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Sample records for kultuuritehases koguneb uus

  1. Theoretical studies of atomic properties and chemical stabilities in acid solutions of element Uus (Z=117) and Astatine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Z. W.; Li, J. G.; Dong, C. Z.

    2012-11-01

    Multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method was employed to calculate the first five ionization potentials, electron affinities, resonance excitation energies, oscillator strengths and radii for the element Uus and its homologue At. Main valence correlation effects were taken into account. The Breit interaction and QED effects were also estimated. The uncertainties of calculated IPs, EAs and IR for Uus and At were reduced through an extrapolation procedure. The good consistency with available experimental and other theoretical values demonstrates the validity of the present results. These theoretical data were further used to predict the chemical stabilities of element Uus and At in acid solutions.

  2. Ionization potentials, electron affinities, resonance excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and ionic radii of element Uus (Z = 117) and astatine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhiwei; Li, Jiguang; Dong, Chenzhong

    2010-12-30

    Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method was employed to calculate the first five ionization potentials, electron affinities, resonance excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and radii for the element Uus and its homologue At. Main valence correlation effects were taken into account. The Breit interaction and QED effects were also estimated. The uncertainties of calculated IPs, EAs, and IR for Uus and At were reduced through an extrapolation procedure. The good consistency with available experimental and other theoretical values demonstrates the validity of the present results. These theoretical data therefore can be used to predict some unknown physicochemical properties of element Uus, Astatine, and their compounds.

  3. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  4. In-situ characterization of dense non-aqueous phase liquids uUsing partitioning tracers. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, G.A.

    1998-06-01

    'Major advances have been made during the past year in research on interwell partitioning tracers tests (PITTs). These advances include: (1) progress on the inverse problem of how to estimate the three-dimensional distribution of NAPL in aquifers from the tracer data, (2) the first ever partitioning tracer experiments in dual porosity media, (3) the first modeling of partitioning tracers in dual porosity media, (4) experiments with complex NAPLs such as coal tar, (5) the development of an accurate and simple method to predict partition coefficients using the equivalent alkane carbon number approach, (6) partitioning tracer experiments in large model aquifers with permeability layers, (7) the first ever analysis of partitioning tracer data to estimate the change in composition of a NAPL before and after remediation, (8) the first ever analysis of partitioning tracer data after a field demonstration of surfactant foam to remediate NAPL, and (9) experiments at elevated temperatures. The authors have developed a new analytic approach that has several advantages over existing approaches for inversion of tracer data. First, the technique utilizes an extremely efficient three-dimensional multiphase streamline simulator as a forward model. Second, the parameter sensitivities are formulated in terms of one-dimensional integrals of analytic functions along the streamlines. Thus, the computation of sensitivities for all model parameters requires only a single simulation run to construct the velocity field and generate the streamlines. The inversion of tracer data is then performed using a two-step iterative linearization that involves first lining-up the breakthrough times at the producing wells and then matching the production history. Their approach follows from an analogy between streamlines and ray tracing in seismology. The inverse method is analogous to seismic waveform inversion and thus, allows them to utilize efficient methods from geophysical imaging. The new approach has been applied for estimating permeability distribution based on conservative tracer tests (D.W. Vasco and A. Datta-Gupta: ``Asymptotic Solutions for Solute Transport: A Formalism for Tracer Tomography,'''' Submitted to Water Resources Research, December 1997), and is currently being extended for analysis of partitioning tracer data.'

  5. Software Technology for Adaptable, Reliable Systems (STARS): UUS40 - Risk-Reduction Reasoning-Based Development Paradigm Tailored to Navy C2 Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-30

    sponse to world events (particularly recently) resulting in dynamic system requirements as well as generating requirements for both fixed and mobile ...Infirga Rere-v of Ekisting Repository Tecnology Unisys IefenseSystems, PaoY, PA, February 1989. (5] F-r -o* of I-- in the R-se of TruSted Soft uC_

  6. Hydrodynamics of undulatory underwater swimming: a review.

    PubMed

    Connaboy, Chris; Coleman, Simon; Sanders, Ross H

    2009-11-01

    Undulatory underwater swimming (UUS) occurs in the starts and turns of three of the four competitive swimming strokes and plays a significant role in overall swimming performance. The majority of research examining UUS is comparative in nature, dominated by studies comparing aquatic animals' undulatory locomotion with the UUS performance of humans. More recently, research directly examining human forms of UUS have been undertaken, providing further insight into the factors which influence swimming velocity and efficiency. This paper reviews studies which have examined the hydromechanical, biomechanical, and coordination aspects of UUS performance in both animals and humans. The present work provides a comprehensive evaluation of the key factors which combine to influence UUS performance examining (1) the role of end-effector frequency and body amplitudes in the production of a propulsive waveform, (2) the effects of morphology on the wavelength of the propulsive waveform and its subsequent impact on the mode of UUS adopted, and (3) the interactions of the undulatory movements to simultaneously optimise propulsive impulse whilst minimising the active drag experienced. In conclusion, the review recommends that further research is required to fully appreciate the complexity of UUS and examine how humans can further optimise performance.

  7. A Comparison of Systematic Errors in AFGL and COLA Forecast Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    From equation (B-28), we have t = K pUNh 2 h2 t h t KpUN K p -2Fr h = KP U2Fr Substitute this relation of h into the definition of Froude number Fr=hN/U...THEN PRINT*,’NBAR IN GWD IS ZERO’ ENDIF C DEFINITION OF SURFACE WIND VECTOR UUS= UBAR VVS= VBAR SPEEDS= SQRT(UUS*UUS+ VVS*VVS) IF(SPEEDS.EQ.0.0)TH EN...C CONVERT TO NEWTON/ M2 ROAVE= lO.O*ROAVE C VELOCITY COMPONENT PARALELL TO SURFACE VELOCITY UUUP= U(J,LAY) VVUP= V(J,LAY) SCALUP= UUUP*UUS+ VVUPOVVS

  8. A Study of Kinematics Modeling and the Computational Optimization of the Human Underwater Undulatory Kick by Comparison of Swimmers and Body Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoran; Liu, Geng; Ren, Yan; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team

    2014-11-01

    Underwater Undulatory Swimming (UUS), better known as the underwater dolphin kick, is the most important technique in competitive swimming. Faster than three of the four strokes in swimming, UUS is permitted in the 15 m after dives and turns. In this study, we compared the UUS of a college-level swimmer and a younger swimmer. 3D human models were built and reconstructed using stereo-videos for identifying key components of undulatory kick kinematics with respect to strongly flexing joints. A gradient-based optimizer and an immersed boundary method based CFD solver was then used to study the hydrodynamic performance of each swimmer. Optimal settings of current kinematic models will help us to understand the efficiency of the observed undulatory kick mechanisms and further improvements of the human UUS strategy. This work is supported by NSF CEBT-1313217 and UVa HooS-STER program.

  9. Effect of imposing changes in kick frequency on kinematics during undulatory underwater swimming at maximal effort in male swimmers.

    PubMed

    Shimojo, Hirofumi; Sengoku, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Tasuku; Tsubakimoto, Shozo; Takagi, Hideki

    2014-12-01

    Undulatory underwater swimming (UUS) is an important swimming technique after a start and after turns. It was considered that a higher swimming velocity (U) resulted from a higher kick frequency (f), and greater propelling efficiency, i.e., Strouhal number (St) and Froude efficiency (ηF), resulted from a lower f. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changing f affected U and St, ηF plus other kinematics of UUS. Ten national-level male swimmers participated in the study. First, the swimmers performed maximal UUS (Pre; this f was defined as 100% F). Second, the swimmers synchronized their f with the sound of a metronome and with six frequencies (85% F, 90% F, 95% F, 105% F, 110% F, and 115% F) randomly presented. During the higher f sessions, kick amplitude (A) significantly decreased from Pre (115% F: -10.8%, p<.05); however, U was unchanged. In contrast, in lower f sessions, St and ηF were unchanged, but the wavelength per body length (λBL), which indicates UUS mode, significantly decreased (90% F: -1.3%, p<.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that increasing f for UUS would not affect U, but a decrease in f may be suitable for human undulation training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationships between kinematics and undulatory underwater swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Allison J; Pease, David L; Sanders, Ross H

    2017-05-01

    Undulatory underwater swimming (UUS) is one of the major skills contributing to performance in competitive swimming. UUS has two phases- the upbeat is performed by hip extension and knee flexion, and the downbeat is the converse action. The purpose of this study was to determine which kinematic variables of the upbeat and downbeat are associated with prone UUS performance in an elite sample. Ten elite participants were filmed performing three prone 20 m UUS trials. Seven landmarks were manually digitised to calculate eighteen kinematic variables, plus the performance variable- horizontal centre of mass velocity (VCOM). Mean VCOM was significantly correlated with body wave velocity (upbeat r = 0.81, downbeat r = 0.72), vertical toe velocity (upbeat r = 0.71, downbeat r = 0.86), phase duration (upbeat r = -0.79), peak hip angular velocity (upbeat r = 0.73) and mean knee angular velocity (upbeat r = -0.63), all significant at P < 0.05. A multiple stepwise regression model explained 78% of variance in mean VCOM. Peak toe velocity explained 72% of the variance, and mean body wave velocity explained an additional 6%. Elite swimmers should strive for a high peak toe velocity and a fast caudal transfer of momentum to optimise underwater undulatory swimming performance.

  11. Relativistic effects on the bonding of heavy and superheavy hydrogen halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saue, Trond; Faegri, Knut; Gropen, Odd

    1996-12-01

    The bonding in the hydrogen halides HI, HAt and HUus (Uus = element 117) has been studied using four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations and finite basis sets. The calculations show that the effect of spin-orbit splitting on the valence p-orbital dominates the bonding for the compound of the superheavy element, and even for the sixth row the spin-orbit interaction should be treated self-consistently for an accurate description of the electronic structure.

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of a Mesoscale Moisture Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Physical Enviroment ," ASL-TR-0018, September 1978. 90. Gomez, Richard G., "Effectiveness Studies of the CBU-88/B Bomb, Cluster, Smoke Weapon" (U...Using the Doubling Technique," ASL-TR-0020, November, 1978. 92. Lindberg, James D. et al., "Measured Effects of Battlefield Dust and Smoke on Visible...Pena, and Frank V. Hansen, "KWIK: An Algorithm for Calculating Munition Expenditures for Smoke Screening/Obscuration in Tac- tical Situations," ASL-TR

  13. Protein Localization in Silica Nanospheres Derived via Biomimetic Mineralization (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    can be used for characterizing a wide range of mesoporous and ultrastructural materials. neutron scattering, silica, lysozyme, biomineralization U U...used for characterizing a wide range of mesoporous and ultrastructural materials. FU LL P A P ER © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Adv...The nitrogen adsorption isotherms of the silica-lysozyme composites show typical type IV characteristics, with hysteresis indicative of a

  14. Measures of reliability in the kinematics of maximal undulatory underwater swimming.

    PubMed

    Connaboy, Chris; Coleman, Simon; Moir, Gavin; Sanders, Ross

    2010-04-01

    The purposes of this article were to establish the reliability of the kinematics of maximal undulatory underwater swimming (UUS) in skilled swimmers, to determine any requirement for familiarization trials, to establish the within-subject (WS) variability of the kinematics, and to calculate the number of cycles required to accurately represent UUS performance. Fifteen male swimmers performed 20 maximal UUS trials (two cycles per trial) during four sessions. The magnitude of any systematic bias present within the kinematic variables was calculated between session, trial, and cycle. Random error calculations were calculated to determine the WS variation. An iterative intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) process was used to determine the number of cycles required to achieve a stable representation of each kinematic variable. Significant differences were found between session 1 and all other sessions for several variables, indicating the requirement for a familiarization session. Results indicated a wide range of WS variation (coefficient of variation [CV] = 1.21%-12.42%). Reductions in WS variation were observed for all variables when the number of cycles of data used to calculate WS variation was increased. Using six cycles of data, including additional cycles of data, provided diminishing returns regarding the reduction of WS variation. The ICC analysis indicated that an average of nine cycles (mean ± SD = 9.47 ± 5.63) was required to achieve the maximum ICC values attained, and an average of four cycles (mean ± SD = 3.57 ± 2.09) was required to achieve an ICC of 0.95. After determining the systematic bias and establishing the requirement for a familiarization session, six cycles of data were found to be sufficient to provide high levels of reliability (CV(TE) = 0.86-8.92; ICC = 0.811-0.996) for each of the UUS kinematic variables.

  15. A prognosis based classification of undifferentiated uterine sarcomas: identification of mitotic index, hormone receptors and YWHAE-FAM22 translocation status as predictors of survival.

    PubMed

    Gremel, Gabriela; Liew, Markus; Hamzei, Farzaneh; Hardell, Elin; Selling, Jonas; Ghaderi, Mehran; Stemme, Sten; Pontén, Fredrik; Carlson, Joseph W

    2015-04-01

    Undifferentiated uterine sarcomas (UUS) are rare tumors with a heterologous biology and a poor prognosis. The goal of this study was to examine clinicopathology, biomarkers and YWHAE-FAM22 translocation status, in the prognosis of these tumors. Twenty-six cases of UUS were included. All original slides were rereviewed and age at diagnosis, tumor stage, "Kurihara" diagnosis, mitotic index, presence of necrosis and grade of nuclear atypia were recorded. Additionally, a tissue microarray was constructed from 22 of the cases, and the protein biomarkers P53, P16, Ki-67, Cyclin-D1, ER, PR and ANLN were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. All tumors were evaluated for the presence of a YWHAE-FAM translocation; the translocation was demonstrated in the three Cyclin-D1 positive tumors. Follow-up data in the form of overall survival were available on all patients. These tumors could be divided into two prognostic groups, a high mitotic index group (10 cases, M = 36.8, SD = 5.4) and a low mitotic index group (16 cases, M = 8.7, SD = 5.8). These two groups showed a statistically significant difference in prognosis. The expression of ER, PR or presence of the YWHAE-FAM22 translocation correlated with low mitotic index and an additionally improved prognosis, although the number of cases was small. These results indicate that UUS can be divided into two prognostic groups using mitotic index as a primary criteria, followed by expression of either ER, PR or the presence of a YWHAE-FAM22 translocation as a secondary criteria. This study demonstrates the presence of statistically significant prognostic subgroups within UUS, and provides treatment insights.

  16. Characterization of Bird Impacts on a Rigid Plate: Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    velocity 40 1. 27cm off center of impact. Prscinng page Madh vii r _ _ AFrFDL-TR-IS-5 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (CON TD ) FIGURE PAGE 21. Impulse...velocity 234 rn/s ! I Shot No. 5190; velocity 129 m/1" B-9 AFFDL-TR-75-S APPENDIX C BIRD IMPACT CINE SEQUENCES AFFDL-TR-75-5 museu. woman nams.UUS Nae womenU

  17. Validation of a Mitotic Index Cutoff as a Prognostic Marker in Undifferentiated Uterine Sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Elin; Josefson, Sofia; Ghaderi, Mehran; Skeie-Jensen, Tone; Westbom-Fremer, Sofia; Cheek, Elizabeth H; Bell, Debra; Selling, Jonas; Schoolmeester, John K; Måsbäck, Anna; Davidson, Ben; Carlson, Joseph W

    2017-09-01

    Undifferentiated uterine sarcomas (UUS) are a heterogenous group of high-grade mesenchymal tumors. Although these tumors are highly aggressive, a subset of patients may experience long-term survival. These tumors have previously been divided morphologically into uniform and pleomorphic types. A previous study demonstrated that a mitotic index cutoff of 25 mitoses/10 high-power fields (corresponding to 11.16 mitotic figures/mm) could successfully divide tumors into 2 prognostic groups with significantly different overall survival. The goals of the current study were to (1) validate this mitotic index cutoff in an independent, multicenter cohort and (2) explore the prognostic value of the mitotic index groups in relation to other clinicopathologic variables. Cases were included from 3 independent institutions: The Norwegian Radium Hospital, The Mayo Clinic, and Skåne University Hospital. A total of 40 tumors were included after central review. All cases were negative for the YWHAE-FAM22A/B and JAZF1-JJAZ1 translocations. Survival data were available on all patients. In this study, one-third of patients with UUS survived beyond 5 years. The crude (unadjusted) Cox Proportional Hazards model revealed a number of parameters that significantly impacted overall survival, including mitotic index group, patient age, stage, and the presence of tumor necrosis. Classification into the uniform and pleomorphic types was not prognostic. Combining these parameters into an adjusted model revealed that only the mitotic index group and stage were prognostic. On the basis of these findings, it is proposed that UUS be subdivided into "mitogenic" and "not otherwise specified" types.

  18. Assessing quality of urban underground spaces by coupling 3D geological models: The case study of Foshan city, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Weisheng; Yang, Liang; Deng, Dongcheng; Ye, Jing; Clarke, Keith; Yang, Zhijun; Zhuang, Wenming; Liu, Jianxiong; Huang, Jichun

    2016-04-01

    Urban underground spaces (UUS), especially those containing natural resources that have not yet been utilized, have been recognized as important for future sustainable development in large cities. One of the key steps in city planning is to estimate the quality of urban underground space resources, since they are major determinants of suitable land use. Yet geological constraints are rarely taken into consideration in urban planning, nor are the uncertainties in the quality of the available assessments. Based on Fuzzy Set theory and the analytic hierarchy process, a 3D stepwise process for the quality assessment of geotechnical properties of natural resources in UUS is presented. The process includes an index system for construction factors; area partitioning; the extraction of geological attributes; the creation of a relative membership grade matrix; the evaluation of subject and destination layers; and indeterminacy analysis. A 3D geological model of the study area was introduced into the process that extracted geological attributes as constraints. This 3D geological model was coupled with borehole data for Foshan City, Guangdong province, South China, and the indeterminacies caused by the cell size and the geological strata constraints were analyzed. The results of the case study show that (1) a relatively correct result can be obtained if the cell size is near to the average sampling distance of the boreholes; (2) the constraints of the 3D geological model have a major role in establishing the UUS quality level and distribution, especially at the boundaries of the geological bodies; and (3) the assessment result is impacted by an interaction between the cell resolution and the geological model used.

  19. A Guide for the Perspective Navy Contractor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    conmnunicated by the contracting officer should be jconsidered during the bid preparation. After award however, Sa Za UaaU C3 _~~U us ~rr a a C) ej Go...Pate nocgue ftielvt UUS0%- W loi . DXC. 20WIL- M~lCVDJ. CO -10b OW ONAI 8MOS TYP OF 011ArNIZA111 r-x- 09W 0 MWOUAL EJ PAAT0*MW j1 xwT varumE ECM...executing the bond shalt affix their corporate corporation involved. seals. Individuals shall execute the bond opposite the word ’ Corporale Seal’, and

  20. Evaluation of Stokes Settling Equation for Variable Density Aggregates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-26

    Appendix A. Reprints of Publiahed Sclantific Papers 1 . * w Ny drolS dqvalem of Mica 2. Imp Analysis Teekleise fair NUvems of Oyamic Odeft Patia " R...for<I 1 %Office of Naval Research Contract No. N00014-83-K-02 Evaluation of Stokes Settling Equation for Variable Density Aggregates by Kendall L...WCI& nas 1uus ATALee u 4. TITLE ( 1 "~te Sk. 1 19QAI RE7 OF REPORT a PWAOD Cow"Mg 𔄁T 71al Tachnical ReportStokes Settling Equatina for Variable

  1. Safety Testing of Dengue-1 and Dengue-3 Seeds for Human Challenges, Unattenuated; Hepatitis A Virus, Strain HM175

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    AD SAFETY TESTING OF DENGUE -I AND DENGUE -3 SEEDS FOR HUMAN CHALLENGES, UNATrENUATED; HEPATITIS A VIRUS, STRAIN HM175 PHASE REPOR DTICcUUS PO.CASH{ I... Dengue -1 and Dengue -3 Seeds for Human Challenges, Unattenuated; Hepatitis A Virus. -Strain HM175 12. PERSONAL AUThOR(S) Potash, Louis 13&. TYPE OF...COSATI CODES ? B. SUBJECT TERMS (C~in0iU* an LIve i ec*ty arid identify by bdocir nunme) FIELD GROUP SU-GROUP 06 13 L Dengue -1; Dengue -3; Hepatitis A

  2. Crack Closure Characteristics Considering Center Cracked and Compact Tension Specimens.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    adjacent elements differed in size by no more than a factor of 2. The fine mesh elements near the crack tip were much smaller than the -7 2CTS with an area...N .1- £KO.~.-N 0 0 td t + U.Us* 0 C.+ *4 w O mcow K O4 ’ 4u 0. X Ulf! W I 2 0 Z K0 NO- N Cos.@-0S W.N a-1 WW m .M0 000004.*0 00 4-W-M. R800*x -3-o" 0

  3. Viscous Shock Layer Solutions for Hypersonic Sphere-Cones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    behind the shock. dUsh/d~. dVsh/d~. p 139 AEDC-TR-77-20 TSP RSP PSP PWALL PWlPO CF STAN HEAT dTsh/d~- d0sh/d~- dPsh/d~. Pressure at the...COMMON/OUTSN/ PPS • RRS • TTS • U U S I • VVS • 1 t P P S I •. RRSI • T T S I • UUS2 • V V S I • 2 PSP • RRS2 e TSP • USP • VVS2 • 3 P P S 2...2 9 6 PSP=AKK3$DALDS TSP =AKKG~DALDS RSP=(GAM/|GAM-leODO))*(PSP$TTS- TSP #PPS)/(TTS*TTS) I F ( I o E O o l ) PSP=OAODO ; F ( I e E Q . | ) TSP =O

  4. Prolapse-free relativistic Gaussian basis sets for the superheavy elements up to Uuo (Z = 118) and Lr (Z = 103)

    SciTech Connect

    Macedo, Luiz Guilherme M de Borin, Antonio Carlos; Silva, Alberico B.F. da

    2007-11-15

    Prolapse-free basis sets suitable for four-component relativistic quantum chemical calculations are presented for the superheavy elements up to {sub 118}Uuo ({sub 104}Rf, {sub 105}Db, {sub 106}Sg, {sub 107}Bh, {sub 108}Hs, {sub 109}Mt, {sub 110}Ds, {sub 111}Rg, {sub 112}Uub, {sub 113}Uut, {sub 114}Uuq, {sub 115}Uup, {sub 116}Uuh, {sub 117}Uus, {sub 118}Uuo) and {sub 103}Lr. These basis sets were optimized by minimizing the absolute values of the energy difference between the Dirac-Fock-Roothaan total energy and the corresponding numerical value at a milli-Hartree order of magnitude, resulting in a good balance between cost and accuracy. Parameters for generating exponents and new numerical data for some superheavy elements are also presented.

  5. Comparison of expert and nonexpert swimmers' opinions about the value, potency, and activity of four standard swimming strokes and underwater undulatory swimming.

    PubMed

    Collard, L; Oboeuf, A

    2009-04-01

    Underwater undulatory swimming (UUS) is often perceived to be a nonessential aspect of aquatic propulsion. Given their solid theoretical and practical training in swimming, physical education students should be capable of judging the true value of the "fifth stroke," since it appears to be the most efficient technique in high level, competitive swimming. To compare opinions and connotations associated with the stroke and the four official strokes (butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke, and crawl), 198 students (32 of whom were expert swimmers; M age = 20.6 yr., SD = 1.2), were surveyed using the semantic differential of Osgood, Suci, and Tannenbaum. Although answers of expert and nonexpert swimmers differed significantly (p < .01, except for the breaststroke), participants considered overall that undulatory stroke was less attractive, less powerful, and less rapid than the four surface strokes (d = 2.88 for the expert swimmers). Putting one arm in front of the other and repeating the sequence still remains the most solidly held representation of "the right way" to swim. However, the high observed standard deviations for the underwater undulatory stimulus (SD > or = 1.1 with SD max = 3 for the expert swimmers) attests to the view being less strongly held by swimming specialists.

  6. Motion of a particle near a rough wall in a viscous shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charru, F.; Larrieu, E.; Dupont, J.-B.; Zenit, R.

    The motion of a spherical particle along a rough bed in a simple shear viscous flow is studied experimentally for a wide range of parameters, varying the particle size and density, the fluid viscosity and the shear rate gamma. The instantaneous particle velocity is calculated in the stream, transverse and vertical directions, using a high-speed video imaging system. It is found that the normalized streamwise mean particle velocity U/U_S, where U_S is the Stokes settling velocity, depends only on the dimensionless shear rate mu gamma/(Delta rho g d), this relationship being independent of the particle Reynolds number {Re}_p. This result holds for small {Re}_p, which was the case in our experiments ({Re}_p {<} 10). The characteristic amplitude and frequency of the velocity fluctuations are also given and discussed. A model is then proposed for the mean streamwise velocity, based on ideas of Bagnold (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 332, 1973, p. 473) and calculations of Goldman et al. (Chem. Engng Sci., vol. 22, 1967b, p. 653) for the velocity of a particle close to a smooth plane. From this model an equivalent bed roughness and an effective friction coefficient are deduced.

  7. Slip versus Friction : Modifying the Navier condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsalis, Evangelos; Walther, Jens; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2006-03-01

    The modeling of fluid-solid interfaces remains one of the key challenges in fluid mechanics. The prevailing model, attributed to Navier, defines the fluid ``slip'' velocity as proportional to the wall shear and a parameter defined as the slip length. Several works have in turn proposed models for this slip length but no universal model for the slip velocity has been accepted. We present results from large scale molecular dynamics simulations of canonical flow problems, indicating, that the inadequacy of this classic model, stems from not properly accounting for the pressure field. We propose and validate a new model, based on the fundamental observation that the finite ``slip'' velocity is a result of an imbalance between fluid and solid intermolecular forces. An excess force on the fluid elements will lead to their acceleration which in turn may result in a slip velocity at the interface. We formulate the slip velocity in terms of fluid-solid friction Ff and propose a generalized boundary condition: Ff= Fs+ Fp= λuus+ λpp where p denotes the pressure, and λuand λp the viscous and static friction coefficients, for which universal constants are presented. We demonstrate that the present model can overcome difficulties encountered by the classical slip model in canonical flow configurations.

  8. Model for Shock Wave Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimov, Aslan R.; Faria, Luiz M.; Rosales, Rodolfo R.

    2013-03-01

    We propose the following model equation, ut+1/2(u2-uus)x=f(x,us) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, x<0, and the shock is located at x=0 for any t≥0. Here, us(t) is the shock state and the source term f is taken to mimic the chemical energy release in detonations. This equation retains the essential physics needed to reproduce many properties of detonations in gaseous reactive mixtures: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.

  9. Development of a Precipitation-Runoff Model to Simulate Unregulated Streamflow in the Salmon Creek Basin, Okanogan County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Heeswijk, Marijke

    2006-01-01

    historical monthly mean unregulated streamflow based on reservoir outflows and storage changes were used as a surrogate for the missing data and to calibrate and test the model. The estimated unregulated streamflows were corrected for evaporative losses from Conconully Reservoir (about 1 ft3/s) and ground-water losses from the basin (about 2 ft3/s). The total of the corrections was about 9 percent of the mean uncorrected streamflow of 32.2 ft3/s (23,300 acre-ft/yr) for water years 1949-96. For the calibration period, the basinwide mean annual evapotranspiration was simulated to be 19.1 inches, or about 83 percent of the mean annual precipitation of 23.1 inches. Model calibration and testing indicated that the daily streamflows simulated using the precipitation-runoff model should be used only to analyze historical and forecasted annual mean and April-July mean streamflows for Salmon Creek at Conconully Dam. Because of the paucity of model input data and uncertainty in the estimated unregulated streamflows, the model is not adequately calibrated and tested to estimate monthly mean streamflows for individual months, such as during low-flow periods, or for shorter periods such as during peak flows. No data were available to test the accuracy of simulated streamflows for lower Salmon Creek. As a result, simulated streamflows for lower Salmon Creek should be used with caution. For the calibration period (water years 1950-89), both the simulated mean annual streamflow and the simulated mean April-July streamflow compared well with the estimated uncorrected unregulated streamflow (UUS) and corrected unregulated streamflow (CUS). The simulated mean annual streamflow exceeded UUS by 5.9 percent and was less than CUS by 2.7 percent. Similarly, the simulated mean April-July streamflow exceeded UUS by 1.8 percent and was less than CUS by 3.1 percent. However, streamflow was significantly undersimulated during the low-flow, baseflow-dominated months of November through F

  10. Development of utricular otoliths, but not saccular otoliths, is necessary for vestibular function and survival in zebrafish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, B. B.; Moorman, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    We have been studying the consequences of embryonic vestibular dysfunction caused by the monolith (mnl) mutation in zebrafish. mnl is a dominant mutation that specifically inhibits formation of utricular otoliths. However, briefly immobilizing mnl/mnl embryos in agarose with the otic vesicle orientated at certain angles selectively induces or prevents formation of utricular and/or saccular otoliths. With this noninvasive technique, we generated six phenotypic classes of mnl/mnl mutants, designated S-S, U-U, U-S, S-US, U-US, and US-US, depending on which otoliths are present on each side (U, utricular otolith; S, saccular otolith). All mnl/mnl larvae survived through day 10 of development. Thereafter, S-S larvae showed a rapid decline, probably because of starvation, and none survived to adulthood. Survival rates in all other classes of mnl/mnl larvae (those having at least one utricular otolith) were close to normal. The presence or absence of utricular otoliths also correlated with vestibular function during early larval development, as measured by three criteria: First, unlike wild-type larvae, S-S mutant larvae showed almost no detectable counter-rotation of the eyes when tilted tail up or tail down. Second, 95% of S-S mutant larvae never acquired the ability to maintain a balanced dorsal-up posture. Third, although most wild-type larvae responded to gentle prodding by swimming in a straight line, S-S larvae responded by swimming in rapid circles, showing sudden and frequent changes in direction ("zigzagging"), and/or rolling and spiraling. All other phenotypic classes of mnl/mnl larvae behaved normally in these assays. These data demonstrate that bilateral loss of utricular otoliths disrupts the ability to sense gravity, severely impairs balance and motor coordination, and is invariably lethal. The presence of a utricular otolith in at least one inner ear is necessary and sufficient for vestibular function and survival. In contrast, saccular otoliths are

  11. Development of utricular otoliths, but not saccular otoliths, is necessary for vestibular function and survival in zebrafish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, B. B.; Moorman, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    We have been studying the consequences of embryonic vestibular dysfunction caused by the monolith (mnl) mutation in zebrafish. mnl is a dominant mutation that specifically inhibits formation of utricular otoliths. However, briefly immobilizing mnl/mnl embryos in agarose with the otic vesicle orientated at certain angles selectively induces or prevents formation of utricular and/or saccular otoliths. With this noninvasive technique, we generated six phenotypic classes of mnl/mnl mutants, designated S-S, U-U, U-S, S-US, U-US, and US-US, depending on which otoliths are present on each side (U, utricular otolith; S, saccular otolith). All mnl/mnl larvae survived through day 10 of development. Thereafter, S-S larvae showed a rapid decline, probably because of starvation, and none survived to adulthood. Survival rates in all other classes of mnl/mnl larvae (those having at least one utricular otolith) were close to normal. The presence or absence of utricular otoliths also correlated with vestibular function during early larval development, as measured by three criteria: First, unlike wild-type larvae, S-S mutant larvae showed almost no detectable counter-rotation of the eyes when tilted tail up or tail down. Second, 95% of S-S mutant larvae never acquired the ability to maintain a balanced dorsal-up posture. Third, although most wild-type larvae responded to gentle prodding by swimming in a straight line, S-S larvae responded by swimming in rapid circles, showing sudden and frequent changes in direction ("zigzagging"), and/or rolling and spiraling. All other phenotypic classes of mnl/mnl larvae behaved normally in these assays. These data demonstrate that bilateral loss of utricular otoliths disrupts the ability to sense gravity, severely impairs balance and motor coordination, and is invariably lethal. The presence of a utricular otolith in at least one inner ear is necessary and sufficient for vestibular function and survival. In contrast, saccular otoliths are