Sample records for kulu riho tarbe

  1. Stratigraphic interpretation of the Kulu Formation (Early Miocene, Rusinga Island, Kenya) and its implications for primate evolution.


    Peppe, Daniel J; McNulty, Kieran P; Cote, Susanne M; Harcourt-Smith, William E H; Dunsworth, Holly M; Van Couvering, John A


    Early Miocene fossils from Rusinga Island, Kenya, provide some of the best evidence for catarrhine evolution and diversification, and, together with more than eighty-five other mammalian species, form an important comparative reference for understanding faunal succession in East Africa. While there is consensus over the stratigraphic position of most of Rusinga's volcaniclastic deposits, the lacustrine Kulu Formation has been placed in various parts of the geological sequence by different researchers. To resolve this discrepancy, we conducted detailed geological analyses which indicate that the Kulu Formation was formed in the Early Miocene during a period of volcanic inactivity and subsidence following the early, mainly explosive hyper-alkaline phase of the Kisingiri complex and prior to the final eruptions of nephelinitic lavas. The underlying Hiwegi and older formations were locally deformed and deeply eroded before sedimentation began in the Kulu basin, so that the Kulu sediments may be significantly younger than the 17.8 Ma Hiwegi Formation and not much older than the overlying Kiangata Agglomerata-Lunene Lava series, loosely dated to ca. 15 Ma. The overall similarities between Kulu and Hiwegi faunas imply long-term ecological stability in this region. Our stratigraphic interpretation suggests that the Kulu fauna is contemporaneous with faunas from West Turkana, implying that differences between these assemblages-particularly in the primate communities--reflect paleobiogeographic and/or paleocological differences. Finally, the position of the Kulu Formation restricts the time frame during which the substantial faunal turnover seen in the differences between the primate and mammalian communities of Rusinga and Maboko Islands could have occurred. PMID:19427023

  2. Adolescents' Sedentary Behaviors in Two European Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aibar Solana, Alberto; Bois, Julien E.; Zaragoza, Javier; Bru, Noëlle; Paillard, Thierry; Generelo, Eduardo


    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the correlates of objective sedentary behavior (SB) and nonschool self-reported SB in adolescents from 2 midsized cities, 1 in France (Tarbes) and 1 in Spain (Huesca). Stability of objective SB and nonschool self-reported SB were also assessed at different time points during 1 academic…

  3. Wake Vortex Detection: Phased Microphone vs. Linear Infrasonic Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Sullivan, Nicholas T.; Knight, Howard K.


    Sensor technologies can make a significant impact on the detection of aircraft-generated vortices in an air space of interest, typically in the approach or departure corridor. Current state-of-the art sensor technologies do not provide three-dimensional measurements needed for an operational system or even for wake vortex modeling to advance the understanding of vortex behavior. Most wake vortex sensor systems used today have been developed only for research applications and lack the reliability needed for continuous operation. The main challenges for the development of an operational sensor system are reliability, all-weather operation, and spatial coverage. Such a sensor has been sought for a period of last forty years. Acoustic sensors were first proposed and tested by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) early in 1970s for tracking wake vortices but these acoustic sensors suffered from high levels of ambient noise. Over a period of the last fifteen years, there has been renewed interest in studying noise generated by aircraft wake vortices, both numerically and experimentally. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) was the first to propose the application of a phased microphone array for the investigation of the noise sources of wake vortices. The concept was first demonstrated at Berlins Airport Schoenefeld in 2000. A second test was conducted in Tarbes, France, in 2002, where phased microphone arrays were applied to study the wake vortex noise of an Airbus 340. Similarly, microphone phased arrays and other opto-acoustic microphones were evaluated in a field test at the Denver International Airport in 2003. For the Tarbes and Denver tests, the wake trajectories of phased microphone arrays and lidar were compared as these were installed side by side. Due to a built-in pressure equalization vent these microphones were not suitable for capturing acoustic noise below 20 Hz. Our group at NASA Langley Research Center developed and installed an

  4. Molecular dynamics studies on 3D structures of the hydrophobic region PrP(109-136).


    Zhang, Jiapu; Zhang, Yuanli


    Prion diseases, traditionally referred to as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of mammalian species, manifesting as scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (or 'mad-cow' disease) in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Strussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and Kulu in humans, etc. These neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions (PrP(Sc)). The hydrophobic region PrP(109-136) controls the formation of diseased prions: the normal PrP(113-120) AGAAAAGA palindrome is an inhibitor/blocker of prion diseases and the highly conserved glycine-xxx-glycine motif PrP(119-131) can inhibit the formation of infectious prion proteins in cells. This article gives detailed reviews on the PrP(109-136) region and presents the studies of its three-dimensional structures and structural dynamics. PMID:23563221

  5. Coronagraphy at Pic du Midi: Present state and future projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koechlin, L.


    The Pic du Midi coronagraph (CLIMSO) is a group of four instruments in parallel, taking images of the whole solar photosphere and low corona. It provides series of 2048*2048 pixels images taken nominally at 1 minute time intervals, all year long, weather permitting. A team of ≃q 60 persons, by groups of 2 or 3 each week, operate the instruments. Their work is programmed in collaboration with Institut de Recherches en astrophysique et planétologie (IRAP) of Observatoire Midi Pyrénées (OMP), and with Programme National Soleil Terre (PNST). The four instruments of CLIMSO (L1, C1, L2 and C2) collect images of the Sun as following: 1) L1 : photosphere in H-α (656.28 nm) ; 2) L2 : photosphere in Ca-II (393.37 nm) ; 3) C1 : prominences in H-α ; 4) C2 : prominences in He-I (1083.0 nm). The data taken are stored in fits format images and mpeg films. They are available publicly on data bases such as BASS 2000 Meudon ({} and BASS2000 Tarbes ({}). Several solar studies are carried in relation with these data. In addition to the raw fits images, new images will soon be sent to the data bases: they will be calibrated in solar surface emittance, expressed in W/m^2/nm/steradian. Series of mpeg films for each day are presented in superposed color layers, so as to visualize the multispectral information better. New instrumental developments are planned for the next years and already financed. They will use spectropolarimetry to measure the magnetic field and radial velocities in the photosphere and corona. The data will cover the entire solar disc and have a sample rate of one map per minute.

  6. Molecular dynamics studies on the NMR and X-ray structures of rabbit prion proteins.


    Zhang, Jiapu; Zhang, Yuanli


    Prion diseases, traditionally referred to as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of mammalian species, manifesting as scrapie in sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad-cow disease) in cattle, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, and kulu in humans, etc. These neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions (PrP(Sc)), and the conversion of PrP(C) to PrP(Sc) is believed to involve conformational change from a predominantly α-helical protein to one rich in β-sheet structure. Such a conformational change may be amenable to study by molecular dynamics (MD) techniques. For rabbits, classical studies show that they have a low susceptibility to be infected by PrP(Sc), but recently it was reported that rabbit prions can be generated through saPMCA (serial automated Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification) in vitro and the rabbit prion is infectious and transmissible. In this paper, we first do a detailed survey on the research advances of rabbit prion protein (RaPrP) and then we perform MD simulations on the NMR and X-ray molecular structures of rabbit prion protein wild-type and mutants. The survey shows to us that rabbits were not challenged directly in vivo with other known prion strains and the saPMCA result did not pass the test of the known BSE strain of cattle. Thus, we might still look rabbits as a prion resistant species. MD results indicate that the three α-helices of the wild-type are stable under the neutral pH environment (but under low pH environment the three α-helices have been unfolded into β-sheets), and the three α-helices of the mutants (I214V and S173N) are unfolded into rich β-sheet structures under

  7. CAXII Is a Sero-Diagnostic Marker for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Matsumoto, Toshihide; Ryuge, Shinichiro; Yanagita, Kengo; Nagashio, Ryo; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Goshima, Naoki; Jiang, Shi-Xu; Saegusa, Makoto; Iyoda, Akira; Satoh, Yukitoshi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Sato, Yuichi


    To develop sero-diagnostic markers for lung cancer, we generated monoclonal antibodies using pulmonary adenocarcinoma (AD)-derived A549 cells as antigens by employing the random immunization method. Hybridoma supernatants were immunohistochemically screened for antibodies with AMeX-fixed and paraffin-embedded A549 cell preparations. Positive clones were monocloned twice through limiting dilutions. From the obtained monoclonal antibodies, we selected an antibody designated as KU-Lu-5 which showed intense membrane staining of A549 cells. Based on immunoprecipitation and MADLI TOF/TOF-MS analysis, this antibody was recognized as carbonic anhydrase XII (CAXII). To evaluate the utility of this antibody as a sero-diagnostic marker for lung cancer, we performed dot blot analysis with a training set consisting of sera from 70 lung cancer patients and 30 healthy controls. The CAXII expression levels were significantly higher in lung cancer patients than in healthy controls in the training set (P<0.0001), and the area under the curve of ROC was 0.794, with 70.0% specificity and 82.9% sensitivity. In lung cancers, expression levels of CAXII were significantly higher in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than with AD (P = 0.035). Furthermore, CAXII was significantly higher in well- and moderately differentiated SCCs than in poorly differentiated ones (P = 0.027). To further confirm the utility of serum CAXII levels as a sero-diagnostic marker, an additional set consisting of sera from 26 lung cancer patients and 30 healthy controls was also investigated by dot blot analysis as a validation study. Serum CAXII levels were also significantly higher in lung cancer patients than in healthy controls in the validation set (P = 0.030). Thus, the serum CAXII levels should be applicable markers discriminating lung cancer patients from healthy controls. To our knowledge, this is the first report providing evidence that CAXII may be a novel sero-diagnostic marker for

  8. Molecular dynamics studies on the buffalo prion protein.


    Zhang, Jiapu; Wang, Feng; Chatterjee, Subhojyoti


    It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) (same as rabbits, horses, and dogs). TSEs, also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of species (except for rabbits, dogs, horses, and buffalo), manifesting as scrapie in sheep and goats; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or "mad-cow" disease) in cattle; chronic wasting disease in deer and elk; and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, and Kulu in humans etc. In molecular structures, these neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), predominantly with α-helices, into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions (PrP(Sc)), rich in β-sheets. In this article, we studied the molecular structure and structural dynamics of buffalo PrP(C) (BufPrP(C)), in order to understand the reason why buffalo is resistant to prion diseases. We first did molecular modeling of a homology structure constructed by one mutation at residue 143 from the NMR structure of bovine and cattle PrP(124-227); immediately we found that for BufPrP(C)(124-227), there are five hydrogen bonds (HBs) at Asn143, but at this position, bovine/cattle do not have such HBs. Same as that of rabbits, dogs, or horses, our molecular dynamics studies also revealed there is a strong salt bridge (SB) ASP178-ARG164 (O-N) keeping the β2-α2 loop linked in buffalo. We also found there is a very strong HB SER170-TYR218 linking this loop with the C-terminal end of α-helix H3. Other information, such as (i) there is a very strong SB HIS187-ARG156 (N-O) linking α-helices H2 and H1 (if mutation H187R is made at position 187, then the hydrophobic core of PrP(C) will be exposed (L.H. Zhong (2010). Exposure of hydrophobic core in human prion protein pathogenic mutant H187R. Journal of

  9. NOWVIV - Nowcasting wake vortex impact variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafferner, A.; Birke, L.; Frech, M.


    A central task of the ongoing DLR project "Wirbelschleppe" (Wake Vortex) is to forecast meteorological quantities which influence the behaviour of wake vortices of landing aircraft. In the first place these are wind, temperature and turbulence, resp. the vertical shear thereof, which impact the lateral drift and turbulent decay of wake vortices. For this purpose the nowcasting system NOWVIV has been developed at DLR. It combines operational forecasts of the Lokal Modell (LM; Doms and Schaettler 1999) of the German weather service DWD with a high-resolution forecasting system. For the latter, the NOAA/FSL version of the mesoscale model MM5 (Grell et al. 2000) has been adapted to particular sites. Orography, land use, and soil type have been generated from available data sources for a 80 km square domain centered on a particular airport with a horizontal resolution of 2.1 km. As a good representation of the boundary layer is of particular importance for predicting wake vortex impact variables, the vertical spacing of model layers has been selected rather small throughout the lower model atmosphere, starting with 20 m at the ground and increasing to about 60 m at 2 km height. NOWVIV delivers vertical profiles of vortex impact variables, which are used by the wake prediction model ``P2P'' developed at DLR (Holzaepfel 2002) to predict wake vortex behaviour. During the two field campaigns ``WakeOP'' and ``WakeTOUL'' in April/May 2001 and May/June 2002 which aimed at measuring (by lidar) and predicting wake vortex behaviour of landing aircraft, NOWVIV has been run in an operational mode for the airports of Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany) and Tarbes (France). A statistical evaluation of the NOWVIV forecasting performance during these campaigns achieved satisfactory results as compared to local measurements of wind and temperature from radio acoustic sounding instruments (Frech et al. 2002). However, there are uncertainties in the daily variation of the boundary layer. Also, the

  10. Is This Speck of Light an Exoplanet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    ). A preprint is available here and also as astro-ph0409323. Notes [1]: This press release is issued simultaneously by ESO and CNRS (in French). [2]: The team consists of Gael Chauvin and Christophe Dumas (ESO-Chile), Anne-Marie Lagrange and Jean-Luc Beuzit (LAOG, Grenoble, France), Benjamin Zuckerman and Inseok Song (UCLA, Los Angeles, USA), David Mouillet (LAOMP, Tarbes, France) and Patrick Lowrance (IPAC, Pasadena, USA). The American members of the team acknowledge funding in part by NASA's Astrobiology Institute. [3]: The NACO facility (from NAOS/Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System and CONICA/Near-Infrared Imager and Spectrograph) at the 8.2-m VLT Yepun telescope on Paranal offers the capability to produce diffraction-limited near-infrared images of astronomical objects. It senses the radiation in this wavelength region with the N90C10 dichroic; 90 percent of the flux is transmitted to the wavefront sensor and 10 percent to the near-infrared camera CONICA. This mode is particularly useful for sharp imaging of red and very-low-mass stellar or substellar objects. The adaptive optics corrector (NAOS) was built, under an ESO contract, by Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA), Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (LAOG) and the LESIA and GEPI laboratories of the Observatoire de Paris in France, in collaboration with ESO. The CONICA camera was built, under an ESO contract, by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) (Heidelberg) and the Max-Planck Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) (Garching) in Germany, in collaboration with ESO. [4]: What is the difference between a small brown dwarf and an exoplanet ? The border line between the two is still being investigated but it appears that a brown dwarf object is formed in the same way as stars, i.e. by contraction in an interstellar cloud while planets are formed within stable circumstellar disks via collision/accretion of planetesimals or disk instabilities. This implies that brown