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Sample records for kui mss kohanemine

  1. Lansat MSS, Radiometric Processing Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunier, Sebastien; Salgues, Germain; Gascon, Ferran; Biaasutti, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The reprocessing campaigns of Landsat European Space Agency (ESA) data archive have been initiated since 3 years [1]. As part of this project, the processing algorithms have been upgraded. This article focuses on the radiometric processing of historical data observed with the Multi Spectral Scanner (MSS) instruments on board Landsat 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.The Landsat MSS data have been recorded data from 1972 up to 1990. The MSS instruments have been designed with four visible bands covering the near / infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, allowing the spatial sampling of our Earth surface at 60 meter.The current calibration method has shown some limitations in case of data observed out of mid latitude areas, where the Earth surface is bright because of desert or snow. The resulting image data suffers from saturations and is not fit for the potential application purposes.Although, when saturation exist, further investigations have shown that the radiometry of the raw data involved in the production of the Level 1 images is generally correct. As consequences, experiments have been undertaken to adapt the current processing in order to produce image data saturation free products.

  2. LANDSAT (MSS): Image demographic estimations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Foresti, C.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two sets of urban test sites, one with 35 cities and one with 70 cities, were selected in the State, Sao Paulo. A high degree of colinearity (0.96) was found between urban and areal measurements taken from aerial photographs and LANDSAT MSS imagery. High coefficients were observed when census data were regressed against aerial information (0.95) and LANDSAT data (0.92). The validity of population estimations was tested by regressing three urban variables, against three classes of cities. Results supported the effectiveness of LANDSAT to estimate large city populations with diminishing effectiveness as urban areas decrease in size.

  3. Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alland, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes my work with the Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS) team during the summer of 2011. It gives some background on the motivation for this project and describes the expected benefit to the Cassini program. It then introduces the two tasks that I worked on - an automatic system auditing tool and a series of corrections to the Cassini Sequence Generator (SEQ_GEN) - and the specific objectives these tasks were to accomplish. Next, it details the approach I took to meet these objectives and the results of this approach, followed by a discussion of how the outcome of the project compares with my initial expectations. The paper concludes with a summary of my experience working on this project, lists what the next steps are, and acknowledges the help of my Cassini colleagues.

  4. Magnetic seeding sedimentation (MSS) of coal slimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiqing; Yue, Tao; Dai, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic seeding sedimentation (MSS), i.e. adding magnetic seeds and pre-magnetization for sedimentation, is a technique especially for sedimentation of fine slimes, improving the sedimentation performance by introducing the magnetic interactions between particles in a suspension and enlarging the apparent size of the fine particles. The fine coal slimes with a size of 66.68%-38μm were investigated by the MSS. Sedimentation tests were conducted, and some measurements, such as laser size analysis, magnetic susceptibility by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), were also applied in order to probe the mechanism of the MSS. Based on the tests, measurements and calculations it was demonstrated that the sedimentation of coal slimes increased with the additions of the magnetic seeds, and in the presence of the polyacrylamide, and also there appeared a relatively large apparent size of slimes after additions of magnetic seeds and/or polyacrylamide. So, the reason for the influence of MSS lies in fact that the presence of the polyacrylamide intensified the adsorption of magnetic seeds on the coal particles and the coverage of the magnetic seeds on the coal surface from 0.2% wt. to1.3% wt., resulting in increased magnetic susceptibility of coal particles from 9.13×10-9m3/kg to 22.17×10-9m3/kg and thus a low magnetic field strength of pre-magnetization needed for the magnetic agglomeration to happen among the coal particles (the threshold of magnetic field strength for agglomeration) from 602mT to 24mT prior to proper sedimentation.

  5. Evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (Principal Investigator); Murphy, J. M.; Grieve, G.; Simard, R.; Horler, D.; Ahern, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    Interband line pixel misregistrations were determined for the four MSS bands of the Mistassini, Ontario scene and multitemporal registration of LANDSAT-4 products were tested for two different geocoded scenes. Line and pixel misregistrations are tabulated as determined by the manual ground control points and the digital band to band correlation techniques. A method was developed for determining the spectral information content of TM images for forestry applications.

  6. BOREAS Landsat MSS Imagery: Digital Counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) Program launched the first of a series of satellites (ERTS-1) in 1972. Part of the NASA Earth Resources Survey Program, the ERTS Program and the ERTS satellites were later renamed Landsat to better represent the civil satellite program's prime emphasis on remote sensing of land resources. Landsat satellites 1 through 5 carry the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) sensor. Canada for Remote Sensing (CCRS) and BOREAS personnel gathered a set of MSS images of the BOREAS region from Landsat satellites 1, 2, 4, and 5 covering the dates of 21 Aug 1972 to 05 Sep 1988. The data are provided in binary image format files of various formats. The Landsat MSS imagery is available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  7. Synthetic aperture radar/LANDSAT MSS image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, H. E. (Editor); Oberholtzer, J. D. (Editor); Anuta, P. E. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Algorithms and procedures necessary to merge aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery were determined. The design of a SAR/LANDSAT data merging system was developed. Aircraft SAR images were registered to the corresponding LANDSAT MSS scenes and were the subject of experimental investigations. Results indicate that the registration of SAR imagery with LANDSAT MSS imagery is feasible from a technical viewpoint, and useful from an information-content viewpoint.

  8. Comparison of Landsat MSS and merged MSS/RBV data for analysis of natural vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, N. E. G.; Cox, S.

    1980-01-01

    Improved resolution could make satellite remote sensing data more useful for surveys of natural vegetation. Although improved satellite/sensor systems appear to be several years away, one potential interim solution to the problem of achieving greater resolution without sacrificing spectral sensitivity is through the merging of Landsat RBV and MSS data. This paper describes the results of a study performed to obtain a preliminary evaluation of the usefulness of two types of products that can be made by merging Landsat RBV and MSS data. The products generated were a false color composite image and a computer recognition map. Of these two products, the false color composite image appears to be the most useful.

  9. Using HCMM Thermal Data to Improve Classification of MSS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, R. G.; Sekhon, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Spectral overlap between urban and rural land use/land cover categories can lead to unacceptable map accuracy levels in the classification of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data. The four MSS bands used alone are not always adequate to distinguish among various land uses and cover types having similar spectral responses. The use of thermal data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite as a means of improving MSS land cover classification accuracies for urban versus rural categories was investigated. The approaches used to integrate the HCMM data are described.

  10. Assessment of MSS spectral indexes for monitoring arid rangeland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, H. B.

    1983-01-01

    The utility of MSS spectral indexes for monitoring arid rangeland vegetation was tested by determining correlations between spectral indexes and vegetation parameters and by examining retrospective MSS data to determine if vegetation change could be detected and measured using spectral indexes. MSS Band 5, albedo, and the Kauth-Thomas Brightness component appear to be useful for monitoring total vegetation cover. Multiseasonal green vegetation indexes could be used to estimate changes in the shrub/grass ratio. In retrospective monitoring, spectral index change appeared to be offset from true change, indicating that the methods used to standardize data sets for differences in solar elevation and sensor radiometric response were not completely successful.

  11. CCRS proposal for evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (Principal Investigator); Guindon, B.; Murphy, J.; Butlin, J. M.; Duff, P.; Fitzgerald, A.; Grieve, G.

    1984-01-01

    The measurement of registration errors in LANDSAT MSS data is discussed as well as the development of a revised algorithm for the radiometric calibration of TM data and the production of a geocoded TM image.

  12. Radiometric calibration of the Landsat MSS sensor series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, Dennis L.; Karki, Sadhana; Bhatt, Rajendra; Micijevik, Esad; Aaron, David; Jasinski, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing of the Earth using Landsat sensors was ushered on July 23, 1972, with the launch of Landsat-1. Following that success, four more Landsat satellites were launched, and each of these carried the Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). These five sensors provided the only consistent multispectral space-based imagery of the Earth's surface from 1972 to 1982. This work focuses on developing both a consistent and absolute radiometric calibration of this sensor system. Cross-calibration of the MSS was performed through the use of pseudoinvariant calibration sites (PICSs). Since these sites have been shown to be stable for long periods of time, changes in MSS observations of these sites were attributed to changes in the sensors themselves. In addition, simultaneous data collections were available for some MSS sensor pairs, and these were also used for cross-calibration. Results indicated substantial differences existed between instruments, up to 16%, and these were reduced to 5% or less across all MSS sensors and bands. Lastly, this paper takes the calibration through the final step and places the MSS sensors on an absolute radiometric scale. The methodology used to achieve this was based on simultaneous data collections by the Landsat-5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments. Through analysis of image data from a PICS location and through compensating for the spectral differences between the two instruments, the Landsat-5 MSS sensor was placed on an absolute radiometric scale based on the Landsat-5 TM sensor. Uncertainties associated with this calibration are considered to be less than 5%.

  13. SPOT: How good for geology? A comparison with LANDSAT MSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesoeren, A.

    1986-12-01

    Geological interpretation possibilities of SPOT MSS and LANDSAT MSS positive prints enlarged to the same scale were compared, using as a test area part of the Jebel Amour (Algeria). The SPOT imagery offers many advantages, filling the gap between remote sensing from space and aerial photography. The best results by visual interpretation are obtained in combining SPOT for the required details with LANDSAT for the synoptic veiw. Further improvements are expected from the use of SPOT stereo-pairs.

  14. LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystem radiometric characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. (Editor); Barker, J. (Editor); Clark, B. P.; Dasgupta, R.

    1983-01-01

    The multispectral band scanner (mass) and its spectral characteristics are described and methods are given for relating video digital levels on computer compatible tapes to radiance into the sensor. Topics covered include prelaunch calibration procedures and postlaunch radiometric processng. Examples of current data resident on the MSS image processing system are included. The MSS on LANDSAT 4 is compared with the scanners on earlier LANDSAT satellites.

  15. Air quality indices from ERTS-1 MSS information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, E. L.; Stryker, S.; Ward, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Comparison between ground based atmospheric turbidity network measurements and the average scene grayness from MSS Channel 4 data is in progress. Correlation between these two sources is promising. If continued correlation occurs for other ERTS-1 overflight dates and ground test sites, a new operational use of ERTS-1 useful to Federal, state, and international organizations will become available.

  16. Marine Seismic System (MSS). Development, Deployment and Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    Recommendations) * Although only 40 hours of seismic and hydroacoustic dan were collected with the system fu’lly deployed, the MSS program can certainly...GARBAGE RESULTS DESERVED FOR SUCH A BONEH - EAD MISTAKE. THE FORMAT OF THE COMMAND IS AS FOLLOWS:- STD<RET> COMPUTE STANDARD DEVIATION ; AND MEAN FOR ENTIRE

  17. The Development of the Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canel, Azize Nilgun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the process of developing the Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS) aiming to support studies in the field of marital satisfaction and to obtain information about couples in a short time through psychological counseling is discussed. The scale including 101 yes-no items aiming to reveal couples' opinions about their marriages was…

  18. Impact of LANDSAT MSS sensor differences on change detection analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likens, W. C.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Some 512 by 512 pixel subwindows for simultaneously acquired scene pairs obtained by LANDSAT 2,3 and 4 multispectral band scanners were coregistered using LANDSAT 4 scenes as the base to which the other images were registered. Scattergrams between the coregistered scenes (a form of contingency analysis) were used to radiometrically compare data from the various sensors. Mode values were derived and used to visually fit a linear regression. Root mean square errors of the registration varied between .1 and 1.5 pixels. There appear to be no major problem preventing the use of LANDSAT 4 MSS with previous MSS sensors for change detection, provided the noise interference can be removed or minimized. Data normalizations for change detection should be based on the data rather than solely on calibration information. This allows simultaneous normalization of the atmosphere as well as the radiometry.

  19. Regression and ratio estimators to integrate AVHRR and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Ross

    1989-01-01

    Regression and ratio estimators are used to integrate AVHRR-Global Area Coverage (GAC) and Landsat MSS digital data to estimate forest area in the continental United States. Forestlands are enumerated for the 48 contiguous states using five different AVHRR-GAC data sets. Results indicated that the GAC and MSS forest estimates were not highly correlated. Although the ratio of means and linear regression corrections were, on the average, closer to national U.S. Forest Service forest area estimates, these correction procedures did not consistently improve GAC estimates of forest area. GAC forest area estimates tended to be high in densely forested regions such as the northeast and low in sparsely forested areas.

  20. Specific interactions of Mss4 with members of the Rab GTPase subfamily.

    PubMed

    Burton, J L; Burns, M E; Gatti, E; Augustine, G J; De Camilli, P

    1994-12-01

    Mss4 is a mammalian protein that was identified as a suppressor of a yeast secretory mutant harboring a mutation in the GTPase Sec4 and was found to stimulate GDP release from this protein. We have now performed a biochemical characterization of the Mss4 protein and examined the specificity of its association with mammalian GTPases. Mss4 is primarily a soluble protein with a widespread tissue distribution. Recombinant Mss4 binds GTPases present in tissue extracts, and by a gel overlay assay binds specifically Rab Rab10proteins. We further define the Mss4-GTPase interaction to a subset of Rabs belonging to the same subfamily branch which include Rab1, Rab3, Rab8, Rab10, Sec4 and Ypt1 but not Rab2, Rab4, Rab5, Rab6, Rab9 and Rab11. Accordingly, Mss4 co-precipitates from a brain extract with Rab3a but not Rab5. Mss4 only stimulates GDP release from, and the association of GTP gamma S with, this Rab subset. Recombinant Mss4 and Rab3a form a stable complex in solution that is dissociated with either GDP or GTP gamma S. Injection of Mss4 into the squid giant nerve terminal enhances neurotransmitter release. These results suggest that Mss4 behaves as a guanylnucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for a subset of Rabs to influence distinct vesicular transport steps along the secretory pathway.

  1. Performance of DA/FDMA architecture proposed for MSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles; Yan, Tsun-Yee; Dessouky, Khaled

    1989-01-01

    The system architecture proposed for the Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/JPL is presented. The demand assigned Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) scheme is described, and results for the associated network access protocol developed by JPL are presented. Both the total number of users that the system can support and the system spectral efficiency are given for a variety of traffic conditions, including those postulated for the Mobile Satellite System Architectures and Multiple Access Techniques Workshop. The results are given for both first- and second-generation one- and two-satellite systems.

  2. Terrain type recognition using ERTS-1 MSS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramenopoulos, N.

    1973-01-01

    For the automatic recognition of earth resources from ERTS-1 digital tapes, both multispectral and spatial pattern recognition techniques are important. Recognition of terrain types is based on spatial signatures that become evident by processing small portions of an image through selected algorithms. An investigation of spatial signatures that are applicable to ERTS-1 MSS images is described. Artifacts in the spatial signatures seem to be related to the multispectral scanner. A method for suppressing such artifacts is presented. Finally, results of terrain type recognition for one ERTS-1 image are presented.

  3. Shade images of forested areas obtained from LANDSAT MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Smith, James A.

    1989-01-01

    The pixel size in the present day Remote Sensing systems is large enough to include different types of land cover. Depending upon the target area, several components may be present within the pixel. In forested areas, generally, three main components are present: tree canopy, soil (understory), and shadow. The objective is to generate a shade (shadow) image of forested areas from multispectral measurements of LANDSAT MSS (Multispectral Scanner) data by implementing a linear mixing model, where shadow is considered as one of the primary components in a pixel. The shade images are related to the observed variation in forest structure, i.e., the proportion of inferred shadow in a pixel is related to different forest ages, forest types, and tree crown cover. The Constrained Least Squares (CLS) method is used to generate shade images for forest of eucalyptus and vegetation of cerrado using LANDSAT MSS imagery over Itapeva study area in Brazil. The resulted shade images may explain the difference on ages for forest of eucalyptus and the difference on three crown cover for vegetation of cerrado.

  4. Correlation of ERTS MSS data and earth coordinate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Hieber, R. H.; Mccleer, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Experience has revealed a problem in the analysis and interpretation of ERTS-1 multispectral scanner (MSS) data. The problem is one of accurately correlating ERTS-1 MSS pixels with analysis areas specified on aerial photographs or topographic maps for training recognition computers and/or evaluating recognition results. It is difficult for an analyst to accurately identify which ERTS-1 pixels on a digital image display belong to specific areas and test plots, especially when they are small. A computer-aided procedure to correlate coordinates from topographic maps and/or aerial photographs with ERTS-1 data coordinates has been developed. In the procedure, a map transformation from earth coordinates to ERTS-1 scan line and point numbers is calculated using selected ground control points nad the method of least squares. The map transformation is then applied to the earth coordinates of selected areas to obtain the corresponding ERTS-1 point and line numbers. An optional provision allows moving the boundaries of the plots inward by variable distances so the selected pixels will not overlap adjacent features.

  5. Application of digital analysis of MSS to agro-environmental studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, S. N.; Lewis, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Topics of investigation include infrared analysis of vegetation canopies, urban/rural albedo studies, analysis of Field Spectrometer System (ESS) observations, geometric and radiometric processing techniques of aircraft MSS data, and the use of LANDSAT MSS observations to map wetlands and snow cover.

  6. Final Comparison of TM and MSS Data for Surface Mine Assessment in Logan County, West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, R. G.; Blodget, H. W.; Marcell, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of classifications during both raw and transformed MSS and TM data sets from 4 September 1982 were performed for the Logan County, West Virginia study area. The object was to compare the utility of TM and MSS data for delineating small, irregular ground features, particularly surface mines, and also to test data reduction/transformation techniques (band selection, canonical analysis, and principal components) in relation to a traditional means of unsupervised classification. Statistical results demonstrate that, on the average, the TM classifications yielded an overall .53 factor of improvement relative to the MSS classifications. When the accuracies for only three minor (in terms of areal extent) land use categories are examined, the factor of improvement for TM over MSS increases to 1.48; i.e., the TM is nearly one and one-half times better than the MSS for delineating small and irregular ground features such as contour strip mines.

  7. Shade images of forested areas obtained from Landsat MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Smith, James A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this report is to generate a shade (shadow) image of forested areas from Landsat MSS data by implementing a linear mixing model, where shadow is considered as one of the primary components in a pixel. The shade images are related to the observed variation in forest structure; i.e., the proportion of inferred shadow in a pixel is related to different forest ages, forest types, and tree crown cover. The constrained least-squares method is used to generate shade images for forest of eucalyptus and vegetation of 'cerrado' over the Itapeva study area in Brazil. The resulted shade images may explain the difference on ages for forest of eucalyptus and the difference on tree crown cover for vegetation of cerrado.

  8. Vegetation density as deduced from ERTS-1 MSS response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Cuellar, J. A.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Richardson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Reflectance from vegetation increases with increasing vegetation density in the 0.75- to 1.35 micron wavelength interval. Therefore, ERTS-1 bands 6 (0.7 to 0.8 micron) and 7 (0.8 to 1.1 micron) contain information that should relate to the probable yield of crops and the animal carrying capacity of rangeland. The results of an experiment designed specifically to test the relations among leaf area index (LAI), plant population, plant cover and plant height, and the ERTS-1 MSS responses for 3 corn, 10 sorghum, and 10 cotton fields are given. Plant population was as useful as LAI for characterizing the sorghum and corn fields, and plant height was as good as LAI for characterizing cotton fields. These findings generally support the utility of ERTS-1 data for explaining variability in green biomass, harvestable forage and other indicators of productivity.

  9. Two dimensional array of piezoresistive nanomechanical Membrane-type Surface Stress Sensor (MSS) with improved sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Genki; Akiyama, Terunobu; Loizeau, Frederic; Shiba, Kota; Gautsch, Sebastian; Nakayama, Tomonobu; Vettiger, Peter; de Rooij, Nico F; Aono, Masakazu

    2012-11-16

    We present a new generation of piezoresistive nanomechanical Membrane-type Surface stress Sensor (MSS) chips, which consist of a two dimensional array of MSS on a single chip. The implementation of several optimization techniques in the design and microfabrication improved the piezoresistive sensitivity by 3~4 times compared to the first generation MSS chip, resulting in a sensitivity about ~100 times better than a standard cantilever-type sensor and a few times better than optical read-out methods in terms of experimental signal-to-noise ratio. Since the integrated piezoresistive read-out of the MSS can meet practical requirements, such as compactness and not requiring bulky and expensive peripheral devices, the MSS is a promising transducer for nanomechanical sensing in the rapidly growing application fields in medicine, biology, security, and the environment. Specifically, its system compactness due to the integrated piezoresistive sensing makes the MSS concept attractive for the instruments used in mobile applications. In addition, the MSS can operate in opaque liquids, such as blood, where optical read-out techniques cannot be applied.

  10. Ecology and sampling techniques of an understudied subterranean habitat: the Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammola, Stefano; Giachino, Pier Mauro; Piano, Elena; Jones, Alexandra; Barberis, Marcel; Badino, Giovanni; Isaia, Marco

    2016-12-01

    The term Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS) has been used since the early 1980s in subterranean biology to categorize an array of different hypogean habitats. In general terms, a MSS habitat represents the underground network of empty air-filled voids and cracks developing within multiple layers of rock fragments. Its origins can be diverse and is generally covered by topsoil. The MSS habitat is often connected both with the deep hypogean domain—caves and deep rock cracks—and the superficial soil horizon. A MSS is usually characterized by peculiar microclimatic conditions, and it can harbor specialized hypogean, endogean, and surface-dwelling species. In light of the many interpretations given by different authors, we reviewed 235 papers regarding the MSS in order to provide a state-of-the-art description of these habitats and facilitate their study. We have briefly described the different types of MSS mentioned in the scientific literature (alluvial, bedrock, colluvial, volcanic, and other types) and synthesized the advances in the study of the physical and ecological factors affecting this habitat—i.e., microclimate, energy flows, animal communities, and trophic interactions. We finally described and reviewed the available sampling methods used to investigate MSS fauna.

  11. Ecology and sampling techniques of an understudied subterranean habitat: the Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS).

    PubMed

    Mammola, Stefano; Giachino, Pier Mauro; Piano, Elena; Jones, Alexandra; Barberis, Marcel; Badino, Giovanni; Isaia, Marco

    2016-12-01

    The term Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS) has been used since the early 1980s in subterranean biology to categorize an array of different hypogean habitats. In general terms, a MSS habitat represents the underground network of empty air-filled voids and cracks developing within multiple layers of rock fragments. Its origins can be diverse and is generally covered by topsoil. The MSS habitat is often connected both with the deep hypogean domain-caves and deep rock cracks-and the superficial soil horizon. A MSS is usually characterized by peculiar microclimatic conditions, and it can harbor specialized hypogean, endogean, and surface-dwelling species. In light of the many interpretations given by different authors, we reviewed 235 papers regarding the MSS in order to provide a state-of-the-art description of these habitats and facilitate their study. We have briefly described the different types of MSS mentioned in the scientific literature (alluvial, bedrock, colluvial, volcanic, and other types) and synthesized the advances in the study of the physical and ecological factors affecting this habitat-i.e., microclimate, energy flows, animal communities, and trophic interactions. We finally described and reviewed the available sampling methods used to investigate MSS fauna.

  12. CCRS proposal for evaluating LANDSAT-D MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (Principal Investigator); Collins, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    Accomplishments in the evaluation of LANDSAT 4 data are reported. The objectives of the Canadian proposal are: (1) to quantify the LANDSAT-4 sensors and system performance for the purpose of updating the radiometric and geometric correction algorithms for MSS and for developing and evaluating new correction algorithms to be used for TM data processing; (2) to compare and access the degree to which LANDSAT-4 MSS data can be integrated with MSS imagery acquired from earlier LANDSAT missions; and (3) to apply image analysis and information extraction techniques for specific user applications such as forestry or agriculture.

  13. LANDSAT-D MSS/TM tuned orbital jitter analysis model LDS900

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollak, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    The final LANDSAT-D orbital dynamic math model (LSD900), comprised of all test validated substructures, was used to evaluate the jitter response of the MSS/TM experiments. A dynamic forced response analysis was performed at both the MSS and TM locations on all structural modes considered (thru 200 Hz). The analysis determined the roll angular response of the MSS/TM experiments to improve excitation generated by component operation. Cross axis and cross experiment responses were also calculated. The excitations were analytically represented by seven and nine term Fourier series approximations, for the MSS and TM experiment respectively, which enabled linear harmonic solution techniques to be applied to response calculations. Single worst case jitter was estimated by variations of the eigenvalue spectrum of model LSD 900. The probability of any worst case mode occurrence was investigated.

  14. Mean Sea Surface (mss) Model Determination for Malaysian Seas Using Multi-Mission Satellite Altimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, N. A. Z.; Musa, T. A.; Omar, K. M.; Din, A. H. M.; Omar, A. H.; Tugi, A.; Yazid, N. M.; Abdullah, N. M.; Wahab, M. I. A.

    2016-09-01

    The advancement of satellite altimeter technology has generated many evolutions to oceanographic and geophysical studies. A multi-mission satellite altimeter consists with TOPEX, Jason-1 and Jason-2, ERS-2, Envisat-1, CryoSat-2 and Saral are extracted in this study and has been processed using Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS) for the period of January 2005 to December 2015 to produce the sea surface height (hereinafter referred to SSH). The monthly climatology data from SSH is generated and averaged to understand the variation of SSH during monsoon season. Then, SSH data are required to determine the localised and new mean sea surface (MSS). The differences between Localised MSS and DTU13 MSS Global Model is plotted with root mean square error value is 2.217 metres. The localised MSS is important towards several applications for instance, as a reference for sea level variation, bathymetry prediction and derivation of mean dynamic topography.

  15. Precision annotation of predetermined primary sampling units on ERTS-1 MSS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanroessel, J. W.; Langley, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    Resectioning programs were developed for projecting the boundary corners of sample units, management units, and counties into U2 RC-10 and ERTS-1 MSS images. The technique used includes corrections for earth curvature, terrain elevation, and MSS distortions. The minimum standard error obtained was about 0.15 mm or 150 meters on the ground. This technique now makes it possible to include land ownership as an integral part of forest resource sampling plans using ERTS imagery.

  16. Single-molecule analysis of Mss116-mediated group II intron folding

    PubMed Central

    Karunatilaka, Krishanthi S.; Solem, Amanda; Pyle, Anna Marie; Rueda, David

    2015-01-01

    DEAD-box helicases are conserved enzymes involved in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism, but their mechanisms of action remain unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the DEAD-box protein Mss116 on its natural substrate, the group II intron ai5γ. Group II introns are structurally complex catalytic RNAs considered evolutionarily related to the eukaryotic spliceosome, and an interesting paradigm for large RNA folding. We used single-molecule fluorescence to monitor the effect of Mss116 on folding dynamics of a minimal active construct, ai5γ–D135. The data show that Mss116 stimulates dynamic sampling between states along the folding pathway, an effect previously observed only with high Mg2+ concentrations. Furthermore, the data indicate that Mss116 promotes folding through discrete ATP-independent and ATP-dependent steps. We propose that Mss116 stimulates group II intron folding through a multi-step process that involves electrostatic stabilization of early intermediates and ATP hydrolysis during the final stages of native state assembly. PMID:20944626

  17. Sensitivity of Landsat MSS and TM to land cover change in the Golden Horseshoe, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGibbon, Jamie; Chen, Dongmei

    2008-10-01

    An ideal situation for conducting change detection is to use multi-temporal images acquired from the same sensor. However, many conditions (such as the discontinuity of sensors, weather conditions) would bring an end to the ideal temporal change detection. Imagery availability issues will force change detection studies in the future to increasingly incorporate multiple sensors. This study conducted change detection between Landsat TM (TM) and Landsat MSS (MSS) images from July 30, 1995 to June 2, 2003. The study area was centered on the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in south-central Ontario, Canada. Post-classification change detection was used to determine the type of change between the images. Results demonstrated that despite the different spatial resolution of the MSS and TM data, the change detection using both MSS and TM was similar in results to that of TM alone. A change detection where MSS is resampled to 30 meters was most effective in capturing the amount and type of change in the TM change study.

  18. Correlation between aircraft MSS and LIDAR remotely sensed data on a forested wetland in South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, John R.; Hodgson, Michael E.; Mackey, Halkard E., Jr.; Krabill, William

    1987-01-01

    Wetlands in a portion of the Savannah River swamp forest, the Steel Creek Delta, were mapped using April 26, 1985 high-resolution aircraft multispectral scanner (MSS) data. Due to the complex spectral characteristics of the wetland vegetation, it was necessary to implement several techniques in the classification of the MSS imagery of the Steel Creek Delta. In particular, when performing unsupervised classification, an iterative cluster busting technique was used which simplified the cluster labeling process. In addition to the MSS data, light detecting and ranging (LIDAR) data were acquired by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) personnel along two flightlines over the Steel Creek Delta. These data were registered with the wetland classification map and correlated. Statistical analyses demonstrated that the laser derived canopy height information was significantly correlated with the Steel Creek Delta wetland classes encountered along the profiling transect of the LIDAR data.

  19. Change detection in coastal zone environments. [by Landsat MSS data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weismiller, R. A.; Kristof, S. J.; Scholz, D. K.; Anuta, P. E.; Momin, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted with the objective to develop and evaluate various change detection techniques based upon computer-aided analysis of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to monitor coastal zone environments. The study site selected includes a portion of the Matagorda Bay estuarine system located along the Texas Coast. The principal data sources for the study were MSS data collected on November, 27, 1972 and February 25, 1975. The MSS data were processed and a multidata eight-channel data set at a scale of 1:24,000 was obtained. A description is presented of four change detection techniques which were designed and implented for evaluation, taking into account postclassification comparison change detection, delta data change detection, spectral/temporal change classification, and layered spectral/temporal approach. The results of the investigation are discussed.

  20. Mapping of hydrothermal alternation zones and regional rock types using computer enhanced ERTS MSS images. [Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C.; Wetlaufer, P. H.; Billingsley, F. C.; Goetz, A. F. H.

    1974-01-01

    A combination of digital computer processing and color compositing of ERTS MSS images has been used to map hydrothermal alternation zones and regional rock types in south-central Nevada. The technique is based on enhancement of subtle visible and near infrared reflectivity differences between mineralogically dissimilar rocks, especially unaltered and altered rocks. MSS spectral bands are ratioed, pixel by pixel, in the computer and subsequently stretched. These ratio values are used to produce a new black and white image which shows the subtle spectral reflectivity differences. Additional enhancement is achieved by preparing color composites of two or more stretched ratio images. The choice of MSS bands for rationing depends on the spectral reflectance properties of the rocks to be discriminated. Although this technique is in the initial stage of development and is untested in other areas, it already appears to have considerable potential for targeting mineral prospects and for regional geologic mapping.

  1. LANDSAT-4 MSS and Thematic Mapper data quality and information content analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P.; Bartolucci, L.; Dean, E.; Lozano, F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Valdes, J.; Valenzuela, C.

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data were analyzed to obtain information on data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations were performed to test band-to-band registration accuracy. Thematic mapper overall system resolution was evaluated using scene objects which demonstrated sharp high contrast edge responses. Radiometric evaluation included detector relative calibration, effects of resampling, and coherent noise effects. Information content evaluation was carried out using clustering, principal components, transformed divergence separability measure, and supervised classifiers on test data. A detailed spectral class analysis (multispectral classification) was carried out to compare the information content of the MSS and TM for a large number of scene classes. A temperature-mapping experiment was carried out for a cooling pond to test the quality of thermal-band calibration. Overall TM data quality is very good. The MSS data are noisier than previous LANDSAT results.

  2. Information content of data from the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS). [Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Software was constructed to reformat data to band interlevel format and analysis software was developed in an effort to quantify the increased information content (statistical variability within a data set) of thematic mapper data as compared to that from the LANDSAT 4 multispectral band scanner. Computer runs were carried out for several subareas from a data set acquired simultaneously by TM and MSS over a test area in northeast Arkansas, one of the most agriculturally diverse sea areas in the country. The 6 visible-near IR channels of the TM provide more information than the 4 channels of the MSS. A rough estimate of 20 bits per pixel for TM, and 10 bits per pixel for the MSS was computed for these subareas. These numbers are to be revised downward when allowance is made for noise in the data.

  3. A 400-MS/s 12-bit current-steering D/A converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaopeng, Wang; Yannan, Ren; Fule, Li; Zhihua, Wang

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a 400-MS/s 12-bit CMOS current-steering digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The proposed DAC adapts 6+2+4 segmented architecture and a modified switching scheme to improve dynamic and static performance. The measured spurious-free dynamic range is up to 77.18 dB at 400 MS/s with a 10 MHz input signal. The full-scale output current is 20 mA with a 1.8 V single power supply. The core area occupies 0.6 mm2 in a standard 1P-6M 0.18-μm CMOS process.

  4. A determination of sampling intensity to characterize a Landsat MSS scene using two block sizes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horning, N.; Case, D.; Nelson, R.

    1986-01-01

    Three Landsat MSS scenes were processed to empirically determine the sampling intensity needed to characterize various land cover types including water, conifer, and hardwood. The block sizes used as the sampling units were 497 by 500 pixels (picture elements) and 248 by 250 pixels. It is found that, for a given accuracy criterion, the sampling intensity is dependent on the abundance of the cover type of interest in the MSS scene. The results also indicate that, when using the smaller block size, a smaller percentage of the scene has to be classified to obtain a given level of accuracy.

  5. Application of LANDSAT MSS data to the study of oceanographical environment. [Seto Inland Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator); Tsuchiya, K.; Ochiai, H.; Takeda, K.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT MSS data of a three year time lapse indicate change of sea surface condition in Seto Inland Sea and coastal region. The red tide which formerly concentrated in the bay or inland sea now extends into an open sea. A small ocean vortex similar to mesoscale atmospheric vortex is revealed by the band 4 image of the satellite data. A manual photographic method applied to a single band image of MSS is effective in detecting sea surface pollution.

  6. Information theoretic comparisons of original and transformed data from Landsat MSS and TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The dispersion and concentration of signal values in transformed data from the Landsat-4 MSS and TM instruments are analyzed using a communications theory approach. The definition of entropy of Shannon was used to quantify information, and the concept of mutual information was employed to develop a measure of information contained in several subsets of variables. Several comparisons of information content are made on the basis of the information content measure, including: system design capacities; data volume occupied by agricultural data; and the information content of original bands and Tasseled Cap variables. A method for analyzing noise effects in MSS and TM data is proposed.

  7. Dual functions of Mss51 couple synthesis of Cox1 to assembly of cytochrome c oxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Perez-Martinez, Xochitl; Butler, Christine A; Shingu-Vazquez, Miguel; Fox, Thomas D

    2009-10-01

    Functional interactions of the translational activator Mss51 with both the mitochondrially encoded COX1 mRNA 5'-untranslated region and with newly synthesized unassembled Cox1 protein suggest that it has a key role in coupling Cox1 synthesis with assembly of cytochrome c oxidase. Mss51 is present at levels that are near rate limiting for expression of a reporter gene inserted at COX1 in mitochondrial DNA, and a substantial fraction of Mss51 is associated with Cox1 protein in assembly intermediates. Thus, sequestration of Mss51 in assembly intermediates could limit Cox1 synthesis in wild type, and account for the reduced Cox1 synthesis caused by most yeast mutations that block assembly. Mss51 does not stably interact with newly synthesized Cox1 in a mutant lacking Cox14, suggesting that the failure of nuclear cox14 mutants to decrease Cox1 synthesis, despite their inability to assemble cytochrome c oxidase, is due to a failure to sequester Mss51. The physical interaction between Mss51 and Cox14 is dependent upon Cox1 synthesis, indicating dynamic assembly of early cytochrome c oxidase intermediates nucleated by Cox1. Regulation of COX1 mRNA translation by Mss51 seems to be an example of a homeostatic mechanism in which a positive effector of gene expression interacts with the product it regulates in a posttranslational assembly process.

  8. [On-board medical support system (MSS) of flights of promising aerospace sets (design)].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Bednenko, V S

    2010-01-01

    It was suggested as the main compositive fractions MSS to consider the base system of automated evaluation of blood redistribution (BR) in body means of crew members protection and prophylaxis (CMPP) of unfavourable effects of flight factors to organism and also the automated circuit of CMPP' control. The advanced MSS includes 4 original measuring channels for registration of the base physiologic indices (electrocardiogram, venous-arterial pulsegram of neck vessels, reogram of head, earlap vessels pulsegram) the dynamic of which allows to determine with the help of computer the BR-integral parameter. The CMPP automated control circuit unites the separate protecting means in common system and executes the individual selection of regimes and CM PP-composition in accord with, first of all, body reactions manifestation and, secondly, individual physiologic status of spaceman. As CMPP was selected the negative pressure production around lower body part. Approlation of constructed active laboratory engineering mock-up MSS has performed investigations with participation of 29 subjects (Volunteers) under the modeling of hemodynamic shifts, developing in human body in short-term antiorthostatic hypokinesia (-10 degrees), as well as, in combined effect of antiorthostatic hypokinesia (-10 degrees), Coriolis acceleration and optokinetic stimulation. Results of investigations have showed, that the use of advanced MSS gives the indices of operator professional activity on the average of 17-32% under the decrease of hemodynamic stressful.

  9. Satellite geological and geophysical remote sensing of Iceland: Preliminary results from analysis of MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.; Boedvarsson, A.; Fridriksson, S.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Thorarinsson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.

    1973-01-01

    A binational, multidisciplinary research effort in Iceland is directed at an analysis of MSS imagery from ERTS-1 to study a variety of geologic, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural phenomena. A preliminary evaluation of available MSS imagery of Iceland has yielded several significant results - some of which may have direct importance to the Icelandic economy. Initial findings can be summarized as follows: (1) recent lava flows can be delineated from older flows at Askja and Hekla; (2) MSS imagery from ERTS-1 and VHRR visible and infrared imagery from NOAA-2 recorded the vocanic eruption on Heimaey, Vestmann Islands; (3) coastline changes, particularly changes in the position of bars and beaches along the south coast are mappable; and (4) areas covered with new and residual snow can be mapped, and the appearance of newly fallen snow on ERTS-1, MSS band 7 appears dark where it is melting. ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of updating various types of maps of Iceland and will permit the compilation of special maps specifically aimed at those dynamic environmental phenomena which impact on the Icelandic economy.

  10. Ground truth management system to support multispectral scanner /MSS/ digital analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coiner, J. C.; Ungar, S. G.

    1977-01-01

    A computerized geographic information system for management of ground truth has been designed and implemented to relate MSS classification results to in situ observations. The ground truth system transforms, generalizes and rectifies ground observations to conform to the pixel size and shape of high resolution MSS aircraft data. These observations can then be aggregated for comparison to lower resolution sensor data. Construction of a digital ground truth array allows direct pixel by pixel comparison between classification results of MSS data and ground truth. By making comparisons, analysts can identify spatial distribution of error within the MSS data as well as usual figures of merit for the classifications. Use of the ground truth system permits investigators to compare a variety of environmental or anthropogenic data, such as soil color or tillage patterns, with classification results and allows direct inclusion of such data into classification operations. To illustrate the system, examples from classification of simulated Thematic Mapper data for agricultural test sites in North Dakota and Kansas are provided.

  11. 47 CFR 25.147 - Licensing provision for NGSO MSS feeder downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.147 Licensing provision for NGSO MSS feeder downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz. If an...

  12. 47 CFR 25.147 - Licensing provision for NGSO MSS feeder downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.147 Licensing provision for NGSO MSS feeder downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz. If an...

  13. 47 CFR 25.147 - Licensing provision for NGSO MSS feeder downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.147 Licensing provision for NGSO MSS feeder downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz. If an...

  14. 47 CFR 25.147 - Licensing provision for NGSO MSS feeder downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.147 Licensing provision for NGSO MSS feeder downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz. If an...

  15. A 14-bit 250-MS/s current-steering CMOS digital-to-analog converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueqing, Li; Hua, Fan; Qi, Wei; Zhen, Xu; Jianan, Liu; Huazhong, Yang

    2013-08-01

    A 14-bit 250-MS/s current-steering digital-to-analog converter (DAC) was fabricated in a 0.13 μm CMOS process. In conventional high-speed current-steering DACs, the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) is limited by nonlinear distortions in the code-dependent switching glitches. In this paper, the bottleneck is mitigated by the time-relaxed interleaving digital-random-return-to-zero (TRI-DRRZ). Under 250-MS/s sampling rate, the measured SFDR is 86.2 dB at 5.5-MHz signal frequency and 77.8 dB up to 122 MHz. The DAC occupies an active area of 1.58 mm2 and consumes 226 mW from a mixed power supply of 1.2/2.5 V.

  16. Aircraft MSS data registration and vegetation classification of wetland change detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, E.J.; Jensen, J.R.; Ramsey, Elijah W.; Mackey, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    Portions of the Savannah River floodplain swamp were evaluated for vegetation change using high resolution (5a??6 m) aircraft multispectral scanner (MSS) data. Image distortion from aircraft movement prevented precise image-to-image registration in some areas. However, when small scenes were used (200-250 ha), a first-order linear transformation provided registration accuracies of less than or equal to one pixel. A larger area was registered using a piecewise linear method. Five major wetland classes were identified and evaluated for change. Phenological differences and the variable distribution of vegetation limited wetland type discrimination. Using unsupervised methods and ground-collected vegetation data, overall classification accuracies ranged from 84 per cent to 87 per cent for each scene. Results suggest that high-resolution aircraft MSS data can be precisely registered, if small areas are used, and that wetland vegetation change can be accurately detected and monitored.

  17. The Control Point Library Building System. [for Landsat MSS and RBV geometric image correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niblack, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota distributes precision corrected Landsat MSS and RBV data. These data are derived from master data tapes produced by the Master Data Processor (MDP), NASA's system for computing and applying corrections to the data. Included in the MDP is the Control Point Library Building System (CPLBS), an interactive, menu-driven system which permits a user to build and maintain libraries of control points. The control points are required to achieve the high geometric accuracy desired in the output MSS and RBV data. This paper describes the processing performed by CPLBS, the accuracy of the system, and the host computer and special image viewing equipment employed.

  18. Parametric and Nonparametric Analysis of LANDSAT TM and MSS Imagery for Detecting Submerged Plant Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of LANDSAT TM and MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation are assessed. The problem is approached from two perspectives; purely stochastic or nonparametric in a radiative sense and theoretical in which radiative transfer equations are used to predict upwelling radiance at satellite altitude. The spectral and radiometric aspects of the theoretical approach are addressed with which a submerged plant canopy is distinguished from a surrounding bottom of sand or mud.

  19. Unsupervised classification of MSS Landsat data for mapping spatially complex vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Justice, C. O.

    1980-01-01

    The various stages in carrying out a monocluster block unsupervised classification using Landsat MSS data are described. Procedures for carrying out these various stages were found to be far from well-established for the type of terrain being investigated, which is rugged and contains many small land cover units. Two particular difficulties were encountered: first, that of precise ground location of pixels; and, secondly, that of objectively evaluating the results. Ways in which these can be surmounted are suggested.

  20. Structure of the Yeast DEAD Box Protein Mss116p Reveals Two Wedges that Crimp RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Del Campo, Mark; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2010-01-12

    The yeast DEAD box protein Mss116p is a general RNA chaperone that functions in mitochondrial group I and II intron splicing, translational activation, and RNA end processing. Here we determined high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of Mss116p complexed with an RNA oligonucleotide and ATP analogs AMP-PNP, ADP-BeF{sub 3}, or ADP-AlF{sub 4}{sup -}. The structures show the entire helicase core acting together with a functionally important C-terminal extension. In all structures, the helicase core is in a closed conformation with a wedge {alpha} helix bending RNA 3' of the central bound nucleotides, as in previous DEAD box protein structures. Notably, Mss116p's C-terminal extension also bends RNA 5' of the central nucleotides, resulting in RNA crimping. Despite reported functional differences, we observe few structural changes in ternary complexes with different ATP analogs. The structures constrain models of DEAD box protein function and reveal a strand separation mechanism in which a protein uses two wedges to act as a molecular crimper.

  1. DISCRIMINATION OF GRANITOIDS AND MINERALIZED GRANITOIDS IN THE MIDYAN REGION, NORTHWESTERN ARABIAN SHIELD, SAUDI ARABIA, BY LANDSAT MSS DATA-ANALYSIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Grolier, Maurice J.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) band and band-ratio databases of two scenes covering the Midyan region of northwestern Saudi Arabia were examined quantitatively and qualitatively to determine which databases best discriminate the geologic units of this semi-arid and arid region. Unsupervised, linear-discriminant cluster-analysis was performed on these two band-ratio combinations and on the MSS bands for both scenes. The results for granitoid-rock discrimination indicated that the classification images using the MSS bands are superior to the band-ratio classification images for two reasons, discussed in the paper. Yet, the effects of topography and material type (including desert varnish) on the MSS-band data produced ambiguities in the MSS-band classification results. However, these ambiguities were clarified by using a simulated natural-color image in conjunction with the MSS-band classification image.

  2. Summary of Current Radiometric Calibration Coefficients for Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and EO-1 ALI Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Markham, Brian L.; Helder, Dennis L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the current equations and rescaling factors for converting calibrated Digital Numbers (DNs) to absolute units of at-sensor spectral radiance, Top-Of- Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, and at-sensor brightness temperature. It tabulates the necessary constants for the Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) sensors. These conversions provide a basis for standardized comparison of data in a single scene or between images acquired on different dates or by different sensors. This paper forms a needed guide for Landsat data users who now have access to the entire Landsat archive at no cost.

  3. Machine processing of Landsat MSS data and DMA topographic data for forest cover type mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, M. D.; Hoffer, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    A study with the objective of developing and testing techniques which utilize both digital topographic data and Landsat MSS spectral data to map forest cover types is examined. Emphasis is given to the topographic distribution model (TDM), which combines point-by-point information about forest species, elevation, slope, and aspect to quantitatively describe topographic positions. Results show the stratified random sample approach to be very effective for developing the TDM, while the use of topographic data significantly improved the overall classification accuracy of forest cover types as compared to using spectral data alone.

  4. Digital mapping of limonitic rocks by using Landsat MSS radio data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, Melvin H.; Segal, Donald B.; Simpson, Shirley; Barringer, Anthony R.

    1980-01-01

    Color-ratio composite images of Landsat MSS (multi-spectral scanner) bands have been used by other workers to map the distribution of limonitic rocks in semi-arid and arid areas as possible indicators of hydrothermal alteration (Rowan et al, 1974). The images are particularly useful for broad overviews, but detailed analysis at large scales requires both numerical analysis of the ratio values to distinguish consistently among categories of limonitic rocks and a precise transfer of the data to large-scale base maps. Both requirements can be met by digital classification followed by a precise geometric registration of the classified data.

  5. Crop identification and area estimation over large geographic areas using LANDSAT MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT MSS data was adequate to accurately identify wheat in Kansas; corn and soybean estimates in Indiana were less accurate. Computer-aided analysis techniques were effectively used to extract crop identification information from LANDSAT data. Systematic sampling of entire counties made possible by computer classification methods resulted in very precise area estimates at county, district, and state levels. Training statistics were successfully extended from one county to other counties having similar crops and soils if the training areas sampled the total variation of the area to be classified.

  6. The identification of cloud types in LANDSAT MSS images. [Great Britain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, E. C. (Principal Investigator); Grant, C. K.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Five general families of clouds were identified: cumulonimbiform, cumuliform, stratiform, stratocumuliform, and cirriform. Four members of this five-fold primary division of clouds were further divided into a number of subgroups. The MSS observed and recorded earth radiation in four different wavebands. Two of these bands (4 and 5) image in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, while the others (6 and 7) image the short wave portion, or just into the infrared. The main differences between the appearances of clouds in the four wavebands are related to the background brightness of land and sea surfaces.

  7. Second generation digital techniques for processing LANDSAT MSS data. [Chesapeake Bay and Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rifman, S. S.; Simon, K. W.; Caron, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported for precision corrected LANDSAT MSS full scene registration of better than 0.5 picture element (rms), utilizing all digital methods. Examples of such registered full scene images are presented and evaluated by two methods: (1) change detection imagery which represents pixel by pixel the difference of corresponding pixel values in the registered data; and (2) direct measurement of registration errors throughout the imagery by means of a highly accurate cross correlation algorithm. Subscene image details illustrate the impact on registration accuracy of two interpolation algorithms.

  8. Snowcover mapping by machine processing of Skylab and LANDSAT MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolucci, L. A.; Hoffer, R. M.; Luther, S. G.

    1975-01-01

    Skylab and LANDSAT MSS data were analyzed using computer-aided analysis techniques (CAAT). Results indicated that the middle infrared wavelength bands of the Skylab S-192 scanner would allow effective discrimination between snowcover and water-droplet clouds, whereas the limited spectral response of the LANDSAT-1 or 2 scanners do not allow such spectral discrimination. Five spectral classes of snowcover were defined and mapped. These classes were found to be related to differences in the proportion of snow and forest cover in the individual resolution elements.

  9. Summary of current radiometric calibration coefficients for Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and EO-1 ALI sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Helder, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the current equations and rescaling factors for converting calibrated Digital Numbers (DNs) to absolute units of at-sensor spectral radiance, Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, and at-sensor brightness temperature. It tabulates the necessary constants for the Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) sensors. These conversions provide a basis for standardized comparison of data in a single scene or between images acquired on different dates or by different sensors. This paper forms a needed guide for Landsat data users who now have access to the entire Landsat archive at no cost.

  10. Classification of vegetation communities in the Battle Mountain SE quadrangle, Nevada with MSS digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridd, M. K.; Ramsey, R. D.; Douglass, G. E.; Merola, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT MSS digital data were utilized to identify vegetation types in an area of Battle Mountain SE in northern Nevada. Ways in which terrain data may improve spectral classification were investigated. The basic data set was a CCT of LANDSAT scene 82233617450, dated 15 June 1981. Seventeen ecotypic classifications were identified in the study area on the basis of field investigations. The percent cover by life form and non-living material for the 17 classes is summarized along with the percent cover by species for the 17 classes.

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of mammalian MSS4–Rab8 GTPase protein complex

    SciTech Connect

    Itzen, Aymelt; Bleimling, Nathalie; Ignatev, Alexander; Pylypenko, Olena; Rak, Alexey

    2006-02-01

    The MSS4 (mammalian suppressor of Sec4) protein in complex with nucleotide-free Rab8 GTPase has been purified and crystallized in a form suitable for structure analysis and a complete data set has been collected to 2 Å resolution. Rab GTPases function as ubiquitous key regulators of membrane-vesicle transport in eukaryotic cells. MSS4 is an evolutionarily conserved protein that binds to exocytotic Rabs and facilitates nucleotide release. The MSS4 protein in complex with nucleotide-free Rab8 GTPase has been purified and crystallized in a form suitable for structure analysis. The crystals belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 40.92, b = 49.85, c = 83.48 Å, α = 102.88, β = 97.46, γ = 90.12°. A complete data set has been collected to 2 Å resolution.

  12. Land use classification using texture information in ERTS-A MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Shanmugam, K. S.; Bosley, R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary digital analysis of ERTS-1 MSS imagery reveals that the textural features of the imagery are very useful for land use classification. A procedure for extracting the textural features of ERTS-1 imagery is presented and the results of a land use classification scheme based on the textural features are also presented. The land use classification algorithm using textural features was tested on a 5100 square mile area covered by part of an ERTS-1 MSS band 5 image over the California coastline. The image covering this area was blocked into 648 subimages of size 8.9 square miles each. Based on a color composite of the image set, a total of 7 land use categories were identified. These land use categories are: coastal forest, woodlands, annual grasslands, urban areas, large irrigated fields, small irrigated fields, and water. The automatic classifier was trained to identify the land use categories using only the textural characteristics of the subimages; 75 percent of the subimages were assigned correct identifications. Since texture and spectral features provide completely different kinds of information, a significant increase in identification accuracy will take place when both features are used together.

  13. Image restoration techniques as applied to Landsat MSS and TM data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, David

    1987-01-01

    Two factors are primarily responsible for the loss of image sharpness in processing digital Landsat images. The first factor is inherent in the data because the sensor's optics and electronics, along with other sensor elements, blur and smear the data. Digital image restoration can be used to reduce this degradation. The second factor, which further degrades by blurring or aliasing, is the resampling performed during geometric correction. An image restoration procedure, when used in place of typical resampled techniques, reduces sensor degradation without introducing the artifacts associated with resampling. The EROS Data Center (EDC) has implemented the restoration proceed for Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) data. This capability, developed at the University of Arizona by Dr. Robert Schowengerdt and Lynette Wood, combines restoration and resampling in a single step to produce geometrically corrected MSS and TM imagery. As with resampling, restoration demands a tradeoff be made between aliasing, which occurs when attempting to extract maximum sharpness from an image, and blurring, which reduces the aliasing problem but sacrifices image sharpness. The restoration procedure used at EDC minimizes these artifacts by being adaptive, tailoring the tradeoff to be optimal for individual images.

  14. Comparative assessment of LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data quality for mapping applications in the southeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R.

    1983-01-01

    The initial objectives of analyses of the MSS data are two-fold: (1) to evaluate the geodetic accuracy of CCT-P data of the test sites; and (2) to improve the geodetic accuracy by additional processing if the original data either do not meet pre-launch specifications or mapping requirements. The location of 45 ground control points (GCP) digitized from 35 U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale quadrangles (UTM coordinates) were identified in terms of pixel and scan line values. These 46 points are used to establish UTM position error vector distributions in the scene. As an initial check on the geometric reliability of the MSS data, 28 well-distributed GCPs were input to a program which compares the scaled image distances between all possible point pairs with the corresponding map distances and computes the distance differences; that is, the relative positional errors. The relative errors obtained from initial computations averaged about +/- 200 m. These errors could result from a number of sources, including misidentification of GCP locations, UTM coordinate errors introduced by the map digitizing process or errors resulting from data acquisition and geometric processing.

  15. A 10-bit 50-MS/s subsampling pipelined ADC based on SMDAC and opamp sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lijie, Chen; Yumei, Zhou; Baoyue, Wei

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes a 10-bit, 50-MS/s pipelined A/D converter (ADC) with proposed area- and power-efficient architecture. The conventional dedicated sample-hold-amplifier (SHA) is eliminated and the matching requirement between the first multiplying digital-to-analog converter (MDAC) and sub-ADC is also avoided by using the SHA merged with the first MDAC (SMDAC) architecture, which features low power and stabilization. Further reduction of power and area is achieved by sharing an opamp between two successive pipelined stages, in which the effect of opamp offset and crosstalk between stages is decreased. So the 10-bit pipelined ADC is realized using just four opamps. The ADC demonstrates a maximum signal-to-noise distortion ratio and spurious free dynamic range of 52.67 dB and 59.44 dB, respectively, with a Nyquist input at full sampling rate. Constant dynamic performance for input frequencies up to 49.7 MHz, which is the twofold Nyquist rate, is achieved at 50 MS/s. The ADC prototype only occupies an active area of 1.81 mm2 in a 0.35 μm CMOS process, and consumes 133 mW when sampling at 50 MHz from a 3.3-V power supply.

  16. A high capacity mobile communications satellite system for the first generation MSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedeman, R. A.

    A low-cost high-capacity dual-band mobile communications satellite system using existing equipment is proposed for the first generation MSS. Cost effectiveness and the requirements of beam optimization and passive intermodulation avoidance dictated the choice of two single band satellites for separate UHF and L-band coverage of North America. Similar designs for the two satellites, based on the Intelsat V and Insat/Arabsat configurations, will achieve over 6000 5-kHz SCPC, communications channels for the system. The 12 beam UHF and 17 beam L-band satellites achieve up to a three-fold frequency reuse of the FCC allocated MSS frequency spectrum. Spacecraft design features include separate 9.1 m antennas for sending and receiving, SAW filters for channel noise attenuation, an integrated bipropellant propulsion system, and a 3.8 kW 10-year electrical power subsystem with a solar array. The satellites are compatible with the STS, Ariane, and other expendable boosters.

  17. Bulk Processing of the Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ Archive of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northrop, A.; Lavender, S.; Saunier, S.; Gascon, F.; Biasutti, R.; Fischer, P.; Hoersch, B.; Colamussi, G.; Meloni, M.; Paciucci, A.; Galli, L.; Ferrara, R.; Mica, S.

    2016-08-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has acquired Landsat data over Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East during the last 40 years.A new ESA Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) processor was developed to align historical products to the highest quality standards.Achievements include the processing of >900,000 TM/ETM+ high-quality products between 1984 and 2011 from the Kiruna (KSE), Maspalomas (MPS) and Matera (MTI) archives.The reprocessed TM/ETM+ datasets are available for free, immediate download through ESA's fast and simple dissemination service (https://landsat- ds.eo.esa.int/app/), and browsing system, EOLI. During 2016 a new version of the processor is being developed for MSS data, which dates back more than 40 years, with the data gradually becoming available during 2016 and 2017.The ESA Landsat processor algorithm enhancement, together with the results of the ESA archive bulk- processing regarding production, quality control and data validation are herein presented.

  18. 47 CFR 25.258 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) Operators of NGSO MSS feeder link earth stations and GSO FSS earth stations in the band 29.25 to... MSS feeder link earth station complexes, that will minimize instances of unacceptable interference to the GSO FSS space stations. Earth station licensees operating with GSO FSS systems shall be capable...

  19. 47 CFR 25.258 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (a) Operators of NGSO MSS feeder link earth stations and GSO FSS earth stations in the band 29.25 to... MSS feeder link earth station complexes, that will minimize instances of unacceptable interference to the GSO FSS space stations. Earth station licensees operating with GSO FSS systems shall be capable...

  20. 47 CFR 25.258 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (a) Operators of NGSO MSS feeder link earth stations and GSO FSS earth stations in the band 29.25 to... MSS feeder link earth station complexes, that will minimize instances of unacceptable interference to the GSO FSS space stations. Earth station licensees operating with GSO FSS systems shall be capable...

  1. 47 CFR 25.258 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (a) Operators of NGSO MSS feeder link earth stations and GSO FSS earth stations in the band 29.25 to... MSS feeder link earth station complexes, that will minimize instances of unacceptable interference to the GSO FSS space stations. Earth station licensees operating with GSO FSS systems shall be capable...

  2. 47 CFR 25.258 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (a) Operators of NGSO MSS feeder link earth stations and GSO FSS earth stations in the band 29.25 to... MSS feeder link earth station complexes, that will minimize instances of unacceptable interference to the GSO FSS space stations. Earth station licensees operating with GSO FSS systems shall be capable...

  3. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for...

  4. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for...

  5. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for...

  6. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for...

  7. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for...

  8. An Analysis of Minimum Service Standards (MSS) in Basic Education: A Case Study at Magelang Municipality, Central Java, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haryati, Sri

    2014-01-01

    The study aims at analyzing the achievement of Minimum Service Standards (MSS) in Basic Education through a case study at Magelang Municipality. The findings shall be used as a starting point to predict the needs to meet MMS by 2015 and to provide strategies for achievement. Both primary and secondary data were used in the study investigating the…

  9. A comparison of LANDSAT TM to MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation in lower Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery generated simultaneously over Guinea Marsh, Virginia, are assessed in the ability to detect submerged aquatic, bottom-adhering plant canopies (SAV). An unsupervised clustering algorithm is applied to both image types and the resulting classifications compared to SAV distributions derived from color aerial photography. Class confidence and accuracy are first computed for all water areas and then only shallow areas where water depth is less than 6 feet. In both the TM and MSS imagery, masking water areas deeper than 6 ft. resulted in greater classification accuracy at confidence levels greater than 50%. Both systems perform poorly in detecting SAV with crown cover densities less than 70%. On the basis of the spectral resolution, radiometric sensitivity, and location of visible bands, TM imagery does not offer a significant advantage over MSS data for detecting SAV in Lower Chesapeake Bay. However, because the TM imagery represents a higher spatial resolution, smaller SAV canopies may be detected than is possible with MSS data.

  10. 47 CFR 25.147 - Licensing provision for NGSO MSS feeder downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space... MSS satellite transmitting in the band 6700-6875 MHz causes harmful interference to previously licensed co-frequency Public Safety facilities, then that satellite licensee is obligated to remedy...

  11. 47 CFR 25.285 - Operation of MSS and ATC transmitters or transceivers on board civil aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration or is used by the pilot or with the pilot's consent: (1) Earth stations...; (2) ATC terminals capable of transmitting in the 1.5/1.6 GHz or 1.6/2.4 GHz MSS bands; (3)...

  12. Landuse Change Analysis of Tama River Basin with Different Spatial Resolution Sensor Data by Landsat/MSS and TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiba, H.; Kameda, K.; Uesugi, S.; Tanaka, S.

    A lot of engineering problems which cannot be solved occur if the change process of the land use in the object basin is not understood over a long term when the land use in river basin is planned and social base is maintained. It is necessary to use the images observed with Landsat MSS and TM sensor for the time series to investigate the land use over a long term from the first half of 1970's. In this study, the classification method for the area of mixed land cover influenced easily by the difference of the TM and MSS was examined. It was verified how there was the classification difference between TM and MSS in the whole of actual basin. The investigation possibility for a long term of the land use change in river basin was verified by using both TM and MSS. In addition, the land use change in the Tama basin was able to be shown for the past 25 years

  13. Automatic interpretation of MSS-LANDSAT data applied to coal refuse site studies in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Valeriano, D. D. M.

    1982-01-01

    The coal mining district in southeastern Santa Catarina State is considered one of the most polluted areas of Brazil. The author has identified significant preliminary results on the application of MSS-LANDSAT digital data to monitor the coal refuse areas and its environmental consequences in this region.

  14. The essential phosphoinositide kinase MSS-4 is required for polar hyphal morphogenesis, localizing to sites of growth and cell fusion in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Mähs, Anette; Ischebeck, Till; Heilig, Yvonne; Stenzel, Irene; Hempel, Franziska; Seiler, Stephan; Heilmann, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Fungal hyphae and plant pollen tubes are among the most highly polarized cells known and pose extraordinary requirements on their cell polarity machinery. Cellular morphogenesis is driven through the phospholipid-dependent organization at the apical plasma membrane. We characterized the contribution of phosphoinositides (PIs) in hyphal growth of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora crassa. MSS-4 is an essential gene and its deletion resulted in spherically growing cells that ultimately lyse. Two conditional mss-4-mutants exhibited altered hyphal morphology and aberrant branching at restrictive conditions that were complemented by expression of wild type MSS-4. Recombinant MSS-4 was characterized as a phosphatidylinositolmonophosphate-kinase phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)). PtdIns3P was also used as a substrate. Sequencing of two conditional mss-4 alleles identified a single substitution of a highly conserved Y750 to N. The biochemical characterization of recombinant protein variants revealed Y750 as critical for PI4P 5-kinase activity of MSS-4 and of plant PI4P 5-kinases. The conditional growth defects of mss-4 mutants were caused by severely reduced activity of MSS-4(Y750N), enabling the formation of only trace amounts of PtdIns(4,5)P(2). In N. crassa hyphae, PtdIns(4,5)P(2) localized predominantly in the plasma membrane of hyphae and along septa. Fluorescence-tagged MSS-4 formed a subapical collar at hyphal tips, localized to constricting septa and accumulated at contact points of fusing N. crassa germlings, indicating MSS-4 is responsible for the formation of relevant pools of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) that control polar and directional growth and septation. N. crassa MSS-4 differs from yeast, plant and mammalian PI4P 5-kinases by containing additional protein domains. The N-terminal domain of N. crassa MSS-4 was required for correct membrane association. The data presented for N

  15. Coastal wetlands analysis from ERTS MSS digital data and field spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, V.; Schubert, J.

    1974-01-01

    Classification, delineation and evaluation of coastal wetlands can be made on the basis of major vegetative associations. To produce wetland maps, two vegetation-analysis look-up tables were developed for use in the ERTS ANALYSIS System. These look-up tables are based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) digital values in Multispectral Scanner (MSS) bands 4, 5, and 7 and were developed using seasonal spectral reflectance measurements from field observations. Computer-generated maps at an approximate scale of 1:20,000 were produced for the primary test site, Chincoteague Marsh, Virginia. There is a high degree of accuracy in the identification of wetland features and plant associations. The classification was also tested on other Atlantic coast salt marshes and a brackish marsh in the Chesapeake Bay.

  16. Estimating total standing herbaceous biomass production with LANDSAT MSS digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Everitt, J. H.; Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Rangeland biomass data were correlated with spectral vegetation indices, derived from LANDSAT MSS data. LANDSAT data from five range and three other land use sites in Willacv and Cameron Counties were collected on October 17 and December 10, 1975, and on July 31 and September 23, 1976. The overall linear correlation of total standing herbaceous biomass with the LANDSAT derived perpendicular vegetation index was highly significant (r = 0.90**) for these four dates. The standard error of estimate was 722 kg/ha. Biomass data were recorded for two of these range sites for 8 months (March through October) during the 1976 growing season. Standing green biomass accounted for most of the increase in herbage, starting in June and ending about September and October. These results indicate that satellite data may be useful for the estimation of total standing herbaceous biomass production that could aid range managers in assessing range condition and animal carrying capacities of large and inaccessible range holdings.

  17. Fusion of declassified airphotos and Landsat MSS data for old landslides detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Kavoura, Katerina; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos; Vaiopoulos, Aristides D.

    2014-10-01

    In this study eight commercial available fusion techniques and more especially the Ehlers, High Pass Filter, HCS (Hyperspherical Color Space), Modified IHS (ModIHS), Pansharp, Pansharp2, PCA, and Wavelet were used for the fusion of a Declassified KH-7 airphoto and a Landsat1 MSS image. Both images were acquired on 1972. The panchromatic data have a spatial resolution of 8m while the multispectral data have a spatial resolution of 80m. The optical result, the statistical parameters and different quality indexes such as ERGAS, Q, entropy were examined and the results are presented. As the ultimate purpose of the data fusion is to help in the detection of old landslides, two small areas where historical landslides have been occurred were selected for the evaluation of the fusion algorithms. Both areas are located in western Peloponnese in Achaia Prefecture.

  18. Digital overlay of cartographic information on Landsat MSS data for soil surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Irons, J. R.; Petersen, G. W.; Sykes, S. G.

    1982-01-01

    Cartographic soils data were digitized, spatially registered, and merged with processed Landsat image data. The Landsat Multispectral Scanner Subsystem (MSS) image data were used to generate a thematic map representing different soil surface characteristics and an enhanced image. The thematic map was generated using supervised and unsupervised classification procedures. The enhanced image was generated by performing a linear contrast stretch on data altered by a principal components transformation. Although both procedures yielded images useful for soil unit delineation, image enhancement was determined to be more suitable because it was more expedient and inexpensive. Enhanced images cost $0.06 per hectare, spectral classifications cost $0.08 per hectare. The overlay of cartographic data on Landsat data facilitates comparisons between the various processing methods used for soil unit boundary determination, delineation, and verification. This technique also provides for accurate and expedient spatial referencing for field observations and cartographic correlation.

  19. Landsat-4 MSS and Thematic Mapper data quality and information content analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.; Bartolucci, L. A.; Dean, M. E.; Lozano, D. F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Valdes, J. A.; Valenzuela, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner data were analyzed to obtain information on data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations were performed to test band-to-band registration accuracy. Thematic Mapper overall system resolution was evaluated using scene objects which demonstrated sharp high contrast edge responses. Radiometric evaluation included detector relative calibration, effects of resampling, and coherent noise effects. Information content evaluation was carried out using clustering, principal components, transformed divergence separability measure, and numerous supervised classifiers on data from Iowa and Illinois. A detailed spectral class analysis (multispectral classification) was carried out on data from the Des Moines, IA area to compare the information content of the MSS and TM for a large number of scene classes.

  20. Evaluation of ERTS MSS digital data for monitoring water in the lower Chesapeake Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Water samples collected during the ERTS overpasses of the lower Chesapeake Bay area have been analyzed for chlorophyll, particles, and sediment. Five ERTS images were sufficiently cloud free that a correlation analysis of radiance values from the MSS bands with the water parameters could be performed. A low correlation was established for chlorophyll, except during algal blooms, when band 6 was responsive. There was a fair to good correlation with particles for combinations of band 5, particularly bands (5 minus 6). Sediment correlations were excellent for band 5 or combinations of band 5 with bands 4 and 6. It was evident that such factors as the atmosphere, tide, and different water masses were tending to confuse the data.

  1. A 12-bit, 40-Ms/s pipelined ADC with an improved operational amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wang; Haigang, Yang; Tao, Yin; Fei, Liu

    2012-05-01

    This paper proposes a 12-bit, 40-Ms/s pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an improved high-gain and wide-bandwidth operational amplifier (opamp). Based on the architecture of the proposed ADC, the non-ideal factors of opamps are first analyzed, which have the significant impact on the ADC's resolution. Then, the compensation techniques of the ADC's opamp are presented to restrain the negative effect introduced by the gain-boosting technique and switched-capacitor common-mode-feedback structure. After analysis and optimization, the ADC implemented in a 0.35 μm standard CMOS process shows a maximum signal-to-noise distortion ratio of 60.5 dB and a spurious-free dynamic range of 74.5 dB, respectively, at a 40 MHz sample clock with over 2 Vpp input range.

  2. Using Landsat MSS data with soils information to identify wetland habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, C. L.; Hoffer, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    A previous study showed that certain fresh water wetland vegetation types can be spectrally separated when a maximum likelihood classification procedure is applied to Landsat spectral data. However, wetland and upland types which have similar vegetative life forms (e.g., upland hardwoods and hardwood swamps) are often confused because of spectral similarity. Therefore, the current investigation attempts to differentiate similar wetland and upland types by combining Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data with soils information. The Pigeon River area in northern Indiana used in the earlier study was also employed in this investigation. A layered classification algorithm which combined soils and spectral data was used to generate a wetland classification. The results of the spectral/soils wetland classification are compared to the previous classification that had been based on spectral data alone. The results indicate wetland habitat mapping can be improved by combining soils and other ancillary data with Landsat spectral data.

  3. Structural mapping from MSS-LANDSAT imagery: A proposed methodology for international geological correlation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Crepani, E.; Martini, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for international geological correlation studies based on LANDSAT-MSS imagery, Bullard's model of continental fit and compatible structural trends between Northeast Brazil and the West African counterpart. Six extensive lineaments in the Brazilian study area are mapped and discussed according to their regional behavior and in relation to the adjacent continental margin. Among the first conclusions, correlations were found between the Sobral Pedro II Lineament and the megafaults that surround the West African craton; and the Pernambuco Lineament with the Ngaurandere Linemanet in Cameroon. Ongoing research to complete the methodological stages includes the mapping of the West African structural framework, reconstruction of the pre-drift puzzle, and an analysis of the counterpart correlations.

  4. Comparison of the information contents of Landsat TM and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    A communications-theory approach is taken to analyze the dispersion and concentration of signal values in various data spaces, irrespective of specific class membership. Entropy is used to quantify information, and mutual information is used to measure the information represented by subsets of spectral variables. Several different comparisons of information content are made. These include comparisons of system design capacities, of data volumes occupied by agricultural data in the spaces defined by original bands and by transformed spectral (Tasseled Cap) variables, of the information contents of original bands and Tasseled Cap variables, and of the information contents of TM and MSS for the given agricultural data sets. Also, the effects of sample size, scene content, and quantization level are examined.

  5. Comparison of the information contents of LANDSAT TM and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    A communications-theory approach is taken to analyze the dispersion and concentration of signal values in various data spaces, irrespective of specific class membership. Entropy is used to quantify information, and mutual information is used to measure the information represented by subsets of spectral variables. Several different comparisons of information content are made. These include comparisons of system design capacities, of data volumes occupied by agricultural data in the spaces defined by original bands and by transformed spectral (Tasseled Cap) variables, of the information contents of original bands and Tasseled Cap variables, and of the information contents of TM and MSS for the given agricultural data sets. Also, the effects of sample size, scene content, and quantization level are examined.

  6. Coastal and submarine features on MSS imagery of Southeastern Massachusetts: Comparison with conventional maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Three ERTS-1, MSS images of southeastern Massachusetts, including Cape Cod Bay, Cape Cod, and Nantucket Sound, show a variety of dynamic geologic and hydrologic phenomena. Coastal features imaged include the coastline at different time in the tidal cycle, harbors, lakes and ponds, marshes (wetlands), and beach and dune areas; submarine features include tidal flats, shoals, dredged and natural channels, and bars. Comparison with conventional maps at 1:1,000,000 and 1:250,000 scales show many inaccuracies between the ERTS imagery and the two map scales. The ERTS-1 imagery can be used to increase the accuracy of these maps, portray additional environmental information, and provide the capability for frequent updating of maps at such scales. ERTS-1 imagery provides a very cost effective method for provision of certain types of environmental data for Cape Cod and environs.

  7. Mapping forest vegetation with ERTS-1 MSS data and automatic data processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messmore, J.; Copeland, G. E.; Levy, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the intent of elucidating the forest mapping capabilities of ERTS-1 MSS data when analyzed with the aid of LARS' automatic data processing techniques. The site for this investigation was the Great Dismal Swamp, a 210,000 acre wilderness area located on the Middle Atlantic coastal plain. Due to inadequate ground truth information on the distribution of vegetation within the swamp, an unsupervised classification scheme was utilized. Initially pictureprints, resembling low resolution photographs, were generated in each of the four ERTS-1 channels. Data found within rectangular training fields was then clustered into 13 spectral groups and defined statistically. Using a maximum likelihood classification scheme, the unknown data points were subsequently classified into one of the designated training classes. Training field data was classified with a high degree of accuracy (greater than 95 percent), and progress is being made towards identifying the mapped spectral classes.

  8. An integrated software system for geometric correction of LANDSAT MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Esilva, A. J. F. M.; Camara-Neto, G.; Serra, P. R. M.; Desousa, R. C. M.; Mitsuo, Fernando Augusta, II

    1984-01-01

    A system for geometrically correcting LANDSAT MSS imagery includes all phases of processing, from receiving a raw computer compatible tape (CCT) to the generation of a corrected CCT (or UTM mosaic). The system comprises modules for: (1) control of the processing flow; (2) calculation of satellite ephemeris and attitude parameters, (3) generation of uncorrected files from raw CCT data; (4) creation, management and maintenance of a ground control point library; (5) determination of the image correction equations, using attitude and ephemeris parameters and existing ground control points; (6) generation of corrected LANDSAT file, using the equations determined beforehand; (7) union of LANDSAT scenes to produce and UTM mosaic; and (8) generation of output tape, in super-structure format.

  9. Blob - An unsupervised clustering approach to spatial preprocessing of MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauth, R. J.; Pentland, A. P.; Thomas, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    A basic concept of MSS data processing has been developed for use in agricultural inventories; namely, to introduce spatial coordinates of each pixel into the vector description of the pixel and to use this information along with the spectral channel values in a conventional unsupervised clustering of the scene. The result is to isolate spectrally homogeneous field-like patches (called 'blobs'). The spectral mean vector of a blob can be regarded as a defined feature and used in a conventional pattern recognition procedure. The benefits of use are: ease in locating training units in imagery; data compression of from 10 to 30 depending on the application; reduction of scanner noise and consequently potential improvements in classification/proportion estimation performances.

  10. Somatic Mutation Profiles of MSI and MSS Colorectal Cancer Identified by Whole Exome Next Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roehr, Christina; Fischer, Axel; Isau, Melanie; Boerno, Stefan T.; Wunderlich, Andrea; Barmeyer, Christian; Seemann, Petra; Koenig, Jana; Lappe, Michael; Kuss, Andreas W.; Garshasbi, Masoud; Bertram, Lars; Trappe, Kathrin; Werber, Martin; Herrmann, Bernhard G.; Zatloukal, Kurt; Lehrach, Hans; Schweiger, Michal R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is with approximately 1 million cases the third most common cancer worldwide. Extensive research is ongoing to decipher the underlying genetic patterns with the hope to improve early cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this direction, the recent progress in next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the field of cancer genomics. However, one caveat of these studies remains the large amount of genetic variations identified and their interpretation. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present the first work on whole exome NGS of primary colon cancers. We performed 454 whole exome pyrosequencing of tumor as well as adjacent not affected normal colonic tissue from microsatellite stable (MSS) and microsatellite instable (MSI) colon cancer patients and identified more than 50,000 small nucleotide variations for each tissue. According to predictions based on MSS and MSI pathomechanisms we identified eight times more somatic non-synonymous variations in MSI cancers than in MSS and we were able to reproduce the result in four additional CRCs. Our bioinformatics filtering approach narrowed down the rate of most significant mutations to 359 for MSI and 45 for MSS CRCs with predicted altered protein functions. In both CRCs, MSI and MSS, we found somatic mutations in the intracellular kinase domain of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A, BMPR1A, a gene where so far germline mutations are associated with juvenile polyposis syndrome, and show that the mutations functionally impair the protein function. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that with deep sequencing of tumor exomes one may be able to predict the microsatellite status of CRC and in addition identify potentially clinically relevant mutations. PMID:21203531

  11. [Investigation of JinKui ShenQi pills by ultraviolet spectra and tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-lan; Sun, Zhi; Cheng, Bin; Ji, Yu-bin; Bai, Jing

    2008-08-01

    On the base of establishing the fingerprint of JinKui ShenQi pills, the ultraviolet spectra-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, method was used to identify the fingerprint. Seperation was performed on the Symmetry Shield RP18 (5 microm, 4. 6 mm X 15 mm) analytical column with mobile phase consisting of 1% acetic acid and acetonitrile with gradient elute at the flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the ultraviolet detection wavelength was set at 248 nm. Using the above-mentioned chromatographic condition, the fingerprint of different samples was established and the same fingerprint was defined. The fingerprints of different samples were compared with similarity evaluation software published by Pharmacopeia committee codex (2004A). The mass spectrograph with API-ESI ionization source was used, setting the flow rate at 0.5 mL x min(-1) after splitting stream. The pressure of atomization room was 50 Psi, the flow rate of dry gas was 9.0 L x min(-1), the capillary voltage was 4 kV, and the transmission voltage was 70 V. The negative scanner mode was chosen, scan scope was 100-2000, using ion trap to analyze quasimolecular ion peak and the selected fragment ion, and TIC chromatography and second order mass chromatogram were recorded. The major constituents among in JinKui ShenQi pills from different origins were separated well by HPLC. Although there was difference among different origins, they showed nineteen identical characteristic absorption bands. Three fingerprints chemical compositions such as loganin, cinnamal and paeonol were identified based on the retention time and ultraviolet spectra of standard preparation. According to their ultraviolet spectra, molecular weight and fragmentation information, ten peaks in the fingerprint were identified by ultraviolet spectroscopy-mass, spectrometry/massg spectrometry. They are 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-glucose, loganin, paeoniflorin, 1,2,3,6-tetro-O-galloyl-glucose, soya-cerebroside, cornuside, and PGG, benzoyl

  12. Application of MSS/LANDSAT images to the structural study of recent sedimentary areas: Campos Sedimentary Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Barbosa, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    Visual and computer aided interpretation of MSS/LANDSAT data identified linear and circular features which represent the ""reflexes'' of the crystalline basement structures in the Cenozoic sediments of the emergent part of the Campos Sedimentary Basin.

  13. The results of an agricultural analysis of the ERTS-1 MSS data at the Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Wade, L. C.; Prior, H. L.; Spiers, B.

    1973-01-01

    The initial analysis of the ERTS-1 multispectral scanner (MSS) data at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, Texas is discussed. The primary data set utilized was the scene over Monterey Bay, California, on July 25, 1972, NASA ERTS ID No. 1002-18134. It was submitted to both computerized and image interpretative processing. An area in the San Joaquin Valley was submitted to an intensive evaluation of the ability of the data to (1) discriminate between crop types and (2) to provide a reasonably accurate area measurement of agricultural features of interest. The results indicate that the ERTS-1 MSS data is capable of providing the identifications and area extent of agricultural lands and field crop types.

  14. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    A set of training statistics for the 30 meter resolution simulated thematic mapper MSS data was generated based on land use/land cover classes. In addition to this supervised data set, a nonsupervised multicluster block of training statistics is being defined in order to compare the classification results and evaluate the effect of the different training selection methods on classification performance. Two test data sets, defined using a stratified sampling procedure incorporating a grid system with dimensions of 50 lines by 50 columns, and another set based on an analyst supervised set of test fields were used to evaluate the classifications of the TMS data. The supervised training data set generated training statistics, and a per point Gaussian maximum likelihood classification of the 1979 TMS data was obtained. The August 1980 MSS data was radiometrically adjusted. The SAR data was redigitized and the SAR imagery was qualitatively analyzed.

  15. ATP-dependent roles of the DEAD-box protein Mss116p in group II intron splicing in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Potratz, Jeffrey P.; Campo, Mark Del; Wolf, Rachel Z.; Lambowitz, Alan M.; Russell, Rick

    2011-01-01

    The yeast DEAD-box protein Mss116p functions as a general RNA chaperone in splicing mitochondrial group I and group II introns. For most of its functions, Mss116p is thought to use ATP-dependent RNA unwinding to facilitate RNA structural transitions, but it has been suggested to assist folding of one group II intron (aI5γ) primarily by stabilizing a folding intermediate. Here we compare three aI5γ constructs: one with long exons, one with short exons, and a ribozyme construct lacking exons. The long exons result in slower splicing, suggesting that they misfold and/or stabilize non-native intronic structure. Nevertheless, Mss116p acceleration of all three constructs depends upon ATP and is inhibited by mutations that compromise RNA unwinding, suggesting similar mechanisms. Results of splicing assays and a new two-stage assay that separates ribozyme folding and catalysis indicate that maximal folding of all three constructs by Mss116p requires ATP-dependent RNA unwinding. ATP-independent activation is appreciable for only a subpopulation of the minimal ribozyme construct and not for constructs containing exons. As expected for a general RNA chaperone, Mss116p can also disrupt the native ribozyme, which can refold after Mss116p removal. Finally, using yeast strains with mtDNA containing only the single intron aI5γ, we show that Mss116p mutants promote splicing in vivo to degrees that correlate with their residual ATP-dependent RNA-unwinding activities. Together, our results indicate that, although DEAD-box proteins play multiple roles in RNA folding, the physiological function of Mss116p in aI5γ splicing includes a requirement for ATP-dependent local unfolding, allowing conversion of non-functional to functional RNA structure. PMID:21679717

  16. KH-series satellite imagery and Landsat MSS data fusion in support of assessing urban land use growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civco, Daniel; Chabaeva, Anna; Parent, Jason

    2009-09-01

    Multi-temporal land use data, circa 1990 and 2000, have been analyzed an our urban growth model which identifies three levels of the urban extent - the impervious surface, the urbanized area, and the urban footprint - to account for the differing degrees of open space degradation associated with the city. The model also generates metrics such as cohesion, proximity, population densities, average openness, open space contiguity, and depth which quantify spatial characteristics that are indicative of urban sprawl. We plan on expanding this time-series further, and for additional cities, with mid-decadal, gap-filled Landsat ETM data, as well as resolution-enhanced Landsat MSS data from the 19070's. The cities used in this pilot project consisted of: (a) Kigali, Rwanda; (b) Portland, Oregon; (c) Tacoma, Washington; and (d) Plock, Poland. Based on research done in this project, complemented by results from other efforts, the Ehlers data fusion approach was used in the resolution enhancement of Landsat MSS imagery. In this paper, using Portland and Kigali as the principal examples, we discuss the procedures by which (a) the KH-series declassified military intelligence imagery was geometrically-corrected and registered to Landsat data, (b) the Ehlers Fusion of the KH-data with Landsat MSS, (c) the derivation of 1970's urban land use information, and (d) the calculation of select urban growth metrics. This paper illustrates the power of leveraging the high resolution of the military reconnaissance imagery with the multispectral information contained in the vintage Landsat MSS data in historical land use analyses.

  17. A 9 b/12 b 50 MS/s experimental ADC with continuous approximation architecture in 65 nm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaofeng, Guo; Fan, Ye; Junyan, Ren

    2016-10-01

    A 9 bits 50 MS/s 0.5 mW continuous approximation mixed successive approximation (CAR&SAR) ADC is presented. A 12 bits 50 MS/s 0.6 mW CAR&CAR ADC is presented. In the field of low power and high performance ADC, CAR is a new architecture different from SAR. It is faster and easier to get high accuracy. Here we will introduce CAR and its circuit implementation, and the 9 bits experimental ADC is designed to verify CARADC's feasibility. Meanwhile, its resolution can be extended to 12 bits with adding an extra CAR, and then the performance is raised to 0.6 mW 50 MS/s 72 dB SNDR at TT corner and the Walden FOM is 3.6 fj/conv-step. The 9 b ADC was fabricated by using TSMC 1P9M 65 nm CMOS technology. The ADC achieves 50 dB SNDR and the realized Walden FOM is 34 fj/conv-step. The simulation and measurement results prove that CAR is available in the low power and high performance ADC and it even outperforms SAR. The ADC core occupies an active area of 0.045 mm2.

  18. Characterization of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS Image Quality for the Interpretation of California's Agricultural Resources. [Central Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degloria, S. D.; Colwell, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    The quality of LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data was determined by analyzing TM spectral and spatial performance in terms of spectral variability of natural targets and the TM-ground instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) variability in level and mountainous terrain; and by assessing the suitability of TM and MSS image products for characterizing renewable resourse features. The TM data should be extremelly valuable for crop type and area proportion estimation; undating agricultural land use survey maps at 1:24,000 scale and smaller, field boundary definition; and determining the size and location of individual farmsteads. Ongoing research activities are focused on making spectral and spatial analyses of both MSS and TM analytical film products. The improved spectral, spatial, and radiometric quality of the TM data, should promote a renewed emphasis and interest in direct visual interpretation of these image products, both for updating and improving land stratification in support of resource inventory and for enhancing the image analyst's contribution to computer-assisted analysis procedures.

  19. A 10 MS/s 8-bit charge-redistribution ADC for hybrid pixel applications in 65 m CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Hemperek, Tomasz; Krüger, Hans; Koch, Manuel; Germic, Leonard; Wermes, Norbert

    2013-12-01

    The design and measurement results of an 8-bit SAR ADC, based on a charge-redistribution DAC, are presented. This ADC is characterized by superior power efficiency and small area, realized by employing a lateral metal-metal capacitor array and a dynamic two-stage comparator. To avoid the need for a high-speed clock and its associated power consumption, an asynchronous logic was implemented in a logic control cell. A test chip has been developed in a 65 nm CMOS technology, including eight ADC channels with different layout flavors of the capacitor array, a transimpedance amplifier as a signal input structure, a serializer, and a custom-made LVDS driver for data transmission. The integral (INL) and differential (DNL) nonlinearities are measured below 0.5 LSB and 0.8 LSB, respectively, for the best channel operating at a sampling frequency of 10 MS/s. The area occupies 40 μm×70 μm for one ADC channel. The power consumption is estimated as 4 μW at 1 MS/s and 38 μW at 10 MS/s with a supply rail of 1.2 V. These excellent performance features and the natural radiation hardness of the design, due to the thin gate oxide thickness of transistors, are very interesting for front-end electronics ICs of future hybrid-pixel detector systems.

  20. A 100 MS/s 9 bit 0.43 mW SAR ADC with custom capacitor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingjing, Wang; Zemin, Feng; Rongjin, Xu; Chixiao, Chen; Fan, Ye; Jun, Xu; Junyan, Ren

    2016-05-01

    A low power 9 bit 100 MS/s successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC) with custom capacitor array is presented. A brand-new 3-D MOM unit capacitor is used as the basic capacitor cell of this capacitor array. The unit capacitor has a capacitance of 1 fF. Besides, the advanced capacitor array structure and switch mode decrease the power consumption a lot. To verify the effectiveness of this low power design, the 9 bit 100 MS/s SAR ADC is implemented in TSMC IP9M 65 nm LP CMOS technology. The measurement results demonstrate that this design achieves an effective number of bits (ENOB) of 7.4 bit, a signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio (SNDR) of 46.40 dB and a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 62.31 dB at 100 MS/s with 1 MHz input. The SAR ADC core occupies an area of 0.030 mm2 and consumes 0.43 mW under a supply voltage of 1.2 V. The figure of merit (FOM) of the SAR ADC achieves 23.75 fJ/conv. Project supported by the National High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (No. 2013AA014101).

  1. A low power 11-bit 100 MS/s SAR ADC IP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ya, Wang; Chunying, Xue; Fule, Li; Chun, Zhang; Zhihua, Wang

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a dual-channel 11-bit 100 MS/s hybrid SAR ADC IP. Each channel adopts flash-SAR architecture for high speed, low power and high linearity. Dynamic comparators in the coarse flash ADC and the fine SAR ADC further contribute to the reduction of power consumption. A gate-controlled ring oscillator generates a multi-phase clock for SAR logic, thereby allowing it to asynchronously trigger the comparator in the fine SAR ADC in high speed. MOM capacitors with a fully shielded structure provide enough matching accuracy without the need for calibration. This design was fabricated in SMIC 55 nm low leakage CMOS technology and the active area of dual-channel (I-Q) ADC is 0.35 mm2, while the core area is 0.046 mm2. It consumes 2.92 mA at a 1.2 V supply, for dual-channel too. The effective number of bits (ENOB) is 9.90 bits at 2.4 MHz input frequency, and 9.34 bits at 50 MHz, leading to a FOM of 18.3 fJ/conversion-step.

  2. Heavy metal removal from MSS fly ash by thermal and chlorination treatments

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyong; Chen, Jiacong; Huang, Limao

    2015-01-01

    The thermal behavior of heavy metals in the co-incineration of municipal solid waste-sludge incinerator fly ash (MSS fly ash) was studied using a laboratory-scale tube furnace. The results indicate that without the addition of chlorinating agents, temperature was an important parameter and had significantly influenced on heavy metal removal, whereas the residence time had a weak effect. Between 900 and 1000 °C for 60 to 300 min, heavy metals reacted with chloride-inherent in the fly ash, and approximately 80 to 89% of Pb, 48% to 56% of Cd, 27% to 36% of Zn and 6% to 24% of Cu were removed. After the adding chlorinating agents, the evaporation rate of the heavy metals improved dramatically, where the evaporation rates of Cu and Zn were larger than that of Pb and Cd. As the amount of added chlorinating agents increased, the removal rate of heavy metals increased. However, the effect of the type of chlorinating agent on the chlorination of heavy metals differed considerably, where NaCl had the weakest effect on the removal rate of Cu, Cd and Zn. In terms of resource recovery and decontamination, MgCl2 and CaCl2 are the best choices due to their efficient removal of Zn. PMID:26602592

  3. An IP-oriented 11-bit 160 MS/s 2-channel current-steering DAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Xu; Fule, Li; Chun, Zhang; Zhihua, Wang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an 11-bit 160 MS/s 2-channel current-steering digital-to-analog converter (DAC) IP. The circuit and layout are carefully designed to optimize its performance and area. A 6-2-3 segmented structure is used for the trade-off among linearity, area and layout complexity. The sizes of current source transistors are calculated out according to the process matching parameter. The unary current cells are placed in a one-dimension distribution to simplify the layout routing, spare area and wiring layer. Their sequences are also carefully designed to reduce integral nonlinearity. The test result presents an SFDR of 72 dBc at 4.88 MHz input signal with DNL ⩽ 0.25 LSB, INL ⩽ 0.8 LSB. The full-scale output current is 5 mA with a 2.5 V analog power supply. The core of each channel occupies 0.08 mm2 in a 1P-8M 55 nm CMOS process.

  4. Heavy metal removal from MSS fly ash by thermal and chlorination treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingyong; Chen, Jiacong; Huang, Limao

    2015-11-01

    The thermal behavior of heavy metals in the co-incineration of municipal solid waste-sludge incinerator fly ash (MSS fly ash) was studied using a laboratory-scale tube furnace. The results indicate that without the addition of chlorinating agents, temperature was an important parameter and had significantly influenced on heavy metal removal, whereas the residence time had a weak effect. Between 900 and 1000 °C for 60 to 300 min, heavy metals reacted with chloride-inherent in the fly ash, and approximately 80 to 89% of Pb, 48% to 56% of Cd, 27% to 36% of Zn and 6% to 24% of Cu were removed. After the adding chlorinating agents, the evaporation rate of the heavy metals improved dramatically, where the evaporation rates of Cu and Zn were larger than that of Pb and Cd. As the amount of added chlorinating agents increased, the removal rate of heavy metals increased. However, the effect of the type of chlorinating agent on the chlorination of heavy metals differed considerably, where NaCl had the weakest effect on the removal rate of Cu, Cd and Zn. In terms of resource recovery and decontamination, MgCl2 and CaCl2 are the best choices due to their efficient removal of Zn.

  5. Vision development test bed: The cradle of the MSS artificial vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucherman, Leon; Stovman, John

    This paper presents the concept of the Vision Development Test-Bed (VDTB) developed at Spar Aerospace Ltd. in order to assist development work on the Artificial Vision System (AVS) for the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) of Space Station Freedom in providing reliable and robust target auto acquisition and robotic auto-tracking capabilities when operating in the extremely contrasty illumination of the space environment. The paper illustrates how the VDTB will be used to understand the problems and to evaluate the methods of solving them. The VDTB is based on the use of conventional but high speed image processing hardware and software. Auxiliary equipment, such as TV cameras, illumination sources, monitors, will be added to provide completeness and flexibility. A special feature will be the use of solar simulation so that the impact of the harsh illumination conditions in space on image quality can be evaluated. The VDTB will be used to assess the required techniques, algorithms, hardware and software characteristics, and to utilize this information in overcoming the target-recognition and false-target rejection problems. The problems associated with NTSC video processing and the use of color will also be investigated. The paper concludes with a review of applications for the VDTB work, such as AVS real-time simulations, application software development, evaluations, and trade-offs studies.

  6. ATox-Mss: From a space proven payload to a validated testsystem in Ecotoxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slenzka, K.; Duenne, M.; Jastorff, B.; Schirmer, M.

    The C.E.B.A.S. -Minimodul (Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System) is a space qualified aquatic microcosm of 8.6 litres volume of water. Several aquatic species can be reared in parallel. The minimodule is based on ideas and prototypes of V. Bluem from the University of Bochum. The flight qualified hardware was developed and manufactured at OHB-System under a contract of the German Space Agency DLR. It was flown already twice very successfully aboard shuttle flights STS-89 and -90. A third flight is manifested on STS 107 for July 2002. An improved module developed at- OHB is called C B R U - Closed Biological Research Unit Based on the C B R U characteristics: 1) being a closed system, it enables the calculation of the allocations of chemicals in this ecosystem. 2) being highly standardized, it is a tool for reproducible testruns, which is a necessity in ecotoxicology. 3) Testruns longer than 4 weeks are possible - important to measure chronic effects in an ecosystems, which is not possible with actual laboratory hardware. 4) Organisms of different trophic levels can be investigated, an application oriented research is feasable. C B R U is now the basis in the two year lasting project ATox-Mss (Aquatic Toxicology in the Multispecies system). It is an R&D project of an OHB science team and two science teams of University Bremen funded by the state of Bremen. Goal is the development of a functional model being the basis for commercial services in the field of ecotoxicological testing. First results of the ongoing tests will be presented at the assembly.

  7. Functionally-focused algorithmic analysis of high resolution microarray-CGH genomic landscapes demonstrates comparable genomic copy number aberrations in MSI and MSS sporadic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Hamad; Bitar, Milad S.; Al Madhoun, Ashraf; Marafie, Makia; Al-Mulla, Fahd

    2017-01-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) emerged as a powerful technology for studying copy number variations at higher resolution in many cancers including colorectal cancer. However, the lack of standardized systematic protocols including bioinformatic algorithms to obtain and analyze genomic data resulted in significant variation in the reported copy number aberration (CNA) data. Here, we present genomic aCGH data obtained using highly stringent and functionally relevant statistical algorithms from 116 well-defined microsatellites instable (MSI) and microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancers. We utilized aCGH to characterize genomic CNAs in 116 well-defined sets of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. We further applied the significance testing for aberrant copy number (STAC) and Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) algorithms to identify functionally relevant (nonrandom) chromosomal aberrations in the analyzed colorectal cancer samples. Our results produced high resolution genomic landscapes of both, MSI and MSS sporadic CRC. We found that CNAs in MSI and MSS CRCs are heterogeneous in nature but may be divided into 3 distinct genomic patterns. Moreover, we show that although CNAs in MSI and MSS CRCs differ with respect to their size, number and chromosomal distribution, the functional copy number aberrations obtained from MSI and MSS CRCs were in fact comparable but not identical. These unifying CNAs were verified by MLPA tumor-loss gene panel, which spans 15 different chromosomal locations and contains 50 probes for at least 20 tumor suppressor genes. Consistently, deletion/amplification in these frequently cancer altered genes were identical in MSS and MSI CRCs. Our results suggest that MSI and MSS copy number aberrations driving CRC may be functionally comparable. PMID:28231327

  8. Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuan; Palla, Mirkó; Sun, Andrew; Liao, Jung-Chi

    2013-09-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicases are ATP-dependent proteins implicated in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism. The yeast DEAD-box helicase Mss116 is unique in its functions of splicing group I and group II introns and activating mRNA translation, but the structural understanding of why it performs these unique functions remains unclear. Here we used sequence analysis and molecular dynamics simulation to identify residues in the flexible linker specific for yeast Mss116, potentially associated with its unique functions. We first identified residues that are 100% conserved in Mss116 of different species of the Saccharomycetaceae family. The amino acids of these conserved residues were then compared with the amino acids of the corresponding residue positions of other RNA helicases to identify residues that have distinct amino acids from other DEAD-box proteins. Four residues in the flexible linker, i.e. N334, E335, P336 and H339, are conserved and Mss116-specific. Molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for the wild-type Mss116 structure and mutant models to examine mutational effects of the linker on the conformational equilibrium. Relatively short MD simulation runs (within 20 ns) were enough for us to observe mutational effects, suggesting serious structural perturbations by these mutations. The mutation of E335 depletes the interactions between E335 and K95 in domain 1. The interactions between N334/P336 and N496/I497 of domain 2 are also abolished by mutation. Our results suggest that tight interactions between the Mss116-specific flexible linker and the two RecA-like domains may be mechanically required to crimp RNA for the unique RNA processes of yeast Mss116.

  9. High-Throughput Genetic Identification of Functionally Important Regions of the Yeast DEAD-Box Protein Mss116p

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, Georg; Del Campo, Mark; Turner, Kathryn G.; Gilman, Benjamin; Wolf, Rachel Z.; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2012-03-15

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DEAD-box protein Mss116p is a general RNA chaperone that functions in splicing mitochondrial group I and group II introns. Recent X-ray crystal structures of Mss116p in complex with ATP analogs and single-stranded RNA show that the helicase core induces a bend in the bound RNA, as in other DEAD-box proteins, while a C-terminal extension (CTE) induces a second bend, resulting in RNA crimping. Here, we illuminate these structures by using high-throughput genetic selections, unigenic evolution, and analyses of in vivo splicing activity to comprehensively identify functionally important regions and permissible amino acid substitutions throughout Mss116p. The functionally important regions include those containing conserved sequence motifs involved in ATP and RNA binding or interdomain interactions, as well as previously unidentified regions, including surface loops that may function in protein-protein interactions. The genetic selections recapitulate major features of the conserved helicase motifs seen in other DEAD-box proteins but also show surprising variations, including multiple novel variants of motif III (SAT). Patterns of amino acid substitutions indicate that the RNA bend induced by the helicase core depends on ionic and hydrogen-bonding interactions with the bound RNA; identify a subset of critically interacting residues; and indicate that the bend induced by the CTE results primarily from a steric block. Finally, we identified two conserved regions - one the previously noted post II region in the helicase core and the other in the CTE - that may help displace or sequester the opposite RNA strand during RNA unwinding.

  10. High-Throughput Genetic Identification of Functionally Important Regions of the Yeast DEAD-box Protein Mss116p

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Georg; Campo, Mark Del; Turner, Kathryn G.; Gilman, Benjamin; Wolf, Rachel Z.; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DEAD-box protein Mss116p is a general RNA chaperone that functions in splicing mitochondrial group I and group II introns. Recent X-ray crystal structures of Mss116p in complex with ATP analogs and single-stranded RNA show that the helicase core induces a bend in the bound RNA, as in other DEAD-box proteins, while a C-terminal extension induces a second bend, resulting in RNA crimping. Here, we illuminate these structures by using high-throughput genetic selections, unigenic evolution, and analyses of in vivo splicing activity to comprehensively identify functionally important regions and permissible amino acid substitutions throughout Mss116p. The functionally important regions include those containing conserved sequence motifs involved in ATP and RNA binding or interdomain interactions, as well as previously unidentified regions, including surface loops that may function in protein-protein interactions. The genetic selections recapitulate major features of the conserved helicase motifs seen in other DEAD-box proteins, but also show surprising variations, including multiple novel variants of motif III (SAT). Patterns of amino acid substitutions indicate that the RNA bend induced by the helicase core depends upon ionic and hydrogen-bonding interactions with the bound RNA; identify a subset of critically interacting residues; and indicate that the bend induced by the C-terminal extension results primarily from a steric block. Finally, we identified two conserved regions, one the previously noted post-II region in the helicase core and the other in the C-terminal extension, which may help displace or sequester the opposite RNA strand during RNA unwinding. PMID:21945532

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the DEAD-box protein Mss116p complexed with an RNA oligonucleotide and AMP-PNP

    SciTech Connect

    Del Campo, Mark; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2009-09-02

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DEAD-box protein Mss116p is a general RNA chaperone which functions in mitochondrial group I and group II intron splicing, translation and RNA-end processing. For crystallization trials, full-length Mss116p and a C-terminally truncated protein (Mss116p/{Delta}598-664) were overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Mss116p exhibited low solubility in standard solutions ({le}1 mg ml{sup -1}), but its solubility could be increased by adding 50 mM L-arginine plus 50 mM L-glutamate and 50% glycerol to achieve concentrations of {approx}10 mg ml{sup -1}. Initial crystals were obtained by the microbatch method in the presence of a U{sub 10} RNA oligonucleotide and the ATP analog AMP-PNP and were then improved by using seeding and sitting-drop vapor diffusion. A cryocooled crystal of Mss116p/{Delta}598-664 in complex with AMP-PNP and U{sub 10} belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.54, b = 126.52, c = 55.52 {angstrom}, and diffracted X-rays to beyond 1.9 {angstrom} resolution using synchrotron radiation from sector 21 at the Advanced Photon Source.

  12. Multiple resource evaluation of region 2 US forest service lands utilizing LANDSAT MSS data. [San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, P. V.; Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT MSS imagery provided an excellent overview which put a geomorphic study into a regional perspective, using scale 1:250,000 or smaller. It was used for deriving a data base for land use planning for southern San Juan Mountains. Stereo pairing of adjacent images was the best method for all geomorphic mapping. Combining this with snow enhancement, seasonal enhancement, and reversal aided in interpretation of geomorphic features. Drainage patterns were mapped in much greater detail from LANDSAT than from a two deg quadrangle base.

  13. Delineation of the New Madrid seismic zone using Landsat MSS data with insurance and tax implications of future fault movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, M. A.; Rupert, G. B.; Christy, J. J.; Cochrane, C. L.; Buffington, N. L., Jr.

    Landsat MSS imagery was used to delineate the New Madrid seismic zone, near the common borders of Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, and Kentucky, which has produced earthquakes wth Modified Mercalli intensities larger than 10. Intepretation of the Landsat image, in conjunction with published data, provides means for combining geomorphic and geophysical data to yield new insights into the tectonics of the area. The paper discusses the value of this technique for constructing and maintaining disaster contingency plans, with particular attention given to insurance and tax implications.

  14. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Several possibilities were considered for defining the data set in which the same test areas could be used for each of the four different spatial resolutions being evaluated. The LARSYS CLUSTER was used to sort the vectors into spectral classes to reduce the within-spectral class variability in an effort to develop training statistics. A data quality test was written to determine the basic signal to noise characteristics within the data set being used. Because preliminary analysis of the LANDSAT MSS data revealed the presence of high cirrus clouds, other data sets are being sought.

  15. Analysis and Evaluation of the LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM Sensors and Ground Data Processing Systems: Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R.; Lotspiech, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The MSS and TM sensor performances were evaluated by studying both the sensors and the characteristics of the data. Information content analysis, image statistics, band-to-band registration, the presence of failed or failing detectors, and sensor resolution are discussed. The TM data were explored from the point of view of adequacy of the ground processing and improvements that could be made to compensate for sensor problems and deficiencies. Radiometric correction processing, compensation for a failed detector, and geometric correction processing are also considered.

  16. Analysis of MSS (Marine Seismic System) and OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismograph) Data Collected during the NGENDEI Seismic Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11 T ClSiIAj b. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS 2a, 3TC-uniT CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3. DISTRIBUTION/AVAI LABILITY OF REPORT ...ApptvIoVd topbIf T6 2.. DCLASSI FICATION/DOWNO RADING SCHEDULE ditibto U11111 .PEFRIGOGNZTOREOTNUMBER(S) 5. MO19IGOGNZTION REPORT NUMSER...1PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENTN. NO. NO. NO. 11. TITLft (Includ ac riyLu.Icaf Analysis of MSS and OBS Data Collected During the NGENDEI Sp ismic Expqriment

  17. Testing the consistency for mapping urban vegetation with high-altitude aerial photographs and landsat MSS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sadowski, Franklin G.; Sturdevant, James A.; Rowntree, Rowan A.

    1987-01-01

    Two methods of analysis were evaluated for mapping urban vegetation on high-altitude, color-infrared aerial photographs and Landsat MSS data of Syracuse, NY. The first method consisted of defining the spatial patterns (strata) of urban vegetation occurrence. The second method discriminated woody and herbaceous vegetation classes within defined strata. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the consistency of each method. Results indicate that consistent spatial patterns of urban vegetation strata were not achieved on either of the two data types tested due to the spatial complexity of the urban vegetation. However, for discriminating woody and herbaceous vegetation classes within defined strata, good consistency was noted among the interpreters of the high-altitude aerial photographs. The coarse spatial resolution of the Landsat MSS data resulted in low precision for identifying these two vegetation classes in this highly urbanized area. Where photointerpretation efforts are intended for mapping vegetation within numerous urban areas, the estimation of proportions of vegetation classes within defined strata should be a data analysis procedure more objective and consistently repeatable than is the delineation of vegetation patterns. 

  18. A SHA-less 14-bit, 100-MS/s pipelined ADC with comparator offset cancellation in background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaofei, Wang; Hong, Zhang; Jie, Zhang; Xin, Du; Yue, Hao

    2016-03-01

    A 14-bit 100-MS/s pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) without dedicated front-end sample-and-hold amplifier (SHA) is presented. In addition to elaborate matching of the sampling network in the first stage, a background offset cancellation circuit is proposed in this paper to suppress the offset of the comparators in the first-stage sub-ADC, which ensures the overall offset does not exceed the correction range of the built-in redundant structure. Fabricated in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology, the presented ADC occupies a chip area of 12 mm2, and consumes 237 mW from a 1.8-V power supply. Measurement results with a 30.1-MHz input sine wave under a sampling rate of 100 MS/s show that the ADC achieves a 71-dB signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR), an 85.4-dB spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR), a maximum differential nonlinearity (DNL) of 0.22 LSB and a maximum integral nonlinearity (INL) of 1.4 LSB. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61474092).

  19. Phosphoprotein Keratin 23 accumulates in MSS but not MSI colon cancers in vivo and impacts viability and proliferation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Mansilla, Francisco; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Cabezón, Teresa; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Verspaget, Hein W; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2007-09-01

    Transcript profiling of 27 normal colon mucosas and 258 adenocarcinomas showed Keratin23 to be increased in 78% microsatellite-stable tumors, while microsatellite-instable tumors showed low transcript levels, comparable to normal mucosas. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that 88% of microsatellite-instable tumors were negative for Keratin23 protein, while 70% of MSS tumors and metastases derived from MSS-tumors showed high Keratin23 levels. Immunofluorescence analysis localized Keratin23 in the Golgi-apparatus. Golgi accumulation was unique for gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. Immunoprecipitation and 2D-blot analysis revealed Keratin23 to be a 46.8 kDa phosphoprotein. Keratin23 impaired the proliferation of human colon cancer cells significantly, leading to cell death in microsatellite-instable but not microsatellite-stable cell lines, while COS7 cells experienced multiple nuclei and apoptosis. Keratin23 expression correlated significantly with transcription factor CEBPB. In conclusion, Keratin23 expression is a novel and important difference between microsatellite-stable and microsatellite-instable colon cancers.

  20. Use of topographic and climatological models in a geographical data base to improve Landsat MSS classification for Olympic National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibula, William G.; Nyquist, Maurice O.

    1987-01-01

    An unsupervised computer classification of vegetation/landcover of Olympic National Park and surrounding environs was initially carried out using four bands of Landsat MSS data. The primary objective of the project was to derive a level of landcover classifications useful for park management applications while maintaining an acceptably high level of classification accuracy. Initially, nine generalized vegetation/landcover classes were derived. Overall classification accuracy was 91.7 percent. In an attempt to refine the level of classification, a geographic information system (GIS) approach was employed. Topographic data and watershed boundaries (inferred precipitation/temperature) data were registered with the Landsat MSS data. The resultant boolean operations yielded 21 vegetation/landcover classes while maintaining the same level of classification accuracy. The final classification provided much better identification and location of the major forest types within the park at the same high level of accuracy, and these met the project objective. This classification could now become inputs into a GIS system to help provide answers to park management coupled with other ancillary data programs such as fire management.

  1. A 12-bit 1 MS/s SAR-ADC for multi-channel CdZnTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liu; Tingcun, Wei; Bo, Li; Panjie, Guo; Yongcai, Hu

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a low power, area-efficient and radiation-hardened 12-bit 1 MS/s successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for multi-channel CdZnTe (CZT) detector applications. In order to improve the SAR-ADC's accuracy, a novel comparator is proposed in which the offset voltage is self-calibrated and also a new architecture for the unit capacitor array is proposed to reduce the capacitance mismatches in the charge-redistribution DAC. The ability to radiation-harden the SAR-ADC is enhanced through circuit and layout design technologies. The prototype chip was fabricated using a TSMC 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS process. At a 3.3/5 V power supply and a sampling rate of 1 MS/s, the proposed SAR-ADC achieves a peak signal to noise and distortion ratio (SINAD) of 67.64 dB and consumes only 10 mW power. The core of the prototype chip occupies an active area of 1180 × 1080 μm2. Project supported by the Special-Funded Program on National Key Scientific Instruments and Equipment Development (No. 2011YQ040082).

  2. A preliminary study of the feasibility of detecting the floating macrophytes by means of digital processing of MSS/LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valeriano, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping the floating macrophytes (mostly water hyacinth: (Eichornia crassipes) in the Salto Grande reservoir in Americana, SP, by means of digital processing of MSS/LANDSAT data is described. The area occupied by the macrophytes was extracted by exclusion after the merging of two thematic masks representing the area of vegetation free water surface. One of the masks was obtained from a date when the vegetal cover is insignificant, while the other represents a large infestation episode. The utilization of digital processing of MSS/LANDSAT data techniques for the documentation of macrophytes infestation is feasible only when the phenomenon occurs in large areas.

  3. AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1992 LANDSAT-MSS DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of Digital Orthophoto Quads (DOQS) in assessing the classification accuracy of land cover derived from Landsat MSS data was investigated. Initially, the suitability of DOQs in distinguishing between different land cover classes was assessed using high-resolution airbo...

  4. 47 CFR 25.257 - Special requirements for operations in the band 29.1-29.25 GHz between NGSO MSS and LMDS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Earth-to-space transmissions from feeder link earth station complexes. A “feeder link earth station complex” may include up to three (3) earth station groups, with each earth station group having up to four... NGSO MSS licensees or applicants pursuant to § 101.147. (b) A maximum of seven (7) feeder link...

  5. 47 CFR 25.257 - Special requirements for operations in the band 29.1-29.25 GHz between NGSO MSS and LMDS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Earth-to-space transmissions from feeder link earth station complexes. A “feeder link earth station complex” may include up to three (3) earth station groups, with each earth station group having up to four... NGSO MSS licensees or applicants pursuant to § 101.147. (b) A maximum of seven (7) feeder link...

  6. 47 CFR 25.257 - Special requirements for operations in the band 29.1-29.25 GHz between NGSO MSS and LMDS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Earth-to-space transmissions from feeder link earth station complexes. A “feeder link earth station complex” may include up to three (3) earth station groups, with each earth station group having up to four... NGSO MSS licensees or applicants pursuant to § 101.147. (b) A maximum of seven (7) feeder link...

  7. 47 CFR 25.257 - Special requirements for operations in the band 29.1-29.25 GHz between NGSO MSS and LMDS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Earth-to-space transmissions from feeder link earth station complexes. A “feeder link earth station complex” may include up to three (3) earth station groups, with each earth station group having up to four... NGSO MSS licensees or applicants pursuant to § 101.147. (b) A maximum of seven (7) feeder link...

  8. 47 CFR 25.257 - Special requirements for operations in the band 29.1-29.25 GHz between NGSO MSS and LMDS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Earth-to-space transmissions from feeder link earth station complexes. A “feeder link earth station complex” may include up to three (3) earth station groups, with each earth station group having up to four... NGSO MSS licensees or applicants pursuant to § 101.147. (b) A maximum of seven (7) feeder link...

  9. Detecting agricultural to urban land use change from multi-temporal MSS digital data. [Salt Lake County, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridd, M. K.; Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Conversion of agricultural land to a variety of urban uses is a major problem along the Wasatch Front, Utah. Although LANDSAT MSS data is a relatively coarse tool for discriminating categories of change in urban-size plots, its availability prompts a thorough test of its power to detect change. The procedures being applied to a test area in Salt Lake County, Utah, where the land conversion problem is acute are presented. The identity of land uses before and after conversion was determined and digital procedures for doing so were compared. Several algorithms were compared, utilizing both raw data and preprocessed data. Verification of results involved high quality color infrared photography and field observation. Two data sets were digitally registered, specific change categories internally identified in the software, results tabulated by computer, and change maps printed at 1:24,000 scale.

  10. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Latty, R. S.; Dean, E.; Knowlton, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Separate holograms of horizontally (HH) and vertically (HV) polarized responses obtained by the APQ-102 side-looking radar were processed through an optical correlator and the resulting image was recorded on positive film from which black and white negative and positive prints were made. Visual comparison of the HH and HV images reveals a distinct dark band in the imagery which covers about 30% of the radar strip. Preliminary evaluaton of the flight line 1 date indicates that various features on the HH and HV images seem to have different response levels. The amount of sidelap due to the look angle between flight lines 1 and 2 is negligible. NASA mission #425 to obtain flightlines of NS-001 MSS data and supporting aerial photography was successfully flown. Flight line 3 data are of very good quality and virtually cloud-free. Results of data analysis for selection of test fields and for evaluation of waveband combination and spatial resolution are presented.

  11. A 14-bit 100-MS/s 85.2-dB SFDR pipelined ADC without calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Zhao; Hua, Luo; Qi, Wei; Huazhong, Yang

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a 14-bit 100-MS/s calibration-free pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Choices for stage resolution as well as circuit topology are carefully considered to obtain high linearity without any calibration algorithm. An adjusted timing diagram with an additional clock phase is proposed to give residue voltage more settling time and minimize its distortion. The ADC employs an LVDS clock input buffer with low-jitter consideration to ensure good performance at high sampling rate. Implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology, the ADC prototype achieves a spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 85.2 dB and signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) of 63.4 dB with a 19.1-MHz input signal, while consuming 412-mW power at 2.0-V supply and occupying an area of 2.9 × 3.7mm2.

  12. Surface compositional mapping by spectral ratioing of ERTS-1 MSS data in the Wind River Basin and Range, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K. (Principal Investigator); Salmon, B. C.; Pillars, W. W.; Harris, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS data collected in August and October 1972 were processed on digital and special purpose analog recognition computers using ratio enhancement and pattern recognition. Ratios of band-averaged laboratory reflectances of some minerals and rock types known to be in the scene compared favorably with ratios derived from the data by ratio normalization procedures. A single ratio display and density slice of the visible channels of ERTS MSS data, Channel 5/Channel 4 (R5,4), separated the Triassic Chugwater formation (redbeds) from other formations present and may have enhanced iron oxide minerals present at the surface in abundance. Comparison of data sets collected over the same area at two different times of the year by digital processing indicated that spectral variation due to environmental factors was reduced by ratio processing.

  13. A comparison of original aircraft MSS and generated surface water reflectance images as predictors of lake water quality indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, E.W. III; Jensen, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Generated reflectance and original MSS images were compared at six blue to near infrared wavelengths at thirty-eight (38) field locations in three different lakes. Both sets of images were evaluated in terms of their importance in explaining the variance of measured reflectances. Subsequently, the generated reflectance images were related to measured chlorophyll /und a/ and total suspended solids using a statistical analysis that uncovered the simplest relationships explaining the greatest amount of each water variables variance. Applying this methodology resulted in predictor equations explaining 82% of the chlorophyll /und a/ variance and 92% of the total suspended solids variance within the thirty-two (32) water samples analyzed. Maps were produced of L Lake depicting the distributions of two water quality indicators: chlorophyll a and total suspended particles. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. The use of ERTS-1 MSS data for mapping strip mines and acid mine drainage in Pennsyvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Dein, J. L.; Gold, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    Digital processing of ERTS-I MSS data for areas around the west branch of the Susquehanna River permits identification of stripped areas including ones that are not discernible from visual analysis of ERTS imagery. Underflight data and ground-based observations are used for ground-truth and as a basis for designing more refined operators to make sub-classifications of stripped areas, particularly with regard to manifestations of acid mine drainage; because of associated diagnostic effects on vegetation, seasonal changes in classifiction criteria are being documented as repeated, cloud-free ERTS-I coverage of the same area becomes available. Preliminary results indicate that ERTS data can be used to moniter not only the total extent of stripping in given areas but also the effectiveness of reclamation and pollution abatement procedures.

  15. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques. [south carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A literature review on radar and spectral band information was conducted and a NC-130 mission was flown carrying the NS001 scanner system which basically corresponds to the channel configuration of the proposed thematic mapper. Aerial photography and other reference data were obtained for the study site, an area approximately 290 sq miles in north central South Carolina. A cover type map was prepared and methods were devised for reformatting and geometrically correcting MSS CRT data. Arrangements were made to obtain LANDSAT data for dates approximating the NC-130 mission. Because of the waveband employed to obtain SEASAT radar data, it was decided to determine if X-band (2.40 cm to 3.75 cm wavelength) imagery is available.

  16. Assessment of computer techniques for processing digital LANDSAT MSS data for lithological discrimination of Serra do Ramalho, State of Bahia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradella, W. R. (Principal Investigator); Vitorello, I.; Monteiro, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Enhancement techniques and thematic classifications were applied to the metasediments of Bambui Super Group (Upper Proterozoic) in the Region of Serra do Ramalho, SW of the state of Bahia. Linear contrast stretch, band-ratios with contrast stretch, and color-composites allow lithological discriminations. The effects of human activities and of vegetation cover mask and limit, in several ways, the lithological discrimination with digital MSS data. Principal component images and color composite of linear contrast stretch of these products, show lithological discrimination through tonal gradations. This set of products allows the delineations of several metasedimentary sequences to a level superior to reconnaissance mapping. Supervised (maximum likelihood classifier) and nonsupervised (K-Means classifier) classification of the limestone sequence, host to fluorite mineralization show satisfactory results.

  17. A 14-bit 100-MS/s CMOS pipelined ADC featuring 83.5-dB SFDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Zhao; Qi, Wei; Huazhong, Yang; Hui, Wang

    2014-09-01

    This paper demonstrates a 14-bit 100 MS/s CMOS pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The nonlinearity model for bootstrapped switches is established to optimize the design parameters of bootstrapped switches, and the calculations based on this model agree well with the measurement results. In order to achieve high linearity, a gradient-mismatch cancelling technique is proposed, which eliminates the first order gradient error of sampling capacitors by combining arrangement of reference control signals and capacitor layout. Fabricated in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology, this ADC occupies 10.16-mm2 area. With statistics-based background calibration of finite opamp gain in the first stage, the ADC achieves 83.5-dB spurious free dynamic range and 63.7-dB signal-to-noise-and distortion ratio respectively, and consumes 393 mW power with a supply voltage of 2 V.

  18. Preliminary results of MARECS-A measurements in Central Maryland and plans for 1988 MSS experiment in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius

    1988-01-01

    Past and future efforts are described, using L Band (1.5 GHz) satellite signals for mobile satellite system (MSS) propagation measurements. Preliminary results from the December 1987 campaign in Central Maryland with the Atlantic Ocean MARECS satellite are given. The fade level statistics from this 22 degree elevation source are consistent with helicopter measurements made along the same roads. The day to day repeatability of the fade probabilities is shown to be usually better than about 20 percent. An experiment plan is presented for measurements using the Experimental Test Satellite-V's (ETS-V's) southern beam. These measurements will be made in Australia in collaboration with Australia's National Satellite System (AUSSAT) during the July/August 1988 time-frame.

  19. Sampling system for wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area estimation using digital LANDSAT MSS data and aerial photographs. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Moreira, M. A.; Chen, S. C.; Batista, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure to estimate wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area using sampling technique based on aerial photographs and digital LANDSAT MSS data is developed. Aerial photographs covering 720 square km are visually analyzed. To estimate wheat area, a regression approach is applied using different sample sizes and various sampling units. As the size of sampling unit decreased, the percentage of sampled area required to obtain similar estimation performance also decreased. The lowest percentage of the area sampled for wheat estimation with relatively high precision and accuracy through regression estimation is 13.90% using 10 square km as the sampling unit. Wheat area estimation using only aerial photographs is less precise and accurate than those obtained by regression estimation.

  20. Evaluation of multiband, multitemporal, and transformed LANDSAT MSS data for land cover area estimation. [North Central Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; May, G. A.; Kalcic, M. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Sample segments of ground-verified land cover data collected in conjunction with the USDA/ESS June Enumerative Survey were merged with LANDSAT data and served as a focus for unsupervised spectral class development and accuracy assessment. Multitemporal data sets were created from single-date LANDSAT MSS acquisitions from a nominal scene covering an eleven-county area in north central Missouri. Classification accuracies for the four land cover types predominant in the test site showed significant improvement in going from unitemporal to multitemporal data sets. Transformed LANDSAT data sets did not significantly improve classification accuracies. Regression estimators yielded mixed results for different land covers. Misregistration of two LANDSAT data sets by as much and one half pixels did not significantly alter overall classification accuracies. Existing algorithms for scene-to scene overlay proved adequate for multitemporal data analysis as long as statistical class development and accuracy assessment were restricted to field interior pixels.

  1. European Space Agency (ESA) Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ Archive Bulk-Processing: processor improvements and data quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascon, F.; Biasutti, R.; Ferrara, R.; Fischer, P.; Galli, L.; Hoersch, B.; Hopkins, S.; Jackson, J.; Lavender, S.; Mica, S.; Northrop, A.; Paciucci, A.; Paul, F.; Pinori, S.; Saunier, S.

    2014-09-01

    The Landsat program is a joint United States Geological Survey (USGS) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enterprise for Earth Observation (EO), that represents the world's longest running system of satellites for moderate-resolution optical remote sensing. The European Space Agency (ESA) has acquired Landsat data over Europe through the ESA ground stations over the last 40 years, in co-operation with USGS and NASA. A new ESA Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) processor has been developed. This enhanced processor aligns the historical Landsat products to the highest quality standards that can be achieved with the current knowledge of the instruments. The updated processor is mainly based on the USGS algorithm; however the ESA processor has some different features that are detailed in this paper. Using this upgraded processor, ESA is currently performing for the first time a bulk-processing of its entire Landsat series MSS/TM/ETM+ historical archive to make all products available to users. Current achievements include the processing and online distribution of approximately 290 000 new Landsat 5 TM high-quality products acquired at the Kiruna ground station between 1983 and 2011. The Landsat 5 TM bulk-processed products are made available for direct download after registration at: https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/pi-community/apply for-data/fast-registration. The remainder of the ESA's Landsat data, dating back more than 40 years, will gradually become available for all users during the course of 2014. The ESA Landsat processor algorithm enhancement, together with the results of the ESA archive bulk-processing, and an overview on the data quality on a subset of the Landsat 5 TM data are herein presented.

  2. Evaluation of SIR-A (Shuttle Imaging Radar) images from the Tres Marias region (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) using derived spatial features and registration with MSS-LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Dutra, L. V.

    1984-01-01

    Two image processing experiments are described using a MSS-LANDSAT scene from the Tres Marias region and a shuttle Imaging Radar SIR-A image digitized by a vidicon scanner. In the first experiment the study area is analyzed using the original and preprocessed SIR-A image data. The following thematic classes are obtained: (1) water, (2) dense savanna vegetation, (3) sparse savanna vegetation, (4) reforestation areas and (5) bare soil areas. In the second experiment, the SIR-A image was registered together with MSS-LANDSAT bands five, six, and seven. The same five classes mentioned above are obtained. These results are compared with those obtained using solely MSS-LANDSAT data. The spatial information as well as coregistered SIR-A and MSS-LANDSAT data can increase the separability between classes, as compared to the use of raw SIR-A data solely.

  3. The use of Landsat-4 MSS digital data in temporal data sets and the evaluation of scene-to-scene registration accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The MSS sensor on Landsat 4 is, in certain performance aspects, diferent from those of Landsats 1 through 3. These differences created some concern in the NASA research community as to whether individual data sets can be registered accurately enough to produce acceptable data sets for multitemporal data analysis. The use of Landsat 4 MSS digital data in temporal data sets is examined and a method is presented for estimating temporal registration accuracy based on the use of an X-Y digitizer and grey tone electrostatic plots. Results indicate that the RMS temporal registration errors are not significantly different from the temporal data sets generated using Landsat 4 and Landsat 2 data (33.35 meters) and the temporal data set constructed from two Landsat 2 data sets (33.61 meters). A derivation of the model used to evaluate the temporal registration is included.

  4. A low-power 10-bit 250 MS/s dual-channel pipeline ADC in 0.18 μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Q.; Chen, J.; Wen, X.; Feng, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zuo, Z.; Gong, D.; Liu, T.; Ye, J.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a 10-bit 250-MS/s time-interleaved pipelined analog-to-digital data converter (ADC). A distributed clocking scheme is developed to eliminate timing skew between channels without introducing load capacitance to the driving buffer of the ADC. The channel offset and gain mismatch errors are calibrated in digital domain. In addition, a switch-embedded opamp-sharing technique is developed to reduce the ADC power consumption and eliminate the memory effect. The simulated SNDR and SFDR are 61.84 dB and 78.2 dB, respectively. The ADC core consumes 28 mW under a 1.8 V supply at 250 MS/s sampling rate.

  5. Overexpression of DEAD box protein pMSS116 promotes ATP-dependent splicing of a yeast group II intron in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Niemer, I; Schmelzer, C; Börner, G V

    1995-01-01

    The group II intron bI1, the first intron of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in yeast is self-splicing in vitro. Genetic evidence suggests that trans-acting factors are required for in vivo splicing of this intron. In accordance with these findings, we present in vitro data showing that splicing of bI1 under physiological conditions depends upon the presence of proteins of a mitochondrial lysate. ATP is an essential component is this reaction. Overexpression of the nuclear-encoded DEAD box protein pMSS-116 results in a marked increase in the ATP-dependent splicing activity of the extract, suggesting that pMSS116 may play an important role in splicing of bI1. Images PMID:7659519

  6. A 12-bit 60-MS/s 36-mW SHA-less opamp-sharing pipeline ADC in 130 nm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, X.; Chen, J.; You, Y.; Feng, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zuo, Z.; Vosooghi, B.; Fan, Q.; Xiao, L.; Gong, D.; Liu, T.; Ye, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a 12-bit 60-MS/s SHA-less opamp-sharing pipeline analog-to-digital converter (ADC) implemented in a 0.13-μ m CMOS technology. A switch-embedded dual-input current-reused operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) with an overlapping two-phase clocking scheme is proposed to achieve low power consumption and eliminate the non-resetting and memory effects observed in conventional opamp-sharing techniques. To further reduce the power consumption, the ADC also incorporates a SHA-less multi-bit structure. The ADC achieves a signal-to-noise and distortion ratio of 64.9 dB and a spurious-free dynamic range of 77.1 dB at 60 MS/s. It occupies 2.3 mm 2 of area and consumes 36 mW of power under a 1.2-V supply.

  7. The use of LANDSAT-4 MSS digital data in temporal data sets and the evaluation of scene-to-scene registration accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    The MSS sensor on LANDSAT 4 is, in certain performance aspects, different from those on LANDSATS 1 through 3. These differences created some concern in the NASA research community as to whether individual data sets can be registered accurately enough to produce acceptable data sets for multitemporal data analysis. The use of LANDSAT 4 MSS digital data in temporal data sets is examined and a method is presented for estimating temporal registration accuracy based on the use of an X-Y digitizer and grey tone electrostatic plots. Results indicate that the RMS temporal registration errors are not significantly different from the temporal data sets generated using LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT 2 data (33.35 meters) and the temporal data set constructed from two LANDSAT 2 data sets (33.61 meters). A derivation of the model used to evaluate the temporal registration is included.

  8. Identification and estimation of the area planted with irrigated rice based on the visual interpretation of LANDSAT MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Moreira, M. A.; Assuncao, G. V.; Novaes, R. A.; Mendoza, A. A. B.; Bauer, C. A.; Ritter, I. T.; Barros, J. A. I.; Perez, J. E.; Thedy, J. L. O.

    1983-01-01

    The objective was to test the feasibility of the application of MSS-LANDSAT data to irrigated rice crop identification and area evaluation, within four rice growing regions of the Rio Grande do Sul state, in order to extend the methodology for the whole state. The applied methodology was visual interpretation of the following LANDSAT products: channels 5 and 7 black and white imageries and color infrared composite imageries all at the scale of 1:250.000. For crop identification and evaluation, the multispectral criterion and the seasonal variation were utilized. Based on the results it was possible to conclude that: (1) the satellite data were efficient for crop area identification and evaluation; (2) the utilization of the multispectral criterion, allied to the seasonal variation of the rice crop areas from the other crops and, (3) the large cloud cover percentage found in the satellite data made it impossible to realize a rice crop spectral monitoring and, therefore, to define the best dates for such data acquisition for rice crop assessment.

  9. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: An 8-b 300MS/S folding and interpolating ADC for embedded applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lu; Li, Lin; Jiefeng, Xia; Fan, Ye; Junyan, Ren

    2010-06-01

    A 1.4-V 8-bit 300-MS/s folding and interpolating analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is proposed. Fabricated in the 0.13-μm CMOS process and occupying only 0.6-mm2 active area, the ADC is especially suitable for embedded applications. The system is optimized for a low-power purpose. Pipelining sampling switches help to cut down the extra power needed for complete settling. An averaging resistor array is placed between two folding stages for power-saving considerations. The converter achieves 43.4-dB signal-to-noise and distortion ratio and 53.3-dB spurious-free dynamic range at 1-MHz input and 42.1-dB and 49.5-dB for Nyquist input. Measured results show a power dissipation of 34 mW and a figure of merit of 1.14 pJ/convstep at 250-MHz sampling rate at 1.4-V supply.

  10. Surface oil footprint and trajectory of the Ixtoc-I oil spill determined from Landsat/MSS and CZCS observations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaojie; Hu, Chuanmin; Tunnell, John W

    2015-12-30

    The Ixtoc-I oil spill occurred in 1979 in shallow waters (50 m) of the Bay of Campeche, Mexico. Although it is known that a large portion of the released oil from this second largest accidental marine oil spill in history reached the surface, to date there has been no attempt to document the surface footprint and trajectory of the released oil. Our study attempts to fill this knowledge gap using remote sensing data collected by Landsat/MSS and CZCS. Both showed the same general patterns of oil trajectory to the northwest and north, nearly parallel to the coastline of the western Gulf of Mexico (GoM) with possible oil landing on Mexican and Texas beaches. Field observations at selected beaches and islands along the coast of the western and southern GoM during and after the spill confirmed these satellite-based findings, which were also used to help in planning a recent field campaign to collect sediment samples in the southern GoM.

  11. Remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation in lower Chesapeake Bay - A comparison of Landsat MSS to TM imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat MSS and TM imagery, obtained simultaneously over Guinea Marsh, VA, as analyzed and compares for its ability to detect submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). An unsupervised clustering algorithm was applied to each image, where the input classification parameters are defined as functions of apparent sensor noise. Class confidence and accuracy were computed for all water areas by comparing the classified images, pixel-by-pixel, to rasterized SAV distributions derived from color aerial photography. To illustrate the effect of water depth on classification error, areas of depth greater than 1.9 m were masked, and class confidence and accuracy recalculated. A single-scattering radiative-transfer model is used to illustrate how percent canopy cover and water depth affect the volume reflectance from a water column containing SAV. For a submerged canopy that is morphologically and optically similar to Zostera marina inhabiting Lower Chesapeake Bay, dense canopies may be isolated by masking optically deep water. For less dense canopies, the effect of increasing water depth is to increase the apparent percent crown cover, which may result in classification error.

  12. Urban and regional land use analysis: CARETS and Census Cities experiment package. [mapping land use climatology from MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The arrival of the so-called energy crisis makes the portion of this experiment dealing with land use climatology of more immediate significance than before, since in addition to helping to understand the processes of climatic change associated with urbanization, the knowledge obtained may be useful in assigning an energy balance impact factor to proposed changes in land use in and around cities. Thermal maps derived from S-192 data are to be used as a measure of the energy being radiated into space from the mosaic of different surfaces in and around the city. While presenting excellent spatial sampling potential for a metropolitan area tests site, the Skylab data permit a very poor temporal sampling opportunity, owing to the large number of factors beyond the investigator's control that determine when data will be taken over a given test site. The strategy is to augment the thermal maps derived from S-192 with a modeling technique which enables the simulation of a number of components of the surface energy balance, calculated at regular time intervals throughout the day or year. Preliminary tests on the performance of the model are still underway, using airborne MSS data from NASA aircraft flights. Results look extremely promising.

  13. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    Supervised and cluster block training statistics were used to analyze the thematic mapper simulation MSS data (both 1979 and 1980 data sets). Cover information classes identified on SAR imagery include: hardwood, pine, mixed pine hardwood, clearcut, pasture, crops, emergent crops, bare soil, urban, and water. Preliminary analysis of the HH and HV polarized SAR data indicate a high variance associated with each information class except for water and bare soil. The large variance for most spectral classes suggests that while the means might be statistically separable, an overlap may exist between the classes which could introduce a significant classification error. The quantitative values of many cover types are much larger on the HV polarization than on the HH, thereby indicating the relative nature of the digitized data values. The mean values of the spectral classes in the areas with larger look angles are greater than the means of the same cover type in other areas having steeper look angles. Difficulty in accurately overlaying the dual polarization of the SAR data was resolved.

  14. Evaluation of SLAR and simulated thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Dean, M. E.; Knowlton, D. J.; Latty, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Kershaw County, South Carolina was selected as the study site for analyzing simulated thematic mapper MSS data and dual-polarized X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The impact of the improved spatial and spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT D thematic mapper data on computer aided analysis for forest cover type mapping was examined as well as the value of synthetic aperture radar data for differentiating forest and other cover types. The utility of pattern recognition techniques for analyzing SAR data was assessed. Topics covered include: (1) collection and of TMS and reference data; (2) reformatting, geometric and radiometric rectification, and spatial resolution degradation of TMS data; (3) development of training statistics and test data sets; (4) evaluation of different numbers and combinations of wavelength bands on classification performance; (5) comparison among three classification algorithms; and (6) the effectiveness of the principal component transformation in data analysis. The collection, digitization, reformatting, and geometric adjustment of SAR data are also discussed. Image interpretation results and classification results are presented.

  15. Detection of hydrocarbon microseepage in a rain forest environment (Jurua Gas field, northern Brazil) using Landsat MSS data

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, F.P.; Cunha, F.M.B. )

    1990-05-01

    The Jurua gas field is the first important hydrocarbon accumulation found in the jungle-covered Solimoes basin. The tectonic framework in this area is characterized by a right-lateral transpressional zone (Jurua structural trend). Hydrocarbon traps are anticlines developed along the upthrown block of a reverse fault. The prospective 2,200-m-thick Paleozoic section is unconformably covered by a 2,800-m-thick pile of Mesozoic and Cenozoic continental sediments. Anomalous concentrations of hydrocarbons (C{sub 2}-C{sub 4}) in soil samples are concordantly aligned with the trace of the reverse fault crossing the gas field, indicating that this feature acted as a conduit for hydrocarbon microseepage. Gas-producing wells are located over a tabular watershed which coincides with the northeast-southwest Jurua structural trend. An unsupervised classification of Landsat MSS data over the gas field area reveals that one spectral class of vegetation is aligned with the Jurua structural trend. Field checking shows that the vegetation near the gas-producing well 1-JR-1-AM is not as dense as the forest outside the limits of the Jurua gas field. Two geologic factors may account for the vegetation anomaly over the gas field. (1) The northeast-southwest tabular watershed corresponds to a Pleistocene erosional surface associated with weathering products such as bauxite and laterite. The resulting soil is impermeable and low in nutrients. (2) The spectral behavior of vegetation may represent the response of plants to long-term anaerobic soil conditions brought about by gas leakage from the Paleozoic reservoir.

  16. Structural basis for RNA-duplex recognition and unwinding by the DEAD-box helicase Mss116p.

    PubMed

    Mallam, Anna L; Del Campo, Mark; Gilman, Benjamin; Sidote, David J; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2012-10-04

    DEAD-box proteins are the largest family of nucleic acid helicases, and are crucial to RNA metabolism throughout all domains of life. They contain a conserved 'helicase core' of two RecA-like domains (domains (D)1 and D2), which uses ATP to catalyse the unwinding of short RNA duplexes by non-processive, local strand separation. This mode of action differs from that of translocating helicases and allows DEAD-box proteins to remodel large RNAs and RNA-protein complexes without globally disrupting RNA structure. However, the structural basis for this distinctive mode of RNA unwinding remains unclear. Here, structural, biochemical and genetic analyses of the yeast DEAD-box protein Mss116p indicate that the helicase core domains have modular functions that enable a novel mechanism for RNA-duplex recognition and unwinding. By investigating D1 and D2 individually and together, we find that D1 acts as an ATP-binding domain and D2 functions as an RNA-duplex recognition domain. D2 contains a nucleic-acid-binding pocket that is formed by conserved DEAD-box protein sequence motifs and accommodates A-form but not B-form duplexes, providing a basis for RNA substrate specificity. Upon a conformational change in which the two core domains join to form a 'closed state' with an ATPase active site, conserved motifs in D1 promote the unwinding of duplex substrates bound to D2 by excluding one RNA strand and bending the other. Our results provide a comprehensive structural model for how DEAD-box proteins recognize and unwind RNA duplexes. This model explains key features of DEAD-box protein function and affords a new perspective on how the evolutionarily related cores of other RNA and DNA helicases diverged to use different mechanisms.

  17. Partitioning of platinum-group elements (PGE) and chalcogens (Se, Te, As, Sb, Bi) between monosulfide-solid solution (MSS), intermediate solid solution (ISS) and sulfide liquid at controlled fO2-fS2 conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanan; Brenan, James

    2015-06-01

    In order to better understand the behavior of highly siderophile elements (HSEs: Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd, Au, Re), Ag, Pb and chalcogens (As, Se, Sb, Te and Bi) during the solidification of sulfide magmas, we have conducted a series of experiments to measure partition coefficients (D values) between monosulfide solid solution (MSS) and sulfide melt, as well as MSS and intermediate solid solution (ISS), at 0.1 MPa and 860-926 °C, log fS2 -3.0 to -2.2 (similar to the Pt-PtS buffer), with fO2 controlled at the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. The IPGEs (Os, Ir, Ru), Rh and Re are found to be compatible in MSS relative to sulfide melt with D values ranging from ∼20 to ∼5, and DRe/DOs of ∼0.5. Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, Pb, as well as the chalcogens, are incompatible in MSS, with D values ranging from ∼0.1 to ∼1 × 10-3. For the same metal/sulfur ratio, D values for the IPGEs, Rh and Re are systematically larger than most past studies, correlating with higher oxygen content in the sulfide liquid, reflecting the significant effect of oxygen on increasing the activity coefficients for these elements in the melt phase. MSS/ISS partitioning experiments reveal that Ru, Os, Ir, Rh and Re are partitioned into MSS by a factor of >50, whereas Pd, Pt, Ag, Au and the chalcogens partition from weakly (Se, As) to strongly (Ag, Au) into ISS. Uniformly low MSS- and ISS- melt partition coefficients for the chalcogens, Pt, Pd, Ag and Au will lead to enrichment in the residual sulfide liquid, but D values are generally too large to reach early saturation in Pt-Pd-chalcogen-rich accessory minerals, based on current solubility estimates. Instead, these phases likely precipitate at the last dregs of crystallization. Modeled evolution curves for the PGEs and chalcogens are in reasonably good agreement with whole-rock sulfide compositions for the McCreedy East deposit (Sudbury, Ontario), consistent with an origin by crystallization of MSS, then MSS + ISS from sulfide magma.

  18. An examination of the relationships between selected ground properties and Landsat MSS data in an area of complex terrain in southern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C. O.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with the method and results of a study which involved an examination of the statistical relationships between selected ground properties and Landsat MSS data, and whose aim was to assess the applicability of Landsat data to surface cover mapping in areas characterized by high-frequency spatial variations of surface cover type over small areas. The results indicate that by systematic ground data collection it is possible to understand the basic relationships between ground properties and Landsat sensor data in areas of complex surface cover and terrain, and to classify the cover types.

  19. Evaluation of criteria for selecting the spectral attributes of digital LANDSAT MSS imagery for discriminating lithological units in the lower Curaca River Valley, Bahia. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradella, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The use of spectral attributes criteria was investigated, based on measures of statistical distance of separability between thematic classes in MSS digital LANDSAT imagery, in order to select the best subsets of channels in composite colors for the detection and discrimination of lithological units in the lower valley of Curaca River, State of Bahia, Brazil. Three situations were investigated: (1) selection of the three best channels, considering all of the original bands (channels 4, 5, 6, and 7); (2) selection of the three best bands, considering the six MSS band-ratios (channels 4/5, 4/6. 4/7, 5/6, 5/7, and 6/7); and (3) selection of the three best bands in a hybrid approach (the four original bands and the six ratios). A visual analysis was done on color composite images using the selected sets. Results show that the hybrid product (bands 4, 5/7, and 7 with green, blue, and red respectively) and the Normal Color Composite (bands 4, 5, and 7 with blue, green, and red colors respectively) had the best performance.

  20. Snow-extent mapping and lake ice studies using ERTS-1 MSS together with NOAA-2 VHRR. [Lake Ontario-Lake Erie Basins and Sierra Nevada Mountains, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesnet, D. R.; Mcginnis, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    Five snow extent maps of the 5,601 sq km American River Basin were prepared using a Zoom Transfer Scope from ERTS-1 MSS band 4 imagery. The maps were generally completed within one hour. A snowmelt curve based on ERTS-1 imagery was used as a calibration standard or comparison for maps prepared from NOAA-2 VHRR imagery in the same manner. Cost comparisons with U-2 derived imagery indicate that ERTS-1 snow mapping of the basins is six times faster. Conservative estimates of comparable aircraft snow survey flights yields a cost figure 200 times that of the ERTS-1 snow map. Snow mapping attempts in the Lake Ontario Basin demonstrated that ERTS-1 is not well suited to large basins. Optimum size of basins for ERTS studies is believed to range from about 250 sq km to 30,000 sq km. The value of the ERTS-1 MSS for Great Lake ice evaluation was proved during the past winter on Lake Erie. Not only were ice features and types of ice identified, but melting ice was detected through the combined use of band 5 and band 7. Ice movement (direction and speed) was mapped by examining imagery from two successive days.

  1. Design of a 12-bit 1 MS/s SAR-ADC for front-end readout of 32-channel CZT detector imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Tingcun; Li, Bo; Guo, Panjie; Hu, Yongcai

    2015-06-01

    A 12-bit 1MS/s SAR-ADC for the front-end readout of a 32-channel CZT detector imaging system is presented. In order to improve the performances of the ADC, several techniques are proposed. First, a novel offset cancellation method for comparator is proposed, in which no any capacitor is introduced in the signal pathway, thus it has faster operation speed than traditional one. Second, the architecture of unit capacitor array is adopted in the charge-redistribution DAC to reduce the capacitor mismatch. Third, the radiation-hardened ability is enhanced through circuit and layout design. The prototype chip was fabricated using a TSMC 0.35 um 2P4M CMOS process. At a 3.3/5 V power supply, the proposed SAR-ADC achieves 67.64 dB SINAD at 1MS/s, consumes 10 mW power and occupies a core area of 1180×1080 um2.

  2. A 1 V 186-μW 50-MS/s 10-bit subrange SAR ADC in 130-nm CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingyuan, Yu; Ting, Li; Jiaqi, Yang; Shuangshuang, Zhang; Fujiang, Lin; Lin, He

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a 10-bit 50-MS/s subrange successive-approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) composed of a 4-bit SAR coarse ADC and a 6-bit SAR fine ADC. In the coarse ADC, multi-comparator SAR architecture is used to reduce the digital logic propagation delay, and a traditional asynchronous SAR ADC with monotonic switching method is used as the fine ADC. With that combination, power dissipation also can be much reduced. Meanwhile, a modified SAR control logic is adopted in the fine ADC to speed up the conversion and other techniques, such as splitting capacitors array, are borrowed to reduce the power consumption. Fabricated with 1P8M 130-nm CMOS technology, the proposed SAR ADC achieves 51.6-dB signal to noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) and consumes 186 μW at 50 MS/s with a 1-V supply, resulting in a figure of merit (FOM) of 12 fJ/conversion-step. The core area is only 0.045 mm2. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61204033, 61331015), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. WK2100230015), and the Funds of Science and Technology on Analog Integrated Circuit Laboratory (No. 9140C090111150C09041).

  3. Monitoring Environment with GIS for Part of Thiruvallur Town Using Cartosat 1 Stereo, Pan & Resourcesat Liss 4 MSS Merged Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, G. S.; Venkatchalam, R. V.; Ramamurthhy, M.; Gummidipoondi, R. J.; Ramillah, M.

    2012-07-01

    of Thiruvallur Municipality Area between North Western Thiruvallur town from the Temple Tank of Sri Veeraragavasamy temple to junction of National Highways connecting Thiruvallur to Tirupathi and Thiruvallur- Poondi- Uthukottai at the West. These data are used to create environment monitoring GIS to understand the use of High resolution Indian satellite data for local urban environmental planning to manage the health and environmental issues. ARC GIS 10 and Lieca photogrammetry software are used with satellite data to create different layer for creating GIS on urban infrastructure like houses, public buildings, roads, municipal surface drainage net work, underground sewerage drainage net work, drinking water pipe lines net work, landfills, solid waste disposal yards, pumping stations, degraded areas, heath services infrastructure, wet lands , low lying areas with bushes, abandoned lakes which are the breeding grounds for mosquito's in rainy season, etc These layers are correlated with the municipal ward map of this segment of the town. The stereo data of Cartosat 1 is useful for mapping the households, roads, agricultural fields, bushy areas, slopes to map the natural drainage of the area and for delineation of micro watersheds. When the layer of municipal ward maps are integrated with the GIS the drainage, drinking water lines, street names and house numbers etc can be added to the attribute data to make this as a complete Environment management GIS. The use of PAN merged data of Cartosat 1 with LISS 4, MSS Resourcesat 1 in natural colour and it's cost effectiveness is studied to explain the usefulness of creation of Environment Health GIS. The non stereo Geo Eye latest data from Google Earth web site or Cartosat 2 can be used for upgrading the land use changes and identify current environmental as on 2011.The study will provide GIS to monitor environmental issues with multi date large scale data for Thiruvallur Town.

  4. Use of Landsat MSS and TM imagery to improve reconnaissance geologic mapping in the Ruby quadrangle, west-central Alaska: A section in Geological studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labay, Keith A.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Burleigh, Kuuipo A.

    2001-01-01

    By using Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite images, the spatial relation of units JMtu (mafic, ultramafic, and sedimentary rocks, undivided) and PzZrqs (pelitic and quartzitic schist) of Wilson and others (1998) from the northeastern portion of the Ruby 1:250,000-scale quadrangle geologic map was further defined. The MSS image was first analyzed using spectral signatures to separate and highlight pixels associated only with the units of interest. This approach was ineffective at separating the units from areas of the image with similar spectral signatures, but it did show that unit JMtu and associated areas consistently had a high brightness value, while unit PzZrqs and associated areas consistently had a low brightness value. Consequently, a new approach was developed using spectral enhancement to emphasize the differences between these high- and low- brightness areas. Once the TM image was obtained, the spectral signature separation and spectral enhancement approaches were again tested, but the results were similar to those found using the MSS image. By using the results from the spectral enhancement of the MSS image in combination with current ground-truth data, the locations of units JMtu and PzZrqs in the Ruby quadrangle were reinterpreted.

  5. Identification of stair climbing ability levels in community-dwelling older adults based on the geometric mean of stair ascent and descent speed: The GeMSS classifier.

    PubMed

    Mayagoitia, Ruth E; Harding, John; Kitchen, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to develop a quantitative approach to identify three stair-climbing ability levels of older adults: no, somewhat and considerable difficulty. Timed-up-and-go test, six-minute-walk test, and Berg balance scale were used for statistical comparison to a new stair climbing ability classifier based on the geometric mean of stair speeds (GeMSS) in ascent and descent on a flight of eight stairs with a 28° pitch in the housing unit where the participants, 28 (16 women) urban older adults (62-94 years), lived. Ordinal logistic regression revealed the thresholds between the three ability levels for each functional test were more stringent than thresholds found in the literature to classify walking ability levels. Though a small study, the intermediate classifier shows promise of early identification of difficulties with stairs, in order to make timely preventative interventions. Further studies are necessary to obtain scaling factors for stairs with other pitches.

  6. Dynamic study of the upper Sao Francisco river and Tres Marias reservoir using MSS/LANDSAT images. M.S. Thesis; [BRazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Sausen, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between the dispersion and concentration of sediment in the superficial layers of the Tres Marias reservoir and the dynamics of the drainage basins of its tributaries was verified using LANDSAT MSS imagery. The drainage network, dissection patterns, and land use of each watershed were considered in an analysis of multispectral images, corresponding to bands 4,5, and 7, of dry and rainy seasons in 1973, 1975, 1977, and 1978. The superficial layer water layers of the reservoir were also divided according to the grey level pattern of each image. Two field trips were made to collect Secchi depths and in situ water reflectance. It is concluded that it is possible to determine the main factors that act in the dynamics of the drainage basins of a reservoir by simultaneous control of the physical variables and the antropic action of each basin.

  7. A 10-bit 80-MS/s opamp-sharing pipelined ADC with a switch-embedded dual-input MDAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Yin; Youchun, Liao; Wei, Zhang; Zhangwen, Tang

    2011-02-01

    A 10-bit 80-MS/s opamp-sharing pipelined ADC is implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS. An opamp-sharing MDAC with a switch-embedded dual-input opamp is proposed to eliminate the non-resetting and successive-stage crosstalk problems observed in the conventional opamp-sharing technique. The ADC achieves a peak SNDR of 60.1 dB (ENOB = 9.69 bits) and a peak SFDR of 76 dB, while maintaining more than 9.6 ENOB for the full Nyquist input bandwidth. The core area of the ADC is 1.1 mm2 and the chip consumes 28 mW with a 1.8 V power supply.

  8. ERTS data user no. 119: Effective use of ERTS multisensor data in the Great Plains. ERTS-1 MSS imagery: A tool for identifying soil associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator); Westin, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Soil association maps show the spatial relationships of land units developed in unique climatic, geologic, and topographic environments, and having characteristic slopes, soil depths, textures, available water capacities, permeabilities, and the like. ERTS-1 imagery was found to be a useful tool in the identification of soil associations since it provides a synoptic view of an 8 million acre scene, which is large enough so that the effect can be seen on soils of climate, topography, and geology. A regional view also allows soil associations to be observed over most, if not all, of their extent. ERTS-1 MSS imagery also provides four spectral bands taken every 18 days which give data on relief, hydrology, and vegetation, all of which bear on the delineation and interpretation of soil associations. Enlarged prints derived from the individual spectral bands and shown in gray tones were useful for identifying soil associations.

  9. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  10. A 10 bit 50 MS/s SAR ADC with partial split capacitor switching scheme in 0.18 μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Li; Qiao, Meng; Fei, Li

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a 10 bit successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS technology with a 1.8 V supply voltage. To improve the conversion speed, a partial split capacitor switching scheme is proposed. By reducing the time constant of the bit cycles, the proposed technique shortens the settling time of a capacitive digital-to-analog converter (DAC). In addition, a new SAR control logic is proposed to reduce loop delay to further enhance the conversion speed. At 1.8 V supply voltage and 50 MS/s the SAR ADC achieves a signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) of 57.5 dB and spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 69.3 dB. The power consumption is 2.26 mW and the core die area is 0.096 mm2. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61401097).

  11. A 0.23 pJ 11.05-bit ENOB 125-MS/s pipelined ADC in a 0.18 μm CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Wang; Jianyun, Zhang; Rui, Yin; Yuhang, Zhao; Wei, Zhang

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a 12-bit 125-MS/s pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) that is implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. A gate-bootstrapping switch is used as the bottom-sampling switch in the first stage to enhance the sampling linearity. The measured differential and integral nonlinearities of the prototype are less than 0.79 least significant bit (LSB) and 0.86 LSB, respectively, at the full sampling rate. The ADC exhibits an effective number of bits (ENOB) of more than 11.05 bits at the input frequency of 10.5 MHz. The ADC also achieves a 10.5 bits ENOB with the Nyquist input frequency at the full sample rate. In addition, the ADC consumes 62 mW from a 1.9 V power supply and occupies 1.17 mm2, which includes an on-chip reference buffer. The figure-of-merit of this ADC is 0.23 pJ/step. Project supported by the Foundation of Shanghai Municipal Commission of Economy and Informatization (No. 130311).

  12. A 12-bit, 1 MS/s SAR-ADC for a CZT-based multi-channel gamma-ray imager using a new digital calibration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Wei, T.; Yang, L.; Hu, Y.

    2016-03-01

    The successive approximation register-analog to digital converter (SAR-ADC) is widely used in the CdZnTe-based gamma-ray imager because of its outstanding characteristics of low power consumption, relatively high resolution, and small die size. This study proposes a digital bit-by-bit calibration method using an input ramp signal to further improve the conversion precision and power consumption of an SAR-ADC. The proposed method is based on the sub-radix-2 redundant architecture and the perturbation technique. The proposed calibration algorithm is simpler, more stable, and faster than traditional approaches. The prototype chip of the 12-bit, 1 MS/s radiation-hardened SAR-ADC has been designed and fabricated using the TSMC 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS process. This SAR-ADC consumes 3 mW power and occupies a core area of 856× 802μm2. The digital bit-by-bit calibration algorithm is implemented via MATLAB for testing flexibility. The effective number of bits for this digitally calibrated SAR-ADC reaches 11.77 bits. The converter exhibits high conversion precision, low power consumption, and radiation-hardened design. Therefore, this SAR-ADC is suitable for multi-channel gamma-ray imager applications.

  13. Use of ERTS-1 data: Summary report of work on ten tasks. [solving natural resources and environmental quality problems using ERTS-1 MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Polcyn, F. C.; Bryan, M. L.; Sattinger, I. J.; Malila, W. A.; Nalepka, R. F.; Wezernak, C. T.; Horvath, R.; Vincent, R. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Depth mapping's for a portion of Lake Michigan and at the Little Bahama Bank test site have been verified by use of navigation charts and on-site visits. A thirteen category recognition map of Yellowstone Park has been prepared. Model calculation of atmospheric effects for various altitudes have been prepared. Radar, SLAR, and ERTS-1 data for flooded areas of Monroe County, Michigan are being studied. Water bodies can be reliably recognized and mapped using maximum likelihood processing of ERTS-1 digital data. Wetland mapping has been accomplished by slicing of single band and/or ratio processing of two bands for a single observation date. Both analog and digital processing have been used to map the Lake Ontario basin using ERTS-1 data. Operating characteristic curves were developed for the proportion estimation algorithm to determine its performance in the measurement of surface water area. The signal in band MSS-5 was related to sediment content of waters by modelling approach and by relating surface measurements of water to processed ERTS data. Radiance anomalies in ERTS-1 data could be associated with the presence of oil on water in San Francisco Bay, but the anomalies were of the same order as those caused by variations in sediment concentration and tidal flushing.

  14. An analog front end with a 12-bit 3.2-MS/s SAR ADC for a power line communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huabin, Chen; Jixuan, Xiang; Xiangyan, Xue; Chixiao, Chen; Fan, Ye; Jun, Xu; Junyan, Ren

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an analog front end for a power line communication system, including a 12-bit 3.2-MS/s energy-efficient successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter, a positive feedback programmable gain amplifier, a 9.8 ppm/°C bandgap reference and on-chip low-output voltage regulators. A two segment capacitive array structure (6 MSB 5 LSB) composed by split capacitors is designed for the SAR core to save area cost and release reference voltage accuracy requirements. Implemented in the GSMC 0.13 μm 1.5 V/12 V dual-gate 4P6M e-flash process, the analog front end occupies an area of 0.457 mm2 and consumes power of 18.8 mW, in which 1.1 mW cost by the SAR ADC. Measured at 500 kHz input, the spurious-free dynamic range and signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio of the ADC are 71.57 dB and 60.60 dB respectively, achieving a figure of merit of 350 fJ/conversion-step.

  15. A 0.31pJ/Conversion-Step 12-Bit 100MS/s 0.13μm CMOS A/D Converter for 3G Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Ju; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Myung-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hoon

    This work describes a 12-bit 100MS/s 0.13μm CMOS ADC for 3G wireless communication systems such as two-carrier W-CDMA applications. The proposed ADC employs a four-step pipeline architecture to optimize power consumption and chip area at the target resolution and sampling rate. Area-efficient gate-bootstrapped sampling switches of the input SHA maintain high signal linearity over the Nyquist rate even at a 1.0V supply. The cascode compensation using a low-impedance feedback path in two-stage amplifiers of the SHA and MDACs achieves the required conversion speed and phase margin with less power consumption and area compared to the Miller compensation. A low-glitch dynamic latch in the sub-ranging flash ADCs reduces kickback noise referred to the input of comparator by isolating the pre-amplifier from the regeneration latch output. The proposed on-chip current and voltage references are based on triple negative TC circuits. The prototype ADC in a 0.13μm 1P8M CMOS technology demonstrates the measured DNL and INL within 0.38LSB and 0.96LSB at 12-bit, respectively. The ADC shows a maximum SNDR and SFDR of 64.5dB and 78.0dB at 100MS/s, respectively. The ADC with an active die area of 1.22mm2 consumes 42.0mW at 100MS/s and a 1.2V supply, corresponding to a figure-of-merit of 0.31pJ/conversion-step.

  16. MSS D Multispectral Scanner System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauletta, A. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Brinkman, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The development and acceptance testing of the 4-band Multispectral Scanners to be flown on LANDSAT D and LANDSAT D Earth resources satellites are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the acceptance test phase of the program. Test history and acceptance test algorithms are discussed. Trend data of all the key performance parameters are included and discussed separately for each of the two multispectral scanner instruments. Anomalies encountered and their resolutions are included.

  17. A 0.06 mm2 1.0 V 2.5 mW 10 bit 250 MS/s current-steering D/A converter in 65 nm GP CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yawei, Guo; Li, Li; Peng, Ou; Zhida, Hui; Xu, Cheng; Xiaoyang, Zeng

    2014-06-01

    A 10 bit 250 MS/s current-steering digital-to-analog converter is presented. Only standard VT core devices are available for the sake of simplicity and low cost. In order to meet the INL performance, a Monte Carlo model is built to analyze the impact of mismatch on integral nonlinearity (INL) yield with both end-point line and best-fit line. A formula is derived for the relationship of INL and output impedance. The relation of dynamic range and output impedance is also discussed. The double centroid layout is adopted for the current source array in order to mitigate the effect of electrical, process, and temperature gradient. An adapted current mirror is used to overcome the gate leakage of the current source array, which cannot be ignored in the 65 nm GP CMOS process. The digital-to-analog converter occupies 0.06 mm2, and consumes 2.5 mW from a single 1.0 V supply at 250 MS/s.

  18. Design of a 12-bit 2 MS/s 12 mW pipelined SAR ADC in CMOS 0.18 μm technology for CZT-based imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, F.; Gao, W.; Wei, X.; Liu, W.; Hu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a 12-bit 2 MS/s pipelined successive approximation register (SAR) ADC for CZT-based imaging system. The proposed ADC is divided into a first-stage 6-bit SAR-based Multiplying Digital Analog Converter (MDAC) and a second-stage 8-bit SAR ADC. The first-stage MDAC has a gain of 16 instead of the usual gain of 64, which considerably minimizes the power dissipation of residue amplifier. The second-stage 8-bit SAR ADC employs unit bridge capacitor split-capacitor architecture aiming to reduce the load capacitance of residue amplifier so as to minimize the power dissipation of the proposed ADC. Moreover, a code-randomized calibration algorithm is proposed to improve the linearity of the second-stage 8-bit split-capacitor SAR ADC. In addition, several radiation-hardened-by-design techniques are adopted in the layout design against space radiation effects. The prototype chip was fabricated in 0.18 μ m mixed-signal 1.8 V/3.3 V process and occupied a core area of 0.71 mm2. The proposed pipelined SAR ADC achieves a peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) of 63.2 dB at 2 MS/s sampling rate and consumes 12 mW power in total. The figure of merit (FoM) of the proposed ADC is 5.06 pJ/conversion-step.

  19. Water quality parameters of harbors of Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands: Acquisition of in situ water data, intercorrelation of selected water parameters, and initial correlation of these in situ biological, chemical and physical data with ERTS-1 bulk CCT MSS band 5 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulbourn, W. C.; Olsen, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Remote sensing by the ERTS-1 satellite was compared with selected water quality parameters including pH, salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, water depth, water temperature, turbidity, plankton concentration, current variables, chlorophylla, total carotenoids, and species diversity of the benthic community. Strong correlation between turbidity and MSS-sensed radiance was recorded and less strong correlations between the two plankton pigments and radiance. Turbidity and benthic species diversity were highly correlated furnishing an inferential tie between an easily sensed water quality variable and a sensitive indicator of average water quality conditions.

  20. An experimental study on the geochemical behavior of highly siderophile elements (HSE) and metalloids (As, Se, Sb, Te, Bi) in a mss-iss-pyrite system at 650 °C: A possible magmatic origin for Co-HSE-bearing pyrite and the role of metalloid-rich phases in the fractionation of HSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafagna, Fabio; Jugo, Pedro J.

    2016-04-01

    Pyrite, the most abundant sulfide in the Earth's crust, is an accessory mineral in several magmatic sulfide deposits. Although most pyrite is hydrothermal, previous experimental studies have shown that pyrite can also have a primary magmatic origin, by exsolving from monosulfide solid solution (mss) during cooling of a sulfide melt, if sulfur fugacity is sufficiently high. Pyrite from some localities has significant amounts of Co, and complex zonation in some low-melting-point chalcophile elements (LMCE), such as As, Se, Sb, Te, Bi (henceforth referred to as metalloids) and some platinum-group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt). However, the origin of such pyrite and the causes of zonation are not clear. Because the distribution of some of these elements is heterogeneous and seems to be developed in concentric zones, the zonation has been interpreted to represent growth stages, some of them secondary and caused partly by hydrothermal fluids. Better constraints on the origin of Co-PGE-bearing pyrite could help unravel the geochemical processes affecting the sulfide assemblages in which it is found; thus, an experimental study was undertaken to characterize pyrite formation in magmatic sulfide environments and its relationship with metalloids and highly siderophile elements (HSE: PGE, Re, Au). Natural pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite and elemental S were mixed and doped with approximately 50 ppm of each HSE. A mixture of metalloids was added at 0.2 wt.% or 3 wt.% to aliquots of sulfide mixtures. Starting materials were sealed in evacuated silica tubes and fused at 1200 °C. The temperature was subsequently reduced to 750 °C (at 60 °C/h), then to 650 °C (at 0.5 °C/h) to produce relatively large euhedral pyrite crystals, then quenched. The experiments were analyzed using reflected light, SEM, EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. Experimental products contained euhedral pyrite, mss, intermediate solid solution (iss) and metalloid-rich phases, interpreted as quench product

  1. Modular Simulator System (MSS). Interface Design Document for the Generic MSS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-20

    nations. This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publica - tion. JEFf C. VALITON, Maj, USAF JAMES D. BASINGER Pro~ Manager Team Leader...Database A-297 10.15.10 Spatial Relacions A-297 10.15.11 Occulting A-298 10.15.12 Radar Support A-298 S 10.16 Electronic Warfare Output Interface Types A

  2. Combined trellis coding and feedforward processing for MSS applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Simon, M. K.; Jedrey, T.; Lay, N.; Rafferty, W.

    1990-01-01

    The idea of using a multiple (more than two) symbol observation interval to improve error probability performance is applied to differential detection of trellis coded MPSK over a mobile satellite (fading) channel. Results are obtained via computer simulation. It is shown that only a slight increase (e.g., one symbol) in the length of the observation interval will provide a significant improvement in bit error probability performance both in AWGN and fading environments.

  3. Spatial resolution estimation of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgillem, C. D.; Anuta, P. E.; Yu, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to verify that the LANDSAT-4 sensors are operating within specifications, it is useful to estimate the system parameters by analysis of the measured data. One parameter of particular interest is the sensor point-spread function (PSF) which determines the resolution of the system. A method of estimating the PSF is described that utilizes data obtained during scanning of ground elements having identifiable geometric and radiometric structure. These data are then processed in such a manner as to recover either the PSF itself or to estimate the parameters of an assumed functional representation of the PSF.

  4. Digital enhancement of multispectral MSS data for maximum image visibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Algazi, V. R.

    1973-01-01

    A systematic approach to the enhancement of images has been developed. This approach exploits two principal features involved in the observation of images: the properties of human vision and the statistics of the images being observed. The rationale of the enhancement procedure is as follows: in the observation of some features of interest in an image, the range of objective luminance-chrominance values being displayed is generally limited and does not use the whole perceptual range of vision of the observer. The purpose of the enhancement technique is to expand and distort in a systematic way the grey scale values of each of the multispectral bands making up a color composite, to enhance the average visibility of the features being observed.

  5. ERTS-1 MSS imagery - A tool for identifying soil associations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    Soil association maps show the spatial relationships of land units developed in unique climatic, geologic, and topographic environments, and having characteristic slopes, soil depths, textures, available water capacities, permeabilities, and the like. From these characteristics of the soil, broad interpretations can be made such as how the soil is suited for various agronomic and engineering uses. ERTS-1 imagery was found to be a useful tool in the identification of soil associations since it provides a synoptic view of an 8 million acre scene, which is large enough so that the effect can be seen on soils of climate, topography, and geology. A regional view also allows soil associations to be observed over most, if not all, of their extent. This aids in selecting typical sampling sites and provides a check on the homogeniety of the associations.

  6. Preliminary Skylab MSS channel evaluation. [Susquehanna river basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Barr, D. M.; Borden, F. Y.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A set of 18 channels which were considered of usable quality were identified. These were channels 1-14, 17, 19-21. Channels 15, 16, 18, and 22 were dropped out because they were of poor quality; channels 7 and 11 were dropped to limit the total channel number to 16. From these 16 channels, a total of 22 signatures were obtained. Eight were developed from uniform blocks of the UMAP, and 14 from use of the DCLUS program. These signatures fell into six basic categories and classified more than 90% of the five scenes mapped: agriculture land (6 signatures); forest aland (4); water (2); open nonagriculture land (2); urban (6); and disturbed land (2).

  7. Techniques for digital enhancement of Landsat MSS data using an Apple II+ microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, J. A., Jr.; Cartin, K. F.

    1984-01-01

    The information provided by remotely sensed data collected from orbiting platforms has been useful in many research fields. Particularly convenient for evaluation are generally digital data stored on computer compatible tapes (CCT's). The major advantages of CCT's are the quality of the data and the accessibility to computer manipulation. Minicomputer systems are widely used for the required computer processing operations. However, microprocessor-related technological advances make it now possible to process CCT data with computing systems which can be obtained at a much lower price than minicomputer systems. A detailed description is provided of the design considerations of a microcomputer-based Digital Image Analysis System (DIAS). Particular attention is given to the algorithms which are incorporated for eighter edge enhancement or smoothing Landsat multispectral scanner data.

  8. Detecting forest canopy change due to insect activity using Landsat MSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Multitemporal Landsat multispectral scanner data were analyzed to test various computer-aided analysis techniques for detecting significant forest canopy alteration. Three data transformations - differencing, ratioing, and a vegetative index difference - were tested to determine which best delineated gypsy moth defoliation. Response surface analyses were conducted to determine optimal threshold levels for the individual transformed bands and band combinations. Results indicate that, of the three transformations investigated, a vegetative index difference (VID) transformation most accurately delineates forest canopy change. Band 5 (0.6 to 0.7 micron ratioed data did nearly as well. However, other single bands and band combinations did not improve upon the band 5 ratio and VID results.

  9. Modeling a historical mountain pine beetle outbreak using Landsat MSS and multiple lines of evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Assal, Timothy J.; Sibold, Jason; Reich, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles are significant forest disturbance agents, capable of inducing widespread mortality in coniferous forests in western North America. Various remote sensing approaches have assessed the impacts of beetle outbreaks over the last two decades. However, few studies have addressed the impacts of historical mountain pine beetle outbreaks, including the 1970s event that impacted Glacier National Park. The lack of spatially explicit data on this disturbance represents both a major data gap and a critical research challenge in that wildfire has removed some of the evidence from the landscape. We utilized multiple lines of evidence to model forest canopy mortality as a proxy for outbreak severity. We incorporate historical aerial and landscape photos, aerial detection survey data, a nine-year collection of satellite imagery and abiotic data. This study presents a remote sensing based framework to (1) relate measurements of canopy mortality from fine-scale aerial photography to coarse-scale multispectral imagery and (2) classify the severity of mountain pine beetle affected areas using a temporal sequence of Landsat data and other landscape variables. We sampled canopy mortality in 261 plots from aerial photos and found that insect effects on mortality were evident in changes to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) over time. We tested multiple spectral indices and found that a combination of NDVI and the green band resulted in the strongest model. We report a two-step process where we utilize a generalized least squares model to account for the large-scale variability in the data and a binary regression tree to describe the small-scale variability. The final model had a root mean square error estimate of 9.8% canopy mortality, a mean absolute error of 7.6% and an R2 of 0.82. The results demonstrate that a model of percent canopy mortality as a continuous variable can be developed to identify a gradient of mountain pine beetle severity on the landscape.

  10. GIS Meets Airborne MSS: Geospatial Applications of High-Resolution Multispectral Data

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Guber

    1999-07-27

    Bechtel Nevada operates and flies Daedalus multispectral scanners for funded project tasks at the Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory. Historically, processing and analysis of multispectral data has afforded scientists the opportunity to see natural phenomena not visible to the naked eye. However, only recently has a system, more specifically a Geometric Correction System, existed to automatically geo-reference these data directly into a Geographic Information (GIS) database. Now, analyses, performed previously in a nongeospatial environment, are integrated directly into an Arc/Info GIS. This technology is of direct benefit to environmental and emergency response applications.

  11. Information content of data from the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous data acquisition by the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper and the multispectral scanner permits the comparison of the two types of image data with respect to engineering performance and data applications. Progress in the evaluation of information content of matching scenes in agricultural areas is briefly reported.

  12. Ocean water color assessment from ERTS-1 RBV and MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photo-optical and electronic density slicing were applied to ERTS-1 E 1007-151651-4, 30 July 1972, an area in the Caribbean showing deep ocean water, and shallow areas on the Great Baham Bank ranging from 0.5 meter or less to 18 meters. The density slicing processes were adjusted to correlate water radiance to bathmetric contours shown on C and GS Chart 1112. A number of large areas corresponding to water depths of 2 meters or less, 5 to 10 meters, and 10 to about 20 meters were isolated by both processes. Where clear water and uniformly reflective bottom was found, clear of marine growths, the photo-optical and electronic image density slicing processes proved effective in delineating areas where the depth was in the order of 5 meters, plus or minus 1 meter.

  13. Performance evaluation and geologic utility of LANDSAT 4 TM and MSS scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, H. N.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments using artificial targets (polyethylene sheets) to help calibrate and evaluate atmospheric effects as well as the radiometric precision and spatial characteristics of the NS-001 and TM sensor systems were attempted and show the technical feasibility of using plastic targets for such studies, although weather precluded successful TM data acquisition. Tapes for six LANDSAT 4 TM scenes were acquired and data processing began. Computer enhanced TM simulator and LANDSAT 4 TM data were compared for a porphyry copper deposit in Southern Arizona. Preliminary analyses performed on two TM scenes acquired in the CCT-PT format, show the TM data appear to contain a marked increase in geologically useful information; however, a number of instrumental processing artifacts may well limit the ability of the geologist to fully extract this information.

  14. Application of digital analysis of MSS data to agro-environmental studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. A.; Goward, S. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the application of digital analysis of multispectral scanner data to agro-environmental studies is described. Simulation of LANDSAT D thematic mapper (TM) observations from aircraft multispectral scanner data and field spectrometer data collected over a corn-soybean agricultural region in Webster County, Iowa during the 1979 growing season in support of the NASA/AgRISTARS program is described. The simulations were analyzed to evaluate the potential utility of the TM (1.55-1.75 micron) mid-infrared observations in corn-soybean discrimination. Current LANDSAT data was analyzed to study snow cover in northern New England and wetlands in Nebraska and Vermont. The application of satellite remote sensor data in additional environmental research areas is described.

  15. Evaluation of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS ground geometry performance without ground control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A.

    1983-01-01

    LANDSAT thematic mapper P-data of Washington, D.C., Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA were analyzed to determine magnitudes and causes of error in the geometric conformity of the data to known earth-surface geometry. Several tests of data geometry were performed. Intra-band and inter-band correlation and registration were investigated, exclusive of map-based ground truth. Specifically, the magnitudes and statistical trends of pixel offsets between a single band's mirror scans (due to processing procedures) were computed, and the inter-band integrity of registration was analyzed.

  16. Vegetation and terrain mapping in Alaska using Landsat MSS and digital terrain data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark; Carneggie, David M.

    1986-01-01

    During the past 5 years, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center Field Office in Anchorage, Alaska has worked cooperatively with Federal and State resource management agencies to produce land-cover and terrain maps for 245 million acres of Alaska. The need for current land-cover information in Alaska comes principally from the mandates of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA), December 1980, which requires major land management agencies to prepare comprehensive management plans. The land-cover mapping projects integrate digital Landsat data, terrain data, aerial photographs, and field data. The resultant land-cover and terrain maps and associated data bases are used for resource assessment, management, and planning by many Alaskan agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, and Alaska Department of Natural Resources. Applications addressed through use of the digital land-cover and terrain data bases range from comprehensive refuge planning to multiphased sampling procedures designed to inventory vegetation statewide. The land-cover mapping programs in Alaska demonstrate the operational utility of digital Landsat data and have resulted in a new land-cover mapping program by the USGS National Mapping Division to compile 1:250,000-scale land-cover maps in Alaska using a common statewide land-cover map legend.

  17. Digital registration of topographic data and satellite MSS data for augmented spectral analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a project directed to assess the type and extent of long-term natural and man-made changes in floodplain features of a definite area in the Mississipi River Valley. 1:6000 scale maps were prepared from remotely sensed film/filter photographic coverage of the area at different times to compare changes in such features as channels, backwaters, vegetation as well as changes in the amount, location, and conditions of dredge spoil. Changes observed by this sequential photo comparison include abandonment of agricultural land followed by orderly secondary plant succession, the filling-in of shallows by sediment and the orderly succession of plants from a hydric to a more mesic environment and changes in deltas of small tributary streams in response to agricultural practices occurring at their headwaters. Plant colonization is observed on some spoil, and secondary movement of spoil is revealed in other areas.

  18. Combining LANDSAT MSS, aerial photographs and ground measurements to estimate rangeland productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gialdini, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The production of a vegetation map of over 2.2 million acres with detail down to the plant community level, and the production of estimates of rangeland productivity (pounds of usable forage per acre for cattle) for a 500,000 acre subset of area with a design goal for accuracy and precision of + or - 20% at the 80% confidence level, are considered. The data consist of five groups: maps of area, LANDSAT data, digital terrain data, large scale aerial photography, and ground plots. An outline of the data acquisition and data reduction schemes are presented.

  19. Results of 1987 MSS helicopter propagation experiment at UHF and L band in Central Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1988-01-01

    This effort emphasizes several important results pertaining to a mobile satellite system propagation experiment performed in Central Maryland during June 1987. Fade distributions due to multipath and roadside trees at L Band (1.5 GHz) during a period in which the deciduous trees were in full bloom are examined. The multipath statistics for roadside trees are compared with previous multipath measurements made in canyon terrain in North Central Colorado. Also examined is the repeatability of previous UHF measurements made in Central Maryland and the attenuation effects of foliage on trees at UHF. Fade duration for the multipath mode for fade levels of 5 dB and 10 dB is also presented.

  20. The application of IR- and MSS-data in the Ruhr District, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, P.

    1977-01-01

    The methods used by Ruhr Planning Authority to interpret IR pictures are described along with production of maps indicating the thermal distribution in the conurbation. Topics studied with the IR data include thermal loading of the Rhine and climatology of the urban and surrounding country areas.

  1. Analysis of Skylab MSS data, and calibration of thermal data over Lake Monroe, Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, L. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The SL/4-S192 data over northern Indiana looks good. The thermal band looks very encouraging. The preliminary analysis indicates so far that it will be difficult to distinguish some land use classes because of the lack of vegetation. Preliminary analysis of the thermal band in particular indicates that there appears to be a correlation of the hot spots in the data over the Ft. Wayne, Indiana area and its industrial centers.

  2. Generation and physical characteristics of the LANDSAT-1, -2 and -3 MSS computer compatible tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, V. L.

    1977-01-01

    The generation and format of the LANDSAT 1, 2, and 3 system corrected multispectral scanner computer compatible tapes are discussed. Included in the discussion are the spacecraft sensors, scene characteristics, the transmission of data, and the conversion of the data to computer compatible tapes. Also included in the discussion are geometric and radiometric corrections, tape formats, and the physical characteristics of the tape.

  3. Generation and physical characteristics of the Landsat 1 and 2 MSS computer compatible tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, V. L.

    1975-01-01

    The generation and format is discussed of the Landsat 1 and 2 system corrected multispectral scanner computer compatible tapes. Included in the discussion are the spacecraft sensors, scene characteristics, the transmission of data, and the conversion of the data to computer compatible tapes at the NASA Data Processing Facility. Geometric and radiometric corrections, tape formats, and the physical characteristics of the tape are also described.

  4. Vegetation mapping of Nowitna National Wildlife Reguge, Alaska using Landsat MSS digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Markon, Carl J.

    1986-01-01

    A Landsat-derived vegetation map was prepared for Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge lies within the middle boreal subzone of north central Alaska. Seven major vegetation classes and sixteen subclasses were recognized: forest (closed needleleaf, open needleleaf, needleleaf woodland, mixed, and broadleaf); broadleaf scrub (lowland, alluvial, subalpine); dwarf scrub (prostrate dwarf shrub tundra, dwarf shrub-graminoid tussock peatland); herbaceous (graminoid bog, marsh and meadow); scarcely vegetated areas (scarcely vegetated scree and floodplain); water (clear, turbid); and other areas (mountain shadow). The methodology employed a cluster-block technique. Sample areas were described based on a combination of helicopter-ground survey, aerial photointerpretation, and digital Landsat data. Major steps in the Landsat analysis involved preprocessing (geometric correction), derivation of statistical parameters for spectral classes, spectral class labeling of sample areas, preliminary classification of the entire study area using a maximum-likelihood algorithm, and final classification utilizing ancillary information such as digital elevation data. The final product is a 1:250,000-scale vegetation map representative of distinctive regional patterns and suitable for use in comprehensive conservation planning.

  5. Intermediate-scale vegetation mapping of Innoko National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska using Landsat MSS digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Markon, Carl J.

    1988-01-01

    A Landsat-derived vegetation map was prepared for lnnoko National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge lies within the northern boreal subzone of northwestern central Alaska. Six major vegetation classes and 21 subclasses were recognized: forest (closed needleleaf, open needleleaf, needleleaf woodland, mixed, and broadleaf); broadleaf scrub (lowland, upland burn regeneration, subalpine); dwarf scrub (prostrate dwarf shrub tundra, erect dwarf shrub heath, dwarf shrub-graminoid peatland, dwarf shrub-graminoid tussock peatland, dwarf shrub raised bog with scattered trees, dwarf shrub-graminoid marsh); herbaceous (graminoid bog, graminoid marsh, graminoid tussock-dwarf shrub peatland); scarcely vegetated areas (scarcely vegetated scree and floodplain); and water (clear, sedimented). The methodology employed a cluster-block technique. Sample areas were described based on a combination of helicopter-ground survey, aerial photo-interpretation, and digital Landsat data. Major steps in the Landsat analysis involved preprocessing (geometric correction), derivation of statistical parameters for spectral classes, spectral class labeling of sample areas, preliminary classification of the entire study area using a maximum-likelihood algorithm, and final classification utilizing ancillary information such as digital elevation data. The final product is 1:250,000-scale vegetation map representative of distinctive regional patterns and suitable for use in comprehensive conservation planning.

  6. Corn and soybean Landsat MSS classification performance as a function of scene characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, G. T.; Hixson, M. M.; Bauer, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    In order to fully utilize remote sensing to inventory crop production, it is important to identify the factors that affect the accuracy of Landsat classifications. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of scene characteristics involving crop, soil, and weather variables on the accuracy of Landsat classifications of corn and soybeans. Segments sampling the U.S. Corn Belt were classified using a Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier on multitemporally registered data from two key acquisition periods. Field size had a strong effect on classification accuracy with small fields tending to have low accuracies even when the effect of mixed pixels was eliminated. Other scene characteristics accounting for variability in classification accuracy included proportions of corn and soybeans, crop diversity index, proportion of all field crops, soil drainage, slope, soil order, long-term average soybean yield, maximum yield, relative position of the segment in the Corn Belt, weather, and crop development stage.

  7. Controllable Quantum States Mesoscopic Superconductivity and Spintronics (MS+S2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku; Nakano, Hayato

    2008-10-01

    Mesoscopic effects in superconductors. Tunneling measurements of charge imbalance of non-equilibrium superconductors / R. Yagi. Influence of magnetic impurities on Josephson current in SNS junctions / T. Yokoyama. Nonlinear response and observable signatures of equilibrium entanglement / A. M. Zagoskin. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage with a Cooper pair box / Giuseppe Falci. Crossed Andreev reflection-induced giant negative magnetoresistance / Francesco Giazotto -- Quantum modulation of superconducting junctions. Adiabatic pumping through a Josephson weak link / Fabio Taddei. Squeezing of superconducting qubits / Kazutomu Shiokawa. Detection of Berrys phases in flux qubits with coherent pulses / D. N. Zheng. Probing entanglement in the system of coupled Josephson qubits / A. S. Kiyko. Josephson junction with tunable damping using quasi-particle injection / Ryuta Yagi. Macroscopic quantum coherence in rf-SQUIDs / Alexey V. Ustinov. Bloch oscillations in a Josephson circuit / D. Esteve. Manipulation of magnetization in nonequilibrium superconducting nanostructures / F. Giazotto -- Superconducting qubits. Decoherence and Rabi oscillations in a qubit coupled to a quantum two-level system / Sahel Ashhab. Phase-coupled flux qubits: CNOT operation, controllable coupling and entanglement / Mun Dae Kim. Characteristics of a switchable superconducting flux transformer with a DC-SQUID / Yoshihiro Shimazu. Characterization of adiabatic noise in charge-based coherent nanodevices / E. Paladino -- Unconventional superconductors. Threshold temperatures of zero-bias conductance peak and zero-bias conductance dip in diffusive normal metal/superconductor junctions / Iduru Shigeta. Tunneling conductance in 2DEG/S junctions in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling / T. Yokoyama. Theory of charge transport in diffusive ferromagnet/p-wave superconductor junctions / T. Yokoyama. Theory of enhanced proximity effect by the exchange field in FS bilayers / T. Yokoyama. Theory of Josephson effect in diffusive d-wave junctions / T. Yokoyama. Quantum dissipation due to the zero energy bound states in high-T[symbol] superconductor junctions / Shiro Kawabata. Spin-polarized heat transport in ferromagnet/unconventional superconductor junctions / T. Yokoyama. Little-Parks oscillations in chiral p-wave superconducting rings / Mitsuaki Takigawa. Theoretical study of synergy effect between proximity effect and Andreev interface resonant states in triplet p-wave superconductors / Yasunari Tanuma. Theory of proximity effect in unconventional superconductor junctions / Y. Tanaka -- Quantum information. Analyzing the effectiveness of the quantum repeater / Kenichiro Furuta. Architecture-dependent execution time of Shor's algorithm / Rodney Van Meter -- Quantum dots and Kondo effects. Coulomb blockade properties of 4-gated quantum dot / Shinichi Amaha. Order-N electronic structure calculation of n-type GaAs quantum dots / Shintaro Nomura. Transport through double-dots coupled to normal and superconducting leads / Yoichi Tanaka. A study of the quantum dot in application to terahertz single photon counting / Vladimir Antonov. Electron transport through laterally coupled double quantum dots / T. Kubo. Dephasing in Kondo systems: comparison between theory and experiment / F. Mallet. Kondo effect in quantum dots coupled with noncollinear ferromagnetic leads / Daisuke Matsubayashi. Non-crossing approximation study of multi-orbital Kondo effect in quantum dot systems / Tomoko Kita. Theoretical study of electronic states and spin operation in coupled quantum dots / Mikio Eto. Spin correlation in a double quantum dot-quantum wire coupled system / S. Sasaki. Kondo-assisted transport through a multiorbital quantum dot / Rui Sakano. Spin decay in a quantum dot coupled to a quantum point contact / Massoud Borhani -- Quantum wires, low-dimensional electrons. Control of the electron density and electric field with front and back gates / Masumi Yamaguchi. Effect of the array distance on the magnetization configuration of submicron-sized ferromagnetic rings / Tetsuya Miyawaki. A wide GaAs/GaAlAs quantum well simultaneously containing two dimensional electrons and holes / Ane Jensen. Simulation of the photon-spin quantum state transfer process / Yoshiaki Rikitake. Magnetotransport in two-dimensional electron gases on cylindrical surface / Friedland Klaus-Juergen. Full counting statistics for a single-electron transistor at intermediate conductance / Yasuhiro Utsumi. Creation of spin-polarized current using quantum point contacts and its detection / Mikio Eto. Density dependent electron effective mass in a back-gated quantum well / S. Nomura. The supersymmetric sigma formula and metal-insulator transition in diluted magnetic semiconductors / I. Kanazawa. Spin-photovoltaic effect in quantum wires / A. Fedorov -- Quantum interference. Nonequilibrium transport in Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with electron-phonon interaction / Akiko Ueda. Fano resonance and its breakdown in AB ring embedded with a molecule / Shigeo Fujimoto, Yuhei Natsume. Quantum resonance above a barrier in the presence of dissipation / Kohkichi Konno. Ensemble averaging in metallic quantum networks / F. Mallet -- Coherence and order in exotic materials. Progress towards an electronic array on liquid helium / David Rees. Measuring noise and cross correlations at high frequencies in nanophysics / T. Martin. Single wall carbon nanotube weak links / K. Grove-Rasmussen. Optical preparation of nuclear spins coupled to a localized electron spin / Guido Burkard. Topological effects in charge density wave dynamics / Toru Matsuura. Studies on nanoscale charge-density-wave systems: fabrication technique and transport phenomena / Katsuhiko Inagaki. Anisotropic behavior of hysteresis induced by the in-plane field in the v = 2/3 quantum Hall state / Kazuki Iwata. Phase diagram of the v = 2 bilayer quantum Hall state / Akira Fukuda -- Trapped ions (special talk). Quantum computation with trapped ions / Hartmut Häffner.

  8. Some Observations--Early Years of Committee/Coalition of Adult Education Organizations (CAEO). MSS 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N.

    The first meeting of the Coalition of Adult Education Organizations (CAEO) was held in Syracuse in 1964 as a Conference of Adult Education Organizations. Its purpose was to obtain input to help determine the development of the Library of Continuing Education (LCE). Presidents, other officers or leaders of 17 organizations in Canada and the United…

  9. Application of LANDSAT MSS to elk habitat management. [Blue Mountains, Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of information derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner data to estimate the impact of proposed timber harvests on potential elk use is briefly discussed. The evaluations were conducted in Northeastern Oregon where several herds of Rocky Mountain elk range in the Blue Mountains. The inventory product is a geographically referenced data base containing land cover types and habitat components (cover/forage).

  10. Determination of turbidity patterns in Lake Chicot from LANDSAT MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroy, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A historical analysis of all the applicable LANDSAT imagery was conducted on the turbidity patterns of Lake Chicot, located in the southeastern corner of Arkansas. By examining the seasonal and regional turbidity patterns, a record of sediment dynamics and possible disposition can be obtained. Sketches were generated from the suitable imagery, displaying different intensities of brightness observed in bands 5 and 7 of LANDSAT's multispectral scanner data. Differences in and between bands 5 and 7 indicate variances in the levels of surface sediment concentrations. High sediment loads are revealed when distinct patterns appear in the band 7 imagery. Additionally, the upwelled signal is exponential in nature and saturates in band 5 at low wavelengths for large concentrations of suspended solids.

  11. Environmental Report on the Northwest Pacific for the Marine Seismic System (MSS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    upon earthquake data. Ukawa (T979) also gives velocity models of the upper mantle under the Kuril- Japan Trench and refutes the idea of a continuous...presented by Kasahara et al. (1976), and include results from the works of Ukawa (1979) and Fedotov (1965, 1968). Velocities of P waves from two...of Okhotsk. Ukawa (1979) proposes that the low velocity layer beneath the Kuril Trench is not parallel to the downgoing slab. He describes a low

  12. Interpretation of ERTS-MSS images of a Savanna area in eastern Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elberson, G. W. W.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery for extrapolating existing soil maps into unmapped areas of the Llanos Orientales of Colombia, South America is discussed. Interpretations of ERTS-1 data were made according to conventional photointerpretation techniques. Most units delineated in the existing reconnaissance soil map at a scale of 1:250,000 could be recognized and delineated in the ERTS image. The methods of interpretation are described and the results obtained for specific areas are analyzed.

  13. The Penn State ORSER system for processing and analyzing ERTS and other MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Borden, F. Y.; Weeden, H. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources (ORSER) of the Space Science and Engineering Laboratory at the Pennsylvania State University has developed an extensive operational system for processing and analyzing ERTS-1 and similar multispectral data. The ORSER system was developed for use by a wide variety of researchers working in remote sensing. Both photointerpretive techniques and automatic computer processing methods have been developed and used, separately and in a combined approach. A remote Job Entry system permits use of an IBM 370/168 computer from any compatible remote terminal, including equipment tied in by long distance telephone connections. An elementary cost analysis has been prepared for the processing of ERTS data.

  14. BLOB: An unsupervised clustering approach to spatial preprocessing of MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauth, R. J.; Pentland, A. P.; Thomas, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    A basic concept of Multispectral Scanner data processing was developed for use in agricultural inventories; namely, to introduce spatial coordinates of each pixel into the vector description of the pixel and to use this information along with the spectral channel values in a conventional unsupervised clustering of the scene. The result is to isolate spectrally homogeneous field-like patches (called blobs). The spectral mean vector of a blob can be regarded as a defined feature and used in a conventional pattern recognition procedure. The benefits of use are: ease in locating training units in imagery; data compression of from 10 to 30 depending on the application; reduction of scanner noise and consequently potential improvements in classification/proportion estimation performances.

  15. An analysis of LANDSAT MSS scene-to-scene registration accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seyfarth, B. R.; Cook, P. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Measurements were made for 12 registrations done by ERL for 8 registrations done by SRS. The results indicate that the ERL method is significantly more accurate in five of the eight comparison. The difference between the two methods are not significant in the other three cases. There are two possible reasons for the differences. First, the ERL model is a piecewise linear model and the EDITOR model is a cubic polynomial model. Second, the ERL program resamples using bilinear interpolation while the EDITOR software uses a nearest neighbor resampling. This study did not indicate how much of the difference is attributable to each factor. The average of all merged scene error values for ERL was 31.6 meters and the average for the eight common areas was 32.6 meters. The average of the eight merged scene error values for SRS was 40.1 meters.

  16. An algorithm for automating the registration of USDA segment ground data to LANDSAT MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, M. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The algorithm is referred to as the Automatic Segment Matching Algorithm (ASMA). The ASMA uses control points or the annotation record of a P-format LANDSAT compter compatible tape as the initial registration to relate latitude and longitude to LANDSAT rows and columns. It searches a given area of LANDSAT data with a 2x2 sliding window and computes gradient values for bands 5 and 7 to match the segment boundaries. The gradient values are held in memory during the shifting (or matching) process. The reconstructed segment array, containing ones (1's) for boundaries and zeros elsewhere are computer compared to the LANDSAT array and the best match computed. Initial testing of the ASMA indicates that it has good potential for replacing the manual technique.

  17. Techniques for digital enhancement of Landsat MSS data using an Apple II+ microcomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, J. A., Jr.; Cartin, K. F.

    The information provided by remotely sensed data collected from orbiting platforms has been useful in many research fields. Particularly convenient for evaluation are generally digital data stored on computer compatible tapes (CCT's). The major advantages of CCT's are the quality of the data and the accessibility to computer manipulation. Minicomputer systems are widely used for the required computer processing operations. However, microprocessor-related technological advances make it now possible to process CCT data with computing systems which can be obtained at a much lower price than minicomputer systems. A detailed description is provided of the design considerations of a microcomputer-based Digital Image Analysis System (DIAS). Particular attention is given to the algorithms which are incorporated for eighter edge enhancement or smoothing Landsat multispectral scanner data.

  18. The use of unsupervised clustering as a classifier for LACIE MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentland, A. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This classification method appears to give accurate field center results and to give practical, statistically consistent and accurate estimates of crop proportions. The accuracy of this method is attributable to certain qualities of the particular clustering algorithm. These qualities are freedom from assumptions about Gaussian data, and the continual updating of distribution estimates, including updating the number of modes. This method is relatively tolerant of errors in the determination of crop type, as crop identity is used only for identifying clusters, and not for computing signatures.

  19. Evaluation of LANDSAT MSS vs TM simulated data for distinguishing hydrothermal alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.; Kahle, A. B.; Madura, D. P.; Soha, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The LANDSAT Follow-On (LFO) data was simulated to demonstrate the mineral exploration capability of this system for segregating different types of hydrothermal alteration and to compare this capability with that of the existing LANDSAT system. Multispectral data were acquired for several test sites with the Bendix 24-channel MSDS scanner. Contrast enhancements, band ratioing, and principal component transformations were used to process the simulated LFO data for analysis. For Red Mountain, Arizona, the LFO data allowed identification of silicified areas, not identifiable with LANDSAT 1 and 2 data. The improved LFO resolution allowed detection of small silicic outcrops and of a narrow silicified dike. For Cuprite - Ralston, Nevada, the LFO spectral bands allowed discrimination of argillic and opalized altered areas; these could not be spectrally discriminated using LANDSAT 1 and 2 data. Addition of data from the 1.3- and 2.2- micrometer regions allowed better discriminations of hydrothermal alteration types.

  20. Materials Data on KUI3O11 (SG:61) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-04-06

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Classrooms in the Wild: Learning Language and Life Skills in the KUIS Outdoor Sports Circle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurr, Adrian

    The role of outdoor education activities in the Kanda University English language institute is described. The outdoor program was developed to unite faculty and students interested in recreational activities and provide an opportunity to explore common interests in nature, sports, and language learning. The activities develop self-esteem,…

  2. Wheat classification exercise, using 11 June 1973, ERTS MSS data for Fayette County, Illinois (for CITARS task)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Hieber, R. H.; Rice, D. P.; Sarno, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The prime emphasis was on classification of pixels in field centers, away from boundary effects. Results were encouraging in both training and test field centers for wheat and other major types of vegetation present. However, the location of fields was found to be a serious problem and it was even more difficult to select field-center pixels for fields of sizes less than 20 acres (or even larger, depending upon field shape) for use in the field-center analysis. The majority of fields in the segment are less than 20 acres in size. ERTS-1 data were received on 12 September 1973. Ground truth information and aerial photography were received on 9 and 15 September. The data were analyzed and processed digitally using the ERIM multispectral software system.

  3. Mining Survey System (MSS) - innovative solution in Polish mines. (Polish Title: Mobilna Platforma Gurnicza (MPG) - nowatorskim rozwilazaniem w polskich kopalniach)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamek, A.

    2015-12-01

    Mobile laser scanning technology is developing rapidly also in mining. For several years research and tests are conducted on the use of that type of measurement in the inventory of the mine shafts. The company SKALA 3D in the project 1.4 POIG by PARP undertook to create Mobile automatic steering system of spatial geometry measurements mine shafts using laser scanning technology. Its main advantage is a faithful reflection of the object being measured in just a few hours. It is based on the data flowing from laser scanners and precision inertial unit. The main problem of the research was to determine the trajectory of the passing Mobile Platforms Mining (MPG) in the shaft as accurately as possible. Unable to receive signals from satellites in the pipe shaft prevented the use of solutions known for measuring terrestrial mobile systems. The company SKALA 3D has developed a methodology for determine the trajectory of the system, based on geometrical data coming from laser scanners and readings of accelerometers and gyroscopes of inertial unit. To improve the quality and accuracy of measurements MPG is also equipped with a set of anti-vibration parts prevent the transmission of vibrations ascending while cage is moving in the shaft on the measuring system. The whole forms a calibrated system, which in a short time is able to provide spatial measurement data from the measuring shaft. The accuracy of 2-3 mm in a single measurement horizon and a few centimeters determine the position of a point on the thousandth meter below ground make the system very accurate. During the project there have been numerous research problems, including the need to define the physical references, drift of IMU whether harsh weather conditions in the shaft. However, the company SKALA 3D solved these problems and making MPG unique in the world.

  4. Use of SIR-A and Landsat MSS data in mapping shrub and intershrub vegetation at Koonamore, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Shrublands cover much of the interior of the Australian continent and support a large grazing industry. Distinguishing the woody perennial vegetation from the smaller herbaceous vegetation and soil-encrusting lichen found between the shrubs is critical for range management but is difficult to do using Landsat data alone. In this study Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A) and Landsat data acquired over Koonamore Station are examined together. Given the low topography and fine textured soils at Koonamore, radar return should be primarily determined by the percent area occupied by shrubs. During periods when most of the vegetation was non-vigorous and spectrally homogeneous, SIR-A data, as a surrogate measure of shrub cover, allowed the reflectance due to shrubs in Landsat data to be separated from the reflectance due to the intervening ground. This method allows estimation of the intershrub reflectance properties that are related to herbaceous vegetation, lichen, and bare soil exposures.

  5. Time-delay-and-integration charge-coupled devices using tin oxide gate technology. [for Landsat MSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, L. L.; Mccann, D. H.; Tracy, R. A.; Kub, F. J.; White, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    Doped tin oxide gates are used in a time-delay-and-integration (TDI) CCD scheme in an effort to develop a stable transparent gate technology. Design characteristics of the system are discussed, including 2 sections of 10 by 9 integration stages, four-phase buried channel construction, and 10 input parallel-in/serial-out output shift register at a video rate of 1.25 MHz. A quantum efficiency of 65% with smooth spectral response is attained by front surface imaging. The suitability of the system for the Landsat program is discussed in terms of TDI-CCD operating parameters.

  6. Comparative assessment of LANDSAT-D MSS and TM data quality for mapping applications in the Southeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Rectifications of multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data sets for full and subscene areas, analyses of planimetric errors, assessments of the number and distribution of ground control points required to minimize errors, and factors contributing to error residual are examined. Other investigations include the generation of three dimensional terrain models and the effects of spatial resolution on digital classification accuracies.

  7. An interpretation of a geologic map of Fannin County, Texas, prepared by ADP techniques from ERTS MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, J. A., Jr.; Gardner, J. J.; Cipra, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Multispectral scanner data, collected by ERTS-1 from an area in northeast Texas underlain by structurally simple cretaceous sedimentary rocks, were analyzed using several automatic data processing techniques. Training areas for the computer analysis were selected in three ways using: (1) an unsupervised classifier, (2) the unsupervised classifier to further refine training areas, and (3) available ground information. The first two methods utilize the capability of the unsupervised classifier to the unsupervised classifier to group resolution elements with similar spectral properties. With the imagery produced by these procedures, several geologic features can be identified. The most easily recognizable features are streams and other water bodies. The approximate location of contacts between several rock units can be mapped.

  8. Identification and Mapping of Soils, Vegetation, and Water Resources of Lynn County, Texas, by Computer Analysis of ERTS MSS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, M. F.; Kristof, S. J.; Henderson, J. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Results of the analysis and interpretation of ERTS multispectral data obtained over Lynn County, Texas, are presented. The test site was chosen because it embodies a variety of problems associated with the development and management of agricultural resources in the Southern Great Plains. Lynn County is one of ten counties in a larger test site centering around Lubbock, Texas. The purpose of this study is to examine the utility of ERTS data in identifying, characterizing, and mapping soils, vegetation, and water resources in this semiarid region. Successful application of multispectral remote sensing and machine-processing techniques to arid and seminarid land-management problems will provide valuable new tools for the more than one-third of the world's lands lying in arid-semiarid regions.

  9. Dynamic study of the upper Sao Francisco River and the Tres Marias reservoir using MSS/LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Sausen, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT multispectral ban scanner imagery to verify the relationship between the behavior of the Tres Marias reservoir and the dynamics of the Sao Francisco River supply basin is described. The dispersion of suspended sediments and their concentration in the surface layers of the water are considered. A five year survey of the region during both dry and rainy seasons was performed. The drainage network was analyzed based on the patterns of dessication, water rises and soil use in the supply basin. Surface layers of the reservoir were tabulated as a function of the levels of gray in the imagery. In situ observations of water depth and reflectance were performed. Ground truth and LANDSAT data were correlated to determine the factors affecting the dynamics of the supply basin.

  10. Evaluation of three techniques for classifying urban land cover patterns using LANDSAT MSS data. [New Orleans, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Three computer quantitative techniques for determining urban land cover patterns are evaluated. The techniques examined deal with the selection of training samples by an automated process, the overlaying of two scenes from different seasons of the year, and the use of individual pixels as training points. Evaluation is based on the number and type of land cover classes generated and the marks obtained from an accuracy test. New Orleans, Louisiana and its environs form the study area.

  11. Determination of circulation and turbidity patterns in Kerr Lake from LANDSAT MSS imagery. [Kerr Lake, Virginia, North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroy, S. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The LANDSAT imagery was historically analyzed to determine the circulation and turbidity patterns of Kerr Lake, located on the Virginia-North Carolina border. By examining the seasonal and regional turbidity and circulation patterns, a record of sediment transport and possible disposition can be obtained. Sketches were generated, displaying different intensities of brightness observed in bands 5 and 7 of LANDSAT's multispectral scanner data. Differences in and between bands 5 and 7 indicate variances in the levels of surface sediment concentrations. High sediment loads are revealed when distinct patterns appear in the band 7 imagery. The upwelled signal is exponential in nature and saturates in band 5 at low wavelengths for large concentrations of suspended solids.

  12. Computer-aided analysis of Landsat-1 MSS data - A comparison of three approaches, including a 'modified clustering' approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, M. D.; Berkebile, J. S.; Hoffer, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Three approaches for analyzing Landsat-1 data from Ludwig Mountain in the San Juan Mountain range in Colorado are considered. In the 'supervised' approach the analyst selects areas of known spectral cover types and specifies these to the computer as training fields. Statistics are obtained for each cover type category and the data are classified. Such classifications are called 'supervised' because the analyst has defined specific areas of known cover types. The second approach uses a clustering algorithm which divides the entire training area into a number of spectrally distinct classes. Because the analyst need not define particular portions of the data for use but has only to specify the number of spectral classes into which the data is to be divided, this classification is called 'nonsupervised'. A hybrid method which selects training areas of known cover type but then uses the clustering algorithm to refine the data into a number of unimodal spectral classes is called the 'modified-supervised' approach.

  13. A comprehensive data processing plan for crop calendar MSS signature development from satellite imagery: Crop identification using vegetation phenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, C. A. (Principal Investigator); Carlyle, S. M.; Haralick, R. M.; Yokoyama, R.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The phenological method of crop identification involves the creation of crop signatures which characterize multispectral observations as phenological growth states. The phenological signature models spectral reflectance explicitly as a function of crop maturity rather than as a function of date. A correspondence of time to growth state is established which minimizes the smallest difference between the given multispectral multitemporal vector and a category mean vector. The application of the method to the identification of winter wheat and corn shows (1) the method is capable of discriminating crop type with about the same degree of accuracy as more traditional classifiers; (2) the use of LANDSAT observations on two or more dates yields better results than the use of a single observation; and (3) some potential is demonstrated for labeling the degree of maturity of the crop, as well as the crop type.

  14. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The spatial characteristics of the data were evaluated. A program was developed to reduce the spatial distortions resulting from variable viewing distance, and geometrically adjusted data sets were generated. The potential need for some level of radiometric adjustment was evidenced by an along track band of high reflectance across different cover types in the Varian imagery. A multiple regression analysis was employed to explore the viewing angle effect on measured reflectance. Areas in the data set which appeared to have no across track stratification of cover type were identified. A program was developed which computed the average reflectance by column for each channel, over all of the scan lines in the designated areas. A regression analysis was then run using the first, second, and third degree polynomials, for each channel. An atmospheric effect as a component of the viewing angle source of variance is discussed. Cover type maps were completed and training and test field selection was initiated.

  15. A 10-b 50-MS/s 820- μW SAR ADC With On-Chip Digital Calibration.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Masato; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Takayama, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Sanroku

    2010-12-01

    This 10-b 50-MSamples/s SAR analog-to-digital converter (ADC) features on-chip digital calibration techniques, comparator offset cancellation, a capacitor digital-to-analog converter (CDAC) linearity calibration, and internal clock control to compensate for PVT variations. A split-CDAC reduces the exponential increase in the number of unit capacitors needed and enables the input load capacitance to be as small as the kT/C noise restriction. The prototype fabricated in 65 nm 1P7M complementary metal-oxide semiconductor with MIM capacitor achieves 56.6 dB SNDR at 50-MSamples/s, 25-MHz input frequency and consumes 820 μW from a 1.0-V supply, including the digital calibration circuits. The figure of merit was 29.7 fJ/conversion-step under the Nyquist condition. The ADC occupied an active area of 0.039 mm(2) .

  16. A Survey of the Application of Multimedia in the Process of Teaching and Learning in KUiTTHO, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamaruddin, Nafisah Kamariah Md; Hamid, Mohd Zaidi Bin Abdul

    2005-01-01

    Scientific research shows that the process of remembering done in the human brain is faster when people receive many emphasizes in various forms for a short period. The concept of interactivity in multimedia helps the human brain to improve the process of learning. In addition, different approaches of multimedia make lessons very entertaining…

  17. 47 CFR 25.149 - Application requirements for ancillary terrestrial components in the mobile-satellite service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (4) Integrated services. MSS ATC licensees shall offer an integrated service of MSS and MSS ATC. Applicants for MSS ATC may establish an integrated service offering by affirmatively demonstrating that: (i... the MSS ATC operator will provide an integrated service offering to the public. (5) In-band...

  18. ERTS-1 MSS imagery: Its use in delineating soil associations and as a base map for publishing soils information. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS 1 imagery is a useful tool in the identification and refinement of soil association areas and an excellent base map upon which soil association information can be published. Prints of bands 5 and 7 were found to be most useful to help delineate major soil and vegetation areas. After delineating major soil areas, over 4800 land sale prices covering a period of 1967-72 were located in the soil areas and averaged. The soil association then were described as soil association value areas and published on a 1:1,000,000 scale ERTS mosaic of South Dakota constructed using negative prints of band 7. The map is intended for use by state and county revenue officers, by individual buyers and sellers of land and lending institutions, and as a reference map by those planning road routes and cable lines and pipelines.

  19. Marine Seismic System Deployment (MSS). Phase 2. Investigation of Techniques and Deployment Scenarios for Installation of Triaxial Seismometer in a Borehole in the Deep Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-09

    through (5.3) can be reduced to a set of 7 scalar equations containing 7 unknowns: , ,, V1, V SX and S . Consequently, the problem is completely...TENSION IN-mveEM CABLE AS A C&A~W4TFUNCTION OF TP-E StA.1MERG.EID ILEtJqrH e OF: T~tE ’DRILL PIPE CDP ) PFQt LINEAiR. CU*,"uNT PW.OFILPE WITH4 2KN4 CU.4R.ET

  20. Marine Seismic System Deployment (MSS). Phase 3. Investigation of Techniques and Deployment Scenarios for Installation of Tri-Axial Seismometer in a Borehole in the Deep Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    in-house computer program was being established to evaluate basic "Fly-In’ maneuvering characteristics and conceptual options. The use of a subsea...very smoothly considering the number of new equipment items required, their comlexity , and the untried procedures involved. Based upon the actual...desired orientation of the deployment platform. A simple *Fly-In" cable dynamics HP 41VCV computer program is being developed to quickly evaluate the

  1. A comparison of unsupervised classification procedures on LANDSAT MSS data for an area of complex surface conditions in Basilicata, Southern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C.; Townshend, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Two unsupervised classification procedures were applied to ratioed and unratioed LANDSAT multispectral scanner data of an area of spatially complex vegetation and terrain. An objective accuracy assessment was undertaken on each classification and comparison was made of the classification accuracies. The two unsupervised procedures use the same clustering algorithm. By on procedure the entire area is clustered and by the other a representative sample of the area is clustered and the resulting statistics are extrapolated to the remaining area using a maximum likelihood classifier. Explanation is given of the major steps in the classification procedures including image preprocessing; classification; interpretation of cluster classes; and accuracy assessment. Of the four classifications undertaken, the monocluster block approach on the unratioed data gave the highest accuracy of 80% for five coarse cover classes. This accuracy was increased to 84% by applying a 3 x 3 contextual filter to the classified image. A detailed description and partial explanation is provided for the major misclassification. The classification of the unratioed data produced higher percentage accuracies than for the ratioed data and the monocluster block approach gave higher accuracies than clustering the entire area. The moncluster block approach was additionally the most economical in terms of computing time.

  2. Attempting to detect and record brushland in the northeastern United States using MSS data - Schoharie County, N.Y., as a case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Paul R.

    1990-01-01

    Before county and local governments will utilize satellite data extensively for landcover inventories, digital image processing techniques must be developed to identify transitional land-use conditions and create large-scale, readable land-cover maps. This study examines a satellite-based land-cover inventory done for Schoharie County, New York and reviews the problems encountered in identifying and mapping brushland - a significant transitional land use - within the county and region. Brushland throughout the Northeast represents a barometer for measuring the shift away from agricultural land use to second-home property. Detecting and locating brushland on a regular basis can greatly assist county and local government officials in planning and managing a county's future.

  3. Characterization of phthiocerol and phthiodiolone dimycocerosate esters of M. tuberculosis by multiple-stage linear ion-trap MS[S

    PubMed Central

    Flentie, Kelly N.; Stallings, Christina L.; Turk, John; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Hsu, Fong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Both phthiocerol/phthiodiolone dimycocerosate (PDIM) and phenolic glycolipids are abundant virulent lipids in the cell wall of various pathogenic mycobacteria, which can synthesize a wide range of complex high-molecular-mass lipids. In this article, we describe linear ion-trap MSn mass spectrometric approach for structural study of PDIMs, which were desorbed as the [M + Li]+ and [M + NH4]+ ions by ESI. We also applied charge-switch strategy to convert the mycocerosic acid substituents to their N-(4-aminomethylphenyl) pyridinium (AMPP) derivatives and analyzed them as M + ions, following alkaline hydrolysis of the PDIM to release mycocerosic acids. The structural information from MSn on the [M + Li]+ and [M + NH4]+ molecular species and on the M + ions of the mycocerosic acid-AMPP derivative affords realization of the complex structures of PDIMs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis biofilm, differentiation of phthiocerol and phthiodiolone lipid families and complete structure identification, including the phthiocerol and phthiodiolone backbones, and the mycocerosic acid substituents, including the locations of their multiple methyl side chains, can be achieved. PMID:26574042

  4. Automatic corn-soybean classification using Landsat MSS data. I - Near-harvest crop proportion estimation. II - Early season crop proportion estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The techniques used initially for the identification of cultivated crops from Landsat imagery depended greatly on the iterpretation of film products by a human analyst. This approach was not very effective and objective. Since 1978, new methods for crop identification are being developed. Badhwar et al. (1982) showed that multitemporal-multispectral data could be reduced to a simple feature space of alpha and beta and that these features would separate corn and soybean very well. However, there are disadvantages related to the use of alpha and beta parameters. The present investigation is concerned with a suitable method for extracting the required features. Attention is given to a profile model for crop discrimination, corn-soybean separation using profile parameters, and an automatic labeling (target recognition) method. The developed technique is extended to obtain a procedure which makes it possible to estimate the crop proportion of corn and soybean from Landsat data early in the growing season.

  5. A Pilot Psychometric Study on the Validation of the Older Women’s Non-Medical Stress Scale (OWN-MSS) on an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Luciana; Prilutsky, Roxanne R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Older women often experience various types of stressors, including the death of a spouse and associated financial stress (often with a lack of social support), emotional stress due to factors such as caregiving and being single, and the challenges of the aging process. These circumstances could produce or aggravate anxious symptomatology that can in turn compound the negative effects of aging. A brief scale of perceived stress that is not confounded with health status and covers multiple culturally relevant potential stressors is needed for quick use in busy medical settings. Aim To assess the reliability and the validity of an original stress scale designed to measure perceptions of stress beyond health status in a non-clinical convenience sample of community-dwelling older women. Method In this cross-sectional pilot investigation, via conducting item-total correlations and correlational tests of validity, we studied the psychometric properties of our measure using data from volunteer older subjects (mainly low-income and from non-Caucasian backgrounds). The domains covered by the nine items of the tool were selected based on a literature review of common stressors experienced by older adults, especially by older women. Data were collected face-to-face using a demographic list, a well-established depression measure, a brief posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screener, and our 9-item stress tool. Primary outcomes: reliability and validity of the scale of older women’s non-medical stress. Secondary outcomes: demographic characteristics of the sample and correlations between stress items. Results Based on our sample of older women (N=40, mean age 71 years), good internal consistency between the items of the stress scale was found (Cronbach’s a=.66). The findings of the data analyses also revealed that our psychometric tool has good convergent validity with the PTSD screener (r=.53). Moreover, in contrast with most other stress tools, it has strong discriminant validity (r=.11) with a well-validated depression scale. Conclusion Our results suggest that this new measure is psychometrically strong. Future research directions encompass using larger samples, ideally including older men with the modification of the scale’s name, as well as validating this tool against more measures. Clinical implications of our findings are briefly discussed. PMID:27390770

  6. Marine Seismic System(MSS) Deployment. Phase IV. Investigation of Techniques and Deployment Scenarios for Installation of Tri-Axial Seismometer in a Borehole in the Deep Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-31

    Demonstrate the baseline BIP drill string deployment techniques in deep water o Measure seismic signal and noise within a deep sea borehole o Record 5 days... deep ocean. UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED DISTRIBUTION PREPARED BY: ROBERT L. WALLERSTEDT PROJECT ENGINEER GLOBAL MARINE DEVELOPMENT INC 2302 MARTIN...borehole in the deep ocean. UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED DISTRIBUTION PREPARED BY: ROBERT L. WALLERSTEDT PROJECT ENGINEER GLOBAL MARINE DEVELOPMENT INC

  7. An evaluation of simulated Thematic Mapper data and Landsat MSS data for discriminating suburban and regional land use and land cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner, operating in the same spectral channels as the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), was used in a region east of Denver, CO, for a simulation test performed in the framework of using TM to discriminate the level I and level II classes. It is noted that at the 30-m spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) the overall discrimination for such classes as commercial/industrial land, rangeland, irrigated sod, irrigated alfalfa, and irrigated pasture was superior to that of the Landsat Multispectral Scanner, primarily due to four added spectral bands. For residential and other spectrally heterogeneous classes, however, the higher resolution of TMS resulted in increased variability within the class and a larger spectral overlap.

  8. LANDSAT-D Investigations Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented which highlight LANDSAT-D project status and ground segment; early access TM processing; LANDSAT-D data acquisition and availability; LANDSAT-D performance characterization; MSS pre-NOAA characterization; MSS radiometric sensor performance (spectral information, absolute calibration, and ground processing); MSS geometric sensor performance; and MSS geometric processing and calibration.

  9. 47 CFR 101.82 - Reimbursement and relocation expenses in the 2110-2150 MHz and 2160-2200 MHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... between AWS and MSS (space-to-Earth downlink). Whenever an ET licensee (AWS or Mobile Satellite Service... among terrestrial stations. For terrestrial stations (AWS and MSS Ancillary Terrestrial Component (ATC..., that MSS operators (including MSS/ATC operators) are not obligated to reimburse voluntarily...

  10. 47 CFR 101.82 - Reimbursement and relocation expenses in the 2110-2150 MHz and 2160-2200 MHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... between AWS and MSS (space-to-Earth downlink). Whenever an ET licensee (AWS or Mobile Satellite Service... among terrestrial stations. For terrestrial stations (AWS and MSS Ancillary Terrestrial Component (ATC..., that MSS operators (including MSS/ATC operators) are not obligated to reimburse voluntarily...

  11. Computer implemented land cover classification using LANDSAT MSS digital data: A cooperative research project between the National Park Service and NASA. 3: Vegetation and other land cover analysis of Shenandoah National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibula, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Four LANDSAT frames, each corresponding to one of the four seasons were spectrally classified and processed using NASA-developed computer programs. One data set was selected or two or more data sets were marged to improve surface cover classifications. Selected areas representing each spectral class were chosen and transferred to USGS 1:62,500 topographic maps for field use. Ground truth data were gathered to verify the accuracy of the classifications. Acreages were computed for each of the land cover types. The application of elevational data to seasonal LANDSAT frames resulted in the separation of high elevation meadows (both with and without recently emergent perennial vegetation) as well as areas in oak forests which have an evergreen understory as opposed to other areas which do not.

  12. Study of the relation between soil use, vegetation coverage, and the discharge of sediments from artificial reservoirs using MSS/LANDSAT images. Example: The Tres Marias reservoir and its supply basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Sausen, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The land use and types of vegetation in the region of the upper Sao Francisco River, Brazil, are identified. This region comprises the supply basin of the Tres Marias reservoir. Imagery from channels 5 and 7 of the LANDSAT multispectral band scanner during wet and rainy seasons and ground truth data were employed to characterize and map the vegetation, land use, and sedimentary discharges from the reservoir. Agricultural and reforested lands, meadows, and forests are identified. Changes in land use due to human activity are demonstrated.

  13. 47 CFR 25.149 - Application requirements for ancillary terrestrial components in the mobile-satellite service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bands, MSS ATC is limited to no more than 7.775 MHz of spectrum in the L-band and 11.5 MHz of spectrum... that the MSS ATC service is consistent with its ATC authority. (g) Spectrum leasing. Leasing of spectrum rights by MSS licensees or system operators to spectrum lessees for ATC use is subject to...

  14. Shifting Concepts, Changing Contexts: The New Schools' Drive for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupper, Maegen; Millard, Heidi; Lyons, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Seventeen new medical schools were founded in the US and Canada in the decade prior to 2014. These new medical schools continue the tradition of utilizing mission statements (MSs) to convey goals and ideals. The authors aimed to compare these 17 new medical schools' MSs with MSs of previously established medical schools in the US and Canada. The…

  15. US domestic and international regulatory issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Lon C.; Nash, Dennis C.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. domestic and international regulatory and policy milestones since 1982, when NASA filed its petition with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to establish the U.S. domestic Mobile Satellite Service (MSS), are described. In 1985, the FCC proposed to establish MSS services and allocate spectrum for such service. In 1986, the FCC allocated L-band spectrum for MSS. In 1987, at the Mobile World Administrative Radio Conference (MOB WARC-87), despite U.S., Canadian, and Mexican efforts, the WARC did not adopt a multi-service, generic MSS allocation. In 1989, the FCC licensed the first MSS system. After two decisions by the U.S. Court of Appeals, the FCC's licensing actions remain intact. The FCC also has permitted Comsat to provide international aeronautical and land MSS via the Inmarsat system. Inmarsat, however, may not serve the domestic U.S. market. In 1991, the FCC accepted applications for MSS systems, most of which were non-geostationary proposals, for operation in the Radiodetermination Satellite Service (RDSS) bands, and the VHF and UHF bands. In 1992, the FCC proposed rules for non-geostationary MSS systems and applied a negotiated rulemaking procedure to each. Also in 1992, the U.S. position for flexibility in existing MSS bands and for additional worldwide MSS allocations was adopted in large part at the 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-92).

  16. Applications of the mobile servicing system to the space exploration initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueckman, J. H.

    This paper provides an analysis by Spar Aerospace of the potential application of the Mobile Servicing System (MSS), developed under the Canadian Space Station Program, to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Initially, an overview of the MSS is provided which outlines the essential functions and elements of the MSS. An overview of the SEI is also provided which summarizes the overall goals and objectives of the initiative. This discussion also outlines the basic SEI missions and summarizes the infrastructure required to support them. The potential applications of the MSS to the SEI are summarized. For each application, the performance capability of the MSS is compared to the expected level of performance required to support the SEI missions. Any areas of potential performance increase are identified and design changes proposed. Finally, the growth capabilities of the MSS are compared to those which may be required to fully support the SEI. The MSS has the potential to play a significant role in the development and operational phases of the SEI. Additional growth capabilities could allow the MSS to play an even greater role, particularly in the areas of transportation and payload handling. MSS technologies are applicable to the systems required for surface operations. The MSS can play an important role in the areas of low earth orbit node construction and assembly, vehicle assembly, integration, and verification, servicing and maintenance, transportation, payload handling, and extra vehicular activity support. The technologies currently being developed for the MSS are applicable for the development of surface robotic systems. In general, the performance capabilities of the MSS, in its baseline Space Station Freedom role, are sufficient to accommodate its potential role on the SEI. However, the expected increases in launch vehicle and spacecraft mass may exceed its payload handling and transportation capabilities. If the MSS is to be utilized on SEI to this

  17. Multispectral scanner system for ERTS: Four band scanner system. Volume 2: Engineering model panoramic pictures and engineering tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This document is Volume 2 of three volumes of the Final Report for the four band Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). The results are contained of an analysis of pictures of actual outdoor scenes imaged by the engineering model MSS for spectral response, resolution, noise, and video correction. Also included are the results of engineering tests on the MSS for reflectance and saturation from clouds. Finally, two panoramic pictures of Yosemite National Park are provided.

  18. Shifting concepts, changing contexts: the new schools' drive for change.

    PubMed

    Dupper, Maegen; Millard, Heidi; Lyons, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Seventeen new medical schools were founded in the US and Canada in the decade prior to 2014. These new medical schools continue the tradition of utilizing mission statements (MSs) to convey goals and ideals. The authors aimed to compare these 17 new medical schools' MSs with MSs of previously established medical schools in the US and Canada. The MSs of the 17 newest medical schools were processed and analyzed utilizing network text analysis software that assessed centrality of concepts within new medical schools' MSs. This semantic network data was then compared to existing similar analysis by Grbic et al. (Acad Med 88(6):852-860, 2013. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31828f603d ). Four concepts were found to be more central in new medical schools' MSs as compared to established medical schools' MSs: "physicians," "improve," "diversity," and "innovation." Grbic et al. found four concepts to be central to all 132 medical schools "health" or "health_care," "research," "education," and "premier" which are shared top themes of the new medical schools' MSs. The author's analysis has demonstrated that new medical schools, as compared to previously established subsets of medical schools, developed both shared and unique language within their MSs. This unique vocabulary reflected a response to a dynamic healthcare environment during the decade of new medical school development. New medical schools may have responded to environmental challenges including a physician shortage while also recognizing the need for a diverse physician workforce prepared to apply innovative strategies to healthcare.

  19. Proceedings of the Mobile Satellite Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafferty, William

    1988-01-01

    A satellite-based mobile communications system provides voice and data communications to mobile users over a vast geographic area. The technical and service characteristics of mobile satellite systems (MSSs) are presented and form an in-depth view of the current MSS status at the system and subsystem levels. Major emphasis is placed on developments, current and future, in the following critical MSS technology areas: vehicle antennas, networking, modulation and coding, speech compression, channel characterization, space segment technology and MSS experiments. Also, the mobile satellite communications needs of government agencies are addressed, as is the MSS potential to fulfill them.

  20. Kansas environmental and resource study: A Great Plains model. Monitoring fresh water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L. (Principal Investigator); Mccauley, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS MSS ratios derived from CCT's are very effective for quantitative detection of suspended solid up to at least 900 ppm. The relatively high inorganic suspended solids, characteristic of midcontinent reservoirs, dominates the reflected energy present in the four MSS bands. Dissolved solids concentrations up to 500 ppm and algal nutrients up to 20 ppm are not detectable. The MSS5/MSS4 ratio may be weakly correlated with total chlorophyll above approximately 8 micrograms/liter.

  1. Using the solar elevation angle and radiance conversion to normalize forest spectral signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Lu, Y.-C.

    1984-01-01

    A number of spectral signals associated with forest cover were selected in order to test the usefulness of adjustments to Landsat MSS digital count values. The signatures were taken from 26 independent regional land cover inventories in the northeastern US. A regression analysis was conducted which revealed a significant relationship between digital count values and variation in the solar elevation angles in MSS bands four, six, and seven for deciduous forests and in all MSS bands for conifers. When signatures were adjusted for solar elevation angles and MSS sensor calibration differences, the dependence on solar elevation angle was reduced. The adjustments also significantly reduced the variance with Level II forest categories among scenes.

  2. Detection of aspen/conifer forest mixes from multitemporal LANDSAT digital data. [Bear River Range, Rocky Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.; Harniss, R. O.

    1983-01-01

    Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data. The digital MSS data were utilized to devise quantitative indices which correlate with apparently stable and seral aspen forests. The extent to which a two-date LANDSAT MSS analysis may permit the delineation of different categories of aspen/conifer forest mix was explored. Multitemporal analyses of MSS data led to the identification of early, early to mid, mid to late, and late seral stages of aspen/conifer forest mixing.

  3. Radiometric correction procedure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colby, C.; Sands, R.; Murphrey, S.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of MSS radiometric processing techniques identified as a preferred radiometric processing technique a procedure which equalizes the mean and standard deviation of detector-specific histograms of uncalibrated scene data. Evaluation of MSS calibration data demonstrated that the relationship between detector responses is essentially linear over the range of intensities typically observed in MSS data, and that the calibration wedge data possess a high degree of temporal stability. An analysis of the preferred radiometric processing technique showed that it could be incorporated into the MDP-MSS system without a major redesign of the system, and with minimal impact on system throughput.

  4. A simplified approach to estimating the maximal lactate steady state.

    PubMed

    Snyder, A C; Woulfe, T; Welsh, R; Foster, C

    1994-01-01

    The exercise intensity associated with an elevated but stable blood lactate (HLa) concentration during constant load work (the maximal steady state, MSS) has received attention as a candidate for the "optimal" exercise intensity for endurance training. Identification of MSS ordinarily demands direct measurement of HLa or respiratory metabolism. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of heart rate (HR) to identify MSS during steady state exercise, similar to that used in conventional exercise prescription. Trained runners (n = 9) and cyclists (n = 12) performed incremental and steady state exercise. MSS was defined as the highest intensity in which blood lactate concentration increased < 1.0 mM from minutes 10 to 30. The next higher intensity workbout completed was defined as > MSS. HR models related to the presence or absence of steady state conditions were developed from the upper 95% confidence interval of MSS and the lower 95% confidence interval of > MSS. Cross validation of the model to predict MSS was performed using 21 running and 45 cycling exercise bouts in a separate group. Using the MSS upper 95% confidence interval model 84% and 76% of workbouts were correctly predicted in cyclists and runners, respectively. Using the > MSS lower 95% confidence interval model, 76% and 81% of workbouts were correctly predicted in cyclists and runners, respectively. Prediction errors tended to incorrectly predict non-steady state conditions when steady state had occurred (16/26) (62%). We conclude that use of these simple HR models may predict MSS with sufficient accuracy to be useful when direct HLa measurement is not available.

  5. Ascorbic acid, β-carotene, sugars, phenols, and heavy metals in sweet potatoes grown in soil fertilized with municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Dennis, Sam O; Unrine, Jason M; Snyder, John C

    2011-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (MSS) used for land farming typically contains heavy metals that might impact crop quality and human health. A completely randomized experimental design with three treatments (six replicates each) was used to monitor the impact of mixing native soil with MSS or yard waste (YW) mixed with MSS (YW +MSS) on: i) sweet potato yield and quality; ii) concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) in sweet potato plant parts (edible roots, leaves, stem, and feeder roots); and iii) concentrations of ascorbic acid, total phenols, free sugars, and β-carotene in sweet potato edible roots at harvest. Soil samples were collected and analyzed for total and extractable metals using two extraction procedures, concentrated nitric acid (to extract total metals from soil) as well as CaCl₂ solution (to extract soluble metals in soil that are available to plants), respectively. Elemental analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Overall, plant available metals were greater in soils amended with MSS compared to control plots. Concentration of Pb was greater in YW than MSS amendments. Total concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Cr were greater in plants grown in MSS+YW treatments compared to control plants. MSS+YW treatments increased sweet potato yield, ascorbic acid, soluble sugars, and phenols in edible roots by 53, 28, 27, and 48%, respectively compared to plants grown in native soil. B-carotene concentration (157.5 μg g⁻¹ fresh weight) was greater in the roots of plants grown in MSS compared to roots of plants grown in MSS+YW treatments (99.9 μg g⁻¹ fresh weight). Concentration of heavy metals in MSS-amended soil and in sweet potato roots were below their respective permissible limits.

  6. Improving the Arctic Mean Sea Surface with CryoSat-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenseng, L.; Andersen, O. B.

    2013-12-01

    A fundamental basis for estimating short and long-term changes in the sea surface is a reliable mean sea surface (MSS). Existing MSS models, derived from satellite radar altimetry, generally lack observations above 82 degrees latitude making high Arctic sea surface change estimates unreliable. Most current MSS models use ICESat data, geoid models, ocean circulation models, or a combination of these to extrapolate the MSS above 82 degrees latitude. This approach makes the MSS models unsuited for deriving sea surface anomalies from short-term observations like airborne campaigns (e.g. operation IceBridge). The new state of the art DTU13MSS is a global high-resolution MSS that includes retracked CryoSat-2 data and thereby extends the polar data coverage up to 88 degrees latitude. Furthermore, in the sea-ice covered areas, the SAR and SARin feature of the altimeter on-board CryoSat-2 increases the amount of useable observations dramatically compared to conventional altimeters like ENVISAT and ERS-1/2. Finally the continuous time-series, below 82 degrees latitude, has been extended to cover more than 20 years compared to the 17 years use for the DTU10MSS model. A comparison between DTU13MSS and DTU10MSS show an improvement of more than 20 cm between 82 and 88 degrees latitude. For the first time the three years of retracked CryoSat-2 data will, in combination with DTU13MSS, allow reliable estimation of the trend and annual variations in the high Arctic Ocean sea surface height.

  7. Application of satellite photographic and MSS data to selected geologic and natural resource problems in Pennsylvania. 1: Lineaments and mineral occurrences in Pennsylvania. 2: Relation of lineaments to sulfide deposits: Bald Eagle Mountain, Centre County, Pennsylvania. 3: Comparison of Skylab and LANDSAT lineaments with joint orientations in north central Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalik, W. S.; Gold, D. P.; Krohn, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    Those metallic mineral occurrences in Pennsylvania are reported which lie near lineaments mapped from LANDSAT-1 satellite imagery and verified from Skylab photography where available. The lineaments were categorized by degree of expression and type of expression; the mineral occurrences were classified by host rock age, mineralization type, and value. The accompanying tables and figure document the mineral occurrences geographically associated with lineaments and serve as a base for a mineral exploration model.

  8. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of First Trimester Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening for Fetal Trisomies in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Brandon S.; Nelson, Richard E.; Jackson, Brian R.; Grenache, David G.; Ashwood, Edward R.; Schmidt, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is a relatively new technology for diagnosis of fetal aneuploidies. NIPT is more accurate than conventional maternal serum screening (MSS) but is also more costly. Contingent NIPT may provide a cost-effective alternative to universal NIPT screening. Contingent screening used a two-stage process in which risk is assessed by MSS in the first stage and, based on a risk cutoff, high-risk pregnancies are referred for NIPT. The objective of this study was to (1) determine the optimum MSS risk cutoff for contingent NIPT and (2) compare the cost effectiveness of optimized contingent NIPT to universal NIPT and conventional MSS. Study Design Decision-analytic model using micro-simulation and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. We evaluated cost effectiveness from three perspectives: societal, governmental, and payer. Results From a societal perspective, universal NIPT dominated both contingent NIPT and MSS. From a government and payer perspective, contingent NIPT dominated MSS. Compared to contingent NIPT, adopting a universal NIPT would cost $203,088 for each additional case detected from a government perspective and $263,922 for each additional case detected from a payer perspective. Conclusions From a societal perspective, universal NIPT is a cost-effective alternative to MSS and contingent NIPT. When viewed from narrower perspectives, contingent NIPT is less costly than universal NIPT and provides a cost-effective alternative to MSS. PMID:26133556

  9. Polluted and turbid water masses in Osaka Bay and its vicinity revealed with ERTS-A imageries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, K.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 took very valuable MSS imageries of Osaka Bay and its vicinity on October 24, 1972. In the MSS-4 and MSS-5 imageries a complex grey pattern of water masses can be seen. Though some of grey colored patterns seen in black and white prints of the MSS-4 and MSS-5 imageries are easily identified from their shapes as cloud covers or polluted water masses characterized by their color tone in longer wavelengths in the visible region, any correct distribution pattern of polluted or turbid water masses can be hardly detected separately from thin cloud covers in a quick look analysis. In the present investigation, a simple photographic technique was applied using the fact that reflected sun light from cloud including smog and inclined water surfaces of wave have a certain component in the near infrared region, that MSS-7, whereas the light scattered from fine materials suspended in the sea water has nearly no component sensible in MSS-4 and MSS-5 channels.

  10. The L2 Motivational Self System and L2 Achievement: A Study of Saudi EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovsky, Christo; Assulaimani, Turki; Racheva, Silvia; Harkins, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this article explores the relationship between Dörnyei's (2005, 2009) Second Language Motivational Self System (L2MSS) and the L2 proficiency level of Saudi learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Male and female participants (N = 360) responded to a questionnaire relating to the main components of L2MSS, the…

  11. Exploring Motivational Profiles through Language Learning Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Vásquez, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the language learning narratives of 3 NNS foreign language teachers. It uses as a theoretical framework the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) (Dörnyei, 2009) but adds the dimension of psychological reactance (Brehm, 1966). Our findings indicate that the L2MSS underestimates the relationship between "I" and…

  12. Adolescents' School-Related Self-Concept Mediates Motor Skills and Psychosocial Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Purtsi, Jarno; Tolvanen, Asko; Cantell, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Background: The health benefits of exercise participation and physical activity for mental health and psychosocial well-being (PSWB) have been shown in several studies. However, one important background factor, that is, motor skills (MSs), has largely been ignored. In addition, most of the existing research focuses on poor MSs, that is, poor MSs…

  13. Milwaukee shoulder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Channa Vasanth; Weichert, Immo

    2014-01-01

    Milwaukee shoulder syndrome (MSS) is a rare destructive, calcium phosphate crystalline arthropathy. It encompasses an effusion that is noninflammatory with numerous aggregates of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in the synovial fluid, associated with rotator cuff defects. We describe a patient that presented with recurrent shoulder pain and swelling with characteristic radiographic changes and MSS was confirmed on aspiration of the synovial fluid.

  14. Remote reconnaissance of submerged aquatic vegetation: A radiative transfer approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of LANDSAT TM and MSS sensors for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) is assessed. The problem is approached from a theoretical standpoint in which volume reflectance from SAV under a variety of conditions is simulated. The focus is on the spectral and radiometric qualities of TM bands 1, 2 and 3 and MSS bands 4 and 5.

  15. TESTING AT NREL OF THE MINIPILOT SOLAR SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE THERMAL DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A minipilot solar system (MSS) was built at MRI, transported to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and tested at NREL's high flux solar furnace. The MSS involved combustion of a liquid feed in a combustion reactor equipped with a quartz window at one end for solar i...

  16. 47 CFR 27.1168 - Triggering a Reimbursement Obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the 2110-2150 Mhz and 2160-2200 Mhz Bands § 27.1168 Triggering... relocator, MSS relocator (including MSS/ATC), or a voluntarily relocating microwave incumbent in accordance with the formula detailed in § 27.1164: (1) All or part of the relocated microwave link was...

  17. 47 CFR 101.82 - Reimbursement and relocation expenses in the 2110-2150 MHz and 2160-2200 MHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... between AWS and MSS (space-to-Earth downlink). Whenever an ET licensee (AWS or Mobile Satellite Service for space-to-Earth downlink in the 2130-2150 or 2180-2200 MHz bands) relocates an incumbent paired... section from any other AWS licensee or MSS space-to-Earth downlink operator which would have been...

  18. 47 CFR 101.82 - Reimbursement and relocation expenses in the 2110-2150 MHz and 2160-2200 MHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... between AWS and MSS (space-to-Earth downlink). Whenever an ET licensee (AWS or Mobile Satellite Service for space-to-Earth downlink in the 2130-2150 or 2180-2200 MHz bands) relocates an incumbent paired... section from any other AWS licensee or MSS space-to-Earth downlink operator which would have been...

  19. Altimetry data and the elastic stress tensor of subduction zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caputo, Michele

    1987-01-01

    The maximum shear stress (mss) field due to mass anomalies is estimated in the Apennines, the Kermadec-Tonga Trench, and the Rio Grande Rift areas and the results for each area are compared to observed seismicity. A maximum mss of 420 bar was calculated in the Kermadec-Tonga Trench region at a depth of 28 km. Two additional zones with more than 300 bar mss were also observed in the Kermadec-Tonga Trench study. Comparison of the calculated mss field with the observed seismicity in the Kermadec-Tonga showed two zones of well correlated activity. The Rio Grande Rift results showed a maximum mss of 700 bar occurring east of the rift and at a depth of 6 km. Recorded seismicity in the region was primarily constrained to a depth of approximately 5 km, correlating well to the results of the stress calculations. Two areas of high mss are found in the Apennine region: 120 bar at a depth of 55 km, and 149 bar at the surface. Seismic events observed in the Apennine area compare favorably with the mss field calculated, exhibiting two zones of activity. The case of loading by seamounts and icecaps are also simulated. Results for this study show that the mss reaches a maximum of about 1/3 that of the applied surface stress for both cases, and is located at a depth related to the diameter of the surface mass anomaly.

  20. Study to define points of entry for potential contaminants in limestone aquifers. [in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    Visual examinations of both prints and transparencies from ERTS 1 and U-2 aircraft imagery provided a method for discovering possible points of entry of potential contaminants into the limestone aquifer in Madison County, Alabama. Knowledge of the locations at which contaminants could enter the aquifer is an important consideration in water quality management, particularly for regions that depend, at least partially, on ground water for their water supply. ERTS 1 imagery recorded on December 28, 1972 in the Multispectral Scanner-5 (MSS-5) and MSS-7 bands, and a false-color composite of the MSS-4 (green), MSS-5 (red), and MSS-7 (near infrared) bands were the principal materials used, along with thermography recorded by an RS-7 infrared scanner onboard a U-2 aircraft. The results of the study are discussed in detail, providing information on prominent lineations and major fracture trends which are related to aquifer contamination. Maps depicting the observations are also presented.

  1. Wheat: Its water use, production and disease detection and prediction. [Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T. (Principal Investigator); Lenhert, D.; Niblett, C.; Manges, H.; Eversmeyer, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Discussed in this report are: (1) the effects of wheat disease on water use and yield; and (2) the use of ERTS-1 imagery in the evaluation of wheat growth and in the detection of disease severity. Leaf area index was linearly correlated with ratios MSS4:MSS5 and MSS5:MSS6. In an area of severe wheat streak mosaic virus infected fields, correlations of ERTS-1 digital counts with wheat yields and disease severity levels were significant at the 5% level for MSS bands 4 and 5 and band ratios 4/6 and 4/7. Data collection platforms were used to gather meteorological data for the early prediction of rust severity and economic loss.

  2. Using a high biomass plant Pennisetum hydridum to phyto-treat fresh municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Hei, Liang; Lee, Charles C C; Wang, Hui; Lin, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Wu, Qi-Tang

    2016-10-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the use of a high biomass plant, Pennisetum hydridum, to treat municipal sewage sludge (MSS). An experiment composed of plots with four treatments, soil, fresh sludge, soil-sludge mixture and phyto-treated sludge, was conducted. It showed that the plant could not survive directly in fresh MSS when cultivated from stem cuttings. The experiment transplanting the incubated cutting with nurse medium of P. hydridum in soil and fresh MSS, showed that the plants grew normally in fresh MSS. The pilot experiment of P. hydridum and Alocasia macrorrhiza showed that the total yield and nutrient amount of P. hydridum were 9.2 times and 3.6 times more than that of A. macrorrhiza. After plant treatment, MSS was dried, stabilized and suitable to be landfilled or incinerated, with a calorific value of about 5.6MJ/kg (compared to the initial value of 1.9MJ/kg fresh sludge).

  3. Geometric analysis and restitution of digital multispectral scanner data arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. R.; Mikhail, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to define causes of geometric defects within digital multispectral scanner (MSS) data arrays, to analyze the resulting geometric errors, and to investigate restitution methods to correct or reduce these errors. Geometric transformation relationships for scanned data, from which collinearity equations may be derived, served as the basis of parametric methods of analysis and restitution of MSS digital data arrays. The linearization of these collinearity equations is presented. Algorithms considered for use in analysis and restitution included the MSS collinearity equations, piecewise polynomials based on linearized collinearity equations, and nonparametric algorithms. A proposed system for geometric analysis and restitution of MSS digital data arrays was used to evaluate these algorithms, utilizing actual MSS data arrays. It was shown that collinearity equations and nonparametric algorithms both yield acceptable results, but nonparametric algorithms possess definite advantages in computational efficiency. Piecewise polynomials were found to yield inferior results.

  4. SAR/LANDSAT image registration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphrey, S. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Temporal registration of synthetic aperture radar data with LANDSAT-MSS data is both feasible (from a technical standpoint) and useful (from an information-content viewpoint). The greatest difficulty in registering aircraft SAR data to corrected LANDSAT-MSS data is control-point location. The differences in SAR and MSS data impact the selection of features that will serve as a good control points. The SAR and MSS data are unsuitable for automatic computer correlation of digital control-point data. The gray-level data can not be compared by the computer because of the different response characteristics of the MSS and SAR images.

  5. p53 mutation is common in microsatellite stable, BRAF mutant colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Bond, Catherine E; Umapathy, Aarti; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Greco, Sonia A; Zhen Zhao, Zhen; Mallitt, Kylie-Ann; Buttenshaw, Ron L; Montgomery, Grant W; Leggett, Barbara A; Whitehall, Vicki L J

    2012-04-01

    The majority of "serrated pathway" colorectal cancers have mutation of the BRAF oncogene and display the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Half these cancers have microsatellite instability (MSI) and an excellent prognosis. In the absence of MSI (microsatellite stable, MSS), BRAF mutation has been associated with a particularly poor prognosis. "Traditional pathway" cancers are BRAF wild type. Mutation of p53 is common and this correlates with advanced stage. We therefore hypothesized that p53 mutation would be common in MSS/BRAF mutant colorectal cancer. One thousand and eighty-one colorectal cancers were screened for BRAF mutation to identify two BRAF mutant study groups (MSI: n = 77; MSS: n = 69) and a BRAF wild type control group (n = 101). These were screened for p53 mutation by high resolution melt analysis and classified for CIMP and MGMT methylation by quantitative methylation specific PCR. Molecular data were compared to patient age, gender, tumor location and stage. p53 was mutated significantly more frequently in MSS/BRAF mutant (28/69, 40.6%) compared to MSI/BRAF mutant cancers (13/77, 16.9%), but this mutation rate did not differ from MSS/BRAF wild type cancers (47/101, 46.5%)(p < 0.0001). CIMP was less common in MSS/BRAF mutant (26/47, 55.3%) compared to MSI/BRAF mutant cancers (41/54, 75.9%), but was more common than in MSS/BRAF wild type cancers (3/85, 3.5%) (p < 0.0001). MSS/BRAF mutant cancers were more commonly proximal (38/54, 70.3%), but were similar to MSS/BRAF wild type cancers in terms of patient age, gender distribution and stage at presentation. MSS/BRAF mutant cancers share molecular and clinical features of both the serrated and traditional pathways of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  6. Increased Prevalence of Methanosphaera stadtmanae in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Blais Lecours, Pascale; Marsolais, David; Cormier, Yvon; Berberi, Marie; Haché, Chantal; Bourdages, Raymond; Duchaine, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Background The gut microbiota is associated with the modulation of mucosal immunity and the etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Previous studies focused on the impact of bacterial species on IBD but seldom suspected archaea, which can be a major constituent of intestinal microbiota, to be implicated in the diseases. Recent evidence supports that two main archaeal species found in the digestive system of humans, Methanobrevibacter smithii (MBS) and Methanosphaera stadtmanae (MSS) can have differential immunogenic properties in lungs of mice; with MSS but not MBS being a strong inducer of the inflammatory response. We thus aimed at documenting the immunogenic potential of MBS and MSS in humans and to explore their association with IBD. Methods To validate the immunogenicity of MBS and MSS in humans, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects were stimulated with these two microorganisms and the production of inflammatory cytokine TNF was measured by ELISA. To verify MBS and MSS prevalence in IBD, stool samples from 29 healthy control subjects and 29 patients suffering from IBD were collected for DNA extraction. Plasma was also collected from these subjects to measure antigen-specific IgGs by ELISA. Quantitative PCR was used for bacteria, methanogens, MBS and MSS quantification. Results Mononuclear cells stimulated with MSS produced higher concentrations of TNF (39.5 ng/ml) compared to MBS stimulation (9.1 ng/ml). Bacterial concentrations and frequency of MBS-containing stools were similar in both groups. However, the number of stool samples positive for the inflammatory archaea MSS was higher in patients than in controls (47% vs 20%). Importantly, only IBD patients developed a significant anti-MSS IgG response. Conclusion The prevalence of MSS is increased in IBD patients and is associated with an antigen-specific IgG response. PMID:24498365

  7. Molecular differences in the microsatellite stable phenotype between left‐sided and right‐sided colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yayoi; Habano, Wataru; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Eizuka, Makoto; Otsuka, Koki; Sasaki, Akira; Takayuki Matsumoto; Morikawa, Takanori; Unno, Michiaki; Suzuki, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenesis of microsatellite stable (MSS) sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs) between left‐sided CRC (LC) and right‐sided CRC (RC) have not been clarified. To identify pathogenesis‐related genomic differences between MSS CRCs within the two locations, we performed a comprehensive molecular analysis using crypt isolation with samples from 92 sporadic CRCs. Microsatellite instability (MSI; high and low/negative) and DNA methylation status (low methylation epigenome; intermediate methylation epigenome [IME] or high methylation epigenome [HME]) were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microsatellite analysis and PCR‐bisulfite pyrosequencing, respectively. Additionally, mutations in the TP53, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes were examined using PCR‐bisulfite pyrosequencing (for KRAS and BRAF mutations) or PCR‐single conformation polymorphism (for TP53 and PIK3CA mutations), followed by sequencing of aberrant bands. Finally, a genome‐wide study using a copy number alteration (CNA)‐targeted single nucleotide polymorphism array was performed. Ninety‐two CRCs were classified into 71 MSS and 21 MSI phenotypes. We examined 71 CRCs with the MSS phenotype (LC, 56; RC, 15). Mutations in KRAS were associated with RC with the MSS phenotype, whereas mutations in TP53 were more frequently found in LC with the MSS phenotype. There were significant differences in the frequencies of KRAS and TP53 mutations in the IME between LC and RC with the MSS phenotype. Although CNA gains were associated with LC with the MSS phenotype, CNA losses were not major alterations associated with the MSS phenotype. These findings suggested that the molecular pathogenesis of the MSS phenotype in LC was different from that in RC. PMID:27509333

  8. Effects of preferred orientation and crystal size on thermoelectric properties of sodium cobalt oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yin; Wang, Jun; Yaer, Xinba; Miao, Lei; Zhang, Boyu; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Shuai

    2016-11-01

    To examine the effect of crystal size and orientation effect on ZT, polycrystalline NaxCo2O4 materials were prepared by pressing layered crystals obtained in sol-gel (SG) synthesis, molten salt synthesis (MSS) with and without additional ball milling (BM) treatment and 1:1 molar ratio mixture (Mixture) of BM powder and MSS powders. We found that the orientation effect and crystal size for four samples follow Mixture < SG < BM < MSS and BM < Mixture < SG < MSS, respectively. Electrical conductivity was obviously enhanced in the highly orientated BM and MSS samples when compared with SG and Mixture. It appears that the crystal size plays a dominant role in thermal conductivity rather than Seebeck coefficient by controlling the phonon scattering at grain boundaries. Thermal conductivity for BM was significantly decreased in comparison to MSS, although both BM and MSS show comparable orientation effect. The maximum ZT value is developed to near 0.51 at 814K upon increasing the electrical resistivity and decreasing the thermal conductivity, which are mainly governed by the condition of crystal size and orientation effect.

  9. Neonatal Idiotypic Exposure Alters Subsequent Cytokine, Pathology, and Survival Patterns in Experimental Schistosoma mansoni Infections

    PubMed Central

    Angela Montesano, M.; Colley, Daniel G.; Eloi-Santos, Silvana; Freeman, George L.; Secor, W. Evan

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to maternal idiotypes (Ids) or antigens might predispose a child to develop an immunoregulated, asymptomatic clinical presentation of schistosomiasis. We have used an experimental murine system to address the role of Ids in this immunoregulation. Sera from mice with 8-wk Schistosoma mansoni infection, chronic (20-wk infection) moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS), or chronic hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) were passed over an S. mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) immunoaffinity column to prepare Ids (8WkId, MSS Id, HSS Id). Newborn mice were injected with 8WkId, MSS Id, HSS Id, or normal mouse immunoglobulin (NoMoIgG) and infected with S. mansoni 8 wk later. Mice exposed to 8WkId or MSS Id as newborns had prolonged survival and decreased morbidity compared with mice that received HSS Id or NoMoIgG. When stimulated with SEA, 8WkId, or MSS Id, spleen cells from mice neonatally injected with 8WkId or MSS Id produced more interferon γ than spleen cells from mice neonatally injected with HSS Id or NoMoIgG. Furthermore, neonatal exposure to 8WkId or MSS Id, but not NoMoIgG or HSS Id, led to significantly smaller granuloma size and lower hepatic fibrosis levels in infected mice. Together, these results indicate that perinatal exposure to appropriate anti-SEA Ids induces long-term effects on survival, pathology, and immune response patterns in mice subsequently infected with S. mansoni. PMID:9989978

  10. Analysis of data acquired by synthetic aperture radar and LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner over Kershaw County, South Carolina, during the summer season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1983-01-01

    Data acquired by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) were processed and analyzed to derive forest-related resources inventory information. The SAR data were acquired by using the NASA aircraft X-band SAR with linear (HH, VV) and cross (HV, VH) polarizations and the SEASAT L-band SAR. After data processing and data quality examination, the three polarization (HH, HV, and VV) data from the aircraft X-band SAR were used in conjunction with LANDSAT MSS for multisensor data classification. The results of accuracy evaluation for the SAR, MSS and SAR/MSS data using supervised classification show that the SAR-only data set contains low classification accuracy for several land cover classes. However, the SAR/MSS data show that significant improvement in classification accuracy is obtained for all eight land cover classes. These results suggest the usefulness of using combined SAR/MSS data for forest-related cover mapping. The SAR data also detect several small special surface features that are not detectable by MSS data.

  11. Effect of moderate salinity stress treatment on the stimulation of proline uptake and growth in Escherichia coli CSH4 and its mutants under high salinity.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Shinichi; Wang, Yaoqiang; Zhang, Hongyan; Sasaki, Hideaki; Oshima, Akinobu; Ishida, Akio

    2009-09-01

    Activity of proline uptake in Escherichia coli CSH4 was inhibited in the presence of 1 M NaCl, while it was recovered if the cells were incubated at 30 degrees C for 1 h in a moderate salinity stress (MSS) solution which consists of Davis minimal medium with 5 mM proline and 0.5 M NaCl. Then, an attempt was made to examine whether MSS treatment is also effective on the activity restoration of proline uptake and growth under high salinity for E. coli CSH4 mutants with different combinations of proP, putA, putP, and proU which are related to the transport and metabolization of proline. After MSS treatment, proline uptake was vigorously occurred for the mutants with proline transporter gene proP but not for its deficient ones. For the expression of proline uptake activities of these mutant strains after MSS treatment, PO(4)(3-) in MSS solution is more important than K(+). No growth of strain CSH4 and its mutants without MSS treatment was observed, when cultured in high osmotic medium G (0.8 M NaCl) consisting of 1 mM glycine betaine and Davis minimal medium without potassium phosphate supplemented. After MSS treatment, however, mutant strains lacking proP showed sufficient growth in medium G. Cell growth of proP(+) strains was recognized if MSS treatment was performed in the absence of proline. In conclusion, growth of mutant strains under high-salinity medium G depended on their amount of proline accumulated during MSS treatment, in which K(+) and PO(4)(3-) might play a key role to guarantee their sufficient growth.

  12. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-08-15

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO2 control, NOx control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research has yielded data on trace metal partitioning for MSS by itself, with natural gas assist, for coal plus MSS combustion together, and for coal alone. We have re-evaluated the inhalation health effects of ash aerosol from combustion of MSS both by itself and also together with coal. We have concluded that ash from the co-combustion of MSS and coal is very much worse from an inhalation health point of view, than ash from either MSS by itself or coal by itself. The reason is that ZnO is not the ''bad actor'' as had been suspected before, but the culprit is, rather, sulfated Zn. The MSS supplies the Zn and the coal supplies the sulfur, and so it is the combination of coal and MSS that makes that process environmentally bad. If MSS is to be burned, it should be burned without coal, in the absence of sulfur.

  13. Six month delivery of GDNF from PLGA/vitamin E biodegradable microspheres after intravitreal injection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    García-Caballero, Cristina; Prieto-Calvo, Esther; Checa-Casalengua, Patricia; García-Martín, Elena; Polo-Llorens, Vicente; García-Feijoo, Julián; Molina-Martínez, Irene Teresa; Bravo-Osuna, Irene; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío

    2017-03-01

    Local long-term delivery of glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) from vitamin E/poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres (MSs) protects retinal ganglion cells in an animal model of glaucoma for up to 11weeks. However, the pharmacokinetics of GDNF after intravitreal injection of MSs is not known. We evaluated the GDNF levels after a single intravitreal injection of GDNF/VitE MSs. Biodegradable MSs were prepared by the solid-oil-in-water emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and characterized. Rabbits received a single intravitreal injection (50μL) of GDNF/VitE MSs (4%w/v; 24 right eyes; 74.85ng GDNF), blank MSs (4%w/v; 24 left eyes), and balanced salt solution (4 eyes). Two controls eyes received no injections. At 24h, 1, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, and 24weeks after injection, the eyes were enucleated, and the intravitreal GDNF levels were quantified. Pharmacokinetic data were analysed according to non-compartmental model. Intraocular GDNF levels of 717.1±145.1pg/mL were observed at 24h for GDNF-loaded MSs, followed by a plateau (745.3±25.5pg/mL) until day 28. After that, a second plateau (17.4±3.7pg/mL) occurred from 8 to 24weeks post-injection, significantly higher than the basal levels. Eyes injected with GDNF/vitE and Blank-MSs did not show any abnormalities during the six-months follow up after administration. The single injection of GDNF/VitE MSs provided a sustained controlled release of the neurotrophic factor in a controlled fashion for up to six months.

  14. Wild-type APC predicts poor prognosis in microsatellite-stable proximal colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jorissen, Robert N; Christie, Michael; Mouradov, Dmitri; Sakthianandeswaren, Anuratha; Li, Shan; Love, Christopher; Xu, Zheng-Zhou; Molloy, Peter L; Jones, Ian T; McLaughlin, Stephen; Ward, Robyn L; Hawkins, Nicholas J; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew R; Moore, James; Burgess, Antony W; Busam, Dana; Zhao, Qi; Strausberg, Robert L; Lipton, Lara; Desai, Jayesh; Gibbs, Peter; Sieber, Oliver M

    2015-01-01

    Background: APC mutations (APC-mt) occur in ∼70% of colorectal cancers (CRCs), but their relationship to prognosis is unclear. Methods: APC prognostic value was evaluated in 746 stage I–IV CRC patients, stratifying for tumour location and microsatellite instability (MSI). Microarrays were used to identify a gene signature that could classify APC mutation status, and classifier ability to predict prognosis was examined in an independent cohort. Results: Wild-type APC microsatellite stable (APC-wt/MSS) tumours from the proximal colon showed poorer overall and recurrence-free survival (OS, RFS) than APC-mt/MSS proximal, APC-wt/MSS distal and APC-mt/MSS distal tumours (OS HR⩾1.79, P⩽0.015; RFS HR⩾1.88, P⩽0.026). APC was a stronger prognostic indicator than BRAF, KRAS, PIK3CA, TP53, CpG island methylator phenotype or chromosomal instability status (P⩽0.036). Microarray analysis similarly revealed poorer survival in MSS proximal cancers with an APC-wt-like signature (P=0.019). APC status did not affect outcomes in MSI tumours. In a validation on 206 patients with proximal colon cancer, APC-wt-like signature MSS cases showed poorer survival than APC-mt-like signature MSS or MSI cases (OS HR⩾2.50, P⩽0.010; RFS HR⩾2.14, P⩽0.025). Poor prognosis APC-wt/MSS proximal tumours exhibited features of the sessile serrated neoplasia pathway (P⩽0.016). Conclusions: APC-wt status is a marker of poor prognosis in MSS proximal colon cancer. PMID:26305864

  15. The AMSC mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.

    1988-01-01

    The American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC) Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) system is described. AMSC will use three multi-beam satellites to provide L-band MSS coverage to the United States, Canada and Mexico. The AMSC MSS system will have several noteworthy features, including a priority assignment processor that will ensure preemptive access to emergency services, a flexible SCPC channel scheme that will support a wide diversity of services, enlarged system capacity through frequency and orbit reuse, and high effective satellite transmitted power. Each AMSC satellite will make use of 14 MHz (bi-directional) of L-band spectrum. The Ku-band will be used for feeder links.

  16. Pulmonary toxicity of simulated lunar and Martian dusts in mice: I. Histopathology 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Cowper, Shawn; Balis, John; Muro-Cacho, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    NASA is contemplating sending humans to Mars and to the moon for further exploration. Volcanic ashes from Arizona and Hawaii with mineral properties similar to those of lunar and Martian soils, respectively, are used to simulate lunar and Martian environments for instrument testing. Martian soil is highly oxidative; this property is not found in Earth's volcanic ashes. NASA is concerned about the health risk from potential exposure of workers in the test facilities. Fine lunar soil simulant (LSS), Martian soil simulant (MSS), titanium dioxide, or quartz in saline was intratracheally instilled into groups of 4 mice (C57BL/6J) at 0.1 mg/mouse (low dose, LD) or 1 mg/mouse (high dose, HD). Separate groups of mice were exposed to ozone (0.5 ppm for 3 h) prior to MSS instillation. Lungs were harvested for histopathological examination 7 or 90 days after the single dust treatment. The lungs of the LSS-LD groups showed no evidence of inflammation, edema, or fibrosis; clumps of particles and an increased number of macrophages were visible after 7 days but not 90 days. In the LSS-HD-7d group, the lungs showed mild to moderate alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The LSS-HD-90d group showed signs of mild chronic pulmonary inflammation, septal thickening, and some fibrosis. Foci of particle-laden macrophages (PLMs) were still visible. Lung lesions in the MSS-LD-7d group were similar to those observed in the LSS-HD-7d group. The MSS-LD-90d group had PLMs and scattered foci of mild fibrosis in the lungs. The MSS-HD-7d group showed large foci of PLMs, intra-alveolar debris, mild-to-moderate focal alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The MSS-HD-90d group showed focal chronic mild-to-moderate alveolitis and fibrosis. The findings in the O(3)-MSS-HD-90d group included widespread intra-alveolar debris, focal moderate alveolitis, and fibrosis. Lung lesions in the MSS groups were more severe with the ozone pretreatment. The effects of

  17. Irrigation scheduling, freeze warning and soil salinity detecting. [in Cameron County Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Correlations of multispectral scanner (MSS) digital data differences between vegetated and bare soil areas with salinity levels from the eight saline areas using MSS bands seven and ten in the infrared region were significant. Correlations were derived for Cameron County, Texas. Detection of saline soils may be possible, using either film density readings or multispectral scanner data, when the lower reflectance of vegetation on highly saline soil and the higher reflectance of vegetation on lower saline soil are considered by using film on MSS contrasts between vegetation and bare soil.

  18. NASA's mobile satellite development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafferty, William; Dessouky, Khaled; Sue, Miles

    1988-01-01

    A Mobile Satellite System (MSS) will provide data and voice communications over a vast geographical area to a large population of mobile users. A technical overview is given of the extensive research and development studies and development performed under NASA's mobile satellite program (MSAT-X) in support of the introduction of a U.S. MSS. The critical technologies necessary to enable such a system are emphasized: vehicle antennas, modulation and coding, speech coders, networking and propagation characterization. Also proposed is a first, and future generation MSS architecture based upon realized ground segment equipment and advanced space segment studies.

  19. Landsat analysis of tropical forest succession employing a terrain model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barringer, T. H.; Robinson, V. B.; Coiner, J. C.; Bruce, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data have yielded a dual classification of rain forest and shadow in an analysis of a semi-deciduous forest on Mindonoro Island, Philippines. Both a spatial terrain model, using a fifth side polynomial trend surface analysis for quantitatively estimating the general spatial variation in the data set, and a spectral terrain model, based on the MSS data, have been set up. A discriminant analysis, using both sets of data, has suggested that shadowing effects may be due primarily to local variations in the spectral regions and can therefore be compensated for through the decomposition of the spatial variation in both elevation and MSS data.

  20. Landsat-4 data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P.; Bartolucci, L.; Dean, E.; Lozano, F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C.; Valdes, J.; Valenzuela, C.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 satellite Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data have been analyzed in order to ascertain data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations have tested band-to-band registration accuracy, and the TM's overall system resolution was evaluated for the case of image objects with high contrast, sharp edge responses. The information content evaluation employed clustering, principal components, and the transformed divergence separability measured on data from Iowa and Chicago, Illinois. The MSS classification analysis compared MSS and TM information contents for a large number of science classes.

  1. Morelos Satellite System for Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Ruiz, M. E.

    1986-03-01

    The telephone, television, and data communication services that the Morelos Satellite System (MSS) provides are discussed. The design and functions of the MSS which consists of two geosynchronous communication satellites that operate in C and Ku frequency bands and are located at 113.5 deg and 116.5 deg W longitude are described. The capabilities of the antenna, communication, attitude control, telemetry, command, reaction control, electrical power, and thermal control subsystems are studied. The components of the earth station are examined. The economic and social benefits possible from the application of the MSS to banking, rural clinics, food distribution services, and the oil and electric industries are analyzed.

  2. An evaluation of a SIRA image to determine forest density under conditions of moderate topographical variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M.; Adams, J.

    1985-01-01

    Many studies have shown that radar images have increased classification accuracy over spectral classifications using only LANDSAT Multispectral Band Scanner (MSS) images. It was the objective to determine if a SIRA image taken over Hayfork when used alone or inconjuction with LANDSAT MSS data would increase separation of units not identified by LANSAT spectral mixture models. Areas in the LANDSAT model of varying vegetation density (0 to 50%) that had proven to be accurate by field surveys were compared. It was found in the Hayfork area that SIRA did not increase or help delineation of vegetation or ultramific units over LANDSAT MSS.

  3. A general solution for the registration of optical multispectral scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    The paper documents a general theory for registration (mapping) of data sets gathered by optical scanners such as the ERTS satellite MSS and the Skylab S-192 MSS. This solution is generally applicable to scanners which have rotating optics. Navigation data and ground control points are used in a statistically weighted adjustment based on a mathematical model of the dynamics of the spacecraft and the scanner system. This adjustment is very similar to the well known photogrammetric adjustments used in aerial mapping. Actual tests have been completed on NASA aircraft 24 channel MSS data, and the results are very encouraging.

  4. LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 Multispectral Scanner Coherent Noise Characterization and Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Alford, William L.

    1988-01-01

    A technique is described for characterizing the coherent noise found in LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 MSS data and a companion technique for filtering out the coherent noise. The techniques are demonstrated on LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 MSS data sets, and explanations of the noise pattern are suggested in Appendix C. A cookbook procedure for characterizing and filtering the coherent noise using special NASA/Goddard IDIMS functions is included. Also presented are analysis results from the retrofitted LANDSAT-5 MSS sensor, which shows that the coherent noise has been substantially reduced.

  5. Pulmonary toxicity of simulated lunar and Martian dusts in mice: I. Histopathology 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T; McCluskey, Richard; Cowper, Shawn; Balis, John; Muro-Cacho, Carlos

    2002-09-01

    NASA is contemplating sending humans to Mars and to the moon for further exploration. Volcanic ashes from Arizona and Hawaii with mineral properties similar to those of lunar and Martian soils, respectively, are used to simulate lunar and Martian environments for instrument testing. Martian soil is highly oxidative; this property is not found in Earth's volcanic ashes. NASA is concerned about the health risk from potential exposure of workers in the test facilities. Fine lunar soil simulant (LSS), Martian soil simulant (MSS), titanium dioxide, or quartz in saline was intratracheally instilled into groups of 4 mice (C57BL/6J) at 0.1 mg/mouse (low dose, LD) or 1 mg/mouse (high dose, HD). Separate groups of mice were exposed to ozone (0.5 ppm for 3 h) prior to MSS instillation. Lungs were harvested for histopathological examination 7 or 90 days after the single dust treatment. The lungs of the LSS-LD groups showed no evidence of inflammation, edema, or fibrosis; clumps of particles and an increased number of macrophages were visible after 7 days but not 90 days. In the LSS-HD-7d group, the lungs showed mild to moderate alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The LSS-HD-90d group showed signs of mild chronic pulmonary inflammation, septal thickening, and some fibrosis. Foci of particle-laden macrophages (PLMs) were still visible. Lung lesions in the MSS-LD-7d group were similar to those observed in the LSS-HD-7d group. The MSS-LD-90d group had PLMs and scattered foci of mild fibrosis in the lungs. The MSS-HD-7d group showed large foci of PLMs, intra-alveolar debris, mild-to-moderate focal alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The MSS-HD-90d group showed focal chronic mild-to-moderate alveolitis and fibrosis. The findings in the O(3)-MSS-HD-90d group included widespread intra-alveolar debris, focal moderate alveolitis, and fibrosis. Lung lesions in the MSS groups were more severe with the ozone pretreatment. The effects of

  6. Mobile satellite service in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.

    1988-01-01

    Mobile satellite service (MSS) has been under development in the United States for more than two decades. The service will soon be provided on a commercial basis by a consortium of eight U.S. companies called the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). AMSC will build a three-satellite MSS system that will offer superior performance, reliability and cost effectiveness for organizations requiring mobile communications across the U.S. The development and operation of MSS in North America is being coordinated with Telesat Canada and Mexico. AMSC expects NASA to provide launch services in exchange for capacity on the first AMSC satellite for MSAT-X activities and for government demonstrations.

  7. Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T.; Ochiai, H.; Sugimori, Y.; Shoji, D.; Takeda, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Nakajima, I.; Nakano, T.; Hayashi, S.; Horikawa, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A detailed land use classification for a large urban area of Tokyo was made using MSS digital data. It was found that residential, commercial, industrial, and wooded areas and grasslands can be successfully classified. A mesoscale vortex associated with large ocean current, Kuroshio, which is a rare phenomenon, was recognized visually through the analysis of MSS data. It was found that this vortex affects the effluent patterns of rivers. Lava flowing from Sakurajima Volcano was clearly classified for three major erruptions (1779, 1914, and 1946) using MSS data.

  8. LANDSAT-D thematic mapper image dimensionality reduction and geometric correction accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, G. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    When principal component analysis of a subscene of a section of the Sacramento River showed lower correlation among the TM spectral components that were observed for the MSS spectral components, principal component analysis was applied to a LANDSAT 2 MSS subscene of the same area for comparison purposes. Correlation coefficient matrices indicate the pairwise similarity and correlation of the data for the spectral components. The principal components transformation matrix, indicates the weights applied to the original components to generate the transformed components. The first two TM components can be described as visible and near infrared. For the MSS data, the first transformed component is roughly the average of the four original components. The second transformed component is roughly the difference between the visible and infrared components. Tables show that 97.0% of the variance in an MSS image is contained in only two transformed components.

  9. Geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The study of geomorphology and terrain analysis using TM and MSS data are discussed. The spatial and spectral characteristics of a variety of landforms are also investigated. An outline of possible experiments and a summary of data requirements are included.

  10. 47 CFR 25.149 - Application requirements for ancillary terrestrial components in the mobile-satellite service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space... Policy Act of 1969, including the guidelines for human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields... base station operations would exclude otherwise available signals from MSS space-stations....

  11. 47 CFR 27.1168 - Triggering a Reimbursement Obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1710-1755 MHz, 2110-2155 MHz, 2160-2180 MHz Bands Cost-Sharing... on a fixed base station (including MSS/ATC) at commercial power and the fixed base station is...

  12. Quantitative water quality with LANDSAT and Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; Mccauley, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    Correlation studies were completed between LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) band ratios derived from computer compatible tape (CCT) and 170 water samples taken from three large Kansas reservoirs, coincident with 16 different LANDSAT passes over a 13 month period. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) LANDSAT MSS reflectance levels are useful for quantitative measurement of suspended solids up to at least 900 ppm, (2) MSS band ratios derived from CCT can measure suspended solids with 67% confidence level accuracy of 12 ppm over the range 0-80 ppm and 35 ppm over the range 0900 ppm, (3) suspended solids contour maps can be easily constructed from CCT for water bodies larger than approximately 100 acres, (4) rationing suppresses MSS reflectance level dependence on seasonal sun angle variation and permits measurement of suspended load the year round in the middle latitudes. SKYLAB imagery from a single pass over three reservoirs compares favorably to LANDSAT results up to 100 ppm.

  13. 47 CFR 25.149 - Application requirements for ancillary terrestrial components in the Mobile-Satellite Service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... frequencies for ATC base station operations would exclude otherwise available signals from MSS space-stations... complete and accurate Form 602 (see § 1.913(a)(2)) on file with the Commission. Processing of Applications...

  14. Geologic survey in the south-central region of Mato Grosso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Balieiro, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    The field observations made in the Cuiaba Project area are described. Many geologic cross-sections were done in which the stratigraphic units and the geologic structures defined in the literature and observed in the LANDSAT MSS imagery were recognized.

  15. LANDSAT-4 Science Investigations Summary, Including December 1983 Workshop Results. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A series of brief summaries of the results of individual investigations of LANDSAT 4 image data characteristics are presented. Topics are divided into MSS and TM investigations, and applications of the imaging techniques. Radiometric and geometric accuracy are emphasized.

  16. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    Classification performance from LANDSAT 4 TM and MSS data is evaluated using the SECHO computer program. The data accuracy is compared using forest, corn, soybeans, bare soil, grass, water, and urban areas as classes for investigation.

  17. 47 CFR 25.254 - Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 1610-1626.5 MHz/2483.5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Considerations for the Coordination Between Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) Networks Utilizing Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and Other Spread Spectrum Techniques in the 1-3 GHz Band” (1995). Recommendation...

  18. 47 CFR 25.254 - Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 1610-1626.5 MHz/2483.5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Considerations for the Coordination Between Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) Networks Utilizing Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and Other Spread Spectrum Techniques in the 1-3 GHz Band” (1995). Recommendation...

  19. 76 FR 77251 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Manufacturers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ...--Manufacturers Standardization Society Notice is hereby given that, on November 7, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a...''), Manufacturers Standardization Society (``MSS'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney... principal place of business of the standards development organization is: Manufacturers...

  20. Partial performance degradation of a remote sensor in a space environment, and some probable causes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, J. J.; Schwartz, D. S.; Love, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The Multispectral Scanner (MSS) was launched on the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) on July 23, 1972. The MSS has two calibration systems, one internal and one external. Both calibration systems have shown strong, spectrally dependent performance degradation since launch. This paper presents details on the optical system of the MSS and data on the performance degradation as a function of both spectral interval and time in orbit. The history of the MSS during tests is traced, and it is shown that hydrocarbons from an external source may have been deposited on optical surfaces in the instrument. It is postulated that these contaminant coatings may have polymerized as a result of the exposure to UV light from the sun, increasing their blue absorbtion and accounting for the observed performance degradation.

  1. Mean Dynamic Topography of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, Sinead Louise; Mcadoo, David C.; Laxon, Seymour W.; Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui; Ridout, Andy; Giles, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    ICESat and Envisat altimetry data provide measurements of the instantaneous sea surface height (SSH) across the Arctic Ocean, using lead and open water elevation within the sea ice pack. First, these data were used to derive two independent mean sea surface (MSS) models by stacking and averaging along-track SSH profiles gathered between 2003 and 2009. The ICESat and Envisat MSS data were combined to construct the high-resolution ICEn MSS. Second, we estimate the 5.5-year mean dynamic topography (MDT) of the Arctic Ocean by differencing the ICEn MSS with the new GOCO02S geoid model, derived from GRACE and GOCE gravity. Using these satellite-only data we map the major features of Arctic Ocean dynamical height that are consistent with in situ observations, including the topographical highs and lows of the Beaufort and Greenland Gyres, respectively. Smaller-scale MDT structures remain largely unresolved due to uncertainties in the geoid at short wavelengths.

  2. LANDSAT follow-on experiment: Gulf of Mexico menhaden and thread herring resources investigation. [Mississippi and Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savastano, K. (Principal Investigator); Kemmerer, A. J.; Faller, K.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant achievement realized is the successful mapping of high probability fishing areas from LANDSAT MSS data for two Mississippi Sound missions.

  3. Self-assembly of gold nanoparticles to silver microspheres as highly efficient 3D SERS substrates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Herein we report a simple, one-pot, surfactant-free synthesis of 3D Ag microspheres (AgMSs) in aqueous phase at room temperature. The 3D AgMSs act as supports to fix the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in 3D space via the interaction between the carboxyl groups of GNPs and the Ag atoms of AgMSs. The ensemble of AgMSs@GNPs with high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity and sensitivity can be an ideal 3D substrate choice for practical SERS detection applications. The simple self-assembly strategy may be extended to other metallic materials with great potentials in SERS, catalysis, and photoelectronic devices. PMID:23587323

  4. Satellite data in aquatic area research - Some ideas for future studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitala, Jouko T.

    1986-01-01

    Attempts to apply aquatic remote sensing to the preparation of parametric map-like presentations, quantitative evaluations and time-related investigations in various water areas in Finland are presented. The potential use of Landsat MSS data in aquatic area studies, including limology, aquatic botany, geomorphology and engineering is evaluated using computer-aided digital remote sensing techniques. MSS data may provide information about depth, Secchi disc values, humus content in water, and productivity. Aquatic vegetation classification using MSS is possible only where vegetation units are large enough in respect to the 0.5 hectares ground resolution. Multitemporal satellite imagery has been used to evaluate alterations in the littoral areas of some Finnish water reservoirs between successive periods of high water. It is concluded that although MSS data can be of use in aquatic studies, it should be used in connection with field data and/or TM and SPOT data.

  5. Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for High-Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaolin; Gu, Meng; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Kennard, Rhiannon; Yan, Pengfei; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Chong M.; Sailor, Michael J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-08

    Nanostructured silicon is a promising anode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries, yet scalable synthesis of such materials, and retaining good cycling stability in high loading electrode remain significant challenges. Here, we combine in-situ transmission electron microscopy and continuum media mechanical calculations to demonstrate that large (>20 micron) mesoporous silicon sponge (MSS) prepared by the scalable anodization method can eliminate the pulverization of the conventional bulk silicon and limit particle volume expansion at full lithiation to ~30% instead of ~300% as observed in bulk silicon particles. The MSS can deliver a capacity of ~750 mAh/g based on the total electrode weight with >80% capacity retention over 1000 cycles. The first-cycle irreversible capacity loss of pre-lithiated MSS based anode is only <5%. The insight obtained from MSS also provides guidance for the design of other materials that may experience large volume variation during operations.

  6. 47 CFR 101.69 - Transition of the 1850-1990 MHz, 2110-2150 MHz, and 2160-2200 MHz bands from the fixed microwave...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (PCS), Advanced Wireless Services (AWS), and Mobile Satellite Services (MSS). The rules in this section... frequencies to other media or other fixed channels, including those in other microwave bands. (a) ET...

  7. The analysis of forest policy using Landsat multi-spectral scanner data and geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.; Brass, J. A.; Norman, S. D.; Tosta-Miller, N.

    1984-01-01

    The role of Landsat multi-spectral scanner (MSS) data for forest policy analysis in the state of California has been investigated. The combined requirements for physical, socio-economic, and institutional data in policy analysis were studied to explain potential data needs. A statewide MSS data and general land cover classification was created from which country-wide data sets could be extracted for detailed analyses. The potential to combine point sample data with MSS data was examined as a means to improve specificity in estimations. MSS data was incorporated into geographic information systems to demonstrate modeling techniques using abiotic, biotic, and socio-economic data layers. The review of system configurations to help the California Department of Forestry (CDF) acquire the capability demonstrated resulted in a sequence of options for implementation.

  8. Alterations in Ultrasound Scattering Following Thermal Ablation in ex vivo Bovine Liver.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Nicholas; Varghese, Tomy

    2014-09-06

    Thermal ablation is a minimally invasive cancer treatment which has been rapidly gaining clinical acceptance. It is well known that thermal ablation increases the acoustic attenuation and shear modulus of tissue. In this work, we examine changes to the spatial distribution of scatterers in liver tissue following thermal ablation. Acoustic scatterers within liver tissue have frequently been modeled as pseudo-periodic. The positions of pseudo-periodic scatterers have been Gamma distributed along the beam dimension, and these scatterers are characterized by their mean scatterer spacing (MSS). Prior work have demonstrated significant changes in MSS due to diffuse liver disease, such as steatosis progressing to cirrhosis. However, relatively few results have been reported regarding changes in MSS following thermal ablation. In this study, we estimated MSS in ex vivo bovine liver by detecting local maxima in spectral coherence functions calculated using Thomson's multi-taper method. We examined a large number of uncorrelated regions of interest recorded from five normal bovine livers (~300 images from each animal). We also examined a large number of ROI's from five bovine livers following thermal coagulation. All bovine livers were obtained from a commercial meat production facility immediately following animal sacrifice and imaged within 12 hours. Thermal coagulation was induced by heating liver in saline water baths at 80° C for 45 minutes. For normal, unheated liver an MSS of approximately 1.5 mm was estimated. Following thermal ablation, an MSS of approximately 0.5 mm in thermally coagulated tissue was obtained. Frequently, studies estimating MSS in liver tissue provide an MSS estimate regardless of the state of tissue. Authors rarely present what their MSS estimation algorithm would produce if it were applied to tissue which is better modeled as a collection of uniformly, randomly distributed scatterers lacking periodicity. In this study, we found that thermal

  9. Experimental Assessment of Improved Spatial Resolution Landsat Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-30

    Enhanced Landsat MSS Image Showing Variegated Land Use ( Bangladesh Subscene) 41 FIGURE 12 Computer Enhanced Landsat MSS Image Showing High 42 Relief...areas, the power to trace sediment plumes. Figure 14 shows * -40- FIGURE ii -41- When you purchase EarthSat Landsat Photomaps, here’s what EarthSat...border features such as agri- cultural field boundaries, land use interfaces, geologic faults, marked relief or structural changes, water body limits, soil

  10. Modular space station phase B extension: Mass properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffey, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    The MSS system, capable of supporting a six-man crew, is described as consisting of four common station modules, two special modules (core and power), and a cargo module arranged in a cruciform. The station buildup, and space station subsystems including environmental control life support, electrical power, guidance and control are also described. The MSS system weights are presented for design-to-weight, closeout weights, and shuttle payload weights.

  11. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to the study of caribou movements and winter dispersal in relation to prevailing snowcover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lent, P. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Habitat differentiation was determined feasible using output from MSS band 6 because of apparent high correlations between surface moisture and habitat type on the test area. Progressive early snow distribution was readily determined from MSS outputs, particularly bands 4 and 5. Approximately thirty thousand caribou migrated into the test area during the reporting period, and aerial reconnaissance data on distribution were obtained for selected areas within several days of satellite overflight.

  12. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix K: Unprocessed multispectral scanner high density tape (HDT-RM/HDT-GM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, K. E.

    1981-01-01

    Unprocessed MSS data which is recorded on HDT-RM (a 28 track, high density tape) and on HDT-GM (a 14 track, nonbias recorded, high density tape) are inputs for the LANDSAT 4 data management system. All MSS data initially recorded on HDT-GM are copied to HDT-RM prior to processing. This specification establishes the requirements for the format of the LANDSAT D HDT-RM/HDT-GM.

  13. Application of a Process Model to a Management Support System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The concept of a process model is developed and used as a basis for data organization for use in a Management Support System (MSS). The data...organization is proposed as being useful for historical records that constitute the bulk of the information stored in an MSS. The concept of a process model , and...manager. Other uses of the proposed data organization are also considered. Extensions of the process model are considered by combining the model with

  14. Maternal serum screening.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Maternal serum screening (MSS) measures three serum markers: alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol, from which the risk of fetal Down syndrome or open neural tube defect is calculated. Initially, 8% of women will have positive results. I present a protocol for investigating these women. Family physicians should be informed about MSS so they can give their patients information and guidance. PMID:7524838

  15. A test of the Suits vegetative-canopy reflectance model with LARS soybean-canopy reflectance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, J. E.; Lemaster, E. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Suits vegetative-canopy reflectance model is tested with an extensive set of field reflectance measurements made by the Laboratory for Application of Remote Sensing (LARS) for soybean canopies. The model is tested for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction. The results show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the Landsat MSS and poor agreement in the near-infrared channel of Landsat MSS. An analysis of errors is given.

  16. Structure-guided mutational analysis of a yeast DEAD-box protein involved in mitochondrial RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Bifano, Abby L; Turk, Edward M; Caprara, Mark G

    2010-05-07

    DEAD-box proteins are RNA-dependent ATPase enzymes that have been implicated in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism. Since many of these enzymes have been shown to possess common biochemical properties in vitro, including the ability to bind and hydrolyze ATP, to bind nucleic acid, and to promote helix unwinding, DEAD-box proteins are generally thought to modulate RNA structure in vivo. However, the extent to which these enzymatic properties are important for the in vivo functions of DEAD-box proteins remains unclear. To evaluate how these properties influence DEAD-box protein native function, we probed the importance of several highly conserved residues in the yeast DEAD-box protein Mss116p, which is required for the splicing of all mitochondrial catalytic introns in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using an MSS116 deletion strain, we have expressed plasmid-borne variants of MSS116 containing substitutions in residues predicted to be important for extensive networks of interactions required for ATP hydrolysis and helix unwinding. We have analyzed the importance of these residues to the splicing functions of Mss116p in vivo and compared these results with the biochemical properties of recombinant proteins determined here and in previously published work. We observed that the efficiency by which an Mss116p variant catalyzes ATP hydrolysis correlates with facilitating mitochondrial splicing, while efficient helix unwinding appears to be insufficient for splicing. In addition, we show that each splicing-defective variant affects the splicing of structurally diverse introns to the same degree. Together, these observations suggest that the efficiency by which Mss116p catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP is critical for all of its splicing functions in vivo. Given that ATP hydrolysis stimulates the recycling of DEAD-box proteins, these observations support a model in which enzyme turnover is a crucial factor in Mss116p splicing function. These results are discussed in the context

  17. Multi-stage sampling for large scale natural resources surveys: A case study of rice and waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, J.D.; Reinecke, K.J.; Kaminski, R.M.; Gerard, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale sample surveys to estimate abundance and distribution of organisms and their habitats are increasingly important in ecological studies. Multi-stage sampling (MSS) is especially suited to large-scale surveys because of the natural clustering of resources. To illustrate an application, we: (1) designed a stratified MSS to estimate late autumn abundance (kg/ha) of rice seeds in harvested fields as food for waterfowl wintering in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV); (2) investigated options for improving the MSS design; and (3) compared statistical and cost efficiency of MSS to simulated simple random sampling (SRS). During 2000?2002, we sampled 25?35 landowners per year, 1 or 2 fields per landowner per year, and measured seed mass in 10 soil cores collected within each field. Analysis of variance components and costs for each stage of the survey design indicated that collecting 10 soil cores per field was near the optimum of 11?15, whereas sampling >1 field per landowner provided few benefits because data from fields within landowners were highly correlated. Coefficients of variation (CV) of annual estimates of rice abundance ranged from 0.23 to 0.31 and were limited by variation among landowners and the number of landowners sampled. Design effects representing the statistical efficiency of MSS relative to SRS ranged from 3.2 to 9.0, and simulations indicated SRS would cost, on average, 1.4 times more than MSS because clustering of sample units in MSS decreased travel costs. We recommend MSS as a potential sampling strategy for large-scale natural resource surveys and specifically for future surveys of the availability of rice as food for waterfowl in the MAV and similar areas.

  18. Vincristine sulfate loaded dextran microspheres amalgamated with thermosensitive gel offered sustained release and enhanced cytotoxicity in THP-1, human leukemia cells: In vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Vivek; Kush, Preeti; Pandey, Ravi Shankar; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Chandra, Ramesh; Madan, Jitender

    2016-04-01

    Vincristine sulfate (VCS) is a drug of choice for the treatment of childhood and adult acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as well as solid tumors including sarcomas. However, poor biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic traits of VCS like short serum half-life (12 min), high dosing frequency (1.4 mg/m(2) per week for 4 weeks) and extensive protein binding (75%) limit the clinical potential of VCS in cancer therapy. In present investigation, injectable vincristine sulfate loaded dextran microspheres (VCS-Dextran-MSs) were prepared and amalgamated with chitosan-β-glycerophosphate gel (VCS-Dextran-MSs-Gel) to surmount the biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic limitations of VCS that consequently induced synergistic sustained release pattern of the drug. Particle size and zeta-potential of VCS-Dextran-MSs were measured to be 6.8 ± 2.4 μm and -18.3 ± 0.11 mV along with the encapsulation efficiency of about 60.4 ± 4.5%. Furthermore, VCS-Dextran-MSs and VCS-Dextran-MSs-Gel exhibited slow release pattern and 94.7% and 95.8% of the drug was released in 72 h and 720 h, respectively. Results from cell viability assay and pharmacokinetic as well as histopathological analysis in mice indicated that VCS-Dextran-MSs-Gel offers superior therapeutic potential and higher AUClast than VCS-Dextran-MSs and drug solution. In conclusion, VCS-Dextran-MSs-Gel warrants further preclinical tumor growth study to scale up the technology.

  19. Final Environmental Assessment of Military Service Station Privatization at Five AETC Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    cubic meter of air AAFES Army and Air Force Exchange Service AAQS Ambient Air Quality Standards ACM asbestos -containing material AETC Air Education...and endangered; ACM= asbestos -containing material; LBP=lead-based paint; MSS=Military Service Station(s) Description of the Proposed Action and...threatened and endangered; ACM= asbestos - containing material; LBP=lead-based paint; MSS=Military Service Station(s) Description of the Proposed

  20. The time-space relationship of the data point (Pixels) of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner or the myth of simultaneity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A simplified explanation of the time space relationships among scanner pixels is presented. The examples of the multispectral scanner (MSS) on Landsats 1, 2, and 3 and the thematic mapper (TM) of Landsat D are used to describe the concept and degree of nonsimultaneity of scanning system data. The time aspects of scanner data acquisition and those parts of the MSS and TM systems related to that phenomena are addressed.

  1. Use of reflectance spectra of native plant species for interpreting airborne multispectral scanner data in the East Tintic Mountains, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milton, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of in situ reflectance spectra of native vegetation was used to interpret airborne MSS data. Representative spectra from three plant species in the E Tintic Mountains, Utah, were used to interpret the color components on a color ratio composite image made from MSS data in the visible and near-infrared regions. A map of plant communities was made from the color ratio composite image and field checked. -from Author

  2. Satellite remote sensing of rangelands in Botswana. II - NOAA AVHRR and herbaceous vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, S. D.; Tucker, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    The relation between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the herbaceous vegetation in Tamasane, Shakwe, and Masama in eastern Botswana is studied using 1983-1984 AVHRR data. The procedures for Landsat MSS interpolation of ground measurements and the data processing of the AVHRR data are described. The temporal sequence AVHRR global-area coverage (GAC) composite NDVI is examined. The AVHRR GAC composite NDVI and biomass and Landsat MSS interpolations of field measurements are analyzed and compared.

  3. Structure-Guided Mutational Analysis of a Yeast DEAD-box Protein Involved in Mitochondrial RNA Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Bifano, Abby L.; Turk, Edward M.; Caprara, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary DEAD-box proteins are RNA-dependent ATPase enzymes that have been implicated in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism. Since many of these enzymes have been shown to possess common biochemical properties in vitro, including the ability to bind and hydrolyze ATP, bind nucleic acid, and promote helix unwinding, DEAD-box proteins are generally thought to modulate RNA structure in vivo. However, the extent to which these enzymatic properties are important for the in vivo functions of DEAD-box proteins remains unclear. To evaluate how these properties influence DEAD-box protein native function, we probe the importance of several highly conserved residues in the yeast DEAD-box protein, Mss116p, which is required for the splicing of all mitochondrial catalytic introns in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a MSS116 deletion strain, we have expressed plasmid-borne variants of MSS116 containing substitutions in residues predicted to be important for extensive networks of interactions required for ATP hydrolysis and helix unwinding. We have analyzed the importance of these residues to the splicing functions of Mss116p in vivo and compared these results with the biochemical properties of recombinant proteins determined here and in previously published work. We observe that the efficiency by which an Mss116p variant catalyzes ATP hydrolysis correlates with facilitating mitochondrial splicing, while efficient helix unwinding appears to be insufficient for splicing. In addition, we show that each splicing-defective variant affects the splicing of structurally diverse introns to the same degree. Together, these observations suggest that the efficiency by which Mss116p catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP is critical for all of its splicing functions in vivo. Given that ATP hydrolysis stimulates the recycling of DEAD-box proteins, these observations support a model in which enzyme turnover is a crucial factor in Mss116p splicing function. These results are discussed in the context

  4. Enhancement of Landsat images for lineament analysis in the area of the Salina Basin, New York and Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1979-01-01

    Digital image processing of Landsat images of New York and Pennsylvania was undertaken to provide optimum images for lineament analysis in the area of the Salina Basin. Preliminary examination of Landsat images from photographic prints indicated sufficient differences between the spectral bands of the Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) to warrant digital processing of both MSS band 7 and MSS band 5. Selective contrast stretching based on analysis of the Landsat MSS histograms proved to be the most important factor affecting the appearance of the images. A three-point linear stretch using the two end points and a middle point to the Landsat frequency distribution was most successful. The flexibility of the REMAPP image processing system was helpful in creating such custom-tailored stretches. An edge enhancement was tested on the MSS band 5 image, but was not used. Stereoscopic Landsat images acquired from adjacent orbits aided recognition of topographic features; the area of stereoscopic coverage could be increased by utilizing the precession of Landsat-1?s orbit . Improvements in the digitally processed scenes did affect the analysis of lineaments for the New York area; on the enhanced MSS band 5 image, an ENE trending set of lineaments is visible, which was not recognized from other images.

  5. The development of the Canadian Mobile Servicing System Kinematic Simulation Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, G.; Diebold, B.; Brimley, W.; Kleinberg, H.

    1989-01-01

    Canada will develop a Mobile Servicing System (MSS) as its contribution to the U.S./International Space Station Freedom. Components of the MSS will include a remote manipulator (SSRMS), a Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), and a mobile base (MRS). In order to support requirements analysis and the evaluation of operational concepts related to the use of the MSS, a graphics based kinematic simulation/human-computer interface facility has been created. The facility consists of the following elements: (1) A two-dimensional graphics editor allowing the rapid development of virtual control stations; (2) Kinematic simulations of the space station remote manipulators (SSRMS and SPDM), and mobile base; and (3) A three-dimensional graphics model of the space station, MSS, orbiter, and payloads. These software elements combined with state of the art computer graphics hardware provide the capability to prototype MSS workstations, evaluate MSS operational capabilities, and investigate the human-computer interface in an interactive simulation environment. The graphics technology involved in the development and use of this facility is described.

  6. Modeling the pH-mediated extraction of ionizable organic contaminants to improve the quality of municipal sewage sludge destined for land application.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-04-15

    A model was developed to assess the impact of adding acids and bases to processed municipal sewage sludge (MSS) to mobilize contaminants, facilitating their removal from sludge by flushing prior to land application. Among 312 organic contaminants documented to occur in U.S. MSS, 71 or 23% were identified as ionizable organic contaminants (IOCs), contributing a disproportionately large fraction of 82% of the total mass of sludge-borne contaminants. Detected IOCs included 57 pharmaceuticals and personal care products, 12 perfluorinated compounds, one surfactant and one pesticide. Annually, about 2000t of IOCs were estimated to be released to U.S. soils via land-application of MSS. A partitioning model developed to assess the impact of pH on hydrophobic sorption revealed that between 36 and 85% of the mass of individual classes of IOCs potentially could be desorbed from MSS via pH adjustment and flushing. Thus, modeling results suggest that a sequential pH treatment [acidic (~pH2) followed by basic (~pH12) treatment] has the potential to reduce the burden of harmful IOCs in MSS applied on U.S. land by up to 40±16t annually. This approach may serve as a cost-effective treatment process that can be implemented easily in existing sludge treatment infrastructure in the U.S. and worldwide, serving to significantly improve the quality of MSS destined for land application.

  7. Analysis of data acquired by synthetic aperture radar over Dade County, Florida, and Acadia Parish, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1983-01-01

    Results of digital processing of airborne X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data acquired over Dade County, Florida, and Acadia Parish, Louisiana are presented. The goal was to investigate the utility of SAR data for land cover mapping and area estimation under the AgRISTARS Domestic Crops and Land Cover Project. In the case of the Acadia Paris study area, LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data were also used to form a combined SAR and MSS data set. The results of accuracy evaluation for the SAR, MSS, and SAR/MSS data using supervised classification show that the combined SAR/MSS data set results in an improved classification accuracy of the five land cover classes as compared with SAR-only and MSS-only data sets. In the case of the Dade County study area, the results indicate that both HH and VV polarization data are highly responsive to the row orientation of the row crop but not to the specific vegetation which forms the row structure. On the other hand, the HV polarization data are relatively insensitive to the orientation of row crop. Therefore, the HV polarization data may be used to discriminate the specific vegetation that forms the row structure.

  8. Motion sickness susceptibility in healthy subjects and vestibular patients: effects of gender, age and trait-anxiety.

    PubMed

    Paillard, A C; Quarck, G; Paolino, F; Denise, P; Paolino, M; Golding, J F; Ghulyan-Bedikian, V

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that anxiety may play a role in motion sickness susceptibility (MSS) variability. This study aimed to assess motion sickness susceptibility in healthy subjects and chronic vestibular patients and to investigate its relationship to gender, age and trait-anxiety. Healthy subjects (n=167) and chronic dizzy patients with various vestibulopathies (n=94), aged from 20 to 92 years old, were asked to complete Motion Sickness Susceptibility questionnaire (MSSQ) and trait-anxiety questionnaire (STAI-B). When patients were divided into those who had vestibular loss (n=51) vs. patients without vestibular loss (n=43), the MSSQ scores (mean ± SD) for patients with vestibular loss (18.8 ± 30.9) were lower than healthy subjects (36.4 ± 34.8), who were lower than vestibular patients without vestibular loss (59.0 ± 39.7). These significant differences could not be explained by gender, age, trait-anxiety, or interaction. Women had higher MSS than men, and MSS declined with age for healthy subjects and vestibular patients. The overall relationship between anxiety and MSS scores was weak and only reached significance in healthy subjects. These results support the conclusion that the vestibular system is heavily involved in MSS and that trait-anxiety may play a role in MSS but only in healthy subjects.

  9. A Highly Stable and Magnetically Recyclable Nanocatalyst System: Mesoporous Silica Spheres Embedded with FeCo/Graphitic Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles and Pt Nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da Jeong; Li, Yan; Kim, Yun Jin; Hur, Nam Hwi; Seo, Won Seok

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a highly stable and magnetically recyclable nanocatalyst system for alkene hydrogenation. The materials are composed of mesoporous silica spheres (MSS) embedded with FeCo/graphitic shell (FeCo/GC) magnetic nanoparticles and Pt nanocatalysts (Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS). The Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS have superparamagnetism at room temperature and show type IV isotherm typical for mesoporous silica, thereby ensuring a large enough inner space (surface area of 235.3 m(2)  g(-1), pore volume of 0.165 cm(3)  g(-1), and pore diameter of 2.8 nm) to undergo catalytic reactions. We have shown that the Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS system readily converts cyclohexene into cyclohexane, which is the only product isolated and Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS can be seperated very quickly by an external magnetic field after the catalytic reaction is finished. We have demonstrated that the recycled Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS can be reused further for the same hydrogenation reaction at least four times without loss in the initial catalytic activity.

  10. Application of digital terrain data to quantify and reduce the topographic effect on LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C. O.; Wharton, S. W.; Holben, B. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Integration of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data with 30 m U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital terrain data was undertaken to quantify and reduce the topographic effect on imagery of a forested mountain ridge test site in central Pennsylvania. High Sun angle imagery revealed variation of as much as 21 pixel values in data for slopes of different angles and aspects with uniform surface cover. Large topographic effects were apparent in MSS 4 and 5 was due to a combination of high absorption by the forest cover and the MSS quantization. Four methods for reducing the topographic effect were compared. Band ratioing of MSS 6/5 and MSS 7/5 did not eliminate the topographic effect because of the lack of variation in MSS 4 and 5 radiances. The three radiance models examined to reduce the topographic effect required integration of the digital terrain data. Two Lambertian models increased the variation in the LANDSAT radiances. The nonLambertian model considerably reduced (86 per cent) the topographic effect in the LANDSAT data. The study demonstrates that high quality digital terrain data, as provided by the USGS digital elevation model data, can be used to enhance the utility of multispectral satellite data.

  11. Thematic Mapper Spectral Dimensionality and Data Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    A simulated LANDSAT 4 TM and MSS data set, representing three crops over three growing seasons and a wide variety of soil types, was used to evaluate the structure of TM data and to compare its characteristics to those of MSS data. TM bands 2, 3, and 4, transformed to tasseled cap-like coordinates, provide an equivalent data space to MSS tasseled cap data, with greater dynamic range and no apparent loss of information resulting from the exclusion of the 0.9 to 1.1 micron region. Data from the six reflective TM bands (excluding the thermal band) primarily occupy two planes and a transition zone between them. The plane of vegetation is comparable to the MSS tasseled cap plane, while the plane of soils and transition zone provide a new dimension of information unavailable from the MSS. This added dimension offers promise of improved ability to determine the relative mix of vegetation and soil in the sensor field of view and to estimate soil moisture status. The improvement in spectral characteristics of the TM over the MSS, not to mention the greater spatial resolution, have resulted in a significant increase in the information content of the data.

  12. Review of Canadian mobile satellite systems institutional arrangements policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilvary, David

    1990-01-01

    Development of institutional arrangements policy for maritime, land, and aeronautical mobile satellite systems (MSS) is an integral part of the Canadian telecommunications policy process. An ongoing activity in that process is fitting of MSS institutional arrangements policy within the confines of the 1987 Canadian Telecom Policy Framework. Making sure the fit is correct is a major task at present because technology seems to be driving service demand at rapid growth rates, particularly in the case of land MSS. This growth is stimulating policy and regulatory development efforts to keep pace. In Canada, this is happening in four planned MSS applications areas: Canada-US transborder (immediate), aeronautical MSS (1990/94), Telesat Mobile Inc. EMDS via INMARSAT (1990), and MSAT (1993/94). The need for an up-to-date MSS policy in these areas is emphasized by related developments in the US and elsewhere. It arises because of the growing number of market initiatives proposing North American rather than Canada-only or US-only coverage, such as INMARSAT, Geostar, OmniTRACS, and Starlink.

  13. Charter for Systems Engineer Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suffredini, Michael T.; Grissom, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This charter establishes the International Space Station Program (ISSP) Mobile Servicing System (MSS) Systems Engineering Working Group (SEWG). The MSS SEWG is established to provide a mechanism for Systems Engineering for the end-to-end MSS function. The MSS end-to-end function includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the Mobile Remote Servicer (MRS) Base System (MBS), Robotic Work Station (RWS), Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), Video Signal Converters (VSC), and Operations Control Software (OCS), the Mobile Transporter (MT), and by interfaces between and among these elements, and United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) distributed systems, and other International Space Station Elements and Payloads, (including the Power Data Grapple Fixtures (PDGFs), MSS Capture Attach System (MCAS) and the Mobile Transporter Capture Latch (MTCL)). This end-to-end function will be supported by the ISS and MSS ground segment facilities. This charter defines the scope and limits of the program authority and document control that is delegated to the SEWG and it also identifies the panel core membership and specific operating policies.

  14. Individualisation of time-motion analysis: a method comparison and case report series.

    PubMed

    Hunter, F; Bray, J; Towlson, C; Smith, M; Barrett, S; Madden, J; Abt, G; Lovell, R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the intensity distribution of time-motion analysis data, when speed zones were categorized by different methods. 12 U18 players undertook a routine battery of laboratory- and field-based assessments to determine their running speed corresponding to the respiratory compensation threshold (RCT), maximal aerobic speed (MAS), maximal oxygen consumption (vV˙O2max) and maximal sprint speed (MSS). Players match-demands were tracked using 5 Hz GPS units in 22 fixtures (50 eligible match observations). The percentage of total distance covered running at high-speed (%HSR), very-high speed (%VHSR) and sprinting were determined using the following speed thresholds: (1) arbitrary; (2) individualised (IND) using RCT, vV˙O2max and MSS; (3) individualised via MAS per se; (4) individualised via MSS per se; and (5) individualised using MAS and MSS as measures of locomotor capacities (LOCO). Using MSS in isolation resulted in 61% and 39% of player's % HSR and % VHSR, respectively, being incorrectly interpreted, when compared to the IND technique. Estimating the RCT from fractional values of MAS resulted in erroneous interpretations of % HSR in 50% of cases. The present results suggest that practitioners and researchers should avoid using singular fitness characteristics to individualise the intensity distribution of time-motion analysis data. A combination of players' anaerobic threshold, MAS, and MSS characteristics are recommended to individualise player-tracking data.

  15. Development and validation of the medical social self-efficacy scale for use in culturally diverse communities.

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, Marie L; Costin, Stacey Leigh; Ochiai, Misaki

    2015-02-01

    This study developed a new scale, The Medical Social Self-efficacy Scale (MSSES), to assess social self-efficacy within a medical context for patients of diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Validation of the MSSES with a sample of 113 persons indicated that the scale has good internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .85. A factor analysis yielded two factors (confidence in seeking medical information, confidence in stating my view) which accounted for 64% of the total variance. Split-half reliability of the MSSES was .84. Predictive validity of the MSSES and its factorial structure was found for the mental component summary and general health subscale of the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Evidence of concurrent validity was found with the active coping, planning and positive reframing subscales of the Brief COPE. Concurrent validity was also found for the MSSES and its factors, in regard to the emotion-focused coping composite subscale of the Brief COPE. The results indicate that the MSSES appears to be a psychometrically sound instrument.

  16. An Approach to Cluster EU Member States into Groups According to Pathways of Salmonella in the Farm-to-Consumption Chain for Pork Products.

    PubMed

    Vigre, Håkan; Domingues, Ana Rita Coutinho Calado; Pedersen, Ulrik Bo; Hald, Tine

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the project as the cluster analysis was to in part to develop a generic structured quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) model of human salmonellosis due to pork consumption in EU member states (MSs), and the objective of the cluster analysis was to group the EU MSs according to the relative contribution of different pathways of Salmonella in the farm-to-consumption chain of pork products. In the development of the model, by selecting a case study MS from each cluster the model was developed to represent different aspects of pig production, pork production, and consumption of pork products across EU states. The objective of the cluster analysis was to aggregate MSs into groups of countries with similar importance of different pathways of Salmonella in the farm-to-consumption chain using available, and where possible, universal register data related to the pork production and consumption in each country. Based on MS-specific information about distribution of (i) small and large farms, (ii) small and large slaughterhouses, (iii) amount of pork meat consumed, and (iv) amount of sausages consumed we used nonhierarchical and hierarchical cluster analysis to group the MSs. The cluster solutions were validated internally using statistic measures and externally by comparing the clustered MSs with an estimated human incidence of salmonellosis due to pork products in the MSs. Finally, each cluster was characterized qualitatively using the centroids of the clusters.

  17. United States National Sewage Sludge Repository at Arizona State University – A New Resource and Research Tool for Environmental Scientists, Engineers, and Epidemiologists

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Done, Hansa Y.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    Processed municipal sewage sludges (MSS) are an abundant, unwanted by-product of wastewater treatment, increasingly applied to agriculture and forestry for inexpensive disposal and soil conditioning. Due to their high organic-carbon and lipid contents, MSS not only is rich in carbon and nutrients but also represents a ‘sink’ for recalcitrant, hydrophobic and potentially bioaccumulative compounds. Indeed, many organics sequestered and concentrated in MSS meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's definition of being persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT). In a strategic effort, our research team at the Biodesign Institute has created the National Sewage Sludge Repository (NSSR), a large repository of digested MSSs from 164 wastewater treatment plants from across the USA, as part of the Human Health Observatory (H2O) at Arizona State University (ASU). The NSSR likely represents the largest archive of digested MSS specimens in the USA. The present study summarizes key findings gleaned thus far from analysis of NSSR samples. For example, we evaluated the content of toxicants in MSS and computed estimates of nationwide inventories of mass produced chemicals that become sequestrated in sludge and later are released into the environment during sludge disposal on land. Ongoing efforts document co-occurrence of a variety of PBT compounds in both MSS and human samples, while also identifying a large number of potentially harmful MSS constituents for which human exposure data are still lacking. Finally, we summarize new future opportunities and invite collaborative use the NSSR by the research community. The H2O at ASU represents a resource and research tool for environmental scientists and the larger research community. As illustrated in this work, this repository can serve to (i) identify and prioritize emerging contaminants; (ii) provide spatial and temporal trends of contaminants; (iii) inform and evaluate the effectiveness of environmental policy

  18. Changes in repeated-sprint performance in relation to change in locomotor profile in highly-trained young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of changes in maximal aerobic (MAS) and sprinting (MSS) speeds and the anaerobic reserve (ASR) on repeated-sprint performance. Two hundred and seventy highly-trained soccer players (14.5 ± 1.6 year) completed three times per season (over 5 years) a maximal incremental running test to approach MAS, a 40-m sprint with 10-m splits to assess MSS and a repeated-sprint test (10 × 30-m sprints), where best (RSb) and mean (RSm) sprint times, and percentage of speed decrement (%Dec) were calculated. ASR was calculated as MSS-MAS. While ∆RSb were related to ∆MSS and ∆body mass (r(2) = 0.42, 90%CL[0.34;0.49] for the overall multiple regression, n = 334), ∆RSm was also correlated with ∆MAS and ∆sum of 7 skinfolds (r(2) = 0.43 [0.35;0.50], n = 334). There was a small and positive association between ∆%Dec and ∆MAS (r(2) = 0.02 [-0.07;0.11], n = 334). Substantial ∆MSS and ∆MAS had a predictive value of 70 and 55% for ∆RSm, respectively. Finally, ∆ASR per se was not predictive of ∆RSm (Cohen's = +0.8 to -0.3 with increased ASR), but the greater magnitude of ∆RSm improvement was observed when MSS, MAS and ASR increased together (0.8 vs. +0.4 with ASR increased vs. not, additionally to MSS and MAS). Low-cost field tests aimed at assessing maximal sprinting and aerobic speeds can be used to monitor ∆RS performance.

  19. What is being measured, and by whom? Facilitation of communication on technical measures amongst competent authorities in the implementation of the European Union Broiler Directive (2007/43/EC).

    PubMed

    Butterworth, A; de Jong, I C; Keppler, C; Knierim, U; Stadig, L; Lambton, S

    2016-02-01

    The European Union (EU) Broiler Directive (2007/43/EC) is unique amongst current EU Directives, which address animal welfare, in that it uses outcome data collected at abattoirs and on farm to monitor on-farm broiler welfare and vary the maximum permitted stocking density on farm. In this study, we describe how, by bringing together personnel from the competent authorities in 22 member states (MSs) who have responsibility for implementing the Directive, and engaging in exchange of information and technical methods regarding the Broiler Directive, it has been possible to identify differences in approach with regard to 'what data is being collected, and by whom' across EU MSs. Online questionnaires and workshop exercises enabled us to identify priority areas for knowledge transfer and training. For example, foot pad dermatitis, hock burn, dead on arrival and total rejections (birds rejected as unfit for human consumption by the meat inspection staff at slaughter) were identified by the MSs as measures of medium-to-low priority in terms of knowledge transfer because there are assessment methods for these conditions that are already well accepted by competent authorities. On the other hand, breast lesions, cellulitis, emaciation, joint lesions, respiratory problems, scratches, wing fractures and a number of environmental measures were identified as having high priority in terms of knowledge transfer. The study identified that there is significant variability in the stage of implementation between MSs, and responses from the participating MSs indicated that sharing of guidance and technical information between MSs may be of value in the future set-up process for those MSs engaged in implementation of the Directive.

  20. DNA Methylation Identifies Loci Distinguishing Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer Without Germ-Line MLH1/MSH2 Mutation from Sporadic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Hsing; Sheng Jiang, Shih; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Tang, Reiping; Hsiung, Chao A; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Chang, I-Shou

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Roughly half of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) cases are Lynch syndrome and exhibit germ-line mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes; the other half are familial colorectal cancer (CRC) type X (FCCTX) and are MMR proficient. About 70% of Lynch syndrome tumors have germ-line MLH1 or MSH2 mutations. The clinical presentation, histopathological features, and carcinogenesis of FCCTX resemble those of sporadic MMR-proficient colorectal tumors. It is of interest to obtain biomarkers that distinguish FCCTX from sporadic microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC, to develop preventive strategies. Methods: The tumors and adjacent normal tissues of 40 patients with HNPCC were assayed using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 (HM27) BeadChip to assess the DNA methylation level at about 27,000 loci. The germ-line mutation status of MLH1 and MSH2 and the microsatellite instability status in these patients were obtained. Genome-wide DNA methylation measurements of three groups of patients with general CRC were downloaded from public domain databases. Probes with DNA methylation levels that differed significantly between patients with sporadic MSS CRC and FCCTX were examined, to explore their potential as biomarkers. Results: We found that MSS HNPCC tumors were overwhelmingly hypomethylated compared with those from patient groups with other types of CRC, including germ-line MLH1/MSH2-mutated HNPCC and sporadic MSS CRC. Five gene-marker panels that exhibited a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity higher than 90% in both discovery and validation cohorts were proposed to distinguish MSS HNPCC tumors from sporadic MSS CRC. Conclusions: Our results warrant further investigation and validation. The loci identified here may become useful biomarkers for distinguishing between FCCTX and sporadic MSS CRC tumors. PMID:27977020

  1. United States National Sewage Sludge Repository at Arizona State University--a new resource and research tool for environmental scientists, engineers, and epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Done, Hansa Y; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-02-01

    Processed municipal sewage sludges (MSS) are an abundant, unwanted by-product of wastewater treatment, increasingly applied to agriculture and forestry for inexpensive disposal and soil conditioning. Due to their high organic carbon and lipid contents, MSS not only is rich in carbon and nutrients but also represents a "sink" for recalcitrant, hydrophobic, and potentially bioaccumulative compounds. Indeed, many organics sequestered and concentrated in MSS meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's definition of being persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT). In a strategic effort, our research team at the Biodesign Institute has created the National Sewage Sludge Repository (NSSR), a large repository of digested MSSs from 164 wastewater treatment plants from across the USA, as part of the Human Health Observatory (H2O) at Arizona State University (ASU). The NSSR likely represents the largest archive of digested MSS specimens in the USA. The present study summarizes key findings gleaned thus far from analysis of NSSR samples. For example, we evaluated the content of toxicants in MSS and computed estimates of nationwide inventories of mass produced chemicals that become sequestrated in sludge and later are released into the environment during sludge disposal on land. Ongoing efforts document co-occurrence of a variety of PBT compounds in both MSS and human samples, while also identifying a large number of potentially harmful MSS constituents for which human exposure data are still lacking. Finally, we summarize future opportunities and invite collaborative use of the NSSR by the research community. The H2O at ASU represents a new resource and research tool for environmental scientists and the larger research community. As illustrated in this work, this repository can serve to (i) identify and prioritize emerging contaminants, (ii) provide spatial and temporal trends of contaminants, (iii) inform and evaluate the effectiveness of environmental policy-making and

  2. A Likelihood Approach for Real-Time Calibration of Stochastic Compartmental Epidemic Models

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Christoph; Cohen, Ted

    2017-01-01

    Stochastic transmission dynamic models are especially useful for studying the early emergence of novel pathogens given the importance of chance events when the number of infectious individuals is small. However, methods for parameter estimation and prediction for these types of stochastic models remain limited. In this manuscript, we describe a calibration and prediction framework for stochastic compartmental transmission models of epidemics. The proposed method, Multiple Shooting for Stochastic systems (MSS), applies a linear noise approximation to describe the size of the fluctuations, and uses each new surveillance observation to update the belief about the true epidemic state. Using simulated outbreaks of a novel viral pathogen, we evaluate the accuracy of MSS for real-time parameter estimation and prediction during epidemics. We assume that weekly counts for the number of new diagnosed cases are available and serve as an imperfect proxy of incidence. We show that MSS produces accurate estimates of key epidemic parameters (i.e. mean duration of infectiousness, R0, and Reff) and can provide an accurate estimate of the unobserved number of infectious individuals during the course of an epidemic. MSS also allows for accurate prediction of the number and timing of future hospitalizations and the overall attack rate. We compare the performance of MSS to three state-of-the-art benchmark methods: 1) a likelihood approximation with an assumption of independent Poisson observations; 2) a particle filtering method; and 3) an ensemble Kalman filter method. We find that MSS significantly outperforms each of these three benchmark methods in the majority of epidemic scenarios tested. In summary, MSS is a promising method that may improve on current approaches for calibration and prediction using stochastic models of epidemics. PMID:28095403

  3. A Likelihood Approach for Real-Time Calibration of Stochastic Compartmental Epidemic Models.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Christoph; Yaesoubi, Reza; Cohen, Ted

    2017-01-01

    Stochastic transmission dynamic models are especially useful for studying the early emergence of novel pathogens given the importance of chance events when the number of infectious individuals is small. However, methods for parameter estimation and prediction for these types of stochastic models remain limited. In this manuscript, we describe a calibration and prediction framework for stochastic compartmental transmission models of epidemics. The proposed method, Multiple Shooting for Stochastic systems (MSS), applies a linear noise approximation to describe the size of the fluctuations, and uses each new surveillance observation to update the belief about the true epidemic state. Using simulated outbreaks of a novel viral pathogen, we evaluate the accuracy of MSS for real-time parameter estimation and prediction during epidemics. We assume that weekly counts for the number of new diagnosed cases are available and serve as an imperfect proxy of incidence. We show that MSS produces accurate estimates of key epidemic parameters (i.e. mean duration of infectiousness, R0, and Reff) and can provide an accurate estimate of the unobserved number of infectious individuals during the course of an epidemic. MSS also allows for accurate prediction of the number and timing of future hospitalizations and the overall attack rate. We compare the performance of MSS to three state-of-the-art benchmark methods: 1) a likelihood approximation with an assumption of independent Poisson observations; 2) a particle filtering method; and 3) an ensemble Kalman filter method. We find that MSS significantly outperforms each of these three benchmark methods in the majority of epidemic scenarios tested. In summary, MSS is a promising method that may improve on current approaches for calibration and prediction using stochastic models of epidemics.

  4. Synthesis of spherical Ag/ZnO heterostructural composites with excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light and UV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hairui; Hu, Yanchun; Zhang, Zhuxia; Liu, Xuguang; Jia, Husheng; Xu, Bingshe

    2015-11-01

    Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) decorated ZnO microspheres (ZnO-MSs) heterostructural composites were fabricated via a two-step chemical method. The ZnO-MSs with the diameter about 700 nm was initially prepared by ultrasonic technology. Subsequently, Ag-NPs with a diameter of 20-50 nm were anchored onto the surface of the as-prepared ZnO-MSs by a microwave polyol process. The morphology, structural and optical properties of the as-synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The results show that the surface plasmon absorption band of Ag/ZnO composites is distinctly broadened and the PL intensity of Ag/ZnO heterostructural composites varies with the increase of Ag loading. The photocatalytic activity of the Ag/ZnO composites were evaluated by the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) solution under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light irradiation. The rate of degradation of the as-prepared Ag/ZnO composites was more than triple times faster than that of pure ZnO-MSs under UV light, which was ascribed to the formation of Schottky barriers in the regions between Ag-NPs and ZnO-MSs. Furthermore, Ag/ZnO composites exhibit superior photocatalytic activity over ZnO-MSs in the visible light region owing to the effective electron transfer from plasmon-excited Ag(0) nanoparticles to ZnO-MSs by strong localization of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). This can effectively decrease the recombination of electron-hole pairs, lead to a prolonged lifetime of the electron-holes pairs that promotes the degradation efficiency. The chemical stability and reusability of Ag/ZnO powders were also investigated.

  5. Mitigation of dimethazone residues in soil and runoff water from agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2011-01-01

    Dimethazone, also known as clomazone [2-[(2-chlorophenyl) methyl]- 4,4-dimethyl-3-isoxaolidinone] is a pre-emergent nonionic herbicide commonly used in agriculture. A field study was conducted on a silty-loam soil of 10 % slope to monitor off-site movement and persistence of dimethazone in soil under three management practices. Eighteen plots of 22 x 3.7 m each were separated using stainless steel metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and yard waste (YW) compost (MSS+YW) at 15 t acre⁻¹ on dry weight basis, six plots were mixed with MSS at 15 t acre⁻¹, and six unamended plots (NM) were used for comparison purposes. The objectives of this investigation were to: (i) monitor the dissipation and half-life (T₁/₂) of dimethazone in soil under three management practices; (ii) determine the concentration of dimethazone residues in runoff and infiltration water following natural rainfall events; and (iii) assess the impact of soil amendments on the transport of NO₃, NH₄, and P into surface and subsurface water. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometery (GC/MS) analyses of soil extracts indicated the presence of ion fragments at m/z 125 and 204 that can be used for identification of dimethazone residues. Intitial deposits of dimethazone varied from 1.3 μg g⁻¹ dry native soil to 3.2 and 11.8 μg g⁻¹ dry soil in MSS and MSS+YW amended soil, respectively. Decline of dimethazone residues in the top 15 cm native soil and soil incorporated with amendments revealed half-life (T₁/₂) values of 18.8, 25.1, and 43.0 days in MSS+YW, MSS, and NM treatments, respectively. Addition of MSS+YW mix and MSS alone to native soil increased water infiltration, lowering surface runoff water volume and dimethazone residues in runoff following natural rainfall events.

  6. Comparisons among a new soil index and other two- and four-dimensional vegetation indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Richardson, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The 2-D difference vegetation index (DVI) and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI), and the 4-D green vegetation index (GVI) are compared in Landsat MSS data from grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench) fields for the years 1973 to 1977. PVI and DVI were more closely related to LAI than was GVI. A new 2-D soil line index (SLI), the vector distance from the soil line origin to the point of intersection of PVI with the soil line, is defined and compared with the 4-D soil brightness index, SBI. SLI (based on MSS and MSS7) and SL16 (based on MSS5 and MSS6) were smaller in magnitude than SBI but contained similar information about the soil background. These findings indicate that vegetation and soil indices calculated from the single visible and reflective infrared band sensor systems, such as the AVHRR of the TIROS-N polar orbiting series of satellites, will be meaningful for synoptic monitoring of renewable vegetation. Previously announced in STAR as N83-14567

  7. Comparisons among a new soil index and other two- and four-dimensional vegetation indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Richardson, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The 2-D difference vegetation index (DVI) and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI), and the 4-D green vegetation index (GVI) are compared in LANDSAT MSS data from grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench) fields for the years 1973 to 1977. PVI and DVI were more closely related to LAI than was GVI. A new 2-D soil line index (SLI), the vector distance from the soil line origin to the point of intersection of PVI with the soil line, is defined and compared with the 4-D soil brightness index, SBI. SLI (based on MSS and MSS7) and SL16 (based on MSS 5 and MSS 6) were smaller in magnitude than SBI but contained similar information about the soil background. These findings indicate that vegetation and soil indices calculated from the single visible and reflective infrared band sensor systems, such as the AVHRR of the TIROS-N polar orbiting series of satellites, will be meaningful for synoptic monitoring of renewable vegetation.

  8. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging measurements in intracranial aneurysms in vivo of flow patterns, velocity fields, and wall shear stress: comparison with computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Boussel, Loic; Rayz, Vitaliy; Martin, Alastair; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Lawton, Michael T; Higashida, Randall; Smith, Wade S; Young, William L; Saloner, David

    2009-02-01

    Evolution of intracranial aneurysms is known to be related to hemodynamic forces such as wall shear stress (WSS) and maximum shear stress (MSS). Estimation of these parameters can be performed using numerical simulations with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), but can also be directly measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a time-dependent 3D phase-contrast sequence with encoding of each of the three components of the velocity vectors (7D-MRV). To study the accuracy of 7D-MRV in estimating these parameters in vivo, in comparison with CFD, 7D-MRV and patient-specific CFD modeling was performed for 3 patients who had intracranial aneurysms. Visual and quantitative analyses of the flow pattern and distribution of velocities, MSS, and WSS were performed using the two techniques. Spearman's coefficients of correlation between the two techniques were 0.56 for the velocity field, 0.48 for MSS, and 0.59 for WSS. Visual analysis and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for flow pattern and velocities but large discrepancies for MSS and WSS. These results indicate that 7D-MRV can be used in vivo to measure velocity flow fields and for estimating MSS and WSS. Currently, however, this method cannot accurately quantify the latter two parameters.

  9. SIL1, a causative cochaperone gene of Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome, plays an essential role in establishing the architecture of the developing cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Inaguma, Yutaka; Hamada, Nanako; Tabata, Hidenori; Iwamoto, Ikuko; Mizuno, Makoto; Nishimura, Yoshiaki V; Ito, Hidenori; Morishita, Rika; Suzuki, Motomasa; Ohno, Kinji; Kumagai, Toshiyuki; Nagata, Koh-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome (MSS) is a rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder with mental retardation (MR). Recently, mutations in the SIL1 gene, encoding a co-chaperone which regulates the chaperone HSPA5, were identified as a major cause of MSS. We here examined the pathophysiological significance of SIL1 mutations in abnormal corticogenesis of MSS. SIL1-silencing caused neuronal migration delay during corticogenesis ex vivo. While RNAi-resistant SIL1 rescued the defects, three MSS-causing SIL1 mutants tested did not. These mutants had lower affinities to HSPA5 in vitro, and SIL1-HSPA5 interaction as well as HSPA5 function was found to be crucial for neuronal migration ex vivo. Furthermore time-lapse imaging revealed morphological disorganization associated with abnormal migration of SIL1-deficient neurons. These results suggest that the mutations prevent SIL1 from interacting with and regulating HSPA5, leading to abnormal neuronal morphology and migration. Consistent with this, when SIL1 was silenced in cortical neurons in one hemisphere, axonal growth in the contralateral hemisphere was delayed. Taken together, abnormal neuronal migration and interhemispheric axon development may contribute to MR in MSS. Subject Categories Genetics; Gene Therapy & Genetic Disease; PMID:24473200

  10. Operations with the special purpose dextrous manipulator on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, B.; Brown, D.; Hiltz, M.

    1991-01-01

    SPAR Canada is actively participating in the Space Station Freedom Program by contributing the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) which will be involved in assembly, maintenance and servicing of both the Space Station and the MSS itself. Part of the MSS is the Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a two armed dextrous robot with advanced vision and manipulative capabilities. In addition to Space Station and payload servicing activities the SPDM will be designed to perform self maintenance on the MSS itself. The majority of Space Station equipment will be on orbit for the anticipated 30 year lifespan and the maintenance philosophy will be to repair by the exchange of Orbit Replacement Units or ORUs. The present concept, configuration, and operation of the SPDM and the detailed simulations associated with the maintenance of part of the MSS are described. The Design Reference Mission is the replacement of a Joint Drive Module on the Canadian large payload manipulator, the Space Station Remote Manipulator System. Other Design Reference Missions that were investigated are briefly described, and future operations activity to support the definition of SPDM requirements are discussed.

  11. Going mobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brus, Eric

    1987-12-01

    By 1990, all metropolitan areas in the U.S. and rural areas close to major cities or towns are expected to have cellular telephone service; 22 Canadian cities also feature cellular service. To supply mobile telecommunication services to sparsely-populated rural areas, a mobile satellite service (MSS) is now being developed. In this paper the projected possibilities of the MSS system are discussed, including a possibility that a piggyback-MSS payload be added to the GSTAR-4 satellite which is scheduled for a launch in 1988 or 1989; one in which some of the hardware from aborted direct-broadcast satellites would be used; and the possibility of building a new MSS satellite with large servicing capacity. Canada is planning to launch its own mobile satellite, MSAT, in the early 1990s. The MSS is expected to be 'generic', serving not only people on land but maritime and aeronautical users as well. It will also offer major benefits to truck and automobile drivers, making it possible for them to conduct business or to call for assistance from locations beyond the range of cellular systems.

  12. Comparative research on phosphorus removal by pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands using steel slag and modified steel slag as substrates.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yupan; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Li, Zifu; Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Bai, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This research mainly focused on the phosphorus removal performance of pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands with steel slag (SS) and modified steel slag (MSS). First, bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the phosphorus adsorption capacity. Results showed that the Langmuir model could better describe the adsorption characteristics of the two materials; the maximum adsorption of MSS reached 12.7 mg/g, increasing by 34% compared to SS (9.5 mg/g). Moreover, pilot-scale constructed wetlands with SS and MSS were set up outdoors. Then, the influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and phosphorus concentration in phosphorus removal for two wetlands were investigated. Results revealed that better performance of the two systems could be achieved with an HRT of 2 d and phosphorus concentration in the range of 3-4.5 mg/L; the system with MSS had a better removal efficiency than the one with SS in the same control operation. Finally, the study implied that MSS could be used as a promising substrate for wetlands to treat wastewater with a high phosphorus concentration. However, considering energy consumption, SS could be regarded as a better alternative for substrate when treating sewage with a low phosphorus concentration.

  13. Conical scan impact study. Volume 1: General central data processing facility. [multispectral band scanner design alternatives for earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, D. H.; Eppes, T. A.; Thomas, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of a conical scan versus a linear scan multispectral scanner (MSS) instrument was studied in terms of: (1) design modifications required in framing and continuous image recording devices; and (2) changes in configurations of an all-digital precision image processor. A baseline system was defined to provide the framework for comparison, and included pertinent spacecraft parameters, a conical MSS, a linear MSS, an image recording system, and an all-digital precision processor. Lateral offset pointing of the sensors over a range of plus or minus 20 deg was considered. The study addressed the conical scan impact on geometric, radiometric, and aperture correction of MSS data in terms of hardware and software considerations, system complexity, quality of corrections, throughput, and cost of implementation. It was concluded that: (1) if the MSS data are to be only film recorded, then there is only a nomial concial scan impact on the ground data processing system; and (2) if digital data are to be provided to users on computer compatible tapes in rectilinear format, then there is a significant conical scan impact on the ground data processing system.

  14. Cybersickness Following Repeated Exposure to DOME and HMD Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kennedy, Robert S.; Reschke, Millard F.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    2011-01-01

    Virtual environments (VE) offer unique training opportunities, including training astronauts to preadapt them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. However, one unresolved issue with VE use is the occurrence of cybersickness during and following exposure to VE systems. Most individuals adapt and become less ill with repeated interaction with VEs. The goal of this investigation was to compare motion sickness symptoms (MSS) produced by dome and head-mounted (HMD) displays and to examine the effects of repeated exposures on MSS. Sixty-one subjects participated in the study. Three experimental sessions were performed each separated by one day. The subjects performed a navigation and pick and place task in either a dome or HMD VE. MSS were measured using a Simulator Sickness Questionnaire before, immediately after, and at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours following exposure to the VEs. MSS data were normalized by calculating the natural log of each score and an analysis of variance was performed. We observed significant main effects for day and time and a significant day by time interaction for total sickness and for each of the subscales, nausea, oculomotor and disorientation. However, there was no significant main effect for device. In conclusion, subjects reported a large increase in MSS immediately following exposure to both the HMD and dome, followed by a rapid recovery across time. Sickness severity also decreased over days, which suggests that subjects become dual-adapted over time making VE training a viable pre-flight countermeasure for space motion sickness.

  15. Study on radiometric consistency of LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner. [borders between North and South Carolina and between the Imperial Valley of California and Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Two full frames of radiometrically corrected LANDSAT-4 MSS data were examined to determine a number of radiometric properties. It was found that LANDSAT-4 MSS produces data of good quality with dynamic ranges and target responses qualitatively similar to those of previous MSS sensors. Banding appears to be quite well corrected, with a residual rms error of about 0.3 digital counts being measured; the histogram equalization algorithm appears to be working as advertised. A low level coherent noise effect was found in all bands, appearing in uniform areas as a diagonal striping pattern. The principle component of this noise was found by Fourier analysis to be a highly consistent wavelength of 3.6 pixels along a scan line (28 KHz). The magnitude of this effect ranged from about 0.75 of one count in the worst band (Band 1) to only about 0.25 counts in the best band (Band 4). Preparations were made for establishing a relative radiometric calibration from MSS 4 data with respect to MSS 3.

  16. MSAT-X: A technical introduction and status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessouky, Khaled; Sue, Miles

    1988-01-01

    A technical introduction and status report for the Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X) program is presented. The concepts of a Mobile Satellite System (MSS) and its unique challenges are introduced. MSAT-X's role and objectives are delineated with focus on its achievements. An outline of MSS design philosophy is followed by a presentation and analysis of the MSAT-X results, which are cast in a broader context of an MSS. The current phase of MSAT-X has focused notably on the ground segment of MSS. The accomplishments in the four critical technology areas of vehicle antennas, modem and mobile terminal design, speech coding, and networking are presented. A concise evolutionary trace is incorporated in each area to elucidate the rationale leading to the current design choices. The findings in the area of propagation channel modeling are also summarized and their impact on system design discussed. To facilitate the assessment of the MSAT-X results, technology and subsystem recommendations are also included and integrated with a quantitative first-generation MSS design.

  17. Association between shift working and musculoskeletal symptoms among nursing personnel

    PubMed Central

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Raeisi, Saeed; Namvar, Mohamad; Golabadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some health problems are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. Musculoskeletal disorders are considered as one of the most common health-related problems that can cause disability among health care workers. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between shift working and the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSs) among nursing personnel. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 454 health care workers including nurses and nurses’ aides in a general hospital in Iran. A Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was used to evaluate the prevalence of MSs. Logistic regression analysis with adjusting for confounding factors was performed to evaluate the associations between shift working and the prevalence of MSs. Results: Lower back, knees, and upper back symptoms with the prevalence of 57.4%, 48.4%, and 47%, respectively, were the most common MSs. The prevalence of MSs in eight regions of the body (lower back, neck, knees, upper back, shoulder, wrist, buttock, and ankle) was higher among shift workers than day workers. The differences were statistically significant only in the lower back and ankle regions (P < 0.05). Odds Ratio for lower back symptoms in shift workers was 1.94 compared to day workers (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Findings of this study suggested that shift working could be associated with increased prevalence of lower back disorders among nursing personnel. This study emphasizes on the importance of proper work planning and regulating working hours for nursing personnel. PMID:24949072

  18. International organizations to enable world-wide mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, Richard L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of systems exist or have been proposed to provide world-wide mobile satellite services (MSS). Developers of these systems have formulated institutional structures they consider most appropriate for profitable delivery of these services. MSS systems provide niche services and complement traditional telecommunications networks; they are not integrated into world-wide networks. To be successful, MSS system operators must be able to provide an integrated suite of services to support the increasing globalization, interconnectivity, and mobility of business. The critical issue to enabling 'universal roaming' is securing authority to provide MSS in all of the nations of the world. Such authority must be secured in the context of evolving trends in international telecommunications, and must specifically address issues of standardization, regulation and organization. Today, only one existing organization has such world-wide authority. The question is how proponents of new MSS systems and services can gain similar authority. Securing the appropriate authorizations requires that these new organizations reflect the objectives of the nations in which services are to be delivered.

  19. Treatment of municipal sewage sludge in supercritical water: A review.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lili; Wang, Shuzhong; Xu, Donghai; Guo, Yang; Tang, Xingying; Wang, Laisheng

    2016-02-01

    With increasing construction of wastewater treatment plants and stricter policies, municipal sewage sludge (MSS) disposal has become a serious problem. Treatment of MSS in supercritical water (SCW) can avoid the pre-drying procedure and secondary pollution of conventional methods. SCW treatment methods can be divided into supercritical water gasification (SCWG), supercritical water partial oxidation (SCWPO) and supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) technologies with increasing amounts of oxidants. Hydrogen-rich gases can be generated from MSS by SCWG or SCWPO technology using oxidants less than stoichiometric ratio while organic compounds can be completely degraded by SCWO technology with using an oxidant excess. For SCWG and SCWPO technologies, this paper reviews the influences of different process variables (MSS properties, moisture content, temperature, oxidant amount and catalysts) on the production of gases. For SCWO technology, this paper reviews research regarding the removal of organics with or without hydrothermal flames and the changes in heavy metal speciation and risk. Finally, typical systems for handling MSS are summarized and research needs and challenges are proposed.

  20. Modeling and performance analysis of movement-based group location management using RFID sensing in public transportation systems.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yun Won

    2012-11-22

    Location management, which consists of location registration and paging, is essential to provide mobile communication services to mobile stations (MSs). Since MSs riding on a public transportation system (TS) generates significant location registration signaling loads simultaneously when a TS with riding MSs moves between location areas (LAs), group location management was proposed. Under the group location management, an MS performs group registration when it gets on a TS and performs group deregistration when it gets off a TS. Then, only a TS updates its current location when it changes LA, on behalf of all riding MSs. In this paper, movement-based group location management using radio frequency identification (RFID) is proposed, where the MS's getting on and getting off behaviors are detected using RFID and only location update of a TS is carried out if the number of crossed cells from the last updated cell exceeds a predefined movement threshold, on behalf of all riding MSs. Then, we develop an analytical model for the performance analysis of the movement-based group location management and analyze the effects of various parameters on the performance. The results show that the movement-based group location management has reduced signaling cost compared with movement-based individual location management, and optimal performance can be achieved by choosing appropriate movement threshold values.

  1. Locations of Sampling Stations for Water Quality Monitoring in Water Distribution Networks.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Shweta; Gupta, Rajesh

    2014-04-01

    Water quality is required to be monitored in the water distribution networks (WDNs) at salient locations to assure the safe quality of water supplied to the consumers. Such monitoring stations (MSs) provide warning against any accidental contaminations. Various objectives like demand coverage, time for detection, volume of water contaminated before detection, extent of contamination, expected population affected prior to detection, detection likelihood and others, have been independently or jointly considered in determining optimal number and location of MSs in WDNs. "Demand coverage" defined as the percentage of network demand monitored by a particular monitoring station is a simple measure to locate MSs. Several methods based on formulation of coverage matrix using pre-specified coverage criteria and optimization have been suggested. Coverage criteria is defined as some minimum percentage of total flow received at the monitoring stations that passed through any upstream node included then as covered node of the monitoring station. Number of monitoring stations increases with the increase in the value of coverage criteria. Thus, the design of monitoring station becomes subjective. A simple methodology is proposed herein which priority wise iteratively selects MSs to achieve targeted demand coverage. The proposed methodology provided the same number and location of MSs for illustrative network as an optimization method did. Further, the proposed method is simple and avoids subjectivity that could arise from the consideration of coverage criteria. The application of methodology is also shown on a WDN of Dharampeth zone (Nagpur city WDN in Maharashtra, India) having 285 nodes and 367 pipes.

  2. Application of SEASAT-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to enhance and detect geological lineaments and to assist LANDSAT landcover classification mapping. [Appalachian Region, West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekhon, R.

    1981-01-01

    Digital SEASAT-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were used to enhance linear features to extract geologically significant lineaments in the Appalachian region. Comparison of Lineaments thus mapped with an existing lineament map based on LANDSAT MSS images shows that appropriately processed SEASAT-1 SAR data can significantly improve the detection of lineaments. Merge MSS and SAR data sets were more useful fo lineament detection and landcover classification than LANDSAT or SEASAT data alone. About 20 percent of the lineaments plotted from the SEASAT SAR image did not appear on the LANDSAT image. About 6 percent of minor lineaments or parts of lineaments present in the LANDSAT map were missing from the SEASAT map. Improvement in the landcover classification (acreage and spatial estimation accuracy) was attained by using MSS-SAR merged data. The aerial estimation of residential/built-up and forest categories was improved. Accuracy in estimating the agricultural and water categories was slightly reduced.

  3. Census cities experiment in urban change detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Work continues on mapping of 1970 urban land use from 1970 census contemporaneous aircraft photography. In addition, change detection analysis from 1972 aircraft photography is underway for several urban test sites. Land use maps, mosaics, and census overlays for the two largest urban test sites are nearing publication readiness. Preliminary examinations of ERTS-1 imagery of San Francisco Bay have been conducted which show that tracts of land of more than 10 acres in size which are undergoing development in an urban setting can be identified. In addition, each spectral band is being evaluated as to its utility for urban analyses. It has been found that MSS infrared band 7 helps to differentiate intra-urban land use details not found in other MSS bands or in the RBV coverage of the same scene. Good quality false CIR composites have been generated from 9 x 9 inch positive MSS bands using the Diazo process.

  4. Development of a universal water signature for the LANDSAT-3 Multispectral Scanner, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, E. H.

    1980-01-01

    A generalized four channel hyperplane to discriminate water from nonwater was developed using LANDSAT-3 multispectral scaner (MSS) scenes and matching same/next day color infrared aerial photography. The MSS scenes varied in sun elevation angle from 40 to 58 deg. The 28 matching air photo frames contained over 1400 water bodies larger than one surface acre. A preliminary water discriminant, was used to screen the data and eliminate from further consideration all pixels distant from water in MSS spectral space. A linear discriminant was iteratively fitted to the labelled pixels. This discriminant correctly classified 98.7% of the water pixels and 98.6% of the nonwater pixels. The discriminant detected 91.3% of the 414 water bodies over 10 acres in surface area, and misclassified as water 36 groups of contiguous nonwater pixels.

  5. Canadian development and commercialization of a North American mobile satellite service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athanassiadis, Demetre

    1990-01-01

    Canada recognized early the value of mobile satellite communications, originally through the planning of a military system and subsequently through the development of the Canadian Mobile Satellite (MSAT) systems. Acting on behalf of the government, the Department of Communications (DOC) defined and carried out a complete plan for the implementation of Mobile Satellite Services (MSS). Based on an extensive dialogue between government, industry, and users and encompassing all technical, economic regulatory, and institutional aspects, this plan resulted in the completion by 1986 of a comprehensive business plan and a decision for commercial MSS delivery. The Canadian lead for a commercial system was quickly followed by others, and in particular the U.S., giving rise to the concept of North American MSS.

  6. Canadian development and commercialization of a North American mobile satellite service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassiadis, Demetre

    Canada recognized early the value of mobile satellite communications, originally through the planning of a military system and subsequently through the development of the Canadian Mobile Satellite (MSAT) systems. Acting on behalf of the government, the Department of Communications (DOC) defined and carried out a complete plan for the implementation of Mobile Satellite Services (MSS). Based on an extensive dialogue between government, industry, and users and encompassing all technical, economic regulatory, and institutional aspects, this plan resulted in the completion by 1986 of a comprehensive business plan and a decision for commercial MSS delivery. The Canadian lead for a commercial system was quickly followed by others, and in particular the U.S., giving rise to the concept of North American MSS.

  7. Plasma enhanced multistate storage capability of single ZnO nanowire based memory

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Yunfeng Xin, Pucong; Cheng, Shuying; Yu, Jinling; Zheng, Qiao

    2015-01-19

    Multiple-state storage (MSS) is common for resistive random access memory, but the effects of plasma treatment on the MSS and the switching properties have been scarcely investigated. We have demonstrated a stable four-state storage capability of single zinc oxide nanowire (ZnO NW) treated by argon plasma. The electrical switching is attributed to the electron trapping and detrapping from the oxygen vacancies (V{sub o}s). The MSS relates to the electrical-thermal induced distribution of the V{sub o}s which determines electron transport behavior to show different resistance states. Additionally, programming (set and reset) voltages decrease with plasma treatment due to the thickness modulation of the interface barrier.

  8. Correlation of ERTS multispectral imagery with suspended matter and chlorophyll in lower Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.; Fleischer, P.; Gosink, T. A.; Hanna, W. J.; Ludwick, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of using multispectral satellite imagery to monitor the characteristics of estuarine waters is being investigated. Preliminary comparisons of MSS imagery with suspended matter concentrations, particle counts, chlorophyll, transmittance and bathymetry have been made. Some visual correlation of radiance with particulates and chlorophyll has been established. Effects of bathymetry are present, and their relation to transmittance and radiance is being investigated. Greatest detail in suspended matter is revealed by MSS band 5. Near-surface suspended sediment load and chlorophyll can be observed in bands 6 and 7. Images received to date have partially defined extent and location of high suspensate concentrations. Net quantity of suspended matter in the lower Bay has been decreasing since the inception of the study, and represents the diminution of turbid flood waters carried into the Bay in late September, 1972. The results so far point to the utility of MSS imagery in monitoring estuarine water character for the assessment of siltation, productivity, and water types.

  9. Selecting a spatial resolution for estimation of per-field green leaf area index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Williamson, H. Dawn

    1988-01-01

    For any application of multispectral scanner (MSS) data, a user is faced with a number of choices concerning the characteristics of the data; one of these is their spatial resolution. A pilot study was undertaken to determine the spatial resolution that would be optimal for the per-field estimation of green leaf area index (GLAI) in grassland. By reference to empirically-derived data from three areas of grassland, the suitable spatial resolution was hypothesized to lie in the lower portion of a 2-18 m range. To estimate per-field GLAI, airborne MSS data were collected at spatial resolutions of 2 m, 5 m and 10 m. The highest accuracies of per-field GLAI estimation were achieved using MSS data with spatial resolutions of 2 m and 5 m.

  10. Satellite measurements of tropospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griggs, M.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation uses LANDSAT 2 radiance data and ground-truth measurements of the aerosol optical thickness, obtained previously from five inland sites, to study the usefulness and limitations of the near infrared radiance over inland bodies of water. The linear relationship between LANDSAT 2 MSS7 and aerosol content found in this study can be used to estimate the aerosol content with a standard deviation of 0.42N. Analysis of the data for MSS6 and MSS7 suggest that the larger uncertainty is mostly due to water turbidity, with little contribution from the adjacency effect. The relationship found is best applied to determine an average aerosol content over a period of time at a given target, or an area average at a given time over several targets close together.

  11. Clinical experience with ureteral metal stents

    PubMed Central

    Al Aown, Abdulrahman; Iason, Kyriazis; Panagiotis, Kallidonis; Liatsikos, Evangelos N.

    2010-01-01

    Ureteral metal stents (MSs) present a minimally invasive tool to preserve the drainage of renal pelvis whenever ureteral patency is at risk to be obstructed due to extrinsic or intrinsic etiologies. Clinical experience with these stents demonstrates that they impose a promising alternative treatment option in ureteral pathologies that are difficult to be treated via common polymeric stents. Current application of MSs in the treatment of both benign and malignant ureteral obstruction reveals quite promising results. Nevertheless, the ideal MS that would provide uncomplicated long-term effectiveness is still lucking and current MS usage is facing several adverse effects between which stent obstruction, encrustation, infection, migration, and patient discomfort. Ongoing attempts to create more inert stent with sophisticated novel designs are expected to improve current MS efficiency. MSs will play a major role in the future as a routine management of a variety of ureteral pathologies. PMID:21369375

  12. An analysis of file migration in a UNIX supercomputing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ethan L.; Katz, Randy H.

    1992-01-01

    The super computer center at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) migrates large numbers of files to and from its mass storage system (MSS) because there is insufficient space to store them on the Cray supercomputer's local disks. This paper presents an analysis of file migration data collected over two years. The analysis shows that requests to the MSS are periodic, with one day and one week periods. Read requests to the MSS account for the majority of the periodicity; as write requests are relatively constant over the course of a week. Additionally, reads show a far greater fluctuation than writes over a day and week since reads are driven by human users while writes are machine-driven.

  13. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Analysis during the quarter was carried out on geometric, radiometric, and information content aspects of both MSS and thematic mapper (TM) data. Test sites in Webster County, Iowa and Chicago, IL., and near Joliet, IL were studied. Band to band registration was evaluated and TM Bands 5 and 7 were found to be approximately 0.5 pixel out of registration with 1,2,3,4, and the thermal was found to be misregistered by 4 30 m pixels to the east and 1 pixel south. Certain MSS bands indicated nominally .25 pixel misregistration. Radiometrically, some striping was observed in TM bands and significant oscillatory noise patterns exist in MSS data which is possibly due to jitter. Information content was compared before and after cubic convolution resampling and no differences were observed in statistics or separability of basic scene classes.

  14. LANDSAT 4 image data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    A comparative analysis of TM and MSS data was completed and the results indicate that there are half as many separable spectral classes in the MSS data than in TM. In addition, the minimum separability between classes was also much less in MSS data. Radiometric data quality was also investigated for the TM by computing power spectrum estimates for dark-level data from Lake Michigan. Two significant coherent noise frequencies were observed, one with a wavelength of 3.12 pixels and the other with a 17 pixel wavelength. The amplitude was small (nominally .6 digital count standard deviation) and the noise appears primarily in Bands 3 and 4. No significant levels were observed in other bands. Scan angle dependent brightness effects were also evaluated.

  15. Conical scan impact study. Volume 2: Small local user data processing facility. [multispectral band scanner design alternatives for earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, D. H.; Chase, P. E.; Dye, J.; Fahline, W. C.; Johnson, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of a conical scan versus a linear scan multispectral scanner (MSS) instrument on a small local-user data processing facility was studied. User data requirements were examined to determine the unique system rquirements for a low cost ground system (LCGS) compatible with the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system. Candidate concepts were defined for the LCGS and preliminary designs were developed for selected concepts. The impact of a conical scan MSS versus a linear scan MSS was evaluated for the selected concepts. It was concluded that there are valid user requirements for the LCGS and, as a result of these requirements, the impact of the conical scanner is minimal, although some new hardware development for the LCGS is necessary to handle conical scan data.

  16. Detection and mapping of mineralized areas in the Cortez-Uinta Belt, Utah-Nevada, using computer-enhanced ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Mineralogical differences between hydrothermally altered rocks and most unaltered rocks in south central Nevada cause visible and near infrared (0.45-2.4 micron) spectral reflectance differences which can be used to discriminate broad categories of rocks in multispectral images. The most important mineralogical differences are the increased abundance of goethite, hematite, jarosite, alunite, montmorillonite, and kaolinite in the altered zones. Because of the wavelength positions and widths of the LANDSAT MSS bands, these spectral differences are not apparent in individual or color infrared composite MSS images. The technique developed to enhance these subtle spectral differences combines ratioing of the MSS bands and contrast stretching. Field evaluation of color-ratio composite shows that, after exclusion of alluvial areas, approximately 80% of the green and brown color patterns are related to hydrothermal alteration. The remaining 20% consists mainly of pink hematitic crystallized tuff and tan or red ferruginous shale and siltstone.

  17. Remote sensing analysis of water quality and the entrapment zone in the San Francisco Bay and delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.; Knight, A. W. (Principal Investigator); Khorram, S.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Data from an ocean color scanner flown on a U-2 aircraft at 65,000 ft and from LANDSAT MSS were enhanced to identify biologically active areas of San Francisco Bay, and to determine the salinity, turbidity, chlorophylls, and suspended solids. The best fit regression models for mapping water quality parameters were based on bands 3, 5, 7, and 10. Comparision of the results indicate that chlorophyll concentrations can best be estimated by the OCS or MSS data. Salinity can best be estimated by OCS data; turbidity can best be estimated by LANDSAT data. Neither OCS nor MSS data provide reliable basis for estimating suspended solids. Aerial photography of the highest quality taken with either conventional color or infrared-sensitive color films was unable to locate the biologically active areas.

  18. An improvement in land cover classification achieved by merging microwave data with Landsat multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1980-01-01

    The improvement in land cover classification achieved by merging microwave data with Landsat MSS data is examined. To produce a merged data set for analysis and comparison, a registration procedure by which a set of Seasat SAR digital data was merged with the MSS data is described. The Landsat MSS data and the merged Landsat/Seasat data sets were processed using conventional multichannel spectral pattern recognition techniques. An analysis of the classified data sets indicates that while Landsat data delineate different forest types (i.e., deciduous/coniferous) and allow some species separation, SAR data provide additional information related to plant canopy configuration and vegetation density as associated with varying water regimes, and therefore allow for further subdivision in the classification of forested wetlands of the coastal region of the southern United States.

  19. Utilizing ERTS-A imagery for tectonic analysis through study of the Bighorn Mountains Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary vegetation analysis has been undertaken on MSS scene 1085-17294, Oct. 16, 1973 in the Bighorn region. Forest Service maps showing detailed distribution of dominant forest types have been compared with MSS bands 5 and 7 positive transparencies, enlarged positive prints, and color imagery produced on an Addcol viewer. Patterns on the ERTS imagery match those on the Forest Service maps quite well. A tectonic map ovearlay of MSS band 7 of the Bighorn region reveals a strong concentration of linears in the uplift as compared to basins. Folds in the Bighorn Basin are visible where not covered by post-Paleocene deposits. In regions where far less is known of the geology than in this area, it might be possible to predict the subsurface occurrence of folds and lineaments on the basis of imagery analysis and more confidently explore covered areas for concealed oil structures and mineral deposits.

  20. Information expectations from Landsat-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Williams, D. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The first satellite of the Landsat-D Project is to be launched in the third quarter of 1982 with a second satellite to be prepared for launch 12 to 15 months later. Both spacecraft are to include the familiar Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and the advanced multispectral scanner called the Thematic Mapper (TM). The ground data processing system for the MSS data is to be ready to produce 200 scenes a day in 1982. The data processing systems for the TM are to be fully operational at the 50 to 100 scenes a day level in early 1985. The fabrication of the system components has proceeded well in recent months, and integration of the total system is under way. The procedures for processing the data and meeting specifications are nearly completed for the MSS and are outlined in detail for the TM. An outline of an investigation program stressing systems performance has been developed for the period 1982 to 1985.

  1. Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 1: User applications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Erickson, J. D.; Nalepka, R. F.; Weber, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A six-month systems study of earth resource surveys from satellites was conducted and is reported. SKYLAB S-192 multispectral scanner (MSS) data were used as a baseline to aid in evaluating the characteristics of future systems using satellite MSS sensors. The study took the viewpoint that overall system (sensor and processing) characteristics and parameter values should be determined largely by user requirements for automatic information extraction performance in quasi-operational earth resources surveys, the other major factor being hardware limitations imposed by state-of-the-art technology and cost. The objective was to use actual aircraft and spacecraft MSS data to outline parametrically the trade-offs between user performance requirements and hardware performance and limitations so as to allow subsequent evaluation of compromises which must be made in deciding what system(s) to build.

  2. Classification of corn and soybeans using multitemporal Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The multitemporal classification approach based on the greenness profile derived from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) spectral bands has proved successful in effectively separating and identifying corn, soybean, and other ground cover classes. Features derived from these profiles have been shown to carry virtually all the information contained in the original data and, in addition, have been shown to be stable over a large geographic area of the United States. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the same features derived from multitemporal Thematic Mapper (TM) data would also prove effective in separating these two crop types, and, in fact, if algorithms developed for MSS could be directly applied to TM. It is shown that this is indeed the case. In addition, because of greater spatial and spectral resolution, the accuracy of TM classifications is better than in MSS.

  3. Thematic Mapper Spectral Dimensionality and Data Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data, simulated from field and laboratory spectrometer measurements of a variety of agricultural crops and a wide range of soils, are analyzed to determine their dispersion in the six space defined by the reflective TM bands (i.e., excluding the thermal band). While similar analyses of MSS data from agricultural scenes show that the vast majority of the MSS data occupy a single plane, the simulated TM data primarily occupy three dimensions, defining two intersecting planes and a zone of transition between the two. Viewing the plane of Vegetation head on provides a projection comparable to the single plane of MSS data. The Plane of Soils and transition zone represent new information made available largely as a result of the longer infrared bands included in the Thematic Mapper. A transformation, named the Thematic Mapper Tasseled Cap, is presented which rotates the TM data such that the described data structure is most readily accessible to view.

  4. Assessment of Landsat multispectral scanner spectral indexes for monitoring arid rangeland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, H. B.

    1984-01-01

    Correlations between spectral indices and vegetation parameters in south-central New Mexico were used to determine the utility of Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) spectral indices in arid rangeland monitoring. In addition, spectral index change for 1976-1980 was calculated from retrospective MSS data and compared with qualitative ground truth in order to evaluate vegetation change detection by means of spectral indices. Brightness index change consistently differentiated between cover increase and decrease, but index change appears to have been offset from true cover change; this may at least partly be attributed to the failure of the methods used to standardize MSS scenes for differences in sensor response. Green vegetation indices, by contrast to brightness indices, failed to consistently differentiate between cover increase and decrease.

  5. Initial evaluation of the geologic applications of ERTS-1 imagery for New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderlinden, K.; Kottlowski, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    Coverage of approximately one-third of the test site, the state of New Mexico, had been received by January 31, 1973 and all of the images received were MSS products. Features noted during visual inspection of 91/2 x 91/2 prints include major structural forms, vegetation patterns, drainage patterns and outcrops of geologic formations having marked color contrasts. The Border Hills Structural Zone and the Y-O Structural Zone are prominently reflected in coverage of the Pecos Valley. A study of available maps and remote sensing material covering the Deming-Columbus area indicated that the limit of detection and the resolution of MSS products are not as good as those of aerial photographs, geologic maps, and manned-satellite photographs. The limit of detection of high contrast features on MSS prints in approximately 1000 feet or 300 meters for linear features and about 18 acres for roughly circular areas.

  6. Application of LANDSAT imagery for snow mapping in Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegaard, H. (Principal Investigator); Ostrem, G.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was shown that if the snow cover extent was determined from all four LANDSAT bands, there were significant differences in results. The MSS 4 gave the largest snow cover, but only slightly more than MSS 5, whereas MSS 6 and 7 gave the smallest snow area. A study was made to show that there was a relationship between the last date of snow fall and the area covered with snow, as determined from different bands. Imagery obtained shortly after a snow fall showed no significant difference in the snow-covered area when the four bans were compared, whereas, pronounced differences in the snow-covered area were found in images taken after a long period without precipitation.

  7. Remote sensing of agricultural crops and soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Research in the correlative and noncorrelative approaches to image registration and the spectral estimation of corn canopy phytomass and water content is reported. Scene radiation research results discussed include: corn and soybean LANDSAT MSS classification performance as a function of scene characteristics; estimating crop development stages from MSS data; the interception of photosynthetically active radiation in corn and soybean canopies; costs of measuring leaf area index of corn; LANDSAT spectral inputs to crop models including the use of the greenness index to assess crop stress and the evaluation of MSS data for estimating corn and soybean development stages; field research experiment design data acquisition and preprocessing; and Sun-view angles studies of corn and soybean canopies in support of vegetation canopy reflection modeling.

  8. Remote sensing of ocean currents. [detection of current boundary in Gulf of Mexico through changes in sea state or ocean color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Fourteen field experiments in support of the NOAA investigation of ocean color boundary determination using ERTS-1 data have been conducted since June 1972. The boundary between coastal waters and the Loop Current has been detected by ERTS-1 as a result of sea state changes as well as color differences. Computer enchancement of MSS data are revealing many features not shown in the NDPF product. Analysis of the 24 channel MSS data shows that a thermal IR channel is required on an ERTS MSS to distinguish between atmospheric and sea state effects. Cloud cover analysis suggests the need for daily coverage of this type sensor for routinely useful oceanographic applications.

  9. Salinity and spectral reflectance of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szilagyi, A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The basic spectral response related to the salt content of soils in the visible and reflective IR wavelengths is analyzed in order to explore remote sensing applications for monitoring processes of the earth system. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was determined at 10 nm of increments over the 520-2320-nm spectral range. The effect of salts on reflectance was analyzed on the basis of 162 spectral measurements. MSS and TM bands were simulated within the measured spectral region. A strong relationship was found in variations of reflectance and soil characteristics pertaining to salinization and desalinization. Although the individual MSS bands had high R-squared values and 75-79 percent of soil/treatment combinations were separable, there was a large number of soil/treatment combinations not distinguished by any of the four highly correlated MSS bands under consideration.

  10. Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D. (Principal Investigator); Crist, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    Previous characterization of scan-related low-frequency noise was extended and refined through detailed analysis of shutter calibration data on CCT-ADDS tapes and reflective-band data from nighttime acquisitions. A recommended correction procedure was identified that uses calibration shutter data both as a diagnostic and to obtain correction values. Through comparison of coincident TM and MSS data, illustrations of the added information content of TM data for agricultural applications were developed. The capability of improved spatial resolution to better define boundaries and to resolve spatial details is shown. Spectral analysis of tasseled-cap transformations of TM and MSS data shows high correlation between greenness features, greater signal range for TM, and indications that a subset of TM bands could accurately simulate MSS data, if required.

  11. The medium sensitivity survey - A new sample of X-ray sources with optical identifications and the revised extragalactic log N-log S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.; Schild, R. E.; Stocke, J. T.; Liebert, J. W.; Danziger, I. J.; Kunth, D.; Lub, J.

    1984-01-01

    Maccacaro et al. (1982) surveyed approximately 50 sq deg in different regions of the sky at medium sensitivity flux levels intermediate between the Uhuru/Ariel V limit and the Einstein deep survey limit. This 'first' medium sensitivity survey (MSS 1) was primarily aimed at the analysis of the source-count relation for extragalactic X-ray sources. The present investigation is concerned with an extension of the MSS 1 on the basis of an analysis of new fields obtained with the aid of the Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) on board the Einstein Observatory. A parallel optical program to identify all the new sources was also undertaken. X-ray and optical data are presented for this 'second' complete sample of medium sensitivity survey X-ray sources (MSS 2). The log N-log S relation is derived and discussed.

  12. Selective determination of gold(III) ion using CuO microsheets as a solid phase adsorbent prior by ICP-OES measurement.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammed M; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Marwani, Hadi M; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alamry, Khalid A; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O

    2013-01-30

    We have prepared calcined CuO microsheets (MSs) by a wet-chemical process using reducing agents in alkaline medium and characterized by UV/vis., fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) etc. The detailed structural, compositional, and optical characterizations of the MSs were evaluated by XRD pattern, FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively which confirmed that the obtained MSs are well-crystalline CuO and possessed good optical properties. The CuO MSs morphology was investigated by FESEM, which confirmed that the calcined nanomaterials were sheet-shaped and grown in large-quantity. Here, the efficiency of the CuO MS was applied for a selective adsorption of gold(III) ion prior to its detection by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The selectivity of CuO MSs towards various metal ions, including Au(III), Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(III), Fe(III), Pd(II), and Zn(II) was analyzed. Based on the adsorption isotherm study, it was confirmed that the selectivity of MSs phase was mostly towards Au(III) ion. The static adsorption capacity for Au(III) was calculated to be 57.0 mg g(-1). From Langmuir adsorption isotherm, it was confirmed that the adsorption process was mainly monolayer-adsorption onto a surface containing a finite number of adsorption sites.

  13. Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in hospital nurse technicians and licensed practical nurses: associations with demographic factors

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Roberta F. C.; Sato, Tatiana O.; Foltran, Fabiana A.; Silva, Luciana C. C. B.; Coury, Helenice J. C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This cross-sectional study aimed at analyzing: 1. the main musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) presented by hospital nursing workers and; 2. personal, occupational, and health factors related to MSS among them. Method : Two questionnaires were filled in by 245 nurse technicians (NTs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs) (response rate 95%) associated with direct patient care sectors from a hospital. These questionnaires were: the standardized version of the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and one including questions on 15 demographic independent variables potentially related to outcomes from the NMQ. Univariate analyses and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify which variables would explain the occurrence of MSS in different body regions. Results: The low back (57%), shoulder (52%), and neck (48%) were identified as the most affected regions. The logistic regression analysis showed that low back symptoms in the last 12 months were significantly associated with LPN activities (OR=2.36; CI=1.24-4.5) and previous sick leave due to MSS (OR=5.97; CI=1.2-29.1). Smoking was significantly associated with symptoms in the low back (OR=2.77; CI=1.13-6.8) and thoracic spine (OR=2.37; CI=1.04-5.40). Physical exercise showed a protective effect on the cervical spine (OR=0.42; CI=0.23-0.77). Previous sick leave was significantly associated with pain in the knees (OR=4.24; CI=1.33-13.5) and in the upper limbs (OR=5.36; CI=1.07-26.7). Conclusions: The nursing workers who were evaluated presented a high prevalence of MSS. Previous history of sick leave was strongly associated with the presence of symptoms in various body regions. These results indicate the need for preventive programs in the hospital environment in order to control more severe MSS in nursing professionals. PMID:25054385

  14. Evidence that both genetic instability and selection contribute to the accumulation of chromosome alterations in cancer.

    PubMed

    Gorringe, Kylie L; Chin, Suet-Feung; Pharoah, Paul; Staines, Joanne M; Oliveira, Carla; Edwards, Paul A W; Caldas, Carlos

    2005-05-01

    Cancer cells contain many genetic alterations, and genetic instability may be important in tumourigenesis. We evaluated 58 breast and ovarian cancer cell lines for microsatellite instability (MSI) and chromosomal instability (CIN). MSI was identified in 3/33 breast and 5/25 ovarian cell lines, and 7/8 MSI lines showed an inactivation of mismatch repair. Average ploidy by centromeric fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of MSI (n = 8, average ploidy = 2.65) and microsatellite stable (MSS; n = 7, average ploidy = 3.01) cell lines was not different, due to the presence of three aneuploid MSI lines, and two near-diploid MSS lines. However, the variability of the centromeric FISH data was different between MSI and MSS (P = 0.049). The complexity of structural chromosomal rearrangements was not different between MSI and MSS. Thus, MSI and numerical CIN are not mutually exclusive, and structural CIN occurs independently of MSI or numerical CIN. Dynamic genetic instability was evaluated in three cell lines-MSI diploid (MT-3), MSS diploid (SUM159) and MSS aneuploid (MT-1). Ten clones of each of these cell lines were analysed by centromeric FISH and six-colour chromosome painting. The variation in chromosome number was different among all three cell lines (P < 0.001). MT-3 appeared numerically constant (94% of centromeric FISH signals matched the mode). SUM159 was 88% constant; however, 7% of cells had duplicated chromosomes. MT-1 was 82% constant; most changes were chromosomal losses. The six-colour FISH data showed that SUM159 had more stable structural chromosomal alterations (e.g. chromosomal translocations) compared with MT-3 and MT-1, but had no increase in unstable changes (e.g. chromatid breaks) when compared with MT-3. MT-1 had fewer unstable changes than both MT-3 and SUM159. These data suggest that numerical CIN may contribute to aneuploidy, but that selection plays an important role, particularly for the accumulation of structural chromosomal changes.

  15. Application of ERTS data to the detection of thin cirrus and clean air turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiya, K. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The feasibility of detecting a thin cirrus and clear air turbulence from ERTS-1 MSS data is explored. The result of analyses indicates that a thin cirrus not shown in a conventional meteorological satellite picture can be revealed in ERTS-1 MSS pictures. Is also found that the core of jet stream can be located with high accuracy from ERTS-1 pictures and the possible area of clear air turbulence can be predicted if the data of the quality of ERTS-1 data are available in real time.

  16. Comparison of LANDSAT-2 and field spectrometer reflectance signatures of south Texas rangeland plant communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Escobar, D. E.; Gausman, H. W.; Everitt, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The accuracy was assessed for an atmospheric correction method that depends on clear water bodies to infer solar and atmospheric parameters for radiative transfer equations by measuring the reflectance signature of four prominent south Texas rangeland plants with the LANDSAT satellite multispectral scanner (MSS) and a ground based spectroradiometer. The rangeland plant reflectances produced by the two sensors were correlated with no significant deviation of the slope from unity or of the intercept from zero. These results indicated that the atmospheric correction produced LANDSAT MSS estimates of rangeland plant reflectances that are as accurate as the ground based spectroradiometer.

  17. Sensor data for forest policy information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    NASA-Ames Research Center has investigated the role and performance capabilities of the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) for forest policy analysis for the past four years in cooperation with the California Department of Forestry. A thorough series of studies, from a statewide land cover map to smaller, highly detailed studies including collateral data, have been conducted with a view to comprehensive forest policy needs. The strengths and limitations of MSS data have been evaluated. Some observations about the information needed from new satellite sensors such as the Thematic Mapper are discussed against this background.

  18. Soil, water, and vegetation conditions in south Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The best wavelengths in the 0.4 to 2.5 micron interval were determined for detecting lead toxicity and ozone damage, distinguishing succulent from woody species, and detecting silverleaf sunflower. A perpendicular vegetation index, a measure of the distance from the soil background line, in MSS 5 and MSS 7 data space, of pixels containing vegetation was developed and tested as an indicator of vegetation development and crop vigor. A table lookup procedure was devised that permits rapid identification of soil background and green biomass or phenological development in LANDSAT scenes without the need for training data.

  19. The Mobile Base System is uncovered in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Mobile Remote Servicer Base System (MBS), part of the Canadian Space Agency's (CSA) Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), rests on supports in the Space Station Processing Facility. The MBS is scheduled to be launched in February 2002 on flight UF-2 to the International Space Station. The MBS will complete the Canadian Mobile Servicing System, or MSS. The mechanical arm will have the capability to 'inchworm' from the U.S. Lab fixture to the MSS and travel along the Truss to work sites on the Space Station.

  20. The Mobile Base System is uncovered in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility remove a cover from the Mobile Remote Servicer Base System (MBS), part of the Canadian Space Agency's (CSA) Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The MBS is scheduled to be launched in February 2002 on flight UF-2 to the International Space Station. The MBS will complete the Canadian Mobile Servicing System, or MSS. The mechanical arm will have the capability to 'inchworm' from the U.S. Lab fixture to the MSS and travel along the Truss to work sites on the Space Station.

  1. A proposed architecture for a satellite-based mobile communications network - The lowest three layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, T. Y.; Naderi, F. M.

    1986-01-01

    Architecture for a commercial mobile satellite network is proposed. The mobile satellite system (MSS) is composed of a network management center, mobile terminals, base stations, and gateways; the functions of each component are described. The satellite is a 'bent pipe' that performs frequency translations, and it has multiple UHF beams. The development of the MSS design based on the seven-layer open system interconnection model is examined. Consideration is given to the functions of the physical, data link, and network layers and the integrated adaptive mobile access protocol.

  2. Historical Landsat data comparisons: illustrations of land surface change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Matthew D.

    1990-01-01

    This booklet provides an overview of the Landsat program and shows the application of the data to monitor changes occurring on the surface of the Earth. To show changes that have taken place within the last 20 years or less, image pairs were constructed from the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) sensors. Landsat MSS data provide a historical global record of the land surface from the early 1970's to present. Landsat TM data provide land surface information from the early 1980's to present.

  3. Image enhancement and advanced information extraction techniques for ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Nalepka, R. F.; Sarno, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was demonstrated and concluded that: (1) the atmosphere has significant effects on ERTS MSS data which can seriously degrade recognition performance; (2) the application of selected signature extension techniques serve to reduce the deleterious effects of both the atmosphere and changing ground conditions on recognition performance; and (3) a proportion estimation algorithm for overcoming problems in acreage estimation accuracy resulting from the coarse spatial resolution of the ERTS MSS, was able to significantly improve acreage estimation accuracy over that achievable by conventional techniques, especially for high contrast targets such as lakes and ponds.

  4. Optimization of multispectral sensors for bathymetry applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, F. J.; Byrnes, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Naval Oceanographic office has proposed to augment current capabilities with an airborne MSS system capable of conducting hydrographic surveys of shallow and clear oceanic waters for purposes of determining ocean depth and identifying marine hazards. Recent efforts have concentrated on development of an active/passive system, where the active system will be used to calibrate a passive multispectral sensor. In this paper, parameters which influence collection-system design and depth-extraction techniques have been used to describe the practical bounds to which MSS technology can support coastal bathymetric surveying. Performance is estimated in terms of expected S/N and depth-extraction errors.

  5. The effect of spatial, spectral and radiometric factors on classification accuracy using thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Card, D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment of a factorial design was conducted to test the effects on classification accuracy of land cover types due to the improved spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper (TM) in comparison to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). High altitude aircraft scanner data from the Airborne Thematic Mapper instrument was acquired over central California in August, 1983 and used to simulate Thematic Mapper data as well as all combinations of the three characteristics for eight data sets in all. Results for the training sites (field center pixels) showed better classification accuracies for MSS spatial resolution, TM spectral bands and TM radiometry in order of importance.

  6. Airborne remote sensing of forest biomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne sensor data of forest biomes obtained using an SAR, a laser profiler, an IR MSS, and a TM simulator are presented and examined. The SAR was utilized to investigate forest canopy structures in Mississippi and Costa Rica; the IR MSS measured forest canopy temperatures in Oregon and Puerto Rico; the TM simulator was employed in a tropical forest in Puerto Rico; and the laser profiler studied forest canopy characteristics in Costa Rica. The advantages and disadvantages of airborne systems are discussed. It is noted that the airborne sensors provide measurements applicable to forest monitoring programs.

  7. Airborne sensor systems under development at the NASA/NSTL/Earth Resources Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.; Meeks, Gerald R.

    1988-01-01

    The operational characteristics of the Airborne Bathymetric System (ABS) MSS and the Airborne Multispectral Pushbroom Scanner (AMPS), which are currently being developed at NASA's Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL), are described. The ABS MSS system scans through a swath width of + or - 40 deg from nadir and the sensor incorporates onboard calibration references for the visible and short-wavelength IR channels. The AMPS uses five separate f/1.8 refractive telecentric lens systems, each incorporating nine optical elements, and a replaceable fixed bandwidth filter.

  8. Does the multiple-scattering series in the pion-deuteron scattering actually converge?

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, A. E. Romanov, A. I. Gani, V. A.

    2013-07-15

    It is demonstrated that the well-known answer for the multiple-scattering series (MSS) for a light particle interacting to a pair of static nucleons, calculated in the Fixed Centers Approximation (FCA), works well for a wide region of the two-body complex scattering length a. However, this approach is not applicable in a narrow region surrounding the real positive a half-axis, where the MSS does not converge. Simultaneously, for real positive a's the 3-body system forms an infinite set of bound states.

  9. An Initial Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data for the Discrimination of Agricultural, Forested Wetland, and Urban Land Covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for the discrimination of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers is conducted using a scene of data collected over Arkansas and Tennessee. A classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data is compared with a classification of TM data for the same area. Results from this comparative analysis show that the multitemporal MSS classification produced an overall accuracy of 80.91% while the TM classification yields an overall classification accuracy of 97.06% correct.

  10. Environmental studies of Iceland with ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.; Boovarsson, A.; Frioriksson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Saemundsson, K.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Thorarinsson, S.

    1974-01-01

    Imagery from the ERTS-1 satellite can be used to study geological and geophysical phenomena which are important in relation to Iceland's natural resources. Multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery can be used to map areas of altered ground, intense thermal emission, fallout from volcanic eruptions, lava flows, volcanic geomorphology, erosion or build-up of land, snow cover, the areal extent of glaciers and ice caps, etc. At least five distinct vegetation types and barren areas can be mapped using MSS false-color composites. Stereoscopic coverage of iceland by side-lapping ERTS imagery permits precise analysis of various natural phenomena.

  11. Utilization of LANDSAT data for water quality surveys in the Choptank River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. M.; Cressy, P.; Dallam, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Computer processing of LANDSAT-1 multispectral digital data demonstrated the applicability of remotely sensed data to water quality survey in the Choptank River. Water classes derived by automated analysis correlate to river nuisance levels of chlorophyll a and sediment loading as defined by the Maryland Department of Water Resources and the U.S. Corps of Engineers. Results indicate that an increase in chlorophyll a concentration corresponds, relative to MSS 5, to decreases in 4 and increases in 6 relative to the trends with increasing sediment load. It appears that for the purpose of water quality analysis, under favorable atmospheric conditions, only MSS 4, 5 and 6 are necessary.

  12. Quantitative water quality with ERTS-1. [Kansas water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; James, G. W.; Magnuson, L. M.; Marzolf, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of ERTS-1 MSS computer compatible tapes of reservoir scenes in Kansas along with ground truth show that MSS bands and band ratios can be used for reliable prediction of suspended loads up to at least 900 ppm. The major reservoirs in Kansas, as well as in other Great Plains states, are playing increasingly important roles in flood control, recreation, agriculture, and urban water supply. Satellite imagery is proving useful for acquiring timely low cost water quality data required for optimum management of these fresh water resources.

  13. Digital color analysis of color-ratio composite LANDSAT scenes. [Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented that can be used to calculate approximate Munsell coordinates of the colors produced by making a color composite from three registered images. Applied to the LANDSAT MSS data of the Goldfield, Nevada, area, this method permits precise and quantitative definition of the limonitic areas originally observed in a LANDSAT color ratio composite. In addition, areas of transported limonite can be discriminated from the limonite in the hydrothermally altered areas of the Goldfield mining district. From the analysis, the numerical distinction between limonitic and nonlimonitic ground is generally less than 3% using the LANDSAT bands and as much as 8% in ratios of LANDSAT MSS bands.

  14. Dynamics of playa lakes in the Texas High Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. C., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS imagery has been found useful for taking a regional wet census of the tens of thousands of lake basins on the Southern High Plains, Texas and New Mexico. Once the ground truth which has been correlated with the MSS imagery, is correlated with CCT data, and reliable computer classifications are determined, a lake census from CCT printouts will be possible. Correlation of satellite imagery products with water fluctuations and water budget is also underway.

  15. Platinum-group element, Gold, Silver and Base Metal distribution in compositionally zoned sulfide droplets from the Medvezky Creek Mine, Noril'sk, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, S.-J.; Cox, R.A.; Zientek, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of Ag, Au, Cd, Co, Re, Zn and Platinum-group elements (PGE) have been determined in sulfide minerals from zoned sulfide droplets of the Noril'sk 1 Medvezky Creek Mine. The aims of the study were; to establish whether these elements are located in the major sulfide minerals (pentlandite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and cubanite), to establish whether the elements show a preference for a particular sulfide mineral and to investigate the model, which suggests that the zonation in the droplets is caused by the crystal fractionation of monosulfide solid solution (mss). Nickel, Cu, Ag, Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Rh and Pd, were found to be largely located in the major sulfide minerals. In contrast, less than 25% of the Au, Cd, Pt and Zn in the rock was found to be present in these sulfides. Osmium, Ir, Ru, Rh and Re were found to be concentrated in pyrrhotite and pentlandite. Palladium and Co was found to be concentrated in pentlandite. Silver, Cd and Zn concentrations are highest in chalcopyrite and cubanite. Gold and platinum showed no preference for any of the major sulfide minerals. The enrichment of Os, Ir, Ru, Rh and Re in pyrrhotite and pentlandite (exsolution products of mss) and the low levels of these elements in the cubanite and chalcopyrite (exsolution products of intermediate solid solution, iss) support the mss crystal fractionation model, because Os, Ir, Ru, Rh and Re are compatible with mss. The enrichment of Ag, Cd and Zn in chalcopyrite and cubanite also supports the mss fractionation model these minerals are derived from the fractionated liquid and these elements are incompatible with mss and thus should be enriched in the fractionated liquid. Gold and Pt do not partition into either iss or mss and become sufficiently enriched in the final fractionated liquid to crystallize among the iss and mss grains as tellurides, bismithides and alloys. During pentlandite exsolution Pd appears to have diffused from the Cu-rich portion of the droplet into

  16. Effects of Standard Extremity on Mixed Standard Scale Performance Ratings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Zellinger, 1 980); c) comparisons of the psychomeir ic character ist ics of rziings ob tained from MSS and other rating formats (Arvey & Hoyle , 1...Landy, 1977), and sometimes favoring BARS (Arvey & Hoyle , 1’-74; Finley, et al., 1977). Lack of Inter-ra+er reliability does ",eem to be a consistent...problem with the MSS (Arvey & Hoyle , 1974; Finley, et al., 1977; Saal, 1979; SaaI & Li:ndy, 1977). However, the convergent and discrimlnant vai dily of

  17. Land mobile satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesling, John D.

    1990-07-01

    The general advantages and potential operating characteristics of the mobile satellite service (MSS) are described, and distinctions are made between radio telephone, which is interconnected to the public switched telephone network, and private mobile radio systems. Mobile satellite service offers voice, data, position location, and paging services, interconnection to the public switched telephone network, and the possibility of private networks. Performance and cost characteristics are given along with summaries of market needs and market demands. The space and ground systems of the MSS are described.

  18. Satellite orientation and position for geometric correction of scanner imagery.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salamonowicz, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    The USGS Mini Image Processing System currently relies on a polynomial method for geometric correction of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data. A large number of ground control points are required because polynomials do not model the sources of error. In order to reduce the number of necessary points, a set of mathematical equations modeling the Landsat satellite motions and MSS scanner has been derived and programmed. A best fit to the equations is obtained by using a least-squares technique that permits computation of the satellite orientation and position parameters based on only a few control points.-from Author

  19. ERTS data user investigation to develop a multistage forest sampling inventory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langley, P. G.; Vanroessel, J. W. (Principal Investigator); Wert, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A system to provide precision annotation of predetermined forest inventory sampling units on the ERTS-1 MSS images was developed. In addition, an annotation system for high altitude U2 photographs was completed. MSS bulk image accuracy is good enough to allow the use of one square mile sampling units. IMANCO image analyzer interpretation work for small scale images demonstrated the need for much additional analyses. Continuing image interpretation work for the next reporting period is concentrated on manual image interpretation work as well as digital interpretation system development using the computer compatible tapes.

  20. Domestic mobile satellite systems in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wachira, Muya

    1990-01-01

    Telest Mobile Inc. (TMI) and the American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) are authorized to provide mobile satellite services (MSS) in Canada and the United States respectively. They are developing compatible systems and are undertaking joint specification and procurement of spacecraft and ground segment with the aim of operational systems by late 1993. Early entry (phase 1) mobile data services are offered in 1990 using space segment capacity leased from Inmarsat. Here, an overview is given of these domestic MSS with an emphasis on the TMI component of the MSAT systen.

  1. Combined synthetic aperture radar/Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marque, R. E.; Maurer, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations into merging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) images using optical and digital merging techniques. The unique characteristics of airborne and orbital SAR and Landsat MSS imagery are discussed. The case for merging the imagery is presented and tradeoffs between optical and digital merging techniques explored. Examples of Landsat and airborne SAR imagery are used to illustrate optical and digital merging. Analysis of the merged digital imagery illustrates the improved interpretability resulting from combining the outputs from the two sensor systems.

  2. Discrimination of hydrothermally altered rocks along the Battle Mountain-Eureka, Nevada, mineral belt using Landsat images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, M. Dennis; Abrams, Michael J.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1978-01-01

    Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of the northwestern part of the Battle Mountain-Eureki, Nevada mineral belt were evaluated for distinguishing hydrothermally altered rocks associated with porphyry copper and disseminated gold deposits. Detection of altered rocks from Landsat is based on the distinctive spectral reflectance of limonite present at coatings on weathered surfaces Some altered rocks are visible as bleached areas in individual MSS bands; however, they cannot be consistently distinguished from unaltered rocks with high albedo nor from bright areas resulting .from topographic slope. Black-and-white ratio images were generated to subdue .topographic effects, and three ratio images were composited in color to portray spectral radiance differences, forming an image known as a color-ratio composite (CRC). The optimum CRC image for this area has MSS 4/5 as blue, MSS 4/6 as yellow, and MSS 6/7 as magenta, and differs in two respects from most CRC images of arid areas. First, as a result of the increased vegetation cover in the study area, MSS 5/6 was replaced by MSS 4/6 as the yellow layer. Second, 70 mm positive transparencies were replaced by large format images (64 cm), thereby improving the internal registration of the CRC image and the effective spatial resolution. The pattern of limonitic rocks depicted in the CRC closely agrees with the mapped pattern of the alteration zones at the Copper Canyon and Copper Basin porphyry copper deposits. Certain west-facing topographic slopes in the altered areas are depicted as unaltered in the CRC, apparently due to atmospheric scattering, and illustrate the need for atmospheric correction. The disseminated gold deposits at Gold Acres and Tenabo are poorly represented in the CRC because of the general absence of limonite on these deposits. The presence of unaltered limonitic sedimentary and volcanic rocks is the largest obstacle to discriminating altered areas within the mineral belt. Reflectance spectra, made

  3. Development, implementation and evaluation of satellite-aided agricultural monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. (Principal Investigator); Crist, E.; Metzler, M.; Parris, T.

    1982-01-01

    Research supporting the use of remote sensing for inventory and assessment of agricultural commodities is summarized. Three task areas are described: (1) corn and soybean crop spectral/temporal signature characterization; (2) efficient area estimation technology development; and (3) advanced satellite and sensor system definition. Studies include an assessment of alternative green measures from MSS variables; the evaluation of alternative methods for identifying, labeling or classification targets in an automobile procedural context; a comparison of MSS, the advanced very high resolution radiometer and the coastal zone color scanner, as well as a critical assessment of thematic mapper dimensionally and spectral structure.

  4. Vehicle antenna development for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, K.

    1988-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of a vehicle antenna program at JPL in support of a developing U.S. mobile satellite services (MSS) designed to provide telephone and data services for the continental United States. Two classes of circularly polarized vehicle antennas have been considered for the MSS: medium-gain, satellite-tracking antennas with 10-12-dBic gain; and low-gain, azimuthally omnidirectional antennas with 3-5-dBic gain. The design and performance of these antennas are described, and the two antennas are shown to have peculiar advantages and disadvantages.

  5. The AMSC mobile satellite system: Design summary and comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreen, Gary K.

    1989-01-01

    Mobile satellite communications will be provided in the United States by the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). Telesat Mobile, Inc. (TMI) and AMSC are jointly developing MSAT, the first regional Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) system. MSAT will provide diverse mobile communications services - including voice, data and position location - to mobiles on land, water, and in the air throughout North America. Described here are the institutional relationships between AMSC, TMI and other organizations participating in MSAT, including the Canadian Department of Communications and NASA. The regulatory status of MSAT in the United States and international allocations to MSS are reviewed. The baseline design is described.

  6. A New Multiaxial High-Cycle Fatigue Criterion Based on the Critical Plane for Ductile and Brittle Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cong; Shang, De-Guang; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2015-02-01

    An improved high-cycle multiaxial fatigue criterion based on the critical plane was proposed in this paper. The critical plane was defined as the plane of maximum shear stress (MSS) in the proposed multiaxial fatigue criterion, which is different from the traditional critical plane based on the MSS amplitude. The proposed criterion was extended as a fatigue life prediction model that can be applicable for ductile and brittle materials. The fatigue life prediction model based on the proposed high-cycle multiaxial fatigue criterion was validated with experimental results obtained from the test of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy and some references.

  7. Mapping land use changes in the carboniferous region of Santa Catarina, report 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valeriano, D. D. (Principal Investigator); Bitencourtpereira, M. D.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques applied to MSS-LANDSAT data in the land-use mapping of Criciuma region (Santa Catarina state, Brazil) are presented along with the results of a classification accuracy estimate tested on the resulting map. The MSS-LANDSAT data digital processing involves noise suppression, features selection and a hybrid classifier. The accuracy test is made through comparisons with aerial photographs of sampled points. The utilization of digital processing to map the classes agricultural lands, forest lands and urban areas is recommended, while the coal refuse areas should be mapped visually.

  8. Pigmentation in the sentinel node correlates with increased sentinel node tumor burden in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    van Lanschot, Cornelia G F; Koljenović, Senada; Grunhagen, Dirk-Jan; Verhoef, Cornelis; van Akkooi, Alexander C J

    2014-06-01

    The prognosis of sentinel node (SN)-positive melanoma patients is predicted by a number of characteristics such as size and site of the metastases in the SN. The pathway and prognosis of strong pigmentation of melanoma metastases in the SN is unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of pigmentation and growth pattern of metastases in the SN with respect to survival. A total of 389 patients underwent an SN procedure (1997-2011). Ninety-five patients had a positive SN and material from 75 patients was available for review. The median follow-up time was 75 months (range 6-164). Pigmentation was scored from 0 to 2 using the following scale: 0=absent, 1=slight, and 2=strong. Growth pattern was scored as either eccentric (1) or infiltrative (2). SN tumor burden was measured according to the Rotterdam criteria. The primary melanoma had a median Breslow thickness of 2.90 mm (0.8-12.00 mm). Ulceration was present in 34 patients (45.3%). There was a median SN tumor burden of 0.5 mm (0.05-7.00 mm). In a total of 75 patients, 59 patients (79%) had no pigmentation, 13 patients (17%) had slight pigmentation, and three patients (4%) had strong pigmentation in the SN. Because of the small numbers, the classification was modified to either absent 59 (79%) or present 16 (21%) pigmentation, respectively. The SN tumor burden was significantly higher (P=0.031) for patients with pigmentation. Patients with pigmentation had a 5-year melanoma-specific survival (MSS) of 47% and a 10-year MSS of 33%. Patients without pigmentation had a 5-year MSS of 70% and a 10-year MSS of 59% (P=0.06). There was no difference in MSS for patients with an eccentric or an infiltrative growth pattern, nor did it correlate with other prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis for MSS showed five significant factors associated with worse prognosis: male sex (P=0.036), nodular melanoma (P=0.001), truncal site (P=0.0001), SN tumor burden more than 1.0 mm (P=0.022), and positive completion lymph node

  9. Gaussian maximum likelihood and contextual classification algorithms for multicrop classification experiments using thematic mapper and multispectral scanner sensor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Zenzo, Silvano; Degloria, Stephen D.; Bernstein, R.; Kolsky, Harwood G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a four-factor two-level analysis of a variance experiment designed to evaluate the combined effect of the improved quality of remote-sensor data and the use of context by the classifier on classification accuracy. The improvement achievable by using the context via relaxation techniques is significantly smaller than that provided by an increase of the radiometric resolution of the sensor from 6 to 8 bits per sample (the relative increase in radiometric resolution of TM relative to MSS). It is almost equal to that achievable by an increase in the spectral coverage as provided by TM relative to MSS.

  10. Plant, soil, and shadow reflectance components of row crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Cuellar, J. A.; Gerbermann, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Data from the first Earth Resource Technology Satellite (LANDSAT-1) multispectral scanner (MSS) were used to develop three plant canopy models (Kubelka-Munk (K-M), regression, and combined K-M and regression models) for extracting plant, soil, and shadow reflectance components of cropped fields. The combined model gave the best correlation between MSS data and ground truth, by accounting for essentially all of the reflectance of plants, soil, and shadow between crop rows. The principles presented can be used to better forecast crop yield and to estimate acreage.

  11. Western energy related overhead monitoring project. Phase 2: Summary. [Campbell County, Wyoming and coal strip mines in Montana and New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Assistance by NASA to EPA in the establishment and maintenance of a fully operational energy-related monitoring system included: (1) regional analysis applications based on LANDSAT and auxiliary data; (2) development of techniques for using aircraft MSS data to rapidly monitor site specific surface coal mine activities; and (3) registration of aircraft MSS data to a map base. The coal strip mines used in the site specific task were in Campbell County, Wyoming; Big Horn County, Montana; and the Navajo mine in San Juan County, New Mexico. The procedures and software used to accomplish these tasks are described.

  12. Evaluation of ERTS-1 data for certain hydrological uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesnet, D. R. (Principal Investigator); Mcginnis, D. F.; Mcmillan, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS data have been used in a variety of hydrologic research including snow-extent mapping; studies of snowmelt, snowmelt runoff, spectral reflectance of snow for assessing snowpack conditions, and snow albedo; lake ice formation, breakup, and migration; lake current measurements; multispectral studies of lake ice; and flood studies. MSS sensing of soil moisture over a well-vegetated test site was unsuccessfully attempted. Although a powerful research tool, ERTS-1 has very limited use as an operational system for hydrologic communities because of its 18-day revisit cycle and its lack of a quick look capability.

  13. DETECTION OF K-RAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN SPUTUM SAMPLES OF LUNG CANCER PATIENTS USING LASER CAPTURE MICRODISSECTION MICROSCOPE AND MUTATION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of K-ras and p53 Mutations in Sputum Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Using Laser Capture Microdissection Microscope and Mutation Analysis

    Phouthone Keohavong a,*, Wei-Min Gao a, Kui-Cheng Zheng a, Hussam Mady b, Qing Lan c, Mona Melhem b, and Judy Mumford d.
    <...

  14. Photoelectric observations of lunar occultations. XI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, D. A.; Evans, D. S.; Fekel, F. C.; Smith, B. W.

    1980-04-01

    Occultation observations of 466 events are presented. These include diameter measures of Aldebaran under very bad conditions and a good diameter measure of 82 Vir. The list includes 91 reappearances and observations of 34 double or multiple stars, both new and previously known. The inconsistencies of the observations of Kui 88 are discussed. Further observations are most desirable.

  15. Translating Policies into Practice: Culturally Appropriate Practices in an Atayal Aboriginal Kindergarten Program in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Cecilia Lingfen

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Atayal aboriginal kindergarten program in Taiwan, known as the Kui-whai kindergarten program. While teaching a course on "Designing Kindergarten Curriculum" at a teacher-training program in Taiwan, the author realized that she had seven aboriginal preservice teachers in her class; previously she had none. Those…

  16. Photoelectric observations of lunar occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, F. C.; Montemayor, T. J.; Barnes, T. G., III; Moffett, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Photoelectric observations of 13 lunar occultation disappearances during a March 1979 Hyades passage are reported. Three double stars (SAO 93925 = Fin 342 = 70 Tau, SAO 93961 = ADS 3248, and SAO 95419 = Kui 24) and one possible double (SAO 93950 = 75 Tau) were detected. A brief description is given of the Purdue University pulse-counting photometer as modified for occultation observations.

  17. Development of advanced acreage estimation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accurate and efficient algorithm for analyzing the structure of MSS data, the application of the Akaiki information criterion to mixture models, and a research plan to delineate some of the technical issues and associated tasks in the area of rice scene radiation characterization are discussed. The AMOEBA clustering algorithm is refined and documented.

  18. Risk assessment of heavy metals from combustion of pelletized municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhihua; Yuan, Xingzhong; Leng, Lijian; Jiang, Longbo; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhibin, Wu; Xin, Peng; Jiachao, Zhang; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-02-01

    Fly ash and slag are important by-products obtained from combustion of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) after pelletization. The quantitative environmental impact assessment of heavy metals in fly ash and slag, compared to MSS, were performed in accordance with bioavailability and eco-toxicity, geo-accumulation index (GAI), risk assessment code (RAC), and potential ecological risk index (PERI). The results demonstrated that not only direct but also long-term bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals in fly ash and slag decreased except direct bioavailability and eco-toxicity of Pb in fly ash. The GAI demonstrated that combustion significantly weakened (P < 0.05) the pollution levels of heavy metals. PERI indicated that all risks attributed to heavy metals were significantly lowered (P < 0.05) from 777.07 (very high risk) in MSS to 288.72 (moderate risk) and 64.55 (low risk) in fly ash and slag, respectively. In terms of the RAC, seven heavy metals had low even no risk to the environments after combustion besides As in slag. The environmental risk of heavy metals in fly ash and slag was decreased compared with MSS. However, the results of PERI showed that fly ash had a moderate risk.

  19. 75 FR 62923 - WRC-07 Table Clean-up Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... prelude to a rulemaking proceeding that the Commission anticipates initiating in the near future to... Federal use of certain mobile-satellite service (MSS) allocations to earth stations operating with non... changes that, in order to become effective in the United States, would need to be adopted in a...

  20. The Minimal Word Hypothesis: A Speech Segmentation Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Diane L.

    1996-01-01

    Previous investigations have sought to determine how listeners might locate word boundaries in the speech signal for the purpose of lexical access. Cutler (1990) proposes the Metrical Segmentation Strategy (MSS), such that only full vowels in stressed syllables and their preceding syllabic onsets are segmented from the speech stream. I report the…

  1. Simultaneous heavy metals removal and municipal sewage sludge dewaterability improvement in bioleaching processes by various inoculums.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chaohong; Zhu, Nengwu; Shang, Ru; Kang, Naixin; Wu, Pingxiao

    2015-11-01

    The heavy metals content and dewaterability of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) are important parameters affecting its subsequent disposal and land application. Six kinds of inoculums were prepared to examine the characteristics of heavy metals removal and MSS dewaterability improvement in bioleaching processes. The results showed that Cu, Zn and Cd bioleaching efficiencies (12 days) were 81-91, 87-93 and 81-89%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of Fe-S control (P < 0.05) and blank control (P < 0.01). The bioleaching boosted by the prepared inoculums could also significantly enhance MSS dewaterability (P < 0.01). The centrifugal dehydration efficiency of MSS rose from 73.00 to 90.00% at day 12. Microscopic observations and energy dispersive spectrum analysis demonstrated that the dewaterability improvement might be attributed to the changes of sludge structure from flocculent to obvious granular and the formation of secondary minerals mainly consisting of iron, oxygen and sulfur elements. The results above demonstrated that bacterial consortium enriched from acid mine drainage (AMD) was suitable to boost sludge bioleaching for heavy metals removal and dewaterability improvement. It also suggested that the synergy of sulfur/ferrous-oxidizing bacteria (SFOB) enriched from AMD and the cooperation of exogenous and indigenous SFOB significantly promoted bioleaching efficiencies.

  2. The Content of Beginning Special Educators' Conversations with Their Electronic Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the frequency and content of text-based interactions between special education mentors (n = 22) and mentees (n = 50) within the Electronic Mentoring for Student Success Program (eMSS). Perceived outcomes of participants, based on an open ended survey question, were also analyzed. The Interstate Teacher Assessment…

  3. Method of interpretation of remotely sensed data and applications to land use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. P.; Foresti, C.; Demoraesnovo, E. M. L.; Niero, M.; Lombardo, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Instructional material describing a methodology of remote sensing data interpretation and examples of applicatons to land use survey are presented. The image interpretation elements are discussed for different types of sensor systems: aerial photographs, radar, and MSS/LANDSAT. Visual and automatic LANDSAT image interpretation is emphasized.

  4. NALC/MEXICO LAND-COVER MAPPING RESULTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASSESSING LANDSCAPE CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An inventory of land-cover conditions throughout Mexico was performed using North American Landscap Characterization ( NALC) Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) 'triplicate' images, corresponding to the 1970s, 1980s and1990s epoch periods. The equivalent of 300 image scenes were...

  5. 47 CFR 27.1170 - Payment Issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... initiating operations for a newly constructed site or modified existing site, an AWS entity or MSS/ATC entity is required to file a notice containing site-specific data with the clearinghouse. The notice regarding the new or modified site must provide a detailed description of the proposed site's...

  6. 47 CFR 27.1170 - Payment Issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... initiating operations for a newly constructed site or modified existing site, an AWS entity or MSS/ATC entity is required to file a notice containing site-specific data with the clearinghouse. The notice regarding the new or modified site must provide a detailed description of the proposed site's...

  7. 47 CFR 27.1170 - Payment Issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... initiating operations for a newly constructed site or modified existing site, an AWS entity or MSS/ATC entity is required to file a notice containing site-specific data with the clearinghouse. The notice regarding the new or modified site must provide a detailed description of the proposed site's...

  8. Do DEAD-box proteins promote group II intron splicing without unwinding RNA?

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Mark; Tijerina, Pilar; Bhaskaran, Hari; Mohr, Sabine; Yang, Quansheng; Jankowsky, Eckhard; Russell, Rick; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2007-10-12

    The DEAD-box protein Mss116p promotes group II intron splicing in vivo and in vitro. Here we explore two hypotheses for how Mss116p promotes group II intron splicing: by using its RNA unwinding activity to act as an RNA chaperone or by stabilizing RNA folding intermediates. We show that an Mss116p mutant in helicase motif III (SAT/AAA), which was reported to stimulate splicing without unwinding RNA, retains ATP-dependent unwinding activity and promotes unfolding of a structured RNA. Its unwinding activity increases sharply with decreasing duplex length and correlates with group II intron splicing activity in quantitative assays. Additionally, we show that Mss116p can promote ATP-independent RNA unwinding, presumably via single-strand capture, also potentially contributing to DEAD-box protein RNA chaperone activity. Our findings favor the hypothesis that DEAD-box proteins function in group II intron splicing as in other processes by using their unwinding activity to act as RNA chaperones.

  9. Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan. Utilization of LANDSAT-2 data for fisheries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T.; Watanabe, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. MSS data provided extensive and simultaneous information about marine environmental conditions, such as the shift of the Kuroshio, fall and rise of coastal water mass, distribution of water masses, locations of vortex and current rips, exchanges of water between embayment and open ocean effluent rivers, fertility of plankton, red tide, pollution, etc.

  10. An Evaluation of the Education of Hospital Pharmacy Directors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Robert S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Hospital pharmacy directors ranked their academic needs as: personnel and financial management (greatest), computers, hospital organization, clinical pharmacy practice, traditional pharmacy practice, and statistics. Those with MBAs perceived themselves stronger in these areas than did those with other degrees. Only MBAs and MSs felt adequately…

  11. Efficacy of horizontal jumping tasks as a method for talent identification of female rugby players.

    PubMed

    Agar-Newman, Dana J; Klimstra, Marc D

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between horizontal jumping tasks (standing long jump [SLJ] and standing triple jump [STJ]) and sprint speed (initial sprint speed [ISS] and maximum sprint speed [MSS]) in elite female rugby athletes. Data were collected from provincial, under 20 international fifteens players, in addition to senior sevens international level female rugby athletes (n = 114). Body weight, SLJ, STJ, 10-m sprint speed (ISS), 30- to 40-m sprint speed (MSS), initial sprint momentum, and maximal sprint momentum were analyzed. When categorized by horizontal jumping ability, there was a significant difference in sprint speeds (p < 0.001) between the top 50% and bottom 50% groups. Examining the relationship between horizontal jumping tasks and sprinting speed revealed a stronger correlation in the slowest 50% of athletes compared with the fastest 50%. A linear regression developed from STJ and body weight adequately predicted ISS (r = 0.645, p < 0.001) and MSS (r = 0.761, p < 0.001). In conclusion, horizontal jumping tasks can be used as a valuable performance test to identify differences of sprinting ability in elite female rugby players. However, the relationship between horizontal jumping tasks and sprinting speed seems to decrease in faster athletes. Further, STJ and body weight can be used to predict both ISS and MSS. Based on these data, it is suggested that only STJ be collected when identifying potential sprinting talent in female rugby athletes and caution be used when generalizing results across varying levels of athletes.

  12. MAXIMAL SPRINTING SPEED OF ELITE SOCCER PLAYERS DURING TRAINING AND MATCHES.

    PubMed

    Djaoui, Leo; Chamari, Karim; Owen, Adam; Dellal, Alexandre

    2016-09-23

    The aim of the present study was to compare 1) the maximal sprinting speed (MSS) attained by soccer players during matches (MSSmatch) according to their level of play (professional 1st French division vs. elite amateur 4th French division) and the playing positions; and 2) the MSS attained by professional soccer players during 14 different types of small-sided games (SSG, MSSSSG) and match-play. All players monitored through the study performed a 40-m sprint test to assess individual MSS (MSStest) and compare it to the training and match activity, with the calculation of the percentage of MSStest (%MSStest) reached. No differences were found according to the level of play, however positionally, wide players achieved a higher MSSmatch, %MSStest, and MSSSSG compared to central players (both defenders and midfielders) during matches and SSG. MSSmatch were higher than all MSSSSG, and MSSSSG were positively correlated with the area of the pitch (0.45, p<0.001), its length (0.53, p<0.001) and the number of players involved (0.38, p<0.001). The closer SSG was to match situation in term of rules, the higher the MSSSSG. Wide players reached higher MSS in match and SSG than central players, confirming the relevance of using SSG close to match situation to specifically prepare elite players to the maximal running speed demand of the match.

  13. Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Instrument Performance Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannino, Antonio; Hartman, Kathy R.

    2014-01-01

    The Ultimate objective of the GEO-CAPE 2014 study: Quantify the cost impact of very specific changes in instrument performance! The customer has defined 4 instrument types they are notionally interested in:! FR: Filter Radiometer! WAS: Wide Angle Spectrometer! MSS: Multi Slit Spectrometer! SSS: Single Slit Spectrometer.

  14. [Prevalence and medical and social importance of disorders and diseases of the musculoskeletal systems in children and adolescents (review of literature)].

    PubMed

    Mirskaia, N B; Kolomenskaia, A N; Siniakina, A D

    2015-01-01

    The urgency of the problem of the excess incidence of disorders and diseases of the musculoskeletal system (MSS) in contemporary children and adolescents is determined by its high medical and social significance. However, the poor quality of diagnosis of MSS disorders in children at the polyclinics level, especially at the initial stages, when timely commenced recreational and corrective-measures are most effective, do not allow to carry out remedial work timely, and this in turn is the cause of the high prevalence of violations of the MSS later With the aim of the improvement of the quality of diagnosis of early forms of musculoskeletal pathology in children and adolescents, as well as for the performance of the prevention during learning them in school there is developed an information system for health care workers "Identification, correction and prevention of disorders of the locomotor apparatus in students of educational institutions". The core of the system is formed by developed by authors a classification of functional disorders and initial forms of diseases of the MSS in students, as well as the organization of this work.

  15. 47 CFR 25.149 - Application requirements for ancillary terrestrial components in Mobile-Satellite Service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25..., Subpart I—Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, including the guidelines... available signals from MSS space-stations. (b) Applicants for an ancillary terrestrial component...

  16. Clonal origins and parallel evolution of regionally synchronous colorectal adenoma and carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Je-Keun; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Sung Hak; Baek, In-Pyo; Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Sug Hyung; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Although the colorectal adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence represents a classical cancer progression model, the evolution of the mutational landscape underlying this model is not fully understood. In this study, we analyzed eight synchronous pairs of colorectal high-grade adenomas and carcinomas, four microsatellite-unstable (MSU) and four -stable (MSS) pairs, using whole-exome sequencing. In the MSU adenoma-carcinoma pairs, we observed no subclonal mutations in adenomas that became fixed in paired carcinomas, suggesting a ‘parallel’ evolution of synchronous adenoma-to-carcinoma, rather than a ‘stepwise’ evolution. The abundance of indel (in MSU and MSS pairs) and microsatellite instability (in MSU pairs) was noted in the later adenoma- or carcinoma-specific mutations, indicating that the mutational processes and functional constraints operative in early and late colorectal carcinogenesis are different. All MSU cases exhibited clonal, truncating mutations in ACVR2A, TGFBR2, and DNA mismatch repair genes, but none were present in APC or KRAS. In three MSS pairs, both APC and KRAS mutations were identified as both early and clonal events, often accompanying clonal copy number changes. An MSS case uniquely exhibited clonal ERBB2 amplification, followed by APC and TP53 mutations as carcinoma-specific events. Along with the previously unrecognized clonal origins of synchronous colorectal adenoma-carcinoma pairs, our study revealed that the preferred sequence of mutational events during colorectal carcinogenesis can be context-dependent. PMID:26336987

  17. Land use surveys by means of automatic interpretation of LANDSAT system data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Lombardo, M. A.; Novo, E. M. L. D.; Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses for seven land-use classes are presented. The classes are: urban area, industrial area, bare soil, cultivated area, pastureland, reforestation, and natural vegetation. The automatic classification of LANDSAT MSS data using a maximum likelihood algorithm shows a 39% average error of emission and a 3.45 error of commission for the seven classes.

  18. Development of a usability evaluation method using natural product-use motion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joonho; Jung, Kihyo; Lee, Wonsup; You, Heecheon

    2017-04-01

    The present study developed and tested a new usability evaluation method which considers natural product-use motions. The proposed method measures both natural product-use motions (NMs) and actual product-use motions (AMs) for a product using an optical motion capture system and examines the usability of the product based on motion similarity (MS; %) between NMs and AMs. The proposed method was applied to a usability test of four vacuum cleaners (A, B, C, and D) with 15 participants and their MSs were compared with EMG measurements and subjective discomfort ratings. Cleaners A (44.6%) and C (44.2%) showed higher MSs than cleaners B (42.9%) and D (41.7%); the MSs mostly corresponded to the EMG measurements, which could indicate that AMs deviated from NMs may increase muscular efforts. However, the MSs were slightly different from the corresponding discomfort ratings. The proposed method demonstrated its usefulness in usability testing, but further research is needed with various products to generalize its effectiveness.

  19. LARGE AREA LAND COVER MAPPING THROUGH SCENE-BASED CLASSIFICATION COMPOSITING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, a number of initiatives have been undertaken to create definitive national and global data sets consisting of precision corrected Landsat MSS and TM scenes. One important application of these data is the derivation of large area land cover products spanning ...

  20. The computer treatment of remotely sensed data: An introduction to techniques which have geologic applications. [image enhancement and thematic classification in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Paradella, W. R.; Vitorello, I.

    1982-01-01

    Several aspects of computer-assisted analysis techniques for image enhancement and thematic classification by which LANDSAT MSS imagery may be treated quantitatively are explained. On geological applications, computer processing of digital data allows, possibly, the fullest use of LANDSAT data, by displaying enhanced and corrected data for visual analysis and by evaluating and assigning each spectral pixel information to a given class.