseled Cap variables, and of the information contents of TM and MSS for the given agricultural data sets. Also, the effects of sample size, scene content, and quantization level are examined.

  12. Comparison of the information contents of Landsat TM and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    A communications-theory approach is taken to analyze the dispersion and concentration of signal values in various data spaces, irrespective of specific class membership. Entropy is used to quantify information, and mutual information is used to measure the information represented by subsets of spectral variables. Several different comparisons of information content are made. These include comparisons of system design capacities, of data volumes occupied by agricultural data in the spaces defined by original bands and by transformed spectral (Tasseled Cap) variables, of the information contents of original bands and Tasseled Cap variables, and of the information contents of TM and MSS for the given agricultural data sets. Also, the effects of sample size, scene content, and quantization level are examined.

  13. Treatment with the PARP inhibitor, niraparib, sensitizes colorectal cancer cell lines to irinotecan regardless of MSI/MSS status.

    PubMed

    Genther Williams, Sybil M; Kuznicki, Apryle M; Andrade, Paula; Dolinski, Brian M; Elbi, Cem; O'Hagan, Ronan C; Toniatti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Cells with homologous recombination (HR) deficiency, most notably caused by mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, are sensitive to PARP inhibition. Microsatellite instability (MSI) accounts for 10-15% of colorectal cancer (CRC) and is hypothesized to lead to HR defects due to altered expression of Mre11, a protein required for double strand break (DSB) repair. Indeed, others have reported that PARP inhibition is efficacious in MSI CRC. Here we examine the response to niraparib, a potent PARP-1/PARP-2 inhibitor currently under clinical evaluation, in MSI versus microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. We compiled a large panel of MSI and MSS CRC cell lines and evaluated the anti-proliferative activity of niraparib. In addition to testing single agent cytotoxic activity of niraparib, we also tested irinotecan (or SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan) activity alone and in combination with niraparib in vitro and in vivo. In contrast to earlier reports, MSI CRC cell lines were not more sensitive to niraparib than MSS CRC cell lines¸ suggesting that the MSI phenotype does not sensitize CRC cell lines to PARP inhibition. Moreover, even the most sensitive MSI cell lines had niraparib EC50s greater than 10 fold higher than BRCA-deficient cell lines. However, MSI lines were more sensitive to SN-38 than MSS lines, consistent with previous findings. We have also demonstrated that combination of niraparib and irinotecan was more efficacious than either agent alone in both MSI and MSS cell lines both in vitro and in vivo, and that niraparib potentiates the effect of irinotecan regardless of MSI status. Our results support the clinical evaluation of this combination in all CRC patients, regardless of MSI status.

  14. Somatic Mutation Profiles of MSI and MSS Colorectal Cancer Identified by Whole Exome Next Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roehr, Christina; Fischer, Axel; Isau, Melanie; Boerno, Stefan T.; Wunderlich, Andrea; Barmeyer, Christian; Seemann, Petra; Koenig, Jana; Lappe, Michael; Kuss, Andreas W.; Garshasbi, Masoud; Bertram, Lars; Trappe, Kathrin; Werber, Martin; Herrmann, Bernhard G.; Zatloukal, Kurt; Lehrach, Hans; Schweiger, Michal R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is with approximately 1 million cases the third most common cancer worldwide. Extensive research is ongoing to decipher the underlying genetic patterns with the hope to improve early cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this direction, the recent progress in next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the field of cancer genomics. However, one caveat of these studies remains the large amount of genetic variations identified and their interpretation. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present the first work on whole exome NGS of primary colon cancers. We performed 454 whole exome pyrosequencing of tumor as well as adjacent not affected normal colonic tissue from microsatellite stable (MSS) and microsatellite instable (MSI) colon cancer patients and identified more than 50,000 small nucleotide variations for each tissue. According to predictions based on MSS and MSI pathomechanisms we identified eight times more somatic non-synonymous variations in MSI cancers than in MSS and we were able to reproduce the result in four additional CRCs. Our bioinformatics filtering approach narrowed down the rate of most significant mutations to 359 for MSI and 45 for MSS CRCs with predicted altered protein functions. In both CRCs, MSI and MSS, we found somatic mutations in the intracellular kinase domain of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A, BMPR1A, a gene where so far germline mutations are associated with juvenile polyposis syndrome, and show that the mutations functionally impair the protein function. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that with deep sequencing of tumor exomes one may be able to predict the microsatellite status of CRC and in addition identify potentially clinically relevant mutations. PMID:21203531

  15. Reliability and Validity of the Meaningfulness of Songwriting Scale (MSS) with Adults on Acute Psychiatric and Detoxification Units.

    PubMed

    Baker, Felicity A; Silverman, Michael J; MacDonald, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Songwriting is an intervention with demonstrated clinical benefit for a range of clinical populations. Researchers argue that positive outcomes are in part the result of the meaningfulness of the creative process. However, no measure currently exists to quantify the extent of meaning derived from songwriting processes. To psychometrically evaluate the Meaningfulness of Songwriting Scale (MSS) as a measure of meaning of a therapeutic songwriting process. 147 participants receiving short-term mental health care (39 acute psychiatric care; 108 detoxification unit) were asked to complete the MSS and the Short State Flow Scale immediately following a songwriting music therapy session. Six hours later, participants completed the MSS a second time. Analyses were performed by participant cohort to determine the content validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, measurement error, and construct validity. Findings indicated that the MSS has good content validity, strong internal consistency (α = 0.98, acute psychiatric group, and α = 0.96, detoxification group), acceptable test-retest reliability (ICC2,1 = 0.93, acute psychiatric group, and ICC2,1 = 0.89, detoxification group), and construct validity (acute group was r = 0.68, p < 0.001, and detoxification group was r = 0.56, p < 0.001). Measurement error was greater in the detoxification group, suggesting that the measure may be unstable for this group. Preliminary evidence supports MSS use for research with inpatients on acute psychiatric units; however, cautious use is recommended for use with inpatients in detoxification units due to measurement error. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Application of MSS/LANDSAT images to the structural study of recent sedimentary areas: Campos Sedimentary Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Barbosa, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    Visual and computer aided interpretation of MSS/LANDSAT data identified linear and circular features which represent the ""reflexes'' of the crystalline basement structures in the Cenozoic sediments of the emergent part of the Campos Sedimentary Basin.

  17. The results of an agricultural analysis of the ERTS-1 MSS data at the Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Wade, L. C.; Prior, H. L.; Spiers, B.

    1973-01-01

    The initial analysis of the ERTS-1 multispectral scanner (MSS) data at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, Texas is discussed. The primary data set utilized was the scene over Monterey Bay, California, on July 25, 1972, NASA ERTS ID No. 1002-18134. It was submitted to both computerized and image interpretative processing. An area in the San Joaquin Valley was submitted to an intensive evaluation of the ability of the data to (1) discriminate between crop types and (2) to provide a reasonably accurate area measurement of agricultural features of interest. The results indicate that the ERTS-1 MSS data is capable of providing the identifications and area extent of agricultural lands and field crop types.

  18. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    A set of training statistics for the 30 meter resolution simulated thematic mapper MSS data was generated based on land use/land cover classes. In addition to this supervised data set, a nonsupervised multicluster block of training statistics is being defined in order to compare the classification results and evaluate the effect of the different training selection methods on classification performance. Two test data sets, defined using a stratified sampling procedure incorporating a grid system with dimensions of 50 lines by 50 columns, and another set based on an analyst supervised set of test fields were used to evaluate the classifications of the TMS data. The supervised training data set generated training statistics, and a per point Gaussian maximum likelihood classification of the 1979 TMS data was obtained. The August 1980 MSS data was radiometrically adjusted. The SAR data was redigitized and the SAR imagery was qualitatively analyzed.

  19. ATP-dependent roles of the DEAD-box protein Mss116p in group II intron splicing in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Potratz, Jeffrey P.; Campo, Mark Del; Wolf, Rachel Z.; Lambowitz, Alan M.; Russell, Rick

    2011-01-01

    The yeast DEAD-box protein Mss116p functions as a general RNA chaperone in splicing mitochondrial group I and group II introns. For most of its functions, Mss116p is thought to use ATP-dependent RNA unwinding to facilitate RNA structural transitions, but it has been suggested to assist folding of one group II intron (aI5γ) primarily by stabilizing a folding intermediate. Here we compare three aI5γ constructs: one with long exons, one with short exons, and a ribozyme construct lacking exons. The long exons result in slower splicing, suggesting that they misfold and/or stabilize non-native intronic structure. Nevertheless, Mss116p acceleration of all three constructs depends upon ATP and is inhibited by mutations that compromise RNA unwinding, suggesting similar mechanisms. Results of splicing assays and a new two-stage assay that separates ribozyme folding and catalysis indicate that maximal folding of all three constructs by Mss116p requires ATP-dependent RNA unwinding. ATP-independent activation is appreciable for only a subpopulation of the minimal ribozyme construct and not for constructs containing exons. As expected for a general RNA chaperone, Mss116p can also disrupt the native ribozyme, which can refold after Mss116p removal. Finally, using yeast strains with mtDNA containing only the single intron aI5γ, we show that Mss116p mutants promote splicing in vivo to degrees that correlate with their residual ATP-dependent RNA-unwinding activities. Together, our results indicate that, although DEAD-box proteins play multiple roles in RNA folding, the physiological function of Mss116p in aI5γ splicing includes a requirement for ATP-dependent local unfolding, allowing conversion of non-functional to functional RNA structure. PMID:21679717

  20. KH-series satellite imagery and Landsat MSS data fusion in support of assessing urban land use growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civco, Daniel; Chabaeva, Anna; Parent, Jason

    2009-09-01

    Multi-temporal land use data, circa 1990 and 2000, have been analyzed an our urban growth model which identifies three levels of the urban extent - the impervious surface, the urbanized area, and the urban footprint - to account for the differing degrees of open space degradation associated with the city. The model also generates metrics such as cohesion, proximity, population densities, average openness, open space contiguity, and depth which quantify spatial characteristics that are indicative of urban sprawl. We plan on expanding this time-series further, and for additional cities, with mid-decadal, gap-filled Landsat ETM data, as well as resolution-enhanced Landsat MSS data from the 19070's. The cities used in this pilot project consisted of: (a) Kigali, Rwanda; (b) Portland, Oregon; (c) Tacoma, Washington; and (d) Plock, Poland. Based on research done in this project, complemented by results from other efforts, the Ehlers data fusion approach was used in the resolution enhancement of Landsat MSS imagery. In this paper, using Portland and Kigali as the principal examples, we discuss the procedures by which (a) the KH-series declassified military intelligence imagery was geometrically-corrected and registered to Landsat data, (b) the Ehlers Fusion of the KH-data with Landsat MSS, (c) the derivation of 1970's urban land use information, and (d) the calculation of select urban growth metrics. This paper illustrates the power of leveraging the high resolution of the military reconnaissance imagery with the multispectral information contained in the vintage Landsat MSS data in historical land use analyses.

  1. A 100 MS/s 9 bit 0.43 mW SAR ADC with custom capacitor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingjing, Wang; Zemin, Feng; Rongjin, Xu; Chixiao, Chen; Fan, Ye; Jun, Xu; Junyan, Ren

    2016-05-01

    A low power 9 bit 100 MS/s successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC) with custom capacitor array is presented. A brand-new 3-D MOM unit capacitor is used as the basic capacitor cell of this capacitor array. The unit capacitor has a capacitance of 1 fF. Besides, the advanced capacitor array structure and switch mode decrease the power consumption a lot. To verify the effectiveness of this low power design, the 9 bit 100 MS/s SAR ADC is implemented in TSMC IP9M 65 nm LP CMOS technology. The measurement results demonstrate that this design achieves an effective number of bits (ENOB) of 7.4 bit, a signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio (SNDR) of 46.40 dB and a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 62.31 dB at 100 MS/s with 1 MHz input. The SAR ADC core occupies an area of 0.030 mm2 and consumes 0.43 mW under a supply voltage of 1.2 V. The figure of merit (FOM) of the SAR ADC achieves 23.75 fJ/conv. Project supported by the National High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (No. 2013AA014101).

  2. Characterization of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS Image Quality for the Interpretation of California's Agricultural Resources. [Central Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degloria, S. D.; Colwell, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    The quality of LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data was determined by analyzing TM spectral and spatial performance in terms of spectral variability of natural targets and the TM-ground instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) variability in level and mountainous terrain; and by assessing the suitability of TM and MSS image products for characterizing renewable resourse features. The TM data should be extremelly valuable for crop type and area proportion estimation; undating agricultural land use survey maps at 1:24,000 scale and smaller, field boundary definition; and determining the size and location of individual farmsteads. Ongoing research activities are focused on making spectral and spatial analyses of both MSS and TM analytical film products. The improved spectral, spatial, and radiometric quality of the TM data, should promote a renewed emphasis and interest in direct visual interpretation of these image products, both for updating and improving land stratification in support of resource inventory and for enhancing the image analyst's contribution to computer-assisted analysis procedures.

  3. Characterization of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS Image Quality for the Interpretation of California's Agricultural Resources. [Central Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degloria, S. D.; Colwell, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    The quality of LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data was determined by analyzing TM spectral and spatial performance in terms of spectral variability of natural targets and the TM-ground instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) variability in level and mountainous terrain; and by assessing the suitability of TM and MSS image products for characterizing renewable resourse features. The TM data should be extremelly valuable for crop type and area proportion estimation; undating agricultural land use survey maps at 1:24,000 scale and smaller, field boundary definition; and determining the size and location of individual farmsteads. Ongoing research activities are focused on making spectral and spatial analyses of both MSS and TM analytical film products. The improved spectral, spatial, and radiometric quality of the TM data, should promote a renewed emphasis and interest in direct visual interpretation of these image products, both for updating and improving land stratification in support of resource inventory and for enhancing the image analyst's contribution to computer-assisted analysis procedures.

  4. A 9 b/12 b 50 MS/s experimental ADC with continuous approximation architecture in 65 nm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaofeng, Guo; Fan, Ye; Junyan, Ren

    2016-10-01

    A 9 bits 50 MS/s 0.5 mW continuous approximation mixed successive approximation (CAR&SAR) ADC is presented. A 12 bits 50 MS/s 0.6 mW CAR&CAR ADC is presented. In the field of low power and high performance ADC, CAR is a new architecture different from SAR. It is faster and easier to get high accuracy. Here we will introduce CAR and its circuit implementation, and the 9 bits experimental ADC is designed to verify CARADC's feasibility. Meanwhile, its resolution can be extended to 12 bits with adding an extra CAR, and then the performance is raised to 0.6 mW 50 MS/s 72 dB SNDR at TT corner and the Walden FOM is 3.6 fj/conv-step. The 9 b ADC was fabricated by using TSMC 1P9M 65 nm CMOS technology. The ADC achieves 50 dB SNDR and the realized Walden FOM is 34 fj/conv-step. The simulation and measurement results prove that CAR is available in the low power and high performance ADC and it even outperforms SAR. The ADC core occupies an active area of 0.045 mm2.

  5. Comparison of Land Cover Information from LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Data for Hydrologic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Detailed land cover classifications were performed on the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and MSS data of the Clinton River Basin (acquired on August 19, 1981, and June 28, 1980, respectively) using supervised classification techniques. Differences in interclass separability were compared to select several promising TMS band combinations, selected from the 27 covering the Clinton River Basin. The TMS data produced a more accurate and spatially contiguous classification than MSS for this study site. While the accuracy of the 4-band TM data set was as good as the 7-band, the 3-band TMS data sets were also better than the MSS. These results indicate that both the increased spectral discrimination and spatial resolution contribute to improved classification accuracy. The possibility of reducing the data analysis burden associated with large TM data volumes through effective band selection therefore appears promising. The implications of the improved classification accuracy of TMS data are important for hydrologic and economic modeling. In particular, the higher accuracies for the developed categories (residential and commercial) should improve the predictions of runoff in flood forecasting models and of flood damage for damage calculation models appreciably.

  6. A 10 MS/s 8-bit charge-redistribution ADC for hybrid pixel applications in 65 m CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Hemperek, Tomasz; Krüger, Hans; Koch, Manuel; Germic, Leonard; Wermes, Norbert

    2013-12-01

    The design and measurement results of an 8-bit SAR ADC, based on a charge-redistribution DAC, are presented. This ADC is characterized by superior power efficiency and small area, realized by employing a lateral metal-metal capacitor array and a dynamic two-stage comparator. To avoid the need for a high-speed clock and its associated power consumption, an asynchronous logic was implemented in a logic control cell. A test chip has been developed in a 65 nm CMOS technology, including eight ADC channels with different layout flavors of the capacitor array, a transimpedance amplifier as a signal input structure, a serializer, and a custom-made LVDS driver for data transmission. The integral (INL) and differential (DNL) nonlinearities are measured below 0.5 LSB and 0.8 LSB, respectively, for the best channel operating at a sampling frequency of 10 MS/s. The area occupies 40 μm×70 μm for one ADC channel. The power consumption is estimated as 4 μW at 1 MS/s and 38 μW at 10 MS/s with a supply rail of 1.2 V. These excellent performance features and the natural radiation hardness of the design, due to the thin gate oxide thickness of transistors, are very interesting for front-end electronics ICs of future hybrid-pixel detector systems.

  7. A low power 11-bit 100 MS/s SAR ADC IP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ya, Wang; Chunying, Xue; Fule, Li; Chun, Zhang; Zhihua, Wang

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a dual-channel 11-bit 100 MS/s hybrid SAR ADC IP. Each channel adopts flash-SAR architecture for high speed, low power and high linearity. Dynamic comparators in the coarse flash ADC and the fine SAR ADC further contribute to the reduction of power consumption. A gate-controlled ring oscillator generates a multi-phase clock for SAR logic, thereby allowing it to asynchronously trigger the comparator in the fine SAR ADC in high speed. MOM capacitors with a fully shielded structure provide enough matching accuracy without the need for calibration. This design was fabricated in SMIC 55 nm low leakage CMOS technology and the active area of dual-channel (I-Q) ADC is 0.35 mm2, while the core area is 0.046 mm2. It consumes 2.92 mA at a 1.2 V supply, for dual-channel too. The effective number of bits (ENOB) is 9.90 bits at 2.4 MHz input frequency, and 9.34 bits at 50 MHz, leading to a FOM of 18.3 fJ/conversion-step.

  8. Heavy metal removal from MSS fly ash by thermal and chlorination treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingyong; Chen, Jiacong; Huang, Limao

    2015-11-01

    The thermal behavior of heavy metals in the co-incineration of municipal solid waste-sludge incinerator fly ash (MSS fly ash) was studied using a laboratory-scale tube furnace. The results indicate that without the addition of chlorinating agents, temperature was an important parameter and had significantly influenced on heavy metal removal, whereas the residence time had a weak effect. Between 900 and 1000 °C for 60 to 300 min, heavy metals reacted with chloride-inherent in the fly ash, and approximately 80 to 89% of Pb, 48% to 56% of Cd, 27% to 36% of Zn and 6% to 24% of Cu were removed. After the adding chlorinating agents, the evaporation rate of the heavy metals improved dramatically, where the evaporation rates of Cu and Zn were larger than that of Pb and Cd. As the amount of added chlorinating agents increased, the removal rate of heavy metals increased. However, the effect of the type of chlorinating agent on the chlorination of heavy metals differed considerably, where NaCl had the weakest effect on the removal rate of Cu, Cd and Zn. In terms of resource recovery and decontamination, MgCl2 and CaCl2 are the best choices due to their efficient removal of Zn.

  9. An IP-oriented 11-bit 160 MS/s 2-channel current-steering DAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Xu; Fule, Li; Chun, Zhang; Zhihua, Wang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an 11-bit 160 MS/s 2-channel current-steering digital-to-analog converter (DAC) IP. The circuit and layout are carefully designed to optimize its performance and area. A 6-2-3 segmented structure is used for the trade-off among linearity, area and layout complexity. The sizes of current source transistors are calculated out according to the process matching parameter. The unary current cells are placed in a one-dimension distribution to simplify the layout routing, spare area and wiring layer. Their sequences are also carefully designed to reduce integral nonlinearity. The test result presents an SFDR of 72 dBc at 4.88 MHz input signal with DNL ⩽ 0.25 LSB, INL ⩽ 0.8 LSB. The full-scale output current is 5 mA with a 2.5 V analog power supply. The core of each channel occupies 0.08 mm2 in a 1P-8M 55 nm CMOS process.

  10. Determination of land use in Minnesota by automatic interpretation of ERTS MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirkle, R. E.; Pile, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    This program aims to determine the feasibility of identifying land use in Minnesota by automatic interpretation of ERTS-MSS data. Ultimate objectives include establishment of land use delineation and quantification by computer processing with a minimum of human operator interaction. This implies not only that reflectivity as a function of calendar time can be catalogued effectively, but also that the effects of uncontrolled variables can be identified and compensated. Clouds are the major uncontrollable data pollutant, so part of the initial effort is devoted to determining their effect and the construction of a model to help correct or justifiably ignore affected data. Other short range objectives are to identify and verify measurements giving results of importance to land managers. Lake-counting is a prominent example. Open water is easily detected in band 7 data with some support from either band 4 or band 5 to remove ambiguities. Land managers and conservationists commission studies periodically to measure water bodies and total water count within specified areas.

  11. Vision development test bed: The cradle of the MSS artificial vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucherman, Leon; Stovman, John

    This paper presents the concept of the Vision Development Test-Bed (VDTB) developed at Spar Aerospace Ltd. in order to assist development work on the Artificial Vision System (AVS) for the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) of Space Station Freedom in providing reliable and robust target auto acquisition and robotic auto-tracking capabilities when operating in the extremely contrasty illumination of the space environment. The paper illustrates how the VDTB will be used to understand the problems and to evaluate the methods of solving them. The VDTB is based on the use of conventional but high speed image processing hardware and software. Auxiliary equipment, such as TV cameras, illumination sources, monitors, will be added to provide completeness and flexibility. A special feature will be the use of solar simulation so that the impact of the harsh illumination conditions in space on image quality can be evaluated. The VDTB will be used to assess the required techniques, algorithms, hardware and software characteristics, and to utilize this information in overcoming the target-recognition and false-target rejection problems. The problems associated with NTSC video processing and the use of color will also be investigated. The paper concludes with a review of applications for the VDTB work, such as AVS real-time simulations, application software development, evaluations, and trade-offs studies.

  12. Heavy metal removal from MSS fly ash by thermal and chlorination treatments

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyong; Chen, Jiacong; Huang, Limao

    2015-01-01

    The thermal behavior of heavy metals in the co-incineration of municipal solid waste-sludge incinerator fly ash (MSS fly ash) was studied using a laboratory-scale tube furnace. The results indicate that without the addition of chlorinating agents, temperature was an important parameter and had significantly influenced on heavy metal removal, whereas the residence time had a weak effect. Between 900 and 1000 °C for 60 to 300 min, heavy metals reacted with chloride-inherent in the fly ash, and approximately 80 to 89% of Pb, 48% to 56% of Cd, 27% to 36% of Zn and 6% to 24% of Cu were removed. After the adding chlorinating agents, the evaporation rate of the heavy metals improved dramatically, where the evaporation rates of Cu and Zn were larger than that of Pb and Cd. As the amount of added chlorinating agents increased, the removal rate of heavy metals increased. However, the effect of the type of chlorinating agent on the chlorination of heavy metals differed considerably, where NaCl had the weakest effect on the removal rate of Cu, Cd and Zn. In terms of resource recovery and decontamination, MgCl2 and CaCl2 are the best choices due to their efficient removal of Zn. PMID:26602592

  13. [Investigation of JinKui ShenQi pills by ultraviolet spectra and tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-lan; Sun, Zhi; Cheng, Bin; Ji, Yu-bin; Bai, Jing

    2008-08-01

    On the base of establishing the fingerprint of JinKui ShenQi pills, the ultraviolet spectra-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, method was used to identify the fingerprint. Seperation was performed on the Symmetry Shield RP18 (5 microm, 4. 6 mm X 15 mm) analytical column with mobile phase consisting of 1% acetic acid and acetonitrile with gradient elute at the flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the ultraviolet detection wavelength was set at 248 nm. Using the above-mentioned chromatographic condition, the fingerprint of different samples was established and the same fingerprint was defined. The fingerprints of different samples were compared with similarity evaluation software published by Pharmacopeia committee codex (2004A). The mass spectrograph with API-ESI ionization source was used, setting the flow rate at 0.5 mL x min(-1) after splitting stream. The pressure of atomization room was 50 Psi, the flow rate of dry gas was 9.0 L x min(-1), the capillary voltage was 4 kV, and the transmission voltage was 70 V. The negative scanner mode was chosen, scan scope was 100-2000, using ion trap to analyze quasimolecular ion peak and the selected fragment ion, and TIC chromatography and second order mass chromatogram were recorded. The major constituents among in JinKui ShenQi pills from different origins were separated well by HPLC. Although there was difference among different origins, they showed nineteen identical characteristic absorption bands. Three fingerprints chemical compositions such as loganin, cinnamal and paeonol were identified based on the retention time and ultraviolet spectra of standard preparation. According to their ultraviolet spectra, molecular weight and fragmentation information, ten peaks in the fingerprint were identified by ultraviolet spectroscopy-mass, spectrometry/massg spectrometry. They are 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-glucose, loganin, paeoniflorin, 1,2,3,6-tetro-O-galloyl-glucose, soya-cerebroside, cornuside, and PGG, benzoyl

  14. ATox-Mss: From a space proven payload to a validated testsystem in Ecotoxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slenzka, K.; Duenne, M.; Jastorff, B.; Schirmer, M.

    The C.E.B.A.S. -Minimodul (Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System) is a space qualified aquatic microcosm of 8.6 litres volume of water. Several aquatic species can be reared in parallel. The minimodule is based on ideas and prototypes of V. Bluem from the University of Bochum. The flight qualified hardware was developed and manufactured at OHB-System under a contract of the German Space Agency DLR. It was flown already twice very successfully aboard shuttle flights STS-89 and -90. A third flight is manifested on STS 107 for July 2002. An improved module developed at- OHB is called C B R U - Closed Biological Research Unit Based on the C B R U characteristics: 1) being a closed system, it enables the calculation of the allocations of chemicals in this ecosystem. 2) being highly standardized, it is a tool for reproducible testruns, which is a necessity in ecotoxicology. 3) Testruns longer than 4 weeks are possible - important to measure chronic effects in an ecosystems, which is not possible with actual laboratory hardware. 4) Organisms of different trophic levels can be investigated, an application oriented research is feasable. C B R U is now the basis in the two year lasting project ATox-Mss (Aquatic Toxicology in the Multispecies system). It is an R&D project of an OHB science team and two science teams of University Bremen funded by the state of Bremen. Goal is the development of a functional model being the basis for commercial services in the field of ecotoxicological testing. First results of the ongoing tests will be presented at the assembly.

  15. Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuan; Palla, Mirkó; Sun, Andrew; Liao, Jung-Chi

    2013-09-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicases are ATP-dependent proteins implicated in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism. The yeast DEAD-box helicase Mss116 is unique in its functions of splicing group I and group II introns and activating mRNA translation, but the structural understanding of why it performs these unique functions remains unclear. Here we used sequence analysis and molecular dynamics simulation to identify residues in the flexible linker specific for yeast Mss116, potentially associated with its unique functions. We first identified residues that are 100% conserved in Mss116 of different species of the Saccharomycetaceae family. The amino acids of these conserved residues were then compared with the amino acids of the corresponding residue positions of other RNA helicases to identify residues that have distinct amino acids from other DEAD-box proteins. Four residues in the flexible linker, i.e. N334, E335, P336 and H339, are conserved and Mss116-specific. Molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for the wild-type Mss116 structure and mutant models to examine mutational effects of the linker on the conformational equilibrium. Relatively short MD simulation runs (within 20 ns) were enough for us to observe mutational effects, suggesting serious structural perturbations by these mutations. The mutation of E335 depletes the interactions between E335 and K95 in domain 1. The interactions between N334/P336 and N496/I497 of domain 2 are also abolished by mutation. Our results suggest that tight interactions between the Mss116-specific flexible linker and the two RecA-like domains may be mechanically required to crimp RNA for the unique RNA processes of yeast Mss116.

  16. Functionally-focused algorithmic analysis of high resolution microarray-CGH genomic landscapes demonstrates comparable genomic copy number aberrations in MSI and MSS sporadic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Hamad; Bitar, Milad S.; Al Madhoun, Ashraf; Marafie, Makia; Al-Mulla, Fahd

    2017-01-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) emerged as a powerful technology for studying copy number variations at higher resolution in many cancers including colorectal cancer. However, the lack of standardized systematic protocols including bioinformatic algorithms to obtain and analyze genomic data resulted in significant variation in the reported copy number aberration (CNA) data. Here, we present genomic aCGH data obtained using highly stringent and functionally relevant statistical algorithms from 116 well-defined microsatellites instable (MSI) and microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancers. We utilized aCGH to characterize genomic CNAs in 116 well-defined sets of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. We further applied the significance testing for aberrant copy number (STAC) and Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) algorithms to identify functionally relevant (nonrandom) chromosomal aberrations in the analyzed colorectal cancer samples. Our results produced high resolution genomic landscapes of both, MSI and MSS sporadic CRC. We found that CNAs in MSI and MSS CRCs are heterogeneous in nature but may be divided into 3 distinct genomic patterns. Moreover, we show that although CNAs in MSI and MSS CRCs differ with respect to their size, number and chromosomal distribution, the functional copy number aberrations obtained from MSI and MSS CRCs were in fact comparable but not identical. These unifying CNAs were verified by MLPA tumor-loss gene panel, which spans 15 different chromosomal locations and contains 50 probes for at least 20 tumor suppressor genes. Consistently, deletion/amplification in these frequently cancer altered genes were identical in MSS and MSI CRCs. Our results suggest that MSI and MSS copy number aberrations driving CRC may be functionally comparable. PMID:28231327

  17. Functionally-focused algorithmic analysis of high resolution microarray-CGH genomic landscapes demonstrates comparable genomic copy number aberrations in MSI and MSS sporadic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hamad; Bitar, Milad S; Al Madhoun, Ashraf; Marafie, Makia; Al-Mulla, Fahd

    2017-01-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) emerged as a powerful technology for studying copy number variations at higher resolution in many cancers including colorectal cancer. However, the lack of standardized systematic protocols including bioinformatic algorithms to obtain and analyze genomic data resulted in significant variation in the reported copy number aberration (CNA) data. Here, we present genomic aCGH data obtained using highly stringent and functionally relevant statistical algorithms from 116 well-defined microsatellites instable (MSI) and microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancers. We utilized aCGH to characterize genomic CNAs in 116 well-defined sets of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. We further applied the significance testing for aberrant copy number (STAC) and Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) algorithms to identify functionally relevant (nonrandom) chromosomal aberrations in the analyzed colorectal cancer samples. Our results produced high resolution genomic landscapes of both, MSI and MSS sporadic CRC. We found that CNAs in MSI and MSS CRCs are heterogeneous in nature but may be divided into 3 distinct genomic patterns. Moreover, we show that although CNAs in MSI and MSS CRCs differ with respect to their size, number and chromosomal distribution, the functional copy number aberrations obtained from MSI and MSS CRCs were in fact comparable but not identical. These unifying CNAs were verified by MLPA tumor-loss gene panel, which spans 15 different chromosomal locations and contains 50 probes for at least 20 tumor suppressor genes. Consistently, deletion/amplification in these frequently cancer altered genes were identical in MSS and MSI CRCs. Our results suggest that MSI and MSS copy number aberrations driving CRC may be functionally comparable.

  18. High-Throughput Genetic Identification of Functionally Important Regions of the Yeast DEAD-box Protein Mss116p

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Georg; Campo, Mark Del; Turner, Kathryn G.; Gilman, Benjamin; Wolf, Rachel Z.; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DEAD-box protein Mss116p is a general RNA chaperone that functions in splicing mitochondrial group I and group II introns. Recent X-ray crystal structures of Mss116p in complex with ATP analogs and single-stranded RNA show that the helicase core induces a bend in the bound RNA, as in other DEAD-box proteins, while a C-terminal extension induces a second bend, resulting in RNA crimping. Here, we illuminate these structures by using high-throughput genetic selections, unigenic evolution, and analyses of in vivo splicing activity to comprehensively identify functionally important regions and permissible amino acid substitutions throughout Mss116p. The functionally important regions include those containing conserved sequence motifs involved in ATP and RNA binding or interdomain interactions, as well as previously unidentified regions, including surface loops that may function in protein-protein interactions. The genetic selections recapitulate major features of the conserved helicase motifs seen in other DEAD-box proteins, but also show surprising variations, including multiple novel variants of motif III (SAT). Patterns of amino acid substitutions indicate that the RNA bend induced by the helicase core depends upon ionic and hydrogen-bonding interactions with the bound RNA; identify a subset of critically interacting residues; and indicate that the bend induced by the C-terminal extension results primarily from a steric block. Finally, we identified two conserved regions, one the previously noted post-II region in the helicase core and the other in the C-terminal extension, which may help displace or sequester the opposite RNA strand during RNA unwinding. PMID:21945532

  19. High-Throughput Genetic Identification of Functionally Important Regions of the Yeast DEAD-Box Protein Mss116p

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, Georg; Del Campo, Mark; Turner, Kathryn G.; Gilman, Benjamin; Wolf, Rachel Z.; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2012-03-15

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DEAD-box protein Mss116p is a general RNA chaperone that functions in splicing mitochondrial group I and group II introns. Recent X-ray crystal structures of Mss116p in complex with ATP analogs and single-stranded RNA show that the helicase core induces a bend in the bound RNA, as in other DEAD-box proteins, while a C-terminal extension (CTE) induces a second bend, resulting in RNA crimping. Here, we illuminate these structures by using high-throughput genetic selections, unigenic evolution, and analyses of in vivo splicing activity to comprehensively identify functionally important regions and permissible amino acid substitutions throughout Mss116p. The functionally important regions include those containing conserved sequence motifs involved in ATP and RNA binding or interdomain interactions, as well as previously unidentified regions, including surface loops that may function in protein-protein interactions. The genetic selections recapitulate major features of the conserved helicase motifs seen in other DEAD-box proteins but also show surprising variations, including multiple novel variants of motif III (SAT). Patterns of amino acid substitutions indicate that the RNA bend induced by the helicase core depends on ionic and hydrogen-bonding interactions with the bound RNA; identify a subset of critically interacting residues; and indicate that the bend induced by the CTE results primarily from a steric block. Finally, we identified two conserved regions - one the previously noted post II region in the helicase core and the other in the CTE - that may help displace or sequester the opposite RNA strand during RNA unwinding.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the DEAD-box protein Mss116p complexed with an RNA oligonucleotide and AMP-PNP

    SciTech Connect

    Del Campo, Mark; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2009-09-02

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DEAD-box protein Mss116p is a general RNA chaperone which functions in mitochondrial group I and group II intron splicing, translation and RNA-end processing. For crystallization trials, full-length Mss116p and a C-terminally truncated protein (Mss116p/{Delta}598-664) were overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Mss116p exhibited low solubility in standard solutions ({le}1 mg ml{sup -1}), but its solubility could be increased by adding 50 mM L-arginine plus 50 mM L-glutamate and 50% glycerol to achieve concentrations of {approx}10 mg ml{sup -1}. Initial crystals were obtained by the microbatch method in the presence of a U{sub 10} RNA oligonucleotide and the ATP analog AMP-PNP and were then improved by using seeding and sitting-drop vapor diffusion. A cryocooled crystal of Mss116p/{Delta}598-664 in complex with AMP-PNP and U{sub 10} belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.54, b = 126.52, c = 55.52 {angstrom}, and diffracted X-rays to beyond 1.9 {angstrom} resolution using synchrotron radiation from sector 21 at the Advanced Photon Source.

  1. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Several possibilities were considered for defining the data set in which the same test areas could be used for each of the four different spatial resolutions being evaluated. The LARSYS CLUSTER was used to sort the vectors into spectral classes to reduce the within-spectral class variability in an effort to develop training statistics. A data quality test was written to determine the basic signal to noise characteristics within the data set being used. Because preliminary analysis of the LANDSAT MSS data revealed the presence of high cirrus clouds, other data sets are being sought.

  2. Delineation of the New Madrid seismic zone using Landsat MSS data with insurance and tax implications of future fault movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, M. A.; Rupert, G. B.; Christy, J. J.; Cochrane, C. L.; Buffington, N. L., Jr.

    Landsat MSS imagery was used to delineate the New Madrid seismic zone, near the common borders of Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, and Kentucky, which has produced earthquakes wth Modified Mercalli intensities larger than 10. Intepretation of the Landsat image, in conjunction with published data, provides means for combining geomorphic and geophysical data to yield new insights into the tectonics of the area. The paper discusses the value of this technique for constructing and maintaining disaster contingency plans, with particular attention given to insurance and tax implications.

  3. Analysis of MSS (Marine Seismic System) and OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismograph) Data Collected during the NGENDEI Seismic Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11 T ClSiIAj b. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS 2a, 3TC-uniT CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3. DISTRIBUTION/AVAI LABILITY OF REPORT ...ApptvIoVd topbIf T6 2.. DCLASSI FICATION/DOWNO RADING SCHEDULE ditibto U11111 .PEFRIGOGNZTOREOTNUMBER(S) 5. MO19IGOGNZTION REPORT NUMSER...1PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENTN. NO. NO. NO. 11. TITLft (Includ ac riyLu.Icaf Analysis of MSS and OBS Data Collected During the NGENDEI Sp ismic Expqriment

  4. Analysis and Evaluation of the LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM Sensors and Ground Data Processing Systems: Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R.; Lotspiech, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The MSS and TM sensor performances were evaluated by studying both the sensors and the characteristics of the data. Information content analysis, image statistics, band-to-band registration, the presence of failed or failing detectors, and sensor resolution are discussed. The TM data were explored from the point of view of adequacy of the ground processing and improvements that could be made to compensate for sensor problems and deficiencies. Radiometric correction processing, compensation for a failed detector, and geometric correction processing are also considered.

  5. Analysis and Evaluation of the LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM Sensors and Ground Data Processing Systems: Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R.; Lotspiech, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The MSS and TM sensor performances were evaluated by studying both the sensors and the characteristics of the data. Information content analysis, image statistics, band-to-band registration, the presence of failed or failing detectors, and sensor resolution are discussed. The TM data were explored from the point of view of adequacy of the ground processing and improvements that could be made to compensate for sensor problems and deficiencies. Radiometric correction processing, compensation for a failed detector, and geometric correction processing are also considered.

  6. Multiple resource evaluation of region 2 US forest service lands utilizing LANDSAT MSS data. [San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, P. V.; Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT MSS imagery provided an excellent overview which put a geomorphic study into a regional perspective, using scale 1:250,000 or smaller. It was used for deriving a data base for land use planning for southern San Juan Mountains. Stereo pairing of adjacent images was the best method for all geomorphic mapping. Combining this with snow enhancement, seasonal enhancement, and reversal aided in interpretation of geomorphic features. Drainage patterns were mapped in much greater detail from LANDSAT than from a two deg quadrangle base.

  7. Comparison of Land Cover Information from LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Data for Hydrologic Applications. [Clinton River Basin, Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    Thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data produced a more accurate and spatially contiguous classification than MSS for the Clinton River Basin in Michigan. While the accuracy of the 4-band TMS data set was as good as the 7-band, the 3-band TMS data sets were also better than the MSS. The combination of bands selected based on the transformed divergence technique provided one band in each of the major regions of the spectrum: visible (band 3), near IR (band 4), middle IR (band 5) and thermal IR (band 7). These results should be viewed with some caution, since the data are from a TMS rather than the actual TM and the MSS data were obtained in early summer while the TMS was flown in late summer. The higher accuracies for the developed categories (residential and commercial) should improve the predictions of runoff in flood forecasting models and of flood damage for damage calculation models appreciably.

  8. Phosphoprotein Keratin 23 accumulates in MSS but not MSI colon cancers in vivo and impacts viability and proliferation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Mansilla, Francisco; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Cabezón, Teresa; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Verspaget, Hein W; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2007-09-01

    Transcript profiling of 27 normal colon mucosas and 258 adenocarcinomas showed Keratin23 to be increased in 78% microsatellite-stable tumors, while microsatellite-instable tumors showed low transcript levels, comparable to normal mucosas. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that 88% of microsatellite-instable tumors were negative for Keratin23 protein, while 70% of MSS tumors and metastases derived from MSS-tumors showed high Keratin23 levels. Immunofluorescence analysis localized Keratin23 in the Golgi-apparatus. Golgi accumulation was unique for gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. Immunoprecipitation and 2D-blot analysis revealed Keratin23 to be a 46.8 kDa phosphoprotein. Keratin23 impaired the proliferation of human colon cancer cells significantly, leading to cell death in microsatellite-instable but not microsatellite-stable cell lines, while COS7 cells experienced multiple nuclei and apoptosis. Keratin23 expression correlated significantly with transcription factor CEBPB. In conclusion, Keratin23 expression is a novel and important difference between microsatellite-stable and microsatellite-instable colon cancers.

  9. A SHA-less 14-bit, 100-MS/s pipelined ADC with comparator offset cancellation in background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaofei, Wang; Hong, Zhang; Jie, Zhang; Xin, Du; Yue, Hao

    2016-03-01

    A 14-bit 100-MS/s pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) without dedicated front-end sample-and-hold amplifier (SHA) is presented. In addition to elaborate matching of the sampling network in the first stage, a background offset cancellation circuit is proposed in this paper to suppress the offset of the comparators in the first-stage sub-ADC, which ensures the overall offset does not exceed the correction range of the built-in redundant structure. Fabricated in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology, the presented ADC occupies a chip area of 12 mm2, and consumes 237 mW from a 1.8-V power supply. Measurement results with a 30.1-MHz input sine wave under a sampling rate of 100 MS/s show that the ADC achieves a 71-dB signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR), an 85.4-dB spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR), a maximum differential nonlinearity (DNL) of 0.22 LSB and a maximum integral nonlinearity (INL) of 1.4 LSB. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61474092).

  10. Use of topographic and climatological models in a geographical data base to improve Landsat MSS classification for Olympic National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibula, William G.; Nyquist, Maurice O.

    1987-01-01

    An unsupervised computer classification of vegetation/landcover of Olympic National Park and surrounding environs was initially carried out using four bands of Landsat MSS data. The primary objective of the project was to derive a level of landcover classifications useful for park management applications while maintaining an acceptably high level of classification accuracy. Initially, nine generalized vegetation/landcover classes were derived. Overall classification accuracy was 91.7 percent. In an attempt to refine the level of classification, a geographic information system (GIS) approach was employed. Topographic data and watershed boundaries (inferred precipitation/temperature) data were registered with the Landsat MSS data. The resultant boolean operations yielded 21 vegetation/landcover classes while maintaining the same level of classification accuracy. The final classification provided much better identification and location of the major forest types within the park at the same high level of accuracy, and these met the project objective. This classification could now become inputs into a GIS system to help provide answers to park management coupled with other ancillary data programs such as fire management.

  11. Use of topographic and climatological models in a geographical data base to improve Landsat MSS classification for Olympic National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibula, William G.; Nyquist, Maurice O.

    1987-01-01

    An unsupervised computer classification of vegetation/landcover of Olympic National Park and surrounding environs was initially carried out using four bands of Landsat MSS data. The primary objective of the project was to derive a level of landcover classifications useful for park management applications while maintaining an acceptably high level of classification accuracy. Initially, nine generalized vegetation/landcover classes were derived. Overall classification accuracy was 91.7 percent. In an attempt to refine the level of classification, a geographic information system (GIS) approach was employed. Topographic data and watershed boundaries (inferred precipitation/temperature) data were registered with the Landsat MSS data. The resultant boolean operations yielded 21 vegetation/landcover classes while maintaining the same level of classification accuracy. The final classification provided much better identification and location of the major forest types within the park at the same high level of accuracy, and these met the project objective. This classification could now become inputs into a GIS system to help provide answers to park management coupled with other ancillary data programs such as fire management.

  12. Testing the consistency for mapping urban vegetation with high-altitude aerial photographs and landsat MSS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sadowski, Franklin G.; Sturdevant, James A.; Rowntree, Rowan A.

    1987-01-01

    Two methods of analysis were evaluated for mapping urban vegetation on high-altitude, color-infrared aerial photographs and Landsat MSS data of Syracuse, NY. The first method consisted of defining the spatial patterns (strata) of urban vegetation occurrence. The second method discriminated woody and herbaceous vegetation classes within defined strata. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the consistency of each method. Results indicate that consistent spatial patterns of urban vegetation strata were not achieved on either of the two data types tested due to the spatial complexity of the urban vegetation. However, for discriminating woody and herbaceous vegetation classes within defined strata, good consistency was noted among the interpreters of the high-altitude aerial photographs. The coarse spatial resolution of the Landsat MSS data resulted in low precision for identifying these two vegetation classes in this highly urbanized area. Where photointerpretation efforts are intended for mapping vegetation within numerous urban areas, the estimation of proportions of vegetation classes within defined strata should be a data analysis procedure more objective and consistently repeatable than is the delineation of vegetation patterns. 

  13. A 10-bit 50-MS/s sample-and-hold circuit with low distortion sampling switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xubin, Zhu; Weining, Ni; Yin, Shi

    2009-05-01

    A fully-differential switched-capacitor sample-and-hold (S/H) circuit used in a 10-bit 50-MS/s pipeline analog-to-digital converter (ADC) was designed and fabricated using a 0.35-μm CMOS process. Capacitor flip-around architecture was used in the S/H circuit to lower the power consumption. In addition, a gain-boosted operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) was designed with a DC gain of 94 dB and a unit gain bandwidth of 460 MHz at a phase margin of 63 degree, which matches the S/H circuit. A novel double-side bootstrapped switch was used, improving the precision of the whole circuit. The measured results have shown that the S/H circuit reaches a spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 67 dB and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 62.1 dB for a 2.5 MHz input signal with 50 MS/s sampling rate. The 0.12 mm2 S/H circuit operates from a 3.3 V supply and consumes 13.6 mW.

  14. A 12-bit 1 MS/s SAR-ADC for multi-channel CdZnTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liu; Tingcun, Wei; Bo, Li; Panjie, Guo; Yongcai, Hu

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a low power, area-efficient and radiation-hardened 12-bit 1 MS/s successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for multi-channel CdZnTe (CZT) detector applications. In order to improve the SAR-ADC's accuracy, a novel comparator is proposed in which the offset voltage is self-calibrated and also a new architecture for the unit capacitor array is proposed to reduce the capacitance mismatches in the charge-redistribution DAC. The ability to radiation-harden the SAR-ADC is enhanced through circuit and layout design technologies. The prototype chip was fabricated using a TSMC 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS process. At a 3.3/5 V power supply and a sampling rate of 1 MS/s, the proposed SAR-ADC achieves a peak signal to noise and distortion ratio (SINAD) of 67.64 dB and consumes only 10 mW power. The core of the prototype chip occupies an active area of 1180 × 1080 μm2. Project supported by the Special-Funded Program on National Key Scientific Instruments and Equipment Development (No. 2011YQ040082).

  15. A preliminary study of the feasibility of detecting the floating macrophytes by means of digital processing of MSS/LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valeriano, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping the floating macrophytes (mostly water hyacinth: (Eichornia crassipes) in the Salto Grande reservoir in Americana, SP, by means of digital processing of MSS/LANDSAT data is described. The area occupied by the macrophytes was extracted by exclusion after the merging of two thematic masks representing the area of vegetation free water surface. One of the masks was obtained from a date when the vegetal cover is insignificant, while the other represents a large infestation episode. The utilization of digital processing of MSS/LANDSAT data techniques for the documentation of macrophytes infestation is feasible only when the phenomenon occurs in large areas.

  16. AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1992 LANDSAT-MSS DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of Digital Orthophoto Quads (DOQS) in assessing the classification accuracy of land cover derived from Landsat MSS data was investigated. Initially, the suitability of DOQs in distinguishing between different land cover classes was assessed using high-resolution airbo...

  17. 47 CFR 25.257 - Special requirements for operations in the band 29.1-29.25 GHz between NGSO MSS and LMDS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Earth-to-space transmissions from feeder link earth station complexes. A “feeder link earth station complex” may include up to three (3) earth station groups, with each earth station group having up to four... NGSO MSS licensees or applicants pursuant to § 101.147. (b) A maximum of seven (7) feeder link...

  18. 47 CFR 25.257 - Special requirements for operations in the band 29.1-29.25 GHz between NGSO MSS and LMDS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Earth-to-space transmissions from feeder link earth station complexes. A “feeder link earth station complex” may include up to three (3) earth station groups, with each earth station group having up to four... NGSO MSS licensees or applicants pursuant to § 101.147. (b) A maximum of seven (7) feeder link...

  19. 47 CFR 25.257 - Special requirements for operations in the band 29.1-29.25 GHz between NGSO MSS and LMDS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Earth-to-space transmissions from feeder link earth station complexes. A “feeder link earth station complex” may include up to three (3) earth station groups, with each earth station group having up to four... NGSO MSS licensees or applicants pursuant to § 101.147. (b) A maximum of seven (7) feeder link...

  20. 47 CFR 25.257 - Special requirements for operations in the band 29.1-29.25 GHz between NGSO MSS and LMDS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Earth-to-space transmissions from feeder link earth station complexes. A “feeder link earth station complex” may include up to three (3) earth station groups, with each earth station group having up to four... NGSO MSS licensees or applicants pursuant to § 101.147. (b) A maximum of seven (7) feeder link...

  1. 47 CFR 25.257 - Special requirements for operations in the band 29.1-29.25 GHz between NGSO MSS and LMDS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Earth-to-space transmissions from feeder link earth station complexes. A “feeder link earth station complex” may include up to three (3) earth station groups, with each earth station group having up to four... NGSO MSS licensees or applicants pursuant to § 101.147. (b) A maximum of seven (7) feeder link...

  2. AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1992 LANDSAT-MSS DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of Digital Orthophoto Quads (DOQS) in assessing the classification accuracy of land cover derived from Landsat MSS data was investigated. Initially, the suitability of DOQs in distinguishing between different land cover classes was assessed using high-resolution airbo...

  3. Evaluation of multiband, multitemporal, and transformed LANDSAT MSS data for land cover area estimation. [North Central Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; May, G. A.; Kalcic, M. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Sample segments of ground-verified land cover data collected in conjunction with the USDA/ESS June Enumerative Survey were merged with LANDSAT data and served as a focus for unsupervised spectral class development and accuracy assessment. Multitemporal data sets were created from single-date LANDSAT MSS acquisitions from a nominal scene covering an eleven-county area in north central Missouri. Classification accuracies for the four land cover types predominant in the test site showed significant improvement in going from unitemporal to multitemporal data sets. Transformed LANDSAT data sets did not significantly improve classification accuracies. Regression estimators yielded mixed results for different land covers. Misregistration of two LANDSAT data sets by as much and one half pixels did not significantly alter overall classification accuracies. Existing algorithms for scene-to scene overlay proved adequate for multitemporal data analysis as long as statistical class development and accuracy assessment were restricted to field interior pixels.

  4. Surface compositional mapping by spectral ratioing of ERTS-1 MSS data in the Wind River Basin and Range, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K. (Principal Investigator); Salmon, B. C.; Pillars, W. W.; Harris, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS data collected in August and October 1972 were processed on digital and special purpose analog recognition computers using ratio enhancement and pattern recognition. Ratios of band-averaged laboratory reflectances of some minerals and rock types known to be in the scene compared favorably with ratios derived from the data by ratio normalization procedures. A single ratio display and density slice of the visible channels of ERTS MSS data, Channel 5/Channel 4 (R5,4), separated the Triassic Chugwater formation (redbeds) from other formations present and may have enhanced iron oxide minerals present at the surface in abundance. Comparison of data sets collected over the same area at two different times of the year by digital processing indicated that spectral variation due to environmental factors was reduced by ratio processing.

  5. Preliminary results of MARECS-A measurements in Central Maryland and plans for 1988 MSS experiment in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius

    1988-01-01

    Past and future efforts are described, using L Band (1.5 GHz) satellite signals for mobile satellite system (MSS) propagation measurements. Preliminary results from the December 1987 campaign in Central Maryland with the Atlantic Ocean MARECS satellite are given. The fade level statistics from this 22 degree elevation source are consistent with helicopter measurements made along the same roads. The day to day repeatability of the fade probabilities is shown to be usually better than about 20 percent. An experiment plan is presented for measurements using the Experimental Test Satellite-V's (ETS-V's) southern beam. These measurements will be made in Australia in collaboration with Australia's National Satellite System (AUSSAT) during the July/August 1988 time-frame.

  6. LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM Spectral Class Comparison and Coherent Noise Analysis. [The Des Moines, Iowa area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.; Bartolucci, L.; Dean, E.; Lozano, F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Valdes, J.; Valenzuela, C.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed spectral analysis is conducted of thematic mapper and MSS data for an area near Des Moines, Iowa. Data are utilized from 7 blocks distributed throughout the area which included agricultural, forest, suburan, urban, and water scene types. The blocks are processed using a clustering algorithm to produce up to 18 cluster groupings for each block. Each cluster class is then identified with a ground-cover class using aerial photography and maps of the area. The clusters from each of the 7 blocks are inspected with regard to separability, mean, and variances. The separability measure used in the transformed divergence function or processor measures the statistical distance between classes based on class means and covariance matrices. The measure has a maximum value of 2,000 and the minimum of 0. Spectrally, very close classes will typically have values as low as 50 to 500.

  7. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Latty, R. S.; Dean, E.; Knowlton, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Separate holograms of horizontally (HH) and vertically (HV) polarized responses obtained by the APQ-102 side-looking radar were processed through an optical correlator and the resulting image was recorded on positive film from which black and white negative and positive prints were made. Visual comparison of the HH and HV images reveals a distinct dark band in the imagery which covers about 30% of the radar strip. Preliminary evaluaton of the flight line 1 date indicates that various features on the HH and HV images seem to have different response levels. The amount of sidelap due to the look angle between flight lines 1 and 2 is negligible. NASA mission #425 to obtain flightlines of NS-001 MSS data and supporting aerial photography was successfully flown. Flight line 3 data are of very good quality and virtually cloud-free. Results of data analysis for selection of test fields and for evaluation of waveband combination and spatial resolution are presented.

  8. A comparison of original aircraft MSS and generated surface water reflectance images as predictors of lake water quality indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, E.W. III; Jensen, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Generated reflectance and original MSS images were compared at six blue to near infrared wavelengths at thirty-eight (38) field locations in three different lakes. Both sets of images were evaluated in terms of their importance in explaining the variance of measured reflectances. Subsequently, the generated reflectance images were related to measured chlorophyll /und a/ and total suspended solids using a statistical analysis that uncovered the simplest relationships explaining the greatest amount of each water variables variance. Applying this methodology resulted in predictor equations explaining 82% of the chlorophyll /und a/ variance and 92% of the total suspended solids variance within the thirty-two (32) water samples analyzed. Maps were produced of L Lake depicting the distributions of two water quality indicators: chlorophyll a and total suspended particles. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques. [south carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A literature review on radar and spectral band information was conducted and a NC-130 mission was flown carrying the NS001 scanner system which basically corresponds to the channel configuration of the proposed thematic mapper. Aerial photography and other reference data were obtained for the study site, an area approximately 290 sq miles in north central South Carolina. A cover type map was prepared and methods were devised for reformatting and geometrically correcting MSS CRT data. Arrangements were made to obtain LANDSAT data for dates approximating the NC-130 mission. Because of the waveband employed to obtain SEASAT radar data, it was decided to determine if X-band (2.40 cm to 3.75 cm wavelength) imagery is available.

  10. Detecting agricultural to urban land use change from multi-temporal MSS digital data. [Salt Lake County, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridd, M. K.; Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Conversion of agricultural land to a variety of urban uses is a major problem along the Wasatch Front, Utah. Although LANDSAT MSS data is a relatively coarse tool for discriminating categories of change in urban-size plots, its availability prompts a thorough test of its power to detect change. The procedures being applied to a test area in Salt Lake County, Utah, where the land conversion problem is acute are presented. The identity of land uses before and after conversion was determined and digital procedures for doing so were compared. Several algorithms were compared, utilizing both raw data and preprocessed data. Verification of results involved high quality color infrared photography and field observation. Two data sets were digitally registered, specific change categories internally identified in the software, results tabulated by computer, and change maps printed at 1:24,000 scale.

  11. The use of ERTS-1 MSS data for mapping strip mines and acid mine drainage in Pennsyvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Dein, J. L.; Gold, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    Digital processing of ERTS-I MSS data for areas around the west branch of the Susquehanna River permits identification of stripped areas including ones that are not discernible from visual analysis of ERTS imagery. Underflight data and ground-based observations are used for ground-truth and as a basis for designing more refined operators to make sub-classifications of stripped areas, particularly with regard to manifestations of acid mine drainage; because of associated diagnostic effects on vegetation, seasonal changes in classifiction criteria are being documented as repeated, cloud-free ERTS-I coverage of the same area becomes available. Preliminary results indicate that ERTS data can be used to moniter not only the total extent of stripping in given areas but also the effectiveness of reclamation and pollution abatement procedures.

  12. A 14-bit 100-MS/s 85.2-dB SFDR pipelined ADC without calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Zhao; Hua, Luo; Qi, Wei; Huazhong, Yang

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a 14-bit 100-MS/s calibration-free pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Choices for stage resolution as well as circuit topology are carefully considered to obtain high linearity without any calibration algorithm. An adjusted timing diagram with an additional clock phase is proposed to give residue voltage more settling time and minimize its distortion. The ADC employs an LVDS clock input buffer with low-jitter consideration to ensure good performance at high sampling rate. Implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology, the ADC prototype achieves a spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 85.2 dB and signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) of 63.4 dB with a 19.1-MHz input signal, while consuming 412-mW power at 2.0-V supply and occupying an area of 2.9 × 3.7mm2.

  13. Sampling system for wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area estimation using digital LANDSAT MSS data and aerial photographs. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Moreira, M. A.; Chen, S. C.; Batista, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure to estimate wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area using sampling technique based on aerial photographs and digital LANDSAT MSS data is developed. Aerial photographs covering 720 square km are visually analyzed. To estimate wheat area, a regression approach is applied using different sample sizes and various sampling units. As the size of sampling unit decreased, the percentage of sampled area required to obtain similar estimation performance also decreased. The lowest percentage of the area sampled for wheat estimation with relatively high precision and accuracy through regression estimation is 13.90% using 10 square km as the sampling unit. Wheat area estimation using only aerial photographs is less precise and accurate than those obtained by regression estimation.

  14. Assessment of computer techniques for processing digital LANDSAT MSS data for lithological discrimination of Serra do Ramalho, State of Bahia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradella, W. R. (Principal Investigator); Vitorello, I.; Monteiro, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Enhancement techniques and thematic classifications were applied to the metasediments of Bambui Super Group (Upper Proterozoic) in the Region of Serra do Ramalho, SW of the state of Bahia. Linear contrast stretch, band-ratios with contrast stretch, and color-composites allow lithological discriminations. The effects of human activities and of vegetation cover mask and limit, in several ways, the lithological discrimination with digital MSS data. Principal component images and color composite of linear contrast stretch of these products, show lithological discrimination through tonal gradations. This set of products allows the delineations of several metasedimentary sequences to a level superior to reconnaissance mapping. Supervised (maximum likelihood classifier) and nonsupervised (K-Means classifier) classification of the limestone sequence, host to fluorite mineralization show satisfactory results.

  15. European Space Agency (ESA) Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ Archive Bulk-Processing: processor improvements and data quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascon, F.; Biasutti, R.; Ferrara, R.; Fischer, P.; Galli, L.; Hoersch, B.; Hopkins, S.; Jackson, J.; Lavender, S.; Mica, S.; Northrop, A.; Paciucci, A.; Paul, F.; Pinori, S.; Saunier, S.

    2014-09-01

    The Landsat program is a joint United States Geological Survey (USGS) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enterprise for Earth Observation (EO), that represents the world's longest running system of satellites for moderate-resolution optical remote sensing. The European Space Agency (ESA) has acquired Landsat data over Europe through the ESA ground stations over the last 40 years, in co-operation with USGS and NASA. A new ESA Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) processor has been developed. This enhanced processor aligns the historical Landsat products to the highest quality standards that can be achieved with the current knowledge of the instruments. The updated processor is mainly based on the USGS algorithm; however the ESA processor has some different features that are detailed in this paper. Using this upgraded processor, ESA is currently performing for the first time a bulk-processing of its entire Landsat series MSS/TM/ETM+ historical archive to make all products available to users. Current achievements include the processing and online distribution of approximately 290 000 new Landsat 5 TM high-quality products acquired at the Kiruna ground station between 1983 and 2011. The Landsat 5 TM bulk-processed products are made available for direct download after registration at: https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/pi-community/apply for-data/fast-registration. The remainder of the ESA's Landsat data, dating back more than 40 years, will gradually become available for all users during the course of 2014. The ESA Landsat processor algorithm enhancement, together with the results of the ESA archive bulk-processing, and an overview on the data quality on a subset of the Landsat 5 TM data are herein presented.

  16. Evaluation of SIR-A (Shuttle Imaging Radar) images from the Tres Marias region (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) using derived spatial features and registration with MSS-LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Dutra, L. V.

    1984-01-01

    Two image processing experiments are described using a MSS-LANDSAT scene from the Tres Marias region and a shuttle Imaging Radar SIR-A image digitized by a vidicon scanner. In the first experiment the study area is analyzed using the original and preprocessed SIR-A image data. The following thematic classes are obtained: (1) water, (2) dense savanna vegetation, (3) sparse savanna vegetation, (4) reforestation areas and (5) bare soil areas. In the second experiment, the SIR-A image was registered together with MSS-LANDSAT bands five, six, and seven. The same five classes mentioned above are obtained. These results are compared with those obtained using solely MSS-LANDSAT data. The spatial information as well as coregistered SIR-A and MSS-LANDSAT data can increase the separability between classes, as compared to the use of raw SIR-A data solely.

  17. Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial proteins Cbp6 and Mss51 function at a post-translational step of respiratory complex biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Inge; Fox, Thomas D.; Bonnefoy, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Complexes III and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain contain a few key subunits encoded by the mitochondrial genome. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fifteen mRNA-specific translational activators control mitochondrial translation, of which five are conserved in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. These include homologs of Cbp3, Cbp6 and Mss51 that participate in translation and the post-translational steps leading to the assembly of respiratory complexes III and IV. In this study we show that in contrast to budding yeast, Cbp3, Cbp6 and Mss51 from S. pombe are not required for the translation of mitochondrial mRNAs, but fulfill post-translational functions, thus probably accounting for their conservation. PMID:22349564

  18. A low-power 10-bit 250 MS/s dual-channel pipeline ADC in 0.18 μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Q.; Chen, J.; Wen, X.; Feng, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zuo, Z.; Gong, D.; Liu, T.; Ye, J.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a 10-bit 250-MS/s time-interleaved pipelined analog-to-digital data converter (ADC). A distributed clocking scheme is developed to eliminate timing skew between channels without introducing load capacitance to the driving buffer of the ADC. The channel offset and gain mismatch errors are calibrated in digital domain. In addition, a switch-embedded opamp-sharing technique is developed to reduce the ADC power consumption and eliminate the memory effect. The simulated SNDR and SFDR are 61.84 dB and 78.2 dB, respectively. The ADC core consumes 28 mW under a 1.8 V supply at 250 MS/s sampling rate.

  19. The use of Landsat-4 MSS digital data in temporal data sets and the evaluation of scene-to-scene registration accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The MSS sensor on Landsat 4 is, in certain performance aspects, diferent from those of Landsats 1 through 3. These differences created some concern in the NASA research community as to whether individual data sets can be registered accurately enough to produce acceptable data sets for multitemporal data analysis. The use of Landsat 4 MSS digital data in temporal data sets is examined and a method is presented for estimating temporal registration accuracy based on the use of an X-Y digitizer and grey tone electrostatic plots. Results indicate that the RMS temporal registration errors are not significantly different from the temporal data sets generated using Landsat 4 and Landsat 2 data (33.35 meters) and the temporal data set constructed from two Landsat 2 data sets (33.61 meters). A derivation of the model used to evaluate the temporal registration is included.

  20. A 12-bit 60-MS/s 36-mW SHA-less opamp-sharing pipeline ADC in 130 nm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, X.; Chen, J.; You, Y.; Feng, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zuo, Z.; Vosooghi, B.; Fan, Q.; Xiao, L.; Gong, D.; Liu, T.; Ye, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a 12-bit 60-MS/s SHA-less opamp-sharing pipeline analog-to-digital converter (ADC) implemented in a 0.13-μ m CMOS technology. A switch-embedded dual-input current-reused operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) with an overlapping two-phase clocking scheme is proposed to achieve low power consumption and eliminate the non-resetting and memory effects observed in conventional opamp-sharing techniques. To further reduce the power consumption, the ADC also incorporates a SHA-less multi-bit structure. The ADC achieves a signal-to-noise and distortion ratio of 64.9 dB and a spurious-free dynamic range of 77.1 dB at 60 MS/s. It occupies 2.3 mm 2 of area and consumes 36 mW of power under a 1.2-V supply.

  1. Overexpression of DEAD box protein pMSS116 promotes ATP-dependent splicing of a yeast group II intron in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Niemer, I; Schmelzer, C; Börner, G V

    1995-01-01

    The group II intron bI1, the first intron of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in yeast is self-splicing in vitro. Genetic evidence suggests that trans-acting factors are required for in vivo splicing of this intron. In accordance with these findings, we present in vitro data showing that splicing of bI1 under physiological conditions depends upon the presence of proteins of a mitochondrial lysate. ATP is an essential component is this reaction. Overexpression of the nuclear-encoded DEAD box protein pMSS-116 results in a marked increase in the ATP-dependent splicing activity of the extract, suggesting that pMSS116 may play an important role in splicing of bI1. Images PMID:7659519

  2. The use of LANDSAT-4 MSS digital data in temporal data sets and the evaluation of scene-to-scene registration accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    The MSS sensor on LANDSAT 4 is, in certain performance aspects, different from those on LANDSATS 1 through 3. These differences created some concern in the NASA research community as to whether individual data sets can be registered accurately enough to produce acceptable data sets for multitemporal data analysis. The use of LANDSAT 4 MSS digital data in temporal data sets is examined and a method is presented for estimating temporal registration accuracy based on the use of an X-Y digitizer and grey tone electrostatic plots. Results indicate that the RMS temporal registration errors are not significantly different from the temporal data sets generated using LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT 2 data (33.35 meters) and the temporal data set constructed from two LANDSAT 2 data sets (33.61 meters). A derivation of the model used to evaluate the temporal registration is included.

  3. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    Supervised and cluster block training statistics were used to analyze the thematic mapper simulation MSS data (both 1979 and 1980 data sets). Cover information classes identified on SAR imagery include: hardwood, pine, mixed pine hardwood, clearcut, pasture, crops, emergent crops, bare soil, urban, and water. Preliminary analysis of the HH and HV polarized SAR data indicate a high variance associated with each information class except for water and bare soil. The large variance for most spectral classes suggests that while the means might be statistically separable, an overlap may exist between the classes which could introduce a significant classification error. The quantitative values of many cover types are much larger on the HV polarization than on the HH, thereby indicating the relative nature of the digitized data values. The mean values of the spectral classes in the areas with larger look angles are greater than the means of the same cover type in other areas having steeper look angles. Difficulty in accurately overlaying the dual polarization of the SAR data was resolved.

  4. Urban and regional land use analysis: CARETS and Census Cities experiment package. [mapping land use climatology from MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The arrival of the so-called energy crisis makes the portion of this experiment dealing with land use climatology of more immediate significance than before, since in addition to helping to understand the processes of climatic change associated with urbanization, the knowledge obtained may be useful in assigning an energy balance impact factor to proposed changes in land use in and around cities. Thermal maps derived from S-192 data are to be used as a measure of the energy being radiated into space from the mosaic of different surfaces in and around the city. While presenting excellent spatial sampling potential for a metropolitan area tests site, the Skylab data permit a very poor temporal sampling opportunity, owing to the large number of factors beyond the investigator's control that determine when data will be taken over a given test site. The strategy is to augment the thermal maps derived from S-192 with a modeling technique which enables the simulation of a number of components of the surface energy balance, calculated at regular time intervals throughout the day or year. Preliminary tests on the performance of the model are still underway, using airborne MSS data from NASA aircraft flights. Results look extremely promising.

  5. Surface oil footprint and trajectory of the Ixtoc-I oil spill determined from Landsat/MSS and CZCS observations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaojie; Hu, Chuanmin; Tunnell, John W

    2015-12-30

    The Ixtoc-I oil spill occurred in 1979 in shallow waters (50 m) of the Bay of Campeche, Mexico. Although it is known that a large portion of the released oil from this second largest accidental marine oil spill in history reached the surface, to date there has been no attempt to document the surface footprint and trajectory of the released oil. Our study attempts to fill this knowledge gap using remote sensing data collected by Landsat/MSS and CZCS. Both showed the same general patterns of oil trajectory to the northwest and north, nearly parallel to the coastline of the western Gulf of Mexico (GoM) with possible oil landing on Mexican and Texas beaches. Field observations at selected beaches and islands along the coast of the western and southern GoM during and after the spill confirmed these satellite-based findings, which were also used to help in planning a recent field campaign to collect sediment samples in the southern GoM.

  6. Evaluation of SLAR and simulated thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Dean, M. E.; Knowlton, D. J.; Latty, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Kershaw County, South Carolina was selected as the study site for analyzing simulated thematic mapper MSS data and dual-polarized X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The impact of the improved spatial and spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT D thematic mapper data on computer aided analysis for forest cover type mapping was examined as well as the value of synthetic aperture radar data for differentiating forest and other cover types. The utility of pattern recognition techniques for analyzing SAR data was assessed. Topics covered include: (1) collection and of TMS and reference data; (2) reformatting, geometric and radiometric rectification, and spatial resolution degradation of TMS data; (3) development of training statistics and test data sets; (4) evaluation of different numbers and combinations of wavelength bands on classification performance; (5) comparison among three classification algorithms; and (6) the effectiveness of the principal component transformation in data analysis. The collection, digitization, reformatting, and geometric adjustment of SAR data are also discussed. Image interpretation results and classification results are presented.

  7. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Training and test data sets for CAM1S from NS-001 MSS data for two dates (geometrically adjusted to 30 meter resolution) were used to evaluate wavelength band. Two sets of tapes containing digitized HH and HV polarization data were obtained. Because the SAR data on the 9 track tapes contained no meaningful data, the 7 track tapes were copied onto 9 track tapes at LARS. The LARSYS programs were modified and a program was written to reformat the digitized SAR data into a LARSYS format. The radar imagery is being qualitatively interpreted. Results are to be used to identify possible cover types, to produce a classification map to aid in the numerical evaluation classification of radar data, and to develop an interpretation key for radar imagery. The four spatial resolution data sets were analyzed. A program was developed to reduce the spatial distortions resulting from variable viewing distance, and geometrically adjusted data sets were generated. A flowchart of steps taken to geometrically adjust a data set from the NS-001 scanner is presented.

  8. Remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation in lower Chesapeake Bay - A comparison of Landsat MSS to TM imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat MSS and TM imagery, obtained simultaneously over Guinea Marsh, VA, as analyzed and compares for its ability to detect submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). An unsupervised clustering algorithm was applied to each image, where the input classification parameters are defined as functions of apparent sensor noise. Class confidence and accuracy were computed for all water areas by comparing the classified images, pixel-by-pixel, to rasterized SAV distributions derived from color aerial photography. To illustrate the effect of water depth on classification error, areas of depth greater than 1.9 m were masked, and class confidence and accuracy recalculated. A single-scattering radiative-transfer model is used to illustrate how percent canopy cover and water depth affect the volume reflectance from a water column containing SAV. For a submerged canopy that is morphologically and optically similar to Zostera marina inhabiting Lower Chesapeake Bay, dense canopies may be isolated by masking optically deep water. For less dense canopies, the effect of increasing water depth is to increase the apparent percent crown cover, which may result in classification error.

  9. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: An 8-b 300MS/S folding and interpolating ADC for embedded applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lu; Li, Lin; Jiefeng, Xia; Fan, Ye; Junyan, Ren

    2010-06-01

    A 1.4-V 8-bit 300-MS/s folding and interpolating analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is proposed. Fabricated in the 0.13-μm CMOS process and occupying only 0.6-mm2 active area, the ADC is especially suitable for embedded applications. The system is optimized for a low-power purpose. Pipelining sampling switches help to cut down the extra power needed for complete settling. An averaging resistor array is placed between two folding stages for power-saving considerations. The converter achieves 43.4-dB signal-to-noise and distortion ratio and 53.3-dB spurious-free dynamic range at 1-MHz input and 42.1-dB and 49.5-dB for Nyquist input. Measured results show a power dissipation of 34 mW and a figure of merit of 1.14 pJ/convstep at 250-MHz sampling rate at 1.4-V supply.

  10. Identification and estimation of the area planted with irrigated rice based on the visual interpretation of LANDSAT MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Moreira, M. A.; Assuncao, G. V.; Novaes, R. A.; Mendoza, A. A. B.; Bauer, C. A.; Ritter, I. T.; Barros, J. A. I.; Perez, J. E.; Thedy, J. L. O.

    1983-01-01

    The objective was to test the feasibility of the application of MSS-LANDSAT data to irrigated rice crop identification and area evaluation, within four rice growing regions of the Rio Grande do Sul state, in order to extend the methodology for the whole state. The applied methodology was visual interpretation of the following LANDSAT products: channels 5 and 7 black and white imageries and color infrared composite imageries all at the scale of 1:250.000. For crop identification and evaluation, the multispectral criterion and the seasonal variation were utilized. Based on the results it was possible to conclude that: (1) the satellite data were efficient for crop area identification and evaluation; (2) the utilization of the multispectral criterion, allied to the seasonal variation of the rice crop areas from the other crops and, (3) the large cloud cover percentage found in the satellite data made it impossible to realize a rice crop spectral monitoring and, therefore, to define the best dates for such data acquisition for rice crop assessment.

  11. Detection of hydrocarbon microseepage in a rain forest environment (Jurua Gas field, northern Brazil) using Landsat MSS data

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, F.P.; Cunha, F.M.B. )

    1990-05-01

    The Jurua gas field is the first important hydrocarbon accumulation found in the jungle-covered Solimoes basin. The tectonic framework in this area is characterized by a right-lateral transpressional zone (Jurua structural trend). Hydrocarbon traps are anticlines developed along the upthrown block of a reverse fault. The prospective 2,200-m-thick Paleozoic section is unconformably covered by a 2,800-m-thick pile of Mesozoic and Cenozoic continental sediments. Anomalous concentrations of hydrocarbons (C{sub 2}-C{sub 4}) in soil samples are concordantly aligned with the trace of the reverse fault crossing the gas field, indicating that this feature acted as a conduit for hydrocarbon microseepage. Gas-producing wells are located over a tabular watershed which coincides with the northeast-southwest Jurua structural trend. An unsupervised classification of Landsat MSS data over the gas field area reveals that one spectral class of vegetation is aligned with the Jurua structural trend. Field checking shows that the vegetation near the gas-producing well 1-JR-1-AM is not as dense as the forest outside the limits of the Jurua gas field. Two geologic factors may account for the vegetation anomaly over the gas field. (1) The northeast-southwest tabular watershed corresponds to a Pleistocene erosional surface associated with weathering products such as bauxite and laterite. The resulting soil is impermeable and low in nutrients. (2) The spectral behavior of vegetation may represent the response of plants to long-term anaerobic soil conditions brought about by gas leakage from the Paleozoic reservoir.

  12. Structural basis for RNA-duplex recognition and unwinding by the DEAD-box helicase Mss116p.

    PubMed

    Mallam, Anna L; Del Campo, Mark; Gilman, Benjamin; Sidote, David J; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2012-10-04

    DEAD-box proteins are the largest family of nucleic acid helicases, and are crucial to RNA metabolism throughout all domains of life. They contain a conserved 'helicase core' of two RecA-like domains (domains (D)1 and D2), which uses ATP to catalyse the unwinding of short RNA duplexes by non-processive, local strand separation. This mode of action differs from that of translocating helicases and allows DEAD-box proteins to remodel large RNAs and RNA-protein complexes without globally disrupting RNA structure. However, the structural basis for this distinctive mode of RNA unwinding remains unclear. Here, structural, biochemical and genetic analyses of the yeast DEAD-box protein Mss116p indicate that the helicase core domains have modular functions that enable a novel mechanism for RNA-duplex recognition and unwinding. By investigating D1 and D2 individually and together, we find that D1 acts as an ATP-binding domain and D2 functions as an RNA-duplex recognition domain. D2 contains a nucleic-acid-binding pocket that is formed by conserved DEAD-box protein sequence motifs and accommodates A-form but not B-form duplexes, providing a basis for RNA substrate specificity. Upon a conformational change in which the two core domains join to form a 'closed state' with an ATPase active site, conserved motifs in D1 promote the unwinding of duplex substrates bound to D2 by excluding one RNA strand and bending the other. Our results provide a comprehensive structural model for how DEAD-box proteins recognize and unwind RNA duplexes. This model explains key features of DEAD-box protein function and affords a new perspective on how the evolutionarily related cores of other RNA and DNA helicases diverged to use different mechanisms.

  13. Partitioning of platinum-group elements (PGE) and chalcogens (Se, Te, As, Sb, Bi) between monosulfide-solid solution (MSS), intermediate solid solution (ISS) and sulfide liquid at controlled fO2-fS2 conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanan; Brenan, James

    2015-06-01

    In order to better understand the behavior of highly siderophile elements (HSEs: Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd, Au, Re), Ag, Pb and chalcogens (As, Se, Sb, Te and Bi) during the solidification of sulfide magmas, we have conducted a series of experiments to measure partition coefficients (D values) between monosulfide solid solution (MSS) and sulfide melt, as well as MSS and intermediate solid solution (ISS), at 0.1 MPa and 860-926 °C, log fS2 -3.0 to -2.2 (similar to the Pt-PtS buffer), with fO2 controlled at the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. The IPGEs (Os, Ir, Ru), Rh and Re are found to be compatible in MSS relative to sulfide melt with D values ranging from ∼20 to ∼5, and DRe/DOs of ∼0.5. Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, Pb, as well as the chalcogens, are incompatible in MSS, with D values ranging from ∼0.1 to ∼1 × 10-3. For the same metal/sulfur ratio, D values for the IPGEs, Rh and Re are systematically larger than most past studies, correlating with higher oxygen content in the sulfide liquid, reflecting the significant effect of oxygen on increasing the activity coefficients for these elements in the melt phase. MSS/ISS partitioning experiments reveal that Ru, Os, Ir, Rh and Re are partitioned into MSS by a factor of >50, whereas Pd, Pt, Ag, Au and the chalcogens partition from weakly (Se, As) to strongly (Ag, Au) into ISS. Uniformly low MSS- and ISS- melt partition coefficients for the chalcogens, Pt, Pd, Ag and Au will lead to enrichment in the residual sulfide liquid, but D values are generally too large to reach early saturation in Pt-Pd-chalcogen-rich accessory minerals, based on current solubility estimates. Instead, these phases likely precipitate at the last dregs of crystallization. Modeled evolution curves for the PGEs and chalcogens are in reasonably good agreement with whole-rock sulfide compositions for the McCreedy East deposit (Sudbury, Ontario), consistent with an origin by crystallization of MSS, then MSS + ISS from sulfide magma.

  14. An examination of the relationships between selected ground properties and Landsat MSS data in an area of complex terrain in southern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C. O.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with the method and results of a study which involved an examination of the statistical relationships between selected ground properties and Landsat MSS data, and whose aim was to assess the applicability of Landsat data to surface cover mapping in areas characterized by high-frequency spatial variations of surface cover type over small areas. The results indicate that by systematic ground data collection it is possible to understand the basic relationships between ground properties and Landsat sensor data in areas of complex surface cover and terrain, and to classify the cover types.

  15. Snow-extent mapping and lake ice studies using ERTS-1 MSS together with NOAA-2 VHRR. [Lake Ontario-Lake Erie Basins and Sierra Nevada Mountains, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesnet, D. R.; Mcginnis, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    Five snow extent maps of the 5,601 sq km American River Basin were prepared using a Zoom Transfer Scope from ERTS-1 MSS band 4 imagery. The maps were generally completed within one hour. A snowmelt curve based on ERTS-1 imagery was used as a calibration standard or comparison for maps prepared from NOAA-2 VHRR imagery in the same manner. Cost comparisons with U-2 derived imagery indicate that ERTS-1 snow mapping of the basins is six times faster. Conservative estimates of comparable aircraft snow survey flights yields a cost figure 200 times that of the ERTS-1 snow map. Snow mapping attempts in the Lake Ontario Basin demonstrated that ERTS-1 is not well suited to large basins. Optimum size of basins for ERTS studies is believed to range from about 250 sq km to 30,000 sq km. The value of the ERTS-1 MSS for Great Lake ice evaluation was proved during the past winter on Lake Erie. Not only were ice features and types of ice identified, but melting ice was detected through the combined use of band 5 and band 7. Ice movement (direction and speed) was mapped by examining imagery from two successive days.

  16. Evaluation of criteria for selecting the spectral attributes of digital LANDSAT MSS imagery for discriminating lithological units in the lower Curaca River Valley, Bahia. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradella, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The use of spectral attributes criteria was investigated, based on measures of statistical distance of separability between thematic classes in MSS digital LANDSAT imagery, in order to select the best subsets of channels in composite colors for the detection and discrimination of lithological units in the lower valley of Curaca River, State of Bahia, Brazil. Three situations were investigated: (1) selection of the three best channels, considering all of the original bands (channels 4, 5, 6, and 7); (2) selection of the three best bands, considering the six MSS band-ratios (channels 4/5, 4/6. 4/7, 5/6, 5/7, and 6/7); and (3) selection of the three best bands in a hybrid approach (the four original bands and the six ratios). A visual analysis was done on color composite images using the selected sets. Results show that the hybrid product (bands 4, 5/7, and 7 with green, blue, and red respectively) and the Normal Color Composite (bands 4, 5, and 7 with blue, green, and red colors respectively) had the best performance.

  17. Snow-extent mapping and lake ice studies using ERTS-1 MSS together with NOAA-2 VHRR. [Lake Ontario-Lake Erie Basins and Sierra Nevada Mountains, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesnet, D. R.; Mcginnis, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    Five snow extent maps of the 5,601 sq km American River Basin were prepared using a Zoom Transfer Scope from ERTS-1 MSS band 4 imagery. The maps were generally completed within one hour. A snowmelt curve based on ERTS-1 imagery was used as a calibration standard or comparison for maps prepared from NOAA-2 VHRR imagery in the same manner. Cost comparisons with U-2 derived imagery indicate that ERTS-1 snow mapping of the basins is six times faster. Conservative estimates of comparable aircraft snow survey flights yields a cost figure 200 times that of the ERTS-1 snow map. Snow mapping attempts in the Lake Ontario Basin demonstrated that ERTS-1 is not well suited to large basins. Optimum size of basins for ERTS studies is believed to range from about 250 sq km to 30,000 sq km. The value of the ERTS-1 MSS for Great Lake ice evaluation was proved during the past winter on Lake Erie. Not only were ice features and types of ice identified, but melting ice was detected through the combined use of band 5 and band 7. Ice movement (direction and speed) was mapped by examining imagery from two successive days.

  18. CMOS transistor-only 8-b 4.5-Ms/s pipelined analog-to-digital converter using fully-differential current-mode circuit techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chung-Yu; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Cho, Jyh-Jer

    1995-05-01

    Fully-differential current-mode circuit techniques are developed for the design of a pipelined current-mode analog-to-digital converter (IADC) in the standard CMOS digital processes. In the proposed IADC, the 1-b-per-stage architecture based on the reference nonrestoring algorithm is adopted. Thus large component ratios can be avoided and the linearity errors caused by device mismatches can be minimized. As one of the key subcircuits in the IADC, an offset-canceled high speed differential current comparator (CCMP) is proposed and analyzed. In the CCMP, the subtractions of offsets are performed in the current domain without floating capacitors. Moreover, the other key subcircuit, the current sample-and-hold amplifier (CSHA), is also developed to realize the pipeline architecture. An experimental chip for the proposed IADC has been fabricated in 0.8- micron n-well CMOS technology. Using a single 5-V power supply, the fabricated IADC can be operated at 4.5-Ms/s conversion rate with a signal-to-noise-and-distortion-ratio (SNDR) of 51 dB (effective 8.2-b) for the input signal at 453 kHz. For 8-b resolution, the fabricated IADC can be operated at 4.5-Ms/s conversion rate with both differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) below +/ - 0.6 LSB. The power consumption and the active chip area are 16 mW/b and 0.73 mm(sup 2)/b, respectively.

  19. A radiation-hard dual-channel 12-bit 40 MS/s ADC prototype for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter readout electronics upgrade at the CERN LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuppambatti, J.; Ban, J.; Andeen, T.; Brown, R.; Carbone, R.; Kinget, P.; Brooijmans, G.; Sippach, W.

    2017-05-01

    The readout electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters at the CERN Large Hadron Collider requires a radiation-hard ADC. The design of a radiation-hard dual-channel 12-bit 40 MS/s pipeline ADC for this use is presented. The design consists of two pipeline A/D channels each with four Multiplying Digital-to-Analog Converters followed by 8-bit Successive-Approximation-Register analog-to-digital converters. The custom design, fabricated in a commercial 130 nm CMOS process, shows a performance of 67.9 dB SNDR at 10 MHz for a single channel at 40 MS/s, with a latency of 87.5 ns (to first bit read out), while its total power consumption is 50 mW/channel. The chip uses two power supply voltages: 1.2 and 2.5 V. The sensitivity to single event effects during irradiation is measured and determined to meet the system requirements.

  20. Design of a 12-bit 1 MS/s SAR-ADC for front-end readout of 32-channel CZT detector imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Tingcun; Li, Bo; Guo, Panjie; Hu, Yongcai

    2015-06-01

    A 12-bit 1MS/s SAR-ADC for the front-end readout of a 32-channel CZT detector imaging system is presented. In order to improve the performances of the ADC, several techniques are proposed. First, a novel offset cancellation method for comparator is proposed, in which no any capacitor is introduced in the signal pathway, thus it has faster operation speed than traditional one. Second, the architecture of unit capacitor array is adopted in the charge-redistribution DAC to reduce the capacitor mismatch. Third, the radiation-hardened ability is enhanced through circuit and layout design. The prototype chip was fabricated using a TSMC 0.35 um 2P4M CMOS process. At a 3.3/5 V power supply, the proposed SAR-ADC achieves 67.64 dB SINAD at 1MS/s, consumes 10 mW power and occupies a core area of 1180×1080 um2.

  1. A 1 V 186-μW 50-MS/s 10-bit subrange SAR ADC in 130-nm CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingyuan, Yu; Ting, Li; Jiaqi, Yang; Shuangshuang, Zhang; Fujiang, Lin; Lin, He

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a 10-bit 50-MS/s subrange successive-approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) composed of a 4-bit SAR coarse ADC and a 6-bit SAR fine ADC. In the coarse ADC, multi-comparator SAR architecture is used to reduce the digital logic propagation delay, and a traditional asynchronous SAR ADC with monotonic switching method is used as the fine ADC. With that combination, power dissipation also can be much reduced. Meanwhile, a modified SAR control logic is adopted in the fine ADC to speed up the conversion and other techniques, such as splitting capacitors array, are borrowed to reduce the power consumption. Fabricated with 1P8M 130-nm CMOS technology, the proposed SAR ADC achieves 51.6-dB signal to noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) and consumes 186 μW at 50 MS/s with a 1-V supply, resulting in a figure of merit (FOM) of 12 fJ/conversion-step. The core area is only 0.045 mm2. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61204033, 61331015), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. WK2100230015), and the Funds of Science and Technology on Analog Integrated Circuit Laboratory (No. 9140C090111150C09041).

  2. Monitoring Environment with GIS for Part of Thiruvallur Town Using Cartosat 1 Stereo, Pan & Resourcesat Liss 4 MSS Merged Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, G. S.; Venkatchalam, R. V.; Ramamurthhy, M.; Gummidipoondi, R. J.; Ramillah, M.

    2012-07-01

    of Thiruvallur Municipality Area between North Western Thiruvallur town from the Temple Tank of Sri Veeraragavasamy temple to junction of National Highways connecting Thiruvallur to Tirupathi and Thiruvallur- Poondi- Uthukottai at the West. These data are used to create environment monitoring GIS to understand the use of High resolution Indian satellite data for local urban environmental planning to manage the health and environmental issues. ARC GIS 10 and Lieca photogrammetry software are used with satellite data to create different layer for creating GIS on urban infrastructure like houses, public buildings, roads, municipal surface drainage net work, underground sewerage drainage net work, drinking water pipe lines net work, landfills, solid waste disposal yards, pumping stations, degraded areas, heath services infrastructure, wet lands , low lying areas with bushes, abandoned lakes which are the breeding grounds for mosquito's in rainy season, etc These layers are correlated with the municipal ward map of this segment of the town. The stereo data of Cartosat 1 is useful for mapping the households, roads, agricultural fields, bushy areas, slopes to map the natural drainage of the area and for delineation of micro watersheds. When the layer of municipal ward maps are integrated with the GIS the drainage, drinking water lines, street names and house numbers etc can be added to the attribute data to make this as a complete Environment management GIS. The use of PAN merged data of Cartosat 1 with LISS 4, MSS Resourcesat 1 in natural colour and it's cost effectiveness is studied to explain the usefulness of creation of Environment Health GIS. The non stereo Geo Eye latest data from Google Earth web site or Cartosat 2 can be used for upgrading the land use changes and identify current environmental as on 2011.The study will provide GIS to monitor environmental issues with multi date large scale data for Thiruvallur Town.

  3. Use of Landsat MSS and TM imagery to improve reconnaissance geologic mapping in the Ruby quadrangle, west-central Alaska: A section in Geological studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labay, Keith A.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Burleigh, Kuuipo A.

    2001-01-01

    By using Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite images, the spatial relation of units JMtu (mafic, ultramafic, and sedimentary rocks, undivided) and PzZrqs (pelitic and quartzitic schist) of Wilson and others (1998) from the northeastern portion of the Ruby 1:250,000-scale quadrangle geologic map was further defined. The MSS image was first analyzed using spectral signatures to separate and highlight pixels associated only with the units of interest. This approach was ineffective at separating the units from areas of the image with similar spectral signatures, but it did show that unit JMtu and associated areas consistently had a high brightness value, while unit PzZrqs and associated areas consistently had a low brightness value. Consequently, a new approach was developed using spectral enhancement to emphasize the differences between these high- and low- brightness areas. Once the TM image was obtained, the spectral signature separation and spectral enhancement approaches were again tested, but the results were similar to those found using the MSS image. By using the results from the spectral enhancement of the MSS image in combination with current ground-truth data, the locations of units JMtu and PzZrqs in the Ruby quadrangle were reinterpreted.

  4. Identification of stair climbing ability levels in community-dwelling older adults based on the geometric mean of stair ascent and descent speed: The GeMSS classifier.

    PubMed

    Mayagoitia, Ruth E; Harding, John; Kitchen, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to develop a quantitative approach to identify three stair-climbing ability levels of older adults: no, somewhat and considerable difficulty. Timed-up-and-go test, six-minute-walk test, and Berg balance scale were used for statistical comparison to a new stair climbing ability classifier based on the geometric mean of stair speeds (GeMSS) in ascent and descent on a flight of eight stairs with a 28° pitch in the housing unit where the participants, 28 (16 women) urban older adults (62-94 years), lived. Ordinal logistic regression revealed the thresholds between the three ability levels for each functional test were more stringent than thresholds found in the literature to classify walking ability levels. Though a small study, the intermediate classifier shows promise of early identification of difficulties with stairs, in order to make timely preventative interventions. Further studies are necessary to obtain scaling factors for stairs with other pitches.

  5. On the genus Aphaobius Abeille de Perrin, 1878, with description of a new species from the mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS) of Austria (Coleoptera: Leiodidae: Cholevinae: Leptodirini).

    PubMed

    Faille, Arnaud; Ribera, Ignacio; Fresneda, Javier

    2016-09-19

    Aphaobius haraldi sp. n. from the mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS) of the Austrian Alps is described, illustrated, and compared with the closest species of the genus. The new species belongs to the A. kraussi species group, formerly including five species. It can be readily separated from other species of the genus by the large parameres, with an enlarged apical part, a unique feature among species of Aphaobius. The phylogenetic position of the new species is clarified using mitochondrial and nuclear data of four related species of Aphaobius, plus some representatives of related genera from the same geographic area. The diversification of the group was estimated to be recent, dating from the Pleistocene. New records and molecular data are provided regarding the enigmatic monospecific genus of the Austrian Alps, Lotharia Mandl, 1944, which was found to be sister to the studied species of Aphaobius.

  6. Dynamic study of the upper Sao Francisco river and Tres Marias reservoir using MSS/LANDSAT images. M.S. Thesis; [BRazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Sausen, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between the dispersion and concentration of sediment in the superficial layers of the Tres Marias reservoir and the dynamics of the drainage basins of its tributaries was verified using LANDSAT MSS imagery. The drainage network, dissection patterns, and land use of each watershed were considered in an analysis of multispectral images, corresponding to bands 4,5, and 7, of dry and rainy seasons in 1973, 1975, 1977, and 1978. The superficial layer water layers of the reservoir were also divided according to the grey level pattern of each image. Two field trips were made to collect Secchi depths and in situ water reflectance. It is concluded that it is possible to determine the main factors that act in the dynamics of the drainage basins of a reservoir by simultaneous control of the physical variables and the antropic action of each basin.

  7. ERTS data user no. 119: Effective use of ERTS multisensor data in the Great Plains. ERTS-1 MSS imagery: A tool for identifying soil associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator); Westin, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Soil association maps show the spatial relationships of land units developed in unique climatic, geologic, and topographic environments, and having characteristic slopes, soil depths, textures, available water capacities, permeabilities, and the like. ERTS-1 imagery was found to be a useful tool in the identification of soil associations since it provides a synoptic view of an 8 million acre scene, which is large enough so that the effect can be seen on soils of climate, topography, and geology. A regional view also allows soil associations to be observed over most, if not all, of their extent. ERTS-1 MSS imagery also provides four spectral bands taken every 18 days which give data on relief, hydrology, and vegetation, all of which bear on the delineation and interpretation of soil associations. Enlarged prints derived from the individual spectral bands and shown in gray tones were useful for identifying soil associations.

  8. A 10 bit 200 MS/s pipeline ADC using loading-balanced architecture in 0.18 μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linfeng; Meng, Qiao; Zhi, Hao; Li, Fei

    2017-07-01

    A new loading-balanced architecture for high speed and low power consumption pipeline analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is presented in this paper. The proposed ADC uses SHA-less, op-amp and capacitor-sharing technique, capacitor-scaling scheme to reduce the die area and power consumption. A new capacitor-sharing scheme was proposed to cancel the extra reset phase of the feedback capacitors. The non-standard inter-stage gain increases the feedback factor of the first stage and makes it equal to the second stage, by which, the load capacitor of op-amp shared by the first and second stages is balanced. As for the fourth stage, the capacitor and op-amp no longer scale down. From the system’s point of view, all load capacitors of the shared OTAs are balanced by employing a loading-balanced architecture. The die area and power consumption are optimized maximally. The ADC is implemented in a 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS technology, and occupies a die area of 1.2 × 1.2 mm{}2. The measurement results show a 55.58 dB signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) and 62.97 dB spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) with a 25 MHz input operating at a 200 MS/s sampling rate. The proposed ADC consumes 115 mW at 200 MS/s from a 1.8 V supply.

  9. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  10. Intra- and inter-population polymorphism in Coletinia maggii (Grassi, 1887) (Zygentoma: Nicoletiidae), an inhabitant of soil, mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS) and caves--A challenge for the strict classification of subterranean fauna?

    PubMed

    Gilgado, José D; Ortuño, Vicente M

    2015-02-19

    New locations of Coletinia maggii (Grassi, 1887) have been discovered in the center of the Iberian Peninsula in different types of subterranean environments, such as a stony layer in the subsoil of an alluvial plain, an alluvial Mesovoid Shallow Substratum or Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS) and a gypsum cave. This is the first record of both an alluvial MSS in the center of the Iberian Peninsula and of a subterranean species living in it. The high number of specimens captured allowed the first detailed study of the morphological intra- and inter-population variations of this species. The implications of its presence in these different environments, its wide distribution area across Europe, and the relevance of the morphological variation in the characters for the taxonomy of this species are discussed. Based on the results, Coletinia hernandoi Molero, Bach & Gaju, 2013 is proposed as a new synonym of C. maggii.

  11. SNP-Array genotyping and spectral karyotyping reveal uniparental disomy as early mutational event in MSS- and MSI-colorectal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Melcher, R; Al-Taie, O; Kudlich, T; Hartmann, E; Maisch, S; Steinlein, C; Schmid, M; Rosenwald, A; Menzel, T; Scheppach, W; Luhrs, H

    2007-01-01

    In this study nine colorectal cancer cell lines were analysed by 10K SNP-arrays and spectral karyotyping (SKY). Complex chromosomal alterations and breakpoints of deleted or translocated fragments found by SKY could further be characterized by SNP-array analysis. Interestingly many monoallelic regions identified by SNP-array analysis display no copy number alterations, representing uniparental disomy (UPD). It was demonstrated that UPD seems to be involved in activation of early-acting tumor suppressor genes in MSS- (APC, CDKN2A) and MSI- (MLH1, MSH2, APC, CDKN2A) colorectal cancer cell lines. Genes involved later on in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence (i.e. TP53/SMAD4) were not found to be inactivated by UPD. Furthermore, identified amplified monoallelic regions may include oncogenes activated by allele-specific-amplification (i.e. Cyclin D1). However, at present, the majority of the monoallelic regions located in the present study have not yet been associated with known tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. Further studies are warranted to identify relevant genes in the respective regions and to further verify the results presented here. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A 12-bit, 1 MS/s SAR-ADC for a CZT-based multi-channel gamma-ray imager using a new digital calibration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Wei, T.; Yang, L.; Hu, Y.

    2016-03-01

    The successive approximation register-analog to digital converter (SAR-ADC) is widely used in the CdZnTe-based gamma-ray imager because of its outstanding characteristics of low power consumption, relatively high resolution, and small die size. This study proposes a digital bit-by-bit calibration method using an input ramp signal to further improve the conversion precision and power consumption of an SAR-ADC. The proposed method is based on the sub-radix-2 redundant architecture and the perturbation technique. The proposed calibration algorithm is simpler, more stable, and faster than traditional approaches. The prototype chip of the 12-bit, 1 MS/s radiation-hardened SAR-ADC has been designed and fabricated using the TSMC 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS process. This SAR-ADC consumes 3 mW power and occupies a core area of 856× 802μm2. The digital bit-by-bit calibration algorithm is implemented via MATLAB for testing flexibility. The effective number of bits for this digitally calibrated SAR-ADC reaches 11.77 bits. The converter exhibits high conversion precision, low power consumption, and radiation-hardened design. Therefore, this SAR-ADC is suitable for multi-channel gamma-ray imager applications.

  13. An analog front end with a 12-bit 3.2-MS/s SAR ADC for a power line communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huabin, Chen; Jixuan, Xiang; Xiangyan, Xue; Chixiao, Chen; Fan, Ye; Jun, Xu; Junyan, Ren

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an analog front end for a power line communication system, including a 12-bit 3.2-MS/s energy-efficient successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter, a positive feedback programmable gain amplifier, a 9.8 ppm/°C bandgap reference and on-chip low-output voltage regulators. A two segment capacitive array structure (6 MSB 5 LSB) composed by split capacitors is designed for the SAR core to save area cost and release reference voltage accuracy requirements. Implemented in the GSMC 0.13 μm 1.5 V/12 V dual-gate 4P6M e-flash process, the analog front end occupies an area of 0.457 mm2 and consumes power of 18.8 mW, in which 1.1 mW cost by the SAR ADC. Measured at 500 kHz input, the spurious-free dynamic range and signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio of the ADC are 71.57 dB and 60.60 dB respectively, achieving a figure of merit of 350 fJ/conversion-step.

  14. A 10 bit 50 MS/s SAR ADC with partial split capacitor switching scheme in 0.18 μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Li; Qiao, Meng; Fei, Li

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a 10 bit successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS technology with a 1.8 V supply voltage. To improve the conversion speed, a partial split capacitor switching scheme is proposed. By reducing the time constant of the bit cycles, the proposed technique shortens the settling time of a capacitive digital-to-analog converter (DAC). In addition, a new SAR control logic is proposed to reduce loop delay to further enhance the conversion speed. At 1.8 V supply voltage and 50 MS/s the SAR ADC achieves a signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) of 57.5 dB and spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 69.3 dB. The power consumption is 2.26 mW and the core die area is 0.096 mm2. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61401097).

  15. A 0.23 pJ 11.05-bit ENOB 125-MS/s pipelined ADC in a 0.18 μm CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Wang; Jianyun, Zhang; Rui, Yin; Yuhang, Zhao; Wei, Zhang

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a 12-bit 125-MS/s pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) that is implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. A gate-bootstrapping switch is used as the bottom-sampling switch in the first stage to enhance the sampling linearity. The measured differential and integral nonlinearities of the prototype are less than 0.79 least significant bit (LSB) and 0.86 LSB, respectively, at the full sampling rate. The ADC exhibits an effective number of bits (ENOB) of more than 11.05 bits at the input frequency of 10.5 MHz. The ADC also achieves a 10.5 bits ENOB with the Nyquist input frequency at the full sample rate. In addition, the ADC consumes 62 mW from a 1.9 V power supply and occupies 1.17 mm2, which includes an on-chip reference buffer. The figure-of-merit of this ADC is 0.23 pJ/step. Project supported by the Foundation of Shanghai Municipal Commission of Economy and Informatization (No. 130311).

  16. Use of ERTS-1 data: Summary report of work on ten tasks. [solving natural resources and environmental quality problems using ERTS-1 MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Polcyn, F. C.; Bryan, M. L.; Sattinger, I. J.; Malila, W. A.; Nalepka, R. F.; Wezernak, C. T.; Horvath, R.; Vincent, R. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Depth mapping's for a portion of Lake Michigan and at the Little Bahama Bank test site have been verified by use of navigation charts and on-site visits. A thirteen category recognition map of Yellowstone Park has been prepared. Model calculation of atmospheric effects for various altitudes have been prepared. Radar, SLAR, and ERTS-1 data for flooded areas of Monroe County, Michigan are being studied. Water bodies can be reliably recognized and mapped using maximum likelihood processing of ERTS-1 digital data. Wetland mapping has been accomplished by slicing of single band and/or ratio processing of two bands for a single observation date. Both analog and digital processing have been used to map the Lake Ontario basin using ERTS-1 data. Operating characteristic curves were developed for the proportion estimation algorithm to determine its performance in the measurement of surface water area. The signal in band MSS-5 was related to sediment content of waters by modelling approach and by relating surface measurements of water to processed ERTS data. Radiance anomalies in ERTS-1 data could be associated with the presence of oil on water in San Francisco Bay, but the anomalies were of the same order as those caused by variations in sediment concentration and tidal flushing.

  17. A 0.31pJ/Conversion-Step 12-Bit 100MS/s 0.13μm CMOS A/D Converter for 3G Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Ju; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Myung-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hoon

    This work describes a 12-bit 100MS/s 0.13μm CMOS ADC for 3G wireless communication systems such as two-carrier W-CDMA applications. The proposed ADC employs a four-step pipeline architecture to optimize power consumption and chip area at the target resolution and sampling rate. Area-efficient gate-bootstrapped sampling switches of the input SHA maintain high signal linearity over the Nyquist rate even at a 1.0V supply. The cascode compensation using a low-impedance feedback path in two-stage amplifiers of the SHA and MDACs achieves the required conversion speed and phase margin with less power consumption and area compared to the Miller compensation. A low-glitch dynamic latch in the sub-ranging flash ADCs reduces kickback noise referred to the input of comparator by isolating the pre-amplifier from the regeneration latch output. The proposed on-chip current and voltage references are based on triple negative TC circuits. The prototype ADC in a 0.13μm 1P8M CMOS technology demonstrates the measured DNL and INL within 0.38LSB and 0.96LSB at 12-bit, respectively. The ADC shows a maximum SNDR and SFDR of 64.5dB and 78.0dB at 100MS/s, respectively. The ADC with an active die area of 1.22mm2 consumes 42.0mW at 100MS/s and a 1.2V supply, corresponding to a figure-of-merit of 0.31pJ/conversion-step.

  18. MSS D Multispectral Scanner System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauletta, A. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Brinkman, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The development and acceptance testing of the 4-band Multispectral Scanners to be flown on LANDSAT D and LANDSAT D Earth resources satellites are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the acceptance test phase of the program. Test history and acceptance test algorithms are discussed. Trend data of all the key performance parameters are included and discussed separately for each of the two multispectral scanner instruments. Anomalies encountered and their resolutions are included.

  19. A 0.06 mm2 1.0 V 2.5 mW 10 bit 250 MS/s current-steering D/A converter in 65 nm GP CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yawei, Guo; Li, Li; Peng, Ou; Zhida, Hui; Xu, Cheng; Xiaoyang, Zeng

    2014-06-01

    A 10 bit 250 MS/s current-steering digital-to-analog converter is presented. Only standard VT core devices are available for the sake of simplicity and low cost. In order to meet the INL performance, a Monte Carlo model is built to analyze the impact of mismatch on integral nonlinearity (INL) yield with both end-point line and best-fit line. A formula is derived for the relationship of INL and output impedance. The relation of dynamic range and output impedance is also discussed. The double centroid layout is adopted for the current source array in order to mitigate the effect of electrical, process, and temperature gradient. An adapted current mirror is used to overcome the gate leakage of the current source array, which cannot be ignored in the 65 nm GP CMOS process. The digital-to-analog converter occupies 0.06 mm2, and consumes 2.5 mW from a single 1.0 V supply at 250 MS/s.

  20. Design of a 12-bit 2 MS/s 12 mW pipelined SAR ADC in CMOS 0.18 μm technology for CZT-based imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, F.; Gao, W.; Wei, X.; Liu, W.; Hu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a 12-bit 2 MS/s pipelined successive approximation register (SAR) ADC for CZT-based imaging system. The proposed ADC is divided into a first-stage 6-bit SAR-based Multiplying Digital Analog Converter (MDAC) and a second-stage 8-bit SAR ADC. The first-stage MDAC has a gain of 16 instead of the usual gain of 64, which considerably minimizes the power dissipation of residue amplifier. The second-stage 8-bit SAR ADC employs unit bridge capacitor split-capacitor architecture aiming to reduce the load capacitance of residue amplifier so as to minimize the power dissipation of the proposed ADC. Moreover, a code-randomized calibration algorithm is proposed to improve the linearity of the second-stage 8-bit split-capacitor SAR ADC. In addition, several radiation-hardened-by-design techniques are adopted in the layout design against space radiation effects. The prototype chip was fabricated in 0.18 μ m mixed-signal 1.8 V/3.3 V process and occupied a core area of 0.71 mm2. The proposed pipelined SAR ADC achieves a peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) of 63.2 dB at 2 MS/s sampling rate and consumes 12 mW power in total. The figure of merit (FoM) of the proposed ADC is 5.06 pJ/conversion-step.

  1. Water quality parameters of harbors of Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands: Acquisition of in situ water data, intercorrelation of selected water parameters, and initial correlation of these in situ biological, chemical and physical data with ERTS-1 bulk CCT MSS band 5 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulbourn, W. C.; Olsen, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Remote sensing by the ERTS-1 satellite was compared with selected water quality parameters including pH, salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, water depth, water temperature, turbidity, plankton concentration, current variables, chlorophylla, total carotenoids, and species diversity of the benthic community. Strong correlation between turbidity and MSS-sensed radiance was recorded and less strong correlations between the two plankton pigments and radiance. Turbidity and benthic species diversity were highly correlated furnishing an inferential tie between an easily sensed water quality variable and a sensitive indicator of average water quality conditions.

  2. Water quality parameters of harbors of Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands: Acquisition of in situ water data, intercorrelation of selected water parameters, and initial correlation of these in situ biological, chemical and physical data with ERTS-1 bulk CCT MSS band 5 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulbourn, W. C.; Olsen, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Remote sensing by the ERTS-1 satellite was compared with selected water quality parameters including pH, salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, water depth, water temperature, turbidity, plankton concentration, current variables, chlorophylla, total carotenoids, and species diversity of the benthic community. Strong correlation between turbidity and MSS-sensed radiance was recorded and less strong correlations between the two plankton pigments and radiance. Turbidity and benthic species diversity were highly correlated furnishing an inferential tie between an easily sensed water quality variable and a sensitive indicator of average water quality conditions.

  3. An experimental study on the geochemical behavior of highly siderophile elements (HSE) and metalloids (As, Se, Sb, Te, Bi) in a mss-iss-pyrite system at 650 °C: A possible magmatic origin for Co-HSE-bearing pyrite and the role of metalloid-rich phases in the fractionation of HSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafagna, Fabio; Jugo, Pedro J.

    2016-04-01

    Pyrite, the most abundant sulfide in the Earth's crust, is an accessory mineral in several magmatic sulfide deposits. Although most pyrite is hydrothermal, previous experimental studies have shown that pyrite can also have a primary magmatic origin, by exsolving from monosulfide solid solution (mss) during cooling of a sulfide melt, if sulfur fugacity is sufficiently high. Pyrite from some localities has significant amounts of Co, and complex zonation in some low-melting-point chalcophile elements (LMCE), such as As, Se, Sb, Te, Bi (henceforth referred to as metalloids) and some platinum-group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt). However, the origin of such pyrite and the causes of zonation are not clear. Because the distribution of some of these elements is heterogeneous and seems to be developed in concentric zones, the zonation has been interpreted to represent growth stages, some of them secondary and caused partly by hydrothermal fluids. Better constraints on the origin of Co-PGE-bearing pyrite could help unravel the geochemical processes affecting the sulfide assemblages in which it is found; thus, an experimental study was undertaken to characterize pyrite formation in magmatic sulfide environments and its relationship with metalloids and highly siderophile elements (HSE: PGE, Re, Au). Natural pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite and elemental S were mixed and doped with approximately 50 ppm of each HSE. A mixture of metalloids was added at 0.2 wt.% or 3 wt.% to aliquots of sulfide mixtures. Starting materials were sealed in evacuated silica tubes and fused at 1200 °C. The temperature was subsequently reduced to 750 °C (at 60 °C/h), then to 650 °C (at 0.5 °C/h) to produce relatively large euhedral pyrite crystals, then quenched. The experiments were analyzed using reflected light, SEM, EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. Experimental products contained euhedral pyrite, mss, intermediate solid solution (iss) and metalloid-rich phases, interpreted as quench product

  4. Modular Simulator System (MSS). Interface Design Document for the Generic MSS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-20

    nations. This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publica - tion. JEFf C. VALITON, Maj, USAF JAMES D. BASINGER Pro~ Manager Team Leader...Database A-297 10.15.10 Spatial Relacions A-297 10.15.11 Occulting A-298 10.15.12 Radar Support A-298 S 10.16 Electronic Warfare Output Interface Types A

  5. Digital enhancement of multispectral MSS data for maximum image visibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Algazi, V. R.

    1973-01-01

    A systematic approach to the enhancement of images has been developed. This approach exploits two principal features involved in the observation of images: the properties of human vision and the statistics of the images being observed. The rationale of the enhancement procedure is as follows: in the observation of some features of interest in an image, the range of objective luminance-chrominance values being displayed is generally limited and does not use the whole perceptual range of vision of the observer. The purpose of the enhancement technique is to expand and distort in a systematic way the grey scale values of each of the multispectral bands making up a color composite, to enhance the average visibility of the features being observed.

  6. Photographic techniques for enhancing ERTS MSS data for geologic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E.; Geluso, W.; Anderson, R.

    1974-01-01

    Satellite multispectral black-and-white photographic negatives of Luna County, New Mexico, obtained by ERTS on 15 August and 2 September 1973, were precisely reprocessed into positive images and analyzed in an additive color viewer. In addition, an isoluminous (uniform brightness) color rendition of the image was constructed. The isoluminous technique emphasizes subtle differences between multispectral bands by greatly enhancing the color of the superimposed composite of all bands and eliminating the effects of brightness caused by sloping terrain. Basaltic lava flows were more accurately displayed in the precision processed multispectral additive color ERTS renditions than on existing state geological maps. Malpais lava flows and small basaltic occurrences not appearing on existing geological maps were identified in ERTS multispectral color images.

  7. Preliminary Skylab MSS channel evaluation. [Susquehanna river basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Barr, D. M.; Borden, F. Y.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A set of 18 channels which were considered of usable quality were identified. These were channels 1-14, 17, 19-21. Channels 15, 16, 18, and 22 were dropped out because they were of poor quality; channels 7 and 11 were dropped to limit the total channel number to 16. From these 16 channels, a total of 22 signatures were obtained. Eight were developed from uniform blocks of the UMAP, and 14 from use of the DCLUS program. These signatures fell into six basic categories and classified more than 90% of the five scenes mapped: agriculture land (6 signatures); forest aland (4); water (2); open nonagriculture land (2); urban (6); and disturbed land (2).

  8. Combined trellis coding and feedforward processing for MSS applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Simon, M. K.; Jedrey, T.; Lay, N.; Rafferty, W.

    1990-01-01

    The idea of using a multiple (more than two) symbol observation interval to improve error probability performance is applied to differential detection of trellis coded MPSK over a mobile satellite (fading) channel. Results are obtained via computer simulation. It is shown that only a slight increase (e.g., one symbol) in the length of the observation interval will provide a significant improvement in bit error probability performance both in AWGN and fading environments.

  9. ERTS-1 MSS imagery - A tool for identifying soil associations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    Soil association maps show the spatial relationships of land units developed in unique climatic, geologic, and topographic environments, and having characteristic slopes, soil depths, textures, available water capacities, permeabilities, and the like. From these characteristics of the soil, broad interpretations can be made such as how the soil is suited for various agronomic and engineering uses. ERTS-1 imagery was found to be a useful tool in the identification of soil associations since it provides a synoptic view of an 8 million acre scene, which is large enough so that the effect can be seen on soils of climate, topography, and geology. A regional view also allows soil associations to be observed over most, if not all, of their extent. This aids in selecting typical sampling sites and provides a check on the homogeniety of the associations.

  10. Spatial resolution estimation of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgillem, C. D.; Anuta, P. E.; Yu, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to verify that the LANDSAT-4 sensors are operating within specifications, it is useful to estimate the system parameters by analysis of the measured data. One parameter of particular interest is the sensor point-spread function (PSF) which determines the resolution of the system. A method of estimating the PSF is described that utilizes data obtained during scanning of ground elements having identifiable geometric and radiometric structure. These data are then processed in such a manner as to recover either the PSF itself or to estimate the parameters of an assumed functional representation of the PSF.

  11. Survey of resampling techniques using MSS and synthetic imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, Brian P.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of these restoration methods are compared as to resolution and spatial frequency effects. The edge effect, a situation that occurs when fill (non-image) data is interpolated with image data, is also addressed.

  12. An analysis of LANDSAT MSS scene-to-scene registration accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seyfarth, B. R.; Cook, P. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Measurements were made for 12 registrations done by ERL for 8 registrations done by SRS. The results indicate that the ERL method is significantly more accurate in five of the eight comparison. The difference between the two methods are not significant in the other three cases. There are two possible reasons for the differences. First, the ERL model is a piecewise linear model and the EDITOR model is a cubic polynomial model. Second, the ERL program resamples using bilinear interpolation while the EDITOR software uses a nearest neighbor resampling. This study did not indicate how much of the difference is attributable to each factor. The average of all merged scene error values for ERL was 31.6 meters and the average for the eight common areas was 32.6 meters. The average of the eight merged scene error values for SRS was 40.1 meters.

  13. Determination of turbidity patterns in Lake Chicot from LANDSAT MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroy, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A historical analysis of all the applicable LANDSAT imagery was conducted on the turbidity patterns of Lake Chicot, located in the southeastern corner of Arkansas. By examining the seasonal and regional turbidity patterns, a record of sediment dynamics and possible disposition can be obtained. Sketches were generated from the suitable imagery, displaying different intensities of brightness observed in bands 5 and 7 of LANDSAT's multispectral scanner data. Differences in and between bands 5 and 7 indicate variances in the levels of surface sediment concentrations. High sediment loads are revealed when distinct patterns appear in the band 7 imagery. Additionally, the upwelled signal is exponential in nature and saturates in band 5 at low wavelengths for large concentrations of suspended solids.

  14. Vegetation and terrain mapping in Alaska using Landsat MSS and digital terrain data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark; Carneggie, David M.

    1986-01-01

    During the past 5 years, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center Field Office in Anchorage, Alaska has worked cooperatively with Federal and State resource management agencies to produce land-cover and terrain maps for 245 million acres of Alaska. The need for current land-cover information in Alaska comes principally from the mandates of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA), December 1980, which requires major land management agencies to prepare comprehensive management plans. The land-cover mapping projects integrate digital Landsat data, terrain data, aerial photographs, and field data. The resultant land-cover and terrain maps and associated data bases are used for resource assessment, management, and planning by many Alaskan agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, and Alaska Department of Natural Resources. Applications addressed through use of the digital land-cover and terrain data bases range from comprehensive refuge planning to multiphased sampling procedures designed to inventory vegetation statewide. The land-cover mapping programs in Alaska demonstrate the operational utility of digital Landsat data and have resulted in a new land-cover mapping program by the USGS National Mapping Division to compile 1:250,000-scale land-cover maps in Alaska using a common statewide land-cover map legend.

  15. BLOB: An unsupervised clustering approach to spatial preprocessing of MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauth, R. J.; Pentland, A. P.; Thomas, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    A basic concept of Multispectral Scanner data processing was developed for use in agricultural inventories; namely, to introduce spatial coordinates of each pixel into the vector description of the pixel and to use this information along with the spectral channel values in a conventional unsupervised clustering of the scene. The result is to isolate spectrally homogeneous field-like patches (called blobs). The spectral mean vector of a blob can be regarded as a defined feature and used in a conventional pattern recognition procedure. The benefits of use are: ease in locating training units in imagery; data compression of from 10 to 30 depending on the application; reduction of scanner noise and consequently potential improvements in classification/proportion estimation performances.

  16. Environmental Report on the Northwest Pacific for the Marine Seismic System (MSS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    upon earthquake data. Ukawa (T979) also gives velocity models of the upper mantle under the Kuril- Japan Trench and refutes the idea of a continuous...presented by Kasahara et al. (1976), and include results from the works of Ukawa (1979) and Fedotov (1965, 1968). Velocities of P waves from two...of Okhotsk. Ukawa (1979) proposes that the low velocity layer beneath the Kuril Trench is not parallel to the downgoing slab. He describes a low

  17. Interpretation of ERTS-MSS images of a Savanna area in eastern Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elberson, G. W. W.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery for extrapolating existing soil maps into unmapped areas of the Llanos Orientales of Colombia, South America is discussed. Interpretations of ERTS-1 data were made according to conventional photointerpretation techniques. Most units delineated in the existing reconnaissance soil map at a scale of 1:250,000 could be recognized and delineated in the ERTS image. The methods of interpretation are described and the results obtained for specific areas are analyzed.

  18. Modeling a historical mountain pine beetle outbreak using Landsat MSS and multiple lines of evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Assal, Timothy J.; Sibold, Jason; Reich, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles are significant forest disturbance agents, capable of inducing widespread mortality in coniferous forests in western North America. Various remote sensing approaches have assessed the impacts of beetle outbreaks over the last two decades. However, few studies have addressed the impacts of historical mountain pine beetle outbreaks, including the 1970s event that impacted Glacier National Park. The lack of spatially explicit data on this disturbance represents both a major data gap and a critical research challenge in that wildfire has removed some of the evidence from the landscape. We utilized multiple lines of evidence to model forest canopy mortality as a proxy for outbreak severity. We incorporate historical aerial and landscape photos, aerial detection survey data, a nine-year collection of satellite imagery and abiotic data. This study presents a remote sensing based framework to (1) relate measurements of canopy mortality from fine-scale aerial photography to coarse-scale multispectral imagery and (2) classify the severity of mountain pine beetle affected areas using a temporal sequence of Landsat data and other landscape variables. We sampled canopy mortality in 261 plots from aerial photos and found that insect effects on mortality were evident in changes to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) over time. We tested multiple spectral indices and found that a combination of NDVI and the green band resulted in the strongest model. We report a two-step process where we utilize a generalized least squares model to account for the large-scale variability in the data and a binary regression tree to describe the small-scale variability. The final model had a root mean square error estimate of 9.8% canopy mortality, a mean absolute error of 7.6% and an R2 of 0.82. The results demonstrate that a model of percent canopy mortality as a continuous variable can be developed to identify a gradient of mountain pine beetle severity on the landscape.

  19. Application of digital analysis of MSS data to agro-environmental studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. A.; Goward, S. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the application of digital analysis of multispectral scanner data to agro-environmental studies is described. Simulation of LANDSAT D thematic mapper (TM) observations from aircraft multispectral scanner data and field spectrometer data collected over a corn-soybean agricultural region in Webster County, Iowa during the 1979 growing season in support of the NASA/AgRISTARS program is described. The simulations were analyzed to evaluate the potential utility of the TM (1.55-1.75 micron) mid-infrared observations in corn-soybean discrimination. Current LANDSAT data was analyzed to study snow cover in northern New England and wetlands in Nebraska and Vermont. The application of satellite remote sensor data in additional environmental research areas is described.

  20. Combining LANDSAT MSS, aerial photographs and ground measurements to estimate rangeland productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gialdini, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The production of a vegetation map of over 2.2 million acres with detail down to the plant community level, and the production of estimates of rangeland productivity (pounds of usable forage per acre for cattle) for a 500,000 acre subset of area with a design goal for accuracy and precision of + or - 20% at the 80% confidence level, are considered. The data consist of five groups: maps of area, LANDSAT data, digital terrain data, large scale aerial photography, and ground plots. An outline of the data acquisition and data reduction schemes are presented.

  1. Application of LANDSAT MSS to elk habitat management. [Blue Mountains, Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of information derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner data to estimate the impact of proposed timber harvests on potential elk use is briefly discussed. The evaluations were conducted in Northeastern Oregon where several herds of Rocky Mountain elk range in the Blue Mountains. The inventory product is a geographically referenced data base containing land cover types and habitat components (cover/forage).

  2. An algorithm for automating the registration of USDA segment ground data to LANDSAT MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, M. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The algorithm is referred to as the Automatic Segment Matching Algorithm (ASMA). The ASMA uses control points or the annotation record of a P-format LANDSAT compter compatible tape as the initial registration to relate latitude and longitude to LANDSAT rows and columns. It searches a given area of LANDSAT data with a 2x2 sliding window and computes gradient values for bands 5 and 7 to match the segment boundaries. The gradient values are held in memory during the shifting (or matching) process. The reconstructed segment array, containing ones (1's) for boundaries and zeros elsewhere are computer compared to the LANDSAT array and the best match computed. Initial testing of the ASMA indicates that it has good potential for replacing the manual technique.

  3. The use of unsupervised clustering as a classifier for LACIE MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentland, A. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This classification method appears to give accurate field center results and to give practical, statistically consistent and accurate estimates of crop proportions. The accuracy of this method is attributable to certain qualities of the particular clustering algorithm. These qualities are freedom from assumptions about Gaussian data, and the continual updating of distribution estimates, including updating the number of modes. This method is relatively tolerant of errors in the determination of crop type, as crop identity is used only for identifying clusters, and not for computing signatures.

  4. Generation and physical characteristics of the ERTS MSS system corrected computer compatible tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, V. L.

    1973-01-01

    The generation and format are discussed of the ERTS system corrected multispectral scanner computer compatible tapes. The discussion includes spacecraft sensors, scene characteristics, data transmission, and conversion of data to computer compatible tapes at the NASA Data Processing Facility. Geometeric and radiometric corrections, tape formats, and the physical characteristics of the tapes are also included.

  5. Generation and physical characteristics of the LANDSAT-1, -2 and -3 MSS computer compatible tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, V. L.

    1977-01-01

    The generation and format of the LANDSAT 1, 2, and 3 system corrected multispectral scanner computer compatible tapes are discussed. Included in the discussion are the spacecraft sensors, scene characteristics, the transmission of data, and the conversion of the data to computer compatible tapes. Also included in the discussion are geometric and radiometric corrections, tape formats, and the physical characteristics of the tape.

  6. Generation and physical characteristics of the Landsat 1 and 2 MSS computer compatible tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, V. L.

    1975-01-01

    The generation and format is discussed of the Landsat 1 and 2 system corrected multispectral scanner computer compatible tapes. Included in the discussion are the spacecraft sensors, scene characteristics, the transmission of data, and the conversion of the data to computer compatible tapes at the NASA Data Processing Facility. Geometric and radiometric corrections, tape formats, and the physical characteristics of the tape are also described.

  7. Detecting forest canopy change due to insect activity using Landsat MSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Multitemporal Landsat multispectral scanner data were analyzed to test various computer-aided analysis techniques for detecting significant forest canopy alteration. Three data transformations - differencing, ratioing, and a vegetative index difference - were tested to determine which best delineated gypsy moth defoliation. Response surface analyses were conducted to determine optimal threshold levels for the individual transformed bands and band combinations. Results indicate that, of the three transformations investigated, a vegetative index difference (VID) transformation most accurately delineates forest canopy change. Band 5 (0.6 to 0.7 micron ratioed data did nearly as well. However, other single bands and band combinations did not improve upon the band 5 ratio and VID results.

  8. Ocean water color assessment from ERTS-1 RBV and MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photo-optical and electronic density slicing were applied to ERTS-1 E 1007-151651-4, 30 July 1972, an area in the Caribbean showing deep ocean water, and shallow areas on the Great Baham Bank ranging from 0.5 meter or less to 18 meters. The density slicing processes were adjusted to correlate water radiance to bathmetric contours shown on C and GS Chart 1112. A number of large areas corresponding to water depths of 2 meters or less, 5 to 10 meters, and 10 to about 20 meters were isolated by both processes. Where clear water and uniformly reflective bottom was found, clear of marine growths, the photo-optical and electronic image density slicing processes proved effective in delineating areas where the depth was in the order of 5 meters, plus or minus 1 meter.

  9. STS-132 crew during their MSS/SIMP EVA3 OPS 4 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-28

    JSC2010-E-014962 (28 Jan. 2010) --- NASA astronauts Michael Good (foreground) and Garrett Reisman, both STS-132 mission specialists, use virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of their duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working.

  10. STS-131 crew during VR Lab MSS/EVAB SUPT3 Team 91016 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-25

    JSC2009-E-214335 (25 Sept. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Clayton Anderson, STS-131 mission specialist, uses virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working.

  11. STS-134 crew in Virtual Reality Lab during their MSS/EVAA SUPT2 Team training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-27

    JSC2010-E-121055 (27 Aug. 2010) --- NASA astronauts Michael Fincke (right) and Greg Chamitoff, both STS-134 mission specialists, use virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of their duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  12. STS-134 crew in Virtual Reality Lab during their MSS/EVAA SUPT2 Team training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-27

    JSC2010-E-121053 (27 Aug. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Greg Chamitoff, STS-134 mission specialist, uses virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  13. STS-133 crew during MSS/EVAA TEAM training in Virtual Reality Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-01

    JSC2010-E-170892 (1 Oct. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Alvin Drew, STS-133 mission specialist, uses virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  14. STS-133 crew during MSS/EVAA TEAM training in Virtual Reality Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-01

    JSC2010-E-170885 (1 Oct. 2010) --- NASA astronauts Alvin Drew (left) and Tim Kopra, both STS-133 mission specialists, use virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of their duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  15. STS-131 crew during VR Lab MSS/EVAB SUPT3 Team 91016 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-25

    JSC2009-E-214340 (25 Sept. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Clayton Anderson, STS-131 mission specialist, uses virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working.

  16. STS-133 crew during MSS/EVAA TEAM training in Virtual Reality Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-01

    JSC2010-E-170873 (1 Oct. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Tim Kopra, STS-133 mission specialist, uses virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working. Crew trainer David Homan assisted Kopra. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  17. STS-126 crew during preflight VR LAB MSS EVA2 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-14

    JSC2008-E-033766 (14 April 2008) --- Astronauts Stephen G. Bowen (foreground) and Robert S. (Shane) Kimbrough, both STS-126 mission specialists, use virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of their duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear special gloves and other gear while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working. David J. Homan assisted Bowen and Kimbrough.

  18. STS-134 crew in Virtual Reality Lab during their MSS/EVAA SUPT2 Team training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-27

    JSC2010-E-121052 (27 Aug. 2010) --- NASA astronauts Michael Fincke (foreground) and Greg Chamitoff, both STS-134 mission specialists, use virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of their duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  19. STS-132 crew during their MSS/SIMP EVA3 OPS 4 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-28

    JSC2010-E-014958 (28 Jan. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Michael Good, STS-132 mission specialist, uses virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working.

  20. STS-133 crew during MSS/EVAA TEAM training in Virtual Reality Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-01

    JSC2010-E-170897 (1 Oct. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Tim Kopra, STS-133 mission specialist, uses virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  1. STS-131 crew during VR Lab MSS/EVAB SUPT3 Team 91016 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-25

    JSC2009-E-214341 (25 Sept. 2009) --- NASA astronauts Clayton Anderson (left) and Rick Mastracchio, both STS-131 mission specialists, use virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of their duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working.

  2. STS-134 crew in Virtual Reality Lab during their MSS/EVAA SUPT2 Team training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-27

    JSC2010-E-121058 (27 Aug. 2010) --- NASA astronauts Michael Fincke (foreground) and Greg Chamitoff, both STS-134 mission specialists, use virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of their duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  3. STS-132 crew during their MSS/SIMP EVA3 OPS 4 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-28

    JSC2010-E-014959 (28 Jan. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Garrett Reisman, STS-132 mission specialist, uses virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working.

  4. STS-133 crew during MSS/EVAA TEAM training in Virtual Reality Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-01

    JSC2010-E-170871 (1 Oct. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Tim Kopra, STS-133 mission specialist, uses virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working. Crew trainer David Homan assisted Kopra. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  5. STS-132 crew during their MSS/SIMP EVA3 OPS 4 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-28

    JSC2010-E-014960 (28 Jan. 2010) --- NASA astronauts Garrett Reisman (left) and Michael Good, both STS-132 mission specialists, use virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of their duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working.

  6. STS-132 crew during their MSS/SIMP EVA3 OPS 4 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-28

    JSC2010-E-014957 (28 Jan. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Michael Good, STS-132 mission specialist, uses virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working. David Homan assisted Good.

  7. STS-131 crew during VR Lab MSS/EVAB SUPT3 Team 91016 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-25

    JSC2009-E-214334 (25 Sept. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Clayton Anderson, STS-131 mission specialist, uses virtual reality hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties on the upcoming mission to the International Space Station. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear a helmet and special gloves while looking at computer displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware with which they will be working. Crew instructor Bradley Bell assisted Anderson.

  8. Controllable Quantum States Mesoscopic Superconductivity and Spintronics (MS+S2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku; Nakano, Hayato

    2008-10-01

    Mesoscopic effects in superconductors. Tunneling measurements of charge imbalance of non-equilibrium superconductors / R. Yagi. Influence of magnetic impurities on Josephson current in SNS junctions / T. Yokoyama. Nonlinear response and observable signatures of equilibrium entanglement / A. M. Zagoskin. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage with a Cooper pair box / Giuseppe Falci. Crossed Andreev reflection-induced giant negative magnetoresistance / Francesco Giazotto -- Quantum modulation of superconducting junctions. Adiabatic pumping through a Josephson weak link / Fabio Taddei. Squeezing of superconducting qubits / Kazutomu Shiokawa. Detection of Berrys phases in flux qubits with coherent pulses / D. N. Zheng. Probing entanglement in the system of coupled Josephson qubits / A. S. Kiyko. Josephson junction with tunable damping using quasi-particle injection / Ryuta Yagi. Macroscopic quantum coherence in rf-SQUIDs / Alexey V. Ustinov. Bloch oscillations in a Josephson circuit / D. Esteve. Manipulation of magnetization in nonequilibrium superconducting nanostructures / F. Giazotto -- Superconducting qubits. Decoherence and Rabi oscillations in a qubit coupled to a quantum two-level system / Sahel Ashhab. Phase-coupled flux qubits: CNOT operation, controllable coupling and entanglement / Mun Dae Kim. Characteristics of a switchable superconducting flux transformer with a DC-SQUID / Yoshihiro Shimazu. Characterization of adiabatic noise in charge-based coherent nanodevices / E. Paladino -- Unconventional superconductors. Threshold temperatures of zero-bias conductance peak and zero-bias conductance dip in diffusive normal metal/superconductor junctions / Iduru Shigeta. Tunneling conductance in 2DEG/S junctions in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling / T. Yokoyama. Theory of charge transport in diffusive ferromagnet/p-wave superconductor junctions / T. Yokoyama. Theory of enhanced proximity effect by the exchange field in FS bilayers / T. Yokoyama. Theory of Josephson effect in diffusive d-wave junctions / T. Yokoyama. Quantum dissipation due to the zero energy bound states in high-T[symbol] superconductor junctions / Shiro Kawabata. Spin-polarized heat transport in ferromagnet/unconventional superconductor junctions / T. Yokoyama. Little-Parks oscillations in chiral p-wave superconducting rings / Mitsuaki Takigawa. Theoretical study of synergy effect between proximity effect and Andreev interface resonant states in triplet p-wave superconductors / Yasunari Tanuma. Theory of proximity effect in unconventional superconductor junctions / Y. Tanaka -- Quantum information. Analyzing the effectiveness of the quantum repeater / Kenichiro Furuta. Architecture-dependent execution time of Shor's algorithm / Rodney Van Meter -- Quantum dots and Kondo effects. Coulomb blockade properties of 4-gated quantum dot / Shinichi Amaha. Order-N electronic structure calculation of n-type GaAs quantum dots / Shintaro Nomura. Transport through double-dots coupled to normal and superconducting leads / Yoichi Tanaka. A study of the quantum dot in application to terahertz single photon counting / Vladimir Antonov. Electron transport through laterally coupled double quantum dots / T. Kubo. Dephasing in Kondo systems: comparison between theory and experiment / F. Mallet. Kondo effect in quantum dots coupled with noncollinear ferromagnetic leads / Daisuke Matsubayashi. Non-crossing approximation study of multi-orbital Kondo effect in quantum dot systems / Tomoko Kita. Theoretical study of electronic states and spin operation in coupled quantum dots / Mikio Eto. Spin correlation in a double quantum dot-quantum wire coupled system / S. Sasaki. Kondo-assisted transport through a multiorbital quantum dot / Rui Sakano. Spin decay in a quantum dot coupled to a quantum point contact / Massoud Borhani -- Quantum wires, low-dimensional electrons. Control of the electron density and electric field with front and back gates / Masumi Yamaguchi. Effect of the array distance on the magnetization configuration of submicron-sized ferromagnetic rings / Tetsuya Miyawaki. A wide GaAs/GaAlAs quantum well simultaneously containing two dimensional electrons and holes / Ane Jensen. Simulation of the photon-spin quantum state transfer process / Yoshiaki Rikitake. Magnetotransport in two-dimensional electron gases on cylindrical surface / Friedland Klaus-Juergen. Full counting statistics for a single-electron transistor at intermediate conductance / Yasuhiro Utsumi. Creation of spin-polarized current using quantum point contacts and its detection / Mikio Eto. Density dependent electron effective mass in a back-gated quantum well / S. Nomura. The supersymmetric sigma formula and metal-insulator transition in diluted magnetic semiconductors / I. Kanazawa. Spin-photovoltaic effect in quantum wires / A. Fedorov -- Quantum interference. Nonequilibrium transport in Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with electron-phonon interaction / Akiko Ueda. Fano resonance and its breakdown in AB ring embedded with a molecule / Shigeo Fujimoto, Yuhei Natsume. Quantum resonance above a barrier in the presence of dissipation / Kohkichi Konno. Ensemble averaging in metallic quantum networks / F. Mallet -- Coherence and order in exotic materials. Progress towards an electronic array on liquid helium / David Rees. Measuring noise and cross correlations at high frequencies in nanophysics / T. Martin. Single wall carbon nanotube weak links / K. Grove-Rasmussen. Optical preparation of nuclear spins coupled to a localized electron spin / Guido Burkard. Topological effects in charge density wave dynamics / Toru Matsuura. Studies on nanoscale charge-density-wave systems: fabrication technique and transport phenomena / Katsuhiko Inagaki. Anisotropic behavior of hysteresis induced by the in-plane field in the v = 2/3 quantum Hall state / Kazuki Iwata. Phase diagram of the v = 2 bilayer quantum Hall state / Akira Fukuda -- Trapped ions (special talk). Quantum computation with trapped ions / Hartmut Häffner.

  9. Performance evaluation and geologic utility of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paylor, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    Radiometric calibration accuracy of TM data, radiometric comparison of A-, B-, and P-format data, and geometric registration accuracy of the TM data at enlarged scales were analyzed. Radiometric analysis of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming scene demonstrates that the TM system can be used to extract image reflectance spectra from ground targets following calibration of the system. It was also demonstrated that: (1) image DN (radiance values) vs. ground reflectance calibration scatterplots yield parameters which can be used to constrain atmospheric models and can determine TM radiometric sensitivity; (2) no significant degradation occurs as a result of radiometric and geometric correction by SCROUNGE processing; and (3) TM data can be enlarged to 1:24000 with no major geometric distortions or misregistration problems to USGS topographic maps.

  10. The application of IR- and MSS-data in the Ruhr District, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, P.

    1977-01-01

    The methods used by Ruhr Planning Authority to interpret IR pictures are described along with production of maps indicating the thermal distribution in the conurbation. Topics studied with the IR data include thermal loading of the Rhine and climatology of the urban and surrounding country areas.

  11. STS-132 crew during their MSS/SIMP EVA3 OPS 4 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-28

    JSC2010-E-014953 (28 Jan. 2010) --- NASA astronauts Piers Sellers, STS-132 mission specialist; and Tracy Caldwell Dyson, Expedition 23/24 flight engineer, use the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of their duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare crew members for dealing with space station elements.

  12. STS-132 crew during their MSS/SIMP EVA3 OPS 4 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-28

    JSC2010-E-014949 (28 Jan. 2010) --- NASA astronauts Piers Sellers, STS-132 mission specialist; and Tracy Caldwell Dyson, Expedition 23/24 flight engineer, use the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of their duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare crew members for dealing with space station elements.

  13. Corn and soybean Landsat MSS classification performance as a function of scene characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, G. T.; Hixson, M. M.; Bauer, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    In order to fully utilize remote sensing to inventory crop production, it is important to identify the factors that affect the accuracy of Landsat classifications. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of scene characteristics involving crop, soil, and weather variables on the accuracy of Landsat classifications of corn and soybeans. Segments sampling the U.S. Corn Belt were classified using a Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier on multitemporally registered data from two key acquisition periods. Field size had a strong effect on classification accuracy with small fields tending to have low accuracies even when the effect of mixed pixels was eliminated. Other scene characteristics accounting for variability in classification accuracy included proportions of corn and soybeans, crop diversity index, proportion of all field crops, soil drainage, slope, soil order, long-term average soybean yield, maximum yield, relative position of the segment in the Corn Belt, weather, and crop development stage.

  14. Evaluation of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS ground geometry performance without ground control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A.

    1983-01-01

    LANDSAT thematic mapper P-data of Washington, D.C., Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA were analyzed to determine magnitudes and causes of error in the geometric conformity of the data to known earth-surface geometry. Several tests of data geometry were performed. Intra-band and inter-band correlation and registration were investigated, exclusive of map-based ground truth. Specifically, the magnitudes and statistical trends of pixel offsets between a single band's mirror scans (due to processing procedures) were computed, and the inter-band integrity of registration was analyzed.

  15. Some Observations--Early Years of Committee/Coalition of Adult Education Organizations (CAEO). MSS 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N.

    The first meeting of the Coalition of Adult Education Organizations (CAEO) was held in Syracuse in 1964 as a Conference of Adult Education Organizations. Its purpose was to obtain input to help determine the development of the Library of Continuing Education (LCE). Presidents, other officers or leaders of 17 organizations in Canada and the United…

  16. Development and validation of the Medical Student Scholar-Ideal Mentor Scale (MSS-IMS).

    PubMed

    Sozio, Stephen M; Chan, Kitty S; Beach, Mary Catherine

    2017-08-08

    Programs encouraging medical student research such as Scholarly Concentrations (SC) are increasing nationally. However, there are few validated measures of mentoring quality tailored to medical students. We sought to modify and validate a mentoring scale for use in medical student research experiences. SC faculty created a scale evaluating how medical students assess mentors in the research setting. A validated graduate student scale of mentorship, the Ideal Mentor Scale, was modified by selecting 10 of the 34 original items most relevant for medical students and adding an item on project ownership. We administered this 11-item assessment to second year medical students in the Johns Hopkins University SC Program from 2011 to 2016, and performed exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation to determine included items and subscales. We correlate overall mentoring quality scale and subscales with four student outcomes: 'very satisfied' with mentor, 'more likely' to do future research, project accepted at a national meeting, and highest SC faculty rating of student project. Five hundred ninety-eight students responded (87% response rate). After factor analysis, we eliminated three items producing a final scale of overall mentoring quality (8 items, Cronbach's alpha = 0.92) with three subscales: advocacy, responsiveness, and assistance. The overall mentoring quality scale was significantly associated with all four student outcomes, including mentor satisfaction: OR [(95% CI), p-value] 1.66 [(1.53-1.79), p < 0.001]; likelihood of future research: OR 1.06 [(1.03-1.09), p < 0.001]; abstract submission to national meetings: OR 1.05 [(1.02-1.08), p = 0.002]; and SC faculty rating of student projects: OR 1.08 [(1.03-1.14), p = 0.004]. Each subscale also correlated with overall mentor satisfaction, and the strongest relationship of each subscale was seen with 'mentor advocacy.' Mentor quality can be reliably measured and associates with important medical student scholarly outcomes. Given the lack of tools, this scale can be used by other SC Programs to advance medical students' scholarship.

  17. Vegetation mapping of Nowitna National Wildlife Reguge, Alaska using Landsat MSS digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Markon, Carl J.

    1986-01-01

    A Landsat-derived vegetation map was prepared for Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge lies within the middle boreal subzone of north central Alaska. Seven major vegetation classes and sixteen subclasses were recognized: forest (closed needleleaf, open needleleaf, needleleaf woodland, mixed, and broadleaf); broadleaf scrub (lowland, alluvial, subalpine); dwarf scrub (prostrate dwarf shrub tundra, dwarf shrub-graminoid tussock peatland); herbaceous (graminoid bog, marsh and meadow); scarcely vegetated areas (scarcely vegetated scree and floodplain); water (clear, turbid); and other areas (mountain shadow). The methodology employed a cluster-block technique. Sample areas were described based on a combination of helicopter-ground survey, aerial photointerpretation, and digital Landsat data. Major steps in the Landsat analysis involved preprocessing (geometric correction), derivation of statistical parameters for spectral classes, spectral class labeling of sample areas, preliminary classification of the entire study area using a maximum-likelihood algorithm, and final classification utilizing ancillary information such as digital elevation data. The final product is a 1:250,000-scale vegetation map representative of distinctive regional patterns and suitable for use in comprehensive conservation planning.

  18. Intermediate-scale vegetation mapping of Innoko National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska using Landsat MSS digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Markon, Carl J.

    1988-01-01

    A Landsat-derived vegetation map was prepared for lnnoko National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge lies within the northern boreal subzone of northwestern central Alaska. Six major vegetation classes and 21 subclasses were recognized: forest (closed needleleaf, open needleleaf, needleleaf woodland, mixed, and broadleaf); broadleaf scrub (lowland, upland burn regeneration, subalpine); dwarf scrub (prostrate dwarf shrub tundra, erect dwarf shrub heath, dwarf shrub-graminoid peatland, dwarf shrub-graminoid tussock peatland, dwarf shrub raised bog with scattered trees, dwarf shrub-graminoid marsh); herbaceous (graminoid bog, graminoid marsh, graminoid tussock-dwarf shrub peatland); scarcely vegetated areas (scarcely vegetated scree and floodplain); and water (clear, sedimented). The methodology employed a cluster-block technique. Sample areas were described based on a combination of helicopter-ground survey, aerial photo-interpretation, and digital Landsat data. Major steps in the Landsat analysis involved preprocessing (geometric correction), derivation of statistical parameters for spectral classes, spectral class labeling of sample areas, preliminary classification of the entire study area using a maximum-likelihood algorithm, and final classification utilizing ancillary information such as digital elevation data. The final product is 1:250,000-scale vegetation map representative of distinctive regional patterns and suitable for use in comprehensive conservation planning.

  19. Detecting forest canopy change due to insect activity using Landsat MSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Multitemporal Landsat multispectral scanner data were analyzed to test various computer-aided analysis techniques for detecting significant forest canopy alteration. Three data transformations - differencing, ratioing, and a vegetative index difference - were tested to determine which best delineated gypsy moth defoliation. Response surface analyses were conducted to determine optimal threshold levels for the individual transformed bands and band combinations. Results indicate that, of the three transformations investigated, a vegetative index difference (VID) transformation most accurately delineates forest canopy change. Band 5 (0.6 to 0.7 micron ratioed data did nearly as well. However, other single bands and band combinations did not improve upon the band 5 ratio and VID results.

  20. Analysis of Skylab MSS data, and calibration of thermal data over Lake Monroe, Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, L. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The SL/4-S192 data over northern Indiana looks good. The thermal band looks very encouraging. The preliminary analysis indicates so far that it will be difficult to distinguish some land use classes because of the lack of vegetation. Preliminary analysis of the thermal band in particular indicates that there appears to be a correlation of the hot spots in the data over the Ft. Wayne, Indiana area and its industrial centers.

  1. Results of 1987 MSS helicopter propagation experiment at UHF and L band in Central Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1988-01-01

    This effort emphasizes several important results pertaining to a mobile satellite system propagation experiment performed in Central Maryland during June 1987. Fade distributions due to multipath and roadside trees at L Band (1.5 GHz) during a period in which the deciduous trees were in full bloom are examined. The multipath statistics for roadside trees are compared with previous multipath measurements made in canyon terrain in North Central Colorado. Also examined is the repeatability of previous UHF measurements made in Central Maryland and the attenuation effects of foliage on trees at UHF. Fade duration for the multipath mode for fade levels of 5 dB and 10 dB is also presented.

  2. Wheat: Its water use, production and disease detection and prediction. [ERTS-1 MSS imagery of Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground truth measurements indicate that reflectance ratios of the 545 and 655 mm wavebands provide an index of plant development and possibly physiological stress.

  3. Corn and soybean Landsat MSS classification performance as a function of scene characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, G. T.; Hixson, M. M.; Bauer, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    In order to fully utilize remote sensing to inventory crop production, it is important to identify the factors that affect the accuracy of Landsat classifications. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of scene characteristics involving crop, soil, and weather variables on the accuracy of Landsat classifications of corn and soybeans. Segments sampling the U.S. Corn Belt were classified using a Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier on multitemporally registered data from two key acquisition periods. Field size had a strong effect on classification accuracy with small fields tending to have low accuracies even when the effect of mixed pixels was eliminated. Other scene characteristics accounting for variability in classification accuracy included proportions of corn and soybeans, crop diversity index, proportion of all field crops, soil drainage, slope, soil order, long-term average soybean yield, maximum yield, relative position of the segment in the Corn Belt, weather, and crop development stage.

  4. Information content of data from the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous data acquisition by the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper and the multispectral scanner permits the comparison of the two types of image data with respect to engineering performance and data applications. Progress in the evaluation of information content of matching scenes in agricultural areas is briefly reported.

  5. Digital registration of topographic data and satellite MSS data for augmented spectral analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a project directed to assess the type and extent of long-term natural and man-made changes in floodplain features of a definite area in the Mississipi River Valley. 1:6000 scale maps were prepared from remotely sensed film/filter photographic coverage of the area at different times to compare changes in such features as channels, backwaters, vegetation as well as changes in the amount, location, and conditions of dredge spoil. Changes observed by this sequential photo comparison include abandonment of agricultural land followed by orderly secondary plant succession, the filling-in of shallows by sediment and the orderly succession of plants from a hydric to a more mesic environment and changes in deltas of small tributary streams in response to agricultural practices occurring at their headwaters. Plant colonization is observed on some spoil, and secondary movement of spoil is revealed in other areas.

  6. Determination of turbidity patterns in Lake Chicot from LANDSAT MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroy, S. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A historical analysis of all the applicable LANDSAT imagery was conducted on the turbidity patterns of Lake Chicot, located in the southeastern corner of Arkansas. By examining the seasonal and regional turbidity patterns, a record of sediment dynamics and possible disposition can be obtained. Sketches were generated from the suitable imagery, displaying different intensities of brightness observed in bands 5 and 7 of LANDSAT's multispectral scanner data. Differences in and between bands 5 and 7 indicate variances in the levels of surface sediment concentrations. High sediment loads are revealed when distinct patterns appear in the band 7 imagery. Additionally, the upwelled signal is exponential in nature and saturates in band 5 at low wavelengths for large concentrations of suspended solids.

  7. STS-131 crew during VR Lab MSS/EVAB SUPT3 Team 91016 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-25

    JSC2009-E-214338 (25 Sept. 2009) --- NASA astronauts James P. Dutton Jr., STS-131 pilot; and Stephanie Wilson, mission specialist, use the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of their duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare the entire team for dealing with space station elements. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, mission specialist, is visible in the background.

  8. STS-131 crew during VR Lab MSS/EVAB SUPT3 Team 91016 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-25

    JSC2009-E-214320 (25 Sept. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger (seated) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, both STS-131 mission specialists, use the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of their duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare the entire team for dealing with space station elements. United Space Alliance crew instructor Stephan Kinstle (left) assisted the crew members.

  9. STS-126 crew during preflight VR LAB MSS EVA2 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-14

    JSC2008-E-033771 (14 April 2008) --- Astronaut Eric A. Boe, STS-126 pilot, uses the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of his duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare the entire team for dealing with space station elements.

  10. STS-133 crew during MSS/EVAA TEAM training in Virtual Reality Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-01

    JSC2010-E-170888 (1 Oct. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, STS-133 mission specialist, uses the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of her duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare crew members for dealing with space station elements. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  11. STS-131 crew during VR Lab MSS/EVAB SUPT3 Team 91016 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-25

    JSC2009-E-214346 (25 Sept. 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, uses the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of her duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare the entire team for dealing with space station elements.

  12. STS-132 crew during their MSS/SIMP EVA3 OPS 4 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-28

    JSC2010-E-014963 (28 Jan. 2010) --- NASA astronauts Ken Ham (left), STS-132 commander; and Tony Antonelli, pilot, use the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of their duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare crew members for dealing with space station elements.

  13. STS-132 crew during their MSS/SIMP EVA3 OPS 4 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-28

    JSC2010-E-014951 (28 Jan. 2010) --- NASA astronauts Michael Good (seated), Garrett Reisman (right foreground), both STS-132 mission specialists; and Tony Antonelli, pilot, use the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of their duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare crew members for dealing with space station elements.

  14. STS-132 crew during their MSS/SIMP EVA3 OPS 4 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-28

    JSC2010-E-014952 (28 Jan. 2010) --- NASA astronauts Michael Good (seated) and Garrett Reisman, both STS-132 mission specialists, use the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of their duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare crew members for dealing with space station elements.

  15. STS-131 crew during VR Lab MSS/EVAB SUPT3 Team 91016 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-25

    JSC2009-E-214322 (25 Sept. 2009) --- NASA astronauts James P. Dutton Jr., STS-131 pilot; and Stephanie Wilson, mission specialist, use the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of their duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare the entire team for dealing with space station elements. United Space Alliance crew instructor Stephan Kinstle (background) assisted the crew members.

  16. STS-134 crew in Virtual Reality Lab during their MSS/EVAA SUPT2 Team training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-27

    JSC2010-E-121049 (27 Aug. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Andrew Feustel (foreground), STS-134 mission specialist, uses the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of his duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare crew members for dealing with space station elements. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  17. STS-132 crew during their MSS/SIMP EVA3 OPS 4 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-28

    JSC2010-E-014956 (28 Jan. 2010) --- NASA astronauts Ken Ham (left foreground), STS-132 commander; Michael Good, mission specialist; and Tony Antonelli (right), pilot, use the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of their duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare crew members for dealing with space station elements.

  18. STS-131 crew during VR Lab MSS/EVAB SUPT3 Team 91016 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-25

    JSC2009-E-214332 (25 Sept. 2009) --- NASA astronauts Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger and Rick Mastracchio, both STS-131 mission specialists, participate in a training session in the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of their duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare the entire team for dealing with space station elements.

  19. STS-131 crew during VR Lab MSS/EVAB SUPT3 Team 91016 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-25

    JSC2009-E-214329 (25 Sept. 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, uses the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of her duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare the entire team for dealing with space station elements.

  20. STS-134 crew in Virtual Reality Lab during their MSS/EVAA SUPT2 Team training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-27

    JSC2010-E-121045 (27 Aug. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Andrew Feustel (right), STS-134 mission specialist, uses the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of his duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare crew members for dealing with space station elements. David Homan assisted Feustel. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  1. STS-131 crew during VR Lab MSS/EVAB SUPT3 Team 91016 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-25

    JSC2009-E-214321 (25 Sept. 2009) --- NASA astronauts James P. Dutton Jr., STS-131 pilot; and Stephanie Wilson, mission specialist, use the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of their duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare the entire team for dealing with space station elements.

  2. STS-131 crew during VR Lab MSS/EVAB SUPT3 Team 91016 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-25

    JSC2009-E-214342 (25 Sept. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Alan Poindexter, STS-131 commander; and Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, mission specialist, use the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of their duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare the entire team for dealing with space station elements.

  3. STS-131 crew during VR Lab MSS/EVAB SUPT3 Team 91016 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-25

    JSC2009-E-214328 (25 Sept. 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, uses the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of her duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare the entire team for dealing with space station elements.

  4. STS-131 crew during VR Lab MSS/EVAB SUPT3 Team 91016 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-25

    JSC2009-E-214323 (25 Sept. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, STS-131 mission specialist, uses the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of his duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare the entire team for dealing with space station elements.

  5. STS-133 crew during MSS/EVAA TEAM training in Virtual Reality Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-01

    JSC2010-E-170878 (1 Oct. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Michael Barratt, STS-133 mission specialist, uses the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of his duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare crew members for dealing with space station elements. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  6. STS-132 crew during their MSS/SIMP EVA3 OPS 4 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-28

    JSC2010-E-014950 (28 Jan. 2010) --- NASA astronauts Michael Good (facing camera), Garrett Reisman (right), both STS-132 mission specialists; and Tony Antonelli, pilot, use the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of their duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare crew members for dealing with space station elements.

  7. STS-133 crew during MSS/EVAA TEAM training in Virtual Reality Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-01

    JSC2010-E-170882 (1 Oct. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, STS-133 mission specialist, uses the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of her duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare crew members for dealing with space station elements. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  8. STS-134 crew in Virtual Reality Lab during their MSS/EVAA SUPT2 Team training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-27

    JSC2010-E-121056 (27 Aug. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Gregory H. Johnson, STS-134 pilot, uses the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of his duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare crew members for dealing with space station elements. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  9. GIS Meets Airborne MSS: Geospatial Applications of High-Resolution Multispectral Data

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Guber

    1999-07-27

    Bechtel Nevada operates and flies Daedalus multispectral scanners for funded project tasks at the Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory. Historically, processing and analysis of multispectral data has afforded scientists the opportunity to see natural phenomena not visible to the naked eye. However, only recently has a system, more specifically a Geometric Correction System, existed to automatically geo-reference these data directly into a Geographic Information (GIS) database. Now, analyses, performed previously in a nongeospatial environment, are integrated directly into an Arc/Info GIS. This technology is of direct benefit to environmental and emergency response applications.

  10. A LEO-MSS system for position reporting and data messaging services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, A.; Dumont, P.

    This paper is to describe a system for mobile position reporting of mobiles and remote monitoring (short data messaging). It is based on the use of small satellites (mass < 150 kg). The definition of this system is currently being achieved by CNES. The main features of the system are the low development and user costs as well as the worldwide and high capacity capabilities (more than 500 000 mobile terminals per geographical zone). Such a system is economically attractive for companies managing large mobile fleets. It is well suited for a ponctual utilization when real time is not needed.

  11. A LEO-MSS system for position reporting and data messaging services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, A.; Dumont, P.

    1992-08-01

    A system for mobile position reporting of mobiles and remote monitoring (short data messaging) based on the use of small satellites (mass less than 150 kg) is described. The system's main features are the low development and user costs as well as the worldwide and high-capacity capabilties (more than 500,000 mobile terminals per geographical zone. The system provides customers with the position of any mobile in Europe, North America, and Asia in a maximum waiting time of 60 min. The terminal is located either using a dedicated Doppler shift and ranging measurements or by a GPS receiver. Coordination with the systems sharing the same frequency bands should be obtained by spread spectrum techniques.

  12. Performance evaluation and geologic utility of LANDSAT 4 TM and MSS scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, H. N.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments using artificial targets (polyethylene sheets) to help calibrate and evaluate atmospheric effects as well as the radiometric precision and spatial characteristics of the NS-001 and TM sensor systems were attempted and show the technical feasibility of using plastic targets for such studies, although weather precluded successful TM data acquisition. Tapes for six LANDSAT 4 TM scenes were acquired and data processing began. Computer enhanced TM simulator and LANDSAT 4 TM data were compared for a porphyry copper deposit in Southern Arizona. Preliminary analyses performed on two TM scenes acquired in the CCT-PT format, show the TM data appear to contain a marked increase in geologically useful information; however, a number of instrumental processing artifacts may well limit the ability of the geologist to fully extract this information.

  13. Evaluation of LANDSAT MSS vs TM simulated data for distinguishing hydrothermal alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.; Kahle, A. B.; Madura, D. P.; Soha, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The LANDSAT Follow-On (LFO) data was simulated to demonstrate the mineral exploration capability of this system for segregating different types of hydrothermal alteration and to compare this capability with that of the existing LANDSAT system. Multispectral data were acquired for several test sites with the Bendix 24-channel MSDS scanner. Contrast enhancements, band ratioing, and principal component transformations were used to process the simulated LFO data for analysis. For Red Mountain, Arizona, the LFO data allowed identification of silicified areas, not identifiable with LANDSAT 1 and 2 data. The improved LFO resolution allowed detection of small silicic outcrops and of a narrow silicified dike. For Cuprite - Ralston, Nevada, the LFO spectral bands allowed discrimination of argillic and opalized altered areas; these could not be spectrally discriminated using LANDSAT 1 and 2 data. Addition of data from the 1.3- and 2.2- micrometer regions allowed better discriminations of hydrothermal alteration types.

  14. Techniques for digital enhancement of Landsat MSS data using an Apple II+ microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, J. A., Jr.; Cartin, K. F.

    1984-01-01

    The information provided by remotely sensed data collected from orbiting platforms has been useful in many research fields. Particularly convenient for evaluation are generally digital data stored on computer compatible tapes (CCT's). The major advantages of CCT's are the quality of the data and the accessibility to computer manipulation. Minicomputer systems are widely used for the required computer processing operations. However, microprocessor-related technological advances make it now possible to process CCT data with computing systems which can be obtained at a much lower price than minicomputer systems. A detailed description is provided of the design considerations of a microcomputer-based Digital Image Analysis System (DIAS). Particular attention is given to the algorithms which are incorporated for eighter edge enhancement or smoothing Landsat multispectral scanner data.

  15. The Penn State ORSER system for processing and analyzing ERTS and other MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Borden, F. Y.; Weeden, H. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources (ORSER) of the Space Science and Engineering Laboratory at the Pennsylvania State University has developed an extensive operational system for processing and analyzing ERTS-1 and similar multispectral data. The ORSER system was developed for use by a wide variety of researchers working in remote sensing. Both photointerpretive techniques and automatic computer processing methods have been developed and used, separately and in a combined approach. A remote Job Entry system permits use of an IBM 370/168 computer from any compatible remote terminal, including equipment tied in by long distance telephone connections. An elementary cost analysis has been prepared for the processing of ERTS data.

  16. STS-133 crew during MSS/EVAA TEAM training in Virtual Reality Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-01

    JSC2010-E-170877 (1 Oct. 2010) --- A large monitor is featured in this image during STS-133 crew members? training activities in the virtual reality laboratory in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  17. Classrooms in the Wild: Learning Language and Life Skills in the KUIS Outdoor Sports Circle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurr, Adrian

    The role of outdoor education activities in the Kanda University English language institute is described. The outdoor program was developed to unite faculty and students interested in recreational activities and provide an opportunity to explore common interests in nature, sports, and language learning. The activities develop self-esteem,…

  18. Materials Data on KUI3O11 (SG:61) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-04-06

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Evaluation of three techniques for classifying urban land cover patterns using LANDSAT MSS data. [New Orleans, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Three computer quantitative techniques for determining urban land cover patterns are evaluated. The techniques examined deal with the selection of training samples by an automated process, the overlaying of two scenes from different seasons of the year, and the use of individual pixels as training points. Evaluation is based on the number and type of land cover classes generated and the marks obtained from an accuracy test. New Orleans, Louisiana and its environs form the study area.

  20. Identification and Mapping of Soils, Vegetation, and Water Resources of Lynn County, Texas, by Computer Analysis of ERTS MSS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, M. F.; Kristof, S. J.; Henderson, J. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Results of the analysis and interpretation of ERTS multispectral data obtained over Lynn County, Texas, are presented. The test site was chosen because it embodies a variety of problems associated with the development and management of agricultural resources in the Southern Great Plains. Lynn County is one of ten counties in a larger test site centering around Lubbock, Texas. The purpose of this study is to examine the utility of ERTS data in identifying, characterizing, and mapping soils, vegetation, and water resources in this semiarid region. Successful application of multispectral remote sensing and machine-processing techniques to arid and seminarid land-management problems will provide valuable new tools for the more than one-third of the world's lands lying in arid-semiarid regions.

  1. An interpretation of a geologic map of Fannin County, Texas, prepared by ADP techniques from ERTS MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, J. A., Jr.; Gardner, J. J.; Cipra, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Multispectral scanner data, collected by ERTS-1 from an area in northeast Texas underlain by structurally simple cretaceous sedimentary rocks, were analyzed using several automatic data processing techniques. Training areas for the computer analysis were selected in three ways using: (1) an unsupervised classifier, (2) the unsupervised classifier to further refine training areas, and (3) available ground information. The first two methods utilize the capability of the unsupervised classifier to the unsupervised classifier to group resolution elements with similar spectral properties. With the imagery produced by these procedures, several geologic features can be identified. The most easily recognizable features are streams and other water bodies. The approximate location of contacts between several rock units can be mapped.

  2. Computer-aided analysis of Landsat-1 MSS data - A comparison of three approaches, including a 'modified clustering' approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, M. D.; Berkebile, J. S.; Hoffer, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Three approaches for analyzing Landsat-1 data from Ludwig Mountain in the San Juan Mountain range in Colorado are considered. In the 'supervised' approach the analyst selects areas of known spectral cover types and specifies these to the computer as training fields. Statistics are obtained for each cover type category and the data are classified. Such classifications are called 'supervised' because the analyst has defined specific areas of known cover types. The second approach uses a clustering algorithm which divides the entire training area into a number of spectrally distinct classes. Because the analyst need not define particular portions of the data for use but has only to specify the number of spectral classes into which the data is to be divided, this classification is called 'nonsupervised'. A hybrid method which selects training areas of known cover type but then uses the clustering algorithm to refine the data into a number of unimodal spectral classes is called the 'modified-supervised' approach.

  3. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The spatial characteristics of the data were evaluated. A program was developed to reduce the spatial distortions resulting from variable viewing distance, and geometrically adjusted data sets were generated. The potential need for some level of radiometric adjustment was evidenced by an along track band of high reflectance across different cover types in the Varian imagery. A multiple regression analysis was employed to explore the viewing angle effect on measured reflectance. Areas in the data set which appeared to have no across track stratification of cover type were identified. A program was developed which computed the average reflectance by column for each channel, over all of the scan lines in the designated areas. A regression analysis was then run using the first, second, and third degree polynomials, for each channel. An atmospheric effect as a component of the viewing angle source of variance is discussed. Cover type maps were completed and training and test field selection was initiated.

  4. Determination of circulation and turbidity patterns in Kerr Lake from LANDSAT MSS imagery. [Kerr Lake, Virginia, North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroy, S. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The LANDSAT imagery was historically analyzed to determine the circulation and turbidity patterns of Kerr Lake, located on the Virginia-North Carolina border. By examining the seasonal and regional turbidity and circulation patterns, a record of sediment transport and possible disposition can be obtained. Sketches were generated, displaying different intensities of brightness observed in bands 5 and 7 of LANDSAT's multispectral scanner data. Differences in and between bands 5 and 7 indicate variances in the levels of surface sediment concentrations. High sediment loads are revealed when distinct patterns appear in the band 7 imagery. The upwelled signal is exponential in nature and saturates in band 5 at low wavelengths for large concentrations of suspended solids.

  5. Comparative assessment of LANDSAT-D MSS and TM data quality for mapping applications in the Southeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Rectifications of multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data sets for full and subscene areas, analyses of planimetric errors, assessments of the number and distribution of ground control points required to minimize errors, and factors contributing to error residual are examined. Other investigations include the generation of three dimensional terrain models and the effects of spatial resolution on digital classification accuracies.

  6. Use of SIR-A and Landsat MSS data in mapping shrub and intershrub vegetation at Koonamore, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Shrublands cover much of the interior of the Australian continent and support a large grazing industry. Distinguishing the woody perennial vegetation from the smaller herbaceous vegetation and soil-encrusting lichen found between the shrubs is critical for range management but is difficult to do using Landsat data alone. In this study Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A) and Landsat data acquired over Koonamore Station are examined together. Given the low topography and fine textured soils at Koonamore, radar return should be primarily determined by the percent area occupied by shrubs. During periods when most of the vegetation was non-vigorous and spectrally homogeneous, SIR-A data, as a surrogate measure of shrub cover, allowed the reflectance due to shrubs in Landsat data to be separated from the reflectance due to the intervening ground. This method allows estimation of the intershrub reflectance properties that are related to herbaceous vegetation, lichen, and bare soil exposures.

  7. Mining Survey System (MSS) - innovative solution in Polish mines. (Polish Title: Mobilna Platforma Gurnicza (MPG) - nowatorskim rozwilazaniem w polskich kopalniach)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamek, A.

    2015-12-01

    Mobile laser scanning technology is developing rapidly also in mining. For several years research and tests are conducted on the use of that type of measurement in the inventory of the mine shafts. The company SKALA 3D in the project 1.4 POIG by PARP undertook to create Mobile automatic steering system of spatial geometry measurements mine shafts using laser scanning technology. Its main advantage is a faithful reflection of the object being measured in just a few hours. It is based on the data flowing from laser scanners and precision inertial unit. The main problem of the research was to determine the trajectory of the passing Mobile Platforms Mining (MPG) in the shaft as accurately as possible. Unable to receive signals from satellites in the pipe shaft prevented the use of solutions known for measuring terrestrial mobile systems. The company SKALA 3D has developed a methodology for determine the trajectory of the system, based on geometrical data coming from laser scanners and readings of accelerometers and gyroscopes of inertial unit. To improve the quality and accuracy of measurements MPG is also equipped with a set of anti-vibration parts prevent the transmission of vibrations ascending while cage is moving in the shaft on the measuring system. The whole forms a calibrated system, which in a short time is able to provide spatial measurement data from the measuring shaft. The accuracy of 2-3 mm in a single measurement horizon and a few centimeters determine the position of a point on the thousandth meter below ground make the system very accurate. During the project there have been numerous research problems, including the need to define the physical references, drift of IMU whether harsh weather conditions in the shaft. However, the company SKALA 3D solved these problems and making MPG unique in the world.

  8. A Winged-Helix Transcription Factor Foxg1 Induces Expression of Mss4 Gene in Rat Hippocampal Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ju-Suk; Yang, Haijie; Kim, Nam-Ho; Sun, Yuanjie; Choi, Byung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    Foxg1 (previously named BF1) is a winged-helix transcription factor with restricted expression pattern in the telencephalic neuroepithelium of the neural tube and in the anterior half of the developing optic vesicle. Previous studies have shown that the targeted disruption of the Foxg1 gene leads to hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres with severe defect in the structures of the ventral telencephalon. To further investigate the molecular mechanisms by which Foxg1 plays essential roles during brain development, we have adopted a strategy to isolate genes whose expression changes immediately after introduction of Foxg1 in cultured neural precursor cell line, HiB5. Here, we report that seventeen genes were isolated by ordered differential displays that are up-regulated by over-expression of Foxg1, in cultured neuronal precursor cells. By nucleotide sequence comparison to known genes in the GeneBank database, we find that nine of these clones represent novel genes whose DNA sequences have not been reported. The results suggest that these genes are closely related to developmental regulation of Foxg1. PMID:22110345

  9. Time-delay-and-integration charge-coupled devices using tin oxide gate technology. [for Landsat MSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, L. L.; Mccann, D. H.; Tracy, R. A.; Kub, F. J.; White, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    Doped tin oxide gates are used in a time-delay-and-integration (TDI) CCD scheme in an effort to develop a stable transparent gate technology. Design characteristics of the system are discussed, including 2 sections of 10 by 9 integration stages, four-phase buried channel construction, and 10 input parallel-in/serial-out output shift register at a video rate of 1.25 MHz. A quantum efficiency of 65% with smooth spectral response is attained by front surface imaging. The suitability of the system for the Landsat program is discussed in terms of TDI-CCD operating parameters.

  10. Assessment of a combined gas chromatography mass spectrometer sensor (GC-MSS) system for detecting biologically relevant volatile compounds (VCs).

    PubMed

    Gould, Oliver; Wieczorek, Tomas; de Lacy Costello, Ben P J; Persad, Raj; Ratcliffe, Norman

    2017-09-26

    There have been a number of studies in which metal oxide sensors (MOS) have replaced conventional analytical detectors in gas chromatography systems. However, despite the use of these instruments in a range of applications including breath research the sensor responses (i.e. resistance changes w.r.t. concentration of VCs) remain largely unreported. This paper addresses that issue by comparing the response of a metal oxide sensor directly with a mass spectrometer (MS), whereby both detectors are interfaced to the same GC column using an s-swafer. It was demonstrated that the sensitivity of an in-house fabricated ZnO/ SnO2 thick film MOS was superior to a modern MS for the detection of a wide range of volatile compounds (VCs) of different functionalities and masses. Better techniques for detection and quantification of these VCs is valuable, as many of these compounds are commonly reported throughout the scientific literature. This is also the first published report of a combined GC-MS sensor system. These 2 different detector technologies when combined, should enhance discriminatory abilities to aid disease diagnoses using volatiles from e.g. breath, and bodily fluids. 29 chemical standards have been tested using solid phase micro-extraction; 25 of these compounds are found on human breath. In all but 2 instances the sensor exhibited the same or superior limit of detection compared to the MS. 12 stool samples from healthy participants were analysed, the sensor detected, on average 1.6 peaks more per sample than the MS. Similarly analysing the headspace of E. coli broth cultures the sensor detected 6.9 more peaks per sample versus the MS. This greater sensitivity is primarily a function of the superior limits of detection of the metal oxide sensor. This shows that systems based on the combination of chromatography systems with solid state sensors shows promise for a range of applications. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. A comprehensive data processing plan for crop calendar MSS signature development from satellite imagery: Crop identification using vegetation phenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, C. A. (Principal Investigator); Carlyle, S. M.; Haralick, R. M.; Yokoyama, R.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The phenological method of crop identification involves the creation of crop signatures which characterize multispectral observations as phenological growth states. The phenological signature models spectral reflectance explicitly as a function of crop maturity rather than as a function of date. A correspondence of time to growth state is established which minimizes the smallest difference between the given multispectral multitemporal vector and a category mean vector. The application of the method to the identification of winter wheat and corn shows (1) the method is capable of discriminating crop type with about the same degree of accuracy as more traditional classifiers; (2) the use of LANDSAT observations on two or more dates yields better results than the use of a single observation; and (3) some potential is demonstrated for labeling the degree of maturity of the crop, as well as the crop type.

  12. Use of SIR-A and Landsat MSS data in mapping shrub and intershrub vegetation at Koonamore, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Shrublands cover much of the interior of the Australian continent and support a large grazing industry. Distinguishing the woody perennial vegetation from the smaller herbaceous vegetation and soil-encrusting lichen found between the shrubs is critical for range management but is difficult to do using Landsat data alone. In this study Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A) and Landsat data acquired over Koonamore Station are examined together. Given the low topography and fine textured soils at Koonamore, radar return should be primarily determined by the percent area occupied by shrubs. During periods when most of the vegetation was non-vigorous and spectrally homogeneous, SIR-A data, as a surrogate measure of shrub cover, allowed the reflectance due to shrubs in Landsat data to be separated from the reflectance due to the intervening ground. This method allows estimation of the intershrub reflectance properties that are related to herbaceous vegetation, lichen, and bare soil exposures.

  13. Dynamic study of the upper Sao Francisco River and the Tres Marias reservoir using MSS/LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Sausen, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT multispectral ban scanner imagery to verify the relationship between the behavior of the Tres Marias reservoir and the dynamics of the Sao Francisco River supply basin is described. The dispersion of suspended sediments and their concentration in the surface layers of the water are considered. A five year survey of the region during both dry and rainy seasons was performed. The drainage network was analyzed based on the patterns of dessication, water rises and soil use in the supply basin. Surface layers of the reservoir were tabulated as a function of the levels of gray in the imagery. In situ observations of water depth and reflectance were performed. Ground truth and LANDSAT data were correlated to determine the factors affecting the dynamics of the supply basin.

  14. 47 CFR 25.285 - Operation of MSS and ATC transmitters or transceivers on board civil aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... devices aboard civil aircraft is prohibited, unless the device is installed in a manner approved by the... capable of transmitting in the 1.5/1.6 GHz, 1.6/2.4 GHz, or 2 GHz Mobile-Satellite Service frequency bands... stations used for non-voice, non-geostationary Mobile-Satellite Service communication that can emit...

  15. Analysis of multispectral scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) performance (pre-launch and post-launch)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Tables and graphs show the results of the spectral, radiometric, and geometric characterization of LANDSAT 4 sensors associated with imagery and of the imagery associated with sensors and processing. Specifications for the various parameters are compared with the photoflight and flight values.

  16. Wheat classification exercise, using 11 June 1973, ERTS MSS data for Fayette County, Illinois (for CITARS task)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Hieber, R. H.; Rice, D. P.; Sarno, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The prime emphasis was on classification of pixels in field centers, away from boundary effects. Results were encouraging in both training and test field centers for wheat and other major types of vegetation present. However, the location of fields was found to be a serious problem and it was even more difficult to select field-center pixels for fields of sizes less than 20 acres (or even larger, depending upon field shape) for use in the field-center analysis. The majority of fields in the segment are less than 20 acres in size. ERTS-1 data were received on 12 September 1973. Ground truth information and aerial photography were received on 9 and 15 September. The data were analyzed and processed digitally using the ERIM multispectral software system.

  17. A 10-b 50-MS/s 820- μW SAR ADC With On-Chip Digital Calibration.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Masato; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Takayama, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Sanroku

    2010-12-01

    This 10-b 50-MSamples/s SAR analog-to-digital converter (ADC) features on-chip digital calibration techniques, comparator offset cancellation, a capacitor digital-to-analog converter (CDAC) linearity calibration, and internal clock control to compensate for PVT variations. A split-CDAC reduces the exponential increase in the number of unit capacitors needed and enables the input load capacitance to be as small as the kT/C noise restriction. The prototype fabricated in 65 nm 1P7M complementary metal-oxide semiconductor with MIM capacitor achieves 56.6 dB SNDR at 50-MSamples/s, 25-MHz input frequency and consumes 820 μW from a 1.0-V supply, including the digital calibration circuits. The figure of merit was 29.7 fJ/conversion-step under the Nyquist condition. The ADC occupied an active area of 0.039 mm(2) .

  18. A Survey of the Application of Multimedia in the Process of Teaching and Learning in KUiTTHO, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamaruddin, Nafisah Kamariah Md; Hamid, Mohd Zaidi Bin Abdul

    2005-01-01

    Scientific research shows that the process of remembering done in the human brain is faster when people receive many emphasizes in various forms for a short period. The concept of interactivity in multimedia helps the human brain to improve the process of learning. In addition, different approaches of multimedia make lessons very entertaining…

  19. A Pilot Psychometric Study on the Validation of the Older Women’s Non-Medical Stress Scale (OWN-MSS) on an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Luciana; Prilutsky, Roxanne R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Older women often experience various types of stressors, including the death of a spouse and associated financial stress (often with a lack of social support), emotional stress due to factors such as caregiving and being single, and the challenges of the aging process. These circumstances could produce or aggravate anxious symptomatology that can in turn compound the negative effects of aging. A brief scale of perceived stress that is not confounded with health status and covers multiple culturally relevant potential stressors is needed for quick use in busy medical settings. Aim To assess the reliability and the validity of an original stress scale designed to measure perceptions of stress beyond health status in a non-clinical convenience sample of community-dwelling older women. Method In this cross-sectional pilot investigation, via conducting item-total correlations and correlational tests of validity, we studied the psychometric properties of our measure using data from volunteer older subjects (mainly low-income and from non-Caucasian backgrounds). The domains covered by the nine items of the tool were selected based on a literature review of common stressors experienced by older adults, especially by older women. Data were collected face-to-face using a demographic list, a well-established depression measure, a brief posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screener, and our 9-item stress tool. Primary outcomes: reliability and validity of the scale of older women’s non-medical stress. Secondary outcomes: demographic characteristics of the sample and correlations between stress items. Results Based on our sample of older women (N=40, mean age 71 years), good internal consistency between the items of the stress scale was found (Cronbach’s a=.66). The findings of the data analyses also revealed that our psychometric tool has good convergent validity with the PTSD screener (r=.53). Moreover, in contrast with most other stress tools, it has strong discriminant validity (r=.11) with a well-validated depression scale. Conclusion Our results suggest that this new measure is psychometrically strong. Future research directions encompass using larger samples, ideally including older men with the modification of the scale’s name, as well as validating this tool against more measures. Clinical implications of our findings are briefly discussed. PMID:27390770

  20. Evaluation of Catrosat 1PAN Stereo and Resourcesat Liss 4 MSS Merged Data for Morphometric Analysis, Delineation of Drainage Basins and Codification in Tamil Nadu, India and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, G. S.; Srinivasan, S.; Pandian, R.; Gummidipoondi, R. J.; Venkatchalam, R. V.; Swaminathan. S, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Topographic maps and Aerial Photographs are used for morphometric analysis of drainage basins and mapping contours with drainage. The stereo pairs of 2.5 m resolution Cartosat 1, Indian satellite 2 and merged data with 5.5 m resolution P6 Resourcesat 1 LISS 4 Indian satellite of 2001 is used to map, rills, gullies, and streams of first order to evaluate part of drainage basin of Cooum and Poondi Reservoir in Thiruvallur taluk of Tamil Nadu state. The Geo Eye latest 2011data is also used with Catrosat 1Stereo data to study present morphology of tiny micro watersheds to study the use of High resolution data for delineation and codification of watersheds. This study area is in an inter fluvial drainage basin of Cooum and Kusasthalai rivers. Kusasthalai river drains in Poondi reservoir which is about 50 km from Chennai. The excess water from Kosasthalai is also diverted through Kesawaram weir to Cooum river which passes through Thiruvallur and Chennai city before it's confluence with Bay of Benegal in the east. As Cooum basin is at higher elevation, water for irrigation is again diverted through chain of tanks to Kusasthalai river basin to drain in Poondi reservoir. Delineation of water sheds in this fluvial basin is difficult by manual survey as man made irrigation channels, natural drainage streams etc., have to be clearly identified. The streams of various orders are identified based on Strahler stream order hierarchy of tributaries, slops and contours using large scale satellite data. The micro water sheds are delinated identifying the ridges from Catrosat data for this interfluves basin which has mild slop. To illustrate this research, parts of two micro watersheds which were delineated using 1:50000 data for Tamil Nadu watershed Atlas up to 7th order streams are taken up for a detailed study using high resolution data. 19 Micro watersheds with streams up to 10th order are mapped. The capability of high resolution satellite data for digital as well as visual interpretation in conjunction with village cadastral maps has been studied. This research will be useful to consider creation of digital micro watershed atlas for management and protecting area affected by floods as well as for water and land resource management of the River basins in Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria states of Australia. The research explains the need of using stream orders, delineation and codification micro watersheds based the principles of Dr.A.N.Khosla. This methodology was used in creation of web site of Districts soil water sheds atlas of Tamil Nadu state. With this principal of codification and delineation of watersheds based on stream order using stereo data of Cartosat 1 PAN 2.5 m data merged with Resourcesat LISS 4 data of 5.5m resolution and updating latest changes as on 2011 with non stereo Geo eye data of 0.5m resolution it is possible to create Australian micro water sheds GIS with deatils of streams with various stream orders, drainage pattern, slope, micro water sheds boundary in 1:5000 scale to manage the flood prone drainage basin in Australia. The High resolution data of satellites data apart from creation Micro watersheds GIS can be used for creation of Urban and Argicultural land parcel owenership details in Micro watershed GIS.

  1. Attempting to detect and record brushland in the northeastern United States using MSS data - Schoharie County, N.Y., as a case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Paul R.

    1990-01-01

    Before county and local governments will utilize satellite data extensively for landcover inventories, digital image processing techniques must be developed to identify transitional land-use conditions and create large-scale, readable land-cover maps. This study examines a satellite-based land-cover inventory done for Schoharie County, New York and reviews the problems encountered in identifying and mapping brushland - a significant transitional land use - within the county and region. Brushland throughout the Northeast represents a barometer for measuring the shift away from agricultural land use to second-home property. Detecting and locating brushland on a regular basis can greatly assist county and local government officials in planning and managing a county's future.

  2. A comparison of unsupervised classification procedures on LANDSAT MSS data for an area of complex surface conditions in Basilicata, Southern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C.; Townshend, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Two unsupervised classification procedures were applied to ratioed and unratioed LANDSAT multispectral scanner data of an area of spatially complex vegetation and terrain. An objective accuracy assessment was undertaken on each classification and comparison was made of the classification accuracies. The two unsupervised procedures use the same clustering algorithm. By on procedure the entire area is clustered and by the other a representative sample of the area is clustered and the resulting statistics are extrapolated to the remaining area using a maximum likelihood classifier. Explanation is given of the major steps in the classification procedures including image preprocessing; classification; interpretation of cluster classes; and accuracy assessment. Of the four classifications undertaken, the monocluster block approach on the unratioed data gave the highest accuracy of 80% for five coarse cover classes. This accuracy was increased to 84% by applying a 3 x 3 contextual filter to the classified image. A detailed description and partial explanation is provided for the major misclassification. The classification of the unratioed data produced higher percentage accuracies than for the ratioed data and the monocluster block approach gave higher accuracies than clustering the entire area. The moncluster block approach was additionally the most economical in terms of computing time.

  3. Attempting to detect and record brushland in the northeastern United States using MSS data - Schoharie County, N.Y., as a case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Paul R.

    1990-01-01

    Before county and local governments will utilize satellite data extensively for landcover inventories, digital image processing techniques must be developed to identify transitional land-use conditions and create large-scale, readable land-cover maps. This study examines a satellite-based land-cover inventory done for Schoharie County, New York and reviews the problems encountered in identifying and mapping brushland - a significant transitional land use - within the county and region. Brushland throughout the Northeast represents a barometer for measuring the shift away from agricultural land use to second-home property. Detecting and locating brushland on a regular basis can greatly assist county and local government officials in planning and managing a county's future.

  4. Marine Seismic System Deployment (MSS). Phase 3. Investigation of Techniques and Deployment Scenarios for Installation of Tri-Axial Seismometer in a Borehole in the Deep Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    in-house computer program was being established to evaluate basic "Fly-In’ maneuvering characteristics and conceptual options. The use of a subsea...very smoothly considering the number of new equipment items required, their comlexity , and the untried procedures involved. Based upon the actual...desired orientation of the deployment platform. A simple *Fly-In" cable dynamics HP 41VCV computer program is being developed to quickly evaluate the

  5. Automatic corn-soybean classification using Landsat MSS data. I - Near-harvest crop proportion estimation. II - Early season crop proportion estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The techniques used initially for the identification of cultivated crops from Landsat imagery depended greatly on the iterpretation of film products by a human analyst. This approach was not very effective and objective. Since 1978, new methods for crop identification are being developed. Badhwar et al. (1982) showed that multitemporal-multispectral data could be reduced to a simple feature space of alpha and beta and that these features would separate corn and soybean very well. However, there are disadvantages related to the use of alpha and beta parameters. The present investigation is concerned with a suitable method for extracting the required features. Attention is given to a profile model for crop discrimination, corn-soybean separation using profile parameters, and an automatic labeling (target recognition) method. The developed technique is extended to obtain a procedure which makes it possible to estimate the crop proportion of corn and soybean from Landsat data early in the growing season.

  6. Characterization of phthiocerol and phthiodiolone dimycocerosate esters of M. tuberculosis by multiple-stage linear ion-trap MS[S

    PubMed Central

    Flentie, Kelly N.; Stallings, Christina L.; Turk, John; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Hsu, Fong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Both phthiocerol/phthiodiolone dimycocerosate (PDIM) and phenolic glycolipids are abundant virulent lipids in the cell wall of various pathogenic mycobacteria, which can synthesize a wide range of complex high-molecular-mass lipids. In this article, we describe linear ion-trap MSn mass spectrometric approach for structural study of PDIMs, which were desorbed as the [M + Li]+ and [M + NH4]+ ions by ESI. We also applied charge-switch strategy to convert the mycocerosic acid substituents to their N-(4-aminomethylphenyl) pyridinium (AMPP) derivatives and analyzed them as M + ions, following alkaline hydrolysis of the PDIM to release mycocerosic acids. The structural information from MSn on the [M + Li]+ and [M + NH4]+ molecular species and on the M + ions of the mycocerosic acid-AMPP derivative affords realization of the complex structures of PDIMs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis biofilm, differentiation of phthiocerol and phthiodiolone lipid families and complete structure identification, including the phthiocerol and phthiodiolone backbones, and the mycocerosic acid substituents, including the locations of their multiple methyl side chains, can be achieved. PMID:26574042

  7. Automatic corn-soybean classification using Landsat MSS data. I - Near-harvest crop proportion estimation. II - Early season crop proportion estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The techniques used initially for the identification of cultivated crops from Landsat imagery depended greatly on the iterpretation of film products by a human analyst. This approach was not very effective and objective. Since 1978, new methods for crop identification are being developed. Badhwar et al. (1982) showed that multitemporal-multispectral data could be reduced to a simple feature space of alpha and beta and that these features would separate corn and soybean very well. However, there are disadvantages related to the use of alpha and beta parameters. The present investigation is concerned with a suitable method for extracting the required features. Attention is given to a profile model for crop discrimination, corn-soybean separation using profile parameters, and an automatic labeling (target recognition) method. The developed technique is extended to obtain a procedure which makes it possible to estimate the crop proportion of corn and soybean from Landsat data early in the growing season.

  8. Materials problems in fluidized-bed combustion systems: high-temperature erosion-corrosion by high-velocity (200ms/s) particles

    SciTech Connect

    Barkalow, R.H.; Goebel, J.A.; Pettit, F.S.

    1980-05-01

    The response of nickel- and cobalt base superalloys, aluminide coatings for these alloys, and Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ to erosion-oxidation and erosion-hot corrosion conditions has been studied at 871/sup 0/C (1600/sup 0/F) in a high velocity gas stream 200 m/sec (656 ft/sec). The experiments were performed in a dynamic combustor (burner rig) operated on aircraft-grade jet fuel and compressed air. Erosive conditions were achieved by injecting abrasive powder into the burner rig. Alumina powders with average particle sizes of 20, 2.5, and 0.3 ..mu..m MgO were used as abrasive media. In the erosion-oxidation experiments, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ was much more resistant to degradation than all the metallic systems. For all the metallic systems it was found that: with 20 ..mu..m Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles, material loss occurred because of mechanical erosion; with 2 ..mu..m Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles, the materials degradation involved an interaction between oxidation and erosion such that the formation of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ scales inhibited erosion; deposition of 0.3 ..mu..m Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles occurred on specimens and these particles did not establish an erosive component; and the magnitude of the erosive component increased as the hardness of the abrasive increased. Silicon nitride was much more resistant than the metallic systems in the erosion-hot corrosion test; erosion-hot corrosion using 2 ..mu..m Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ occurred at rates greater than the sum of the rates of erosion and hot corrosion acting independent of one another; the interaction between hot corrosion and erosion was not affected by the particle hardness; and deposition of 0.3 ..mu..m Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ during hot corrosion caused the degradation rates to decrease. The erosion-oxidation behavior of the metallic systems was consistent with the theory for ductile erosion. The synergism between erosion and hot corrosion occurs because each process establishes conditions that accelerate the other.

  9. ERTS-1 MSS imagery: Its use in delineating soil associations and as a base map for publishing soils information. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS 1 imagery is a useful tool in the identification and refinement of soil association areas and an excellent base map upon which soil association information can be published. Prints of bands 5 and 7 were found to be most useful to help delineate major soil and vegetation areas. After delineating major soil areas, over 4800 land sale prices covering a period of 1967-72 were located in the soil areas and averaged. The soil association then were described as soil association value areas and published on a 1:1,000,000 scale ERTS mosaic of South Dakota constructed using negative prints of band 7. The map is intended for use by state and county revenue officers, by individual buyers and sellers of land and lending institutions, and as a reference map by those planning road routes and cable lines and pipelines.

  10. Marine Seismic System Deployment (MSS). Phase 2. Investigation of Techniques and Deployment Scenarios for Installation of Triaxial Seismometer in a Borehole in the Deep Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-09

    FL ST. CROIX, VI SANTO DOMINGO , DR (904) 354-0352 (809) 773-3119 (809) 565-6661 * LAKE CHARLES, LA ST. THOMAS, VI (318) 439-6147 (809) 774-2933 ST...Offlcilai-Military authorities, Vice-Admiral Pedro Espanol del Atlantico SA; (3) Frigoriflcos Salvador Vasquesl: Iglesias : Pont Commandants, H. S

  11. Skylab S192 data evaluation: Comparisons with ERTS-1 results. [classification results using ERTS-1 and Skylab MSS data over Holt County, Nebraska agricultural area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Skylab S192 data was evaluated by: (1) comparing the classification results using S192 and ERTS-1 data over the Holt County, Nebraska agricultural study area, and (2) investigating the impact of signal-to-noise ratio on classification accuracies using registered S192 and ERTS-1 data. Results indicate: (1) The classification accuracy obtained on S192 data using its best subset of four bands can be expected to be as high as that on ERTS-1 data. (2) When a subset of four S192 bands that are spectrally similar to the ERTS-1 bands was used for classification, an obvious deterioration in the classification accuracy was observed with respect to the ERTS-1 results. (3) The thermal bands 13 and 14 as well as the near IR bands were found to be relatively important in the classification of agricultural data. Although bands 11 and 12 were highly correlated, both were invariably included in the best subsets of the band sizes, four and beyond, according to the divergence criterion. (4) The differentiation of corn from popcorn was difficult on both S192 and ERTS-1 data acquired at an early summer date. (5) The results on both sets of data indicate that it was relatively easy to differentiate grass from any other class.

  12. Marine Seismic System(MSS) Deployment. Phase IV. Investigation of Techniques and Deployment Scenarios for Installation of Tri-Axial Seismometer in a Borehole in the Deep Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-31

    Demonstrate the baseline BIP drill string deployment techniques in deep water o Measure seismic signal and noise within a deep sea borehole o Record 5 days... deep ocean. UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED DISTRIBUTION PREPARED BY: ROBERT L. WALLERSTEDT PROJECT ENGINEER GLOBAL MARINE DEVELOPMENT INC 2302 MARTIN...borehole in the deep ocean. UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED DISTRIBUTION PREPARED BY: ROBERT L. WALLERSTEDT PROJECT ENGINEER GLOBAL MARINE DEVELOPMENT INC

  13. An evaluation of simulated Thematic Mapper data and Landsat MSS data for discriminating suburban and regional land use and land cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner, operating in the same spectral channels as the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), was used in a region east of Denver, CO, for a simulation test performed in the framework of using TM to discriminate the level I and level II classes. It is noted that at the 30-m spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) the overall discrimination for such classes as commercial/industrial land, rangeland, irrigated sod, irrigated alfalfa, and irrigated pasture was superior to that of the Landsat Multispectral Scanner, primarily due to four added spectral bands. For residential and other spectrally heterogeneous classes, however, the higher resolution of TMS resulted in increased variability within the class and a larger spectral overlap.

  14. 47 CFR 27.1166 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... interference from MSS space-to-Earth downlink operations, but may elect to do so, in which case the MSS... reimbursement in part 27. MSS reimbursement rights and cost-sharing obligations for space-to-Earth downlink...

  15. 47 CFR 101.82 - Reimbursement and relocation expenses in the 2110-2150 MHz and 2160-2200 MHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... between AWS and MSS (space-to-Earth downlink). Whenever an ET licensee (AWS or Mobile Satellite Service... among terrestrial stations. For terrestrial stations (AWS and MSS Ancillary Terrestrial Component (ATC..., that MSS operators (including MSS/ATC operators) are not obligated to reimburse voluntarily...

  16. 47 CFR 101.82 - Reimbursement and relocation expenses in the 2110-2150 MHz and 2160-2200 MHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... between AWS and MSS (space-to-Earth downlink). Whenever an ET licensee (AWS or Mobile Satellite Service... among terrestrial stations. For terrestrial stations (AWS and MSS Ancillary Terrestrial Component (ATC..., that MSS operators (including MSS/ATC operators) are not obligated to reimburse voluntarily...

  17. LANDSAT-D Investigations Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented which highlight LANDSAT-D project status and ground segment; early access TM processing; LANDSAT-D data acquisition and availability; LANDSAT-D performance characterization; MSS pre-NOAA characterization; MSS radiometric sensor performance (spectral information, absolute calibration, and ground processing); MSS geometric sensor performance; and MSS geometric processing and calibration.

  18. Wheat - Its growth and disease severity as deduced from ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.; Niblett, C. L.; Manges, H.; Lenhert, D.; Newman, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The spectral reflectance of a cropped surface changes as the plant develops. An indicator of crop growth is leaf area index (ratio of green leaf area to soil area). The leaf area index, disease severity, and yield were determined for several winter wheat fields in Kansas during the 1973 growing season. Multispectral scanner (MSS) data from Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 (ERTS-1) showed a high correlation (r greater than or equal to 0.90) between crop growth and MSS4/MSS5, and crop growth and MSS5/MSS6. Wheat disease severity and yields were significantly correlated at the 5% level with MSS4/MSS6 and with MSS4/MSS7. Further investigation is required before ERTS imagery can be routinely used detecting and estimating disease severity and yield reduction.

  19. A comparison between ERS-1, JERS-1, and Radarsat-1 radar satellite imaging systems and Landsat MSS & TM and Spot Optical Satellite Imaging System to detect and monitor mangrove deforestation in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Treesearch

    Mahfud M. Zuhair; Yousif Ali Hussin; Michael Weir

    2000-01-01

    Mangrove forests are one of the primary features of coastal ecosystems throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Mangroves are very sensitive and fragile resources, and the pressures of increasing population, food production, and industrial and urban development have caused a significant proportion of the world's mangroves to be destroyed....

  20. Computer implemented land cover classification using LANDSAT MSS digital data: A cooperative research project between the National Park Service and NASA. 3: Vegetation and other land cover analysis of Shenandoah National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibula, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Four LANDSAT frames, each corresponding to one of the four seasons were spectrally classified and processed using NASA-developed computer programs. One data set was selected or two or more data sets were marged to improve surface cover classifications. Selected areas representing each spectral class were chosen and transferred to USGS 1:62,500 topographic maps for field use. Ground truth data were gathered to verify the accuracy of the classifications. Acreages were computed for each of the land cover types. The application of elevational data to seasonal LANDSAT frames resulted in the separation of high elevation meadows (both with and without recently emergent perennial vegetation) as well as areas in oak forests which have an evergreen understory as opposed to other areas which do not.

  1. Study of the relation between soil use, vegetation coverage, and the discharge of sediments from artificial reservoirs using MSS/LANDSAT images. Example: The Tres Marias reservoir and its supply basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Sausen, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The land use and types of vegetation in the region of the upper Sao Francisco River, Brazil, are identified. This region comprises the supply basin of the Tres Marias reservoir. Imagery from channels 5 and 7 of the LANDSAT multispectral band scanner during wet and rainy seasons and ground truth data were employed to characterize and map the vegetation, land use, and sedimentary discharges from the reservoir. Agricultural and reforested lands, meadows, and forests are identified. Changes in land use due to human activity are demonstrated.

  2. 47 CFR 27.1166 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... due to interference from MSS space-to-Earth downlink operations, but may elect to do so, in which case... governing reimbursement in part 27. MSS reimbursement rights and cost-sharing obligations for space-to-Earth...

  3. 47 CFR 27.1166 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... due to interference from MSS space-to-Earth downlink operations, but may elect to do so, in which case... governing reimbursement in part 27. MSS reimbursement rights and cost-sharing obligations for space-to-Earth...

  4. Shifting Concepts, Changing Contexts: The New Schools' Drive for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupper, Maegen; Millard, Heidi; Lyons, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Seventeen new medical schools were founded in the US and Canada in the decade prior to 2014. These new medical schools continue the tradition of utilizing mission statements (MSs) to convey goals and ideals. The authors aimed to compare these 17 new medical schools' MSs with MSs of previously established medical schools in the US and Canada. The…

  5. Shifting Concepts, Changing Contexts: The New Schools' Drive for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupper, Maegen; Millard, Heidi; Lyons, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Seventeen new medical schools were founded in the US and Canada in the decade prior to 2014. These new medical schools continue the tradition of utilizing mission statements (MSs) to convey goals and ideals. The authors aimed to compare these 17 new medical schools' MSs with MSs of previously established medical schools in the US and Canada. The…

  6. Remote sensing of ocean currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Sea ice is detectable in all of the MSS bands and can be distinguished from clouds through a number of interpretive keys. Overall, MSS-4 and 5 appear to be better for mapping the ice edge, whereas MSS-7 provides greater detail in the ice features.

  7. A Review of Ultrasound Tissue Characterization with Mean Scatterer Spacing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Weiwei; Wu, Shuicai; Jia, Kebin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2017-09-01

    Tissues exhibiting quasi-periodic structures can be modeled as a collection of diffuse scatterers and coherent scatterers. The mean scatterer spacing (MSS) of coherent and quasi-periodic components is directly related to tissue microstructure and has become an important quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameter in the characterization of quasi-periodic tissues. In this paper, a review of the literature on the development of MSS as a QUS parameter was conducted. First, a unified theoretical background of MSS estimates was provided. Then, the application of MSS estimates was summarized with respect to liver, spleen, breast, bone, muscle, and other tissues. MSS estimation techniques were applied to (a) the diagnosis of hepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, and lesions in tissues such as liver, breast, and spleen; (b) the differentiation between benign and malignant breast tumors, and the grading of breast cancer; (c) the detection of cancellous bone; and (d) the monitoring of the efficacy of treatments such as thermal ablation, with various levels of success. Future developments were also discussed in terms of real-time implementation of MSS estimates, local MSS estimation, relationship of MSS to other QUS parameters, combination of MSS with other QUS parameters, in vivo validation of MSS estimates, MSS parametric imaging, and three-dimensional ultrasound tissue characterization.

  8. US domestic and international regulatory issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Lon C.; Nash, Dennis C.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. domestic and international regulatory and policy milestones since 1982, when NASA filed its petition with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to establish the U.S. domestic Mobile Satellite Service (MSS), are described. In 1985, the FCC proposed to establish MSS services and allocate spectrum for such service. In 1986, the FCC allocated L-band spectrum for MSS. In 1987, at the Mobile World Administrative Radio Conference (MOB WARC-87), despite U.S., Canadian, and Mexican efforts, the WARC did not adopt a multi-service, generic MSS allocation. In 1989, the FCC licensed the first MSS system. After two decisions by the U.S. Court of Appeals, the FCC's licensing actions remain intact. The FCC also has permitted Comsat to provide international aeronautical and land MSS via the Inmarsat system. Inmarsat, however, may not serve the domestic U.S. market. In 1991, the FCC accepted applications for MSS systems, most of which were non-geostationary proposals, for operation in the Radiodetermination Satellite Service (RDSS) bands, and the VHF and UHF bands. In 1992, the FCC proposed rules for non-geostationary MSS systems and applied a negotiated rulemaking procedure to each. Also in 1992, the U.S. position for flexibility in existing MSS bands and for additional worldwide MSS allocations was adopted in large part at the 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-92).

  9. Applications of the mobile servicing system to the space exploration initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueckman, J. H.

    This paper provides an analysis by Spar Aerospace of the potential application of the Mobile Servicing System (MSS), developed under the Canadian Space Station Program, to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Initially, an overview of the MSS is provided which outlines the essential functions and elements of the MSS. An overview of the SEI is also provided which summarizes the overall goals and objectives of the initiative. This discussion also outlines the basic SEI missions and summarizes the infrastructure required to support them. The potential applications of the MSS to the SEI are summarized. For each application, the performance capability of the MSS is compared to the expected level of performance required to support the SEI missions. Any areas of potential performance increase are identified and design changes proposed. Finally, the growth capabilities of the MSS are compared to those which may be required to fully support the SEI. The MSS has the potential to play a significant role in the development and operational phases of the SEI. Additional growth capabilities could allow the MSS to play an even greater role, particularly in the areas of transportation and payload handling. MSS technologies are applicable to the systems required for surface operations. The MSS can play an important role in the areas of low earth orbit node construction and assembly, vehicle assembly, integration, and verification, servicing and maintenance, transportation, payload handling, and extra vehicular activity support. The technologies currently being developed for the MSS are applicable for the development of surface robotic systems. In general, the performance capabilities of the MSS, in its baseline Space Station Freedom role, are sufficient to accommodate its potential role on the SEI. However, the expected increases in launch vehicle and spacecraft mass may exceed its payload handling and transportation capabilities. If the MSS is to be utilized on SEI to this

  10. Recent advance in Mean Sea Surface estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, M. I.; Gerald, D.; Claire, D.; Raynal, M.; Faugere, Y.; Picot, N.; Guillot, A.

    2016-12-01

    Gridded Mean Sea Surface (MSS) estimate is an important issue for precise SLA computation along geodetic orbits. Previous studies emphasized that the error from MSS models older than Jason-1 GM was substantial: on average more than 10 to 15% of the SLA variance for wavelengths ranging from 30 to 150 km. Other MSS have been released this last 2 years, and they use geodetic missions such as CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 GM which strongly contribute to improve their resolution and accuracy.We evaluate in this paper the improvements of the recent MSS. This study, mainly based on spectral approach allows us to quantify the errors at various wavelengths. The use of new missions (e.g. SARAL-DP/AltiKa; Sentinel-3A) with low instrumental noise measurement levels (Ka, SAR) opens new perspectives to understand the MSS errors and improve MSS estimate for wavelengths lower than 100km.

  11. Mass storage system experiences and future needs at the National Center for Atmospheric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olear, Bernard T.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation is designed to relate some of the experiences of the Scientific Computing Division at NCAR dealing with the 'data problem'. A brief history and a development of some basic Mass Storage System (MSS) principles are given. An attempt is made to show how these principles apply to the integration of various components into NCAR's MSS. There is discussion of future MSS needs for future computing environments.

  12. On the determination of haze levels from Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. F.; Mendlowitz, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes two methods for determining haze levels (specified by haze optical depth at a wavelength of 0.5 microns) from Landsat multispectral scanner data. The channel correlation method relates the haze level to the y-intercept of the regression line through a plot of the data in the plane of the multispectral channels MSS 4 and MSS 5. The minimum value method relates haze level to the minimum value of individual lines in the MSS 4 data set.

  13. Adolescents' school-related self-concept mediates motor skills and psychosocial well-being.

    PubMed

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Purtsi, Jarno; Tolvanen, Asko; Cantell, Marja

    2014-06-01

    The health benefits of exercise participation and physical activity for mental health and psychosocial well-being (PSWB) have been shown in several studies. However, one important background factor, that is, motor skills (MSs), has largely been ignored. In addition, most of the existing research focuses on poor MSs, that is, poor MSs are often connected to poorer PSWB. The mechanism linking MSs and PSWB is unclear. However, a preliminary suggestion has been made that self-worth or self-perceptions might mediate the association between MSs and PSWB. We investigated whether the self-concepts (SCs) of school-related physical education (SCPE), reading (SCR), and mathematics (SCM) mediate the relationship between MSs and PSWB in adolescence. The study sample consisted of a second-grade female cohort (N = 327), ranging in age between 12 and 16 (years) in a municipality in Central Finland. PSWB was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the school-related SCs by the SC of ability scale adapted for use in Finland. MSs was assessed by a self-reported adolescent version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire. Structural mediator modelling was used to test the associations between MSs and PSWB with SC as a mediator. First, MSs was strongly associated with school-related SCPE and SCM. However, a mediator role was observed only for SCPE, which weakly mediated peer problems. Second, MSs and PSWB, especially conduct problems, showed a very strong direct association. The study suggests that MSs is connected to PSWB in adolescent girls. Enhancement of MSs could be a preventive strategy for supporting PSWB in adolescent girls. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Multispectral scanner system for ERTS: Four band scanner system. Volume 2: Engineering model panoramic pictures and engineering tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This document is Volume 2 of three volumes of the Final Report for the four band Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). The results are contained of an analysis of pictures of actual outdoor scenes imaged by the engineering model MSS for spectral response, resolution, noise, and video correction. Also included are the results of engineering tests on the MSS for reflectance and saturation from clouds. Finally, two panoramic pictures of Yosemite National Park are provided.

  15. Detection of aspen/conifer forest mixes from multitemporal LANDSAT digital data. [Bear River Range, Rocky Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.; Harniss, R. O.

    1983-01-01

    Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data. The digital MSS data were utilized to devise quantitative indices which correlate with apparently stable and seral aspen forests. The extent to which a two-date LANDSAT MSS analysis may permit the delineation of different categories of aspen/conifer forest mix was explored. Multitemporal analyses of MSS data led to the identification of early, early to mid, mid to late, and late seral stages of aspen/conifer forest mixing.

  16. Radiometric correction procedure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colby, C.; Sands, R.; Murphrey, S.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of MSS radiometric processing techniques identified as a preferred radiometric processing technique a procedure which equalizes the mean and standard deviation of detector-specific histograms of uncalibrated scene data. Evaluation of MSS calibration data demonstrated that the relationship between detector responses is essentially linear over the range of intensities typically observed in MSS data, and that the calibration wedge data possess a high degree of temporal stability. An analysis of the preferred radiometric processing technique showed that it could be incorporated into the MDP-MSS system without a major redesign of the system, and with minimal impact on system throughput.

  17. Kansas environmental and resource study: A Great Plains model. Monitoring fresh water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L. (Principal Investigator); Mccauley, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS MSS ratios derived from CCT's are very effective for quantitative detection of suspended solid up to at least 900 ppm. The relatively high inorganic suspended solids, characteristic of midcontinent reservoirs, dominates the reflected energy present in the four MSS bands. Dissolved solids concentrations up to 500 ppm and algal nutrients up to 20 ppm are not detectable. The MSS5/MSS4 ratio may be weakly correlated with total chlorophyll above approximately 8 micrograms/liter.

  18. Meniere's, migraine, and motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Golding, John F; Patel, Mitesh

    2017-05-01

    Elevated Motion Sickness Susceptibility (MSS) in Meniere?s disease (MD) is likely to be a consequence of the onset of MD and not migraine per se. Pathologies of the vestibular system influence MSS. Bilateral vestibular deficits lower MSS, vestibular neuritis or benign paroxysmal positional vertigo have little overall effect, whereas vestibular migraine elevates MSS. However, less is known about MSS in MD, a condition in which many patients experience vestibular loss and migraine symptoms. The authors conducted an online survey that posed diagnostic and disease questions before addressing frequency of headaches, migraines, visual display dizziness (VDD), syncope, social life, and work impact of dizziness (SWID4) and motion sickness susceptibility (MSSQ). The two groups were: diagnosed MD individuals with hearing loss (n = 751) and non-MD individuals in the control group (n = 400). The MD group showed significantly elevated MSS, more headache and migraine, increased VDD, higher SWID4 scores, and increased syncope. MSS was higher in MD than controls only after the development of MD, but not before, nor in childhood. Although elevated in MD compared with controls, MSS was lower than migraine patients from past data. Multivariate analysis revealed VDD, SWID4, and MSS in adulthood as the strongest predictors of MD, but not headache nor migraine.

  19. Proceedings of the Mobile Satellite Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafferty, William

    1988-01-01

    A satellite-based mobile communications system provides voice and data communications to mobile users over a vast geographic area. The technical and service characteristics of mobile satellite systems (MSSs) are presented and form an in-depth view of the current MSS status at the system and subsystem levels. Major emphasis is placed on developments, current and future, in the following critical MSS technology areas: vehicle antennas, networking, modulation and coding, speech compression, channel characterization, space segment technology and MSS experiments. Also, the mobile satellite communications needs of government agencies are addressed, as is the MSS potential to fulfill them.

  20. Shifting concepts, changing contexts: the new schools' drive for change.

    PubMed

    Dupper, Maegen; Millard, Heidi; Lyons, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Seventeen new medical schools were founded in the US and Canada in the decade prior to 2014. These new medical schools continue the tradition of utilizing mission statements (MSs) to convey goals and ideals. The authors aimed to compare these 17 new medical schools' MSs with MSs of previously established medical schools in the US and Canada. The MSs of the 17 newest medical schools were processed and analyzed utilizing network text analysis software that assessed centrality of concepts within new medical schools' MSs. This semantic network data was then compared to existing similar analysis by Grbic et al. (Acad Med 88(6):852-860, 2013. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31828f603d ). Four concepts were found to be more central in new medical schools' MSs as compared to established medical schools' MSs: "physicians," "improve," "diversity," and "innovation." Grbic et al. found four concepts to be central to all 132 medical schools "health" or "health_care," "research," "education," and "premier" which are shared top themes of the new medical schools' MSs. The author's analysis has demonstrated that new medical schools, as compared to previously established subsets of medical schools, developed both shared and unique language within their MSs. This unique vocabulary reflected a response to a dynamic healthcare environment during the decade of new medical school development. New medical schools may have responded to environmental challenges including a physician shortage while also recognizing the need for a diverse physician workforce prepared to apply innovative strategies to healthcare.

  1. Using the solar elevation angle and radiance conversion to normalize forest spectral signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Lu, Y.-C.

    1984-01-01

    A number of spectral signals associated with forest cover were selected in order to test the usefulness of adjustments to Landsat MSS digital count values. The signatures were taken from 26 independent regional land cover inventories in the northeastern US. A regression analysis was conducted which revealed a significant relationship between digital count values and variation in the solar elevation angles in MSS bands four, six, and seven for deciduous forests and in all MSS bands for conifers. When signatures were adjusted for solar elevation angles and MSS sensor calibration differences, the dependence on solar elevation angle was reduced. The adjustments also significantly reduced the variance with Level II forest categories among scenes.

  2. Ascorbic acid, β-carotene, sugars, phenols, and heavy metals in sweet potatoes grown in soil fertilized with municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Dennis, Sam O; Unrine, Jason M; Snyder, John C

    2011-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (MSS) used for land farming typically contains heavy metals that might impact crop quality and human health. A completely randomized experimental design with three treatments (six replicates each) was used to monitor the impact of mixing native soil with MSS or yard waste (YW) mixed with MSS (YW +MSS) on: i) sweet potato yield and quality; ii) concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) in sweet potato plant parts (edible roots, leaves, stem, and feeder roots); and iii) concentrations of ascorbic acid, total phenols, free sugars, and β-carotene in sweet potato edible roots at harvest. Soil samples were collected and analyzed for total and extractable metals using two extraction procedures, concentrated nitric acid (to extract total metals from soil) as well as CaCl₂ solution (to extract soluble metals in soil that are available to plants), respectively. Elemental analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Overall, plant available metals were greater in soils amended with MSS compared to control plots. Concentration of Pb was greater in YW than MSS amendments. Total concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Cr were greater in plants grown in MSS+YW treatments compared to control plants. MSS+YW treatments increased sweet potato yield, ascorbic acid, soluble sugars, and phenols in edible roots by 53, 28, 27, and 48%, respectively compared to plants grown in native soil. B-carotene concentration (157.5 μg g⁻¹ fresh weight) was greater in the roots of plants grown in MSS compared to roots of plants grown in MSS+YW treatments (99.9 μg g⁻¹ fresh weight). Concentration of heavy metals in MSS-amended soil and in sweet potato roots were below their respective permissible limits.

  3. Musculoskeletal symptoms associated with posterior load carriage: An assessment of manual material handling workers in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Muslim, Khoirul; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2015-06-05

    Concerns have been raised regarding the high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) among manual material handling (MMH) workers. However, limited investigations have been undertaken among one large group of workers using a particular MMH method called posterior load carriage (PLC). This is typically done without the use of a backpack in developing countries, and involves exposure to known risk factors for MSS such as heavy loads, non-neutral postures, and high levels of repetition. To 1) determine the types and prevalence of MSS among PLC workers and the impacts of these MSS on workers, 2) explore job demands potentially contributing to MSS, and (3) obtain input from workers regarding possible improvements to facilitate future interventions. Structured interview applied to 108 workers to assess PLC worker characteristics and job demands in eight cities in Indonesia. MSS were reported in all anatomical regions evaluated, with symptoms most commonly reported at the lower back (72.2%), feet (69.4%), knees (64%), shoulders (47.2%), and neck (41.7%). Logistic regression indicated that MSS in the lower back were associated with longer work hours/day, MSS in the hands were associated with load mass, and MSS in the ankles/feet were associated with stature and load carriage frequency. MSS were reported to interfere with daily activity, but only few workers sought medical treatment. Possible improvements included the use of a belt, hook, or backpack/frame, and changes in the carriage method. The study suggests that PLC workers incur a relatively high MSS burden. Future studies are needed to develop and evaluate practical interventions and specific guidelines to improve working conditions and occupational health and safety for PLC workers.

  4. Improving the Arctic Mean Sea Surface with CryoSat-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenseng, L.; Andersen, O. B.

    2013-12-01

    A fundamental basis for estimating short and long-term changes in the sea surface is a reliable mean sea surface (MSS). Existing MSS models, derived from satellite radar altimetry, generally lack observations above 82 degrees latitude making high Arctic sea surface change estimates unreliable. Most current MSS models use ICESat data, geoid models, ocean circulation models, or a combination of these to extrapolate the MSS above 82 degrees latitude. This approach makes the MSS models unsuited for deriving sea surface anomalies from short-term observations like airborne campaigns (e.g. operation IceBridge). The new state of the art DTU13MSS is a global high-resolution MSS that includes retracked CryoSat-2 data and thereby extends the polar data coverage up to 88 degrees latitude. Furthermore, in the sea-ice covered areas, the SAR and SARin feature of the altimeter on-board CryoSat-2 increases the amount of useable observations dramatically compared to conventional altimeters like ENVISAT and ERS-1/2. Finally the continuous time-series, below 82 degrees latitude, has been extended to cover more than 20 years compared to the 17 years use for the DTU10MSS model. A comparison between DTU13MSS and DTU10MSS show an improvement of more than 20 cm between 82 and 88 degrees latitude. For the first time the three years of retracked CryoSat-2 data will, in combination with DTU13MSS, allow reliable estimation of the trend and annual variations in the high Arctic Ocean sea surface height.

  5. A simplified approach to estimating the maximal lactate steady state.

    PubMed

    Snyder, A C; Woulfe, T; Welsh, R; Foster, C

    1994-01-01

    The exercise intensity associated with an elevated but stable blood lactate (HLa) concentration during constant load work (the maximal steady state, MSS) has received attention as a candidate for the "optimal" exercise intensity for endurance training. Identification of MSS ordinarily demands direct measurement of HLa or respiratory metabolism. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of heart rate (HR) to identify MSS during steady state exercise, similar to that used in conventional exercise prescription. Trained runners (n = 9) and cyclists (n = 12) performed incremental and steady state exercise. MSS was defined as the highest intensity in which blood lactate concentration increased < 1.0 mM from minutes 10 to 30. The next higher intensity workbout completed was defined as > MSS. HR models related to the presence or absence of steady state conditions were developed from the upper 95% confidence interval of MSS and the lower 95% confidence interval of > MSS. Cross validation of the model to predict MSS was performed using 21 running and 45 cycling exercise bouts in a separate group. Using the MSS upper 95% confidence interval model 84% and 76% of workbouts were correctly predicted in cyclists and runners, respectively. Using the > MSS lower 95% confidence interval model, 76% and 81% of workbouts were correctly predicted in cyclists and runners, respectively. Prediction errors tended to incorrectly predict non-steady state conditions when steady state had occurred (16/26) (62%). We conclude that use of these simple HR models may predict MSS with sufficient accuracy to be useful when direct HLa measurement is not available.

  6. Application of satellite photographic and MSS data to selected geologic and natural resource problems in Pennsylvania. 1: Lineaments and mineral occurrences in Pennsylvania. 2: Relation of lineaments to sulfide deposits: Bald Eagle Mountain, Centre County, Pennsylvania. 3: Comparison of Skylab and LANDSAT lineaments with joint orientations in north central Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalik, W. S.; Gold, D. P.; Krohn, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    Those metallic mineral occurrences in Pennsylvania are reported which lie near lineaments mapped from LANDSAT-1 satellite imagery and verified from Skylab photography where available. The lineaments were categorized by degree of expression and type of expression; the mineral occurrences were classified by host rock age, mineralization type, and value. The accompanying tables and figure document the mineral occurrences geographically associated with lineaments and serve as a base for a mineral exploration model.

  7. Application of satellite photographic and MSS data to selected geologic and natural resource problems in Pennsylvania. 1: Lineaments and mineral occurrences in Pennsylvania. 2: Relation of lineaments to sulfide deposits: Bald Eagle Mountain, Centre County, Pennsylvania. 3: Comparison of Skylab and LANDSAT lineaments with joint orientations in north central Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalik, W. S.; Gold, D. P.; Krohn, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    Those metallic mineral occurrences in Pennsylvania are reported which lie near lineaments mapped from LANDSAT-1 satellite imagery and verified from Skylab photography where available. The lineaments were categorized by degree of expression and type of expression; the mineral occurrences were classified by host rock age, mineralization type, and value. The accompanying tables and figure document the mineral occurrences geographically associated with lineaments and serve as a base for a mineral exploration model.

  8. Regenerative fuel cell study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1972-01-01

    The completion of the study is reported for the regenerative fuel cell subsystem (RFCS) as an energy storage process for use aboard the space shuttle launched modular space station (MSS). The MSS mission requirements, and RFCS are discussed, and a comparison between RFCS and a nickel cadmium battery subsystem is presented. Development costs are also discussed.

  9. Exploring Motivational Profiles through Language Learning Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Vásquez, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the language learning narratives of 3 NNS foreign language teachers. It uses as a theoretical framework the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) (Dörnyei, 2009) but adds the dimension of psychological reactance (Brehm, 1966). Our findings indicate that the L2MSS underestimates the relationship between "I" and…

  10. Altimetry data and the elastic stress tensor of subduction zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caputo, Michele

    1987-01-01

    The maximum shear stress (mss) field due to mass anomalies is estimated in the Apennines, the Kermadec-Tonga Trench, and the Rio Grande Rift areas and the results for each area are compared to observed seismicity. A maximum mss of 420 bar was calculated in the Kermadec-Tonga Trench region at a depth of 28 km. Two additional zones with more than 300 bar mss were also observed in the Kermadec-Tonga Trench study. Comparison of the calculated mss field with the observed seismicity in the Kermadec-Tonga showed two zones of well correlated activity. The Rio Grande Rift results showed a maximum mss of 700 bar occurring east of the rift and at a depth of 6 km. Recorded seismicity in the region was primarily constrained to a depth of approximately 5 km, correlating well to the results of the stress calculations. Two areas of high mss are found in the Apennine region: 120 bar at a depth of 55 km, and 149 bar at the surface. Seismic events observed in the Apennine area compare favorably with the mss field calculated, exhibiting two zones of activity. The case of loading by seamounts and icecaps are also simulated. Results for this study show that the mss reaches a maximum of about 1/3 that of the applied surface stress for both cases, and is located at a depth related to the diameter of the surface mass anomaly.

  11. Milwaukee shoulder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Channa Vasanth; Weichert, Immo

    2014-01-01

    Milwaukee shoulder syndrome (MSS) is a rare destructive, calcium phosphate crystalline arthropathy. It encompasses an effusion that is noninflammatory with numerous aggregates of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in the synovial fluid, associated with rotator cuff defects. We describe a patient that presented with recurrent shoulder pain and swelling with characteristic radiographic changes and MSS was confirmed on aspiration of the synovial fluid.

  12. 47 CFR 25.149 - Application requirements for ancillary terrestrial components in the mobile-satellite service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Policy Act of 1969, including the guidelines for human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields... bands, MSS ATC is limited to no more than 7.775 MHz of spectrum in the L-band and 11.5 MHz of spectrum... that the MSS ATC service is consistent with its ATC authority. (g) Spectrum leasing. Leasing...

  13. 47 CFR 25.149 - Application requirements for ancillary terrestrial components in the mobile-satellite service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Policy Act of 1969, including the guidelines for human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields... bands, MSS ATC is limited to no more than 7.775 MHz of spectrum in the L-band and 11.5 MHz of spectrum... that the MSS ATC service is consistent with its ATC authority. (g) Spectrum leasing. Leasing...

  14. Performance of a family of omni and steered antennas for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, K.; Huang, J.; Jamnejad, V.; Bell, D.; Berner, J.; Estabrook, P.; Densmore, A.

    1990-01-01

    The design and performance of a family of vehicle antennas developed at JPL in support of an emerging US Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) system are described. Test results of the antennas are presented. Trends for future development are addressed. Recommendations on design approaches for vehicle antennas of the first generation MSS are discussed.

  15. Cytotoxicity, interaction with dentine and efficacy on multispecies biofilms of a modified salt solution intended for endodontic disinfection in a new in vitro biofilm model.

    PubMed

    van der Waal, S V; Scheres, N; de Soet, J J; Wesselink, P R; Crielaard, W

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the cytotoxicity of a modified salt solution (MSS) and evaluate the antimicrobial properties of MSS on in vitro biofilm models. In a metabolic assay, fibroblasts derived from periodontal ligaments (PDL) of human extracted teeth were cultured and challenged with MSS or controls. Then, in active attachment biofilm models, the efficacy of MSS in the presence of dentine powder and in eliminating mature biofilms was investigated. In the dentine assay, a biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis was employed. For the final assay, microorganisms were retrieved from infected root canals and cultured to produce biofilms. After the treatments with MSS or the controls, the biofilms were collected, serially diluted and plated. The colony-forming units were counted. One-way anova was used to analyse the differences between the groups. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. The PDL fibroblasts remained metabolically active after challenges with MSS. Dentine powder did not alter the efficacy of MSS (P > 0.05). In endodontic biofilms, the culturable bacteria were equally reduced by MSS, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) or 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (P > 0.05). Modified salt solution is noncytotoxic in vitro and has good antimicrobial properties equal to CHX and NaOCl. Although the results are promising, ex vivo and in vivo studies are needed before its use as an interappointment root canal dressing can be considered. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Milwaukee Shoulder Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Hale; Pomeranz, Stephen J

    Milwaukee shoulder syndrome (MSS) is a rare, rapidly destructive arthropathy associated with calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition. This condition is a combination of rotator cuff tear, osteoarthritic changes, noninflammatory joint effusion containing crystals, synovial hyperplasia, cartilage and subchondral bone destruction, and multiple osteochondral loose bodies. This article discusses pathophysiology, clinical presentation, differential considerations, and magnetic resonance imaging findings of MSS.

  17. Adolescents' School-Related Self-Concept Mediates Motor Skills and Psychosocial Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Purtsi, Jarno; Tolvanen, Asko; Cantell, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Background: The health benefits of exercise participation and physical activity for mental health and psychosocial well-being (PSWB) have been shown in several studies. However, one important background factor, that is, motor skills (MSs), has largely been ignored. In addition, most of the existing research focuses on poor MSs, that is, poor MSs…

  18. Unique insights into the intestinal absorption, transit, and subsequent biodistribution of polymer-derived microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Reineke, Joshua J.; Cho, Daniel Y.; Dingle, Yu-Ting; Morello, A. Peter; Jacob, Jules; Thanos, Christopher G.; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric microspheres (MSs) have received attention for their potential to improve the delivery of drugs with poor oral bioavailability. Although MSs can be absorbed into the absorptive epithelium of the small intestine, little is known about the physiologic mechanisms that are responsible for their cellular trafficking. In these experiments, nonbiodegradable polystyrene MSs (diameter range: 500 nm to 5 µm) were delivered locally to the jejunum or ileum or by oral administration to young male rats. Following administration, MSs were taken up rapidly (≤5 min) by the small intestine and were detected by transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed that polymer was present in all tissue samples, including the brain. These results confirm that MSs (diameter range: 500 nm to 5 µm) were absorbed by the small intestine and distributed throughout the rat. After delivering MSs to the jejunum or ileum, high concentrations of polystyrene were detected in the liver, kidneys, and lungs. The pharmacologic inhibitors chlorpromazine, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and cytochalasin D caused a reduction in the total number of MSs absorbed in the jejunum and ileum, demonstrating that nonphagocytic processes (including endocytosis) direct the uptake of MSs in the small intestine. These results challenge the convention that phagocytic cells such as the microfold cells solely facilitate MS absorption in the small intestine. PMID:23922388

  19. Unique insights into the intestinal absorption, transit, and subsequent biodistribution of polymer-derived microspheres.

    PubMed

    Reineke, Joshua J; Cho, Daniel Y; Dingle, Yu-Ting; Morello, A Peter; Jacob, Jules; Thanos, Christopher G; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2013-08-20

    Polymeric microspheres (MSs) have received attention for their potential to improve the delivery of drugs with poor oral bioavailability. Although MSs can be absorbed into the absorptive epithelium of the small intestine, little is known about the physiologic mechanisms that are responsible for their cellular trafficking. In these experiments, nonbiodegradable polystyrene MSs (diameter range: 500 nm to 5 µm) were delivered locally to the jejunum or ileum or by oral administration to young male rats. Following administration, MSs were taken up rapidly (≤ 5 min) by the small intestine and were detected by transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed that polymer was present in all tissue samples, including the brain. These results confirm that MSs (diameter range: 500 nm to 5 µm) were absorbed by the small intestine and distributed throughout the rat. After delivering MSs to the jejunum or ileum, high concentrations of polystyrene were detected in the liver, kidneys, and lungs. The pharmacologic inhibitors chlorpromazine, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and cytochalasin D caused a reduction in the total number of MSs absorbed in the jejunum and ileum, demonstrating that nonphagocytic processes (including endocytosis) direct the uptake of MSs in the small intestine. These results challenge the convention that phagocytic cells such as the microfold cells solely facilitate MS absorption in the small intestine.

  20. Exploring Motivational Profiles through Language Learning Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Vásquez, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the language learning narratives of 3 NNS foreign language teachers. It uses as a theoretical framework the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) (Dörnyei, 2009) but adds the dimension of psychological reactance (Brehm, 1966). Our findings indicate that the L2MSS underestimates the relationship between "I" and…

  1. 47 CFR 101.82 - Reimbursement and relocation expenses in the 2110-2150 MHz and 2160-2200 MHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... between AWS and MSS (space-to-Earth downlink). Whenever an ET licensee (AWS or Mobile Satellite Service for space-to-Earth downlink in the 2130-2150 or 2180-2200 MHz bands) relocates an incumbent paired... section from any other AWS licensee or MSS space-to-Earth downlink operator which would have been...

  2. 47 CFR 101.82 - Reimbursement and relocation expenses in the 2110-2150 MHz and 2160-2200 MHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... between AWS and MSS (space-to-Earth downlink). Whenever an ET licensee (AWS or Mobile Satellite Service for space-to-Earth downlink in the 2130-2150 or 2180-2200 MHz bands) relocates an incumbent paired... section from any other AWS licensee or MSS space-to-Earth downlink operator which would have been...

  3. 47 CFR 27.1168 - Triggering a Reimbursement Obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the 2110-2150 Mhz and 2160-2200 Mhz Bands § 27.1168 Triggering... relocator, MSS relocator (including MSS/ATC), or a voluntarily relocating microwave incumbent in accordance with the formula detailed in § 27.1164: (1) All or part of the relocated microwave link was...

  4. 47 CFR 101.82 - Reimbursement and relocation expenses in the 2110-2150 MHz and 2160-2200 MHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... between AWS and MSS (space-to-Earth downlink). Whenever an ET licensee (AWS or Mobile Satellite Service for space-to-Earth downlink in the 2130-2150 or 2180-2200 MHz bands) relocates an incumbent paired... section from any other AWS licensee or MSS space-to-Earth downlink operator which would have been required...

  5. 47 CFR 25.254 - Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 1610-1626.5 MHz/2483.5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: The preceding rules of § 25.254 are based on cdma2000 and IS-95 system architecture. To the extent that a Big LEO MSS licensee is able to demonstrate that the use of different system architectures would... section, an MSS licensee is permitted to apply for ATC authorization based on another system architecture. ...

  6. 47 CFR 25.253 - Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 1626.5-1660.5 MHz/1525...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical... there is no other L-Band MSS satellite making use of that band segment within the visible portion of the... preemptive access to the L-band MSS spectrum by the aeronautical mobile-satellite en-route service (AMS(R)S...

  7. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of First Trimester Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening for Fetal Trisomies in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Brandon S.; Nelson, Richard E.; Jackson, Brian R.; Grenache, David G.; Ashwood, Edward R.; Schmidt, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is a relatively new technology for diagnosis of fetal aneuploidies. NIPT is more accurate than conventional maternal serum screening (MSS) but is also more costly. Contingent NIPT may provide a cost-effective alternative to universal NIPT screening. Contingent screening used a two-stage process in which risk is assessed by MSS in the first stage and, based on a risk cutoff, high-risk pregnancies are referred for NIPT. The objective of this study was to (1) determine the optimum MSS risk cutoff for contingent NIPT and (2) compare the cost effectiveness of optimized contingent NIPT to universal NIPT and conventional MSS. Study Design Decision-analytic model using micro-simulation and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. We evaluated cost effectiveness from three perspectives: societal, governmental, and payer. Results From a societal perspective, universal NIPT dominated both contingent NIPT and MSS. From a government and payer perspective, contingent NIPT dominated MSS. Compared to contingent NIPT, adopting a universal NIPT would cost $203,088 for each additional case detected from a government perspective and $263,922 for each additional case detected from a payer perspective. Conclusions From a societal perspective, universal NIPT is a cost-effective alternative to MSS and contingent NIPT. When viewed from narrower perspectives, contingent NIPT is less costly than universal NIPT and provides a cost-effective alternative to MSS. PMID:26133556

  8. The L2 Motivational Self System and L2 Achievement: A Study of Saudi EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovsky, Christo; Assulaimani, Turki; Racheva, Silvia; Harkins, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this article explores the relationship between Dörnyei's (2005, 2009) Second Language Motivational Self System (L2MSS) and the L2 proficiency level of Saudi learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Male and female participants (N = 360) responded to a questionnaire relating to the main components of L2MSS, the…

  9. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix C: Partially processed multispectral scanner high density tape (HDT-AM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    The format of high density tapes which contain partially processed LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT D prime MSS image data is defined. This format is based on and is compatible with the existing format for partially processed LANDSAT 3 MSS image data HDTs.

  10. Remote reconnaissance of submerged aquatic vegetation: A radiative transfer approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of LANDSAT TM and MSS sensors for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) is assessed. The problem is approached from a theoretical standpoint in which volume reflectance from SAV under a variety of conditions is simulated. The focus is on the spectral and radiometric qualities of TM bands 1, 2 and 3 and MSS bands 4 and 5.

  11. Polluted and turbid water masses in Osaka Bay and its vicinity revealed with ERTS-A imageries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, K.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 took very valuable MSS imageries of Osaka Bay and its vicinity on October 24, 1972. In the MSS-4 and MSS-5 imageries a complex grey pattern of water masses can be seen. Though some of grey colored patterns seen in black and white prints of the MSS-4 and MSS-5 imageries are easily identified from their shapes as cloud covers or polluted water masses characterized by their color tone in longer wavelengths in the visible region, any correct distribution pattern of polluted or turbid water masses can be hardly detected separately from thin cloud covers in a quick look analysis. In the present investigation, a simple photographic technique was applied using the fact that reflected sun light from cloud including smog and inclined water surfaces of wave have a certain component in the near infrared region, that MSS-7, whereas the light scattered from fine materials suspended in the sea water has nearly no component sensible in MSS-4 and MSS-5 channels.

  12. TESTING AT NREL OF THE MINIPILOT SOLAR SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE THERMAL DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A minipilot solar system (MSS) was built at MRI, transported to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and tested at NREL's high flux solar furnace. The MSS involved combustion of a liquid feed in a combustion reactor equipped with a quartz window at one end for solar i...

  13. Adolescents' School-Related Self-Concept Mediates Motor Skills and Psychosocial Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Purtsi, Jarno; Tolvanen, Asko; Cantell, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Background: The health benefits of exercise participation and physical activity for mental health and psychosocial well-being (PSWB) have been shown in several studies. However, one important background factor, that is, motor skills (MSs), has largely been ignored. In addition, most of the existing research focuses on poor MSs, that is, poor MSs…

  14. Aberrant DNA Methylation in Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer without Mismatch Repair Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ajay; Xicola, Rosa M.; Nguyen, Thuy-Phuong; Doyle, Brian J; Sohn, Vanessa R.; Bandipalliam, Prathap; Reyes, Josep; Cordero, Carmen; Balaguer, Francesc; Castells, Antoni; Jover, Rodrigo; Andreu, Montserrat; Syngal, Sapna; Boland, C. Richard; Llor, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Approximately half of the families that fulfill Amsterdam criteria for Lynch syndrome or hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) do not have evidence of the germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations that define this syndrome and result in microsatellite instability. The carcinogenic pathways and the best diagnostic approaches to detect microsatellite stable (MSS) HNPCC tumors are unclear. We investigated the contribution of epigenetic alterations to development of MSS HNPCC tumors. Methods Colorectal cancers were divided in four groups: 1. Microsatellite stable, Amsterdam positive (MSS HNPCC) (N=22); 2. Lynch syndrome cancers (identified mismatch repair mutations) (N=21); 3. Sporadic MSS (N=92); 4. Sporadic MSI (N=46). Methylation status was evaluated for CACNAG1, SOCS1, RUNX3, NEUROG1, MLH1, and LINE-1. KRAS and BRAF mutations status was analyzed. Results MSS HNPCC tumors displayed a significantly lower degree of LINE-1 methylation, marker for global methylation, than any other group. Whereas most MSS HNPCC tumors had some degree of CpG island methylation, none presented a high index of methylation. MSS HNPCC tumors had KRAS mutations exclusively in codon 12, but none harbored V600E BRAF mutations. Conclusions Tumors from Amsterdam-positive patients without mismatch repair deficiency (MSS HNPCC) have certain molecular features, including global hypomethylation that distinguish them from all other colorectal cancers. These characteristics could have an important impact on tumor behavior or treatment response. Studies are underway to further assess the cause and effects of these features. PMID:20102720

  15. The L2 Motivational Self System and L2 Achievement: A Study of Saudi EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovsky, Christo; Assulaimani, Turki; Racheva, Silvia; Harkins, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this article explores the relationship between Dörnyei's (2005, 2009) Second Language Motivational Self System (L2MSS) and the L2 proficiency level of Saudi learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Male and female participants (N = 360) responded to a questionnaire relating to the main components of L2MSS, the…

  16. TESTING AT NREL OF THE MINIPILOT SOLAR SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE THERMAL DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A minipilot solar system (MSS) was built at MRI, transported to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and tested at NREL's high flux solar furnace. The MSS involved combustion of a liquid feed in a combustion reactor equipped with a quartz window at one end for solar i...

  17. Using a high biomass plant Pennisetum hydridum to phyto-treat fresh municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Hei, Liang; Lee, Charles C C; Wang, Hui; Lin, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Wu, Qi-Tang

    2016-10-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the use of a high biomass plant, Pennisetum hydridum, to treat municipal sewage sludge (MSS). An experiment composed of plots with four treatments, soil, fresh sludge, soil-sludge mixture and phyto-treated sludge, was conducted. It showed that the plant could not survive directly in fresh MSS when cultivated from stem cuttings. The experiment transplanting the incubated cutting with nurse medium of P. hydridum in soil and fresh MSS, showed that the plants grew normally in fresh MSS. The pilot experiment of P. hydridum and Alocasia macrorrhiza showed that the total yield and nutrient amount of P. hydridum were 9.2 times and 3.6 times more than that of A. macrorrhiza. After plant treatment, MSS was dried, stabilized and suitable to be landfilled or incinerated, with a calorific value of about 5.6MJ/kg (compared to the initial value of 1.9MJ/kg fresh sludge).

  18. Wheat: Its water use, production and disease detection and prediction. [Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T. (Principal Investigator); Lenhert, D.; Niblett, C.; Manges, H.; Eversmeyer, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Discussed in this report are: (1) the effects of wheat disease on water use and yield; and (2) the use of ERTS-1 imagery in the evaluation of wheat growth and in the detection of disease severity. Leaf area index was linearly correlated with ratios MSS4:MSS5 and MSS5:MSS6. In an area of severe wheat streak mosaic virus infected fields, correlations of ERTS-1 digital counts with wheat yields and disease severity levels were significant at the 5% level for MSS bands 4 and 5 and band ratios 4/6 and 4/7. Data collection platforms were used to gather meteorological data for the early prediction of rust severity and economic loss.

  19. Study to define points of entry for potential contaminants in limestone aquifers. [in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    Visual examinations of both prints and transparencies from ERTS 1 and U-2 aircraft imagery provided a method for discovering possible points of entry of potential contaminants into the limestone aquifer in Madison County, Alabama. Knowledge of the locations at which contaminants could enter the aquifer is an important consideration in water quality management, particularly for regions that depend, at least partially, on ground water for their water supply. ERTS 1 imagery recorded on December 28, 1972 in the Multispectral Scanner-5 (MSS-5) and MSS-7 bands, and a false-color composite of the MSS-4 (green), MSS-5 (red), and MSS-7 (near infrared) bands were the principal materials used, along with thermography recorded by an RS-7 infrared scanner onboard a U-2 aircraft. The results of the study are discussed in detail, providing information on prominent lineations and major fracture trends which are related to aquifer contamination. Maps depicting the observations are also presented.

  20. Maternal serum screening and psychosocial attachment to pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Karen L; Turriff-Jonasson, Shelley I

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether maternal serum screening (MSS) is associated with lower maternal attachment to pregnancy. One hundred one pregnant women identified as at risk for fetal anomaly due to advanced maternal age completed a survey targeting their decisions regarding prenatal testing and their psychological attachment to their pregnancy. Of these women, 38 opted for no prenatal testing, 32 underwent MSS, and 31 had amniocentesis in their current pregnancy. The results indicate that, throughout their pregnancy, the women who underwent MSS reported lower bonding levels as compared with those who chose either amniocentesis or no testing procedures. The results suggest that MSS may disrupt the developmental trajectory of the maternal-fetal bond even after favorable results are known. This may be due in part to the fact that the probabilistic nature of MSS results creates feelings of confusion rather than reassurance for many women following receipt of favorable results.

  1. A behavioral rehabilitation intervention for amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Greenaway, Melanie C.; Hanna, Sherrie M.; Lepore, Susan W.; Smith, Glenn E.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) currently have few treatment options for combating their memory loss. The Memory Support System (MSS) is a calendar and organization system with accompanying 6-week curriculum designed for individuals with progressive memory impairment. Ability to learn the MSS and its utility were assessed in 20 participants. Participants were significantly more likely to successfully use the calendar system after training. Ninety-five percent were compliant with the MSS at training completion, and 89% continued to be compliant at follow-up. Outcome measures revealed a medium effect size for improvement in functional ability. Subjects further reported improved independence, self-confidence, and mood. This initial examination of the MSS suggests that with appropriate training, individuals with amnestic MCI can and will use a memory notebook system to help compensate for memory loss. These results are encouraging that the MSS may help with the symptoms of memory decline in MCI. PMID:18955724

  2. Geometric analysis and restitution of digital multispectral scanner data arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. R.; Mikhail, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to define causes of geometric defects within digital multispectral scanner (MSS) data arrays, to analyze the resulting geometric errors, and to investigate restitution methods to correct or reduce these errors. Geometric transformation relationships for scanned data, from which collinearity equations may be derived, served as the basis of parametric methods of analysis and restitution of MSS digital data arrays. The linearization of these collinearity equations is presented. Algorithms considered for use in analysis and restitution included the MSS collinearity equations, piecewise polynomials based on linearized collinearity equations, and nonparametric algorithms. A proposed system for geometric analysis and restitution of MSS digital data arrays was used to evaluate these algorithms, utilizing actual MSS data arrays. It was shown that collinearity equations and nonparametric algorithms both yield acceptable results, but nonparametric algorithms possess definite advantages in computational efficiency. Piecewise polynomials were found to yield inferior results.

  3. SAR/LANDSAT image registration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphrey, S. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Temporal registration of synthetic aperture radar data with LANDSAT-MSS data is both feasible (from a technical standpoint) and useful (from an information-content viewpoint). The greatest difficulty in registering aircraft SAR data to corrected LANDSAT-MSS data is control-point location. The differences in SAR and MSS data impact the selection of features that will serve as a good control points. The SAR and MSS data are unsuitable for automatic computer correlation of digital control-point data. The gray-level data can not be compared by the computer because of the different response characteristics of the MSS and SAR images.

  4. Controlled delivery of tauroursodeoxycholic acid from biodegradable microspheres slows retinal degeneration and vision loss in P23H rats.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Bravo-Osuna, Irene; Lax, Pedro; Arranz-Romera, Alicia; Maneu, Victoria; Esteban-Pérez, Sergio; Pinilla, Isabel; Puebla-González, María Del Mar; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    Successful drug therapies for treating ocular diseases require effective concentrations of neuroprotective compounds maintained over time at the site of action. The purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of intravitreal controlled delivery of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) encapsulated in poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres for the treatment of the retina in a rat model of retinitis pigmentosa. PLGA microspheres (MSs) containing TUDCA were produced by the O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Particle size and morphology were assessed by light scattering and scanning electronic microscopy, respectively. Homozygous P23H line 3 rats received a treatment of intravitreal injections of TUDCA-PLGA MSs. Retinal function was assessed by electroretinography at P30, P60, P90 and P120. The density, structure and synaptic contacts of retinal neurons were analyzed using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy at P90 and P120. TUDCA-loaded PLGA MSs were spherical, with a smooth surface. The production yield was 78%, the MSs mean particle size was 23 μm and the drug loading resulted 12.5 ± 0.8 μg TUDCA/mg MSs. MSs were able to deliver the loaded active compound in a gradual and progressive manner over the 28-day in vitro release study. Scotopic electroretinografic responses showed increased ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes in TUDCA-PLGA-MSs-treated eyes as compared to those injected with unloaded PLGA particles. TUDCA-PLGA-MSs-treated eyes showed more photoreceptor rows than controls. The synaptic contacts of photoreceptors with bipolar and horizontal cells were also preserved in P23H rats treated with TUDCA-PLGA MSs. This work indicates that the slow and continuous delivery of TUDCA from PLGA-MSs has potential neuroprotective effects that could constitute a suitable therapy to prevent neurodegeneration and visual loss in retinitis pigmentosa.

  5. Controlled delivery of tauroursodeoxycholic acid from biodegradable microspheres slows retinal degeneration and vision loss in P23H rats

    PubMed Central

    Lax, Pedro; Arranz-Romera, Alicia; Maneu, Victoria; Esteban-Pérez, Sergio; Pinilla, Isabel; Puebla-González, María del Mar; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío

    2017-01-01

    Successful drug therapies for treating ocular diseases require effective concentrations of neuroprotective compounds maintained over time at the site of action. The purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of intravitreal controlled delivery of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) encapsulated in poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres for the treatment of the retina in a rat model of retinitis pigmentosa. PLGA microspheres (MSs) containing TUDCA were produced by the O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Particle size and morphology were assessed by light scattering and scanning electronic microscopy, respectively. Homozygous P23H line 3 rats received a treatment of intravitreal injections of TUDCA-PLGA MSs. Retinal function was assessed by electroretinography at P30, P60, P90 and P120. The density, structure and synaptic contacts of retinal neurons were analyzed using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy at P90 and P120. TUDCA-loaded PLGA MSs were spherical, with a smooth surface. The production yield was 78%, the MSs mean particle size was 23 μm and the drug loading resulted 12.5 ± 0.8 μg TUDCA/mg MSs. MSs were able to deliver the loaded active compound in a gradual and progressive manner over the 28-day in vitro release study. Scotopic electroretinografic responses showed increased ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes in TUDCA-PLGA-MSs-treated eyes as compared to those injected with unloaded PLGA particles. TUDCA-PLGA-MSs-treated eyes showed more photoreceptor rows than controls. The synaptic contacts of photoreceptors with bipolar and horizontal cells were also preserved in P23H rats treated with TUDCA-PLGA MSs. This work indicates that the slow and continuous delivery of TUDCA from PLGA-MSs has potential neuroprotective effects that could constitute a suitable therapy to prevent neurodegeneration and visual loss in retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:28542454

  6. Molecular differences in the microsatellite stable phenotype between left‐sided and right‐sided colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yayoi; Habano, Wataru; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Eizuka, Makoto; Otsuka, Koki; Sasaki, Akira; Takayuki Matsumoto; Morikawa, Takanori; Unno, Michiaki; Suzuki, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenesis of microsatellite stable (MSS) sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs) between left‐sided CRC (LC) and right‐sided CRC (RC) have not been clarified. To identify pathogenesis‐related genomic differences between MSS CRCs within the two locations, we performed a comprehensive molecular analysis using crypt isolation with samples from 92 sporadic CRCs. Microsatellite instability (MSI; high and low/negative) and DNA methylation status (low methylation epigenome; intermediate methylation epigenome [IME] or high methylation epigenome [HME]) were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microsatellite analysis and PCR‐bisulfite pyrosequencing, respectively. Additionally, mutations in the TP53, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes were examined using PCR‐bisulfite pyrosequencing (for KRAS and BRAF mutations) or PCR‐single conformation polymorphism (for TP53 and PIK3CA mutations), followed by sequencing of aberrant bands. Finally, a genome‐wide study using a copy number alteration (CNA)‐targeted single nucleotide polymorphism array was performed. Ninety‐two CRCs were classified into 71 MSS and 21 MSI phenotypes. We examined 71 CRCs with the MSS phenotype (LC, 56; RC, 15). Mutations in KRAS were associated with RC with the MSS phenotype, whereas mutations in TP53 were more frequently found in LC with the MSS phenotype. There were significant differences in the frequencies of KRAS and TP53 mutations in the IME between LC and RC with the MSS phenotype. Although CNA gains were associated with LC with the MSS phenotype, CNA losses were not major alterations associated with the MSS phenotype. These findings suggested that the molecular pathogenesis of the MSS phenotype in LC was different from that in RC. PMID:27509333

  7. p53 mutation is common in microsatellite stable, BRAF mutant colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Bond, Catherine E; Umapathy, Aarti; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Greco, Sonia A; Zhen Zhao, Zhen; Mallitt, Kylie-Ann; Buttenshaw, Ron L; Montgomery, Grant W; Leggett, Barbara A; Whitehall, Vicki L J

    2012-04-01

    The majority of "serrated pathway" colorectal cancers have mutation of the BRAF oncogene and display the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Half these cancers have microsatellite instability (MSI) and an excellent prognosis. In the absence of MSI (microsatellite stable, MSS), BRAF mutation has been associated with a particularly poor prognosis. "Traditional pathway" cancers are BRAF wild type. Mutation of p53 is common and this correlates with advanced stage. We therefore hypothesized that p53 mutation would be common in MSS/BRAF mutant colorectal cancer. One thousand and eighty-one colorectal cancers were screened for BRAF mutation to identify two BRAF mutant study groups (MSI: n = 77; MSS: n = 69) and a BRAF wild type control group (n = 101). These were screened for p53 mutation by high resolution melt analysis and classified for CIMP and MGMT methylation by quantitative methylation specific PCR. Molecular data were compared to patient age, gender, tumor location and stage. p53 was mutated significantly more frequently in MSS/BRAF mutant (28/69, 40.6%) compared to MSI/BRAF mutant cancers (13/77, 16.9%), but this mutation rate did not differ from MSS/BRAF wild type cancers (47/101, 46.5%)(p < 0.0001). CIMP was less common in MSS/BRAF mutant (26/47, 55.3%) compared to MSI/BRAF mutant cancers (41/54, 75.9%), but was more common than in MSS/BRAF wild type cancers (3/85, 3.5%) (p < 0.0001). MSS/BRAF mutant cancers were more commonly proximal (38/54, 70.3%), but were similar to MSS/BRAF wild type cancers in terms of patient age, gender distribution and stage at presentation. MSS/BRAF mutant cancers share molecular and clinical features of both the serrated and traditional pathways of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  8. Increased Prevalence of Methanosphaera stadtmanae in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Blais Lecours, Pascale; Marsolais, David; Cormier, Yvon; Berberi, Marie; Haché, Chantal; Bourdages, Raymond; Duchaine, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Background The gut microbiota is associated with the modulation of mucosal immunity and the etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Previous studies focused on the impact of bacterial species on IBD but seldom suspected archaea, which can be a major constituent of intestinal microbiota, to be implicated in the diseases. Recent evidence supports that two main archaeal species found in the digestive system of humans, Methanobrevibacter smithii (MBS) and Methanosphaera stadtmanae (MSS) can have differential immunogenic properties in lungs of mice; with MSS but not MBS being a strong inducer of the inflammatory response. We thus aimed at documenting the immunogenic potential of MBS and MSS in humans and to explore their association with IBD. Methods To validate the immunogenicity of MBS and MSS in humans, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects were stimulated with these two microorganisms and the production of inflammatory cytokine TNF was measured by ELISA. To verify MBS and MSS prevalence in IBD, stool samples from 29 healthy control subjects and 29 patients suffering from IBD were collected for DNA extraction. Plasma was also collected from these subjects to measure antigen-specific IgGs by ELISA. Quantitative PCR was used for bacteria, methanogens, MBS and MSS quantification. Results Mononuclear cells stimulated with MSS produced higher concentrations of TNF (39.5 ng/ml) compared to MBS stimulation (9.1 ng/ml). Bacterial concentrations and frequency of MBS-containing stools were similar in both groups. However, the number of stool samples positive for the inflammatory archaea MSS was higher in patients than in controls (47% vs 20%). Importantly, only IBD patients developed a significant anti-MSS IgG response. Conclusion The prevalence of MSS is increased in IBD patients and is associated with an antigen-specific IgG response. PMID:24498365

  9. Analysis of data acquired by synthetic aperture radar and LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner over Kershaw County, South Carolina, during the summer season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1983-01-01

    Data acquired by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) were processed and analyzed to derive forest-related resources inventory information. The SAR data were acquired by using the NASA aircraft X-band SAR with linear (HH, VV) and cross (HV, VH) polarizations and the SEASAT L-band SAR. After data processing and data quality examination, the three polarization (HH, HV, and VV) data from the aircraft X-band SAR were used in conjunction with LANDSAT MSS for multisensor data classification. The results of accuracy evaluation for the SAR, MSS and SAR/MSS data using supervised classification show that the SAR-only data set contains low classification accuracy for several land cover classes. However, the SAR/MSS data show that significant improvement in classification accuracy is obtained for all eight land cover classes. These results suggest the usefulness of using combined SAR/MSS data for forest-related cover mapping. The SAR data also detect several small special surface features that are not detectable by MSS data.

  10. Molecular Skin Surface-Based Transformation Visualization between Biological Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Holun; Huang, Jing; Gao, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Molecular skin surface (MSS), proposed by Edelsbrunner, is a C2 continuous smooth surface modeling approach of biological macromolecules. Compared to the traditional methods of molecular surface representations (e.g., the solvent exclusive surface), MSS has distinctive advantages including having no self-intersection and being decomposable and transformable. For further promoting MSS to the field of bioinformatics, transformation between different MSS representations mimicking the macromolecular dynamics is demanded. The transformation process helps biologists understand the macromolecular dynamics processes visually in the atomic level, which is important in studying the protein structures and binding sites for optimizing drug design. However, modeling the transformation between different MSSs suffers from high computational cost while the traditional approaches reconstruct every intermediate MSS from respective intermediate union of balls. In this study, we propose a novel computational framework named general MSS transformation framework (GMSSTF) between two MSSs without the assistance of union of balls. To evaluate the effectiveness of GMSSTF, we applied it on a popular public database PDB (Protein Data Bank) and compared the existing MSS algorithms with and without GMSSTF. The simulation results show that the proposed GMSSTF effectively improves the computational efficiency and is potentially useful for macromolecular dynamic simulations.

  11. Effect of Landsat Thematic Mapper sensor parameters on land cover classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Selected sensor parameter differences between TM and MSS were assessed through classification performance of a suburban/regional test site. Overall classification accuracy of a seven-band Landsat TM scene in comparison to MSS yielded an improvement in accuracy from 74.8 percent to 83.2 percent. To study the possible causes for the difference in classification performance, key sensor parameter differences between MSS and TM, including: (1) spatial resolution (30 m for TM versus 80 m for MSS), (2) quantization level (256 levels for TM versus 64 for MSS), and (3) spectral regions (seven bands in four major spectral regions for TM versus four bands in two regions for MSS), were evaluated. Landsat TM data were processed to stimulate all possible combinations of these MSS and TM parameters, yielding a three-factor design with two levels per factor. The results indicated that the added spectral regions (TM 1, TM 5, and TM 7) and to a lesser degree the increase in quantization level to eight bits produced the improved TM classification accuracy. However, in this study, the higher 30 m spatial resolution of TM contributed to a reduced classification accuracy from increased within-field variability or class heterogeneity.

  12. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate is required for invasive growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Guillas, Isabelle; Vernay, Aurélia; Vitagliano, Jean-Jacques; Arkowitz, Robert A

    2013-08-15

    Phosphatidylinositol phosphates are important regulators of processes such as the cytoskeleton organization, membrane trafficking and gene transcription, which are all crucial for polarized cell growth. In particular, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] has essential roles in polarized growth as well as in cellular responses to stress. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the sole phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PI4P5K) Mss4p is essential for generating plasma membrane PtdIns(4,5)P2. Here, we show that Mss4p is required for yeast invasive growth in low-nutrient conditions. We isolated specific mss4 mutants that were defective in cell elongation, induction of the Flo11p flocculin, adhesion and cell wall integrity. We show that mss4-f12 cells have reduced plasma membrane PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels as well as a defect in its polarized distribution, yet Mss4-f12p is catalytically active in vitro. In addition, the Mss4-f12 protein was defective in localizing to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, addition of cAMP, but not an activated MAPKKK allele, partially restored the invasive growth defect of mss4-f12 cells. Taken together, our results indicate that plasma membrane PtdIns(4,5)P2 is crucial for yeast invasive growth and suggest that this phospholipid functions upstream of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A signaling pathway.

  13. Effects of preferred orientation and crystal size on thermoelectric properties of sodium cobalt oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yin; Wang, Jun; Yaer, Xinba; Miao, Lei; Zhang, Boyu; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Shuai

    2016-11-01

    To examine the effect of crystal size and orientation effect on ZT, polycrystalline NaxCo2O4 materials were prepared by pressing layered crystals obtained in sol-gel (SG) synthesis, molten salt synthesis (MSS) with and without additional ball milling (BM) treatment and 1:1 molar ratio mixture (Mixture) of BM powder and MSS powders. We found that the orientation effect and crystal size for four samples follow Mixture < SG < BM < MSS and BM < Mixture < SG < MSS, respectively. Electrical conductivity was obviously enhanced in the highly orientated BM and MSS samples when compared with SG and Mixture. It appears that the crystal size plays a dominant role in thermal conductivity rather than Seebeck coefficient by controlling the phonon scattering at grain boundaries. Thermal conductivity for BM was significantly decreased in comparison to MSS, although both BM and MSS show comparable orientation effect. The maximum ZT value is developed to near 0.51 at 814K upon increasing the electrical resistivity and decreasing the thermal conductivity, which are mainly governed by the condition of crystal size and orientation effect.

  14. Neonatal Idiotypic Exposure Alters Subsequent Cytokine, Pathology, and Survival Patterns in Experimental Schistosoma mansoni Infections

    PubMed Central

    Angela Montesano, M.; Colley, Daniel G.; Eloi-Santos, Silvana; Freeman, George L.; Secor, W. Evan

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to maternal idiotypes (Ids) or antigens might predispose a child to develop an immunoregulated, asymptomatic clinical presentation of schistosomiasis. We have used an experimental murine system to address the role of Ids in this immunoregulation. Sera from mice with 8-wk Schistosoma mansoni infection, chronic (20-wk infection) moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS), or chronic hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) were passed over an S. mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) immunoaffinity column to prepare Ids (8WkId, MSS Id, HSS Id). Newborn mice were injected with 8WkId, MSS Id, HSS Id, or normal mouse immunoglobulin (NoMoIgG) and infected with S. mansoni 8 wk later. Mice exposed to 8WkId or MSS Id as newborns had prolonged survival and decreased morbidity compared with mice that received HSS Id or NoMoIgG. When stimulated with SEA, 8WkId, or MSS Id, spleen cells from mice neonatally injected with 8WkId or MSS Id produced more interferon γ than spleen cells from mice neonatally injected with HSS Id or NoMoIgG. Furthermore, neonatal exposure to 8WkId or MSS Id, but not NoMoIgG or HSS Id, led to significantly smaller granuloma size and lower hepatic fibrosis levels in infected mice. Together, these results indicate that perinatal exposure to appropriate anti-SEA Ids induces long-term effects on survival, pathology, and immune response patterns in mice subsequently infected with S. mansoni. PMID:9989978

  15. Six month delivery of GDNF from PLGA/vitamin E biodegradable microspheres after intravitreal injection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    García-Caballero, Cristina; Prieto-Calvo, Esther; Checa-Casalengua, Patricia; García-Martín, Elena; Polo-Llorens, Vicente; García-Feijoo, Julián; Molina-Martínez, Irene Teresa; Bravo-Osuna, Irene; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío

    2017-03-01

    Local long-term delivery of glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) from vitamin E/poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres (MSs) protects retinal ganglion cells in an animal model of glaucoma for up to 11weeks. However, the pharmacokinetics of GDNF after intravitreal injection of MSs is not known. We evaluated the GDNF levels after a single intravitreal injection of GDNF/VitE MSs. Biodegradable MSs were prepared by the solid-oil-in-water emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and characterized. Rabbits received a single intravitreal injection (50μL) of GDNF/VitE MSs (4%w/v; 24 right eyes; 74.85ng GDNF), blank MSs (4%w/v; 24 left eyes), and balanced salt solution (4 eyes). Two controls eyes received no injections. At 24h, 1, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, and 24weeks after injection, the eyes were enucleated, and the intravitreal GDNF levels were quantified. Pharmacokinetic data were analysed according to non-compartmental model. Intraocular GDNF levels of 717.1±145.1pg/mL were observed at 24h for GDNF-loaded MSs, followed by a plateau (745.3±25.5pg/mL) until day 28. After that, a second plateau (17.4±3.7pg/mL) occurred from 8 to 24weeks post-injection, significantly higher than the basal levels. Eyes injected with GDNF/vitE and Blank-MSs did not show any abnormalities during the six-months follow up after administration. The single injection of GDNF/VitE MSs provided a sustained controlled release of the neurotrophic factor in a controlled fashion for up to six months.

  16. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-08-15

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO2 control, NOx control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research has yielded data on trace metal partitioning for MSS by itself, with natural gas assist, for coal plus MSS combustion together, and for coal alone. We have re-evaluated the inhalation health effects of ash aerosol from combustion of MSS both by itself and also together with coal. We have concluded that ash from the co-combustion of MSS and coal is very much worse from an inhalation health point of view, than ash from either MSS by itself or coal by itself. The reason is that ZnO is not the ''bad actor'' as had been suspected before, but the culprit is, rather, sulfated Zn. The MSS supplies the Zn and the coal supplies the sulfur, and so it is the combination of coal and MSS that makes that process environmentally bad. If MSS is to be burned, it should be burned without coal, in the absence of sulfur.

  17. Wild-type APC predicts poor prognosis in microsatellite-stable proximal colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jorissen, Robert N; Christie, Michael; Mouradov, Dmitri; Sakthianandeswaren, Anuratha; Li, Shan; Love, Christopher; Xu, Zheng-Zhou; Molloy, Peter L; Jones, Ian T; McLaughlin, Stephen; Ward, Robyn L; Hawkins, Nicholas J; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew R; Moore, James; Burgess, Antony W; Busam, Dana; Zhao, Qi; Strausberg, Robert L; Lipton, Lara; Desai, Jayesh; Gibbs, Peter; Sieber, Oliver M

    2015-01-01

    Background: APC mutations (APC-mt) occur in ∼70% of colorectal cancers (CRCs), but their relationship to prognosis is unclear. Methods: APC prognostic value was evaluated in 746 stage I–IV CRC patients, stratifying for tumour location and microsatellite instability (MSI). Microarrays were used to identify a gene signature that could classify APC mutation status, and classifier ability to predict prognosis was examined in an independent cohort. Results: Wild-type APC microsatellite stable (APC-wt/MSS) tumours from the proximal colon showed poorer overall and recurrence-free survival (OS, RFS) than APC-mt/MSS proximal, APC-wt/MSS distal and APC-mt/MSS distal tumours (OS HR⩾1.79, P⩽0.015; RFS HR⩾1.88, P⩽0.026). APC was a stronger prognostic indicator than BRAF, KRAS, PIK3CA, TP53, CpG island methylator phenotype or chromosomal instability status (P⩽0.036). Microarray analysis similarly revealed poorer survival in MSS proximal cancers with an APC-wt-like signature (P=0.019). APC status did not affect outcomes in MSI tumours. In a validation on 206 patients with proximal colon cancer, APC-wt-like signature MSS cases showed poorer survival than APC-mt-like signature MSS or MSI cases (OS HR⩾2.50, P⩽0.010; RFS HR⩾2.14, P⩽0.025). Poor prognosis APC-wt/MSS proximal tumours exhibited features of the sessile serrated neoplasia pathway (P⩽0.016). Conclusions: APC-wt status is a marker of poor prognosis in MSS proximal colon cancer. PMID:26305864

  18. Effect of moderate salinity stress treatment on the stimulation of proline uptake and growth in Escherichia coli CSH4 and its mutants under high salinity.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Shinichi; Wang, Yaoqiang; Zhang, Hongyan; Sasaki, Hideaki; Oshima, Akinobu; Ishida, Akio

    2009-09-01

    Activity of proline uptake in Escherichia coli CSH4 was inhibited in the presence of 1 M NaCl, while it was recovered if the cells were incubated at 30 degrees C for 1 h in a moderate salinity stress (MSS) solution which consists of Davis minimal medium with 5 mM proline and 0.5 M NaCl. Then, an attempt was made to examine whether MSS treatment is also effective on the activity restoration of proline uptake and growth under high salinity for E. coli CSH4 mutants with different combinations of proP, putA, putP, and proU which are related to the transport and metabolization of proline. After MSS treatment, proline uptake was vigorously occurred for the mutants with proline transporter gene proP but not for its deficient ones. For the expression of proline uptake activities of these mutant strains after MSS treatment, PO(4)(3-) in MSS solution is more important than K(+). No growth of strain CSH4 and its mutants without MSS treatment was observed, when cultured in high osmotic medium G (0.8 M NaCl) consisting of 1 mM glycine betaine and Davis minimal medium without potassium phosphate supplemented. After MSS treatment, however, mutant strains lacking proP showed sufficient growth in medium G. Cell growth of proP(+) strains was recognized if MSS treatment was performed in the absence of proline. In conclusion, growth of mutant strains under high-salinity medium G depended on their amount of proline accumulated during MSS treatment, in which K(+) and PO(4)(3-) might play a key role to guarantee their sufficient growth.

  19. NASA's mobile satellite development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafferty, William; Dessouky, Khaled; Sue, Miles

    1988-01-01

    A Mobile Satellite System (MSS) will provide data and voice communications over a vast geographical area to a large population of mobile users. A technical overview is given of the extensive research and development studies and development performed under NASA's mobile satellite program (MSAT-X) in support of the introduction of a U.S. MSS. The critical technologies necessary to enable such a system are emphasized: vehicle antennas, modulation and coding, speech coders, networking and propagation characterization. Also proposed is a first, and future generation MSS architecture based upon realized ground segment equipment and advanced space segment studies.

  20. Pulmonary toxicity of simulated lunar and Martian dusts in mice: I. Histopathology 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Cowper, Shawn; Balis, John; Muro-Cacho, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    NASA is contemplating sending humans to Mars and to the moon for further exploration. Volcanic ashes from Arizona and Hawaii with mineral properties similar to those of lunar and Martian soils, respectively, are used to simulate lunar and Martian environments for instrument testing. Martian soil is highly oxidative; this property is not found in Earth's volcanic ashes. NASA is concerned about the health risk from potential exposure of workers in the test facilities. Fine lunar soil simulant (LSS), Martian soil simulant (MSS), titanium dioxide, or quartz in saline was intratracheally instilled into groups of 4 mice (C57BL/6J) at 0.1 mg/mouse (low dose, LD) or 1 mg/mouse (high dose, HD). Separate groups of mice were exposed to ozone (0.5 ppm for 3 h) prior to MSS instillation. Lungs were harvested for histopathological examination 7 or 90 days after the single dust treatment. The lungs of the LSS-LD groups showed no evidence of inflammation, edema, or fibrosis; clumps of particles and an increased number of macrophages were visible after 7 days but not 90 days. In the LSS-HD-7d group, the lungs showed mild to moderate alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The LSS-HD-90d group showed signs of mild chronic pulmonary inflammation, septal thickening, and some fibrosis. Foci of particle-laden macrophages (PLMs) were still visible. Lung lesions in the MSS-LD-7d group were similar to those observed in the LSS-HD-7d group. The MSS-LD-90d group had PLMs and scattered foci of mild fibrosis in the lungs. The MSS-HD-7d group showed large foci of PLMs, intra-alveolar debris, mild-to-moderate focal alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The MSS-HD-90d group showed focal chronic mild-to-moderate alveolitis and fibrosis. The findings in the O(3)-MSS-HD-90d group included widespread intra-alveolar debris, focal moderate alveolitis, and fibrosis. Lung lesions in the MSS groups were more severe with the ozone pretreatment. The effects of

  1. Landsat-4 data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P.; Bartolucci, L.; Dean, E.; Lozano, F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C.; Valdes, J.; Valenzuela, C.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 satellite Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data have been analyzed in order to ascertain data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations have tested band-to-band registration accuracy, and the TM's overall system resolution was evaluated for the case of image objects with high contrast, sharp edge responses. The information content evaluation employed clustering, principal components, and the transformed divergence separability measured on data from Iowa and Chicago, Illinois. The MSS classification analysis compared MSS and TM information contents for a large number of science classes.

  2. Pulmonary toxicity of simulated lunar and Martian dusts in mice: I. Histopathology 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T; McCluskey, Richard; Cowper, Shawn; Balis, John; Muro-Cacho, Carlos

    2002-09-01

    NASA is contemplating sending humans to Mars and to the moon for further exploration. Volcanic ashes from Arizona and Hawaii with mineral properties similar to those of lunar and Martian soils, respectively, are used to simulate lunar and Martian environments for instrument testing. Martian soil is highly oxidative; this property is not found in Earth's volcanic ashes. NASA is concerned about the health risk from potential exposure of workers in the test facilities. Fine lunar soil simulant (LSS), Martian soil simulant (MSS), titanium dioxide, or quartz in saline was intratracheally instilled into groups of 4 mice (C57BL/6J) at 0.1 mg/mouse (low dose, LD) or 1 mg/mouse (high dose, HD). Separate groups of mice were exposed to ozone (0.5 ppm for 3 h) prior to MSS instillation. Lungs were harvested for histopathological examination 7 or 90 days after the single dust treatment. The lungs of the LSS-LD groups showed no evidence of inflammation, edema, or fibrosis; clumps of particles and an increased number of macrophages were visible after 7 days but not 90 days. In the LSS-HD-7d group, the lungs showed mild to moderate alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The LSS-HD-90d group showed signs of mild chronic pulmonary inflammation, septal thickening, and some fibrosis. Foci of particle-laden macrophages (PLMs) were still visible. Lung lesions in the MSS-LD-7d group were similar to those observed in the LSS-HD-7d group. The MSS-LD-90d group had PLMs and scattered foci of mild fibrosis in the lungs. The MSS-HD-7d group showed large foci of PLMs, intra-alveolar debris, mild-to-moderate focal alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The MSS-HD-90d group showed focal chronic mild-to-moderate alveolitis and fibrosis. The findings in the O(3)-MSS-HD-90d group included widespread intra-alveolar debris, focal moderate alveolitis, and fibrosis. Lung lesions in the MSS groups were more severe with the ozone pretreatment. The effects of

  3. Landsat-4 data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P.; Bartolucci, L.; Dean, E.; Lozano, F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C.; Valdes, J.; Valenzuela, C.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 satellite Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data have been analyzed in order to ascertain data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations have tested band-to-band registration accuracy, and the TM's overall system resolution was evaluated for the case of image objects with high contrast, sharp edge responses. The information content evaluation employed clustering, principal components, and the transformed divergence separability measured on data from Iowa and Chicago, Illinois. The MSS classification analysis compared MSS and TM information contents for a large number of science classes.

  4. Mass storage system experiences and future needs at the National Center for Atmospheric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olear, Bernard T.

    1991-01-01

    A summary and viewgraphs of a discussion presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Mass Storage Workshop is included. Some of the experiences of the Scientific Computing Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) dealing the the 'data problem' are discussed. A brief history and a development of some basic mass storage system (MSS) principles are given. An attempt is made to show how these principles apply to the integration of various components into NCAR's MSS. Future MSS needs for future computing environments is discussed.

  5. An evaluation of a SIRA image to determine forest density under conditions of moderate topographical variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M.; Adams, J.

    1985-01-01

    Many studies have shown that radar images have increased classification accuracy over spectral classifications using only LANDSAT Multispectral Band Scanner (MSS) images. It was the objective to determine if a SIRA image taken over Hayfork when used alone or inconjuction with LANDSAT MSS data would increase separation of units not identified by LANSAT spectral mixture models. Areas in the LANDSAT model of varying vegetation density (0 to 50%) that had proven to be accurate by field surveys were compared. It was found in the Hayfork area that SIRA did not increase or help delineation of vegetation or ultramific units over LANDSAT MSS.

  6. Pulmonary toxicity of simulated lunar and Martian dusts in mice: I. Histopathology 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Cowper, Shawn; Balis, John; Muro-Cacho, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    NASA is contemplating sending humans to Mars and to the moon for further exploration. Volcanic ashes from Arizona and Hawaii with mineral properties similar to those of lunar and Martian soils, respectively, are used to simulate lunar and Martian environments for instrument testing. Martian soil is highly oxidative; this property is not found in Earth's volcanic ashes. NASA is concerned about the health risk from potential exposure of workers in the test facilities. Fine lunar soil simulant (LSS), Martian soil simulant (MSS), titanium dioxide, or quartz in saline was intratracheally instilled into groups of 4 mice (C57BL/6J) at 0.1 mg/mouse (low dose, LD) or 1 mg/mouse (high dose, HD). Separate groups of mice were exposed to ozone (0.5 ppm for 3 h) prior to MSS instillation. Lungs were harvested for histopathological examination 7 or 90 days after the single dust treatment. The lungs of the LSS-LD groups showed no evidence of inflammation, edema, or fibrosis; clumps of particles and an increased number of macrophages were visible after 7 days but not 90 days. In the LSS-HD-7d group, the lungs showed mild to moderate alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The LSS-HD-90d group showed signs of mild chronic pulmonary inflammation, septal thickening, and some fibrosis. Foci of particle-laden macrophages (PLMs) were still visible. Lung lesions in the MSS-LD-7d group were similar to those observed in the LSS-HD-7d group. The MSS-LD-90d group had PLMs and scattered foci of mild fibrosis in the lungs. The MSS-HD-7d group showed large foci of PLMs, intra-alveolar debris, mild-to-moderate focal alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The MSS-HD-90d group showed focal chronic mild-to-moderate alveolitis and fibrosis. The findings in the O(3)-MSS-HD-90d group included widespread intra-alveolar debris, focal moderate alveolitis, and fibrosis. Lung lesions in the MSS groups were more severe with the ozone pretreatment. The effects of

  7. Morelos Satellite System for Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Ruiz, M. E.

    1986-03-01

    The telephone, television, and data communication services that the Morelos Satellite System (MSS) provides are discussed. The design and functions of the MSS which consists of two geosynchronous communication satellites that operate in C and Ku frequency bands and are located at 113.5 deg and 116.5 deg W longitude are described. The capabilities of the antenna, communication, attitude control, telemetry, command, reaction control, electrical power, and thermal control subsystems are studied. The components of the earth station are examined. The economic and social benefits possible from the application of the MSS to banking, rural clinics, food distribution services, and the oil and electric industries are analyzed.

  8. The AMSC mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.

    1988-01-01

    The American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC) Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) system is described. AMSC will use three multi-beam satellites to provide L-band MSS coverage to the United States, Canada and Mexico. The AMSC MSS system will have several noteworthy features, including a priority assignment processor that will ensure preemptive access to emergency services, a flexible SCPC channel scheme that will support a wide diversity of services, enlarged system capacity through frequency and orbit reuse, and high effective satellite transmitted power. Each AMSC satellite will make use of 14 MHz (bi-directional) of L-band spectrum. The Ku-band will be used for feeder links.

  9. Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T.; Ochiai, H.; Sugimori, Y.; Shoji, D.; Takeda, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Nakajima, I.; Nakano, T.; Hayashi, S.; Horikawa, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A detailed land use classification for a large urban area of Tokyo was made using MSS digital data. It was found that residential, commercial, industrial, and wooded areas and grasslands can be successfully classified. A mesoscale vortex associated with large ocean current, Kuroshio, which is a rare phenomenon, was recognized visually through the analysis of MSS data. It was found that this vortex affects the effluent patterns of rivers. Lava flowing from Sakurajima Volcano was clearly classified for three major erruptions (1779, 1914, and 1946) using MSS data.

  10. Mobile satellite service in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.

    1988-05-01

    Mobile satellite service (MSS) has been under development in the United States for more than two decades. The service will soon be provided on a commercial basis by a consortium of eight U.S. companies called the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). AMSC will build a three-satellite MSS system that will offer superior performance, reliability and cost effectiveness for organizations requiring mobile communications across the U.S. The development and operation of MSS in North America is being coordinated with Telesat Canada and Mexico. AMSC expects NASA to provide launch services in exchange for capacity on the first AMSC satellite for MSAT-X activities and for government demonstrations.

  11. Mobile satellite service in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.

    1988-01-01

    Mobile satellite service (MSS) has been under development in the United States for more than two decades. The service will soon be provided on a commercial basis by a consortium of eight U.S. companies called the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). AMSC will build a three-satellite MSS system that will offer superior performance, reliability and cost effectiveness for organizations requiring mobile communications across the U.S. The development and operation of MSS in North America is being coordinated with Telesat Canada and Mexico. AMSC expects NASA to provide launch services in exchange for capacity on the first AMSC satellite for MSAT-X activities and for government demonstrations.

  12. Irrigation scheduling, freeze warning and soil salinity detecting. [in Cameron County Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Correlations of multispectral scanner (MSS) digital data differences between vegetated and bare soil areas with salinity levels from the eight saline areas using MSS bands seven and ten in the infrared region were significant. Correlations were derived for Cameron County, Texas. Detection of saline soils may be possible, using either film density readings or multispectral scanner data, when the lower reflectance of vegetation on highly saline soil and the higher reflectance of vegetation on lower saline soil are considered by using film on MSS contrasts between vegetation and bare soil.

  13. A general solution for the registration of optical multispectral scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    The paper documents a general theory for registration (mapping) of data sets gathered by optical scanners such as the ERTS satellite MSS and the Skylab S-192 MSS. This solution is generally applicable to scanners which have rotating optics. Navigation data and ground control points are used in a statistically weighted adjustment based on a mathematical model of the dynamics of the spacecraft and the scanner system. This adjustment is very similar to the well known photogrammetric adjustments used in aerial mapping. Actual tests have been completed on NASA aircraft 24 channel MSS data, and the results are very encouraging.

  14. LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 Multispectral Scanner Coherent Noise Characterization and Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Alford, William L.

    1988-01-01

    A technique is described for characterizing the coherent noise found in LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 MSS data and a companion technique for filtering out the coherent noise. The techniques are demonstrated on LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 MSS data sets, and explanations of the noise pattern are suggested in Appendix C. A cookbook procedure for characterizing and filtering the coherent noise using special NASA/Goddard IDIMS functions is included. Also presented are analysis results from the retrofitted LANDSAT-5 MSS sensor, which shows that the coherent noise has been substantially reduced.

  15. Landsat analysis of tropical forest succession employing a terrain model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barringer, T. H.; Robinson, V. B.; Coiner, J. C.; Bruce, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data have yielded a dual classification of rain forest and shadow in an analysis of a semi-deciduous forest on Mindonoro Island, Philippines. Both a spatial terrain model, using a fifth side polynomial trend surface analysis for quantitatively estimating the general spatial variation in the data set, and a spectral terrain model, based on the MSS data, have been set up. A discriminant analysis, using both sets of data, has suggested that shadowing effects may be due primarily to local variations in the spectral regions and can therefore be compensated for through the decomposition of the spatial variation in both elevation and MSS data.

  16. 47 CFR 101.79 - Sunset provisions for licensees in the 1850-1990 MHz, 2110-2150 MHz, and 2160-2200 MHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... within interference range of the incumbent, as determined by TIA TSB 10-F (for terrestrial-to-terrestrial situations) or TIA TSB 86 (for MSS satellite-to-terrestrial situations) or any standard successor. ET...

  17. 47 CFR 101.79 - Sunset provisions for licensees in the 1850-1990 MHz, 2110-2150 MHz, and 2160-2200 MHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... within interference range of the incumbent, as determined by TIA TSB 10-F (for terrestrial-to-terrestrial situations) or TIA TSB 86 (for MSS satellite-to-terrestrial situations) or any standard successor. ET...

  18. 47 CFR 25.254 - Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 1610-1626.5 MHz/2483.5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Considerations for the Coordination Between Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) Networks Utilizing Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and Other Spread Spectrum Techniques in the 1-3 GHz Band” (1995). Recommendation...

  19. 47 CFR 25.254 - Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 1610-1626.5 MHz/2483.5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Considerations for the Coordination Between Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) Networks Utilizing Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and Other Spread Spectrum Techniques in the 1-3 GHz Band” (1995). Recommendation...

  20. Geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The study of geomorphology and terrain analysis using TM and MSS data are discussed. The spatial and spectral characteristics of a variety of landforms are also investigated. An outline of possible experiments and a summary of data requirements are included.