Science.gov

Sample records for kum river korea

  1. Occurrence of micropollutants in four major rivers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunju; Khim, Jeehyeong; Chung, Sewoong; Seo, Dongil; Son, Younggyu

    2014-09-01

    There has been an increasing concern in recent years over the presence of numerous micropollutants in river water. Simultaneously, risk assessment of micropollutants has become increasingly important due to their high toxicity. Therefore, the aims of this study were to characterize the levels of micropollutants in rivers, to identify the sources of these pollutants, and to evaluate their risk quotients (RQ) to the ecological system. Monitoring data from 159 sites distributed across four major rivers in Korea were collected from the Ministry of the Environment (KME) reports. Tests were performed to check for the presence of 35 pollutants in river waters, from which 29 pollutants were detected. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) occurred most frequently, at low concentrations, whereas volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and phthalates were detected at higher concentrations. Based on this study, it was suggested that the factories near the sampling sites where pollutants were found represent one of the main sources of chemicals. After comparing the industrial activities with the measured pollutants, although the released amounts were not reported, representative intermediate chemicals were found in the river water. The RQs of most VOCs were below one, despite their concentration range being higher, compared with other pollutants. Methyl bromide and di-n-octyl phthalate occurred frequently in the Han River Basin and the Nakdong River Basin, respectively, and their RQs were consistently high, so further studies should focus on their exact emission source in order to reduce ecological risk. The results suggest that it will be necessary to develop methods of risk assessment that are more tailored to the various micropollutants present in river water, in addition to the implementation of water treatment systems to reduce ecological risk.

  2. Mg isotopes geochemistry in the Han River basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, J.; Lee, S.; Lee, K.; Shin, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Han River basin is the largest river system in South Korea, consisting of two major branches: the North Han River (NHR) and South Han River (SHR). Distinct differences in the lithology between the NHR and SHR (silicates vs. carbonates) allow us to constrain the behavior of Mg isotopes during chemical weathering. We collected water samples as well as rock samples in summer 2011. The lithological difference between the NHR and SHR is reflected in major ions and dissolved Sr isotope compositions; lower major ion concentrations and high 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the NHR but higher major ion concentrations and low 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the SHR. Dissolved Mg in the NHR yielded heavier Mg isotope compositions, ranging from -1.14 to -0.67‰ of δ26MgDSM3 with an average of -0.85‰ (n=6), than that in the SHR, ranging from -1.34 to -0.74‰ of δ26MgDSM3 with an average of -1.15‰ (n=6). The river waters draining only carbonates have much lower δ26MgDSM3 values (-1.34 to -1.27‰, n=3), similar to other rivers draining carbonates. This implies that biological fractionation such as plant uptake would be limited because a geographical environment in the Han River basin is almost same. Mineral saturation indices indicate that the river waters are undersaturated with respect to primary and secondary minerals such as smectite but waters draining the carbonates are oversaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. Hence, the lower δ26MgDSM3 values in the NHR relative to source rocks could be mainly attributed to the fractionation during silicate mineral dissolution. Contrary to the NHR, δ26MgDSM3 values in the SHR indistinguishable from those of the carbonates imply that carbonates dissolution/precipitation would not fractionate Mg isotopes. This study indicates that Mg isotopes could be used to constrain riverine Mg sources.

  3. Hydrological Catchment Similarity Assessment in Geum River Catchments, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Ara; Park, Kisoon; Lee, Hyosang

    2013-04-01

    Similarity measure of catchments is essential for regionalization studies, which provide in depth analysis in hydrological response and flood estimations at ungauged catchments. However, this similarity measure is often biased to the selected catchments and is notclearly explained in hydrological sense. This study applied a type of hydrological similarity distance measure-Flood Estimation Handbook to 25 Geum river catchments, Korea. Three Catchment Characteristics, Area (A)-Annual precipitation (SAAR)-SCS Curve Number (CN), are used in Euclidian distance measures. Furthermore, six index of Flow Duration Curve (ILow:Q275/Q185, IDrought:Q355/Q185, IFlood:Qmax/Q185, IAbundant:Q95/Q185, IFloodDuration:Q10/Q355 and IRiverRegime:Qmax/Qmin) are applied to clustering analysis of SPSS. The catchments' grouping of hydrological similarity measures suggests three groups: H1 (Cheongseong, Gidae, Bukil, Oksan, Seockhwa, Habgang and Sangyeogyo), H2 (Cheongju, Guryong, Ugon, Boksu, Useong and Seokdong) and H3 (Muju, Yangganggyo and YongdamDam). The four catchments (Cheoncheon, Donghyang, DaecheongDam and Indong) are not grouped in this study. The clustering analysis of FDC provides four Groups; CFDC1 (Muju, YongdamDam, Yangganggyo, DaecheongDam, Cheongseong, Gidae, Seokhwa, Bukil, Habgang, Cheongju, Oksan, Yuseong and Guryong), CFDC2 (Cheoncheon, Donghyang, Boksu, Indong, Nonsan, Seokdong, Ugon, Simcheon, Useong and Sangyeogyo), CFDC3 (Songcheon) and CFDC4 (Tanbu). The six catchments (out of seven) of H1 are grouped in CFDC1, while Sangyeogyo is grouped in CFDC2. The four catchments (out of six) of H2 are also grouped in CFDC2, while Cheongju and Guryong are grouped in CFDC1. The catchments of H3 are categorized in CFDC1. The authors examine the results (H1, H2 and H3) of similarity measure based on catchment physical descriptors with results (CFDC1 and CFDC2) of clustering based on catchment hydrological response. The results of hydrological similarity measures are supported by

  4. Effect of environmental flow management on river water quality: a case study at Yeongsan River, Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Sung Min; Ki, Seo Jin; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Choi, Heechul; Kim, Joon Ha

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a management scheme to control river water quality using additional water discharges from upstream dams, which results in an increase environmental flow (EF) followed by an enhancement of water quality in a target river. To suggest a creditable management plan among a suite of ideal scenarios, the monthly averaged water quality monitoring data from 2001 to 2006 at the Yeongsan (YS) River, Korea were investigated with respect to seasonal variation and spatial distribution. From the analysis, it was found that while biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) level in the YS River was extremely high during the dry/drought season (April, May, and June; AMJ), the level was subsequently decreased during the monsoon season (July, August, and September; JAS) due mainly to the dilution effect of rainfall. To improve the water quality in AMJ, we here suggested a scenario of increasing EF using surplus water discharges from upstream dams, which was examined by one dimensional riverine water quality model, QUAL2E model. Simulation result showed that additional discharge from the upstream dams could lead, on average, to a 36% of water quality improvement in mainstream with respect to BOD(5). Model coefficients were validated by comparing the six year monitoring data to minimize a sum of squares error, and showed a good agreement with the observed data. Overall, the methodology developed in this paper appears to be quite clear and straightforward, and thus, can be applied to a wide range of the flow managements or water quality controls in a stream with artificial structures.

  5. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis Infection among Residents along 5 Major Rivers in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Il; Shin, Hee-Eun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Ju, Jung-Won; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Park, Mi Yeoun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong

    2016-04-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is currently the most important parasite affecting public health problems in the Republic of Korea. We investigated the prevalence of C. sinensis infection among residents living along 5 major rivers in Korea. A total of 42,562 individual stool samples were collected from 37 localities and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Helminth eggs were detected in 4,052 (9.5%) residents and 3,586 (8.4%) were infected with C. sinensis. The egg positive rate of C. sinensis in Nakdong, Seomjin, Geum, Yeongsan, and Han River was 11.7%, 9.9%, 6.5%, 3.1%, and 1.0%, respectively. The overall prevalence of clonorchiasis by sex was 11.2% in males and 6.2% in females. The age-prevalence was the highest in the 50-59 years band. It has been reconfirmed that the endemicity of clonorchiasis is higher in southern areas of Korea, especially along Nakdong and Seomjin Rivers. A combination of continuous control programs with health education initiatives is urgently required in these highly endemic areas of clonorchiasis in Korea.

  6. Water quality and supply issues in the Nakdong River Basin in the Republic of Korea.

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, K. C.; Chang, R.-W.; Williams, G. P.; Chang, Y.-S.; Tomasko, D.; LaGory, K. E.; Ditmars, J. D.; Chun, H.-D.; Lee, B.-Y.; Environmental Assessment; Research Inst. of Industrial Science and Technol.; Korea Environment Inst.

    2001-01-01

    A framework for evaluating alternative management strategies for the Nakdong River Basin in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was developed and applied jointly by Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois, USA, and the Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology in Pohang, South Korea. Water from this basin, the second largest in South Korea, supports a total population of more than 13 million people. Rapid industrial expansion, urbanization, and population growth have dramatically increased the demand for water and have severely degraded water quality, particularly near large industrial complexes and in the lower portion of the basin. Management strategies for the entire basin through to the year 2011 were evaluated with a computer model for basin-wide predictions of water flow and quality (HSPF). This continuous-event model was developed and calibrated using site-specific data for the basin over a two-year period (1994-1995) that included periods of both high (monsoonal) and low (drought) flows. Water quality impacts for different wastewater treatment strategies were assessed in terms of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) levels. The results of the study indicate that BOD levels in the main stem of the Nakdong River below the Kumhogang (a major tributary with low flow and heavy pollution loads) cannot be significantly improved by reducing direct BOD loads from point sources along the river. To reduce main stem BOD levels, the nutrient loading to the river must be reduced. In order to reduce these loads, additional advanced treatment methods (i.e., tertiary treatment) must be incorporated in the treatment facilities to remove N and P. The discharge inventory data further suggest that a large portion of N and P loads are derived from non-point agricultural practices. Reduction of these loads is difficult to accomplish and may require extensive modifications in agricultural and land-use practices. The modeling

  7. A study on natural and anthropogenic changes of chemical compositions in the Nakdong river in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Choi, H. B.; Choi, U. K.; Lee, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Nakdong river is the longest river in South Korea and about sixty metalliferous mines have been operated since the 1930s. So, the environmental issues have occurred due to mine tailings, which were derived from mining activities located in the basin. In this study, thirty three river samples were collected from branches affected by tailings of each eleven-mine and main stream that meets the branches. Field parameters were measured in situ and major cations, anions, trace elements and water isotopes were determined at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The purpose of this study was, thus, to evaluate whether the mines positioned upper catchment affect on chemical variations of the Nakdong river where bedrocks mostly consist of quartize. Most water samples that dominantly were influenced by chemical weathering are on a weathering line [HCO3+2 SO4 : 2 (Ca + Mg) = 1:1]. However, six samples have shown excess sulfate that were below the 1:1 line and these samples were mostly from the streams around the Seokpo refinery and Sambo mine branch, which were consistent with the results by principle component analysis (PCA). Also, three samples near farmlands can be separated into a group by PCA because of high concentrations of nitrate. Based on the chemical and PCA results, we believe that the chemical compositions of the river have been affected by the mine tailings and agricultural contaminants. However, it is necessary to understand how the contaminants were derived from other inputs, such as synthetic fertilizer, soil, and atmospheric deposition.

  8. Reemergence of rabies in the southern Han river region, Korea.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki

    2014-07-01

    Recently, 11 cases of animal rabies were reported in the southern region (Suwon and Hwaseong cities) of Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The cases were temporally separated into two cases in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in spring 2012 and nine cases in domestic animals and wildlife in winter 2012-13. All carcasses were submitted for histopathologic examination and viral antigen identification. Sequences of the glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, and glycoprotein-large polymerase protein intergenic noncoding loci of the 11 strains were determined and compared with published reference sequences. All rabies strains were closely related to the Gangwon strains isolated in 2008-09, suggesting that the rabies virus strains isolated in Gyeonggi were introduced from Gangwon Province.

  9. Effect of groundwater discharge and river topography on nutrient component of rivers in Southern Korea and Western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onodera, S.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, Y.; Saito, M.; Jige, M.; Hwang, J.

    2010-12-01

    Nutrient condition in water environment controls the ecosystem. Groundwater discharge to the oceans is significant as nutrient supply (Slomp et al, 2004 etc). This situation is similar to the nutrient condition in rivers. Most of river line generally is discharge area of groundwater, but a part of river line is recharge area of groundwater. In addition, nutrient concentration changes by the trap in dammed lake in the way of flowing to downstream. On the other hand, recent human activity has caused the intensive and excessive supply of nutrient. To clarify the nutrient condition in river environment, it is necessary to confirm the groundwater discharge to river as well as estimate the nutrient load by human activity. However, these types of researches have not been conducted enough. In this research, we aimed to confirm effects of groundwater on nutrient supply to rivers of various properties. Our research areas are around Hiroshima of western Japan and around Busan of southern Korea. We collected river water samples from upstream to downstream. All water samples were analyzed in the laboratory for the 222Rn, nutrient and inorganic element concentration, respectively. In addition, water samples of groundwater around there, bottom sea water, and river water at some points around the station were collected. Spatial variations from upstream to downstream in 222Rn and nutrient concentrations indicated decreasing trends. These suggest that head water is source area of nutrient. But some areas in midstream had high values, and it indicated heterogeneous groundwater supply. Phosphorus concentration increased in downstream. It was higher at groundwater of discharge area and downstream. This also suggests phosphorus supply by groundwater to rivers. Especially, the phosphorus concentration was high in the tidal river. This would be supplied by the diffusion from river bed sediment as well as by groundwater discharge.

  10. River and groundwater level fluctuation analysis after barrage construction in riverside, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Keon Ha; Kim, Tae Hyung; Shin, Kyung Hee; Seom Bae, Jong

    2016-04-01

    Changes in river have brought to the change of groundwater hydrogeology and water quality. Also, the understanding of the interaction of groundwater and surface water is essential for the managing of effective water resource. In case of South Korea, there is increasing the interest of groundwater development and management in riverside through large river maintenance projects lately. The river water level was elevated than in the past and it is expected to the changes in the interaction between the existing groundwater and surface. This study analyzed the relationship between surrounding river water level and groundwater level in the 91 locations of groundwater observation wells, also was supposed to classify the similar pattern of groundwater by performing multivariate analysis. At the result of factor analysis, it is shown that the high and low factor in correlation between river water level and groundwater level were caused by receiving the significant external influence. In the result of cluster analysis, the middle and upper area of river were similar to the fluctuation pattern with river water level and groundwater level and the downstream area of river was shown with a low correlation. This is due to the characteristic showing a distribution of the alluvium in various types at the downstream area in compared to middle and upper area. In the future, the research is undergoing to analyze the time series of a point in time to account for the external influences of the effects on the groundwater level.

  11. Analysis of seasonal water pollution based on rainfall feature at Anyang river basin in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J. G.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, T. H.; Hwang, E. J.

    2005-08-01

    To determine selected water pollution parameters of the Anyang River (one of the biggest contributory branches of the Han River in Korea) and its main tributaries, the geological and topographical and rainfall features in its basin were investigated, and the resulting data were tabulated. Samples were collected at the upper, mid and down parts of the Anyang River and its branches and were analyzed based on biochemical and chemical methods, Korean biotic index (KBI) and Saprobien systems. Selected parameters of concern include BOD, heavy metals, nonpoint pollution and sewage discharge. The Anyang River basin has a torrential heavy rainfall; however, the rate of rainfall significantly varies from season to season. Water pollution levels in the dry season increase dramatically. The mainstream of the Anyang River is classified as fifth grade polysaprobic water according to Saprobien system. In addition, the biotic index is over 2.5 in overall. General pollution at the junction of the Anyang River and each branch stream varies. Possible countermeasures to improve the water quality of the river include intercept the non-treated waste water and sewage at the Anyang River junction and each branch stream, enforcement of water management during the rainy season, and continuous investment on environmental restoration.

  12. Identification of Human and Animal Fecal Contamination after Rainfall in the Han River, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Heetae; Lee, Jung Eun; Chung, Myung-Sub; Ko, Gwang Pyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of rainfall on the levels and sources of microbial contamination in the Han River, Korea. Thirty-four samples were collected at two sampling sites located upstream and downstream in the river from July 2010 to February 2011. Various fecal indicator microorganisms, including total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., somatic and male-specific (F+) coliphage, and four major enteric viruses were analyzed. Rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of fecal coliform and norovirus at both sampling sites. Additionally, rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of total coliform, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., and F+ coliphage at the upstream site. To identify the source of fecal contamination, microbial source tracking (MST) was conducted using both male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage and the Enterococcus faecium esp gene as previously described. Our results clearly indicated that the majority of fecal contamination at the downstream Han River site was from a human source. At the upstream sampling site, contamination from human fecal matter was very limited; however, fecal contamination from non-point animal sources increased following rainfall. In conclusion, our data suggest that rainfall significantly affects the level and source of fecal contamination in the Han River, Korea. PMID:23666535

  13. Identification of human and animal fecal contamination after rainfall in the Han River, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Heetae; Lee, Jung Eun; Chung, Myung-Sub; Ko, Gwang Pyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of rainfall on the levels and sources of microbial contamination in the Han River, Korea. Thirty-four samples were collected at two sampling sites located upstream and downstream in the river from July 2010 to February 2011. Various fecal indicator microorganisms, including total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., somatic and male-specific (F+) coliphage, and four major enteric viruses were analyzed. Rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of fecal coliform and norovirus at both sampling sites. Additionally, rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of total coliform, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., and F+ coliphage at the upstream site. To identify the source of fecal contamination, microbial source tracking (MST) was conducted using both male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage and the Enterococcus faecium esp gene as previously described. Our results clearly indicated that the majority of fecal contamination at the downstream Han River site was from a human source. At the upstream sampling site, contamination from human fecal matter was very limited; however, fecal contamination from non-point animal sources increased following rainfall. In conclusion, our data suggest that rainfall significantly affects the level and source of fecal contamination in the Han River, Korea.

  14. Estrogenic chemicals and estrogenicity in river waters of South Korea and seven Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Duong, Cuong N; Ra, Jin Sung; Cho, Jaeweon; Kim, Sang D; Choi, Hoon K; Park, Ji-Hyung; Kim, Kyoung W; Inam, Edu; Kim, Sang Don

    2010-01-01

    The effects of treatment processes on estrogenicity were evaluated by examining estradiol equivalent (EEQ) concentrations in influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) located along Yeongsan and Seomjin rivers in Korea. The occurrence and distribution of estrogenic chemicals were also estimated for surface water in Korea and compared with seven other Asian countries including Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. Target compounds were nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and genistein (Gen). Water samples were pretreated and analyzed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the treatment processes of Korean STPs were sufficient to reduce the estrogenic activity of municipal wastewater. The concentrations of phenolic xenoestrogens (i.e., NP, OP and BPA) in samples of Yeongsan and Seomjin rivers were smaller than those reported by previous studies in Korea. In most samples taken from the seven Asian countries, the presence of E2 and EE2 was a major contributor toward estrogenic activity. The EEQ concentrations in surface water samples of the seven Asian countries were at a higher level in comparison to that reported in European countries, America and Japan. However, further studies with more sampling frequencies and sampling areas should be carried out for better evaluation of the occurrence and distribution of estrogenic compounds in these Asian countries. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of the Water Quality of Six Major Rivers in South Korea: Statistical and Isotopic Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, W.; Ryu, J.; Lee, K.; Park, Y.; Chung, G.

    2008-12-01

    Seasonal and spatial variation in water quality and contaminant sources were investigated in six major rivers in South Korea that vary widely in drainage area and length. The contents of dissolved loads in the rivers varied seasonally, and some dissolved ions such as Cl- and NO3- showed large spatial differences in all of the rivers. The water type changed from Ca-HCO3 in the upper reaches to Na-HCO3-SO4 in the lower reaches, probably because of anthropogenic contamination. Compared with the Sumjin and Mankyung rivers, which flow mainly through forested areas with limited agricultural activity, the other four rivers, which flow through agricultural and urban areas, registered much higher Cl- and NO3- concentrations. Statistical analyses showed that this seasonal and spatial variation occurs in all of the rivers and that Cl- and NO3- originate from different sources. The nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of dissolved nitrate indicated that the rivers are significantly affected by manure, sewage, or both.

  16. Effects of Anthropogenic Activity on the Hydrogeochemistry of Nakdong River, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Ha, S.

    2016-12-01

    The hydrogeochemistry of the river water is affected by many different factors including anthropogenic activity and rock weathering. With urbanization, the anthropogenic effects play more important roles in the hydrogeochemisty of river waters. The Nakdong River is the second largest but the longest river in Korea. The drainage area of the Nakdong basin is about 23,384 km2. This river flows through two cities, Daegu and Busan, which are the third and second largest ones in Korea, and therefore, the anthopogenic effects from these cities as well as those from the weathering of the bedrocks on the geochemcial compositions of the river are expected to be significant. Considering the seasonal effects and precipitaion rate, the water samples of river and tributaries were collected three times in Novermber, May, and July, respectively. The hydrogeochemical facies from Piper diagram shows that it changes from Ca-SO4/Ca-HCO3 type to Na-SO4 one from upstream to downstream, indicating that the anthropogenic effects from large cities which are located in downstream region become more significant. However, considering the geochemical compositions of cations (Ca > Na > Mg > K) and anions (HCO3 > SO4 > Cl > NO3), the major contributions to the hydrogeochemistry of this river are from the weathering of the bedrocks. The geology of the basin area is mainly composed of granitic and gneissic rocks in upstream region and sedimentary and granitic rocks in downstream one. For the major cations, Na shows the highest concentrations near Daegu in which large industrial complex is also located, stronly indicating that the anthopogenic effects are quite significant in this area. The high concentrations of Na are also accompanied by the high concentrations of SO4, which is consiered as one of the major anions from pollutant source. The concentrations of those two elements decrease downstream and do not increase near Busan, which is located most downstream. Phospahte were also detected in

  17. Distribution and seasonal occurrence of UV filters in rivers and wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ekpeghere, Kalu Ibe; Kim, Un-Jung; O, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hee-Young; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2016-01-15

    The occurrence and distribution of eight UV filters benzophenone (BP), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (OD-PABA), 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), isoamyl benzoate, and benzyl cinnamate in eleven sites among three rivers, five sewage treatment plants (STPs), and four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in different parts of Korea was investigated. The total concentrations of UV filters in the three sampled seasons were 62.9-412 ng L(-1) (river), 417-5055 ng L(-1) (STP influent), 108-2201 ng L(-1) (STP effluent), 122-4154 ng L(-1) (WWTP influent), and 120-849 ng L(-1) (WWTP effluent). The concentration of the target pollutants in the influent of the treatment systems was directly proportional to the resident population density. A seasonal increase of >27% was observed in the total concentration of the UV filters in the rivers and influents of the treatment plants (TPs) during summer. BP, BP-3, EHMC, 4-MBC, and EHS were the most dominant, showing a distinct distribution pattern that was dependent on the effectiveness of the treatment process and properties of each compound. The concentrations of the UV filters were higher in the TPs influents than in the rivers, and the most dominant UV filters in the rivers were those with low removal rate. Although biological treatment processes favored the removal of the UV filter compounds in the TPs, complete removal was not achieved before discharge into the rivers.

  18. A study on the distribution of chlorination by-products (CBPs) in treated water in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, K J; Kim, B H; Hong, J E; Pyo, H S; Park, S J; Lee, D W

    2001-08-01

    Fifteen chlorination by-products were analyzed in 416 water samples collected from 35 water treatment plants in Korea from 1996 to 1998. These samples were divided into five groups according to water sources (Han-river, Nakdong-river, Youngsan-river, Kum-river and Cheju) and detected CBPs were classified into six classes (trihalomethanes; THMs, haloacetic acids; HAAs, haloacetonitriles: HANs haloketones; HKs, chloralhydrate; CH, chloropicrin; CP) and then, it was observed the detection tendency and frequency of CBPs in each water source. The total concentration of CBPs in treated water from Nakdong-river or Han-river was higher than those from the other rivers. And the distribution pattern of each class of CBPs was similar in all water sources. THMs were the highest portion in the range of 40-50%, and HAAs and HANs were 28-35 and 9-15%, respectively. And there was a strong correlation between HANs and HKs (r=0.813). Each and total concentrations of CBPs showed to be more affected by the water source in two-way analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) among the concentration of CBPs, the source of water and season.

  19. Hydraulic analysis of a radial collector well for riverbank filtration near Nakdong River, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eunhee; Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Kang-Kun; Shin, Jiyoun

    2012-05-01

    A radial collector well is used for the extraction of a large amount of groundwater without causing a deep drawdown at the well's center, and it is appropriate for the supply of municipal water through riverbank filtration (RBF). Flow path changes caused by water extraction through a radial collector well were simulated to estimate the amount of river water induction at a RBF site associated with Nakdong River in South Korea. The structure of the screened horizontal arms of a radial collector well was examined with respect to effective riverbank filtration. The relative ratio of the river water induced to the radial collector well compared to the total groundwater extraction was estimated to be 27-52%. The amount of induced river water varies with the distance of a horizontal arm from the river, indicating that the location and structure of the collector well is significant for RBF. In all simulation cases, the maximum drawdown of the groundwater level near the collector well was 2.1 m, which is not significant considering the substantial pumping rate at the study site. It was concluded that RBF radial collector wells can be used at the study site for a sustainable water supply.

  20. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants and rivers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Sim, Won-Jin; Lee, Ji-Woo; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2010-05-01

    We measured 25 pharmaceuticals in ten municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), one hospital WWTP and five rivers in Korea. In the municipal WWTP influents, acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid and caffeine showed relatively high concentrations. The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the wastewater seems to be influenced by production and consumption of pharmaceuticals. The hospital WWTP influent showed higher total concentrations of pharmaceuticals than the municipal WWTPs, and caffeine, ciprofloxacin and acetaminophen were dominant. In the rivers, caffeine was dominant, and the distribution of pharmaceuticals was related to the inflow of the wastewater. In the municipal WWTPs, the concentrations of acetaminophen, caffeine, acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen and gemfibrozil decreased by over 99%. The decrease of these pharmaceuticals occurred mainly during the biological processes. In the physico-chemical processes, the decrease of pharmaceuticals was insignificant except for some cases. In the hospital WWTP, ciprofloxacin, acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen and carbamazepine showed the decrease rates of over 80%. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Behaviour of Mg isotopes during chemical weathering in the Han River, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jong-Sik; Lee, Sin-Woo; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2014-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) isotopes can be useful for directly constraining the sources of riverine Mg, but the dominant controls on riverine Mg isotope ratios are still uncertain. Here, we report Mg isotope ratios for river waters, experimental leachates and digestions, bulk rocks, and fertilizers in the Han River (HR), South Korea. The HR is composed of two lithologically distinct tributaries: the North Han River (NHR) that flows over only silicate rocks, and the South Han River (SHR) that flows over carbonate rocks in the upper part. The lithological differences between the NHR and SHR are reflected in major ion, 87Sr/86Sr, and δ26Mg geochemistry. In particular, the NHR has lower major ion concentrations but higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios and δ26Mg values than the SHR. Simple mass balances and mixing equations indicate that if the riverine δ26Mg values in the HR system are mainly controlled by conservative mixing between silicate and carbonate weathering, the average carbonate end-member δ26Mg value should be unlikely lower than what are measured in this study. Although multiple process-related fractionations occur in the HR system, the enrichment of 24Mg in the NHR could be mostly controlled by either fractionation or mixing between isotopically distinct reservoirs, such as minerals or fractions (labile and structural Mg), during dissolution, while the little depletion of 24Mg in the SHR could be likely due to the input of groundwater with lower δ26Mg value rather than fractionation. However, it is difficult to identify the contribution of anthropogenic inputs to riverine δ26Mg because their effects are little. This study suggests that the potential of Mg isotopes for constraining Mg sources in a lithologically varied river basin can be enhanced with a better understanding of process-related fractionation.

  2. Ages and Loads of Riverine Carbon of the Five Largest Rivers in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E. J.; Shin, Y.; Oh, N. H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the quantity and quality of riverine carbon is crucial to predict the changes of the regional carbon cycle and to efficiently manage drinking water quality. We investigated both the loads and ages of carbon exported by the five largest rivers in South Korea using seasonal sampling and dual carbon isotope analysis for 2012 - 2013. Annually a total of 581 Gg of carbon (DIC, DOC, and POC combined) was transported to the ocean through the five rivers, releasing 7.6, 1.7, and 0.8 g-C m-2 yr-1 of DIC, DOC, and POC, respectively, which accounted for 80%, 14%, and 6% of the annual loads of riverine carbon, respectively. About 37-45% of annual riverine DIC loads, 37-51% of DOC loads, and 33-47% of POC loads were released from the basins during the summer monsoon (June - August) indicating strong effects of precipitation in the riverine carbon export. Modern to ~1,020 years old carbon was released from the five river basins. The δDI13C and ΔDI14C showed a negative correlation in each river whereas no consistent correlation was observed between δDO13C and ΔDO14C, suggesting a large variation in DOC sources. Riverine POC load increased sharply after a typhoon and ΔPO14C was higher in summer than winter in the five rivers. The results suggested that both quantity and quality of riverine carbon released from the five largest basins could be strongly influenced by the Asian monsoon climates and that relatively young dissolved carbon could be predominantly released as the intensity and frequency of storms increase.

  3. Dynamic genetic features of eukaryotic plankton diversity in the Nakdong River estuary of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jee Eun; Chung, Ik Kyo; Lee, Sang-Rae

    2016-08-01

    Estuaries are environments where freshwater and seawater mix and they display various salinity profiles. The construction of river barrages and dams has rapidly changed these environments and has had a wide range of impacts on plankton communities. To understand the dynamics of such communities, researchers need accurate and rapid techniques for detecting plankton species. We evaluated the diversity of eukaryotic plankton over a salinity gradient by applying a metagenomics tool at the Nakdong River estuary in Korea. Environmental samples were collected on three dates during summer and autumn of 2011 at the Eulsukdo Bridge at the mouth of that river. Amplifying the 18S rDNA allowed us to analyze 456 clones and 122 phylotypes. Metagenomic sequences revealed various taxonomic groups and cryptic genetic variations at the intra- and inter-specific levels. By analyzing the same station at each sampling date, we observed that the phylotypes presented a salinity-related pattern of diversity in assemblages. The variety of species within freshwater samples reflected the rapid environmental changes caused by freshwater inputs. Dinophyceae phylotypes accounted for the highest proportion of overall diversity in the seawater samples. Euryhaline diatoms and dinoflagellates were observed in the freshwater, brackish and seawater samples. The biological data for species composition demonstrate the transitional state between freshwater and seawater. Therefore, this metagenomics information can serve as a biological indicator for tracking changes in aquatic environments.

  4. Temporal shifts in cyanobacterial communities at different sites on the Nakdong River in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hur, Moonsuk; Lee, Injung; Tak, Bo-Mi; Lee, Hae Jin; Yu, Jae Jeong; Cheon, Se Uk; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2013-12-01

    The studies of cyanobacterial blooms resulting from eutrophication or climate change and investigation of changes in the cyanobacterial community in freshwater environments are critical for the management of drinking water. Therefore, we investigated the cyanobacterial communities at 6 sites along the Nakdong River in South Korea from May 2012 to October 2012 by using high-throughput sequencing techniques and studied their relationship with various geochemical factors at sampling sites. Diverse genera (total of 175 genera) were detected within the cyanobacteria, and changes in their compositions were analyzed. The genus Prochlorococcus predominated in the May samples, especially in those obtained from the upstream part of the river, whereas the relative abundance of Microcystis and Anabaena increased with increase in water temperature. The relationship between the cyanobacterial community and environmental factors was analyzed by canonical correlation analysis, and the correlation between harmful cyanobacteria and chemical factors was analyzed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination. Various environmental factors such as dissolved oxygen, pH, electric conductivity, temperature were found to affect the cyanobacterial communities in the river. The results of this study could help in the management of freshwater environments and in maintenance of drinking water quality.

  5. Dynamic genetic features of eukaryotic plankton diversity in the Nakdong River estuary of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jee Eun; Chung, Ik Kyo; Lee, Sang-Rae

    2017-07-01

    Estuaries are environments where freshwater and seawater mix and they display various salinity profiles. The construction of river barrages and dams has rapidly changed these environments and has had a wide range of impacts on plankton communities. To understand the dynamics of such communities, researchers need accurate and rapid techniques for detecting plankton species. We evaluated the diversity of eukaryotic plankton over a salinity gradient by applying a metagenomics tool at the Nakdong River estuary in Korea. Environmental samples were collected on three dates during summer and autumn of 2011 at the Eulsukdo Bridge at the mouth of that river. Amplifying the 18S rDNA allowed us to analyze 456 clones and 122 phylotypes. Metagenomic sequences revealed various taxonomic groups and cryptic genetic variations at the intra- and inter-specific levels. By analyzing the same station at each sampling date, we observed that the phylotypes presented a salinity-related pattern of diversity in assemblages. The variety of species within freshwater samples reflected the rapid environmental changes caused by freshwater inputs. Dinophyceae phylotypes accounted for the highest proportion of overall diversity in the seawater samples. Euryhaline diatoms and dinoflagellates were observed in the freshwater, brackish and seawater samples. The biological data for species composition demonstrate the transitional state between freshwater and seawater. Therefore, this metagenomics information can serve as a biological indicator for tracking changes in aquatic environments.

  6. Heterophyid trematodes recovered from people residing along the Boseong River, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Kim, Jae-Lip; Lim, Hyemi; Shin, Eun-Hee; Lee, Keon Hoon; Kim, Mok Ryeon; Han, Sun Jin; Yeom, Jae Hyun; Park, Sun Mi; Hwang, Jae-Sun

    2015-08-01

    We conducted an epidemiological survey to determine the status of heterophyid fluke infections among people residing along the Boseong River, Gokseong-gun, South Korea (= Korea) from October 2011 to February 2012. Fecal specimens were collected from 115 (male 51, female 64) people and examined for intestinal helminth eggs using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The eggs of Metagonimus yokogawai together with other Metagonimus spp. were detected in 28 (24.3%) cases. Eleven egg positive people were treated with 10mg/kg praziquantel followed by MgSO4 purging in order to recover the adult flukes. Whole consecutive diarrheic stools were collected individually 4-5 times. Adult flukes recovered were 66,499 specimens (6045.4/positive case) of M. yokogawai, 343 (38.1) of Metagonimus miyatai, 3293 (299.4) of Metagonimus takahashii, 81 (20.3) of Heterophyes nocens, 6 (3.0) of Heterophyopsis continua, and 1 (1.0) of Stictodora fuscata. The results indicated that the surveyed area is a highly endemic area of metagonimiasis (three Metagonimus species) with low-grade mixed infections of 3 other heterophyid flukes. The infected people experienced variable degrees of gastrointestinal discomfort and indigestion. They consumed raw freshwater and brackish water fish, including sweetfish and mullets. It is strongly recommended that people residing in the survey area avoid eating raw fish to prevent M. yokogawai and other heterophyid infections.

  7. Assessment of hydraulic fish habitat condition using integrated toolkit: a case study of the Geum river basin, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangyoung; Kim, Jeongkon; Ko, Ick Hwan; Arthington, Angela; Jones, Gary; Yum, Kyung Taek

    2010-01-01

    Artificial changes of rivers, including construction and operation of dams, inevitably lead to physical and ecological changes throughout waterways and their floodplains. In this study, a conceptual model coupled with integrated numerical modeling is presented for hydraulic fish habitat assessment of the Geum River basin, Republic of Korea. Based on the major events which might have affected the ecological system, a conceptual model was formulated to guide desktop and field studies, modeling and scenario evaluations. The result of hydraulic fish habitat assessment indicated that the construction of the Daecheong Multipurpose Dam (DMD) in the Geum River basin has altered flow magnitudes and reduced the river's flow variability. Changes are evident in the magnitude of medium and small flows and the river experiences increased low flows during the dry season. Black shiner, an endangered fish species in Korea, was selected and analyzed to explore relationships between flow regime change by dams and changes to its preferred habitats. As a result, fewer sensitive riffle-benthic species were observed in the reaches downstream of DMD due to the reduction of suitable habitat conditions such as riffle-pool sequences. The proposed conceptual model and integrated toolkit would allow river managers to isolate the physical and biological effects associated with dam operation and could be useful for developing river management strategies.

  8. Operational water quality forecasting with EnKF data assimilation in the Yeongsan river basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Changmin; Kim, Kyunghyun; Min, Joong-Hyuk; Na, Eunhye; Park, Suyoung; Song, Hyunoh

    2016-04-01

    National institute of environmental research(NIER) have been operating the water quality forecasting to prevent water quality deterioration for the major rivers in South Korea through WQFS-NIER(Water Quality Forecasting System) which developed based on Delft-FEWS system by the international joint research with NIER and Deltares from 2011 to 2013 The coupled the Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran(HSPF) and the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code(EFDC) models are being used to quantitatively predict the water quality. HSPF watershed model are used to generate the flows and water quality loads of the major tributaries which are used as the boundary conditions for EFDC model. The uncertainties in water quality forecasting are contributed by various factors such as input uncertainty, model structure uncertainty, parametric uncertainty, initial conditions uncertainty, of which to reduce uncertainty on the initial conditions is relatively effective in improving accuracy of short term water quality forecast. To reduce initial conditions uncertainties, ensemble Kalman filter(EnKF) data assimilation(DA) techniques are applied to the EFDC models. DA is to condition the model state on the observations to get a better estimate of state. Model error is assumed to come from uncertainties of the boundary conditions of EFDC model. The case study for Yeongsan river demonstrate that EnKF is successful in bringing the algae concentrations closer to the observations.

  9. Evaluation of Riverbank Filtration Efficiency with Radial Collector Well Systems near the Nakdong River, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Hyun, Y.; Lee, K.; Choi, D.; Kim, G.

    2009-12-01

    Evaluation of the efficiency of riverbank filtration (RBF) with radial collector well system near the Nakdong River, Korea is performed. We investigated the groundwater flow response to pumping at a radial collector well located in a RBF facility and measured the drawdowns and well yield. The distribution of water flux extracted from each horizontal arm and the removal efficiency of contaminants in the river water through the RBF are calculated through the numerical simulations. Sensitivity analyses about hydraulic conductivity, well flow coefficient, and retardation coefficients are performed to assess the effect of variations in the hydraulic conditions of the wells in the RBF facility on groundwater drawdowns and RBF. Simulation results indicate that the drawdowns and amount of recharged surface water change with the hydraulic conductivity and the well flow coefficient. The retardation coefficient and decay coefficient, which determine the amount of the contaminant filtrated during the RBF, play critical role in the efficiency of RBF. The simulation results confirm that the proposed method can be practically used for estimating the efficiency of the radial collector well for RBF.

  10. Conjunctive operation of river facilities for integrated water resources management in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwirin; Jang, Cheolhee; Kim, Sung

    2016-10-01

    With the increasing trend of water-related disasters such as floods and droughts resulting from climate change, the integrated management of water resources is gaining importance recently. Korea has worked towards preventing disasters caused by floods and droughts, managing water resources efficiently through the coordinated operation of river facilities such as dams, weirs, and agricultural reservoirs. This has been pursued to enable everyone to enjoy the benefits inherent to the utilization of water resources, by preserving functional rivers, improving their utility and reducing the degradation of water quality caused by floods and droughts. At the same time, coordinated activities are being conducted in multi-purpose dams, hydro-power dams, weirs, agricultural reservoirs and water use facilities (featuring a daily water intake of over 100 000 m3 day-1) with the purpose of monitoring the management of such facilities. This is being done to ensure the protection of public interest without acting as an obstacle to sound water management practices. During Flood Season, each facilities contain flood control capacity by limited operating level which determined by the Regulation Council in advance. Dam flood discharge decisions are approved through the flood forecasting and management of Flood Control Office due to minimize flood damage for both upstream and downstream. The operational plan is implemented through the council's predetermination while dry season for adequate quantity and distribution of water.

  11. Paleoenvironments and sea level changes of Holocene from Nakdong River Delta sediments, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Daekyo

    2015-04-01

    The Holocene delta sediments(ND-01) which was acquired from the Nakdong River Delta as a rotary-style sediment core in southern Korea is divided into four sedimentary units based on sedimentary structure, texture, and occurrence of microfossils. Unit A(18.8˜33.54 m) is mostly homogeneous mud and shell fragments are well observed. Marine microfossils such as ostracods, diatoms, and sponge spicules decrease towards the top of the core sediments. Unit B(16.6˜18.8 m) is generally laminated mud and laminated sand. Marine microfossils disappear at the top of Unit B, but wood fragments contents increase towards the top. At Unit C(14.2˜16.6 m), mud content is lower than Unit B and laminated sand is well developed. Unit D(8˜14.2 m) is mostly homogeneous sand and shows better sorting than lower unit.. The sedimentary environments of the sequence are supposed to be a progradational delta system.

  12. Enhancing water quality modelling & forecasting in the Han River basin (Korea) using data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Sibren; Sumihar, Julius; Min, Joong-Hyuk; El Serafy, Ghada; Kim, Kyunghyun; Weerts, Albrecht

    2013-04-01

    Data assimilation in operational systems is a promising method to enhance the lead-time and reduce the uncertainty of water quality forecasts and provides a good base for the setup of monitoring schemes in large catchments (locations and frequency of sampling). In the River Han (Korea) three weirs have been constructed to prevent flooding and improve the water quality in the main stream. With real-time automated data imports and two water quality models, HSPF and EFDC, embedded in the FEWS-NIER forecasting platform, information about the current water quality status and daily water quality forecasts seven days ahead is provided to -water management agencies in the basin. To improve both the quality and the lead time of the water quality forecasts the EFDC hydrodynamics and water quality model has been implemented in OpenDA, an open interface standard for data assimilation (DA) in numerical models. The setup of this real-time water quality data assimilation system to enhance the algal dynamics modelling and the forecasts in the Han River basin (20,960 km² in size) was performed by a number of steps using Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF). Using a twin experiment the correct working of the algorithm was tested. Noise was applied to several water quality variables in the main tributaries with a sequential simulation algorithm, to obtain correct noise settings that result in a realistic spread between the individual ensemble members. As the next step, the inclusion of observations in the main stream for data assimilation was tested using the EnKF algorithm to define their effect on the model results. Noise was applied to global solar radiation to improve water temperature forecasts, as well as to phosphate, nitrate and chlorophyll-α concentrations in the large tributaries to improve the prediction of algal level upstream of the weirs. Different combinations of noise and observation settings (standard deviation and time correlation) to find the best model update of

  13. Spatial analysis of water quality trends in the Han River basin, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chang, Heejun

    2008-07-01

    Spatial patterns of water quality trends for 118 sites in the Han River basin of South Korea were examined for eight parameters-temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended sediment (SS), total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen (TN). A non-parametric seasonal Mann-Kendall's test determined the significance of trends for each parameter for each site between 1993 and 2002. There are no significant trends in temperature, but TN concentrations increased for the majority of the monitoring stations. DO, BOD, COD, pH, SS, and TP show increasing or decreasing trends with approximately half of the stations exhibiting no trends. Urban land cover is positively associated with increases in water pollution and included as an important explanatory variable for the variations in all water quality parameters except pH. Topography and soil factors further explain the spatial variations in pH, COD, BOD, and SS. BOD, COD, SS, and TP variations are consistently better explained by 100m buffer scale analysis, but DO are better explained by the whole basin scale analysis. Local water quality management or geology could further explain some variations of water quality. Non-point-source pollution exhibits strong positive spatial autocorrelation as measured by Moran's I, indicating that the incorporation of spatial dimensions into water quality assessment enhances our understanding of spatial patterns of water quality. The spatial regression models, compared to ordinary least square (OLS) models, always better explain the variations in water quality. This study suggests that spatial analysis of watershed data at different scales should be a vital part of identifying the fundamental spatio-temporal distribution of water quality.

  14. Palaeoflood records of the last three centuries from the Pyeongchang and Dong rivers, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Song-Hyun; Tanaka, Yukiya

    2017-08-01

    Slackwater deposits are paleostage indicators in paleoflood hydrology that have commonly been used in numerous studies to estimate the magnitude and frequency of flood events and to reconstruct paleoenvironments and paleohydrology. In this study, individual flood events along the Pyeongchang (PC) and Dong (D) rivers of South Korea were differentiated on the basis of changes in deposit color, grain size, organic content, and the existence of laminations. Based on 137Cs and 14C chronological data, 19 flood events have occurred at site PC since 1720, while 17 flood events have occurred at site D since 1815. At the PC study site, the average time interval between the flood events is 15.4 years and the average sediment accumulation rate is 9.7 mm/y. At study site D, the average time interval is 15 years and the average sediment accumulation rate is 11.6 mm/y. These high sediment accumulation rates are consistent with those in humid areas (e.g., Japan) and explain how slackwater deposits can be preserved despite erosion, bioturbation, and pedogenic processes. Based on the results, the study area was divided into three periods: (1) a relatively wet period (1720-1810 CE), (2) a dry period (1810-1960 CE), and (3) a wet period (1960 CE-present). The flood time intervals and average sediment accumulation rates of the eighteenth century were shorter and higher than those of the nineteenth century. This suggests that on the Korean Peninsula, the paleoclimate of the Little Ice Age (LIA) was wetter than that from the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century.

  15. Biotic response of benthic foraminifera to 4 ka cooling event in the Nakdong River delta of the southeast Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Hiroyuki; Khim, Boo-Keun; Cheong, Daekyo; Shin, Seungwon

    2017-04-01

    It has been reported that the cooling event at 4 ka caused climatic deterioration in the world, which is closely associated with the decline/development of the civilizations (e.g., Kawahata et al., 2009). In particular, various climate events at about 4 ka have been reported in the East Asian margin such as the decline pattern of total sulfur content in Lake Tougou-ike (southwest Japan) (Kato et al., 2003), and the enhanced precipitation and freshwater event in northeast China (Hong et al., 2005) and South Korea (Lim et al., 2015). We investigated fossil benthic foraminiferal faunas at two borehole cores (ND-01: landward site and ND-02: seaward site) drilled at the Nakdong River delta in the southeastern coast of Korea, in order to reveal whether the paleoclimate changes across 4 ka occurred in the southeast Korea. The planktonic/total foraminiferal ratio (P/T ratio) and MDS axis 1, representing the faunal composition, show temporal decline at 4 ka at core ND-01, despite no marked change at core ND-02. In contrast, MDS axis 2, which is negatively related to the dominance of Haynesina sp. A (an opportunistic species in organic-rich condition of neritic environments), at core ND-01 shows positive shift across 4 ka. These biotic changes are interpreted as the increase of river water discharge with rainfalls by East Asian summer monsoon and the weakening of northwestly winds possibly with East Asian winter monsoon. Thus, despite insufficient, benthic foraminifera in the Nakdong River delta likely experienced the paleoclimate change across 4 ka.

  16. Correlation between land use changes and shoreline changes around THE Nakdong River in Korea using landsat images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, J. S.; Lim, C.; Baek, S. G.; Shin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal erosion has badly affected the marine environment, as well as the safety of various coastal structures. In order to monitor shoreline changes due to coastal erosion, remote sensing techniques are being utilized. The land-cover map classifies the physical material on the surface of the earth, and it can be utilized in establishing eco-policy and land-use policy. In this study, we analyzed the correlation between land-use changes around the Nakdong River and shoreline changes at Busan Dadaepo Beach adjacent to the river. We produced the land-cover map based on the guidelines published by the Ministry of Environment Korea, using eight Landsat satellite images obtained from 1984 to 2015. To observe land use changes around the Nakdong River, the study site was set to include the surroundings areas of the Busan Dadaepo Beach, the Nakdong River as well as its estuary, and also Busan New Port. For the land-use classification of the study site, we also produced a land-cover map divided into seven categories according to the Ministry of Environment, Korea guidelines and using the most accurate Maximum Likelihood Method (MLM). Land use changes inland, at 500m from the shoreline, were excluded for the correlation analysis between land use changes and shoreline changes. The other categories, except for the water category, were transformed into numerical values and the land-use classifications, using all other categories, were analyzed. Shoreline changes were observed by setting the base-line and three cut-lines. We assumed that longshore bars around the Nakdong River and the shoreline of the Busan Dadaepo Beach are affected. Therefore, we expect that shoreline changes happen due to the influence of barren land, wetlands, built-up areas and deposition. The causes are due to natural factors, such as weather, waves, tide currents, longshore currents, and also artificial factors such as coastal structures, construction, and dredging.

  17. Prediction of Extreme Flood Event by using PDM with six Thypoon Events at 25 Geum River Catchments, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hyungjun; Lee, Hyosang; Kim, Sunggu; Jang, Sukwhan

    2017-04-01

    This study analyzes the flood events caused by major typhoons since 2000 (i.e., Rusa, Maemi, Nari, Dienmu, Compass and Bolaven) at 25 Geum River catchments, Korea. Probability Distributed Model (PDM) is applied with Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) estimation. The specific regression relationships between model parameters of PDM and catchment characteristics are developed based on individual typhoon flood events. We present a regression equation based on individual typhoon flood events to reflect the specific characteristics of various flood events. Six candidate regression models (based on individual typhoon events) are developed and applied to create an ensemble prediction at ungauged catchment. An ensemble developed from five regression models is used to estimate a confidence range of ungauged catchment predictions. The application results show that ensemble prediction ranges is acceptable prediction performance (96 % of observed flows are in the prediction ranges) at the Bolaben flood event at Cheongju catchment, Korea. This study is a preliminary study on the extreme flood event analysis. It shows a potential to increase a confidence in the prediction of streamflow at ungauged catchment, Korea.

  18. Clonorchis sinensis: life cycle, intermediate hosts, transmission to man and geographical distribution in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, D W

    1984-01-01

    The snail host of Clonorchis sinensis in Korea is referred to as Parafossarulus manchouricus, but it has been recorded also as Bulimus striatulus japonicus in literature published up to late 1950. The specific name of the snail was corrected such that Bulimus striatulus of China, Japan, and Korea should be incorporated in the species of P. manchouricus. In general, the snail exists in limited areas of the rivers Han, Kum, Mankyung, Naktong, and Yeongsan, and the infestation of the snail with the cercaria of C. sinensis is very low. In recent years, ten species of small fresh-water fish are known as second intermediate hosts of the fluke. Of these, the southern top-mouthed minnow, Pseudorasbora parva, was most heavily infected. The striped shiner, Pungtungia herzi, Korean shiner, Gnathopogon atromaculatus, gudgeon, Pseudogobio esocinus, oily shiner, Sarcocheilichthys sinensis, and Korean barbel, Hemibarbus labeo, were infected intermediately. Whereas, the flat bitterling, Paracheilognathus rhombea, oily bitterling, Acheilognathus limbata, and Korean rose bitterling, Acanthorhodeus taenianalis were infected with a few cysts. No infections were found in the pale chub, Zacco platypus, crussian carp, Carassius carassius, and carp, Cyprinus carpio. Most Koreans are usually infected by eating slices of raw fresh-water fish coated with hot bean paste. Raw fish is a common accompaniment in drinking the rice wine "Marcgulee" in rural communities and a health food for males. Numerous epidemiological studies revealed that the prevalence rate for the fluke among the residents in the vicinity of rivers is higher than those in the areas far from the rivers. The rate is higher among males than females and increases with age.

  19. Occurrence of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in the Han River (Seoul, South Korea).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeomin; Ryu, Jaena; Oh, Jeill; Choi, Byeong-Gyu; Snyder, Shane A

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of 31 selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Korean surface waters was investigated. The area was selected since there is a lack of information in the Seoul area on the suspected contamination of rivers by micropollutants, although over 99% of drinking water is produced from surface waters in this area that has a population of approximately 15 million inhabitants. Samples were collected from upstream/downstream and effluent-dominated creeks along the Han River, Seoul (South Korea) and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Most target compounds were detected in both the Han River samples (63%) and the effluent-dominated creek samples (79%). Iopromide, atenolol, TCPP, TECP, musk ketone, naproxen, DEET, carbamazepine, caffeine, and benzophenone were frequently detected in both river and creek samples, although the mean concentrations in effluent-dominated creek samples (102 ng/L-3745 ng/L) were significantly higher than those in river samples (56 ng/L-1013 ng/L). However, the steroid hormones 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, progesterone, and testosterone, were not detected (<1 ng/L) in both the river and creek samples. Numerous target compounds (15) were found to be positively correlated (over 0.8) to the conventional water quality parameters (chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon, and ultraviolet absorbance). Results of this study provide increasing evidence that certain EDCs and PPCPs commonly occur in the Han River as the result of wastewater outfalls.

  20. The Effects of Weir Construction on the Hydrodynamics and Water Quality of South Han River in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Choi, I.; Choi, J.

    2012-12-01

    In Korea, The 4 Major Rivers Restoration Project has been conducted in recent years. The large-scale river engineering project dredged sediments and installed three multi-functional weirs in the South Han River, which is expected to change hydrodynamics and water quality of the river. The impoundment restricts water flow of the river and results in the settlement of particulate material on the river bed. The longer the hydraulic residence time taken on the upward weir, the greater the potential for incoming nutrients and sediments to settle on the river bed. The accumulated pollutants, caused by settling of particulate material, impart a consistent nutrient loading to the overlying water column. The movement of nutrients through the sediment-water interface has essential influence on the nutrient quality of overlying water. Therefore, It is important to investigate how the environmental change occurred by the project has impacts on the hydrodynamics and water quality of the river. To represent temporal and spatial variations in the hydrodynamics of South Han River with weir installation, a three-dimensional time variable model, Generalized, Longitudinal-Lateral-Vertical Hydrodynamic and Transport (GLLVHT) was selected. The GLLVHT model is imbedded within the Generalized Environmental Modeling System for Surface waters (GEMSS). The GEMSS model is designed in a modular fashion for easy coupling of existing as well as other user-defined water quality models. The computational grid of the three-dimensional model was developed using the GIS themes of shorelines and sounding depths. The horizontal grid is composed of 642 active cells at the surface layer with spacing varies from 83 to 380 m. There are 31 vertical layers with uniform thickness of 1 m resolution. The number of vertical layers in each horizontal column was determined from the depth of the river. Overall, study area is divided into 2061 grid elements. In addition, information related with three multi

  1. Parasites of juvenile golden grey mullet Liza aurata Risso, 1810 in Sarıkum Lagoon Lake at Sinop, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Türkay

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile golden grey mullet, Liza aurata were collected from Sarıkum Lagoon Lake which connected to the Black Sea at Sinop, Turkey and examined for parasitic fauna. A total of 219 fish were investigated throughout a 1-year period. Parasite species recovered were Trichodina lepsii, T. puytoraci, Gyrodactylus sp., Ligophorus cephali, Ligophorus mediterraneus, Solostamenides mugilis, Ascocotyle sp. (metacercaria) and Ergasilus lizae. Overall infection prevalence (%) and mean intensity values were 95.9% and 412.65 ± 85.31 parasites per infected fish, respectively. Infection prevalence and mean intensity values for each parasite species in relation to season and fish size were also determined and discussed. While Ligophorus cephali and L. mediterraneus are new records for Turkish parasite fauna, the juvenile Liza aurata is a new host record for Ligophorus cephali and L. mediterraneus.

  2. Understanding of anthropogenic controls on water chemistry and isotopic compositions of nitrate in the Geum River, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Lee, D.; Shin, W.; Park, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The concentrations of dissolved ions and isotopic compositions of nitrate were determined for water samples collected along the main channel of the Geum River, South Korea to identify anthropogenic and natural controls on water chemistry. The catchment characteristics vary along the river encompassing relatively undisturbed forest areas in its upper reach, agricultural and populated urban areas in the middle, and dominantly agricultural areas in the lower reach. Compared to the undisturbed upper reach, the dissolved ion concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO42- and NO3-) slightly increased in agricultural areas. Abrupt increases in Na, Cl, SO42- and NO3- concentrations were observed in the river water after flowing through populated Daejeon metropolitan city. The effects of anthropogenic inputs were clearly represented in SO42- vs. Cl cross plot. Data from all locations were plotted along the assumed binary mixing line between rainwater and sewage with the data from the upper reach plotted close to the rainwater and the data from the urban areas close to the sewage end-member. δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 indicated that the dominant nitrate sources in the river were manure/sewage derived from agricultural and residential areas, except the dam discharge that contains a large proportion of soil nitrates. Notably, the anthropogenic disturbances in water chemistry were moderated in the lower reaches and dam discharges possibly due to the dilution effects and metabolic recycling. Our results suggest that water chemistry in the Geum River was closely related to the land use patterns in the catchment and therefore the management efforts for water quality should be devised according to the catchment characteristics.

  3. The Geography of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young-Han

    1988-01-01

    Briefly surveys the geography of both North and South Korea, examining mountain ranges, rivers, soil, and climate. Also discusses the economic activities of South Korea, including industrialization, transportation, population, and the urban system. Provides a map of the Korean peninsula and a table of land area and population by province. (GEA)

  4. Heavy metals in the bed and suspended sediments of Anyang River, Korea: implications for water quality.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghoon; Moon, Ji-Won; Moon, Hi-Soo

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this study is to compare Anyang River bed sediments with water chemical composition and to assess the anthropogenic chemical inputs into the river system. Eight sampling locations were chosen along the river channel. Bed and suspended river sediments and water samples were collected, and analyzed for their chemical and physical composition. Data revealed that trace element concentrations in the river water were generally below world average, except for As, Mn, Ni and Cr. Among the three phases: water, bed and suspended sediment, more than 99% of the trace elements was associated with the bed sediment. Concentrations of trace elements in the sediment were a function a particle size distribution and organic content. The calculated degrees of enrichment based on the least influenced sample (ASD 1) indicated the river sediments were enriched with respect to background. The enrichment factors for Pb, Zn and As were relatively lower than for Cr, Co, Ni and Zn. The difference in the enrichment seems to reflect the human activities influence in the basin, and specially for Cd. Speciation of the elements in the five different chemical forms in the sediment by sequential extraction indicated that the reducible fraction was predominant for Fe, Zinc and Cu showed an irregular variation among the different fractions; whereas, Cd and Pb were more regular. Zinc and Cu highly existed mostly in exchangeable forms. Acid soluble and reducible forms were also important for most metals. The speciation implies that the metals associated with the sediment are subject to release into water bodies as goechemical variables (pH and Eh) change. Currently, the introduced metals are deposited near the source area and are mostly associated with the sediment, implying that the river bed sediment acts mainly as a sink, rather than a pool. The accumulated and enriched toxic trace elements can pose a potential pollution of river water.

  5. Response of benthic foraminifera to 4.2 ka cooling event in the Nakdong River delta, southeast Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, H.; Khim, B. K.; Cheong, D.; Shin, S.

    2016-02-01

    Here we report the change of benthic foraminifera in response to 4.2 ka cooling event in the Nakdong River delta (southeastern Korea). It has been known that this cooling event caused climatic deteriorations in the world, which is closely related to the decline/development of the civilizations (e.g., Kawahata et al., 2009). This event was also correlated to one of Bond Events in the North Atlantic. Because coastal sediment depositions have been influenced by both oceanographic and terrestrial climatic changes, the study may provide us clue to understand the possible teleconnection of the cooling event between the North Atlantic and the East Asian margin. We investigated fossil benthic foraminiferal faunas and planktonic/total foraminiferal ratio (P/T ratio) at two borehole cores, ND-01 and ND-02 (landward and seaward sites, respectively). Common constituents are taxa from bay to shelf environments in the East Asian margin. Biotic response of benthic foraminifera partly changed after 4.2 ka showing that Haynesina sp. A (opportunistic species?) decreased significantly at core ND-01. In addition, P/T ratio at both core sites showed temporal decline at 4.2 ka. This suggests the decreasing influence of the seawater relative to the coastal water. Holocene fluctuations of the Tsushima Warm Current, a branch of Kuroshio, flowing off the Nakdong River delta, have been documented. The decline pattern of P/T ratio in this area is similar to that of total sulfur content in Lake Tougou-ike, southwestern Japan at 4 ka which was interpreted as the influence of the small sea-level falling (Kato et al., 2003). According to the similar stratigraphic variation patterns between our and their studies, our finding suggests that this event was not regional but related to the fluctuations of the Tsushima Warm Current. Thus, biotic response of benthic foraminifera in the Nakdong River delta recorded 4.2 ka cooling event related to temporal weakening of the Tsushima Warm Current.

  6. Analysis of the Water Resources on Baseflow River Basin in Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.-K.; Jung, W.-Y.; Kang, M.-S.

    2012-04-01

    Jeju Island is a volcanic island located at the southernmost of Korea, and is the heaviest raining area in Korea, but due to its hydrological / geological characteristics different from those of inland areas, most streams are of the dry form, and it relies on groundwater for water resources. As for some streams, however, springwater is discharged at a point near the downstream of the final discharge to maintain the flow of the stream; this has been developed as the source for water supply since the past, but the studies on detail observations and analysis are yet inadequate. This study utilizes the ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) hydrometer to regularly observe the flow amount of base run-off stream, and the water resources of base discharge basin of Jeju Island were analyzed using the SWAT (Soil & Water Assessment Tool) model. The detail water resource analysis study using modeling and site observation with high precision for Jeju Island water resources is expected to become the foundation for efficient usage and security of water resources against future climate changes.

  7. Flood Inundation Analysis Considering Mega Floods in PyeonChang River Basin of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Han, D.; Choi, C.; Lee, J.; Kim, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, abnormal climate has frequently occurred around the world due to global warming. In South Korea, more than 90% of damage due to natural disasters has been caused by extreme events like strong wind and heavy rainfall. Most studies regarding the impact of extreme events on flood damage have focused on a single heavy rainfall event. But several heavy rainfall events can be occurred continuously and these events will affect occurring huge flood damage. This study explores the impact of the continuous extreme events on the flood damage. Here we call Mega flood for this type of flood which is caused by the continuous extreme events. Inter Event Time Definition (IETD) method is applied for making Mega flood scenarios depending on independent rainfall event scenarios. Flood inundations are estimated in each situation of the Mega flood scenarios and the flood damages are estimated using a Multi-Dimensional Flood Damage Analysis (MD-FDA) method. As a result, we expect that flood damage caused by Mega flood leads to much greater than damage driven by single rainfall event. The results of this study can be contributed for making a guideline and design criteria in order to reduce flood damage.This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) and grant funded by the Korean government (MEST; No. 2011-0028564).

  8. Phosphorus release rates from sediments and pollutant characteristics in Han River, Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lee-Hyung; Choi, Euiso; Gil, Kyung-Ik; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2004-04-05

    The Han River is 469.7-km long and drains a 26219-km(2) watershed. The sediments in the river are highly polluted due to inputs from upstream tributaries as well as partially treated municipal wastewaters that are discharged to the river. The water quality and strategy for control are important because the river is the primary drinking water supply for the City of Seoul, as well as being a major source for irrigation and industrial water. The Jamsil submerged dam partitions the river to isolate an upstream area for drinking water, but also captures sediments. Samples from four sites were studied to determine sediment pollutant concentrations and phosphorus release rates. Phosphorus tends to desorb from sediments when the concentration of overlying water is less than 1.4 mg/l. Water column P concentrations range from 0.04 to 0.1 mg/l, which suggests that sediments will act as a P source. In a series of batch experiments, P was released at approximately 15-20 mg/m(2)week in the winter (1-5 degrees C) and as much as 90 mg/m(2)week in the summer (20-24 degrees C), and is also a function of pH and dissolved oxygen concentration. The sediment total phosphorus concentration, which averages 833 mg/kg, is evenly distributed among non-apatite-P (33%), apatite-P (32%) and residual-P (34%). An equilibrium model is proposed to describe release rate.

  9. Influence of Environmental Variables on the Distribution of Macrobenthos in the Han River Estuary, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ok Hwan; Lee, Hyung-Gon; Lee, Jae-Hac

    2012-12-01

    We compared environmental effects on the macrobenthic community of the Han River Estuary in summer, when freshwater input from the Han River increased, and in spring, when freshwater input decreased. Field samples were taken from the upper region of the Shingok reservoir to the southern area of Ganghwado at 18 sampling sites after rainy (August 2006) and dry (March 2007) seasons. Macrobenthic fauna were collected using a Van Veen Grab (0.025 m2 and 0.1 m2) and environmental factors were measured simultaneously. Dominant species of macrobenthic fauna and the macrobenthic community were divided into two areas, the area of the Han River with no salinity (< 0.1 psu) and the southern part of Ganghwado with salinity (> 20 psu). The dominant species Byblis japonicus appeared at Junruri in the dry season. The distributions of two polychaetes, Hediste japonica and Nephtys caeca, were divided into the lower and upper areas of the Singok submerged weir. BIO-ENV (the matching of biotic to environmental patterns) analysis revealed that salinity was the most important factor affecting macrobenthic communities in the Han River Estuary, with other factors such as sediment grain size, bottom dissolved oxygen, and total organic carbon of sediment being secondary.

  10. Analysis for measuring the interaction of groundwater and river water by using Radon-222: A case study in Yangsu-ri, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Lee, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    The water cycle is essential for the maintenance of ecosystems. Above all, water exchange between groundwater and river water has a significant impact on the water quality and hydrological zones. The natural radiogenic tracers such as Radon-222 can be used as good indicator for measuring the interaction between groundwater and river water even though the conventional methods of analysis are direct measurements of water flux, heat tracer methods, mass balance approaches and methods based on Darcy's law. The object of this study is to know the change of water environment and to do water resource management effectively by studying the interaction between groundwater and river water in Yangsu-ri of Korea. This paper used methods using temperature profiles, EC values, DO values and radon tracer. In this study, diurnal and seasonal variation of radon value was measured with other values. The result values proved that the more the region was influenced by river water, the closer to the values of river water the result values are. The radon value indicated a similar pattern with other values. The analysis also applied river water stage change by dam discharge. In addition, the mixing modeling of groundwater and river water was conducted to confirm the difference between the calculated value and the measured value. It turned out that radon tracer can be used as environmental tracer for analysis of the interaction between groundwater and river water.

  11. Spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and polychlorinated biphenyl sources in the Nakdong River Estuary, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun H; Woo, Han J; Jeong, Kap S; Kang, Jeong W; Choi, Jae U; Jeong, Eun J; Park, Kap S; Lee, Dong H

    2017-09-18

    Our research team investigated the elemental composition and the presence of various toxic organic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in estuary surface sediments to trace the spatial distribution of the sources of pollution deposited in Nakdong River, Busan, South Korea. The spatial patterns of elemental composition and toxic organic compounds were determined from the measurements of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, total sulfur, PAHs, and PCBs. The sediments had TOC contents of between 0.02 and 1.80 wt% (avg. 0.34 wt%), depending on the amount of clay-sized particles. The concentrations of PAHs and PCBs (10.8-167.7 ng g(-1) dry wt and 197.0-754.0 pg g(-1) dry wt, respectively) in surface sediments revealed different spatial patterns for these compounds, suggesting that they partially originated from the combustion of fossil fuels and from the use of commercial PCB products at adjacent industrial complexes. Although these concentrations were far below the Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the sediments at one site contained PCBs at concentrations close to the response level (754.0 pg g(-1) dry wt), and were dominated by low-molecular-weight PAHs. The PAHs and PCBs in Nakdong River Estuary sediments were likely to have originated from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass at the adjacent industrial complexes. The primarily analyzed results determined that PAHs originated from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass, and overall concentrations were related to the contributions of individual PAHs in most sediment samples. Based on the SQG of the NOAA, our results indicate that the anthropogenic activity should be considered on the future-sustainable management of this estuary system.

  12. Using SPMDs for monitoring hydrophobic organic compounds in urban river water in Korea compared with using conventional water grab samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, Un-Jung; Kim, Hee Young; Alvarez, David A.; Lee, In-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to verify the effectiveness of semi-permeablemembrane devices (SPMDs) formonitoring hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), that are not easy to detect using conventional grab samples (because of their low concentrations), in water.We used SPMDs and grab samples to monitor PCBs and PBDEs upstream and downstream of a sewage treatment plant (STP) in the Suyeong River in Busan, Korea. Concentrations in three different phases (freely dissolved, apparently dissolved, and particulate) were measured, to investigate the aquatic fate of PCBs and PBDEs. The freely dissolved (SPMD) concentrations were 2–3 times higher than the apparently dissolved and particulate phase (grab sample) concentrations. No meaningful relationships were found between the total PCB and PBDE concentrations of the grab sample and SPMD sample because of the different partitioning behaviors and detection frequencies of the individual chemicals. However, the summed concentrations of specific PCB and PBDE congeners (that were abundant in all samples) in the grab and SPMD samples correlated well (r2 = 0.7451 for PCBs 28 + 52 + 153, r2 = 0.9987 for PBDEs 28 + 47 + 99). The PBDE concentrations measured using SPMDs decreased with increasing distance from the STP, but no apparent dilution effect was found in the grab samples. Our results show that SPMDs could be used to support grab sampling for specific chemicals, or to trace chemical sources (such as STPs) to the aquatic environment.

  13. Diffuse and point pollution impacts on the pathogen indicator organism level in the Geum River, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geonha; Choi, Euiso; Lee, Dongryul

    2005-11-01

    The pathogens originating from diffuse pollution have raised much concern recently. In many countries, pathogen levels are monitored in surface water by measuring the pathogen indicator organism level, which indicates the concentration of pathogen associated microorganisms to determine contamination. Among indicator organisms, total coliform, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli were selected for study, and their concentration as well as their flow rate were monitored at monitoring stations from October, 2001 to April, 2003. Monitoring stations include six sampling stations in the Geum River, two small watersheds used for forestry and agricultural land, one large wastewater treatment plant, one separate sewer overflow site, and one separate sewer overflow site in the Geum River basin. The coliform concentration of the combined sewer overflow was the highest, followed by the runoff from agricultural land use, the separate sewer overflow, and the runoff from forestry land use. The Pearson correlation coefficient for flow rate against total coliform concentration was 0.71 and was significant at 0.01 level, while the Pearson coefficient for other water quality constituents showed weak correlation (-0.36 to +0.37) against flow rate. Coliform concentration showed higher correlation against suspended solid concentration or flow rate during storm flow condition than during low flow condition. Two different relationship lines could explain the relationships between the flow rate and coliform loadings. Load duration curve technique was presented to assess the relative contributions of diffuse and point source pollution to the pathogen level at monitoring sites in the Geum River.

  14. Analysis of Sediment Transport for Rivers in South Korea based on Data Mining technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Eun-kyung; Ji, Un; Yeo, Woonkwang

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to calculate of sediment discharge assessment using data mining in South Korea. The Model Tree was selected for this study which is the most suitable technique to explicitly analyze the relationship between input and output variables in various and diverse databases among the Data Mining. In order to derive the sediment discharge equation using the Model Tree of Data Mining used the dimensionless variables used in Engelund and Hansen, Ackers and White, Brownlie and van Rijn equations as the analytical condition. In addition, total of 14 analytical conditions were set considering the conditions dimensional variables and the combination conditions of the dimensionless variables and the dimensional variables according to the relationship between the flow and the sediment transport. For each case, the analysis results were analyzed by mean of discrepancy ratio, root mean square error, mean absolute percent error, correlation coefficient. The results showed that the best fit was obtained by using five dimensional variables such as velocity, depth, slope, width and Median Diameter. And closest approximation to the best goodness-of-fit was estimated from the depth, slope, width, main grain size of bed material and dimensionless tractive force and except for the slope in the single variable. In addition, the three types of Model Tree that are most appropriate are compared with the Ackers and White equation which is the best fit among the existing equations, the mean discrepancy ration and the correlation coefficient of the Model Tree are improved compared to the Ackers and White equation.

  15. Contribution of diffuse inputs to the aqueous mass load of perfluoroalkyl acids in river and stream catchments in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Li, Dong-Hao; Shoeib, Mahiba; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies disagree regarding the contributions of point versus non-point sources to the aqueous mass loads of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). This study investigated the longitudinal change in PFAA mass load from upstream to downstream stations along rivers and/or streams to assess the relative contributions of point versus nonpoint inputs. With concentrations 10 to 100 times higher than running water, point sources such as wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) effluent and airport ditch-outlet (ADO) water were separated from neighboring upstream and downstream running waters using principal component analysis. Source waters were characterized by certain predominant components [e.g., perfluorobutylsulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in WWTP effluent and perfluorohexylsulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctylsulfonate (PFOS) in ADO water], which were minor components of running water. From a mass balance assessment of PFAA mass load, certain compounds such as PFOA and PFBS dominated the contribution of point sources to the mass load in the running water at downstream stations or in small catchment basins with high levels of industrial activity. Most of the mass load in the investigated catchments was attributable to upstream running water with a minor influence from industrial, commercial, and domestic human activities. Furthermore, the negative relationship of per capita emission factors (hereafter, EFs) with population density and a lower contribution of PFAA from WWTPs (~30% on average) compared to the running water-derived mass load at the national level indicated that diffuse inputs were more important contributors to aqueous PFAA contamination in each catchment basin as well as the entire watershed of the country (Korea). Volatile precursor compounds, which are readily dispersed to neighboring basins and transformed to PFAAs in the ambient environment, can be an important source of these diffuse inputs and will become more significant over time.

  16. In situ fate and partitioning of waterborne perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Youngsan and Nakdong River Estuaries of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Park, Jinsoon; Kim, Minhee; Kim, Woong-Ki; Jung, Jinho; Hyun, Seunghun; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Lee, Hyojin; Choi, Heeseon J; Codling, Garry; Giesy, John P

    2013-02-15

    Concentrations, distributions, fate, and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were investigated in surface water (n=34) collected from the Youngsan and Nakdong River Estuaries of South Korea. Thirteen individual PFAAs in water and suspended solids (SS) were quantified by use of HPLC-MS/MS. PFAAs were detected in all samples, which indicated that they were widely distributed in the study area. Greater concentrations of PFAAs were found at some inland sites which seemed to be affected by direct input from point sources, such as wastewater treatment plants, and/or indirect diffusive sources, such as surface runoff. Spatial distributions of PFAAs in estuaries along transects toward the open sea demonstrated that these chemicals were transported to the outer region primarily by water discharged during the rainy season. Field-based partition coefficients (K(d)) for long-chain PFAAs (C≥8) were significantly correlated with salinity (r(2)=0.48 to 0.73, p<0.01); K(d) values increased exponentially as a function of salinity. Due to the 'salting-out' effect, PFAAs were largely scavenged by adsorption onto SS and/or sediments in estuarine environments. In addition, values for K(d) of those PFAAs were directly proportional to the number of carbon atoms in the PFAAs. Salting constants of selected PFAAs were notably greater than those of other environmental organic contaminants, which indicated that adsorption of PFAAs is largely associated with salinity. Overall, the results of the present study will provide better understanding of the fate and transport of PFAAs in the zone of salinity boundary that can be used for developing fate models of PFAAs in the coastal marine environment.

  17. Seasonal variability of estuarine dynamics due to freshwater discharge and its influence on biological productivity in Yeongsan River Estuary, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Hong, Seongjin; Song, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyojin; Kim, Hae-Cheol; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Chang-Hee; Khim, Jong Seong

    2017-08-01

    In order to evaluate water quality and biological productivity, observation data sets were collected and analyzed in Yeongsan River Estuary, Korea. We also set up a numerical model to resolve hydrodynamics and fate of water quality variables in the system. Results show that most of nutrients loading are trapped in the lake and higher concentrations of nutrients and organic matters (OM) are present only inside of the artificial sea dike. There exist episodial discharges at the dam, which coincide mostly with rainfall events during summer monsoon periods. During this discharge event, lower salinity and higher suspended solids, nutrients, and OM are observed in surface layer of the estuarine section. Hydrodynamic model results show that circulation in the estuarine section is governed by freshwater discharge from the lake, resulting in an enhanced two-layer estuarine circulation being dominated, during and after the freshwater is discharged. Such two-layer estuarine circulation combined with higher concentration of nutrients in the surface layer results in that outfluxes of nutrients in the surface layer dominate over the influxes in the bottom layer during summer high precipitation periods. Meanwhile, numerical dye experiment results show that the discharged water with elevated nutrients levels have a short residence time (∼5-10 days) in the estuarine section. Due to this fast flushing rate, excessive nutrient loadings are not used to produce biological matters in the estuarine section. This limited biological productivity, characterized by seaward side of the artificial sea dike, makes Yeongsan estuarine system excluded from acting as an active carbon sink. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Groundwater flooding vulnerability assessment in riverside alluviums of Nakdong River, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, kwangsoo; Lee, Seunghyun; Kwon, Mijin; Kim, Deoggeun

    2016-04-01

    Soil wetting or inundation due to rising groundwater table can cause groundwater flooding in the riverside alluvium and also affect the scale of surface water flooding. There is possible to occur the flooding of lowland by falling the groundwater level at heavy rain and is important to evaluate the vulnerability and the prediction of groundwater problem. Three groups (safe, intermediate, and vulnerable) are classified by using groundwater flooding vulnerability index(FVI) which is calculated using groundwater level's time series measured at each monitoring well. A prediction model for the classification is developed by using a discriminant analysis based on the correlation between the original groups and physical features (topography, soil, sediment layer distribution, soil drainage, and groundwater level-related features). And we have created a groundwater flooding vulnerability GIS Map. This research results is possible to policy support of establishment of flooding providing the flooding vulnerability technique using the groundwater occurring the damage came from the fluctuation of groundwater level by the water level change of river and the effect of rainfall. Also, in conjunction with the existing flooding/drought map, it improve the accuracy of groundwater flooding/drought prediction, and it becomes possible to respond the water sources, water level down by using the evaluation system in flooding/drought.

  19. Pseudobiotus spinifer, a new tardigrade species (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae) from Nakdong River, South Korea, with a redescription of P. vladimiri Biserov, Dudichev & Biserova.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheon Young; Kaczmarek, Łukasz; Lee, Ji Min; Michalczyk, Łukasz

    2007-06-01

    A new freshwater tardigrade species, Pseudobiotus spinifer sp. nov., is described from the sand bottom of Nakdong River, South Korea. The new species is most similar to Pseudobiotus vladimiri from Biwa Lake, Japan, but differs from it by having small accessory points ending in the center of the primary branches of all claws, relatively longer claws and macroplacoids, and well developed cuticular spines/spicules over most of the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the body. Pseudobiotus vladimiri is redescribed on the basis of the holotype. A revised key to the species of the genus Pseudobiotus is also given.

  20. Anthropogenic rare earth elements and their spatial distributions in the Han River, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyeongseok; Shin, Woo-Jin; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Shin, Hyung Seon; Chung, Heesun; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2017-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) consist of lanthanides (from La to Lu), together with yttrium and scandium, in which anthropogenic REE, such as gadolinium (Gd), lanthanum (La), and samarium (Sm), has emerged as micro-contaminants in natural waters in highly developed countries. Here, we collected water samples in the Han River (HR) and its tributaries flowing through Seoul Capital Area, the world's second largest metropolitan area in order to examine how and to what extent anthropogenic REE anomalies may occur. Water samples show higher light REE concentrations than heavy REE concentrations, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) samples display much higher heavy REE concentrations due to high Gd concentration. The PAAS-normalized REE patterns indicate that WWTP samples display the pronounced positive Gd anomalies, in which anthropogenic Gd from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostic system occurs as a form of Gd complexation with either Cl(-) or SO4(2-). Due to the WWTP, both the HR and tributaries show also positive Gd anomalies and the anthropogenic Gd concentrations increase as a function of the distance from the Paldang dam. This result indicates a positive correlation between populaton, number of MRI instruments, and positive Gd anomaly. Similarly, positive La and Sm anomalies exist in the HR, indicating that the HR is also affected by their point sources. Based on the discharge rate and anthropogenic REE concentrations, their fluxes are estimated to be 952 ± 319 kg/yr, suggesting that this amount of fluxes could disturb REE distribution in the Yellow Sea, and pose harmful effects on aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Paleomagnetic investigation of the core sediments from Nakdong River delta, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. H.

    2016-12-01

    Paleomagnetic study has been carried out for a 27 m-long sediment core in the Nakdong River delta. The high-accumulation rate sediment core ND01 enables to yield a quasi-successive paleosecular variation (PSV) record. In this study we focused on the paleomagnetic inclination and relative paleointensity data as the PSV record since 5.4 kya in the study area. A total of 749 paleomagnetic data points were obtained from 263 cube samples and 305 cm-long U-channel samples in the upper section of the core (10.2 23.1 m in depth). OSL dating and AMS 14C dating results suggest that the analyzed section of the core were deposited between 5.4 and 0.4 kya. The accumulation rate shows extremely high in the upper part (since 2 ka) but relatively low in the lower part (during 5.4 2 ka) of the section in this study. Paleomagnetic inclination variation reveals four sharp cusps at AD 1400, AD 800, AD 200 and 1000 BC when the archeomagnetic jerks were reported to occur in Europe, indicating that the archeomagnetic jerks could be global phenomena or, at least, they occurred broadly in the northern hemisphere of the Earth. The relative paleointensity (RPI) variations were presented using the NRM intensity normalized by either ARM or SIRM which were demagnetized at the peak fields of 20, 30 and 40 mT. When the RPI variation curves since 5.4 kya were compared with the global geomagnetic field model predictions, they show a good agreement except for extremely high NRM/ARM ratios from 2.5 to 2 ka. The RPI curves during the period between 5.4 and 2 kya were interpreted to be reliable based on that the paleomagnetic data met four reliability criteria. Our RPI data would suggest that geomagnetic field intensity was strong at 1.6 kya, 2.2 kya, 2.7 kya and 3.8 kya in the study area.

  2. Characteristics of depositional environments in the Nakdong River Estuary, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Han Jun; Lee, Jun-Ho; Kang, Jeongwon; Choi, Jae Ung

    2017-04-01

    Most of the major Korean estuaries, under high pressure from development, have dams with environmental problems, including restricted water circulation, low water quality, decreased biodiversity and wetland destruction. The Nakdong estuary on the southeastern coast of Korean Peninsula is an enclosed type with two large estuarine dams that were constructed in 1934 and between 1983 and 1987. The construction of dams has led to geomorphologic evolution of the barrier islands within Nakdong estuary. The estuary has been characterized as barrier-lagoon system with various subenvironments and microtidal with a 1.5 m tidal range. The sedimentary analyses and monitoring short-term sedimentation rates were investigated to understand characteristics of depositional environments in barrier-lagoon system of the Nakdong River Estuary. The surface sediments in the system were classified into three sedimentary facies in summer 2015. Generally, sand sediment was dominated in the seaward side of barrier islands and muddy sand sediment was dominated on the lagoon. Sandy mud and mud sediments were distributed in the tidal flat near Noksan industrial district and channels near dams. Fourteen a priori subenvironments were distinguished based on differences in landscape characterization (sediment texture, salinity, total organic carbon, pH and C/N ratios). The dendrogram resulting from cluster analysis of environmental variables from 14 a priori subenvironments could be clustered into 4 groups that were characterized by different sediment texture and hydrodynamic energy. The short-term sedimentation rates were obtained seasonally from three lines by burying a plate at sub-bottom depth from May 2015 to May 2016. The deposition was dominated on the tidal flat between mainland and Jinudo (JW- Line) and Sinjado (SJ-Line) with the net deposition rate of 10.09 mm/year and 12.38 mm/year, respectively. The erosion was dominated on the tidal flats at Eulsukdo (ES-Line) on the east side of the

  3. Delayed influence of dam storage and discharge on the determination of seasonal proliferations of Microcystis aeruginosa and Stephanodiscus hantzschii in a regulated river system of the lower Nakdong River (South Korea).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kwang-Seuk; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2007-03-01

    This study presents the relationship between the dam hydrology and phytoplankton proliferations in a regulated river system in East Asia. A long-term ecological study reveals that multi-purpose dam regulation on river flow in the Nakdong River (South Korea) affects proliferating patterns of phytoplankton, especially during summer (June-August) and winter (December-next February) as Microcystis aeruginosa and Stephanodiscus hantzschii, respectively, dominate each season by over 80%. Eutrophication was observed in the lower Nakdong River (South Korea) (mean+/-standard deviation: nitrate-N, 2.8+/-0.9 mg L(-1); phosphate-P, 40.3+/-31.3 microg L(-1); chlorophyll a, 45.2+/-84.9 microg L(-1); n=449), and the limnological characteristics responded to climatic variations such as monsoon and summer typhoons. The river basin experiences concentrated rainfall during the rainy season (June-September, over ca. 60% of total annual rainfall). Correlation and cross-correlation for time-delayed relationship revealed the hydrological environments (i.e., quantity of dam storage and discharge) had significantly negative relationship with the population dynamics of the two bloom-forming species for up to the next 2 years. S. hantzschii had clearer relationship with dam storage and discharge, which might be due to the seasonality exhibited by the species. The results support the necessity of "smart flow control" which may enable destruction of bloom formation by the two species with an adequate pulse of discharge generated by upstream dams in the far-east Asian river systems. This would increase the efficiency of water resource management system.

  4. An assessment of selected hydrochemical parameter trend of the Nakdong River water in South Korea, using time series analyses and PCA.

    PubMed

    Chung, S Y; Venkatramanan, S; Park, N; Rajesh, R; Ramkumar, T; Kim, B W

    2015-01-01

    Time series analyses (autocorrelation, spectral density, and cross-correlation) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to understand the characteristics of the selected hydrochemical parameters pH, turbidity, alkalinity, Cl, hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS), and metals Fe and Mn in the Nakdong River, South Korea. Autocorrelation and spectral density for pH, alkalinity, hardness, and Cl were very similar to TDS, whereas Fe, Mn, and turbidity showed different trends from TDS. Cross-correlograms of pH, alkalinity, hardness, and Cl versus TDS were very similar to each other. Those of Fe and turbidity represented the opposite relations with other components. Cross-correlation coefficients had the highest values at zero lag, indicating that pH, alkalinity, hardness, and Cl are controlling factors for TDS. On the other hand, Fe and turbidity showed the highest values at 6-month lag and Mn at a month lag. PCA indicated that TDS had very close relation with hardness, pH, and Cl and very small relation with Mn. Turbidity and Fe had relatively opposite relations with TDS. It was concluded that the geostatistical methods were very useful for evaluating the hydrochemical characteristics of the Nakdong River water in South Korea.

  5. Interannual variability of regional evapotranspiration under precipitation extremes: A case study of the Youngsan River basin in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Youngkeun; Ryu, Youngryel; Jeon, Soohyun

    2014-11-01

    Understanding basin-scale evapotranspiration (ET) is an important issue for the management of regional water resources, especially with the recent trend of intensified precipitation (P). This study assessed the spatial and temporal variations of regional ET in response to P extremes, for various types of land-cover across the Youngsan River basin in Korea. The spatial distribution of monthly P and ET from 2001 to 2009 were estimated using rainfall records from 40 weather stations located across the basin and a satellite-derived, process-based ET model Breathing Earth System Simulator (BESS) (Ryu et al., 2011), respectively. The study periods were focused on the recent years with abnormally large, small and normal P, which were identified from anomalies in the z-sores of long-term (1973-2011) rainfall records. The variation of regional ET was assessed in terms of: (1) the controlling factors, using the statistics of related meteorological and geographical data, (2) a water-energy balance, using Budyko's framework, and (3) the water balance of four selected watersheds in the region, using the partitioning of annual P into ET and riverflow discharge (Q). The total annual ET of this region decreased in abnormally large-P year and increased in small-P year, because the ET in July to August (which accounts for more than 36% of annual ET) was limited by the available energy rather than available water due to the summer monsoon. In terms of land cover types, forests showed larger interannual variability in ET than paddy fields or cropland, with the differences in ET between large and small-P years being 108 and 82 mm yr-1, respectively. The sensitivity of annual ET to P extremes was significantly related to the leaf area index (LAI), rather than soil properties, topography, or specific land-cover type (p < 0.05, generalized linear model). However, the interannual variations of ET were not large (15-18%) compared to those of annual P (51-62%) and Q (108-232%) during 2002

  6. Estimation of Sub-daily Extreme Precipitation to Assess Climate Change Impact on Floods of Han River Basin in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, W.; Shin, J.; Um, M.; Kim, W.; Heo, J.

    2011-12-01

    Sub-daily extreme precipitation for a specified duration and return period is used in the estimation of floods for design purposes. Recent researches show that climate change has impact on the precipitation process at different temporal and spatial scales. The present paper is focused on climate change impact on floods of Han River basin in South Korea. Climate change simulation outputs from 5 GCMs under the A2 scenario were used to estimate daily extreme precipitations. Sub-daily extreme precipitations were estimated using the scale-invariance concept. In order to assess sub-daily extreme precipitations from climate change simulation outputs, precipitation time series were generated based on NSRPM (Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulse Model) and modified using the ratio of precipitation over projection periods to historical one. Sub-daily extreme precipitations were then estimated from those series. Finally, peak flows were estimated for principal sites of Han River basin using HEC-1 model. It was found that floods in the future displayed increasing or decreasing trends for estimation methods of sub-daily extreme precipitation and different periods.

  7. Geoelectric resistivity sounding of riverside alluvial aquifer in an agricultural area at Buyeo, Geum River watershed, Korea: an application to groundwater contamination study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yong-Hee; Doh, Seong-Jae; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2007-12-01

    Twenty profiles of vertical electric soundings (VES) were obtained in a riverside alluvium at the Buyeo area, South Korea, to examine the variations of subsurface geology and associated groundwater chemistry. The combination of the VES data with the borehole data provided useful information on subsurface hydrogeologic conditions. The vestige of an ancient river channel (e.g. oxbow lake) was identified on the resistivity profiles by the lateral continuation of a near-surface perched aquifer parallel to the river. Such a perched aquifer is typically developed in the area with a clay-rich silty surface alluvium which prohibits the infiltration of oxygen. Therefore, groundwater below the oxbow lake shows a very low nitrate concentration and Eh values under the strong anoxic condition. The distribution of water resistivity is correlated with that of measured total dissolved solids concentration in groundwater, while the earth resistivity of the aquifer shows a significant spatial variation. It is interpreted that the earth resistivity of the aquifer is mainly controlled by the soil type rather than by the water chemistry in the study area.

  8. Landsat Big Data Analysis for Detecting Long-Term Water Quality Changes: a Case Study in the Han River, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, J. C.; Hwang, C. S.; Gibbs, R.; Roh, K.; Mehdi, M. R.; Oh, C.; Jeong, J. J.

    2017-05-01

    Landsat imagery satisfies the characteristics of big data because of its massive data archive since 1972, continuous temporal updates, and various spatial resolutions from different sensors. As a case study of Landsat big data analysis, a total of 776 Landsat scenes were analyzed that cover a part of the Han River in South Korea. A total of eleven sample datasets was taken at the upstream, mid-stream and downstream along the Han River. This research aimed at analyzing locational variance of reflectance, analyzing seasonal difference, finding long-term changes, and modeling algal amount change. There were distinctive reflectance differences among the downstream, mid-stream and upstream areas. Red, green, blue and near-infrared reflectance values decreased significantly toward the upstream. Results also showed that reflectance values are significantly associated with the seasonal factor. In the case of long-term trends, reflectance values have slightly increased in the downstream, while decreased slightly in the mid-stream and upstream. The modeling of chlorophyll-a and Secchi disk depth imply that water clarity has decreased over time while chlorophyll-a amounts have decreased. The decreasing water clarity seems to be attributed to other reasons than chlorophyll-a.

  9. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  10. Dynamic changes in the population structure of Escherichia coli in the Yeongsan River basin of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jeonghwan; Di, Doris Y W; Han, Dukki; Unno, Tatsuya; Lee, Jeom-Ho; Sadowsky, Michael J; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2015-11-01

    Although Escherichia coli has been used as an indicator to examine fecal contamination of aquatic environment, it also has been reported to become naturalized to secondary habitats, including soil, water and beach sand. A total of 2880 E. coli isolates obtained from surface water and sediment samples from the Yeongsan River in 2013 were genotyped by using the horizontal fluorophore-enhanced rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting technique. Although different E. coli genotypic groups were observed between surface water and sediments in the dry season, they were mingled and undifferentiated from each other in the rainy season. This indicates that there are frequent sediment resuspension events in the river basin. Moreover, the genotypic composition of the E. coli population in the Yeongsan River basin changes over months and years, implying that genotypic structure of E. coli populations dynamically fluctuates in the river environment. Consequently, our data suggests that the use of E. coli libraries for fecal source tracking needs to be reassessed to account for the changing structure of riverine E. coli populations.

  11. Elemental (C/N ratios) and Isotope (δ13CTOC, δ15NTN) Compositions of Surface Sediments from the Barrier Islands in the Nakdong River Estuary, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Woo, Han Jun; Jeong, Kap-Sik; Kang, Jeongwon; Choi, Jae Ung; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2017-04-01

    The Nakdong River Estuary (NRE) in South Korea is a typical, artificially-manipulated estuary and blocked by two large dam. The Noksan Dam, built in 1934, blocks the flow of the West Nakdong River, and the NRE Dam was completed between 1983 and 1987 to regulate the flow of the East Nakdong River (called the Eulsuk River locally). For the past half century, several huge industrial complexes have been developed in the reclaimed land near the NRE. In the estuary, the hydraulic circulation has been markedly modified caused by the changes in the river discharge and geomorphic configuration of such as the formation of a series of barrier islands, the two large dams resulting from the artificial control of the natural river flow and upstream intrusion of saltwater by the operation of the two large dams. Consequently, the saltwater wedge that once reached approximately 40 km upstream is now blocked at the dam, considerably reducing the tidal prism. The estuary is typified by barrier-lagoon system with various subenvironments and microtidal with a 1.5 m tidal range. We investigated the elemental (C/N ratios) and isotopic (δ13CTOC, δ15NTN) compositions of organic matters in various composition in the surface sediments in the NRE. In May 2015, 90 surface sediment samples were collected on and around three islands in the NRE. The mean grain size of the barrier island system in the NRE ranged from 1.1 to 8.9 Φ (average 3.9 Φ) in mean grain size, and they were composed of various sediment types, including muddy Sand (S), sandy Mud (sM), and Mud (M). A useful application of the C/N ratios is as a proxy for assessment of organic matter source change, related to the sediment origins terrestrial or marine. The C/N ratios (average, 5.88) imply that the organic matter in the study area was of marine origins, as indicated by the lower ratios between 4 and 10. The isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter (δ13CTOC, δ15NTN) indicated the deposition of algae-derived organic

  12. Artificial Injection of Fresh Water into a Confined Saline Aquifer: A Case Study at the Nakdong River Delta Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, S. Y.; Senapathi, V.; Rajendran, R.; Khakimov, E.

    2015-12-01

    Injection test in a confined saline aquifer was performed to assess the potential of artificial recharge as a means of replacing saline water with fresh water, thereby securing fresh groundwater resources for the Nakdong Delta area of Busan City, Korea. The study area comprises a confined aquifer, in which a 10~21m thick clay layer overlies 31.5~36.5 m thick of sand and a 2.8~11m thick layer of gravel. EC logging of five monitoring wells yielded a value of 7~44 mS/cm, with the transition between saline and fresh water occurring at a depth of 15-38 m. Above 5 m depth, water temperature was 10~15.5°C, whereas between 5 and 50 m depth, the temperature was 15.5~17℃ and pH was 7.15~7.49. The quality of injected fresh water was 388 μS/cm with the temperature of 6.2℃, and pH was 7.70. Approximately 950 m3 of fresh water was injected into the OW-5 injection well at a rate of 370 m3/day for 62 hours, after which the fresh water zone was detected by a CTD Diver installed at a depth of 40 m. The persistence of the fresh water zone was determined via EC and temperature logging at 1 day, 21 days, 62days and 95 days after injection. The contact between fresh and saline water in the injection well was represented by a sharp boundary rather than a transitional boundary. It was concluded that the injected fresh water occupied a specific space and served to maintain the original water quality throughout the observation period. Moreover, we suggest that artificial recharge via long-term injection could help secure a new alternative water resource in this saline coastal aquifer.

  13. Hydrogeochemical Processes of Groundwater Using Multivariate Statistical Analyses and Inverse Geochemical Modeling in Samrak Park of Nakdong River Basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Sang Yong

    2015-04-01

    Multivariate statistical methods and inverse geochemical modelling were used to assess the hydrogeochemical processes of groundwater in Nakdong River basin. The study area is located in a part of Nakdong River basin, the Busan Metropolitan City, Kora. Quaternary deposits forms Samrak Park region and are underlain by intrusive rocks of Bulkuksa group and sedimentary rocks of Yucheon group in the Cretaceous Period. The Samrak park region is acting as two aquifer systems of unconfined aquifer and confined aquifer. The unconfined aquifer consists of upper sand, and confined aquifer is comprised of clay, lower sand, gravel, weathered rock. Porosity and hydraulic conductivity of the area is 37 to 59% and 1.7 to 200m/day, respectively. Depth of the wells ranges from 9 to 77m. Piper's trilinear diagram, CaCl2 type was useful for unconfined aquifer and NaCl type was dominant for confined aquifer. By hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), Group 1 and Group 2 are fully composed of unconfined aquifer and confined aquifer, respectively. In factor analysis (FA), Factor 1 is described by the strong loadings of EC, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and Si, and Factor 2 represents the strong loadings of pH and Al. Base on the Gibbs diagram, the unconfined and confined aquifer samples are scattered discretely in the rock and evaporation areas. The principal hydrogeochemical processes occurring in the confined and unconfined aquifers are the ion exchange due to the phenomena of freshening under natural recharge and water-rock interactions followed by evaporation and dissolution. The saturation index of minerals such as Ca-montmorillonite, dolomite and calcite represents oversaturated, and the albite, gypsum and halite show undersaturated. Inverse geochemical modeling using PHREEQC code demonstrated that relatively few phases were required to derive the differences in groundwater chemistry along the flow path in the area. It also suggested that dissolution of carbonate and ion exchange

  14. Seismic facies of incised-channel fill deposits of paleo-Seomjin River in the South Sea, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Sung Ho; Kong, Gee Soo; Choul Kim, Dae; Lee, Gwang Soo; Yoo, Dong Geun

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution (Chirp and Sparker system) seismic profiles and piston core samples were analyzed to investigate the depositional environment of paleo-channel in the continental shelf of South Sea. Approximately 1,940 line-km data of chirp and sparker profiles was acquired. Along with seismic profiles, 20 piston core and 10 box core samples collected in 2015. The paleo-channel of Seomjin River is distributed in the continental shelf, with approximately 109 km long, 800-5,000 m wide, and more than 890 km2. The paleo-channel of meandering and straight type is dominant in the inner shelf while changed to braided type in the outer shelf. The paleo-channels in sparker seismic data formed presumably as fluvial systems when the shelf was exposed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The seismic facies of incision fill divided into five types basis of an erosional surface and internal seismic reflectors: (1) transparent to semi-transparent incised channel fill, (2) parallel to sub-parallel incised channel fill, (3) complex incised channel fill, (4) divergent incised channel fill, and (5) chaotic incised channel fill. The chaotic incised channel fill deposits are consists of gravel with shell fragments in the outer shelf and indicate the LGM to early transgressive (fluvial lag deposits). The complex incised channel fill deposits are dominated by sand and gravel with shell fragments in the mid to outer shelf. The cores which were obtained above the transparent to semi-transparent and parallel to sub-parallel incised channel fill deposits are dominated by mud. These types are dominant in the upstream (inner shelf). The acoustically transparent zones of this type with low-energy, passively infilling depositional environment, suggest the presence of basin muddy deposits. These muddy sediments were likely deposited during a more advanced stage of the Holocene transgression. Thus, the paleo-channel of Seomjin River is strongly controlled by sea-level change and sediment

  15. Pathways of organic matter through food webs of diverse habitats in the regulated Nakdong River estuary (Korea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, Eun Jung; An, Soonmo; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2008-06-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrates of the Nakdong River estuary were sampled at three different habitats: two salt marsh ( Scirpus triqueter and Phragmites australis) beds and a bare intertidal flat. Fishes were sampled in the main channel. The trophic importance of marsh vascular plants, microphytobenthos, and riverine and channel particulate organic matter to macroinvertebrate and fish production was studied using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope tracers. There was a dramatic change in coverage of macrophytes (salt marshes and seagrass) after the construction of an estuarine barrage in 1987 in the Nakdong River estuary, with the S. triqueter bed increasing, the P. australis bed decreasing, and Zostera marina habitats being nearly lost. Although the invertebrate δ 13C were within a narrower range than those of the primary producers, the values varied considerably among consumers in these habitats. However, the isotope signatures of consumers showed similarities among different habitats. Cluster analysis based on their isotopic similarity suggested that the isotope variability among species was related more to functional feeding groups than to habitats or taxonomic groups. While δ 13C values of suspension feeders were close to that of the channel POM (mainly phytoplankton), other benthic feeders and predators had δ 13C similar to that of microphytobenthos. Isotopic mixing model estimates suggest that algal sources, including microphytobenthos and phytoplankton, play an important role in supporting the benthic food web. Despite the huge productivity of emergent salt marshes, the contribution of the marsh-derived organic matter to the estuarine food webs appears to be limited to some nutrition for some invertebrates just within marsh habitats, with little on the bare intertidal flats or in the channel fish communities. Isotope signatures of the channel fishes also confirm that algal sources are important in supporting fish nutrition. Our findings suggest that

  16. Impacts of changes in climate and land use/land cover under IPCC RCP scenarios on streamflow in the Hoeya River Basin, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinsoo; Choi, Jisun; Choi, Chuluong; Park, Soyoung

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the separate and combined impacts of future changes in climate and land use/land cover (LULC) on streamflow in the Hoeya River Basin, South Korea, using the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios of the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). First, a LULC change model was developed using RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 storylines and logistic regression. Three scenarios (climate change only, LULC change only, and climate and LULC change combined) were established, and the streamflow in future periods under these scenarios was simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Each scenario showed distinct seasonal variations in streamflow. Under climate change only, streamflow increased in spring and winter but decreased in summer and autumn, whereas LULC change increased high flow during wet periods but decreased low flow in dry periods. Although the LULC change had less effect than climate change on the changes in streamflow, the effect of LULC change on streamflow was significant. The result for the combined scenario was similar to that of the climate change only scenario, but with larger seasonal changes in streamflow. Although the effects of LULC change were smaller than those caused by climate change, LULC changes may heighten the problems of increased seasonal variability in streamflow caused by climate change. The results obtained in this study provide further insight into the availability of future streamflow and can aid in water resource management planning in the study area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Upstream water resource management to address downstream pollution concerns: A policy framework with application to the Nakdong River basin in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Taeyeon; Rhodes, Charles; Shah, Farhed A.

    2015-02-01

    An empirical framework for assisting with water quality management is proposed that relies on open-source hydrologic data. Such data are measured periodically at fixed water stations and commonly available in time-series form. To fully exploit the data, we suggest that observations from multiple stations should be combined into a single long-panel data set, and an econometric model developed to estimate upstream management effects on downstream water quality. Selection of the model's functional form and explanatory variables would be informed by rating curves, and idiosyncrasies across and within stations handled in an error term by testing contemporary correlation, serial correlation, and heteroskedasticity. Our proposed approach is illustrated with an application to the Nakdong River basin in South Korea. Three alternative policies to achieve downstream BOD level targets are evaluated: upstream water treatment, greater dam discharge, and development of a new water source. Upstream water treatment directly cuts off incoming pollutants, thereby presenting the smallest variation in its downstream effects on BOD levels. Treatment is advantageous when reliability of water quality is a primary concern. Dam discharge is a flexible tool, and may be used strategically during a low-flow season. We consider development of a new water corridor from an extant dam as our third policy option. This turns out to be the most cost-effective way for securing lower BOD levels in the downstream target city. Even though we consider a relatively simple watershed to illustrate the usefulness of our approach, it can be adapted easily to analyze more complex upstream-downstream issues.

  18. Evaluation of Contaminations and Sources of Heavy Metals in Sediments at Samrak Delta of Nakdong River in Busan, Korea Using Geostatistical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Sang Yong; Senapathi, Venkatramanan; Khakimov, Elyor; Selvam, Sekar; Oh, Yun Yeong

    2016-04-01

    This research used several geostatistical methods to assess heavy metal contaminations and their sources of sediments at Samrak Delta of Nakdong River in Busan, Korea. The mean concentration of heavy metals in sediments were Fe (16.42 %), Al (15.56 %), Mn (0.31 %), Zn, Pb, Cr (0.03 %), Ni (0.02 %) and Cu (0.008 %), which were mainly attributed to the intense industrial and irrigation activities, and also geogenic sources. Groundwater in the sediments also contains the high concentrations of heavy metals such as Fe and Mn. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) exhibited a significant relationship between physicochemical parameters (sand, silt, clay, TOC, CaCO3) and heavy metals (Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu), and the importance of physicochemical parameters in regulating the amount of heavy metals in sediments. Artificial neural network (ANN) showed a good correlation and model efficiency for simulated outputs except Fe, Pb and Zn. Silt, Clay, TOC and CaCO3 controlled the concentrations of heavy metals in sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) produced two factor loadings of PCA 1 of Fe, Mn, Pb, TOC, Cr, silt and Al, 75.4 % in variance, and PCA 2 of Cu, Ni, Zn and CaCO3, 24.6 % in variance. It suggested that heavy metals were originated from geogenic sources and effluents from industries. Cluster analysis (CA) was helpful for the classification of contamination sources of heavy metals. This study suggests that geostatistical techniques are essentially necessary for the effective management of heavy metal contaminations and policy decision making processes to reduce the contamination level of heavy metals in deltaic region.

  19. Arsenic speciation in water, suspended particles, and coastal organisms from the Taehwa River Estuary of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Lee, Jung-Suk; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-07-15

    Water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and biota samples were collected from the Taehwa River Estuary to determine the distributions, partitioning, and bioaccumulation of arsenicals. Six forms of As were quantitated by the use of HPLC-ICP/MS. As was found mainly near urban and industrial areas, and inorganic As(V) was the predominant As form in both water and SPM. Particulate arsenicals were found at the greatest concentrations in coarse particles (>180μm), followed by medium (30-180μm) and fine (0.45-30μm) particles, in freshwater. Arsenical concentrations were similar across the three particle fractions in saltwater. Field-based distribution coefficient (Kd) values for As depended strongly on SPM, with a less robust dependence on salinity. Concentrations of As were greater in macroalgae than in marine animals, such as fishes, bivalves, crabs, shrimps, and gastropods. Overall, the results of the present study provide useful information on the behaviors and fate of arsenicals in an estuarine environment.

  20. Surface circulation and vertical structure of current off the Keum River estuary, Korea in later spring 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Moon-Jin; Kim, Chang-Soo; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Moon, Hong-Bae

    2017-07-01

    To examine the surface circulation and vertical structure of currents in the region of the Keum River (KR) plume, we analyzed the subinertial surface currents obtained by high frequency radar and the vertical profiles of currents measured at a station (M1) located 10 km distance from the estuary mouth for one month in late spring 2008. Monthly-mean surface circulation is composed of the westward flow from the estuary mouth and the northward flow in the offshore. These surface mean currents are a gradient (geostrophic) current around the monthly-mean plume bulge. Dominant variabilities of the surface currents, winds, and KR-outflow are decomposed by the Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF). The first current EOF mode, explaining 39% of total variation, is primarily related to the first wind EOF mode varying along the coast and the second current mode, explaining 33% of total variation, is mainly related to the first KR-outflow EOF mode varying along the mean KR-outflow direction. Meanwhile, vertical profile of the monthly-mean current at M1 shows a two-layer structure of the current flowing offshore (onshore) in the upper (lower) layer because the water column is divided by a pycnocline at 7-9 m depths below the plume water. This two layer structure is a background persisting current structure, at least in spring, maintained by the geostrophic balance induced by the sea level slope and density gradient along the line normal to the westward mean surface current direction due to monthly-mean plume bulge off the KR estuary. EOF analysis of vertical current profiles reveals that the first mode, explaining 43% of total variation, represents the two-layer structure of the current variability. The upper-layer current varies along a line normal to the mainland coastline and the low-layer one varies approximately along a line parallel to the coastline, with direction difference of about 115° between the upper-and low-layer. From the correlation analysis it is found that 60

  1. Carbon exchanges in two major river systems in Korea with a focus on the changing water regimes associated with the monsoon climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    The seasonally concentrated precipitation associated with the East Asian monsoon climate induces significant seasonal changes in water regimes in Korean rivers. To understand the monsoon effect on the riverine carbon export, carbon exchanges were investigated in two major river systems of the country, Han (drainage area of 26,120 km2) and Geum (9915 km2) Rivers. For this, river waters were sampled during low, rising, high and falling water stages respectively and analyzed for carbonate chemistry and carbon isotopic composition of DIC. Monthly river discharges increased by ~40 times during the monsoon period (high water stage, Jul.~Sep.) compared to the low water stage (Dec.~Feb.). Alkalinity and EC of the river waters decreased by ~50% during the monsoon period likely due to the dilution effect. pCO2 increased significantly during the monsoon period, which was more remarkable in the Geum river (~20,000 μatm) than in the Han river (~8,000 μatm). In both rivers, metabolic activities were the major control of the carbon isotopic composition of DIC and carbonate chemistry throughout the year. Differences were also noted between the two rivers. Carbon isotopic composition of DIC indicated an overall negative correlation (r2 = 0.56) with pCO2 in the Geum River, while the correlation was not clear in the Han River. The average DIC concentration (1124μmol/L) and pCO2 (4950 μatm) in the Geum River were much greater than those in the Han River (522 μmol/L and 850 μatm). Carbon isotope composition of DIC during the monsoon period was lower than the rest of the period in the Geum River, while it was higher during the monsoon period in the Han River. From these observations, it is expected that over 80% of the annual export of inorganic carbon from the rivers occurs during the monsoon period via degassing of CO2 and discharge of DIC. The magnitude of carbon export may also vary depending on the river dynamics. The carbon export normalized to the watershed area was greater

  2. Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    Rivers are both the means and the routes by which the products of continental weathering are carried to the oceans of the world. Except in the most arid areas more water falls as precipitation than is lost by evaporation and transpiration from the land surface to the atmosphere. Thus there is an excess of water, which must flow to the ocean. Rivers, then, are the routes by which this excess water flows to the ultimate base level. The excess of precipitation over evaporation and transpiration provides the flow of rivers and springs, recharges ground-water storage, and is the supply from which man draws water for his needs.

  3. Effect of runoff discharge on the environmental levels of 13 veterinary antibiotics: A case study of Han River and Kyungahn Stream, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghee; Lee, Kee-Bong; Choi, Kyungho

    2016-06-15

    In this study, the effect of heavy monsoon rains on the environmental levels of 13 veterinary pharmaceuticals was investigated. Kyungahn Stream has an annual average flow rate (AVF) of 4.2m(3)/s and receives runoffs from agricultural areas and livestock farms scattered in the upper stream area, and Han River has an AVF of 845m(3)/s with four sewage treatment plants with individual capacities of >1millionm(3)/day. Grab samples collected in three different rain seasons, before, during, and after rain, were analyzed. Kyungahn Stream and Han River showed completely different patterns of environmental levels of pharmaceuticals: the former had higher detection rates and concentrations of the pharmaceuticals during and after rainy season, implying direct influence by rainfalls, whereas in the latter, higher detection rates were observed before rain (1236ng/L of oxytetracycline (OTC), 2093ng/L of tetracycline (TC), and 793ng/L of chlorotetracycline (ChTC) as the highest values).

  4. The Eighth Army in Korea: The Value of Intangible Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    dimension of future operations. This concept provides an integrating and 19 Andrew Salmon , To the...Kansas, 2010), 379; Salmon , To the Last Round: The Epic British Stand on the Imjin River, Korea 1951, 66. There are a few stories that circulate and...though the leadership frowned upon its use. 64 Jager, Brothers at War: The Unending Conflict in Korea, 169-171; Salmon . To the Last Round: The Epic

  5. Anthropogenic impacts on the optical characteristics and biodegradability of dissolved and particulate organic matter in the Han River watershed, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirina Begum, Most; Jin, Hyojin; Yoon, Tae Kyung; Park, Ji-Hyung

    2016-04-01

    To understand how anthropogenic perturbations such as dams and pollution modify the chemical characteristics and biological transformations of riverine organic matter during transit through urbanized watersheds, we compared the optical characteristics and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) along different reaches and urban tributary streams of the Han River watershed during short-term incubations. Laboratory incubations were conducted for 5-7 days at 20-25 oC with filtered or unfiltered water samples collected from up-, mid-, and downstream reaches with different levels of anthropogenic perturbations and three urban streams along the downstream reach that receive effluents from waste water treatment facilities in the metropolitan Seoul. Optical parameters such as ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm, absorption coefficients at 254 nm and 350 nm, fluorescence index, humic-like fluorescence, microbial humic-like fluorescence, and protein-like fluorescence, and spectral slope at 350-400 nm were significantly correlated with increasing concentration of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) in filtered and unfiltered sample along the Han River up-, mid-, down-, and urban streams. The concentrations of BDOC in the urban streams were 6-12 times higher than in the filtered and unfiltered main-stem river samples, with significantly higher values in presence of POM in the unfiltered samples than in the filtered samples. In a separate 5-day incubation experiment with the unfiltered water sample from a downstream location of the Han River and its urban tributary water in isolation or mixed , the rate of concurrent biodegradation of both DOM and POM, as measured by the cumulative rate of CO2 production, was higher in the mixture than the average rate of the separately incubated samples, indicating the priming effect of mixed organic materials on the biodegradation of allochthonous organic materials from the other site

  6. Nation Building in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-01

    opportunity to rebuild South Korea . He saw it as “something almost unique in history. It is the opportunity of an army in a foreign land to contribute...problems. The North Korean invasion in 1950 wedded South Korea to the United States and confronted the United States with the enormous task of...elections in Korea .8 After failing to achieve agreement to peninsula-wide elections, the United Nations sponsored elections in South

  7. Distributions of persistent organic contaminants in sediments and their potential impact on macrobenthic faunal community of the Geum River Estuary and Saemangeum Coast, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seo Joon; Hong, Seongjin; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Ryu, Jongseong; Lee, Chang-Hee; Nam, Jungho; Khim, Jong Seong

    2017-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, the Geum River Estuary and Saemangeum Coast have been subject to major environmental changes, including dike construction, reclamation, and development of industrial complexes. This study aimed to: 1) investigate the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols (APs), and styrene oligomers (SOs), 2) identify the sources of sedimentary organic matter, and 3) determine key environmental factors controlling the macrozoobenthos community structure. A total of 58 surface sediments were collected from the estuary and coastal area in 2014. Specific persistent organic contaminants (POCs), including 24 PAHs, 6 APs, and 10 SOs were measured. PAHs, APs, and SOs were detected in the sediments at all sites, with concentrations varying among sites. Although POCs concentrations were generally below the Canadian sediment quality guidelines, relatively greater concentrations of POCs were found at some sites adjacent to industrial complexes and the estuarine area. Sediment organic carbon, total nitrogen, and the stable carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) were determined. Some sites near watergate had about 2-3‰ lighter δ(13)C values compared to other areas, indicating that these sites are affected by terrestrial organic matter. The number of species in the macrofaunal community was significantly correlated with δ(13)C values (p < 0.001), positively, suggesting that the origin of sedimentary organic matter is important for controlling the macrozoobenthos distribution. Overall, this research provides information about the level and sources of sediment pollution, the origins of organic matter, and the relationships with the macrofaunal community.

  8. Emergence of Klebsiella variicola positive for NDM-9, a variant of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase, in an urban river in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Di, Doris Y W; Jang, Jeonghwan; Unno, Tatsuya; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2017-04-01

    To examine the presence of pathogenic bacteria carrying New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in the environment and to characterize the genome structures of these strains. Phenotypic screening of antimicrobial susceptibility and WGS were conducted on three Klebsiella variicola strains possessing NDM-9 isolated from an urban river. Three carbapenem-resistant K. variicola isolated from Gwangju tributary were found to possess bla NDM-9 genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing indicated resistance of these strains to aminoglycosides, carbapenems, cephems, folate pathway inhibitors, fosfomycin and penicillins, but susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, phenicols, tetracyclines and miscellaneous agents. WGS revealed that the 108 kb IncFII(Y)-like plasmids carry bla NDM-9 sandwiched between IS 15 for the GJ1 strain, IS 26 for the GJ2 strain, IS 15D1 for the GJ3 strain and IS Vsa3 , and further bracketed by IS 26 and Tn AS3 along with the mercury resistance operon upstream and the class 1 integron composed of gene cassettes of aadA2 , dfrA12 and sul1 downstream. An aph(3')-Ia gene conferring resistance to aminoglycosides is located after the integrons. Chromosomally encoded bla LEN-13 , fosA , aqxA and oqxB genes, as well as plasmid-mediated bla TEM-1B and bla CTX-M-65 encoding ESBL, ant(3')-Ia and mph (A) genes, were also identified. The findings of the present study provide us with the information that NDM-9 has been spreading into the environment. Dissemination of NDM-9 in the environment has raised a health risk alarm as this variant of NDM carries MDR genes with highly transferable mobile genetic elements, increasing the possibility of resistance gene transfer among microorganisms in the environment.

  9. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  10. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  11. Dance Education in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byeon, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Despite a structured physical education system and related policies, dance education in Korea largely exists as a course in name only, without achieving its unique goals. It lacks standards within the physical education curriculum, which indicates that dance education is not conducted properly. Thus, the content and level of dance education vary…

  12. Divided Korea: United Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Korea's recorded history extends back before the birth of Christ. Through their long history, the Koreans have endured a variety of social, political, and economical crises. Confucianism has long been one of the most popular religions by which the Korean people have lived. However, Koreans also have embraced Buddhism and Christianity while…

  13. Educational Facilities in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Korean program to modernize school buildings and equipment to better meet current teaching needs.Examines Korea's education and administrative systems, and the Ministry of Education's involvement in schooling trends, facilities for higher education, and developments in information and technology. (GR)

  14. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  15. East Asia: Korea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-18

    CHOSON Reviews Korean Army 13 ECONOMIC Samsung Group Moves Toward Merger, Expansion 34 Production of Export Goods Diversified 35 Rapid Information...events and the income from the sale of TV broadcasting privileges." However, the IOC and the Korean Olympic Committee (KOC) of Seoul have taken the...explanation into rumors that 6.5 million U.S. dollars was received as a commis- sion for Korea’s purchase of u.s. weapons during the Chon government, as

  16. South Korea Leads the Warfight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    warfighting command in a doctrinally supporting relationship to the ROK armed forces. The evolution to a Korean -led defense of the Republic of Korea is a...T he Republic of Korea –U.S. alliance is embarking on the most profound transformation affecting American forces on the peninsula since the Korean ...War. For the last 57 years, the United States has led the war- fighting command responsible for the defense of the Republic of Korea (ROK). As the ROK

  17. Tsunami Catalog in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Noh, Myunghyun

    2015-04-01

    Significant tsunamis are described in historic and instrumental earthquake sources for all regions around the Korean Peninsula. According to the low seismicity near the Peninsula, there are relatively few tsunami events in Korea. Most of the tsunami events are associated with big earthquakes at the eastern margin of the East Sea. One historical event is associated with a volcanic eruption. For that reason, the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is the affectable area for tsunami. One historical event at the Yellow Sea area is inferred a result from a big earthquake in China. And one plate boundary earthquake between the Philippine Plate and the Eurasian Plate affected to an island located in south of the Korean Peninsula. We confirmed the historic tsunami events by review the foreign literatures. More detailed information is presented for the instrumental earthquake source events. This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Radiation Safety Foundation (KORSAFe) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Republic of Korea (Grant No. 1305001).

  18. Ensemble Streamflow Prediction in Korea: Past and Future 5 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, D.; Kim, Y.; Lee, J.

    2005-05-01

    The Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) approach was first introduced in 2000 by the Hydrology Research Group (HRG) at Seoul National University as an alternative probabilistic forecasting technique for improving the 'Water Supply Outlook' That is issued every month by the Ministry of Construction and Transportation in Korea. That study motivated the Korea Water Resources Corporation (KOWACO) to establish their seasonal probabilistic forecasting system for the 5 major river basins using the ESP approach. In cooperation with the HRG, the KOWACO developed monthly optimal multi-reservoir operating systems for the Geum river basin in 2004, which coupled the ESP forecasts with an optimization model using sampling stochastic dynamic programming. The user interfaces for both ESP and SSDP have also been designed for the developed computer systems to become more practical. More projects for developing ESP systems to the other 3 major river basins (i.e. the Nakdong, Han and Seomjin river basins) was also completed by the HRG and KOWACO at the end of December 2004. Therefore, the ESP system has become the most important mid- and long-term streamflow forecast technique in Korea. In addition to the practical aspects, resent research experience on ESP has raised some concerns into ways of improving the accuracy of ESP in Korea. Jeong and Kim (2002) performed an error analysis on its resulting probabilistic forecasts and found that the modeling error is dominant in the dry season, while the meteorological error is dominant in the flood season. To address the first issue, Kim et al. (2004) tested various combinations and/or combining techniques and showed that the ESP probabilistic accuracy could be improved considerably during the dry season when the hydrologic models were combined and/or corrected. In addition, an attempt was also made to improve the ESP accuracy for the flood season using climate forecast information. This ongoing project handles three types of climate

  19. Fires and smoke in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite detected several fires burning in South Korea on June 6, 2002. The smoke is blanketing both South and North Korea, and may be mingling with smoke from other fires in China. Beneath the haze, colored water at the southern tip of the Peninsula suggests sediment or phytoplankton in the coastal waters.

  20. Fires and smoke in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite detected several fires burning in South Korea on June 6, 2002. The smoke is blanketing both South and North Korea, and may be mingling with smoke from other fires in China. Beneath the haze, colored water at the southern tip of the Peninsula suggests sediment or phytoplankton in the coastal waters.

  1. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  2. North Korea Drought

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-29

    North Korea's state news agency reported the country is facing its worst drought in a century. Rice-growing provinces have been badly affected and more than 30% of rice paddies were parching up. A Landsat 7 image from June 29, 2002, compared with an ASTER image from June 26, 2015, shows the disparity in the rice crop. The images display vegetation in red, and bare fields in dark blue. The images cover an area of 27 x 34.5 km, and are located at 38.5 degrees north, 125.6 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19501

  3. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  4. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  5. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  6. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  7. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  8. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Chey, Jeanyung

    2016-11-01

    Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea, albeit its relatively short history, has advanced dramatically. We review a brief history and current status of clinical neuropsychology in South Korea. The history, the educational pathway, the training pathway, the certification process, and careers in clinical neuropsychology in South Korea are reviewed. We have reviewed the neuropsychological services, including assessment and treatment, research on neurological and psychiatric populations, and neuropsychology education and the requirements related to education, training, and board examinations of those providing neuropsychological services in South Korea. We also describe how the Korean Society for Neuropsychology Research, the first and only meeting for neuropsychologists in the country established in 1999, has played a major role in how clinical neuropsychology is practiced and developed as a professional field in South Korea. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea has achieved major progress over just a quarter of a century, and its future is promising in light of the increasing demand for neuropsychological services and advances in neuroscience in the country. Challenges that the community of clinical neuropsychologists are currently facing in South Korea, including formalizing neuropsychological curriculum and training programs and developing advanced credentialing procedures, are discussed.

  9. Introduction of Micro-meteorology Monitoring System for Test-bed Region in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, C.; Byon, J.; Kahng, K.; Park, Y.; Jung, H.

    2013-12-01

    Changbum Cho, Jae-Young Byon, Keumah Kahng, Young-San Park, and Hyun-Sook Jung National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration, Korea National Institute of Meteorological Research established micro-meteorology monitoring system at the Nakdong River of South Korea since 2010 in order to study the micro-meteorological impact due to nationwide major river development project. A total of 37 automatic weather stations are in operation at areas near the dams which were constructed as part of this project. The weather stations mainly measure air temperature, humidity, and wind, with some of the stations measuring radiation and heat fluxes. More than half of the stations are installed on agricultural areas and the rest are installed in an industrial area. The data collected from the stations are used to observe the micrometeorological system and used as an input to numerical models, which compose a meteorological environment impact assessment tool.

  10. Occupational Asthma in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is the leading occupational respiratory disease. Cases compensated as OA by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) (218 cases), cases reported by a surveillance system (286 cases), case reports by related scientific journals and cases confirmed by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) over 15 yr from 1992 to 2006 were analyzed. Annual mean incidence rate was 1.6 by compensation and 3.5 by surveillance system, respectively. The trend appeared to increase according to the surveillance system. Incidence was very low compared with other countries. The most frequently reported causative agent was isocyanate followed by reactive dye in dyeing factories. Other chemicals, metals and dust were also found as causative agents. OA was underreported according to compensation and surveillance system data. In conclusion, a more effective surveillance system is needed to evaluate OA causes and distribution, and to effectively prevent newly developing OA. PMID:21258586

  11. Occupational Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  12. Baektu Mountain, China & North Korea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-14

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows Baektu Mountain, an active volcano on the border between North Korea and China. Rising to 2744 m, its summit caldera is filled with a crater lake, Heaven Lake.

  13. EPA Collaboration with South Korea

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA, the Ministry of Environment of Korea, and partner agencies in both countries cooperate to strengthen environmental governance, improve air and water quality, and reduce exposure to toxic chemicals.

  14. South Korea and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Se Ho

    1988-01-01

    Examines projections about the future of Korea, predicting a highly diversified society built upon industrialization and moving toward an information society. Discusses the growing middle class and its societal implications and considers the effects of the country's increasing democratization. (GEA)

  15. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-06

    Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. 30 Abductions by N. Korea not...3007. 33 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions, International Herald Tribune, September 4, 2007, p. 5...spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri

  16. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  17. High resolution mapping of flood hazard for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sourima; Nzerem, Kechi; Zovi, Francesco; Li, Shuangcai; Mei, Yi; Assteerawatt, Anongnart; Hilberts, Arno; Tillmanns, Stephan; Mitas, Christos

    2015-04-01

    Floods are one of primary natural hazards that affect South Korea. During the past 15 years, catastrophic flood events which mainly have occurred during the rainy and typhoon seasons - especially under condition where soils are already saturated, have triggered substantial property damage with an average annual loss of around US1.2 billion (determined from WAter Management Information System's flood damage database for years 2002-2011) in South Korea. According to Seoul Metropolitan Government, over 16,000 households in the capital city Seoul were inundated during 2010 flood events. More than 10,000 households in Seoul were apparently flooded during one major flood event due to torrential rain in July 2011. Recently in August 2014, a serious flood event due to heavy rainfall hit the Busan region in the south east of South Korea. Addressing the growing needs, RMS has recently released country-wide high resolution combined flood return period maps for post-drainage local "pluvial" inundation and undefended large-scale "fluvial" inundation to aid the government and the insurance industry in the evaluation of comprehensive flood risk. RMS has developed a flood hazard model for South Korea to generate inundation depths and extents for a range of flood return periods. The model is initiated with 30 years of historical meteorological forcing data and calibrated to daily observations at over 100 river gauges across the country. Simulations of hydrologic processes are subsequently performed based on a 2000 year set of stochastic forcing. Floodplain inundation processes are modelled by numerically solving the shallow water equations using finite volume method on GPUs. Taking into account the existing stormwater drainage standards, economic exposure densities, etc., reasonable flood maps are created from inundation model output. Final hazard maps at one arcsec grid resolution can be the basis for both evaluating and managing flood risk, its economic impacts, and insured flood

  18. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  19. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  20. Dust Obscures Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The dust cloud over eastern Asia was so thick on March 21, 2002, that the Korean Peninsula completely disappeared from view in this Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the region. Parts of South Korea report that visibility at the surface is less than 50 m (165 feet). Airports throughout the region canceled flights due to the poor visibility. Eyewitnesses in China report that the dust was so thick in Beijing at times that visibility was limited to 100 m (330 feet), while in parts of the Gansu Province visibility was reported at less than 10 m (33 feet). Chinese officials say this is the worst dust storm to hit in more than 10 years. Dust from an earlier event still colors the air to the east of Japan. (The island of Honshu is just peeking out from under the cloud cover in these images.) Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  1. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea...

  2. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  3. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  4. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  5. 75 FR 67912 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury...'') is issuing regulations with respect to North Korea to implement Executive Order 13466 of June 26... issuing the North Korea Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 510 (the ``Regulations''), to implement E.O...

  6. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION... amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive Order 13570 of April 18, 2011. OFAC..., the Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control published the North Korea Sanctions...

  7. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  8. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  9. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  10. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  11. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-06

    15 Niksch, Larry A., North Korea and Terrorism: The Yokita Megumi Factor. The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis. Spring 2002. pp. 14-16. 16 For...remains were not those of Megumi Yokota or Kaoru Matsuki, as Pyongyang had claimed, and the issue remained contentious at year’s end. Four Japanese

  12. Life in South Korea Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Seok-Choon

    1988-01-01

    Characterizes the past 40 years in South Korea as a time of modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and internationalization. Discusses Korean religion and social values; family, kinship, and social life; education; housing, food, and clothing; leisure and sports; and the maintenance of national identity. Examines the Korean synthesis of…

  13. Foreign Assistance to North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-26

    Representative for the DPRK. 41 Smith, Overcoming Humanitarian Dilemmas, p.13 Source: World Food Program, Map Resources. Adapted by CRS. (K. Yancey 3/18/04...2003 e-mail correspondence with Rick Corsino, former WFP Country Director for North Korea. 44 May 2005 e-mail correspondence with Richard Ragan, WFP

  14. The Nankai Trough earthquake tsunamis in Korea: Numerical studies of the 1707 Hoei earthquake and physics-based scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Saito, T.; Fukuyama, E.; Kang, T. S.

    2016-12-01

    Historical documents in Korea and China report abnormal waves in the sea and rivers close to the date of the 1707 Hoei earthquake, which occurred in the Nankai Trough, off southwestern Japan. This indicates that the tsunami caused by the Hoei earthquake might have reached Korea and China, which suggests a potential hazard in Korea from large earthquakes in the Nankai Trough. We conducted tsunami simulations to study the details of tsunamis in Korea caused by large earthquakes. We employed the 1707 Hoei earthquake source model and physics-based scenarios of anticipated earthquake in the Nankai subduction zone. We also considered the effect of horizontal displacement on tsunami generation. Our simulation results from the Hoei earthquake model and the anticipated earthquake models showed that the maximum tsunami height along the Korean coast was less than 0.5 m. Even though the tsunami is not life-threatening, the effect of larger earthquakes should be still considered.

  15. H5N1 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated from healthy mallard captured in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Kim, Bang-Sil; Bae, You-Chan; Moon, Oun-Kyoung; Oem, Jae-Ku; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Choi, Jun-Gu; Lee, O-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2011-08-05

    On December 7, 2010, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was isolated from a healthy mallard captured at the Mankyung River in South Korea. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this virus was classified into clade 2.3.2 and closely related to H5N1 viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia, Russia and China in 2009 and 2010.

  16. Korea and the Yellow Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired September 24, 2012 City lights at night are a fairly reliable indicator of where people live. But this isn’t always the case, and the Korean Peninsula shows why. As of July 2012, South Korea’s population was estimated at roughly 49 million people, and North Korea’s population was estimated at about half that number. But where South Korea is gleaming with city lights, North Korea has hardly any lights at all—just a faint glimmer around Pyongyang. On September 24, 2012, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite captured this nighttime view of the Korean Peninsula. This imagery is from the VIIRS “day-night band,” which detects light in a range of wavelengths from green to near-infrared and uses filtering techniques to observe signals such as gas flares, auroras, wildfires, city lights, and reflected moonlight. The wide-area image shows the Korean Peninsula, parts of China and Japan, the Yellow Sea, and the Sea of Japan. The white inset box encloses an area showing ship lights in the Yellow Sea. Many of the ships form a line, as if assembling along a watery border. Following the 1953 armistice ending the Korean War, per-capita income in South Korea rose to about 17 times the per-capital income level of North Korea, according to the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Worldwide, South Korea ranks 12th in electricity production, and 10th in electricity consumption, per 2011 estimates. North Korea ranks 71st in electricity production, and 73rd in electricity consumption, per 2009 estimates. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using VIIRS Day-Night Band data from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership. Suomi NPP is the result of a partnership between NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Department of Defense. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: Suomi NPP - VIIRS Credit: NASA Earth Observatory Click here to view all of the Earth at Night 2012

  17. First molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sukyee; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the status of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was assessed in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea, with PCR and phylogenetic analyses. Nested PCR on 1058 collected blood samples revealed only one A. phagocytophilum positive sample (female, age <1year, mixed breed, collected from the north of the Han River). The genetic variability of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated by genotyping, using the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 gene sequences of the positive sample. BLASTn analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes had 99.6%, 99.9%, and 100% identity with the following sequences deposited in GenBank: a cat 16S rRNA sequence from Korea (KR021166), a rat groEL sequence from Korea (KT220194), and a water deer msp2 sequence from Korea (HM752099), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses classified the groEL gene into two distinct groups (serine and alanine), whereas the msp2 gene showed a general classification into two groups (USA and Europe) that were further subgrouped according to region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the molecular diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reared in Korea. In addition, the high genetic identity of the 16S rRNA and groEL sequences between humans and dogs from the same region suggests a possible epidemiological relation. Given the conditions of climate change, tick ecology, and recent incidence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Korea, the findings of this study underscore the need to establish appropriate control programs for tick-borne diseases in Korea.

  18. Development of Integrated Flood Analysis System for Improving Flood Mitigation Capabilities in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-suk

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the needs of people are growing for a more safety life and secure homeland from unexpected natural disasters. Flood damages have been recorded every year and those damages are greater than the annual average of 2 trillion won since 2000 in Korea. It has been increased in casualties and property damages due to flooding caused by hydrometeorlogical extremes according to climate change. Although the importance of flooding situation is emerging rapidly, studies related to development of integrated management system for reducing floods are insufficient in Korea. In addition, it is difficult to effectively reduce floods without developing integrated operation system taking into account of sewage pipe network configuration with the river level. Since the floods result in increasing damages to infrastructure, as well as life and property, structural and non-structural measures should be urgently established in order to effectively reduce the flood. Therefore, in this study, we developed an integrated flood analysis system that systematized technology to quantify flood risk and flood forecasting for supporting synthetic decision-making through real-time monitoring and prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information in Korea. Keywords: Flooding, Integrated flood analysis system, Rainfall forecasting, Korea Acknowledgments This work was carried out with the support of "Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development (Project No. PJ011686022015)" Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea

  19. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-15

    Second- 28 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within...The White House, Roundtable Interview of the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 32 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea...2006 through the spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the

  20. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-10

    and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. Korea’s nuclear programs and...the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 30 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions...including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan navy intercepted and

  1. Lung Cancer Epidemiology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Aesun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kim, Byung-Woo; Woo, Hyeongtaek; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2017-07-01

    The current study was undertaken to examine the trends in the lung cancer incidence, mortality, and survival after a diagnosis in Korea. Lung cancer incidence data according to the histologic type and mortality data were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Statistics Korea, respectively. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated, and the Joinpoint model and age-period-cohort analyses were used to describe the trends in the rates. The 5-year relative survival rates of lung cancer were also calculated. Although the number of new lung cancer cases increased between 1999 and 2012, the age-standardized incidence rate decreased by 0.9% per year in men, whereas the incidence in women increased by 1.7% per year over the same time. Until 2010, the most common histologic type in men was squamous cell carcinoma, then adenocarcinoma prevailed thereafter. Since 1999, the most frequent histological type in women was adenocarcinoma. The lung cancer mortality started to decrease in 2002, with a more apparent decline for the younger age groups in both men and women. Overall, the 5-year relative survival rates have improved significantly from 11.2% for men and 14.7% for women among patients diagnosed between 1993 and 1997 to 19.3% for men and 28.2% for women among patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2012, respectively. An improvement in survival rate was observed for all major histology groups. The epidemiology of lung cancer in Korea has changed over a short time span, with decreasing mortality and improving survival rates. Further study is warranted to determine the cause of these changes.

  2. Foreign Assistance to North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-12

    Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No . 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per...clarified that “ no funds are provided in this act for energy-related assistance for North Korea.” The House Appropriations Committee report on the other...and Diplomacy, by Larry A. Niksch, and CRS Report RL34256, North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues, by Mary Beth Nikitin. 22 See CRS Report

  3. Foreign Assistance to North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-09

    Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No . 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response...North Korean denuclearization efforts. Later in the report , the Committee clarifies that “ no funds are provided in this act for energy-related...Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues, by Mary Beth Nikitin. 19 See CRS Report RL30613, North Korea: Terrorism List Removal, by Larry A. Niksch. 20

  4. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-26

    News , December 1, 2012. U.S.- South Korea Relations Congressional Research Service 7 • China’s rising influence in ...entered into force and will be eliminated completely in the fifth year of the agreement. South Korea also agreed to allow U.S.-based car manufacturers to...sell in South Korea up to 25,000 cars per year per manufacturer as long as they met U.S. safety and environmental standards. This

  5. Serious fungal infections in Korea.

    PubMed

    Huh, K; Ha, Y E; Denning, D W; Peck, K R

    2017-02-04

    Information on the incidence and prevalence of fungal infections is of critical value in public health policy. However, nationwide epidemiological data on fungal infections are scarce, due to a lack of surveillance and funding. The objective of this study was to estimate the disease burden of fungal infections in the Republic of Korea. An actuarial approach using a deterministic model was used for the estimation. Data on the number of populations at risk and the frequencies of fungal infections in those populations were obtained from national statistics reports and epidemiology papers. Approximately 1 million people were estimated to be affected by fungal infections every year. The burdens of candidemia (4.12 per 100,000), cryptococcal meningitis (0.09 per 100,000), and Pneumocystis pneumonia (0.51 per 100,000) in South Korea were estimated to be comparable to those in other countries. The prevalence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (22.4 per 100,000) was markedly high, probably due to the high burden of tuberculosis in Korea. The low burdens of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (56.9 per 100,000) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (75.1 per 100,000) warrant further study. Oral candidiasis (539 per 100,000) was estimated to affect a much larger population than noted in previous studies. Our work provides valuable insight on the epidemiology of fungal infections; however, additional studies are needed.

  6. Occupational Neurologic Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Yun, Yong-Hun; Oh, Myoung-Soon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a schematic review of the clinical manifestations of occupational neurologic disorders in Korea and discusses the toxicologic implications of these conditions. Vascular encephalopathy, parkinsonism, chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy, and neurodegenerative diseases are common presentations of occupational neurotoxic syndromes in Korea. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomic neurologic syndrome. Detailed neurologic examinations and categorization of the clinical manifestations of neurologic disorders will improve the clinical management of occupational neurologic diseases. Physicians must be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of possible exposure to neurotoxins, and they should also pay attention to less-typical, rather-vague symptoms and signs in workers because the toxicologic characteristics of occupational neurologic diseases in Korea have changed from typical patterns to less-typical or equivocal patterns. This shift is likely to be due to several years of low-dose exposure, perhaps combined with the effects of aging, and new types of possibly toxicant-related neurodegenerative diseases. Close collaboration between neurologists and occupational physicians is needed to determine whether neurologic disorders are work-related. PMID:20607045

  7. River meanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Langbein, Walter Basil

    1966-01-01

    The striking geometric regularity of a winding river is no accident. Meanders appear to be the form in which a river does the least work in turning; hence they are the most probable form a river can take

  8. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  9. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  10. How much plutonium does North Korea have?

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1994-09-01

    U.S. intelligence discovered in the 1980s that North Korea was building a small nuclear reactor. The reactor was described as a gas-cooled, graphite-moderated model similar to those Britian and France used to produce electric power as well as plutonium for nuclear weapons. When Western nations expressed concern about the reactor Russia pressed North Korea to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which it did on December 12, 1985. However, North Korea stalled on signing the required safeguards agreement that allows the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to inspect nuclear facilities until January 1992. Inspections by the IAEA revealed discrepancies with the amounts of plutonium separated as declared by the North Koreans. The IAEA also received reports that two North Korean waste sites were hidden. By February 1993 the IAEA and the North Koreans has reached an impasse: North Koreas initial declarations of plutonium inventory could not be confirmed and North Korea refused to cooperate. At the least, North Korea admits to having separated 100 grams of plutonium. At the most, worst case estimate, they could have a total of 6 - 13 kilograms of separated plutonium. A first nuclear weapon can require up to 10 kilograms of weapon-grade plutonium. Any settlement needs to include a way to insure that the IAEA can verify North Korea`s past nuclear activities and determine the amount of plutonium that may have been separated in the past. 2 refs.

  11. Teaching about Korea in Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Decar, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Presents 12 study guides for teaching secondary school students about Korean history and culture. The study guides deal with ancient legends, history, family, women's roles, traditions, folk customs, economic development, the division of Korea, the Korean War, links with the United States, and comparisons between North and South Korea. (GEA)

  12. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  13. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  14. International University Will Open in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  15. International University Will Open in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  16. Planning for a Peaceful Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    military service schools , • highlight the range of damage that U.S. and South Korean forces could inflict in a variety of counterstrikes against a North...majority of the North’s so-called 29 “technocrats” have not been educated at places like MIT, the Ivy League, Stanford, or the London School of...recollections that somehow on the flight home from World War II, Korea got caught in a badminton game between the United States and the USSR, and ended up

  17. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-06

    ct/rls/crt/2006/82736.htm] at p. 147. 28 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet...Interview of the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 32 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions...smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan

  18. Spatio-Temporal Variations in Stream-Aquifer Interactions Following Construction of Weirs in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeonju; Koo, Min-Ho; Kim, Kisu; Kim, Yongcheol

    2016-05-01

    The "Four Major Rivers Restoration Project" was conducted to secure sufficient water resources, introduce comprehensive flood control measures, improve water quality, and restore river ecosystems in Korea. As a part of the project, 16 sites were dredged and weirs were installed in the Han, Geum, Yeongsan, and Nakdong Rivers from late 2010 to early 2012. Groundwater data were obtained from 213 groundwater monitoring wells near the four major rivers to analyze the impacts of weir construction on the nearby groundwater flow system. The groundwater level and chemical characteristics were analyzed to investigate how the groundwater flow system and water quality changed following weir construction. Our results show that the groundwater level immediately increased with increased river levels following weir construction. In addition, the hydrologic condition of some rivers upstream of the weirs was changed from gaining to losing streams. Consequently, the direction of groundwater flow changed from perpendicular to parallel to the river, and groundwater downstream of the weir became recharged from the area upstream of the weir. This should affect groundwater quality, which should become similar to the river water; however, this change has not yet been observed. Therefore, both further monitoring of the groundwater quality and further hydrogeochemical analysis are required for quantitative evaluation of the effects of weir construction in the study area.

  19. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD86 United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Korea.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On June 30, 2007, the United States and the Republic of Korea...

  20. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  1. Occupational hearing loss in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-12-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed.

  2. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.

  3. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

  4. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed. PMID:21258593

  5. Resurgence of Mumps in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Routine vaccination against mumps has markedly reduced its incidence. However, the incidence of mumps continuously has increased since 2007. In 2013, a large mumps epidemic occurred in Korea, and this epidemic is still an ongoing problem. This epidemic occurred primarily in school settings and affected vaccinated adolescents, predominantly male students. The recent resurgence of mumps is caused by multiple factors: suboptimal effectiveness of the current mumps vaccines, use of the Rubini strain vaccine, waning immunity in the absence of natural boosting due to the marked reduction in the mumps incidence, genotype mismatch between the vaccine and circulating mumps virus strains, and environmental conditions that foster intense exposures. Containment of mumps outbreaks is challenging because the sensitivity of diagnostic tests is low among vaccinees and control measures are less efficient because of the inherent nature of the mumps virus. Despite the suboptimal vaccine effectiveness in outbreak settings, maintaining the high vaccine coverage is an important strategy to prevent mumps outbreaks, given that the routine use of mumps vaccines has substantially reduced the incidence of mumps and its complications as compared with that in the pre-vaccine era. In order to control the current mumps epidemic and prevent further outbreaks, we need to better understand the dynamics of mumps among vaccinated populations and the changing epidemiology in Korea. Concerted efforts should be made to systematically monitor the immunization status of the Korean population and to improve diagnosis efficiency. Furthermore, more effective mumps vaccines need to be developed in the future. PMID:25844258

  6. Flood and ebb dominance in estuaries in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J. W.; Jun, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    Ebb dominance, which is mainly observed at the Youngsan River estuary (YRE) and flood dominance at the Keum River estuary (KRE) are conspicuous features in the southwestern coastal zones of Korea. In considering the sources of this asymmetry, which include, not only bottom friction, irregular bathymetry and tidal flats, other issues also need to be considered, since dominance occurs extensively in coastal regions near the YRE (ebb) and the KRE (flood). This study concludes that the rotational directions of M 2 tidal ellipses at the eastern side of the Yellow Sea can produce the differences between maximum currents in flood and ebb, and thus, flood/ebb dominance in southwestern Korea is closely related to the tidal characteristics of the Yellow Sea. An Analysis of Kelvin and Poincaré waves in the Yellow Sea also indicates that flood/ebb dominance is caused by the southward propagation of an M 4 tide while an M 2 tide propagates northward, which is another characteristic feature of the Yellow Sea. This reinforces the above conclusion. Flood/ebb dominance, which is generated by these mechanisms at the outer sea, becomes more pronounced landward with an increase in the amplitude of M 4 tides. However, the mechanisms involved in the growth of an M 4 tidal constituent at the KRE and at the YRE are very different. While flood dominance at the KRE is mainly due to energy dissipation by friction, ebb dominance at the YRE is largely caused by the vast tidal flats. In addition, shallow water tides propagating from the outer sea also serve to reinforce flood dominance at the KRE as well as ebb dominance at the YRE.

  7. An Integrated Urban Flood Analysis System in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Min-Seok; Yoon, Tae-Hyung; Choi, Ji-Hyeok

    2017-04-01

    Due to climate change and the rapid growth of urbanization, the frequency of concentrated heavy rainfall has caused urban floods. As a result, we studied climate change in Korea and developed an integrated flood analysis system that systematized technology to quantify flood risk and flood forecasting in urban areas. This system supports synthetic decision-making through real-time monitoring and prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information. As part of the measures to deal with the increase of inland flood damage, we have found it necessary to build a systematic city flood prevention system that systematizes technology to quantify flood risk as well as flood forecast, taking into consideration both inland and river water. This combined inland-river flood analysis system conducts prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and performs prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded area. In addition, flood forecasts should be accurate and immediate. Accurate flood forecasts signify that the prediction of the watch, warning time and water level is precise. Immediate flood forecasts represent the forecasts lead time which is the time needed to evacuate. Therefore, in this study, in order to apply rainfall-runoff method to medium and small urban stream for flood forecasts, short-term rainfall forecasting using radar is applied to improve immediacy. Finally, it supports synthetic decision-making for prevention of flood disaster through real-time monitoring. Keywords: Urban Flood, Integrated flood analysis system, Rainfall forecasting, Korea Acknowledgments This research was supported by a grant (16AWMP-B066744-04) from Advanced Water Management Research Program (AWMP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  8. Spatially Explicit Assessment of Agricultural Water Equilibrium in Korea Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. J.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    In agriculture, balance between water retention and water use is an issue handled in most region and crops. This study suggested agricultural water equilibrium (AWE) it a new assessing concept for management of agricultural water in spatially explicit. This concept based on the principle of supply and demand, to the usage of agricultural water, it is possible to define virtual water content of crops (VWC) as the demand, and cropland water budget (CWB) as the supply. For the assessing AWE of the Korean Peninsula, quantified by estimating the CWB based on the natural hydrological cycle and the VWC of rice, a key crop in the Korean Peninsula. Among five factors used to assess AWE, four factors except annual precipitation were estimated by using the GEPIC model, and calculated CWB and VWC at past three decade. AWE results over the past 30 years were computed by deducting VWC showing demands in croplands from CWB meaning water supply that result showed highly vertical difference of South and North Korea. When sorting AWE data by major river basin in the Korean Peninsula, most river basins in North Korea also showed very low level. The cause of making latitudinal change in AWE is the differences of VWC and CWB in terms of latitudinal change. Which can be explained by decoupling of agricultural water demand and supply. Identifying relation with AWE, VWC and CWB in concept of elasticity, elasticity of AWE following VWC was appeared as very low relatively and absolutely. And the elasticity of AWE following CWB is very good relatively and good absolutely. When VWC is inelastic, the relative elasticity of CWB tended to become very high. AWE values presented in the study were not absolute, though these values appeared enough in explaining the latitudinal change, demand and supply of agricultural water, and have been meaningful in establishing the concept of AWE.

  9. Recommendations for Carotid Stenting in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyuk Won; Suh, Sang-il; Jeong, Hae Woong; Suh, Dae Chul

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is being performed in many hospitals in Korea. Most of the guidelines which are being used are similar, but the practical aspects such as techniques are different between hospitals. For example, usage of various protective devices, the oral antiplatelet regimen prior to procedure and placing of temporary pacemaker to prevent bradycardia are different between hospitals. In this article, we summarize and propose the guidelines for CAS which is currently being accepted in Korea. These guidelines may be helpful in providing protocol to neurointerventionalist who perform CAS and to standardize the process including reporting of CAS in the future comparative trials in Korea. PMID:25763292

  10. Korea`s choice of a new generation of nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The ABWR and SBWR design, both under development at GE, provide the best platform for developing the next generation advanced plants. The ABWR, which is rapidly setting the standard for new nuclear reactor plants, is clearly the best choice to meet the present energy needs of Korea. And through a GE/Korea partnership to develop the plant of the next century, Korea will establish itself as a leader in innovative reactor technology.

  11. Seaweed Farms in South Korea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    The dark squares that make up the checkerboard pattern in this image are fields of a sort—fields of seaweed. Along the south coast of South Korea, seaweed is often grown on ropes, which are held near the surface with buoys. This technique ensures that the seaweed stays close enough to the surface to get enough light during high tide but doesn’t scrape against the bottom during low tide. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 acquired this image of seaweed cultivation in the shallow waters around Sisan Island on January 31, 2014. Home to a thriving aquaculture industry, the south coast of South Korea produces about 90 percent of the country’s seaweed crop. The waters around Sisan are not the only place where aquaculture is common. View the large image to see how ubiquitous seaweed aquaculture is along the coast in Jeollanam-do, the southernmost province on the Korean peninsula. Two main types of seaweed are cultivated in South Korea: Undaria (known as miyeok in Korean, wakame in Japanese) and Pyropia (gim in Korean, nori in Japanese). Both types are used generously in traditional Korean, Japanese, and Chinese food. Since 1970, farmed seaweed production has increased by approximately 8 percent per year. Today, about 90 percent of all the seaweed that humans consume globally is farmed. That may be good for the environment. In comparison to other types of food production, seaweed farming has a light environmental footprint because it does not require fresh water or fertilizer. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey. Caption by Adam Voiland. Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission

  12. Republic of Korea`s security in northeast Asia. Regional strategic appraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, S.J.

    1996-04-15

    Although the Cold War is over, the security environment in Northeast Asia is not stable. This study summarizes Korea`s national interests from a Korean soldier`s perspective. The threats and issues are described according to the format of a regional strategic appraisal. This study recommends the organization of a Conference on Security and Cooperation in Northeast Asia (CSCNEA). This organization would be composed of the two Koreas(or eventually a reunified Korea), the United States, Japan, China, and Russia. Before the establishment of the organization, the enlargement of bilateral cooperation is recommended.

  13. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Park, S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Wi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  14. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  15. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  16. The dynamic evolution of rheumatology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Song, Yeong-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatology was first recognized as a distinct clinical specialty in Korea just 35 years ago. Young professors who were trained in rheumatology in the USA and afterwards returned to Korea contributed substantially to advances in rheumatology clinical practice, educational programmes and research activities. They also established the Korean Rheumatism Association, later renamed the Korean College of Rheumatology. These young rheumatologists had a major role not only in raising the level of clinical and scientific activities, but also in promoting academic exchanges around the Asia-Pacific region, the USA and Europe. Subsequently, Korea's rapid economic growth and high education level enabled rheumatology to advance rapidly. Today, continued efforts are required to raise the standard of clinical and basic research, to optimize clinical practice with regard to new biologic agents, to exploit personalized and targeted therapies for the rheumatic diseases, and to meet the medical demands of Korea's ageing society.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea.

  18. Antiviral treatment of influenza in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Young June; Lee, Hyunju; Lee, Hoan Jong; Choi, Eun Hwa

    2015-06-01

    Antiviral therapy has an important role in the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza. At present, two classes of antiviral agents, adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors, are available for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza in Korea. Because of the widespread resistance against adamantanes, neuraminidase inhibitors are mainly used. Because each country has a unique epidemiology of influenza, the proper use of antiviral agents should be determined based on local data. Decisions on the clinical practice in the treatment of influenza in South Korea are guided by the local surveillance data, practice guidelines, health insurance system and the resistance patterns of the circulating influenza viruses. This review highlights the role of antiviral agents in the treatment and outcome of influenza in Korea by providing comprehensive information of their clinical usage in Korea.

  19. Negotiations with North Korea: Lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallucci, Robert L.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, I summarize the events leading to the negotiation of the Agreed Framework with North Korea. I also highlight the threats that result from the current situation, and some of the technical issues relevant to understanding events.

  20. An overview of biotechnology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi; Hahm; Rhee; Han

    1999-03-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, Korea has invested heavily in biotechnology research and development, with the aim of becoming a leading nation in this field. It is important to understand the historical progress of this development in order to appreciate the current state of biotechology in Korea. However, it is equally important to know what research is currently being planned and carried out, and by whom.

  1. Whither Unified Korea? East, West or Center?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    the balance of power in Northeast Asia has been significantly shaped by an enduring Republic of Korea (ROK)-US alliance. Despite the constant threat of...a resumption of hostilities between the two Koreas, the current structure maintains a status quo that assures the balance of power in Northeast Asia...the balance of power imposed on the region since 1953. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report

  2. US Military Presence in a Unified Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    profiles/ap_mp_05.cfm ; Internet; accessed 11 March 2003; and World Almanac Education Group, Inc., The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2003 (New York...New York: World Almanac Books, 2003), 108, 771, 799, 801, 843. 15 Han Woo-Keun, The History of Korea (Seoul, Korea: The Eul-Yoo Publishing Company...January 2003. 37 World Almanac Education Group, Inc., The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2003 (New York, New York: World Almanac Books, 2003), 218. 38

  3. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-12

    South Korea and “normalize” the tours of U.S. troops there, including longer stays with family members accompanying them. In May 2011, Senators Carl ...Kim Dae- jung , who in the second attempt was saved only by U.S. intervention. The divisions that opened under Park continue to be felt today...have deepened in South Korea. In 1997, long- time dissident Kim Dae- jung was elected to the presidency, the first time an opposition party had

  4. North Korea: War drums or peace pipes?

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    President Clinton has wisely seized the opportunity, presented by former President Jimmy Carter`s meeting with North Korea leader Kim Il Sung, for renewed negotiations with Pyongyang on its nuclear program. While a successful outcome cannot be guaranteed, both sides have backed off the mounting confrontation that threatened to lead to either the emergence of a nuclear North Korea or a second Korean war.

  5. Improvement of Water Quality at Dongbin Harbor with Construction of an Inland Canal, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-Sik

    2014-01-01

    The behaviors of the water body of Dongbin Harbor located at Pohang City, Gyongpook Province, in Korea were numerically simulated in this study. A canal was planned to connect the harbor and the Hyeongsan River to improve water quality inside the harbor. The current system was first simulated by using a commercial program RMA2, with respect to both tidal currents and river flow. The progress inside the harbor from a supply of fresh water from the Hyeongsan River was then predicted by using RMA4. Both the present and future conditions (before and after construction of an inland canal) were taken into consideration in numerical simulations. It is concluded that the water quality inside the harbor can be improved considerably after construction of the canal. PMID:25003149

  6. Origin of microseism observed in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.; You, S.; Rhie, J.

    2009-12-01

    Ambient seismic noise has been widely used for imaging crustal structure as an alternative passive source, even where traditional seismic imaging is not possible due to low seismicity. Long before the sensational applications of seismic noise, the origin of the noise has already been studied to understand its nature and characteristics for several decades. In this study, we investigate the origin of microseism observed in South Korea. Annual spectrograms in the microseismic frequency range up to 0.4 Hz show coherent peaks at about 0.2 Hz in the winter, which is at the frequency band of the double-frequency microseism. However, the primary microseism is only rarely observed in South Korea when the Pacific typhoon is close to the Southern Sea of Korea. Polarization analysis and noise cross correlation indicate that the energy of the double-frequency microseism comes dominantly from the east of the Korean Peninsula. Comparison of the results from the operational wave model of the Korea Meteorological Administration and seismic data shows a strong correlation of spectral amplitude of seismic data with the significant wave heights and periods of ocean waves, implying that the primary and the double-frequency microseism observed in South Korea are generated at the Southern Sea of Korea and at nearby shorelines of the east coast of Japan, respectively.

  7. Charles River

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  8. Marine neustonic microplastics around the southeastern coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Hoon; Kwon, Oh Youn; Lee, Kyun-Woo; Song, Young Kyoung; Shim, Won Joon

    2015-07-15

    We investigated floating debris around the mouth of the Nakdong River in the Southeastern Sea of Korea using a Manta trawl (330-μm mesh) and hand-net (50 μm) before (May) and after (July) the rainy season in 2012. Microplastic (<2 mm) was present at all of the stations, whereas Styrofoam (2-5 mm) peaked only at a few stations far from the Nakdong River mouth in July. The dominant types were fibers (polyester), hard plastic (polyethylene), paint particles (alkyd), and Styrofoam (expanded polystyrene). The average abundances of fibers and hard plastic (<2 mm) in the trawl were significantly higher in July than in May (p<0.005, p<0.05, respectively), while two orders of magnitude more microplastics (<2 mm) were collected with the hand-net than with the trawl. Fibers and hard plastic by trawl were significantly compared temporally, and the hand-net proved the missed microplastics (50-330 μm) when trawl used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Amazon River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mouth of the Amazon River     View ... of the world's mightiest rivers. This image of the Amazon's mouth was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... available at JPL September 8, 2000 - Mouth of the mighty Amazon River. project:  MISR ...

  10. Sinocorophium hangangense sp. n. (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Corophiidae), a new species from Korea, with a key to the genus Sinocorophium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Hyo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the corophiid gammaridean amphipod belonging to the genus Sinocorophium Bousfield & Hoover was collected from the lower reaches of the Han River in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. A relatively large body size and morphology of the uropods 1 and 3 are the major characteristics which serve to distinguish the new species from its congeners. The new species is fully illustrated and extensively compared with related species. A key to the species of (Sinocorophium is also provided. PMID:22539911

  11. Occupational respiratory cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2010-12-01

    Malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are representative examples of occupational cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, and the incidence of malignant mesothelioma is expected to increase sharply in the near future. Although information about lung carcinogen exposure is limited, it is estimated that the number of workers exposed to carcinogens has declined. The first official case of occupational cancer was malignant mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure in the asbestos textile industry in 1992. Since then, compensation for occupational respiratory cancer has increased. The majority of compensated lung cancer was due to underlying pneumoconiosis. Other main causative agents of occupational lung cancer included asbestos, hexavalent chromium, and crystalline silica. Related jobs included welders, foundry workers, platers, plumbers, and vehicle maintenance workers. Compensated malignant mesotheliomas were associated with asbestos exposure. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Korea have indicated an elevated risk of lung cancer in pneumoconiosis patients, foundry workers, and asbestos textile workers. Occupational respiratory cancer has increased during the last 10 to 20 yr though carcinogen-exposed population has declined in the same period. More efforts to advance the systems for the investigation, prevention and management of occupational respiratory cancer are needed.

  12. The Diabetes Epidemic in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the foremost public health issues worldwide that can lead to complications in many organ systems, and has become a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Korea. According to data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), about 2.7 million Koreans (8.0%) aged 30 years or older had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in 2013. The prevalence of T2DM increased with age and rose from 5.6% in 2006 to 8.0% in 2013. Using data based on The Health Screening Service of the NHIS, 25% of Korean adults were reported to have prediabetes in 2013. The prevalence of an impaired fasting glucose tended to increase over time from 21.5% in 2006 to 25.0% in 2013. Even though nationwide health screening has been regularly conducted as a public service, the proportion of undiagnosed cases of diabetes was still reported to be on the higher side in the latest study. Based on the results of these epidemic studies, further actions will be needed to effectively implement lifestyle changes on a social level and increase measures for the early detection of diabetes to stem the tide of the epidemic. PMID:27586447

  13. Herpes zoster vaccine in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia deteriorate the quality of life because of severe pain and complications, and cause considerable social and economic burden of disease. In 2012, herpes zoster vaccine was released in Korea. The efficacy of herpes zoster vaccine is known to be 51.3-66.5% among the aged over 60 and 69.8-72.4% among adults between 50 and 59. It is also known that preventive efficacy is maintained for at least 5 years. Although there can be local reactions such as redness, pain and swelling at the site of injection and systemic reaction such as headache and eruption after herpes zoster vaccination, most of the adverse reactions are minor and disappear within days by themselves. As it is a live vaccine, persons with severe immune-suppression and pregnant women should not be vaccinated with the vaccine. Currently, Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommended for the aged over 60 to be vaccinated with herpes zoster vaccine by subcutaneous route. In this article, clinical aspects and burden of disease of herpes zoster, efficacy and effects of herpes zoster vaccine, and herpes zoster vaccine recommendation by Korean Society of Infectious Diseases are discussed. PMID:23858399

  14. Herpes zoster vaccine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Suk

    2013-07-01

    Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia deteriorate the quality of life because of severe pain and complications, and cause considerable social and economic burden of disease. In 2012, herpes zoster vaccine was released in Korea. The efficacy of herpes zoster vaccine is known to be 51.3-66.5% among the aged over 60 and 69.8-72.4% among adults between 50 and 59. It is also known that preventive efficacy is maintained for at least 5 years. Although there can be local reactions such as redness, pain and swelling at the site of injection and systemic reaction such as headache and eruption after herpes zoster vaccination, most of the adverse reactions are minor and disappear within days by themselves. As it is a live vaccine, persons with severe immune-suppression and pregnant women should not be vaccinated with the vaccine. Currently, Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommended for the aged over 60 to be vaccinated with herpes zoster vaccine by subcutaneous route. In this article, clinical aspects and burden of disease of herpes zoster, efficacy and effects of herpes zoster vaccine, and herpes zoster vaccine recommendation by Korean Society of Infectious Diseases are discussed.

  15. Prevalence of Clonorchiasis in Southern Endemic Areas of Korea in 2006

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Byung-Chul; Cho, Pyo-Yun; Cheun, Hyeong-Il; Hong, Sung-Tae; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate prevalence of clonorchiasis among the inhabitants living in villages along the 4 major rivers, Nakdong-gang (= river), Seomjin-gang, Youngsan-gang, and Guem-gang in southern Korea. From January to December 2006, a total of 24,075 stool samples (1 sample per an inhabitant) were collected in 23 localities and examined by the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Of the inhabitants examined, 3,441 (14.3%) were found to harbor various types of intestinal parasite eggs, cysts or larvae. Numbers of infected people were 2,661 (11.1%) for Clonorchis sinensis, 431 (1.8%) for heterophyids, 226 (0.9%) for Entamoeba spp., 57 (0.2%) for Giardia lamblia, 30 (0.1%) for Trichuris trichiura, and 18 (0.07%) for echinostomes. Prevalence rates of clonorchiasis according to the river basin were 17.1% in Nakdong-gang, 11.2% in Seomjin-gang, 5.5% in Youngsan-gang and 4.6% in Guem-gang. Of the 2,661 C. sinensis egg-positive cases, 57.7% was male. The present findings suggest that clonorchiasis is still highly prevalent among inhabitants in the riverside areas of southern Korea, and it is necessary to implement a systematic control program in the endemic areas. PMID:18830051

  16. Overview of Asbestos Issues in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Asbestos is a carcinogen that causes diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. There was a sharp increase in the use of asbestos in Korea in the 1970s as Korea's economy developed rapidly, and asbestos was only recently banned from use. Despite the ban of its use, previously applied asbestos still causes many problems. A series of asbestos-related events that recently occurred in Korea have caused the general public to become concerned about asbestos. Therefore, it is necessary to take proper action to deal with asbestos-related events, such as mass outbreaks of mesothelioma among residents who lived near asbestos textile factories or asbestos mines. Although there have been no rapid increases in asbestos-related illnesses in Korea to date, such illnesses are expected to increase greatly due to the amount of asbestos used and long latency period. Decreasing the asbestos exposure level to levels as low as possible is the most important step in preventing asbestos-related illnesses in the next few decades. However, there is a lack of specialized facilities for the analysis of asbestos and experts to diagnose and treat asbestos-related illnesses in Korea; therefore, national-level concern and support are required. PMID:19543418

  17. Overview of asbestos issues in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2009-06-01

    Asbestos is a carcinogen that causes diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. There was a sharp increase in the use of asbestos in Korea in the 1970s as Korea's economy developed rapidly, and asbestos was only recently banned from use. Despite the ban of its use, previously applied asbestos still causes many problems. A series of asbestos-related events that recently occurred in Korea have caused the general public to become concerned about asbestos. Therefore, it is necessary to take proper action to deal with asbestos-related events, such as mass outbreaks of mesothelioma among residents who lived near asbestos textile factories or asbestos mines. Although there have been no rapid increases in asbestos-related illnesses in Korea to date, such illnesses are expected to increase greatly due to the amount of asbestos used and long latency period. Decreasing the asbestos exposure level to levels as low as possible is the most important step in preventing asbestos-related illnesses in the next few decades. However, there is a lack of specialized facilities for the analysis of asbestos and experts to diagnose and treat asbestos-related illnesses in Korea; therefore, national-level concern and support are required.

  18. Bisphenol A and other bisphenol analogues including BPS and BPF in surface water samples from Japan, China, Korea and India.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Eriko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, James; Lam, Paul K S; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Jeong, Yunsun; Kannan, Pranav; Achyuthan, Hema; Munuswamy, Natesan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of eight bisphenol analogues (BPs) including BPA, BPS, and BPF were determined in surface waters collected from select rivers in Japan, Korea, China, and India. BPA was found at a concentration in the range of several tens to several hundreds of nanograms per liter in most of the rivers surveyed and some of the highest concentrations (54-1950 ng/L) were found in rivers in Chennai, India. Concentrations of BPF were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those of BPA in river and sea waters collected from Japan, Korea and China, which suggested that BPF is a major contaminant in surface waters in several Southeast Asian countries. BPF concentrations as high as 2850 ng/L were found in the Tamagawa River in Japan. The flux of BPs through riverine discharges into Tokyo Bay was calculated to be approximately 5.5 t per year. Based on the flux estimates and the mass of BPF found in water column and sediment in Tokyo Bay, it was found that BPF degrades faster than BPA in the environment. Elevated concentrations of BPF found in surface waters suggest the need for further studies to determine the fate and toxicity of this compound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Strategic Partners: South Korea and the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    South Korea’s economic growth, has fallen off, forcing South Korea into new mar- kets. In 1984, the construction industry received a...are in - cluded in the calculation. Since the 1970s, South Korea and the United States have begun a new stage of extensive economic contact, although...The Japanese Outlook 78 The Korean Peninsula’s Future 80 6. US INTERESTS AND OPTIONS IN SOUTH KOREA 83 Carter Administration Korean Policy 83

  20. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-03

    North Korea by creating a bloc of governments demanding that North Korea accept CVID and willing to impose economic sanctions on North Korea. The...nuclear programs, both the plutonium program and the secret uranium enrichment program. This demand has become known as “ CVID .” The Administration stated...that it would discuss ways to improve U.S.- North Korean relations only after North Korea accepts CVID and takes concrete measures to implement it

  1. Korea-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-28

    foodgrains. South Korea followed a conciliation policy toward North Korea under the administrations of Kim Dae-jung and Roh Moo-hyun; but the...market. The regime has spent little of several billion dollars in foreign exchange earnings since 1998 to import food or medicines . The regime has...within North Korea. Key principles of this conciliation policy have been: the extension of South Korean economic and humanitarian aid to North Korea, the

  2. Development of Source-Receptor matrix over South Korea in support of GAINS-Korea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. C.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y.; Heyes, C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive and combined analysis of air pollution and climate change could reveal important synergies of emission control measures, which could be of high policy relevance. IIASA's GAINS model (The Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) has been developed as a tool to identify emission control strategies that achieve given targets on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions at least costs. The GAINS-Korea Model, which is being jointly developed by Konkuk University and IIASA, should play an important role in understanding the impact of air quality improvements across the regions in Korea. Source-Receptor relationships (S-R) is an useful methodology in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds at receptor point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutions. The GAINS model can assess the impact of emission reductions of sources on air quality in receptor regions based on S-R matrix, derived from chemical transport model. In order to develop S-R matrix for GAINS-Korea, the CAMx model with PSAT/OSAT tools was applied in this study. The coarse domain covers East Asia, and a nesting domain as main research area was used for Korea peninsula. To evaluate of S-R relationships, a modeling domain is divided into sixteen regions over South Korea with three outside of S. Korea countries (China, N. Korea and Japan) for estimating transboundary contributions. The results of our analysis will be presented at the conference.

  3. The characteristics of drought occurrence in North Korea and its comparison with drought in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea over a period of 56 years (1952-2007) were analyzed by region, compared with those of South Korea, and graphed as a drought map for easy detection of the drought's history. To assess them, the Effective Drought Index (EDI), which was calculated from the daily precipitation data for 109 grids of the Korean Peninsula, was used. The daily precipitation data were extracted from the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE). The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea were summed up in the following five points. First, North Korea was divided into four drought sub-regions: the Northeastern region (G1), the Northern region (G2), the Central region (G3), and the Southern region (G4). Second, droughts occurred most frequently in G1 (28) and G4 (28 events) and least frequently in G3 (15 events). Third, in all sub-regions, short-term droughts lasting less than 100 days were the most frequent (53 % or higher) and the longest drought lasted 2,911 days (June 30, 1973 to June 20, 1981), which occurred in G3. Fourth, short-term droughts occurred mainly in spring, mid-term droughts (100-500 days) in spring and summer, and long-term droughts (over 500 days) in summer. Fifth, a dry period (monthly mean EDI <0) appeared in all sub-regions between 1973 and 1981 and between 1990 and 1993, and a strong negative precipitation anomaly appeared during each of these periods. When compared to the droughts in South Korea, those in North Korea were less frequent, but the mean duration was longer. Until 1979, droughts occurred almost at the same time in North Korea as South Korea, but beginning in 1980, the time differences between two regions became larger. Thus, the characteristics of the drought occurrence in North and South Korea differ.

  4. Perfluorinated compounds in coastal waters of Hong Kong, South China, and Korea.

    PubMed

    So, M K; Taniyasu, S; Yamashita, N; Giesy, J P; Zheng, J; Fang, Z; Im, S H; Lam, Paul K S

    2004-08-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and related compounds, have recently been identified in the environment. PFOS, the terminal degradation product of many of the PFCs, has been found globally in many wildlife species, as well as open ocean waters, even in remote regions far from sources. In this study, a solid-phase extraction procedure coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to isolate, identify, and quantify small concentrations of PFCs in seawater. These techniques were applied to investigate the local sources of PFCs in several industrialized areas of Asia and provide information on how the PFCs are circulated by coastal currents. Ranges of concentrations of PFOS in coastal seawaters of Hong Kong, the Pearl River Delta, including the South China Sea, and Korea were 0.09-3.1, 0.02-12, and 0.04-730 pg/mL, respectively, while those of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were 0.73-5.5, 0.24-16, and 0.24-320 pg/mL, respectively. Potential sources of PFCs include major industrialized areas along the Pearl River Delta of southern China and major cities of Korea, which are several of the fastest growing industrial and economic regions in the world. Detectable concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in waters of southern China were similar to those in the coastal marine environment of Japan and certain regions in Korea. Concentrations of PFCs in several locations in Korean waters were 10-100-fold greater than those in the other locations on which we report here. The spatial and seasonal variations in PFC concentrations in surface seawaters in the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea indicate the strong influence of the Pearl River discharge on the magnitude and extent of PFC contamination in southern China. All of the concentrations of PFOS were less than those that would be expected to cause adverse effects to aquatic organisms or their predators except for one location in

  5. 76 FR 54791 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film from Korea would not be likely to lead to... contained in USITC Publication 4254 (August 2011), entitled Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film from Korea...

  6. English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's…

  7. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  8. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  9. English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's…

  10. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  11. 77 FR 52758 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... COMMISSION Large Power Transformers From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... the United States is materially injured, by reason of imports from Korea of large power transformers... power transformers from Korea were being sold at LTFV within the meaning of section 733(b) of the...

  12. 76 FR 54790 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Large Power Transformers From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... Korea of large power transformers, provided for in subheadings 8504.23.00 and 8504.90.95 of the... of large power transformers from Korea. Accordingly, effective July 14, 2011, the...

  13. Brain Korea 21 Phase II: A New Evaluation Model. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Somi; Popper, Steven W.; Goldman, Charles A.; Evans, David K.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the Korea Ministry of Education and Human Resources, in response to concern over the relatively low standing of the nation's universities and researchers, launched the Brain Korea 21 program BK21). BK21 seeks to make Korean research universities globally competitive and to produce more high-quality researchers in Korea. It…

  14. Brain Korea 21 Phase II: A New Evaluation Model. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Somi; Popper, Steven W.; Goldman, Charles A.; Evans, David K.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the Korea Ministry of Education and Human Resources, in response to concern over the relatively low standing of the nation's universities and researchers, launched the Brain Korea 21 program BK21). BK21 seeks to make Korean research universities globally competitive and to produce more high-quality researchers in Korea. It…

  15. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  16. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all items...

  17. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all items...

  18. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all items...

  19. 77 FR 51569 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Scheduling of the final phase of countervailing... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of subsidized imports from Korea and less-than-fair-value imports from Korea and Mexico of large residential washers, provided for in subheading...

  20. 77 FR 9700 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... materially injured by reason of imports from Korea of large residential washers that are alleged to be sold in the United States at less than fair value (LTFV) and subsidized by the Government of Korea....

  1. 78 FR 10636 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1...)) (the Act), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Korea... subsidized by the Government of Korea and sold in the United States at less than fair value (LTFV)....

  2. Recent meteorite falls in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Byun, Y.; Yi, H.; Chang, S.; Choi, J.; Sohn, J.; Moon, H.; Park, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the evening of March 9, 2014, a fireball falling from north to south was observed in South Korea. Multiple explosions were heard and multiple videos recorded in cars from various places, suggesting that the fireball was separated into several pieces. Immediately thereafter, a series of discovery reports about meteorites from the southern part of South Korea followed and, as of today, three meteorites were confirmed and one meteorite, with a mass of about 20 kg, is pending. This discovery of a meteorite in South Korea occurs for the first time in 70 years. The overall trajectory of the fireball matches the area where meteorites were discovered. According to the preliminary analyses, the meteorite is an ordinary chondrite. The origin of the meteorite and its surface properties will be studied.

  3. [Feminism in nursing science in Korea].

    PubMed

    Yi, Myungsun

    2005-08-01

    Although feminism has been actively discussed and applied to nursing in Western societies since the 1980s, it is little known among Korean scholars as well as Korean nurses. This article explores the use of feminist perspectives in nursing science in other developed countries and suggests how feminism could be applied to nursing science in Korea. The literature related to nursing and feminism were reviewed in terms of nursing practice, education, and research. This article describes what feminism is and how feminism and nursing have evolved historically over time in other countries, especially in Western societies. In addition, it discusses how it can be applied to nursing practice, education, and research in Korea. Accepting feminist perspective in Korean nursing could benefit in empowering nurses by valuing nursing, by raising self-esteem of nurses, and by raising the consciousness of socio-political realities. Eventually it could benefit in changing and developing nursing science in Korea.

  4. Tidal Power Exploitation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Choi, Jae Cheon

    The highest tides in South Korea are found along the northwest coast between latitudes 36-38 degrees and the number of possible sites for tidal range power barrages to create tidal basins is great due to irregular coastlines with numerous bays. At present Lake Sihwa tidal power plant is completed. The plant is consisted of 10 bulb type turbines with 8 sluice gates. The installed capacity of turbines and generators is 254MW and annual energy output expected is about 552.7 GWh taking flood flow generation scheme. Three other TPP projects are being progressed at Garolim Bay (20 turbines with 25.4MW capacity), Kangwha (28 turbines with 25.4MW capacity), Incheon (44 or 48 turbines with 30 MW capacity) and project features will be outlined here. The introduction of tidal barrages into four major TPP projects along the Kyeonggi bay will render wide range of potential impacts. Preliminary attempts were performed to quantify these impacts using 2 D hydrodynamic model demonstrating the changes in tidal amplitude and phase under mean tidal condition, associated changes in residual circulation (indicator for SPM and pollutant dispersion), bottom stress (indicator for bedload movement), and tidal front (positional indicator for bio-productivity) in both shelf scale and local context. Tidal regime modeling system for ocean tides in the seas bordering the Korean Peninsula is designed to cover an area that is broad in scope and size, yet provide a high degree of resolution in strong tidal current region including off southwestern tip of the Peninsula (Uldolmok , Jangjuk, Wando-Hoenggan), Daebang Sudo (Channel) and Kyeonggi Bay. With this simulation system, real tidal time simulation of extended springneap cycles was performed to estimate spatial distribution of tidal current power potentials in terms of power density, energy density and then extrapolated annual energy density.

  5. North Korea’s Choice of the Types of Provocation Against South Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    13 Ministry of National Defense, Republic of Korea, 2010 Defense White Paper (Seoul: Ministry of National Defense, Republic of Korea, 2011 ), 314...Korea, 1993), 36–37. 41 In-hak Baek, “The Course of North Korean Socialism,” in North Korea’s Policy and Society, ed. Eun -ho Lee and Young -jae Kim...LIST OF REFERENCES Baek, In-hak. “The Course of North Korean Socialism.” In North Korea’s Policy and Society, edited by Eun -ho Lee and Young -jae

  6. Practical Treatments for Constipation in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Sik; Park, Moo-In; Shin, Jeong-Eun; Jung, Kee-Wook; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Koo, Hoon-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a digestive symptom that is frequently seen in clinical practice. Its prevalence has been reported to be 2% to 20%, depending on geographical region. Despite the rapid development of medical science, systematic studies on constipation have been rarely conducted in Korea. Recently, guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, including constipation, were proposed by The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. These guidelines are expected to reflect the current situation regarding treatment of constipation in Korea. In this paper, practical constipation treatment methods that are in current use will be reviewed with reference to these recent guidelines. PMID:23019388

  7. Development and implementation of river-routing process module in a regional climate model and its evaluation in Korean river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Woo; Hong, Song-You; Kim, Jung-Eun Esther; Yoshimura, Kei; Ham, Suryun; Joh, Minsu

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed the potential for river discharge simulation by implementing an online river-routing scheme into the regional climate model (RCM) framework as a unified subroutine module and investigated the sensitivity of simulated river flows in response to changes in spatial resolutions in RCM and river-routing scheme. The river-routing scheme gathers runoff from the RCM and advects them horizontally along the river drainage network. The dynamical downscaling simulations were driven by reanalysis at the boundaries for the period of 2000-2010, using different grid sizes for RCM (50 and 12.5 km) and for river-routing scheme (0.5°, 0.25°, and 0.125°). Simulated river discharge was evaluated throughout the three largest river basins in Korea. The simulation results showed potential for river discharge modeling in the RCM framework. The model generally captured the seasonal and monthly variabilities, and the daily scale peaks. From the resolution sensitivity experiments, it was confirmed that high-resolution RCM enhances the reproducibility of river discharge; however, the lack of sophistication of the current river-routing scheme, which was originally developed for continental and macroscale application, mitigates taking advantage of enhanced resolution in river model. On the basis of our findings and experiences in this study, we revealed several considerable issues for future developments of river simulation in the RCM framework.

  8. Spatio-temporal variation of stream-aquifer interaction: Effect of a weir construction in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeonju; Koo, Min-Ho; Kim, Kisu; Kim, Yongcheol

    2015-04-01

    The Four Major Rivers Restoration Project was conducted to secure sufficient water resources, introduce comprehensive flood control measures, and improve water quality while restore the river ecosystem in Korea. The dredging of river bed and the installation of 16 weirs were done in Han, Geum, Yeongsan, and Nakdong rivers from late 2010 to early 2012 as a part of the project. Groundwater data obtained from 213 groundwater monitoring wells near the four major rivers were used to analyze the impacts of weir construction on the nearby groundwater flow system. The groundwater level and chemical characteristics were analyzed to investigate how the groundwater flow system and water quality changed after the weir construction. The results showed that groundwater level rose immediately following the rise of stream stage after the weir construction. Also, the hydrologic condition of the stream in some upland of the weirs was changed from a gaining to a losing stream. Consequently, the direction of groundwater flow was changed from perpendicular to parallel to the stream, and it swapped the groundwater in the downstream of the weir for the water recharged from the stream. Considering the results, some groundwater quality is expected to be changed and become similar to that of the stream, although the change has been not observed yet. Therefore, both further monitoring of the groundwater quality and hydrogeochemical analysis are required for quantitatively evaluating the effect of the weir.

  9. [Adaptation experiences in South Korea of men defecting from North Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Miyoung

    2013-06-01

    The study was done to explore meanings and essence of the experience in South Korea of men defectors from North Korea. Data were collected from March, 2011 to May, 2012, through in-depth interviews with ten men defectors. Data analysis was conducted using the process of hermeneutic phenomenological reflection. Eight essential themes were extracted; 'buoyant expectation for a new life', 'feeling guilty about family left behind in North Korea', 'inability to become acclimatized due to communication difficulties', 'inability to socialize with South Koreans due to different lifestyles', 'finding strength through trustworthy acquaintances', 'continuing reconciliation with oneself while trying to assimilate into South Korean culture', 'self-realization of one's original self', and 'continuing to feel out the possibility of a future in South Korea'. The findings indicate that North Korean men who defect to South Korea shape their identity through three phases: forming self-image during escape from North Korea, trying to become accustomed to South Korean society, and finding their own identity by self-realization of their original self. Eventually, the whole process enables them to recover their identity, to feel a sense of belonging, and to discover possibilities for a better future.

  10. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  11. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  12. Incidence of hip fractures in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo; Koo, Bo Kyeong; Lee, Eun Jung; Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Myoung Hee; Shin, Kun Hong; Ha, Yong Chan; Cho, Nam Han; Shin, Chan Soo

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in both Western and Asian populations. Because the aged population in Korea is increasing, the number of osteoporotic fractures is thought to be also increasing. However, there has been no nationwide analysis of osteoporotic fractures in Korea. We analyzed the incidence and cost of hip fracture from 2001 to 2004 by using data from the Health Insurance Review Agency, Korea. In the over 50 years age group, the number of hip fractures in women increased from 250.9/100,000 persons in 2001 to 262.8/100,000 in 2004, a 4.7% increase. However, that in men decreased from 162.8/100,000 in 2001 to 137.5/100,000 in 2004, a 15.5% decrease. Direct medical care costs of hip fracture increased from $62,707,697 in 2001 to $65,200,035 in 2004, and the proportional cost of hip fractures in the national medical costs increased by 4.5% over 4 years (from 0.200% in 2001 to 0.209% in 2004). On analysis of the population-based data obtained from the whole country from 2001 to 2004, the incidence rate of hip fractures in women, not in men, and its cost have increased in Korea. The gender distribution of hip fractures underlines the need for aggressive intervention in osteoporosis in elderly women.

  13. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  14. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(2): 61-67] PMID:25441425

  15. Korea targets leadership role in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2013-11-01

    The Republic of Korea has transformed itself over the last 50 years from a nation based primarily on agriculture to a hi-tech industrial powerhouse. But now the country is seeing the importance of investing in fundamental science too, as Matin Durrani reports.

  16. Telecommunications and Data Communication in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Moon-Suk

    All facilities of the Ministry of Communications of Korea, which monopolizes telecommunications services in the country, are listed and described. Both domestic facilities, including long-distance telephone and telegraph circuits, and international connections are included. Computer facilities are also listed. The nation's regulatory policies are…

  17. Ten Years of Infrasound Observation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Il; Che, Il-Young; Kim, Tae Sung

    2010-05-01

    Over the ten years after the installation of our first seismo-acoustic array station (CHNAR) in September 1999, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has been continuously observing infrasound with an infrasound array network, named KIN (Korean Infrasound Network) in Korea. This network consists of seven seismo-acoustic arrays (BRDAR, KMPAR, CHNAR, YAGAR, KSGAR, ULDAR and TJIAR). The aperture size of the smallest array (KMPAR and TJIAR) is about 300m and the largest is about 1.4km. The number of acoustic gauges are between 4 (TJIAR) and 18 (YAGAR), and 1 or 5 seismometers are collocated at the center of the acoustic array. All seismic and infrasonic signals of the arrays are digitized at 40 samples/sec and transmitted to KIGAM in real time. Many interesting infrasound signals associated with different kind of anthropogenic source as well as natural one are detected by KIN. Ten years of seismo-acoustic data are analyzed by using PMCC program, and identified more than five thousand of infrasonic events and catalogued in our infrasound database. This database is used to study characteristics of seasonally dependent propagation of the infrasound wave in local scale, as well as to better understand how atmospheric condition affects the detection ratio at a specific station throughout the year. It also played a valuable role in discriminating the anthropogenic events such as the second nuclear test on 25 May 2009 in North Korea, from natural earthquakes, which is important in estimating the seismicity in Korea.

  18. [Gregarines from South Korea (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Théodoridés, J; Desportes, I; Jolivet, P

    1976-01-01

    Study of 14 species of Gregarines from terrestrial arthropods (Myriapoda and Insecta) of south Korea. Some of them (Ramicephalus ozakii, Gregarina monoducta, Hoplorhynchus ozakii, Stylocephalus bahli) are typically asiatic whereas the others were already described from identical or similar european hosts.

  19. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  20. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN KOREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    THE POPULATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA WAS 27,184,000 IN 1963. AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION, ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY THE KOREAN WAR, HAS RECEIVED EMPHASIS THROUGH EXPORT PROMOTION, TAX REFORM, AND A STABILIZATION PROGRAM. A 6-YEAR FREE COMPULSORY EDUCATION IS SUPPLEMENTED BY "CIVIC SCHOOLS" AND "HIGHER CIVIC SCHOOLS"…

  1. The Impact of US Forces in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Amerasian children are those children of mixed Korean- American heritage (whose fathers have often returned to the United States), and are not...59 The Third Withdrawal ( 1971 ) ................. 60 The Fourth Withdrawal (After 1977) ............ 64 The Incidents Related to North...40 Comparison of Earnings from Export and Military Supply ... 82 PHOTOGRAPHS Men of the US 17th Infantry, the first American troops in Korea

  2. English Textbooks in Japan and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuasa, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    English education in Japan and Korea are similar in some respects. Although both countries are not completely but mostly monolingual societies, where citizens do not need English in their daily life, they have begun to realize the importance of English as a tool for international communication, and as a result their English education is becoming…

  3. South Korea: A New Kind of Ally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Thomas

    1978-01-01

    Examines political relations between the United States and South Korea from 1945 to 1977 and notes that the United States-South Korean alliance is presently quite strong due to the belief of leaders in each country in some form of political democracy. Journal available from the American-Asian Educational Exchange, Inc., 88 Morningside Drive, New…

  4. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  5. Security Cooperation and Deterrence in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    General Sherman massacre, the U.S. Minister to China, Frederick F. Low, journeyed to Korea under the protection of Rear Admiral John Rodgers, commanding...The Wounded Giant: America’s Armed Forces in an Age of Austerity. New York: The Penguin Press, 2011. Sanger , David E. South Koreans and U.S. to

  6. Hydrogeological properties of bank storage area in Changwon city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Kim, H.-S.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Kim, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    Bank filtrated water has been used in developed countries such as United States, France, Germany, Austria, Nederland and so on. In Korea, most of the drinking water is provided from the surface water. However, drinking water acquisition is becoming difficult due to the degradation of surface water quality. In special, the quality of drinking water source is much lower in downstream area than in upstream area. Thus, the use of bank filtrated water is getting attracted by central and local governments in Korea. The bank filtrated water was surveyed in the areas of Yeongsan river, Nakdong river, Geum river and Han river. Up to present, however, the downstream areas of Nakdong river are most suitable places to apply the bank filtration system. This study investigates hydrogeological characteristics of bank-storage area located in Daesan- Myeon, Changwon city, adjacent the downstream of Nakdong river. Changwon city is the capital city of Gyeongsangnam-Do province. Changwon city uses water derived from Nakdong river as municipal water. However, the quantity and quality of the river water are gradually decreased. Thus, Changwon city developed two sites of bank filtration system in Daesan-myeon and Buk-myeon. Pumping rate is 2,000m3/day at present and will be increased to 60,000m3/day in Daesan-myeon site at the end of the first stage of the project. For the study, we conducted pumping tests four times on seven pumping wells (PW1, PW2, PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6, and PW7) and twelve drill holes (BH-2, OW2-OW12) in the area of 370 m x 100 m. Pumping wells PW1 and PW2 were drilled in 1999 by Samjung Engineering Co. and pumping wells PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6 and PW7 were drilled in 2000 by Donga Construction Co. and Daeduk Gongyeong Co. The pumping wells are located at 45-110 meters from Nakdong riverside. The geology of the study area is composed of volcanic rocks (Palryeongsan tuff and Jusasan andesitic rock) and alluvium. Palryeongsan tuff consists of mostly green tuff with partly

  7. River restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen; Angermeier, Paul L.; Bledsoe, Brian; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Macdonnell, Larry; Merritt, David M.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Poff, N. Leroy; Tarboton, David

    2005-10-01

    River restoration is at the forefront of applied hydrologic science. However, many river restoration projects are conducted with minimal scientific context. We propose two themes around which a research agenda to advance the scientific basis for river restoration can be built. First, because natural variability is an inherent feature of all river systems, we hypothesize that restoration of process is more likely to succeed than restoration aimed at a fixed end point. Second, because physical, chemical, and biological processes are interconnected in complex ways across watersheds and across timescales, we hypothesize that restoration projects are more likely to be successful in achieving goals if undertaken in the context of entire watersheds. To achieve restoration objectives, the science of river restoration must include (1) an explicit recognition of the known complexities and uncertainties, (2) continued development of a theoretical framework that enables us to identify generalities among river systems and to ask relevant questions, (3) enhancing the science and use of restoration monitoring by measuring the most effective set of variables at the correct scales of measurement, (4) linking science and implementation, and (5) developing methods of restoration that are effective within existing constraints. Key limitations to river restoration include a lack of scientific knowledge of watershed-scale process dynamics, institutional structures that are poorly suited to large-scale adaptive management, and a lack of political support to reestablish delivery of the ecosystem amenities lost through river degradation. This paper outlines an approach for addressing these shortcomings.

  8. Amazon River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... the Rio Solimoes and the Rio Negro converge to form the Amazon River. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... date:  Jul 23, 2000 Images:  Amazon River location:  South America thumbnail:  ...

  9. Mississippi River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Mississippi River Flooding during Spring 2001   ... 794 x 390 South TIFF: 1024 x 724 The Mississippi River, from its source at Lake Itasca Minnesota to the Gulf of ... lower valley occurred in 1927 and the largest in the upper Mississippi in 1993. In April 2001 another flooding event in the upper ...

  10. The Nankai Trough earthquake tsunamis in Korea: numerical studies of the 1707 Hoei earthquake and physics-based scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, SatByul; Saito, Tatsuhiko; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Kang, Tae-Seob

    2016-04-01

    Historical documents in Korea and China report abnormal waves in the sea and rivers close to the date of the 1707 Hoei earthquake, which occurred in the Nankai Trough, off southwestern Japan. This indicates that the tsunami caused by the Hoei earthquake might have reached Korea and China, which suggests a potential hazard in Korea from large earthquakes in the Nankai Trough. We conducted tsunami simulations to study the details of tsunamis in Korea caused by large earthquakes. Our results showed that the Hoei earthquake (Mw 8.8) tsunami reached the Korean Peninsula about 200 min after the earthquake occurred. The maximum tsunami height was ~0.5 m along the Korean coast. The model of the Hoei earthquake predicted a long-lasting tsunami whose highest peak arrived 600 min later after the first arrival near the coastline of Jeju Island. In addition, we conducted tsunami simulations using physics-based scenarios of anticipated earthquakes in the Nankai subduction zone. The maximum tsunami height in the scenarios (Mw 8.5-8.6) was ~0.4 m along the Korean coast. As a simple evaluation of larger possible tsunamis, we increased the amount of stress released by the earthquake by a factor of two and three, resulting in scenarios for Mw 8.8 and 8.9 earthquakes, respectively. The tsunami height increased by 0.1-0.4 m compared to that estimated by the Hoei earthquake.

  11. A study on quantitative estimation method of groundwater contamination vulnerability in unsaturated zones, Southeastern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, J. O.; Choi, J. J.; Kim, M. G.; Nho, J. G.; Choo, C. O.; Jeong, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    We performed a hydrogeological analysis for better understanding integrated surface-groundwater in unsaturated zones and landfills as a preliminary approach because there is still an urgent need for desirable implementation of the groundwater protection policy of the country. For this study, the characterization of groundwater flow in unsaturated zones composed of soil and landfill in Yangsan, southeastern Korea was made using HYDRUS-1D code that incorporates simulation tools for water flow and complex solutes. For comparison of the permissibility data obtained in the field, one test-bed was constructed in Andong, middle eastern Korea. It is noteworthy to mention that Yangsan is famous for its unique geological position because it is located between alluvium and a river called Yangsancheon along Yangsan fault that is the largest one among major faults in southeastern Korea. Underground layers in alluvium identified by drilling are composed of landfill (8 m depth), silt and sand (22 m depth), regolith (26 m) and weathered zone (30 m depth) from the top. Pressure heads showed significant fluctuation at depths of 20 25 m and water content showed sufficient water content in landfills. Hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic capacity were variable at 23 m depth. Water flux greatly decreased at the zones of silt, sand and regolith while it increased at the weathered zone. In summary, water content increased with decreasing hydraulic conductivity. It is evident that the water level increased during the rainy seasons, which is interpreted to be affected by rainfall. It can be concluded that the study area is characterized by high hydraulic conductivity because its hydrogeological data represent the unique properties typical of gravel or coarse sand areas. Hydraulic conductivity measured by a time lag of the peak point at the test-bed showed 10-3 10-4 cm/sec, corresponding to the data obtained by HYDRUS-1D. This study was supported by the project 2015000530003, GAIA program of

  12. Occurrence of perchlorate in rice from different areas in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Yoon, Yeomin; Baek, Kitae; Han, Jonghun; Her, Namguk

    2014-01-01

    Perchlorate concentrations in rice samples from many different provinces, and correlation with surface water contamination, were investigated in the Republic of Korea. Perchlorate levels in the 51 rice samples purchased from local markets ranged from below the detection limit to 1.79 ± 0.39 μg/kg with a mean level of 0.21 μg/kg and 7 samples collected from the Nakdong River watershed ranged from 0.38 ± 0.1 to 3.23 ± 0.47 μg/kg with a mean level of 0.9 μg/kg. The correlation coefficient between perchlorate levels in rice samples from the Nakdong river watershed and the levels in surface water was estimated to be approximately 0.904 in the 95% confidence interval. These results show that surface water contamination was highly related to the perchlorate pollution of rice in the Republic of Korea.

  13. 78 FR 18876 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Regulation Supplement: United States- Korea Free Trade Agreement (DFARS Case 2012-D025) AGENCY: Defense... (DFARS) to implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement. The Republic of Korea is already party..., 2012, to implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (see the United States-Korea Free Trade...

  14. 76 FR 76146 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... International Trade Administration Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Postponement of... transformers from the Republic of Korea (Korea). See Large Power Transformers from the Republic of Korea... petitioners to the Department, entitled ``Large Power Transformers from the Republic of Korea--...

  15. Ecological modeling for water quality management of Kwangyang Bay, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae In; Park, Chung Kil; Cho, Hyeon Seo

    2005-03-01

    This study estimated the appropriate pollutant load reduction from point sources in Kwangyang Bay, Korea, using an eco-hydrodynamic model. The total chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen (TN), and phosphorus (TP) loads from rivers and ditches that provide input to the bay were approximately 2.8x10(4), 2.5x10(4), and 5.9x10(2) kg day-1, respectively. Wastewater discharge from industrial complexes was the greatest contributor to pollutant loads in the inner part of the bay. COD values in the inner part of the bay were greater than 3.0 mg l-1, and exceeded Korean seawater quality grade III limits. A residual current was simulated, using a hydrodynamic model, to have a slightly complicated pattern in the inner part of the bay, ranging from 0.001 to 8 cm s-1. In the outer part of the bay, the simulated current flowed out to the South Sea with a southward flow at a maximum of 15 cm s-1. The results of the ecological model simulation of COD levels showed high concentrations, exceeding 4 mg l-1, in the southwest of the Myodo, an area of wastewater discharge, and lower levels, approaching less than 1 mg l-1, closer to the outer part of the bay. Engineering countermeasures to reduce the organic and inorganic material loads from point sources by more than 45% were required to keep the COD levels below 2 mg l-1.

  16. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world.

  17. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records, for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006, the authors calculated cumulative probabilities of divorce, by marriage cohort (N = 5,734,577) and educational attainment. The results indicated that the relationship between education and divorce was negative even in the earliest cohort and that this negative gradient has become more pronounced in more recent cohorts. Contrary to expectations, however, little evidence was found that the concentration of divorce at lower levels of education was exacerbated by the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s. The authors discuss these findings in light of conventional emphases on the costs of divorce and highlight the importance of better understanding this distinctive east Asia pattern of divorce. PMID:23440624

  18. The development of geospatial infrastructure in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji Sun, L.; Bo Mi, L.; Jay Hyoun, K.; Yun Soo, C.

    2008-05-01

    In this contribution, the development of geospatial infrastructure for next generation in Korea is introduced. The efforts are initiated by the Ministry of Construction and Transportation in Korea through a project titled ¢®¡ÆKorean Land Spatialization¢®¡¾ in 2007. Among the five core research topics of the project, the renovation of the spatial infrastructure is the first one which mainly focused on the development of Unified Control Points and Precise Geoid Determination. The goal, methods, and current activities related to this renovation are discussed. We expect this work would be a base on the construction of ubiquitous society through providing various information such as 3D position, gravity, magnetic, etc. with good accuracy and efficiency. In addition, it would contribute to create a higher value-added business in various spatial scientific fields.

  19. Underwater CO2 Sequestration Program in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S.; Park, Y.; Choi, S.; Kim, Y.; Hwang, J.; Lee, J.

    2008-12-01

    In Korea an interdisciplinary project on underwater CO2 sequestration has been started. One of the main potential sites for the sequestration is the "DolGoRae (Dolphin)" gas field located over the southwestern part of the East/Japan Sea. We plan to deliver CO2 captured from the largest steel company in Korea (POSCO) to this site through pipe lines. To meet this end, chemical engineers study the behavior of CO2 hydrates, mechanical engineers design the pipe lines and injection systems, geologists and geological engineers survey the geological structure of the potential sites, and oceanographers assess the environmental effects. From a preliminary study, we find that we can store captured CO2 to the gas filed safely. In case the CO2 leaks from the storage site it would move to the north along the Korean coast on the average.

  20. River Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auldridge, Teresa; And Others

    The James River is one of the most precious resources of Virginia. It was the site of the first permanent English settlement in the New World; the power of the water at the Fall Zone was a major factor in the development of Richmond; and the river served as a primary transportation route to the West via the Kanawha Canal. Both the water itself and…

  1. River Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auldridge, Teresa; And Others

    The James River is one of the most precious resources of Virginia. It was the site of the first permanent English settlement in the New World; the power of the water at the Fall Zone was a major factor in the development of Richmond; and the river served as a primary transportation route to the West via the Kanawha Canal. Both the water itself and…

  2. Green Chemistry at the present in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Kyu; Park, Hyeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the great contribution made by chemical substances to the development of modern civilization, their indiscriminate use has caused various kinds of damage to the global environment and human beings. Accordingly, the major developed countries and international society have tried to ensure the safe use of chemicals and a reduction in the use of hazardous chemicals through the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme and various international agreements. In this reason, we tried to introduce about Green Chemistry progress at the present in worldwide and Korea. Methods We checked and analyzed relative journals, reports using keyword as like Green Chemistry, alternative chemicals, eco-friendly etc. and major country’s government homepage search. Results Green Chemistry theory, which argues for the reduction or removal of harmfulness in chemicals throughout their entire life-cycle, has been spreading, and major developed countries, such as the US and Denmark, have developed and operate programs to provide reliable chemical information to help replace hazardous chemicals. Korea has also been conducting studies as like eco-innovation project. Through this project the “Alternative Chemical Search program,” has been developed, distributed, and operated since 2011 to provide reliable information to small and medium-sized businesses that have difficulties collecting information to ensure conformity to international regulations. The program provides information that includes the regulations of major countries and Korea, information on 340 alternative chemicals, 70 application cases, and 1:1 consulting. Conclusions The Alternative Chemical Search program is expected to contribute to the establishment of response systems for regulation of Korean small and medium-sized businesses, and it also will be used to provide basic data for Korean hazardous chemical regulation, together with the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of

  3. A hail climatology in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Han-Gyul; Lee, Hyunho; Lkhamjav, Jambajamts; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2017-05-01

    A hail observation dataset for 1972-2013 is analyzed to examine the temporal and spatial distributions of hail occurrence in South Korea. Furthermore, using radiosonde data, three thermodynamic factors which are 700-500 hPa temperature lapse rate, water vapor mixing ratio in the lowest 100 hPa, and convective available potential energy (CAPE) and one dynamic factor which is 0-6 km bulk wind shear are calculated and their correlations with hail occurrence in South Korea are examined. Hail days per year in South Korea show a decreasing trend. The monthly variation of hail days exhibits double peaks in April and November. The minimum value of hail days appears in August, which is related to the high freezing-level height, the small midlevel temperature lapse rate, and the weak bulk wind shear. During a day, 44% of the whole hail events occur between 1200 and 1800 local standard time. Spatially, hail primarily occurs in the west coastal area and the east mountainous area of South Korea. Both the regions exhibit double peaks in the monthly variation of hail days, but the east mountainous area exhibits the later spring peak (May) and the lower hail frequency in late autumn compared to the west coastal area. The midlevel temperature lapse rate is strongly correlated with the monthly variation of hail occurrence. Hail is likely to occur when the low-level water vapor mixing ratio is in the range of 3-6 g kg- 1. CAPE is not strongly correlated with hail occurrence. The strong bulk wind shear is correlated with hail occurrence. The bulk wind shear is decreasing and the freezing-level height is increasing annually, which contributes to the annual decrease of hail occurrence.

  4. Occupational Burden of Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The extent of the occupational cancer burden has rarely been estimated in Korea. The aim of this study is to provide an estimation of the population attributable fraction (PAF) of occupational cancer in Korea. Methods Nine kinds of Group 1 carcinogens addressed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and 7 kinds of cancer were selected for the target carcinogens and diseases, respectively. The prevalence of carcinogen-exposed workers was estimated and correction factors were applied so that the value would be representative of the total population. Data on relative risk (RR) were taken from IARC reports and were compared with the RRs from the studies on Korean workers. The PAF was estimated according to Levin's formula. Results The proportion of the general Korean population exposed to carcinogens was 9.7%. The PAF of total cancer was 1.1% for incident cancer cases and 1.7% for cancer deaths. The PAFs of lung cancer and leukemia were 7.0% and 4.%, respectively. With the RRs reported from Korean studies, the PAF for lung cancer and leukemia were 3.7% and 3.4%, respectively. Conclusion The PAF in this study (1.1%) was lower than that reported in previous studies (2-4%) from developed countries. Considering that only 9 of the 29 kinds of Group 1 carcinogens were included in this study, the PAF might be underestimated. However, because the process of industrialization in Korea differs from that which occurred in other developed countries, 1.1% of the PAF might be appropriate for Korea. PMID:22953164

  5. ROK Military Policy Recommendations Toward North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S...last year ( 2011 ), North Korea’s navy attacked a South Korean warship and fired artillery against Yeonpyung Island. But the ROK armed forces showed...restraint and did not take aggressive measures against North Korea. This military policy was a part of the political policy. This paper traces the

  6. Terminal Forecast Reference Notebook, Camp Casey, Korea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Detachment 20 30th Weather Squadron ram~ p VAA Kflrma II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12...A-2 Cam~ p Stanley *.....................................e... A-S Map 1, Northwest Republic of Korea (1: 250,000 scale compositite of NJ 52-5 and NJ...F-S Section G - Synoptic Case Studies (filed in Case Study File) Section H - Terminal Forecast Work and Preparation Sheets . H-1 p

  7. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: The Koreas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology: Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic viral infectious disease involving the central nervous system . In humans, the disease most...subsequently enter and multiply in the circulatory system of the louse. Lice are highly infective after 6 days and remain so for life (30-40 days...Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: The Koreas Published and Distributed by the Armed Forces Pest Management Board Information

  8. Tritium production, recovery and application in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Kim, Kwang-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Four CANDU reactors have been operating at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Generation in Korea. The Wolsong tritium removal facility was constructed to reduce the tritium levels in heavy water systems. This facility was designed to process 100kg/h of tritiated heavy water feed and to produce 99% pure T(2). This recovered tritium will be made available for commercial applications. The initial phases on the tritium applications are made to establish the infrastructure and the tritium controls.

  9. Economic burden of smoking in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H; Kim, H; Park, T; Jee, S; Nam, C; Park, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To support tobacco control policies in Korea by providing the estimated annual economic burden attributed to cigarette smoking. Methods: The following two different approaches were used to estimate the cost: "disease specific" and "all causes". In the disease specific approach, we focused on estimating direct and indirect costs involved in treatments of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases, and cancer as a result of smoking, by using an epidemiologic approach—the population attributable risk (PAR). To compute PAR, the relative risks of smoking in terms of physician visits, hospital admission, and death were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model. In the all causes approach, we examined the differences in direct and indirect costs between smokers and non-smokers for all conditions and types of disease. The major data source was the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation cohort study, which had complete records of smoking status as of 1992 for 115 682 male and 67 932 female insured workers. Results: By the disease specific approach, the estimated costs attributable to smoking in 1998 in Korea ranged from US$2269.42 million ($4.89 million per 100 000 population; 0.59% of gross domestic product (GDP)) to $2956.75 million ($6.37 million; 0.78% of GDP). The all causes approach yielded a minimum cost of $3154.75 million ($6.79 million; 0.82% GDP) and a maximum of $4580.25 million ($9.86 million; 1.19% GDP). Conclusion: The study confirms that smoking places a substantial economic burden on Korean society. In light of this, our study provides evidence for a strong need to develop a national policy to effectively control tobacco consumption in Korea. PMID:12612360

  10. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-06-30

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species.

  11. North Korea: Back on the Terrorism List

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-24

    42 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. 43...Print Media, August 30, 3007. 46 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions, International Herald Tribune...attempts in late 2006 through the spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers

  12. U.S.- South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-28

    well as research and development work on safety, safeguards, advanced nuclear reactors , and fuel cycle technologies. On June 15, 2015, the United...related to nuclear energy as a whole. Others see fuel cycle capabilities as part of a long-term nuclear reactor export strategy, envisioning that South...based in the ROK and South Korea is included under the U.S. “ nuclear umbrella.” Second, Washington and Seoul cooperate in addressing the challenges

  13. Green Chemistry at the present in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Kyu; Park, Hyeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the great contribution made by chemical substances to the development of modern civilization, their indiscriminate use has caused various kinds of damage to the global environment and human beings. Accordingly, the major developed countries and international society have tried to ensure the safe use of chemicals and a reduction in the use of hazardous chemicals through the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme and various international agreements. In this reason, we tried to introduce about Green Chemistry progress at the present in worldwide and Korea. We checked and analyzed relative journals, reports using keyword as like Green Chemistry, alternative chemicals, eco-friendly etc. and major country's government homepage search. Green Chemistry theory, which argues for the reduction or removal of harmfulness in chemicals throughout their entire life-cycle, has been spreading, and major developed countries, such as the US and Denmark, have developed and operate programs to provide reliable chemical information to help replace hazardous chemicals. Korea has also been conducting studies as like eco-innovation project. Through this project the "Alternative Chemical Search program," has been developed, distributed, and operated since 2011 to provide reliable information to small and medium-sized businesses that have difficulties collecting information to ensure conformity to international regulations. The program provides information that includes the regulations of major countries and Korea, information on 340 alternative chemicals, 70 application cases, and 1:1 consulting. The Alternative Chemical Search program is expected to contribute to the establishment of response systems for regulation of Korean small and medium-sized businesses, and it also will be used to provide basic data for Korean hazardous chemical regulation, together with the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances and the Chemical Control act

  14. China and North Korea: A Peculiar Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    prevent North Korea from provoking a war. 80 “Singapore’s Lee calls N. Koreans ‘ psychopathic ...Singapores-Lee-calls-NKoreans- psychopathic ---WikiLeaks. 44 Before continuing, let us clarify the term “collapse.” As Samuel Kim states, “The...Singapore’s Lee calls N. Koreans ‘ psychopathic ’—WikiLeaks,” Agence France-Press, November 30, 2010. Accessed January 12, 2011. http

  15. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-04

    plan B,” Asia Tiimes, May 21, 2009, Online edition. 2 The extent that Pyongyang has...Mother Jones, Vol. 28, No. 3, May 1, 2003. p. 52. 42 Food and Agriculture Organization. Food Security Statistics. Online at http://www.fao.org...for Military.” People’s Daily Online , April 12, 2005. 64 Asia: The deal that wasn’t; North Korea. The Economist. London: September 24, 2005. p. 81

  16. United States National Interests in the Republic of Korea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    South Korea by the United States. 41 During the war, the United Nations set up the Civilian Relief Agency to provide medicine, food , and shelter to...Japanese coast. Their mission was to escort and protect vessels carrying food , oil and other resources to Japan along two sea lanes, one connecting...Sales credits to South Korea for FY 87 to $230 mlllion.l II Security Assistance to the Republic of Korea has been instrumental in perserving peace In the

  17. Current Issues Concerning Korea’s Anti-Terrorism Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    members on a state visit to Rangoon, Burma . In 1987 North Korea shot down a Korean Air Lines commercial flight.9 Besides the North Korean threat, South...arrivals of North Korean defectors ................................................37 Figure 4. Anti-terrorism-related organizations in Korea after 9.11...study will determine whether current Korean anti-terrorism programs effectively address all terrorist threats, including threats from North Korea

  18. Criminal Sovereignty: Understanding North Korea’s Illicit International Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    authorities in Myanmar who believed that local insurgent groups were intent on trading heroin for the arms.21 North Korea has also used its diplomatic...represent another strategic dimension of threats emanating from North Korea . While most of the world is focused on the country’s nuclear weapons and...incident, groups in Myanmar do not earn their profits from street sales, but from the middleman that has been, in certain instances, North Korea . Acting

  19. Korea-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-25

    Bush Administration in 2008 committed 500,000 tons of foodgrains.. South Korea followed a conciliation policy toward North Korea under the...dollars in foreign exchange earnings since 1998 to import food or medicines . The regime has not adopted agricultural reforms similar to those of... conciliation policy were: the extension of South Korean economic and humanitarian aid to North Korea, the promotion of North-South economic relations

  20. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-30

    between 30 and 50 kilograms, enough for five to eight atomic weapons. After North Korea tested a nuclear device in October 2006, the six party talks...the plutonium reprocessing plant produced enough weapons grade plutonium for the production of several atomic bombs. North Korea tested an atomic...produces and tests atomic bombs, and the locations where North Korea stores plutonium and atomic bombs. The declaration also reportedly contains no

  1. Military Armistice in Korea: A Case Study for Strategic Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    negotiation the questions of the withdrawal of all foreign forces from Korea , the peaceful settlement of the Korean question, etc.5 Both sides did meet in...invasion]."𔃺 The Republic of Korea faced an insurgency and guerilla warfare that followed the Maoist model and culminated in the North Korean Army...the United States through a proxy. 12 . The first year of the war saw four major shifts in momentum. First, the DPRK (or North Korea ) thrust its Korean

  2. Defense Industry and Its Impacts on Economic Growth in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    is likely in Korea . Some argue that the Korean economy would have developed much faster without the burden of the defense spending. We could have...industry to the civilian industry in Korea . The intent of this study is to determine how much impact and influence the Korean defense industry has had...in Korea based on 1987 data. Dr. Dong J. Hwang studied the future of the Korean defense industry. But none of these authors studied the defense

  3. The Future of United States Forces in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-22

    Kwak, The Reduction of US Forces in Korea in the Inter- Korean Peace Process: The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. II No. 2 Winter 1990, pp... Korean Peace Process: The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. II No. 2 Winter 1990. 11. Levin, Norman D., and Richard L. Sneider, " Korea in...group with 500 officers and enlisted personnel. After the Korean war broke out in June 1950, the United States sent its troops to Korea in July under

  4. Log-centric Airbase-opening Strategies in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    is becoming politically less viable.”4 In the Korean theater of operations (KTO), Republic of Korea (ROK) and U.S. plan- ners, from Combined Forces...in the Korean War. —Lieutenant General Walton H. Walker, Commander, 8th U.S. Army, Korea , 19501 South Korean military members participate with U.S...pallet buildup and cargo loading Supplies are loaded onto Korean C–130 at Hickam Air Base, Hawaii Republic of Korea air force security advisor speaks

  5. The Ecology of Medical Care in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Soo; Choi, Yong Jun

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to describe the ecology of medical care in Korea. Using the yearly data of 2012 derived from the Korea Health Panel, we estimated the numbers of people per 1,000 residents aged 18 and over who had any health problem and/or any medical care at a variety of care settings, such as clinics, hospitals, and tertiary hospitals, in an average month. There was a total of 11,518 persons in the study population. While the number of those who had any health problem in an average month was estimated to be 939 per 1,000 persons, the estimated numbers of ambulatory care users were 333 at clinics, 101 at hospital outpatient departments, 35 at tertiary hospital outpatient departments, and 38 for Korean Oriental medical providers. The number of people who used emergency care at least once was 7 per 1,000 persons in an average month. The numbers of people hospitalized in clinics and hospitals were 3 and 8, respectively, while 3 persons were admitted to tertiary hospitals. There was a gap between the number of people experiencing any health problem and that of those having any medical care, and primary care comprised a large share of people's medical care experiences. It was noteworthy that more patients received ambulatory care at tertiary hospitals in Korea than in other countries. We hope that discussion about care delivery system reform and further studies will be encouraged.

  6. Pediatric liver transplantation outcomes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Kyung Mo; Yi, Nam-Joon; Choe, Yon Ho; Kim, Myung Soo; Suh, Kyung Suk; Kim, Soon I I; Lee, Suk-Koo; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric liver transplantation is the standard of care for treatment of liver failure in children. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of pediatric liver transplantation in centers located in Korea and determine factors that influence outcomes. This retrospective study was performed using data from between 1988 and 2010 and included all recipients 18 yr old and younger who underwent pediatric liver transplantation in Korea during that period. Our data sources were hospital medical records and the outcome measure was overall patient survival. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were undertaken using the Cox proportional hazards model. Five hundred and thirty-four pediatric liver transplantations were performed in 502 children. Median age and average pediatric end-stage liver disease (PELD) score were 20 months and 18 point, respectively. Biliary atresia (57.7%, 308/534) was the most common cause of liver disease. Eighty-two (15.3%) were deceased donor liver transplantations and 454 (84.7%) were living donor liver transplantations. Retransplantation was performed in 32 cases (6%). Overall, 1-, 5-, and 10-yr patient survival rates were 87.8%, 82.2%, and 78.1%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, independent significant predictors of poor patient survival were chronic rejection and retransplantation. This study presents the epidemiologic data for nearly all pediatric liver transplantation in Korea and shows that the independent prognostic factors in patient survival are chronic rejection and retransplantation.

  7. Is urban ozone in Korea increasing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, L.; Hong, J.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Moon, K. J.; Cho, A.; Choi, W.

    2016-12-01

    Air quality in Korea is a characteristic of many factors contributing together and pollution control has become an issue of increasing importance. Urban ozone in Korea was investigated using both satellite column data and surface measurement data. 1-hr average ground level NO2, NOy, ozone and VOC data was obtained from urban sites in Seoul during 2005 2015, while stratospheric ozone in OMI was subtracted from total column ozone with the help of MLS in order to yield tropospheric column ozone. During the last 10 years the 1-hr average ground level ozone concentrations in Seoul have been in no trend while 8-hr average ozone concentrations have increased steadily in Seoul. On the other hand, tropospheric column ozone is in slightly increasing trend with a positive slope proven by seasonal Mann-Kendall test. The ozone sensitivity of indicators such as HCHO/NO2, O3/NOy, O3/NOz and etc in both troposphere and surface allowed us to investigate the cause of the urban ozone trend in Korea. Satellite column data was validated using the boundary layer NO2 and HCHO columns derived from surface concentration with some assumptions.

  8. Prevalence of primary immunodeficiency in Korea.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Jung Woo; Kim, Kyung Hyo; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Bong Seong; Kim, Jung Soo; Kim, Chang Hwi; Kim, Hwang Min; Park, Hee Ju; Pai, Ki Soo; Son, Byong Kwan; Shin, Kyung Sue; Oh, Moo Young; Woo, Young Jong; Yoo, Young; Lee, Kun Soo; Lee, Kyung Yil; Lee, Chong Guk; Lee, Joon Sung; Chung, Eun Hee; Choi, Eun Hwa; Hahn, Youn Soo; Park, Hyun Young; Kim, Joong Gon

    2012-07-01

    This study represents the first epidemiological study based on the national registry of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) in Korea. Patient data were collected from 23 major hospitals. A total of 152 patients with PID (under 19 yr of age), who were observed from 2001 to 2005, have been entered in this registry. The period prevalence of PID in Korea in 2005 is 11.25 per million children. The following frequencies were found: antibody deficiencies, 53.3% (n = 81), phagocytic disorders, 28.9% (n = 44); combined immunodeficiencies, 13.2% (n = 20); and T cell deficiencies, 4.6% (n = 7). Congenital agammaglobulinemia (n = 21) and selective IgA deficiency (n = 21) were the most frequently reported antibody deficiency. Other reported deficiencies were common variable immunodeficiencies (n = 16), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 15), IgG subclass deficiency (n = 4). Phagocytic disorder was mostly chronic granulomatous disease. A small number of patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, hyper-IgE syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficiency were also registered. Overall, the most common first manifestation was pneumonia. This study provides data that permit a more accurate estimation PID patients in Korea.

  9. E-Unification of Koreas: Dreams, Plans and Realities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Acclaim among Animation Film Fan in Europe,” The People’s Korea website, December 2001 Some of these projects have been joint ventures with ROK...12, 2000; “First animation project planned by South, North Korea,” The Korea Herald, Seoul, ROK, February 3, 2001; “Firm to produce animation with...someone takes away its pizza or remote control” was launched on May 5, 2001, Children’s Day in both Koreas. It is a joint project between the

  10. Height and weight differences between North and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates height and weight differences between the two Koreas by comparing national anthropometric data published by the South Korean Research Institute of Standard and Science with United Nations survey data collected inside North Korea in 2002. For socioeconomic reasons, pre-school children raised in the developing country of North Korea are up to 13 cm shorter and up to 7 kg lighter than children who were brought up in South Korea--an OECD member. North Korean women were also found to weigh up to 9 kg less than their Southern counterparts.

  11. Paleobiological implications of dinosaur egg-bearing deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, In Sung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Huh, Min

    2010-05-01

    Dinosaur egg-bearing deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin in Korea is described in taphonomic aspect, their paleoenvironments are interpreted, and geobiological implications of dinosaur egg-bearing deposits in the world and Korea are analyzed in geographic occurrences, geological ages, paleoenvironments, and lithology. Dinosaur eggs with spheroolithids, faveoloolithid, and elongatoolithid structural types occur in several stratigraphic formations of the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin in South Korea, and most of the egg-bearing formations are the Late Cretaceous. The dinosaur eggs usually occur as clutches in purple sandy mudstone of floodplain deposits preserved as calcic paleosol with association of vertic paleosol features in places. Most of the eggs are top-broken and filled with surrounding sediments. The general depositional environment of dinosaur egg deposits in the Gyeongsang Supergroup are interpreted as a dried floodplain where volcanic activity occurred intermittently in the vicinity of the nesting sites. Their depositional settings on which floodplains developed are diverse from fluvial plain with meandering rivers to alluvial plain with episodic sheet flooding. The nesting areas in the Gyeongsang Basin are deemed to have been under semi-arid climate, which resulted in formation of calcic soils facilitating preservation of the dinosaur eggs. The geochronologic occurrences of dinosaur egg-bearing deposits are mostly restricted to the Late Cretaceous in the world as well as in Korea. If it has not been resulted from biased discoveries and reports of dinosaur eggs, biological rather than physical and chemical conditions for preservation of dinosaur eggs might be related with the restricted occurrences in the Late Cretaceous. Two hypotheses are suggested for probable biological causes to the geochronologically restricted occurrences of dinosaur egg-bearing deposits. One is related with the appearance of angiosperms in the Late Jurassic and the spreading

  12. LONGEVITY IN NORTH KOREA AND SOUTH KOREA: PREVALENCE OF CENTENARIANS IN ONE THE POOREST AND ONE OF THE RICHEST NATIONS.

    PubMed

    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2017-05-09

    Over recent decades, economic living conditions have dramatically improved in South Korea, which now represents one of the most developed nations. At the same time, its twin in the North remains one of the poorest countries on earth. Thus, the Korean peninsula represents a unique historical experiment that allows for study of the effects of environment on human development under a variety of ceteris paribus cultural, genetic and climatic conditions. Previous studies comparing the biosocial performances of the two Koreas have focused on indicators such as weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference and age at menarche. The purpose of the present study was to investigate longevity based on the number of centenarians living in the two Koreas by drawing on censuses implemented around 1925 and 2010. The study found that North Korea had some 0.7 centenarians per one million persons in 1925, and this rate moderately improved to 2.7 around 2010. Conversely, rates skyrocketed in South Korea from 2.7 in 1925 to 38.2 around 2010. This suggests that the rate of centenarians in North Korea around 2010 corresponds to that of South Korea in 1925, suggesting a chronological lag in delayed human development of some 85 years. The prevalence of centenarians is fourteen times higher in contemporary South Korea compared with the North - broadly confirming previous biosocial studies on the two Koreas and two Germanies reporting improved human development in market-oriented systems compared with socialist ones.

  13. Mini-review on river eutrophication and bottom improvement techniques, with special emphasis on the Nakdong River.

    PubMed

    Tekile, Andinet; Kim, Ilho; Kim, Jisung

    2015-04-01

    Water quality in rivers is vital to humans and to maintenance of biotic and ecological integrity. During the Four Major Rivers restoration of South Korea, remarkable attempts have been made to decrease external nutrient loads and moveable weirs were designed to discharge silt that may deposit in pools. However, recently eutrophication of the Nakdong River, which was limited to the lower reaches, is seen to be spreading upstream. The reduction of external nutrient loads to rivers is a long-term goal that is unlikely to lead to reductions in algal blooms for many years because of the time required to implement effective land management strategies. It would therefore be desirable to implement complementary strategies. Regulating the amount of water released is effective at preventing algae blooms in weir pools; so, the relationship between discharge, stratification and bloom formation should be understood in this regard. However, pollutants are likely to accumulate in the riverbed upstream from release points. Thus, to control phosphorus levels, total phosphorus density should be lowered by applying in-river techniques as well. As many ecosystem properties are controlled by multiple processes, simultaneous river bottom improvement techniques, such as combined dissolved oxygen supply and nutrient inactivation, are likely to be effective. The purpose of this review is to present a series of technological approaches that can be used to improve the river bottom area and hence sediment nutrient release, and to illustrate the application of these techniques to the Nakdong River. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. School Expansion in North Korea and South Korea: Two Systems, Two Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyangkue

    2001-01-01

    Examines differences in the public-policy objectives and financing of school expansion efforts in North and South Korea. Institutionalizing credentialism and reliance on financing private education dominates South Korean school expansion, while the financing of public schools and greater government control of education dominates North Korean…

  15. River Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    2002-08-01

    This textbook offers a thorough analysis of rivers from upland areas to oceans. Julien scrutinizes select methods underlining both theory and engineering applications, emphasizing the mechanics of flood wave propagation and sediment transport in rivers. Chapters provide detailed treatments of riverbank stabilization and engineering methods and cover physical and mathematical models. Together, they elucidate measures to reduce flood impact and bank erosion, improve navigation, and increase water supply to cities and irrigation canals. More than 100 exercises and nearly twenty case studies make this book an invaluable learning tool for students. Hardback ISBN (2002): 0-521-56284-8

  16. The Beginnings of Modern Education in Korea, 1883-1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Korea opened up to foreign intercourse in 1876, when the country concluded its first international treaty with Japan. Similar treaties with European and American nations followed during the 1880s. The period until 1910, when Korea was annexed to the Japanese Empire, saw manifold attempts to reform as well as resistance to these reforms. Against…

  17. 75 FR 53711 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Review)] Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on PET film from... antidumping duty order on PET film from Korea would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  18. 76 FR 8770 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (Pet) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate (Pet) Film From Korea AGENCY: United States International Trade... full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film... whether revocation of the antidumping order on PET film from Korea would be likely to lead to a...

  19. Motivations and Experiences of Expatriate Educators in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Nicolette

    2009-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study of native English instructors at the Gyeonggi-do Institute for Foreign Language Education (GIFLE) in South Korea. A literature review of issues regarding expatriate educators is included. The guiding questions for this study include why these instructors chose to become educators, move to South Korea, and…

  20. Review of Professional Workers' Multicultural Competence: Implications in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Romee; Heo, Gyeong Mi; Kim, Jinhee

    2016-01-01

    The importance of professional workers' multicultural competence (MC) is increasingly noted in Korea, which is shifting into a multicultural society. This study investigates the current location of the discussion regarding the MC of professional workers in Korea using reviews of existing studies in international and Korean contexts. This paper…

  1. U.S. Regional Strategy for North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    9 O PPO RTUN ITIES...will stress South Korea’s ability to absorb them into their society and economy over the long-run. ECONOMIC INSTABILITY The North Korean economy is in...enormous costs of absorbing the broken economy of the North.40 When contrasted with German reunification, the economy and infrastructure of North Korea are

  2. South Korea: Language Policy and Planning in the Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Jung

    2012-01-01

    This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently…

  3. English Education and Teacher Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Seongja

    2008-01-01

    The spread of the English language is a global phenomenon, but it has a particular resonance in South Korea, where English is second only to Korean as a common language. The paper examines the current educational context in South Korea and the policy and practice issues that arise within this context regarding teacher education in English as a…

  4. Integrating Standardization into Engineering Education: The Case of Forerunner Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Dong Geun; de Vries, Henk J.

    2013-01-01

    The Republic of Korea is a forerunner in integrating the topic of standardization into engineering education at the academic level. This study investigates developments and evolutions in the planning and operating of the University Education Promotion on Standardization (UEPS) in Korea. This paper examines why the Korean government initiated the…

  5. The Beginnings of Modern Education in Korea, 1883-1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Korea opened up to foreign intercourse in 1876, when the country concluded its first international treaty with Japan. Similar treaties with European and American nations followed during the 1880s. The period until 1910, when Korea was annexed to the Japanese Empire, saw manifold attempts to reform as well as resistance to these reforms. Against…

  6. Promoting E-Learning for Human Resource Development in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soo-Kyoung

    In Korea, e-learning is becoming increasingly prevalent and spreading into various aspects of human resources development. Korea's Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOEHRD) and Ministry of Labor (MOL) have been especially active in establishing the legal basis and institutional framework to make e-learning a reality.…

  7. Japanese Higher Education Policy in Korea (1910-1945).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2002-01-01

    Examines the impact of Japanese nationalistic thought on the administrative systems and structures of colonial and modern higher education in Korea and analyzes Japanese educational policy in Korea in the colonial period (1910-1945). Identifies beneficial and negative impacts of the Japanese colonial education system. (SLD)

  8. Sexual Violence among Men in the Military in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Insook; Lee, Dong-Ok; Kim, Elli; Kim, Hyun-Young

    2007-01-01

    This research is about sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. The authors investigated the frequencies, causes, and circumstances surrounding sexual violence and looked for characteristic features of sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. They found a high frequency of physical sexual violence and a high level…

  9. Review of Professional Workers' Multicultural Competence: Implications in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Romee; Heo, Gyeong Mi; Kim, Jinhee

    2016-01-01

    The importance of professional workers' multicultural competence (MC) is increasingly noted in Korea, which is shifting into a multicultural society. This study investigates the current location of the discussion regarding the MC of professional workers in Korea using reviews of existing studies in international and Korean contexts. This paper…

  10. Sexual Violence among Men in the Military in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Insook; Lee, Dong-Ok; Kim, Elli; Kim, Hyun-Young

    2007-01-01

    This research is about sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. The authors investigated the frequencies, causes, and circumstances surrounding sexual violence and looked for characteristic features of sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. They found a high frequency of physical sexual violence and a high level…

  11. [One hundred years history of surgery in Korea].

    PubMed

    Chun, S I; Yeh, B

    1999-01-01

    Introduction of western surgery into Korea is closely related to the introduction of western medicine itself into Korea. In December 4th, 1884 Allen, who came to Korea as a Missionary Doctor of North Presbyterian Church of America, had a chance to treat a patient with severe stab wounds. The patient was a nephew of Queen Myungsung. The patient, Min Young Ik was recovered completely. These happenings led to the establishment of 'Kwangheywon (renamed to Jejoongwon 2 weeks later)', the first westernized hospital in Korea. With the great financial aids from Severance family, Jejoongwon developed into Severance Hospital and Medical School in 1904, and greatly contributed to education of Surgery for Korean medical students. Meanwhile Korean Government established the Medical School and Hospital to train Korean Doctors in 1899. But the original intentions became to be impaired by occupation of Korea by Japan in 1910. As a colony, many Japanese Surgeons came to Korea as professors of Kyungsung Medical College, and gave only few chances for Koreans to become a professor. On the contrary, several surgeons became professors in the private, missionary 'Severance Union Medical College'. After liberation from Japanese occupation in 1945, American medical system was introduced into Korea, and many surgeons had a chance to be trained in America. There was great advancements in the field of surgery, especially of neurosurgery, during a tragic Korean War. With the restoration of economy after the 1960s, surgery in Korea continued to develop toward an independent and consolidated fields of medicine.

  12. An Ecological Understanding of Youth Suicide in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung-yeon; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews risk factors for youth suicide in South Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea), based on the ecological systems theory. Although youth suicide is a major concern for Korean society, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since most of the empirical studies address personal characteristics without much consideration…

  13. An Ecological Understanding of Youth Suicide in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung-yeon; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews risk factors for youth suicide in South Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea), based on the ecological systems theory. Although youth suicide is a major concern for Korean society, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since most of the empirical studies address personal characteristics without much consideration…

  14. English Education and Teacher Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Seongja

    2008-01-01

    The spread of the English language is a global phenomenon, but it has a particular resonance in South Korea, where English is second only to Korean as a common language. The paper examines the current educational context in South Korea and the policy and practice issues that arise within this context regarding teacher education in English as a…

  15. Integrating Standardization into Engineering Education: The Case of Forerunner Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Dong Geun; de Vries, Henk J.

    2013-01-01

    The Republic of Korea is a forerunner in integrating the topic of standardization into engineering education at the academic level. This study investigates developments and evolutions in the planning and operating of the University Education Promotion on Standardization (UEPS) in Korea. This paper examines why the Korean government initiated the…

  16. South Korea: Language Policy and Planning in the Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Jung

    2012-01-01

    This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently…

  17. Today and Yesterday in Early Childhood Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guang-Lea

    Early childhood education has always been considered important in Korea, with the education of the child valued highly, regardless of the parent's educational background or socioeconomic status. The main social facility for early childhood education outside home in Korea is called "Yoo Chee Won," which means kindergarten. This paper…

  18. [Biosafety of microbiological laboratories in Korea].

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Eun, Sang-Jun; Park, Ki-Dong; Kim, Jong-Kyun; Im, Jeong-Soo; Hwang, Yoo-Sung; Kim, Yong-Ik

    2005-11-01

    The biosafety level (BSL) practiced in microbiology laboratories in Korea according to the laboratory biosafety manual published by the World Health Organization (WHO) was evaluated using the data obtained by a survey. Under the advise of Clinical Laboratory Physicians, 144 types of microorganisms were screened based on the guidelines of biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories published by the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention and classified into 1-4 risk groups. A questionnaire containing 21 questions in 5 areas was developed using the biosafety manual by published WHO. Of the 1,876 different organizations sent the survey, 563 responded to the survey (response rate: 30.0%). The species of microoganisms handled by as well as the biosafety level in microbiology laboratories were analyzed. There were 123 species of microorganisms handled in microbiology labs in Korea. The BSL required in 512 microbiology labs was answered by the survey responders as the first grade in 33 labs (6.4%), 2nd in 437 (85.4%), 3rd in 42 (8.2%), and 4th in none. The average number of items satisfied was 12.2, showing only a 57.9% satisfactory rate and normal distribution. The state of overall observance of BSL in most microbiology labs of Korea was evaluated as lagging compared with the standard set up by WHO. Therefore, the Korean government need to produce and distribute a biosafety manual in microbiology laboratories and make efforts to prevent this threat through measures such as training in biosafety in microbiology labs.

  19. Epidemiology of Biliary Atresia in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is the major cause of cholestasis and the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT). However, the incidence of BA in Korea has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and clinical outcomes of BA in Korea. We used the Korean universal health insurance database and extracted data regarding BA patients younger than 18 years of age admitted between 2011 and 2015. The incidence of BA was calculated by dividing the number of BA patients by the number of live births. Two hundred forty infants were newly diagnosed with BA. A total of 963 BA patients younger than 18 years of age were followed up for 5 years. The overall incidence of BA was 1.06 cases per 10,000 live births. The incidence of BA was 1.4 times higher for female patients than for male patients. Additionally, significant seasonal variation was observed; in particular, the incidence of BA was 2 times higher from June through August than from December through February. Congenital anomalies were found in 38 of 240 patients (15.8%). Congenital heart diseases were major associated congenital anomalies (6.3%). Several complications developed during the study period, including cholangitis (24.0%), varix (6.2%), and gastrointestinal bleeding (4.4%). Three hundred and one of the 963 BA patients under 18 years of age (31.3%) received LT for BA. The incidence of BA is higher in Korea than that in Western countries. We also report significant gender-associated differences and seasonal variation with respect to the incidence of BA. PMID:28244293

  20. Seoul: Korea's high-tech hotbed.

    PubMed

    Rusoff, D

    1987-04-01

    Seoul, Korea, is in the throes of change--in the way its people live, in the jobs they do, and in the makeup of its populace. The city of Seoul proper houses 1 out of every 4 Koreans. Home to 95 of Korea's 100 largest trading companies and 42 of the 46 family-based industrial conglomerates--Seoul controls Korean commerce. Employment opportunities have kept pace with Seoul's rapidly growing labor supply resulting in low unemployment by developing country standards. Only 12.3% of Koreans now live below the poverty line, down from nearly 41% in 1962. The real per capita income in Seoul rose from a dismal $87 in 1962 to nearly $2000 in 1985. The completion of 2 commuter rail lines in 1974 accelerated the movement of people out of the city and into suburban areas, concentrating urban growth along the railway corridors. Population densities in the city's central wards make Seoul 1 of the world's most densely populated cities. Although Seoul's population is young--27.9% of the population was under age 15 in 1983-- it is becoming increasingly dominated by those of working age. Seoul is essentially a city of migrants; more than 1/2 of the city's grwoth since 1960 is attributable to in-migration. Although the trend is toward rising white-collar employment, Seoul is still a blue-collar town. Seoul's educational system is so highly regarded in Korea that families move to seoul just to enroll their children. Korean spending patterns are influenced greatly by the Korean penchant for higher education.

  1. Korea Community Health Survey Data Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yang Wha; Ko, Yun Sil; Kim, Yoo Jin; Sung, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Hyo Jin; Choi, Hyung Yun; Sung, Changhyun; Jeong, Eunkyeong

    2015-06-01

    In 2008, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the first nationwide survey, Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS), to provide data that could be used to plan, implement, monitor, and evaluate community health promotion and disease prevention programs. This community-based cross-sectional survey has been conducted by 253 community health centers, 35 community universities, and 1500 interviewers. The KCHS standardized questionnaire was developed jointly by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff, a working group of health indicators standardization subcommittee, and 16 metropolitan cities and provinces with 253 regional sites. The questionnaire covers a variety of topics related to health behaviors and prevention, which is used to assess the prevalence of personal health practices and behaviors related to the leading causes of disease, including smoking, alcohol use, drinking and driving, high blood pressure control, physical activity, weight control, quality of life (European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, European Quality of Life-Visual Analogue Scale, Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living ), medical service, accident, injury, etc. The KCHS was administered by trained interviewers, and the quality control of the KCHS was improved by the introduction of a computer-assisted personal interview in 2010. The KCHS data allow a direct comparison of the differences of health issues among provinces. Furthermore, the provinces can use these data for their own cost-effective health interventions to improve health promotion and disease prevention. For users and researchers throughout the world, microdata (in the form of SAS files) and analytic guidelines can be downloaded from the KCHS website (http://KCHS.cdc.go.kr/) in Korean.

  2. The history of dental hygiene in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Mann, Nancy K

    2011-01-01

    This historical narrative highlights the origin and development of the dental hygiene profession in South Korea. The legacy of early American missionaries to Korea includes profound and long-lasting contributions in medicine, education and theology. Many of Korea's top universities today have their roots in the missionary schools of the late nineteenth century, including Yonsei University, home of the first dental hygiene program in Korea. From Yonsei in Seoul, the dental hygiene profession spread throughout the country, includingtheAmerican missionary-based program in Kwangju in 1977. Contributions included clinical and didactic education, as well as professional leadership and development. American dental missionaries developed the profession of dental hygiene in Korea, and provided guidance to Korean dentists and hygienists for its growth and expansion.

  3. Korea: balancing economic growth and social protection for older adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-06-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system. As these factors evolve in coming years, social spending in Korea is likely to rise toward the OECD average. Sustaining economic growth requires policies to mitigate the impact of rapid population aging by providing social protection for the elderly population. Korea confronts difficult challenges in balancing economic growth and social protection for the elderly population, whereas also ensuring efficiency in social spending.

  4. Radiologic Diagnosis of Asbestosis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Yookyung; Kim, Yoon Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Asbestosis is the most important change noted in the lung parenchyma after environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. It is characterized by diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. In Korea, the incidence of asbestosis will continue to increase for many years to come and the government enacted the Asbestos Damage Relief Law in 2011 to provide compensation to those suffering from asbestos-related diseases. Radiologic evaluation is necessary for diagnosis of asbestosis, and radiologists play a key role in this process. Therefore, it is important for radiologists to be aware of the various imaging features of asbestosis. PMID:27587956

  5. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-07-07

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time.

  6. North Korea: Back on the Terrorism List?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-29

    2007. 46 See http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/crt/2006/82736.htm at p. 147. 47 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within...Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions, International Herald Tribune, September 4, 2007, p. 5. 52 Japanese...several North Korean attempts in late 2006 through the spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti

  7. Progress in Malassezia Research in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are part of the normal flora of human skin. However, they are also associated with various skin diseases. Since the introduction of Malassezia to the Korean Dermatologic Society two decades ago, remarkable progress has been made in our knowledge of this genus. In this paper, we review recent developments in Malassezia research, including taxonomy and methods for species identification, recent genome analyses, Malassezia species distribution in healthy conditions and in specific skin diseases, trials investigating the mechanisms underlying Malassezia-related diseases, as well as therapeutic options. This review will enhance our understanding of Malassezia yeasts and related skin diseases in Korea. PMID:26719632

  8. Processing Marine Gravity Data Around Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Choi, K.; Kim, Y.; Ahn, Y.; Chang, M.

    2008-12-01

    In Korea currently 4 research ships are under operating in Korea, after the first research vessel equipped shipborne gravity meter was introduced in 1990s. These are Onnuri(launch 1991) of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute), Haeyang2000(launch 1996), Badaro1(launch 2002) of NORI(National Oceanographic Research Institute) and Tamhae2(launch 1997) of KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources). Those of research vessel, Haeyang2000 have observed marine gravity data over 150,000 points each year from year 1996 to year 2003. Haeyang2000, about 2,500 tons, is unable to operate onshore so NORI has constructed another 600 tons research ship Badaro1 that has observed marine gravity data onshore since year 2002. Haeyang2000 finished observing marine gravity data offshore within Korean territorial waters until year 2003. Currently Badaro1 is observing marine gravity data onshore. These shipborne gravity data will be very useful and important on geodesy and geophysics research also those data can make a contribution to developing these studies. In this study NORI's shipbrne gravity data from 1996 to 2007 has been processed for fundamental data to compute Korean precise geoid. Marine gravity processing steps as followed. 1. Check the time sequence, latitude and longitude position, etc. of shipborne gravity data 2. Arrangement of the tide level below the pier and meter drift correction of each cruise. 3. Elimination of turning points. 4. The time lag correction. 5. Computation of RV's velocities, Heading angles and the Eötvös correction. 6. Kalman filtering of GPS navigation data using cross-over points. 7. Cross-over correction using least square adjustment. About 2,058,000 points have been processed with NORI's marine gravity data from 1996 to 2007 in this study. The distribution of free-air anomalies was -41.0 mgal to 136.0 mgal(mean 8.90mgal) within Korean territorial waters. The free-air anomalies processed with the marine gravity data are

  9. Investigation of Groundwater Flow at Highway Construction Areas in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Park, Y.; Ji, S.; Cheong, Y.; Yim, G.

    2006-05-01

    Contamination by acid rock drainage was found at highway construction areas in Korea, where pyrites were included in materials to raise the ground level. To remediate the acid rock drainage, groundwater flow direction and total flow rate were investigated in addition to the relationship between groundwater and surface water. Multiple boreholes were installed for geological structure surveys, pumping tests, slug test and tracer tests. Geological survey showed that a water-table aquifer system included a relatively homogeneous earthen layer and an underlying undisturbed alluvial layer. Transmissivity and storativity of the upper layer were investigated 0.1-2.6m2/day and 0.3 relatively by pumping tests. Hydraulic conductivity of the upper layer was investigated 0.1m/day by slug tests. Chloride ion was used in tracer tests, which included a natural gradient method and a push-pull method. In the natural gradient method, it was failed to detect chloride ion in groundwater. In the push-pull test, dispersivity ranges from 0.001m to 0.3m for several drift time. With the characteristic parameters from aquifer tests and tracer tests, numerical modeling techniques were used to evaluate groundwater flow directions and rates. Boundary conditions were decided to reflect geological and geographical boundaries, like concrete barriers, water divides and rivers. Numerical simulations showed the differences between groundwater flow before constructions and that after constructions. After the highway constructions are finished, groundwater direction changes seriously and total amount of the acid rock drainage is estimated 166.5m3/day. To find out the effect of precipitation changes, several numerical simulations were performed. It was shown that total amount of the acid rock drainage ranges from 73.8m3/day in the dry season to 323.6m3/day in the rainy season.

  10. Estimating the SCS runoff curve number in forest catchments of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyung Tae; Kim, Jaehoon; Lim, Hong-geun

    2016-04-01

    To estimate flood runoff discharge is a very important work in design for many hydraulic structures in streams, rivers and lakes such as dams, bridges, culverts, and so on. So, many researchers have tried to develop better methods for estimating flood runoff discharge. The SCS runoff curve number is an empirical parameter determined by empirical analysis of runoff from small catchments and hillslope plots monitored by the USDA. This method is an efficient method for determining the approximate amount of runoff from a rainfall even in a particular area, and is very widely used all around the world. However, there is a quite difference between the conditions of Korea and USA in topography, geology and land use. Therefore, examinations in adaptability of the SCS runoff curve number need to raise the accuracy of runoff prediction using SCS runoff curve number method. The purpose of this study is to find the SCS runoff curve number based on the analysis of observed data from several experimental forest catchments monitored by the National Institute of Forest Science (NIFOS), as a pilot study to modify SCS runoff curve number for forest lands in Korea. Rainfall and runoff records observed in Gwangneung coniferous and broad leaves forests, Sinwol, Hwasoon, Gongju and Gyeongsan catchments were selected to analyze the variability of flood runoff coefficients during the last 5 years. This study shows that runoff curve numbers of the experimental forest catchments range from 55 to 65. SCS Runoff Curve number method is a widely used method for estimating design discharge for small ungauged watersheds. Therefore, this study can be helpful technically to estimate the discharge for forest watersheds in Korea with more accuracy.

  11. Niger River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... dwellings, and their homes are typically built with materials from the surrounding environment: mud-brick and sandstone, small ... top of the image, where the Niger River changes direction to flow more directly eastward. Six hundred years ago, Timbuktu was a central part ...

  12. River meanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Wolman, M. Gordon

    1960-01-01

    Most river curves have nearly the same value of the ratio of curvature radius to channel width, in the range of 2 to 3. Meanders formed by meltwater on the surface of glaciers, and by the main current of the Gulf Stream, have a relation of meander length to channel width similar to rivers. Because such meanders carry no sediment, the shapes of curves in rivers are evidently determined primarily by the dynamics of flow rather than by relation to debris load.Velocity distributions along river curves provide a generalized picture of flow characteristics. Evidence on flow resistance in curved channels suggests that a basic aspect of meander mechanics may be related to the distribution of energy loss provided by a particular configuration or curvature. No general theory of meanders is as yet satisfactory, however; in fact, present evidence suggests that no single theory will explain the formation and characteristics of all meanders and that few of the physical principles involved have yet been clearly identified.

  13. Knowledge River

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2004-01-01

    One of the most promising of all diversity initiatives in library and information studies (LIS) is Knowledge River (KR) at the School of Information Resources and Library Science (SIRLS) at the University of Arizona, Tucson. Created and directed by Patricia A. Tarin, the program has already recruited some 42 students into the profession, 20 of…

  14. Mississippi River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... to melt and the Wapsipinicon River was 52 centimeters above flood stage at De Witt, Iowa (between Clinton and Davenport). By mid-April ... slightly below the level reached in the record-setting flood of 1993. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion ...

  15. Health development experience in North and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Ahn, Y S; Lee, S G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the difference in health status between South Koreans and North Koreans and to identify factors responsible for the remarkable improvements in the health status of South Koreans. In order to examine the causes of the difference in health level, the health indices and their determinants of two Koreas were analyzed in time order. As of the year 2000, the average life expectancy at birth is 71.0 years for men and 78.6 years for women in South Korea, which is longer than that of North Korea by 8.1 for men and 11.2 for women. Infant mortality rate in 1998 was 9.0 per 1,000 live births in South Korea and 54.0 in North Korea. Since being liberated from Japanese ruling in 1945, South Korea has achieved remarkable economic growth under democracy and a market economy system. On the other hand, North Korea has maintained a socialistic system. North Korea has suffered from economic crisis since the 1990s. From this point it could be said that economic status is the major factor for the differences in health level between the two Koreas. Economic status not only directly influences health level but also indirectly affects it through influences on nutrition, hygiene, health resources, and other intervening factors. The South Korean government has concentrated its limited resources on public health activities such as tuberculosis control, family planning (FP), and maternal and child health (MCH) programmes whereas the private sector has taken charge of constructing the health delivery system including health facilities and human resources. In order to solve the problem, which might occur in the private-oriented medical care system, the South Korean government has introduced the national health insurance programme and enforced regulation policies. Many developing countries which are suffering from poverty and disease, can learn from the experience of Korea that had suffered from similar problems up to the early 1970s.

  16. River-aquifer exchange fluxes under monsoonal climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Svenja; Frei, Sven; Ruidisch, Marianne; Shope, Christopher L.; Peiffer, Stefan; Kim, Bomchul; Fleckenstein, Jan H.

    2014-02-01

    An important prerequisite to better understand the transport of nutrients and contaminants across the river-aquifer interface and possible implications for biogeochemical transformations is to accurately characterize and asses the exchange fluxes. In this study we investigate how monsoonal precipitation events and the resulting variability in river discharge affect the dynamics of river-aquifer exchange and the corresponding flux rates. We evaluate potential impacts of the investigated exchange fluxes on local water quality. Hydraulic gradients along a piezometer transect were monitored at a river reach in a small catchment in South Korea, where the hydrologic dynamics are driven by the East-Asian Monsoon. We used heat as a tracer to constrain river-aquifer exchange fluxes in a two-dimensional flow and heat transport model implemented in the numerical code HydroGeoSphere, which was calibrated to the measured temperature and total head data. To elucidate potential effects of river-aquifer exchange dynamics on biogeochemical transformations at the river-aquifer interface, river water and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3) and dissolved oxygen saturation (DOsat). Our results illustrate highly variable hydrologic conditions during the monsoon season characterized by temporal and spatial variability in river-aquifer exchange fluxes with frequent flow reversals (changes between gaining and losing conditions). Intense monsoonal precipitation events and the associated rapid changes in river stage are the dominant driver for the observed riverbed flow reversals. The chemical data suggest that the flow reversals, when river water high in DOC is pushed into the nitrate-rich groundwater below the stream and subsequently returns to the stream may facilitate and enhance the natural attenuation of nitrate in the shallow groundwater.

  17. CHINESE MITTEN CRABS (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS) IN THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER (CANADA): NEW RECORDS AND RISK OF INVASION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, is an internationally renowned aquatic invader. Native to China and North/South Korea, this catadromous crab has successfully invaded several rivers and estuaries in eleven countries in Western Europe as well as the San Francisco Bay ...

  18. CHINESE MITTEN CRABS (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS) IN THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER (CANADA): NEW RECORDS AND RISK OF INVASION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, is an internationally renowned aquatic invader. Native to China and North/South Korea, this catadromous crab has successfully invaded several rivers and estuaries in eleven countries in Western Europe as well as the San Francisco Bay ...

  19. 76 FR 27005 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Initiation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET film) from the Republic of Korea (Korea... with respect to the antidumping duty order on PET film from Korea. Interested parties are invited to... value (LTFV) on PET film from Korea. See Antidumping Duty Order and Amendment to Final Determination of...

  20. New species of Rhorus Förster, 1869 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ctenopelmatinae) from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kasparyan, D R; Choi, Jin-Kyung; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2016-08-31

    A new ichneumonid-species Rhorus koreensis sp. nov. is described from South Korea. Monoblastus jinjuensis Lee et Cha, 1993 described from South Korea is transferred to Rhorus (new combination). Only Rh. takagii (Uchida, 1931) is recorded previously from South Korea. Rhorus nigritarsis (Hedwig, 1956) is recorded for the first time from South Korea. A key to the four South Korean species are provided.

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of Korea... Republic of Korea in insect-proof greenhouses approved by and registered with the National Plant Quarantine...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of Korea... Republic of Korea in insect-proof greenhouses approved by and registered with the National Plant Quarantine...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of Korea... Republic of Korea in insect-proof greenhouses approved by and registered with the National Plant Quarantine...

  4. 77 FR 13952 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... RIN 9000-AM18 Federal Acquisition Regulation; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCY... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement the United States- Korea Free Trade Agreement. The...-Korea Free Trade Agreement (see the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (Pub. L...

  5. 31 CFR 500.563 - Transactions incident to travel to and within North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and within North Korea. 500.563 Section 500.563 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... Transactions incident to travel to and within North Korea. (a) All transactions of persons subject to U.S... Korea and to maintenance within North Korea are authorized. This authorization extends to transactions...

  6. 77 FR 30355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Regulation Supplement: United States- Korea Free Trade Agreement (DFARS Case 2012-D025) AGENCY: Defense... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement. The Republic of Korea is already party to the World Trade... provisions and clauses in DFARS part 252 to implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (see the...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of Korea... Republic of Korea in insect-proof greenhouses approved by and registered with the National Plant...

  8. 76 FR 49439 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... International Trade Administration Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of... power transformers (``large power transformers'') from the Republic of Korea (``Korea''), filed in... Transformers from the Republic of Korea, filed on July 14, 2011 (``the Petition''). On July 20, 2011,...

  9. 77 FR 53177 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... International Trade Administration Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Antidumping Duty Order... antidumping duty order on large power transformers from the Republic of Korea (Korea). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... in the antidumping duty investigation of large power transformers from Korea. See Large...

  10. 78 FR 11154 - Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... International Trade Administration Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Countervailing Duty... residential washers (washers) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). DATES: Effective Date: February 15, 2013... its final determination in the countervailing duty investigation of washers from Korea.\\1\\ On...

  11. 78 FR 11148 - Large Residential Washers From Mexico and the Republic of Korea: Antidumping Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... International Trade Administration Large Residential Washers From Mexico and the Republic of Korea: Antidumping... washers (washers) from Mexico and the Republic of Korea (Korea). DATES: Effective Date: February 15, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brian Smith (Mexico) or David Goldberger (Korea), AD/CVD...

  12. Occurrence and identification of Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) isolated from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Setyobudi, Eko; Jeon, Chan-Hyeok; Lee, Cheul-Ho; Seong, Ki-Baik; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2011-03-01

    The prevalence of infection and the identification of anisakid larvae in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) from the Namdae River, the east coast of Korea, were investigated. In total, 8,358 larvae were collected from 120 fish samples (male = 58 fish, female = 62 fish) in 2008. Fish samples were collected during October and November 2008. All the chum salmon samples (120/120, 100%) caught were infected with anisakid larvae with a high intensity (69.65 ± 48.58 larvae/host). They were mostly found in muscles (98.00%). Based on the morphological and the molecular analysis of PCR-RFLP and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA cox2 gene markers, these nematodes were identified as Anisakis simplex (sensu stricto) third-stage larvae. This is the first report on the molecular identification of anisakid worms from salmonid fishes in Korea. The high occurrence of anisakid worms in chum salmon may pose considerable food safety problems if they were consumed as raw or undercooked, although their commercial value is relatively lower than other salmonid species.

  13. Development and implementation of surface water quality standards for protection of human health in Korea.

    PubMed

    An, Youn-Joo; Kwak, Jin; Nam, Sun-Hwa; Jung, Myung Sook

    2014-01-01

    Current water quality standards for the protection of human health in Korea include 17 substances found in rivers and streams. Due to increasing concern over the release of hazardous chemicals into the aquatic environment, there has been a demand for additional water quality standards. Therefore, the Korean Ministry of the Environment plans to gradually increase the number of water quality standards to 30 substances, including 22 substances for protection of human health and 8 substances for protection of aquatic ecosystems by 2015. In this study, new water quality standards for protection of human health were established for 1,4-dioxane, formaldehyde, and hexachlorobenzene. We selected candidate hazardous chemicals, conducted a human health risk assessment to determine priority chemicals, established water quality standards based on technical analyses and comparison with domestic and developed countries' water quality standards, and conducted an expert review. Water quality standards for protection of aquatic ecosystems will be derived in the near future. This study describes how the water quality standards for protection of human health were developed and implemented. Current status, recent expansion, and future plans for water quality standards in Korea are also covered.

  14. A new method for estimating the prevalence of clonorchiasis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jin-Young; Lee, Jin Yong; Chung, Byung-Suk; Choi, Younghyun; Alley, Allison Baer; Kim, Hyun Joo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract South Korea presently uses an arbitrary sampling method to monitor the prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in the endemic areas of the country. However, the present method is not standardized and focuses primarily on individuals who reside nearest to the mainstream river. We propose a new sampling method that combines cluster sampling with proportionate quota sampling to ensure that the entire endemic area is accurately represented. We tested the new method in Okcheon-gun, South Korea, and determined that the C sinensis infection prevalence (8.9%) in 2013 was higher than that (6.9%) estimated in 2012 when the arbitrary method was used. Additionally, no difference was observed in the prevalence based on the distance from the riverside areas, including branches and creeks, between the areas <1 and >1 km away from the riversides. Therefore, health authorities should place equal emphasis on all regions within the endemic areas. Based on the findings, we recommend the following: the clonorchiasis prevalence rate must be measured using probability sampling, (clear guidelines on survey coverage should be provided to include the riverside areas and all areas nearby branch streams, and regional cohorts should be created for continuous monitoring of prevalence rates across the region. PMID:28353615

  15. Estimating riverine discharge of nitrogen from the South Korea by the mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehoon; Kim, Geonha; Kim, Sungwon; Choi, Euiso

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to estimate the total mass of nitrogen discharged from various sources in Korea using the mass balance approach. Three different nitrogen mass balances were presented: (1) agricultural activities including raising crops and animal husbandry; (2) domestic activities, and (3) activities in forest and urban areas. These nitrogen balances were combined to estimate riverine discharge of nitrogen to the ocean in national scale. Nitrogen inputs include atmospheric deposition, biological nitrogen fixation, application of inorganic fertilizers/manures, animal feed/imported foodstuffs, and meat/fish. Nitrogen outputs include ammonia volatilization, denitrification, human/animal waste generation, crop/meat production, and riverine discharge to the ocean. The estimated total nitrogen input in Korea was 1,194.5 x 10(3) tons N/year. Nitrogen discharged into rivers was estimated as 408-422 x 10(3) tons N/year, of which 66-71% was diffuse in origin. The estimated diffuse discharges for land uses were estimated as 82 x 10(3) tons N/year from agricultural areas, 7 x 10(3) tons N/year from forestry and 75 x 10(3) tons N/year from urban and industrial areas.

  16. South Korea's renewed focus on space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byung-Ho

    2011-10-01

    Nearly 1000 years before European scientists David Fabricius and Galileo Galilei made historic observations of sunspots, royal astronomers in Korea were recording their observations of blemishes on the Sun. Sunspot records appeared as early as 640 C.E. in Korea [Yang et al., 1998], and records with statistically significant populations of data have been available since 1105 C.E. during the Goryeo dynasty (918-1392). The records are quite meticulous. For example, one entry dated 1151 in the annals of the Goryeo dynasty says, "There is a black spot in the sun as large as an egg" (Goryeo-Sa, 1451). At that time, sunspots were categorized according to size: plum, egg, peach, or pear. In Goryeo-Sa, various celestial phenomena such as solar eclipses, comets, novae, meteors, etc., were also recorded. Along with sunspots, aurorae were carefully described in several Korean chronicles, including Goryeo-Sa. Descriptions of aurorae, commonly referred to as "red energy," include their color, shape, motion, and distribution. For example, a description written in 1770 reads, "It spread across the sky like a piece of silk cloth and then dispersed" [Chanjipcheong, 1908; Park, 2008]. Applying a power spectrum analysis technique to all sunspot and aurora records during the Goryeo dynasty, Yang et al. [1998] and Lee et al. [2005] have shown 10.5-year and 97-year cycles for the sunspot records and 10-year and 87-year cycles for the aurora records.

  17. Ionizing Radiation-induced Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Meeseon; Moon, Kieun; Jo, Min-Heui; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Radiation risk has become well known through epidemiological studies of clinically or occupationally exposed populations, animal experiments, and in vitro studies; however, the study of radiation related or induced disease has been limited in Korea. This study is to find the level of occupational radiation exposure for various kinds of accidents, compensated occupational diseases, related studies, and estimations on future occupational disease risks. Research data of related institutions were additionally investigated. About 67% of 62,553 radiation workers had no exposure or less than 1.2 mSv per year. The 5 reported cases on radiation accident patients in Korea occurred during nondestructive testing. According to the recent rapid increase in the number of workers exposed to radiation, a higher social recognition of cancer, and an increasing cancer mortality rate, it is expected that occupational disease compensation will rapidly increase as well. Therefore, it is important to develop scientific and objective decision methods, such as probability of causation and screening dose in the establishment of an exposure and health surveillance system. PMID:21258594

  18. Clinical Characteristics of Cholinergic Urticaria in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; Eun, Young Sun; Park, Young Min; Park, Hyun Jeong; Yu, Dong Su; Kang, Hoon; Cho, Sang Hyun; Park, Chul Jong; Kim, Si Yong

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholinergic urticaria is a type of physical urticaria characterized by heat-associated wheals. Several reports are available about cholinergic urticaria; however, the clinical manifestations and pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of cholinergic urticaria in Korea. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 92 patients with cholinergic urticaria who were contacted by phone and whose diagnoses were confirmed by the exercise provocation test among those who had visited The Catholic University of Korea, Catholic Medical Center from January 2001 to November 2010. Results All 92 patients were male, and their average age was 27.8 years (range, 17~51 years). Most of the patients had onset of the disease in their 20s and 30s. Non-follicular wheals were located on the trunk and upper extremities of many patients, and the symptoms were aggravated by exercise. Eight patients showed general urticaria symptoms and 15 had accompanying atopic disease. Forty-three patients complained of seasonal aggravation. Most patients were treated with first and second-generation antihistamines. Conclusion Dermatologists should consider these characteristics in patients with cholinergic urticaria. Further investigation and follow-up studies are necessary to better understand the epidemiological and clinical findings of cholinergic urticaria. PMID:24882973

  19. Time trend of cadmium intake in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chan-Seok; Yang, Hye-Ran; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate past and current levels of cadmium (Cd) intake among the general populations in Korea. For this purpose, publications reporting dietary intake of cadmium (Cd-D), cadmium concentration in blood (Cd-B) and that in urine (Cd-U) in Korea were retrieved through literature survey for a period from 1975 to 2015. In practice, 9, 21 and 14 articles were available on Cd-D, Cd-B and Cd-Ucr (Cd-U as corrected for creatinine concentration), respectively. Linear regression analyses of the reported values as a function of years (i.e., the year when each survey was conducted) showed steady decreases in all of the three exposure markers of Cd-D, Cd-B and Cd-U(cr). Factors possibly contributing for the reduction were discussed including the government-set guideline of 0.2 mg/kg for rice and changes in food habits among general populations. There have been steady decreases in Cd-D, Cd-B and Cd-U(cr). The current estimates for Cd-D, Cd-B and Cd-Ucr were 6.0-7.4 μg/day, 0.73-0.83 μg/L and 0.60-0.95 μg/g cr, respectively.

  20. The treatment of tuberculosis in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Seung, K J; Bai, G H; Kim, S J; Lew, W J; Park, S K; Kim, J Y

    2003-10-01

    South Korea's complex system of tuberculosis control has never been fully described. The prevalence of tuberculosis has dropped dramatically since 1965, partly because of farsighted governmental policy that provided low-cost, accessible tuberculosis treatment to the entire population. Within the tuberculosis control system, public and private sector entities provide a wide variety of treatment options. The National Tuberculosis Program focuses on improving cure rates for new cases, while the private sector has taken more of a role in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis and other types of complicated cases. There has been a decrease in drug-resistant tuberculosis since 1980 for multiple reasons, including increased cure rates from the introduction of rifampin-based regimens, improved nutrition and living standards, and the treatment of drug-resistant cases in the private sector. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, however, still poses a significant threat to public health. The limited outcomes data that exist in South Korea for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment suggest that cure rates are low and failure and abandonment rates are high. New public health measures are needed to improve the control of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

  1. North Korea: The next nuclear nightmare

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, L.S.; Smith, J.R.

    1991-03-01

    The crisis in the Persian Gulf has reawakened concerns over the spread of nuclear arms. Even before its invasion of Kuwait, Iraq's history of aggression and support for international terrorism triggered fears in Washington that its acquisition of nuclear weapons might damage international stability and US interests far more than the emergence of India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Africa as de facto nuclear powers. Thus, when the Gulf War began on January 16, Iraq's nuclear sites were among the first attacked by allied air strikes. Unfortunately, Iraq has not been the only hostile proliferator looming on the horizon. North Korea, which has been no less dedicated than Iraq to the use of violence to advance its expansionist goals, has also tenaciously pursued a nuclear-weapons capability. Moreover, the North Korean program is considerably closer to bearing fruit than the Iraqi effort. And although North Korea, like Iraq, has signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, unlike Iraq it has refused to conclude the safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency that the treaty requires.

  2. 33 CFR 162.90 - White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River, Ark., and Catoosa, Okla.; use... White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River, Ark... apply to: (1) Waterways. White River between Mississippi River and Arkansas Post Canal, Ark.;...

  3. The first case of Capillaria hepatica infection in a nutria (Myocastor coypus) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Hak; Novilla, Meliton N; Song, Juha; Kim, Kyung-Sul; Chang, Seo-Na; Han, Ju-Hee; Lee, Byung Hee; Lee, Do-Hun; Kim, Hyun-Mac; Kim, Young-Ha; Youn, Hee-Jeong; Kil, Jihyon

    2014-10-01

    This study reports the first case of Capillaria hepatica infection in a nutria in Korea. Ten nutrias, captured near the Nakdong River, were submitted to our laboratory for necropsy. White-yellowish nodules were found in the liver of 1 of the nutrias at necropsy. Histologically, the lesions were granulomatous, and infiltrations of lipid-laden macrophages, eosinophils, and several multinucleated giant cells were observed. The lesions consisted of numerous eggs and necrotic hepatocytes. The eggs were lemon-shaped and had polar plugs at the ends of both long sides. The eggs were morphologically identified as those of C. hepatica. Worldwide, C. hepatica infection in nutrias is very rare. Nutrias are a kind of livestock, as well as wildlife; therefore, an epidemiological study for parasitic infections needs to be conducted.

  4. The First Case of Capillaria hepatica Infection in a Nutria (Myocastor coypus) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Hak; Novilla, Meliton N.; Song, Juha; Kim, Kyung-Sul; Chang, Seo-Na; Han, Ju-Hee; Lee, Byung Hee; Lee, Do-Hun; Kim, Hyun-Mac; Kim, Young-Ha; Youn, Hee-Jeong; Kil, Jihyon

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the first case of Capillaria hepatica infection in a nutria in Korea. Ten nutrias, captured near the Nakdong River, were submitted to our laboratory for necropsy. White-yellowish nodules were found in the liver of 1 of the nutrias at necropsy. Histologically, the lesions were granulomatous, and infiltrations of lipid-laden macrophages, eosinophils, and several multinucleated giant cells were observed. The lesions consisted of numerous eggs and necrotic hepatocytes. The eggs were lemon-shaped and had polar plugs at the ends of both long sides. The eggs were morphologically identified as those of C. hepatica. Worldwide, C. hepatica infection in nutrias is very rare. Nutrias are a kind of livestock, as well as wildlife; therefore, an epidemiological study for parasitic infections needs to be conducted. PMID:25352702

  5. Status, Alert System, and Prediction of Cyanobacterial Bloom in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ankita; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Asthana, Ravi Kumar; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2015-01-01

    Bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterial genera pose a major ecological problem due to their ability to produce toxins and other bioactive compounds, which can have important implications in illnesses of humans and livestock. Cyanobacteria such as Microcystis, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, and Aphanizomenon species producing microcystins and anatoxin-a have been predominantly documented from most South Korean lakes and reservoirs. With the increase in frequency of such blooms, various monitoring approaches, treatment processes, and prediction models have been developed in due course. In this paper we review the field studies and current knowledge on toxin producing cyanobacterial species and ecological variables that regulate toxin production and bloom formation in major rivers (Han, Geum, Nakdong, and Yeongsan) and reservoirs in South Korea. In addition, development of new, fast, and high-throughput techniques for effective monitoring is also discussed with cyanobacterial bloom advisory practices, current management strategies, and their implications in South Korean freshwater bodies. PMID:25705675

  6. Factors controlling the origin of Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms along the Goheung coast, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon Ock; Kim, Jong Kyu; Kim, Byeong Kuk

    2016-12-15

    We investigated the factors influencing the origin of Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms along the Goheung coast (GH), and compared them to those along the Geoje (GJ) coast and in the East China Sea (ECS) which were used as reference sites. Stratification did not develop in GH during C. polykrikoides blooms, unlike that in GJ. The surface salinity during summer in ECS was equivalent to that of GH, whereas surface temperature and concentration of nutrients in ECS were markedly higher than those in GH or GJ. Thermohaline (or thermal) fronts appeared between the Korea Southern Coastal Water (KSCW) and the outer seawater during C. polykrikoides blooms. The result of numerical simulation models indicated that freshwater from the Yangtze River clearly affected KSCW. As a result, the origin of C. polykrikoides blooms in GH during summer could be attributed to the inflow of seawater from ECS with high water temperature and abundant nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Standardized Thyroid Cancer Mortality in Korea between 1985 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun Mi; Jang, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Hyemi; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea. However, there is no published report focusing on thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. In this study, we aimed to evaluate standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea (the Statistical Office of Korea). Methods Population and mortality data from 1985 to 2010 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized rates of thyroid cancer mortality were calculated according to the standard population of Korea, as well as World Health Organization (WHO) standard population and International Cancer Survival Standard (ICSS) population weights. Results The crude thyroid cancer mortality rate increased from 0.1 to 0.7 per 100,000 between 1985 and 2010. The pattern was the same for both sexes. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for thyroid cancer for Korean resident registration population increased from 0.19 to 0.67 between 1985 and 2000. However, it decreased slightly, from 0.67 to 0.55, between 2000 and 2010. When mortality was adjusted using the WHO standard population and ICSS population weights, the ASMR similarly increased until 2000, and then decreased between 2000 and 2010. Conclusion Thyroid cancer mortality increased until 2000 in Korea. It started to decrease from 2000. PMID:25559576

  8. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2017.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to report on cancer incidence and mortality for the year 2017 in Korea in order to estimate the nation's current cancer burden. Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2014 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2015 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence and mortality were projected by fitting a linear regression model to observe age-specific cancer rates against observed years, and then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population. The Joinpoint regression model was used to determine at which year the linear trend changed significantly; we only used data of the latest trend. A total of 221,143 new cancer cases and 80,268 cancer deaths are expected to occur in Korea in 2017. The most common cancer sites are the colorectum, stomach, lung, thyroid, and breast. These five cancers represent half of the overall burden of cancer in Korea. For mortality, the most common sites are the lung, liver, colorectal, stomach, and pancreas. The incidence rate of all cancers in Korea appears to have decreased mainly because of a decrease in thyroid cancer. These up-to-date estimates of the cancer burden in Korea could be an important resource for planning and evaluation of cancer-control programs.

  9. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2017

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to report on cancer incidence and mortality for the year 2017 in Korea in order to estimate the nation’s current cancer burden. Materials and Methods Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2014 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2015 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence and mortality were projected by fitting a linear regression model to observe age-specific cancer rates against observed years, and then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population. The Joinpoint regression model was used to determine at which year the linear trend changed significantly; we only used data of the latest trend. Results A total of 221,143 new cancer cases and 80,268 cancer deaths are expected to occur in Korea in 2017. The most common cancer sites are the colorectum, stomach, lung, thyroid, and breast. These five cancers represent half of the overall burden of cancer in Korea. For mortality, the most common sites are the lung, liver, colorectal, stomach, and pancreas. Conclusion The incidence rate of all cancers in Korea appears to have decreased mainly because of a decrease in thyroid cancer. These up-to-date estimates of the cancer burden in Korea could be an important resource for planning and evaluation of cancer-control programs. PMID:28301926

  10. Disasters can happen to anybody: The case of Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Kyoo-Man

    2016-02-15

    In Korea, there is a pervasive feeling of invincibility to the point that people and organizations do not believe that disasters can strike them. This has impact on the level of preparedness for disasters. This study aims to delve into how Korea has to change its governmental policies/practices with some private partners' efforts to mitigate disaster risks. A case study was utilized as the major methodology by comparing exclusive management with inclusive management. These two approaches have been comparatively analyzed via four variables, namely the central government, the local governments, the incident commander, and other stakeholders. The major finding is that Korea's practices and policies have to evolve from the current exclusive management into future-oriented inclusive management. Moreover, the importance of communication, cooperation, collaboration, and multi-discipline coordination is discussed. Additionally, the problem of reductionism and equal participation among all stakeholders, as well as the resistance from vested interests, are recognized and elaborated for Korea and the international community. - Highlights: • Only a few stakeholders in Korea believe that disaster can happen to anyone. This study aims to delve into how Korea has to change its current practices to mitigate disaster risks. • To compare exclusive management with inclusive management, we have examined four comparative variables, namely the central government's policy, local government's strategy, the incident commander's post, and other stakeholders' efforts. • The major finding is that Korea's practices and policies have to evolve from the current exclusive management into future-oriented inclusive management.

  11. The current situation of treatment systems for alcoholism in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Choi, Ihn-Geun

    2013-02-01

    Alcoholism is becoming one of the most serious issues in Korea. The purpose of this review article was to understand the present status of the treatment system for alcoholism in Korea compared to the United States and to suggest its developmental direction in Korea. Current modalities of alcoholism treatment in Korea including withdrawal treatment, pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial treatment are available according to Korean evidence-based treatment guidelines. Benzodiazepines and supportive care including vitamin and nutritional support are mainly used to treat alcohol withdrawal in Korea. Naltrexone and acamprosate are the drugs of first choice to treat chronic alcoholism. Psychosocial treatment methods such as individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, family therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, cue exposure therapy, 12-step facilitation therapy, self-help group therapy, and community-based treatment have been carried out to treat chronic alcoholism in Korea. However, current alcohol treatment system in Korea is not integrative compared to that in the United States. To establish the treatment system, it is important to set up an independent governmental administration on alcohol abuse, to secure experts on alcoholism, and to conduct outpatient alcoholism treatment programs and facilities in an open system including some form of continuing care.

  12. A new strategy for tuberculosis control in North Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent diseases in North Korea. Despite some positive accomplishments by current aid projects, it is still necessary to investigate the existing aid system. The following are necessary for improvement: sustaining a high degree of expertise, cooperation among various related parties including the international community, mediation to induce this cooperation, a more active role of the South Korean government, and encouragement of North Korea to more actively participate. Achieving these will help solve the issues of current tuberculosis aid projects in North Korea and lead to more successful outcomes. PMID:26657137

  13. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; McJeon, Haewon C.; Shui, Bin; Lee, Seung Eon

    2009-04-17

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Korea, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial buildings in Korea.

  14. The Genus Chlorociboria, Blue-Green Micromycetes in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Huan; Park, Jung Shin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2017-06-01

    The species of the genus Chlorociboria Seaver are very common on the forest floor, and can be easily distinguished by small and numerous blue-green fruitbody, especially the blue substrate dyed with xylindein produced by this group. This genus has rather high species diversity in the Southern Hemisphere, while a little attention was paid to this group in East Asia area. During a field survey in South Korea, several Chlorociboria specimens were collected. Based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses, three species of Chlorociboria were reported, including one new record in South Korea and one new record in Jeju Island. The key to the species of Chlorociboria from South Korea is provided.

  15. A new strategy for tuberculosis control in North Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Jeon; Ki, Moran; Sung, Nackmoon

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent diseases in North Korea. Despite some positive accomplishments by current aid projects, it is still necessary to investigate the existing aid system. The following are necessary for improvement: sustaining a high degree of expertise, cooperation among various related parties including the international community, mediation to induce this cooperation, a more active role of the South Korean government, and encouragement of North Korea to more actively participate. Achieving these will help solve the issues of current tuberculosis aid projects in North Korea and lead to more successful outcomes.

  16. What North Korea wants. [North Korean nuclear policy

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, P. )

    1993-12-01

    In this article the author draws upon his experiences from his four trips to North Korea, during which he discussed nuclear issues with North Korean leaders, to help explain part of the North Korean reasoning behind its threats to withdraw from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and its gyrating nuclear policies. In essence, the author believes that North Korean nuclear policy is a result of Kim Jong Il's attempt to maintain the loyalty and obeisance of the elite. The article describes the political and economic factors which lead to North Korea's confrontation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and then discusses North Korea's immediate nuclear strategy.

  17. JPRS Report, East Asia, Korea: Kulloja, No. 10, October 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Fatherland’s Reunification Reality and Must change Its Policy on Korea 00000000 Pyongyang KULLOJA in Korean 00000000 Pyongyang KULLOJA in Korean No 10, Oct 89...STATEMENT A Approved for public reiecse; Distribution Unlimited East Asia Korea : KULLOJA No 10, October 1989 IXHC QUÄLET* INSPECTED $ 󈨥SOS7? /3<g...East Asia Korea : KULLOJA No 10, October 1989 JPRS-AKU-90-002 CONTENTS 11 APRIL 1990 [This report is a translation of the table of contents and

  18. JPRS Report, East Asia, Korea: Kulloja, No. 9, September 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-24

    EENINSUIA INTO A NUCLEAR-FREE PEACE ZONE IS AN URGENT TASK FOR PEACE IN KOREA AND THE WORLD Pyongyang KULLOJA in Korean No 9, Sep 86 pp 72-76...aggressive military bases of the U.S. imperialists from South Korea by turning the Korean peninsula into a nuclear-free peace zone can we eliminate all...safeguarding peace and security in Korea and the world. This is because the Korean peninsula has been transformed into a zone in which the greatest

  19. Estimating the GIS-based soil loss and sediment delivery ratio to the sea for four major basins in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, S E; Kang, S H

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a sediment delivery ratio (SDR) using the Geographic Information System (GIS)-based Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), to calculate the soil loss and sediment rating curve (SRC) basis of measured data in the six basins of Four Rivers, South Korea. The data set for calculating SDR was prepared during 3 years from 2008 to 2010. Mean soil loss in the six basins of Four Rivers was 515-869 t km(-2) yr(-1) and mean specific sediment yield (SSY) was 20-208 t km(-2) yr(-1) with basin size. The SDR ranged from 0.03 to 0.33 in the six rivers. Most sediment flows in the monsoon period from June to September (mean Max.: >97%; mean Min.: >84%), but SDR is lower than those of similar continental river basins. This is due to environmental factors, for example rainfall characteristics and associated run-off, soil characteristics and cultivated patterns with increasing basin size. This research provides the first application of SDR based on the observed field data in South Korea.

  20. The Growing Relationship Between South Korea and China: Consequences for North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Trade," in KITA [database online ]. South Korea August [cited 2005]. Available from http://global.kita.net. Accessed Oct 2005. 12 0 500 1000 1500...Bank Group [database online ]. [cited 2005]. Available from http://www1.worldbank.org/economicpolicy/globalization/data.html. Accessed Oct 2005. I...such an impact that Korean products are gaining recognition in China’s huge domestic market. In 2001, more than 20 percent of Chinese consumers

  1. Assessment of water quality based on Landsat 8 operational land imager associated with human activities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jisang; Choi, Minha

    2015-06-01

    Water pollution such as green algae blooms and eutrophication in freshwater fatally influences both water quality and human society. Water quality issues in the 4 major rivers in Korea, including the Nakdong, have recently become a major concern. For this reason, it is essential to monitor water quality parameters (WQPs) that have a widespread characteristic to ensure maintenance of an effective water management system. The possibility of utilizing remote sensing technology for monitoring water quality on a regional scale has been recently investigated. The main objective of this study is to evaluate potential applications of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) for estimating water quality in the Nakdong River, Korea. Correlations between Landsat 8 bands and in situ measurements are determined, and water quality models are established for estimating suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (TN), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), and total phosphorus (TP). The results demonstrate that WQPs correlated well with band reflectance values from Landsat 8. Band 5 was reasonably correlated with all WQPs, particularly with SS (R = -0.74) and Chl-a (R = -0.71). This study constructed multiple regression equations for WQPs based on correlation analysis through band combination and band ratio. The spatial distribution of WQPs in the Nakdong River on October 27, 2013 and May 16, 2014 indicate that the river was nearly eutrophic from human activities. Based on the results, the Landsat 8 OLI may be an appropriate data for estimating and monitoring water quality parameters on a regional scale. However, further validation is required to support the findings of this study.

  2. Digging for Lost Rivers in Thailand: Locating and Dating Paleochannels in the Chiang Mai Intermontane Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Elisha A.; Ziegler, Alan D.; Wasson, Robert J.; Morthekai, Paulramasamy

    2017-04-01

    The drainage of the Chiang Mai basin has a dynamic but largely forgotten history. In the late 1980s, an ancient lost city was excavated near the Ping River in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Archaeologists had unearthed Wiang Kum Kam, the former royal capital of the Lanna Civilisation founded in 1286 CE. Former investigations revealed that flood sediments buried the capital and remnants of an abandoned river channel were discovered beneath the surface. This concurs with historical descriptions of the Ping River being on the eastern bank of the capital, despite being presently located on the western bank. The paleochannel drained 500 years ago after diverting west of the ancient city. This switch, an avulsion, coincided with a large flood, which could have triggered and/or caused the avulsion. Local oral histories also recount other Ping avulsions across the basin, but these were not documented. Some of these paleochannels residually remain as unusually sinuous irrigation canals, with historically suggestive names such as the Old Ping and the Small Ping Rivers. Here, the geomorphological evolution of the Ping River is investigated, as a future avulsion in this extensively populated area would be catastrophic. Evidence shows that the drainage of the Chiang Mai basin evolved from a braided system, to an avulsing anastomosing system, to a primarily single channel system. Two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography and augering detected a large continuous body of fluvial sand 4 m below the surface, across the 10 km distance between the Ping and Kuang Rivers. This sand continues to the depth of at least 30 m and is typical of a braided system. Further augering along paleochannels revealed buried levees that protrude from the braided river deposits to near the surface, separated by fine floodplain sediments. This may have formed as the braided system evolved into an anastomosing system, where distinct channels stabilised and floodplain deposits could develop between channels

  3. New Nuclear Emergency Prognosis system in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Ha; Jeong, Seung-Young; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Kwan-Hee

    2016-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of assessment and prognosis system for nuclear emergency response in Korea, especially atmospheric dispersion model. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) performs the regulation and radiological emergency preparedness of the nuclear facilities and radiation utilizations. Also, KINS has set up the "Radiological Emergency Technical Advisory Plan" and the associated procedures such as an emergency response manual in consideration of the IAEA Safety Standards GS-R-2, GS-G-2.0, and GS-G-2.1. The Radiological Emergency Technical Advisory Center (RETAC) organized in an emergency situation provides the technical advice on radiological emergency response. The "Atomic Computerized Technical Advisory System for nuclear emergency" (AtomCARE) has been developed to implement assessment and prognosis by RETAC. KINS developed Accident Dose Assessment and Monitoring (ADAMO) system in 2015 to reflect the lessons learned from Fukushima accident. It incorporates (1) the dose assessment on the entire Korean peninsula, Asia region, and global region, (2) multi-units accident assessment (3) applying new methodology of dose rate assessment and the source term estimation with inverse modeling, (4) dose assessment and monitoring with the environmental measurements result. The ADAMO is the renovated version of current FADAS of AtomCARE. The ADAMO increases the accuracy of the radioactive material dispersion with applying the LDAPS(Local Data Assimilation Prediction System, Spatial resolution: 1.5 km) and RDAPS(Regional Data Assimilation Prediction System, Spatial resolution: 12km) of weather prediction data, and performing the data assimilation of automatic weather system (AWS) data from Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and data from the weather observation tower at NPP site. The prediction model of the radiological material dispersion is based on the set of the Lagrangian Particle model and Lagrangian Puff model. The dose estimation methodology

  4. Seaweed Farms in South Korea [detail

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    The dark squares that make up the checkerboard pattern in this image are fields of a sort—fields of seaweed. Along the south coast of South Korea, seaweed is often grown on ropes, which are held near the surface with buoys. This technique ensures that the seaweed stays close enough to the surface to get enough light during high tide but doesn’t scrape against the bottom during low tide. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 acquired this image of seaweed cultivation in the shallow waters around Sisan Island on January 31, 2014. Home to a thriving aquaculture industry, the south coast of South Korea produces about 90 percent of the country’s seaweed crop. The waters around Sisan are not the only place where aquaculture is common. View the large image to see how ubiquitous seaweed aquaculture is along the coast in Jeollanam-do, the southernmost province on the Korean peninsula. Two main types of seaweed are cultivated in South Korea: Undaria (known as miyeok in Korean, wakame in Japanese) and Pyropia (gim in Korean, nori in Japanese). Both types are used generously in traditional Korean, Japanese, and Chinese food. Since 1970, farmed seaweed production has increased by approximately 8 percent per year. Today, about 90 percent of all the seaweed that humans consume globally is farmed. That may be good for the environment. In comparison to other types of food production, seaweed farming has a light environmental footprint because it does not require fresh water or fertilizer. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey. Caption by Adam Voiland. Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission

  5. Ethno-entomological observations from North Korea (officially known as the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea").

    PubMed

    Meyer-Rochow, V Benno

    2013-01-16

    In terms of scientific activities generally and ethnobiological pursuits in particular, North Korea, officially known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is an almost blank entity on the quilt of global research. During a sabbatical semester at Pyongyang University of Science and Technology the author used this opportunity to gather some information on the uses of insect and other terrestrial arthropods as human food and components of traditional healing methods in that country. Despite the widely publicised shortcomings in the supply of food stuffs to the population of North Korea, insects are not generally seen as a source of food worthy of exploitation. However, the therapeutic use of insects, centipedes and scorpions to treat illnesses as diverse as the common cold, skin rashes, constipation, dysentery, nervous prostration, whooping cough, osteomyelitis, tetanus, and various forms of cancer is apparently still popular. The arthropods used therapeutically are credited with anti-inflammatory, immunological and other health-promoting effects, because they are said to contain hormones, steroids, lipids and plant-derived alkaloids, all of which capable of exerting their effects on the human body.

  6. Application of Hydrometeorological Information for Short-term and Long-term Water Resources Management over Ungauged Basin in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-in; Ryu, Kyongsik; Suh, Ae-sook

    2016-04-01

    In 2014, three major governmental organizations that are Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), K-water, and Korea Rural Community Corporation have been established the Hydrometeorological Cooperation Center (HCC) to accomplish more effective water management for scarcely gauged river basins, where data are uncertain or non-consistent. To manage the optimal drought and flood control over the ungauged river, HCC aims to interconnect between weather observations and forecasting information, and hydrological model over sparse regions with limited observations sites in Korean peninsula. In this study, long-term forecasting ensemble models so called Global Seasonal forecast system version 5 (GloSea5): a high-resolution seasonal forecast system, provided by KMA was used in order to produce drought outlook. Glosea5 ensemble model prediction provides predicted drought information for 1 and 3 months ahead with drought index including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI3) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Also, Global Precipitation Measurement and Global Climate Observation Measurement - Water1 satellites data products are used to estimate rainfall and soil moisture contents over the ungauged region.

  7. Characterization of norovirus infections in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghun; Jung, Jihun; Oh, Seah; Jung, Hyowon; Oh, Younghee; Cho, Seokju; Cho, Seogju; Cho, Sungja; Park, Hyongsug; Jo, Namsook; Bae, Kyungwon; Choi, Sungmin; Kim, Bogsoon; Kim, Junghun; Chae, Youngzoo; Jung, Haesook; Cheon, Doosung; Kim, Hyunsoo

    2012-10-01

    The present study has determined the detection rate of norovirus (NoV) with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in hospitalized children and describes the molecular epidemiology of NoV circulating in Seoul, Korea. Six hundred and eighty-three (9.8%) of samples were positive for NoV. Of these, the NoV GII genogroup was the most commonly found, with a prevalence of 96.2% (683 of 710). Only 27 samples were positive for the NoV GI genogroup. Ten kinds of GI genotype (GI/1, GI/2, GI/3, GI/4, GI/5, GI/6, GI/7, GI/9, GI/12, and GI/13) and eight kinds of GII genotype (GII/2, GII/3, GII/4, GII/8, GII/14, GII/15, GII/16, and GII/17) were identified in children with AGE during the years 2008-2011.

  8. Intertidal meiofauna of Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlyuk, Olga N.; Trebukhova, Yulia A.

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, the structure of the meiobenthos community and marine nematodes in particular was investigated in the different intertidal zones of Jeju Island (South Sea of Korea). A relationship was found between the density of meiobenthic communities and the type of the bottom sediment. In addition, in the silty sediments, nematodes were dominant, while in the sandy sediments harpacticoids and ostracods were dominant groups. Sixty eight species belonging to 60 genera and 19 families of nematodes were found in the whole area. Four different nematode taxocenosis were distinguished using a cluster analysis. Dominant feeding groups were omnivores (2B) and epistratum-feeders (2A). The highest number of non-selective deposit-feeders (1B) was detected in the lagoon with the bottom silty sediments.

  9. Homosexuality in ancient and modern Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Gwan; Hahn, Sook-Ja

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines Korean views on the subject of male homosexuality. Using historical and contemporary sources, it seeks to explain elements of new cultural openness towards homosexuality in modern Korea. Korean people's understanding and knowledge of male homosexuality is ambiguous and limited. In the absence of knowledge and open communication, most Korean people imagine that male homosexuality is an abnormal and impure modern phenomenon. Prejudice and confusion lead most Korean male homosexuals to be estranged from their families, religious communities and non-homosexual peers. Moreover, they are often viewed as the 'carriers' of AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). The purpose of this paper is to examine current Korean perspectives on male homosexuality by exploring both the ancient history of the practice of male homosexuality and current thinking about homosexual life among Koreans, which has played an important part in the formation of contemporary attitudes toward homosexuality.

  10. Home Mechanical Ventilation in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Choi, Won Ah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To survey the use of invasive and noninvasive home mechanical ventilation (HMV) methods in South Korea from the perspective of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R). Materials and Methods For 413 users of HMV, retrospective reviews of PM&R interventions and survey of HMV methods employed from Mar 2000 to Dec 2009. Results Of the 413 users, the majority of whom with progressive neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) (n=358), 284 patients initially used noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV), while 63 others who were using tracheostomy mechanical ventilation switched to NIV as part of their rehabilitation. The NMD patients began HMV at an earlier age (34.9±20.3 yrs), and used for longer (14.7±7.5) hours than patients with non-neuromuscular causes of respiratory impairment. Conclusion Noninvasive management was preferred over invasive ones, and transition to the former was a result of PM&R interventions. PMID:25323913

  11. Environmental asbestos exposure sources in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Mug; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Hwang, Young-Sik; Kim, Young-Ki; Lee, Yong-Jin

    2016-10-01

    Because of the long asbestos-related disease latencies (10-50 years), detection, diagnosis, and epidemiologic studies require asbestos exposure history. However, environmental asbestos exposure source (EAES) data are lacking. To survey the available data for past EAES and supplement these data with interviews. We constructed an EAES database using a literature review and interviews of experts, former traders, and workers. Exposure sources by time period and type were visualized using a geographic information system (ArcGIS), web-based mapping (Google Maps), and OpenWeatherMap. The data were mounted in the GIS to show the exposure source location and trend. The majority of asbestos mines, factories, and consumption was located in Chungnam; Gyeonggi, Busan, and Gyeongnam; and Gyeonggi, Daejeon, and Busan, respectively. Shipbuilding and repair companies were mostly located in Busan and Gyeongnam. These tools might help evaluate past exposure from EAES and estimate the future asbestos burden in Korea.

  12. [Circulatory disease surveillance system in Korea].

    PubMed

    Chun, Byung-Yeol

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of establishing the circulatory disease surveillance system in Korea is to ensure that the problems of circulatory disease importance are being monitored efficiently and effectively. The goals of circulatory disease surveillance system are to monitor the epidemiological trends of circulatory disease and to evaluate the outcome of health activity for controlling circulatory diseases. Surveillance system are being updated to achieve the needs for the integration of the surveillance and information system, the establishment of data standards, the electronic exchange of data, and changes in the goals of circulatory disease surveillance system to facilitate the response of this system to manage the national health problem effectively. This article provides the target diseases and determinant indicators to be monitored, structure of circulatory disease surveillance system, and many tasks and related activities that should be applied to this system.

  13. Technology transfer to a developing nation, Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, C. A.; Uccetta, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental project is reported which was undertaken. to determine if selected types of technology developed for the aerospace program during the past decade are relevant to specific industrial problems of a developing nation and to test whether a structured program could facilitate the transfer of relevant technologies. The Korea Institute of Science and Technology and the IIT Research Institute were selected as the active transfer agents to participate in the program. The pilot project was based upon the approach to the transfer of domestic technology developed by the NASA Technology Utilization Division and utilized the extensive data and technical resources available through the Space Agency and its contractors. This pilot project has helped to clarify some aspects of the international technology transfer process and to upgrade Korean technological capabilities.

  14. South Korea: An overlooked hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Sturt, D.C.; Quinton, N.A. )

    1993-11-01

    A forthcoming well about to spud off South Korea is planned to test the potential of an essentially unexplored rift basin. Should the well prove successful, it could open up a major new hydrocarbon producing province with substantial reserves. The well is being drilled in Block V which covers 7,000 sq km. is divided into two parts, and lies about 150 km south of the Korean peninsula close to Cheju Island. The larger Northern Block overlies the Fukue basin, which is a linear graben system oriented northeast-southwest. The Fukue basin is equivalent in size to the South Viking graben of the North Sea and the existence of a restricted marine source rock and play types at several stratigraphic levels helps to reinforce such a comparison Seismic mapping has revealed five prospects with combined most likely reserves of more than 1 billion bbl. The paper describes the basin evolution, source and migration of petroleum, reservoir and seals, and well location.

  15. New enchytraeid species (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Dózsa-Farkas, Klára; Felföldi, Tamás; Hong, Yong

    2015-08-21

    We give descriptions of five new enchytraeid species (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) from Korea: Henlea magnaampullacea sp. n., Fridericia sphaerica sp. n., F. cusanicaformis sp. n., F. granulocyta sp. n. and Mesenchytraeus calyx sp. n., with morphological and molecular (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, nuclear histone 3 genes and nuclear ribosomal ITS region sequences) data. In total, 19 enchytraeid species belonging to seven genera have been found in the studied woodland and agronomical soil samples. Apart from the five new species, three further species are new for the Korean enchytraeid fauna, Enchytraeus christenseni, E. dichaetus, and Achaeta cf. brevivasa. Molecular taxonomical analyses show that the Korean species resembling H. ventriculosa is not identical with the European species, furthermore sequence analysis of individuals morphologically identified as F. seoraksani indicate the possibility of species-complexity and the presence of cryptic species.

  16. Relationship between land use and water quality in a small watershed in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y; Yang, J S; Kim, D K; Han, M Y

    2010-01-01

    Recent research and monitoring undertaken by various institutions have emphasized measurements of river-water quality. Based on the results, government agencies have set guidelines to improve river-water quality management. However, the relationship between water quality and land use/land cover (LULC) has not been examined closely in South Korea to date. This study investigated this relationship in the Imgok River watershed. For this study, the relationship between water quality parameters, e.g. metallic ions, biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand (BOD and COD), NH₃, NO₃ and PO₄ levels and land-use types (abandoned mine land, forest/grassland, agricultural, livestock and residential areas) was examined by correlation analysis with significant level (p<0.05) and principal component analysis (PCA). Applying PCA to water quality parameters according to land-use coverage, the principal component impacting river water quality were found to be the pH, metallic ions, BOD, PO₄, COD and total suspended solids (TSS) for abandoned mine land (AML) coverage; BOD, NO₃ and PO₄ for forest/grassland areas; TSS, NO₃, and PO₄ for agricultural land; BOD, COD, NH₃ and NO₃ for livestock coverage; and BOD, COD, NH₃ and PO₄ for residential areas. For the AML, the pH exhibited a significant negative correlation with other water quality parameters at the significant level (p<0.05). Grassland showed significant positive correlations of BOD with values of 0.837 NO₃ and 0.514 PO₄. In agricultural land, TSS had a significant negative correlation with value of -0.772 PO₄. For livestock coverage, BOD had significant positive correlations with values of 0.865 COD, 0.629 NH₃, 0.709 NO₃ and 0.472 TSS. In residential areas, COD was significantly positively correlated with values of 0.988 BOD and 0.856 PO₄, and TSS was highly positively correlated with value of 0.810 NO₃ but highly negatively correlated with value of -0.702 PO₄. Based on the above

  17. Experiences with constructed wetland systems in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngchul, Kim; Gilson, Hwang; Jin-Woo, Lee; Je-Chul, Park; Dong-Sup, Kim; Min-Gi, Kang; in-Soung, Chang

    2006-10-01

    In spite of the low temperature during the winter season and the high land environment, the wetland treatment system is gaining popularity in Korea because of its lower construction cost and simplicity in operation and maintenance. Many different types of wetland treatment systems have been built during the last 10 years, among which the free water surface wetland has been predominant. Most of the large-scale systems are government projects for improving the water quality of the streams flowing into the estuary dikes and reservoirs. The covering plants used in this system are different in different areas but cattails and reeds or their combinations are common. Constructed wetlands in Korea can be characterized by their shallow depths and short hydraulic residence times. There is no established flow pattern and configuration rules for constructing wetlands, but many efforts have been made with a view to improving their ecological function. Flow control is the most difficult problem in designing a riverbed or riparian wetland. There have been scores of flow rate control devices developed for wetlands, but none of them guarantee wetlands’ safety against flooding. In earlier wetland construction, the building materials were mainly soil. Recently, strong and durable building materials such as rocks, gravel beds, concrete and steel are used at vulnerable places to protect them from erosion. Our investigation indicated that the wetland system would be an appropriate technology because it is not only cheaper to construct, but also requires less maintenance work. However, we suffer from the reduced effectiveness in performance during the winter. We need to evaluate the partial treatment accomplished during 6 to 7 months per year.

  18. Shanghanlun in Korea, 1610-1945

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Soyoung

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how Korean physicians of traditional medicine have utilized Zhang Ji’s 張 機 (150–219 CE) Shanghanlun 傷寒論 (Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders, just Treatise hereafter) from the 17th century to the early twentieth century. As one of the two most influential pillars of Chinese medicine, the Treatise, with its clinical implications, has inspired many scholars and practitioners in their pursuit of medical innovation. What, then, have been the Korean motivations in referring to the Treatise over the past few centuries? What does the Korean utilization and modification of the Chinese classic tell us about the desires, limits, and possibilities of pursuing medical innovations in Korea? By examining the ways in which major pre-modern Korean texts employed the Treatise, this article primarily aims to reveal patterns of (re)arranging the Treatise that formed an indigenous style of medicine. Under the growing sense of nationalist concern and colonial contestation in the early twentieth century, the Korean compilation of the Treatise began to depart from the earlier interpretations. A range of nationalist rhetoric and editorial designs reflect the Korean urgency in seeking resources to compete with Western medicine. The postcolonial consumption of the Treatise also reflects Korean strategies in navigating medical references from outside to meet their social and clinical agendas. The changing pattern of textual and professional utilization of the Treatise exemplifies how a significant Chinese text continues to be a living tradition in Korea by expanding the targeted audience and satisfying local demands. PMID:26778942

  19. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193

  20. Pathogenic free-living amoebae in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ho-Joon

    2004-01-01

    Acanthamoeba and Naegleria are widely distributed in fresh water, soil and dust throughout the world, and cause meningoencephalitis or keratoconjunctivitis in humans and other mammals. Korean isolates, namely, Naegleria sp. YM-1 and Acanthamoeba sp. YM-2, YM-3, YM-4, YM-5, YM-6 and YM-7, were collected from sewage, water puddles, a storage reservoir, the gills of a fresh water fish, and by corneal washing. These isolates were categorized into three groups based on the mortalities of infected mice namely, highly virulent (YM-4), moderately virulent (YM-2, YM-5 and YM-7) and nonpathogenic (YM-3). In addition, a new species of Acanthamoeba was isolated from a freshwater fish in Korea and tentatively named Korean isolate YM-4. The morphologic characters of its cysts were similar to those of A. culbertsoni and A. royreba, which were previously designated as Acanthamoeba group III. Based on experimentally infected mouse mortality, Acanthamoeba YM-4 was highly virulent. The isoenzymes profile of Acanthamoeba YM-4 was similar to that of A. royreba. Moreover, an anti-Acanthamoeba YM-4 monoclonal antibody reacted only with Acanthamoeba YM-4, and not with A. culbertsoni. Random amplified polymorphic DNA marker analysis and RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA and of a 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA, placed Acanthamoeba YM-4 in a separate cluster based on phylogenic distances. Thus Acanthamoeba YM-4 was identified as a new species, and assigned Acanthamoeba sohi. Up to the year 2002 in Korea, two clinical cases were found to be infected with Acanthamoeba spp. These patients died of meningoencephalitis. In addition, one case of Acanthamoeba pneumonia with an immunodeficient status was reported and Acanthamoeba was detected in several cases of chronic relapsing corneal ulcer, chronic conjunctivitis, and keratitis. PMID:15381859

  1. Pathogenic free-living amoebae in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ho-Joon; Im, Kyung-il

    2004-09-01

    Acanthamoeba and Naegleria are widely distributed in fresh water, soil and dust throughout the world, and cause meningoencephalitis or keratoconjunctivitis in humans and other mammals. Korean isolates, namely, Naegleria sp. YM-1 and Acanthamoeba sp. YM-2, YM-3, YM-4, YM-5, YM-6 and YM-7, were collected from sewage, water puddles, a storage reservoir, the gills of a fresh water fish, and by corneal washing. These isolates were categorized into three groups based on the mortalities of infected mice namely, highly virulent (YM-4), moderately virulent (YM-2, YM-5 and YM-7) and nonpathogenic (YM-3). In addition, a new species of Acanthamoeba was isolated from a freshwater fish in Korea and tentatively named Korean isolate YM-4. The morphologic characters of its cysts were similar to those of A. culbertsoni and A. royreba, which were previously designated as Acanthamoeba group III. Based on experimentally infected mouse mortality, Acanthamoeba YM-4 was highly virulent. The isoenzymes profile of Acanthamoeba YM-4 was similar to that of A. royreba. Moreover, an anti-Acanthamoeba YM-4 monoclonal antibody reacted only with Acanthamoeba YM-4, and not with A. culbertsoni. Random amplified polymorphic DNA marker analysis and RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA and of a 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA, placed Acanthamoeba YM-4 in a separate cluster based on phylogenic distances. Thus Acanthamoeba YM-4 was identified as a new species, and assigned Acanthamoeba sohi. Up to the year 2002 in Korea, two clinical cases were found to be infected with Acanthamoeba spp. These patients died of meningoencephalitis. In addition, one case of Acanthamoeba pneumonia with an immunodeficient status was reported and Acanthamoeba was detected in several cases of chronic relapsing corneal ulcer, chronic conjunctivitis, and keratitis.

  2. Verification of NOx emission inventories over North Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Kyung; Kim, Yong Pyo; Morino, Yu; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Ohara, Toshimasa

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the top-down NOx emissions estimated from satellite observations of NO2 vertical column densities over North Korea from 1996 to 2009 were analyzed. Also, a bottom-up NOx emission inventory from REAS 1.1 from 1980 to 2005 was analyzed with several statistics. REAS 1.1 was in good agreement with the top-down approach for both trend and amount. The characteristics of NOx emissions in North Korea were quite different from other developed countries including South Korea. In North Korea, emissions from industry sector was the highest followed by transportation sector in the 1980s. However, after 1990, the NOx emissions from other sector, mainly agriculture, became the 2nd highest. Also, no emission centers such as urban areas or industrial areas were distinctively observed. Finally, the monthly NOx emissions were high during the warm season. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Geologic control of knickpoints in eastern part of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Yeon

    2010-05-01

    A knickpoint (KP) is a steepened reach in the fluvial longitudinal profile, often coinciding with the sharply defined descents of waterfalls or cascades that separate graded reaches. Despite the overall simplicity of this concept, there is confusion in definitions of a KP due to differences in the scales of research. For basin-scale research, KPs are generally steepened reaches sometimes described as ‘knickzones'(e.g., Zaprowski et al., 2001; Wolkowinski and Granger, 2004), whereas at the reach scale, KPs coincide with waterfalls and bedrock steps, regardless of their spatial dimensions. Here, the term is used in former, basin-scale sense. Bedrock KPs may originate from relative base-level fall (e.g., sea-level fall [Mosley, 1984; Yodis and Kesel, 1993] and/or surface uplift [Seeber and Gornitz, 1983; Humphrey and Konrad, 2000], lithological and structural controls (Pohn, 1983; Miller, 1991; Alexandrowicz, 1994), and changes in tributary inputs and discharge and sediment supply (Penck, 1925; von Engeln, 1940; Hasbargen and Paola, 2000). Recent work has also proposed that bedrock river KPs can initiated with base-level fall and migrate headward follow the tributaries (Crosby and Whipple, 2006). The origins of KPs can be different by the geomorphic setting of the drainage basin area. Especially the role of lithologic boundaries and faulting can be regarded as primary cause of KP formation. To find the role of lithologic control of KP distribution in Korea, longitudinal profiles of 12 streams, higher than 4th order in Horton-Strahler system, are analyzed. Longitudinal profiles are extracted from 1:25,000 Map Series (Korea National Geographic Institute) and the lithologic boundaries and fault lines are drawn based on the information from KIGAM's 1:50,000 Geological map series. Most of KPs are found near of lithologic boundaries or fault lines, however there are some KPs found upstream of large tributary input. However, physical strength of each lithologies have not

  4. 31 CFR 500.328 - Status of those portions of Korea under control of the government of the Republic of Korea; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Status of those portions of Korea under control of the government of the Republic of Korea; and of the diplomatic and consular... ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 500.328 Status of those portions of Korea under...

  5. Antibacterial effects of minerals from ores indigenous to Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Seul Ki; Lee, Chang Won; Lee, Mi Young

    2009-01-01

    We tested the antibacterial properties of a mix of minerals consisting mainly of sericite, talc, and halloysite from Korea. The preparation showed clear growth inhibition of the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, S. epidermidis, and Bacillus cereus, as well as the anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes. These results indicate that this preparation, made from ore minerals indigenous to Korea, could be used to develop new antibacterial reagents.

  6. Trend of Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hoo-Kyu; Papk, Ki-Won

    It can be said that refrigeration and air-conditioning technology in Korea dates back to the ancient dynasty, all the way up to the Sokkuram(700s) and Seokbinggo(1700s), But modern refrigeration and air-conditioning technology was first developed in and introduced to Korea in the1960swith the modernization of Korea, Today it is at a level which meets that of advanced countries in both the industrial and domestic fields. As of 2003, there were about 700 companies that owned cold storage/freezing/refrigeration facilities, with cold storage capacity of about 2,000, 000tons and capacity per company of about 3,000 tons. These facilities most are continuously expanding and automating their facilities. 62 million units of refrigeration and air-conditioning machinery and equipment were produced in 2003, worth a total of 7.7 trillion won(about 7.7 thousand million US). On the academic side there are 9 universities and 12 junior colleges with courses in either refrigeration and air-conditioning or architectural equipment. Academic societies such as the Society of Air-conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers of Korea(SAREK), and industrial societies like the Korean Association of Refrigeration(KAR) are active members of the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry. The1eare also national/government-established research institutions such as the Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST), the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), the Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER), and the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH).

  7. United States’ Engagement Strategy for North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    counter view supports economic engagement with North Korea, like South Korea’s now defunct “ Sunshine Policy.” Economic engagement strategies are...Korean territorial waters in August 2003. Both governments dismissed these incidents and continued on the sunshine path. In 2003, North Korea...as General Secretary of the Korean Workers Party. The post of President was eternal , but Kim Jong-il also became the Chairman of the National

  8. U.S. Troops Stationed in South Korea, Anachronistic?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-12

    risk that North Korea‟s weapons of mass destruction might end up on the international black market.58 The collapse of North Korea would potentially...spark an arms race as traditional U.S. allies in the region such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan increase their ability to defend themselves since...for-the-us-military/. (accessed December 6, 2011). 22 Richard H. Kohn “Kohn to Defense Chicken Littles: It‟s time to trim defense spending, and

  9. Sources of Anti-Americanism in South Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN SECURITY STUDIES (FAR EAST, SOUTHEAST ASIA, PACIFIC) from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE... whales ” China and Japan. South Korea may be the fuse for an unprecedented shift in balance of power in the region. The implications for regional...South Korea. Therefore, historical study of the anti-Americanism is crucial to understand the sources of the increase in anti-Americanism. Chapter II

  10. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-27

    tested a plutonium nuclear device in October 2006. U.S. officials have cited evidence that North Korea also operates a secret highly enriched...with Iran and Syria aimed at producing nuclear weapons. On May 25, 2009, North Korea announced that it had conducted a second nuclear test . On April...Korea’s Nuclear Test and Withdrawal from the Six Party Talks..........................................1 Bush Administration-North Korean Agreements

  11. U.S. Nonproliferation Policy Towards North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t U.S. NONPROLIFERATION POLICY TOWARDS NORTH KOREA BY COLONEL STEVEN L. ROHLENA United States Army...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The United States policy for dealing with a nuclear North Korea has been a combination of containment, deterrence, and...program and proliferating this technology, as well as missile technology, to numerous countries not friendly to the United States . In order to stop

  12. Korea: U.S.-Korean Relations -- Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-16

    wounded in the Korean War (1950-53). The United States agreed to defend South Korea from external aggression in the 1954 Mutual Defense Treaty. The... Korean Relations — Issues for Congress Updated June 16, 2005 Larry A. Niksch Foreign Affairs, Defense , and Trade Division Report Documentation Page...A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Korea : U.S.- Korean Relations -- Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  13. Past, present, and future of pharmacovigilance in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong Yoon; Ahn, Kyung-Min; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2017-01-01

    As an essential part of patient safety, pharmacovigilance is of worldwide interest and should expand its scope and focus on new emerging issues. South Korea has been making continuous efforts in the field of pharmacovigilance for the last 3 decades since voluntary adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting system was first launched in 1988. Korea joined the World Health Organization Program for International Drug Monitoring in 1992, and the activities of Pharmacovigilance Research Network, Korean Society for Pharmacoepidemiology and Risk Management, and Regional Pharmacovigilance Center (RPVC) have contributed to the remarkable progress in the pharmacovigilance area and global status. RPVCs have played pivotal roles in establishment of pharmacovigilance system in Korea by monitoring voluntary ADR reports. RPVCs started with 3 hospitals in 2006 and have now expanded to 27 hospitals nationwide. The Korea Institute of Drug Safety & Risk Management was established in 2012 and in charge of operating the decentralized national pharmacovigilance system. The voluntary report of ADR, which is the basis of current pharmacovigilance system, has various limitations and an active surveillance system can be the overarching alternative. This change in pharmacovigilance paradigm is a global trend and Korea has excellent infrastructure such as broad distribution of electronic medical recording systems and a nationwide single healthcare insurance. As a result, the pharmacovigilance in Korea is now expected to progress to a new active surveillance system from traditional spontaneous reporting system. PMID:28765823

  14. Burden of disease in Korea during 2000-10.

    PubMed

    Lee, K S; Park, J H

    2014-06-01

    This study estimates the burden of disease in Korea during 2000-10, using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). DALYs are the sum of years of life lost from mortality and years of life lost from disability. DALYs for 24 major diseases in 2000, 2005 and 2010 Korea were calculated based on the Global Burden of Disease Study method. As in other advanced nations, the burden of disease in Korea is characterized by an increasing importance of cancer, unipolar depression and ischemic heart disease (1681, 1508 and 562 person-years for Year 2010 in terms of DALYs per 10 0000, respectively). At the same time, unipolar depression, liver cirrhosis and mental and behavioral disorder due to alcohol use (1508, 323 and 535 person-years for 2010, respectively) became much more common in Korea than in other advanced nations. The burden of disease in Korea follows the pattern of other advanced nations in general but also registers some unique characteristics affected by the nation's distinctive epidemiological and sociocultural contexts, e.g. rapid economic growth and dramatic social transition without appropriate policy response. Korea's health and welfare policy might need to incorporate these special conditions for the effective reduction of its disease burden. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Improvement of APHRODITE precipitation data over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gil; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Park, Chang-yong

    2017-04-01

    The APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of water resources) data has been widely used for the evaluation of the numerical model due to its higher spatial and temporal resolutions. However, some studies have indicated that it significantly underestimates the extreme precipitation values for several regions compared with station-based observation. In this study, therefore, the 25 year (1981-2005) APHRODITE precipitation data over South Korea was revised using Automated Synoptic Observing System (ASOS) data from Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). After the spatial resolution and temporal interval of the ASOS data were changed to be same as those in the APHRODITE data, the GEV (Generalized Extreme Value) distribution for each data was calculated. After then, the GEV distribution of the APHRODITE data was corrected using the quantile mapping method. The corrected APHRODITE data was similar to the annual mean precipitation of the ASOS data. In particular, the annual mean precipitation over South Korea reasonably increased by 10% and the extreme value of precipitation have significantly improved. Acknowledgement The research was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development program under grant KMIPA 2015-2083 and the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning of Korea (NRF-2016M3C4A7952637) for its support and assistant in completion of the study.

  16. A Study on the Assessment of Multi-Factors Affecting Urban Floods Using Satellite Image: A Case Study in Nakdong Basin, S. Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Youngjoo; Kondoh, Akihiko

    2010-05-01

    Floods are also related to the changes in social economic conditions and land use. Recently, floods increased due to rapid urbanization and human activity in the lowland. Therefore, integrated management of total basin system is necessary to get the secure society. Typhoon ‘Rusa’ swept through eastern and southern parts of South Korea in the 2002. This pity experience gave us valuable knowledge that could be used to mitigate the future flood hazards. The purpose of this study is to construct the digital maps of the multi-factors related to urban flood concerning geomorphologic characteristics, land cover, and surface wetness. Parameters particularly consider geomorphologic functional unit, geomorphologic parameters derived from DEM (digital elevation model), and land use. The research area is Nakdong River Basin in S. Korea. As a result of preliminary analysis for Pusan area, the vulnerability map and the flood-prone areas can be extracted by applying spatial analysis on GIS (geographic information system).

  17. Ice Atlas 1985 - 1986. Monongahela River, Allegheny River, Ohio River, Illinois River and Kankakee River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    Monitoring System, and 32227, Forecasting Ice Conditions on Inland Rivers. Northland Video Associates, Inc., of Lebanon, New Hampshire, ILLUSTRATIO...average water temperature ............... 2 -tes of video tape acquisition ......................................... 3 er pools monitored with video...temperature ............... 2 5. Dates of video tape acquisition ......................................... 3 TABLES Table 1. River pools monitored

  18. Arsenic Concentrations and Speciation in Shellfishes from Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.

    2005-12-01

    Speciation of arsenic has received significant attention over the past 20 years in both mechanistic and exposure assessment research. Because the toxicity of arsenic is related to its oxidation state and its chemical forms, the determination of the total arsenic contents in a sample is not adequate to allow its impact on living organisms to be estimated. The inorganic arsenic species, arsenite (As3+) and arsenate (As5+), have been classified as carcinogenic and the methylated forms, monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA) and dimethyl arsinic acid (DMA) have recently been identified as cancer promoters. The highly methylated compounds like as arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) are considered to be nontoxic. Although organisms in marine environment contain high amounts of total arsenic (ppm level), it is not usually present as inorganic arsenic or simple methylated forms well known as one of the toxic species. Arsenobetaine is the dominant species in marine animals and arsenosugars are most abundant in marine algae. This study aims to clarify those arsenic species present in the whole body of eleven different shellfishes from Korea. And those arsenic species were separated and measured by characterization using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) coupled system. The separation of arsenic species was achieved on anion exchange column and cation exchange column using phosphate and pyridine eluent, respectively. The ultrasonic extraction was employed for extraction of arsenic from whole body of shellfishes. The method was validated by analyzing three certified reference materials (DORM-2, TORT-2, 1566b). Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.1 mg/kg dry mass to 21.7 mg/kg dry mass. Most marine shellfishes contained higher arsenobetaine and arsenocholine with the exception of two shellfishes living in river. The lower amounts of inorganic arsenic species were also found in the some sample extracts

  19. Updated national emission of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater treatment plants in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Ok; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Yu-Mi; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2017-01-01

    A nationwide emission estimate of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is required to understand the source-receptor relationship of PFASs and to manage major types of WWTPs. In this study, the concentrations of 13 PFASs (8 perfluorocarboxylic acids, 3 perfluoroalkane sulfonates, and 2 intermediates) in wastewater and sludge from 81 WWTPs in South Korea were collected. The emission pathways of PFASs were redefined, and then the national emission of PFASs from WWTPs was rigorously updated. In addition to the direct calculations, Monte Carlo simulations were also used to calculate the likely range of PFAS emissions. The total (Σ13PFAS) emission (wastewater + sludge) calculated from the direct calculation with mean concentrations was 4.03 ton/y. The emissions of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.19 ton/y) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 1.01 ton/y) were dominant. The Monte Carlo simulations suggested that the realistic national emission of Σ13PFASs is between 2 ton/y and 20 ton/y. Combined WWTPs treating municipal wastewater from residential and commercial areas were identified as a major emission source, contributing 65% to the total PFAS emissions. The Han and Nakdong Rivers were the primary contaminated rivers, receiving 89% of the total PFAS discharge from WWTPs. The results and methodologies in this study can be useful to establish a management policy for PFASs.

  20. Geological consequences of the Saemangeum Dyke, mid-west coast of korea: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee Jun; Lee, Soo Hwan

    2012-12-01

    The Saemangeum Dyke is located in an estuarine setting, regulated in a complicated manner by a macrotidal regime, rivers, and winter monsoon. Accordingly, the constructed dyke resulted in a variety of artificial changes in geological characteristics in the estuary and its vicinity. To investigate those dyke-induced changes, the KORDI (Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute) performed sedimentological and sediment-dynamical observations from 2002 to 2010. On the basis of the KORDI results, the major geological changes and associated dynamical processes are reviewed. Five phenomena, among others, are focused on: depositional-channel creation; gap-related erosion; forced movements of surface sands; tidal-flat growth inside the dyke; and blanketing of mud over the sandy seafloor. These phenomena were unforeseen before the dyke construction, and reflect that the dyke could cause both erosion and deposition on an estuarine scale. The investigations conclude that the sediments in the dyke-influenced region were derived from the two rivers, Mangyeong and Dongjin, of the estuary. This is completely contrary to the offshore origin proposed before the dyke construction. As a result, the review supports the proposal that a thorough geological investigation and rational forecast is necessary prior to dyke construction to avoid economic loss and a fractious environmental debate.

  1. Importance of monsoon rainfall in mass fluxes of filtered and unfiltered mercury in Gwangyang Bay, Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jiyi; Han, Seunghee

    2011-03-15

    We investigated the effects of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), which brings approximately half of Korea's annual rainfall in July, on the concentration and particle-water partitioning, and sources of Hg in coastal waters. Surface seawater samples were collected from eight sites in Gwangyang Bay, Korea, during the monsoon (July, 2009) and non-monsoon dry (April and November, 2009) seasons and the concentrations of suspended particulate matter, chlorophyll-a, and unfiltered and filtered Hg were determined. We found significant (p<0.05) increases in filtered Hg in the monsoon season (1.8 ± 0.019 pM) compared to the dry season (0.62 ± 0.047 pM). In contrast, the Hg concentrations associated with particles showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between the monsoon (459 ± 141 pmol g(-1)) and the dry season (346 ± 30 pmol g(-1)), which resulted in decreased particle-water partition coefficients of Hg in the monsoon season compared to the values in the dry season: 5.7 ± 0.1 in April, 5.3 ± 0.1 in July, and 5.8 ± 0.1 in November. The annual Hg input to Gwangyang Bay was estimated at 64 ± 6.6 mol yr(-1) and 27 ± 1.9 mol yr(-1) for unfiltered and filtered Hg, respectively. The Hg discharged from rivers was a major source of Hg in Gwangyang Bay: the river input contributed 83 ± 13% of total input of unfiltered and 73 ± 6.0% of filtered Hg. On a monthly basis, unfiltered Hg input was 17 ± 11 mol month(-1) in the monsoon season and 3.2 ± 0.70 mol month(-1) in the dry season, while filtered Hg input was 7.1 ± 4.1 mol month(-1) in the monsoon and 1.3 ± 0.26 mol month(-1) in the dry. Consequently, the EASM resulted in an unfiltered Hg input 5.3 times greater than the mean dry month input and a filtered Hg input 5.5 times greater than the mean dry month input, which is mainly attributable to enhanced river water discharge during the monsoon season.

  2. Trends in river recreation

    Treesearch

    Earl C. Leatherberry; David W. Lime; Jerrilyn Lavarre Thompson

    1980-01-01

    Participation in river recreation has been expanding at a rapid rate. This paper reviews selected phenomenon associated with the growing popularity of rivers as recreational resources. The paper will: (1) describe the river recreation resource (the supply situation); (2) present selected indicators of increased river recreation use (the demand situation); (3) present...

  3. Hydrological changes of DOM composition and biodegradability of rivers in temperate monsoon climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yera; Lee, Eun-Ju; Jeon, Young-Joon; Hur, Jin; Oh, Neung-Hwan

    2016-09-01

    The spatial and hydrological dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition and biodegradability were investigated for the five largest rivers in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) during the years 2012-2013 using incubation experiments and spectroscopic measurements, which included parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The lower reaches of the five rivers were selected as windows showing the integrated effects of basin biogeochemistry of different land use under Asian monsoon climates, providing an insight on consistency of DOM dynamics across multiple sites which could be difficult to obtain from a study on an individual river. The mean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of the five rivers were relatively low, ranging from 1.4 to 3.4 mg L-1, due to the high slope and low percentage of wetland cover in the basin. Terrestrial humic- and fulvic-like components were dominant in all the rivers except for one, where protein-like compounds were up to ∼80%. However, terrestrial components became dominant in all five of the rivers after high precipitation during the summer monsoon season, indicating the strong role of hydrology on riverine DOM compositions for the basins under Asian monsoon climates. Considering that 64% of South Korea is forested, our results suggest that the forests could be a large source of riverine DOM, elevating the DOM loads during monsoon rainfall. Although more DOM was degraded when DOM input increased, regardless of its sources, the percent biodegradability was reduced with increased proportions of terrestrially derived aromatic compounds. The shift in DOM quality towards higher percentages of aromatic terrestrial compounds may alter the balance of the carbon cycle of coastal ecosystems by changing microbial metabolic processes if climate extremes such as heavy storms and typhoons become more frequent due to climate change.

  4. Source contributions to carbonaceous aerosol concentrations in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaein I.; Park, Rokjin J.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Han, Young-Ji; Yi, Seung-Muk

    2011-02-01

    We estimated the source contributions to carbonaceous aerosol concentration in Korea on the basis of Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) anthropogenic emissions and satellite-derived biomass burning emissions by using a nested version of GEOS-Chem with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.667° for the period March 2006-February 2007. First, we evaluated the model by comparing the simulated and observed aerosol concentrations at East Asia Network (EANET) sites and at a site in Korea. The results indicate that the model reproduces the variability and magnitudes of the observed SO 42-, NO 3-, and NH 4+ concentrations in Korea and those of the observed PM 10 concentrations in East Asia. However, the organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC) aerosol concentrations estimated by the model are lower than those observed in Korea by a factor of 2, especially in winter. This underestimation is likely due to extremely low domestic anthropogenic emissions and lack in seasonal variation. Source adjustments using a simple fitting and the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) monthly allocation factors for seasonal variation yield significantly improved model results ( R2 increased from 0.58 to 0.84), which can then be used to estimate the source contributions to the OC and BC concentrations in Korea. We found that domestic anthropogenic emissions are the most important factors, contributing 74% (9% from fossil fuels and 65% from biofuels) and 78% (42% from fossil fuels and 36% from biofuels) to the OC and BC concentrations, respectively, on an annual mean basis in Korea. The trans-boundary transport of Chinese sources is another important factor, contributing 13% and 20% to the OC and BC concentrations, respectively. The contributions of wildfires and biogenic sources to the annual mean carbonaceous aerosol concentration in Korea are relatively small (4% and 6%, respectively).

  5. South Korea's low fertility raises European-style issues.

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1991-10-01

    A demographic revolution has taken place in South Korea as evidenced by the marked decline in total fertility rate (TFR) from 6 in 1960 to the 1987 level of 1.6. South Korea holds the record for low fertility among developing countries, with women in South Korea averaging fewer children in their lifetimes than do women in Europe. The 1987 TFR for South Korea was even less than that of Sweden, Norway, and France. Emphasizing high initial rates of contraceptive use, family planning (FP) has been a strong component of South Korea's 5-year plans since 1962. Strong governmental support backed the efforts of a large group of FP workers who provided free contraceptives from private physicians. High discontinuation rates resulted, however, and the abortion rate has soared to equal the number of live births. Albeit a developing nation, South Korea now faces the challenges of below replacement fertility more typical of more developed countries. Current fertility levels indicate population increase to approximately 50 million by 2020, followed by a slow decline. While reducing pressure on limited resources, population decline and demographic aging will also demand allocation of a higher proportion of government funds to medical care, and potentially threaten South Korea's competitiveness in the world labor market. Having effected decreases in population growth and fertility, the government reduced the annual sterilization target in 1986 from 300,000 to 60,000 by 1991, and will increasingly turn to the private sector and national health insurance for service provision to all but the poor. A 2-child family norm may be promoted, FP programs expanded to the unmarried and legislation developed to eliminate the preference for sons. Delivery systems may also be reorganized to encourage continued use of contraceptive methods.

  6. A Study on the Selection of Optimal Probability Distributions for Analyzing of Extreme Precipitation Events over the Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hansu; Choi, Youngeun

    2014-05-01

    winter. In temporal changes of annual maximum series, most of observation stations except Mokpo showed a increasing trend. It means that amplitude of annual maximum series in the Republic of Korea is getting larger. When comparing the difference of annual maximum series between the first half period(1973-1992) and the second half period(1993-2012), the most selected distribution was generalized extreme value distribution, three parameter Burr distribution, and generalized Pareto distribution for the first half one while generalized Pareto distribution, three parameter log logistic distribution for the second half one. Comparing maximum probability precipitation calculated from selected distributions, one for the first half was greater than the second half. This study examined intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation events in the Republic of Korea, so it help establish standards of river construction design and policy making.

  7. Tsunami Defense Efforts at Samcheok Port, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. S.

    2016-02-01

    Tsunamis mainly triggered by impulsive undersea motions are long waves and can propagate a long distance. Thus, they can cause huge casualties not only neighboring countries but also distant countries. Recently, several devastating tsunamis have been occurred around the Pacific Ocean rim. Among them, the Great East Japan tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011 is probably recorded as one of the most destructive tsunamis during last several decades. The Tsunami killed more than 20,000 people (including missing people) and deprived of property damage of approximately 300 billion USD. The eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula has been attacked historically by unexpected tsunami events. These tsunamis were generated by undersea earthquakes occurred off the west coast of Japan. For example, the Central East Sea Tsunami occurred on May 26, 1983 killed 3 people and caused serious property damage at Samcheok Port located at the eastern coast of Korea. Thus, a defense plan against unexpected tsunami strikes is an essential task for the port authority to protect lives of human beings and port facilities. In this study, a master plan of tsunami defense is introduced at Samcheok Port. A tsunami hazard map is also made by employing both propagation and inundation models. Detailed defense efforts are described including the procedure of development of a tsunami hazard map. Keywords: tsunami, hazard map, run-up height, emergency action plan

  8. Entomopathogenicity of Simplicillium lanosoniveum Isolated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Yeol; Lee, Sehee; Kong, Hyun Gi

    2014-01-01

    Fruiting bodies similar to those of the ascomycete fungi Podostroma cornu-damae and Cordyceps militaris were collected from Mt. Seunghak in Busan, Korea on August 21, 2012. The fruiting bodies were cylindrical, with tapered ends and golden red in color. The fruiting bodies contained abundant conidiophores bearing single-celled conidia, but no perithecia or asci. Pure culture of the fungal isolates was obtained through single-spore isolation. Analyses of morphological characteristics, including conidia shape, and phylogenetic traits, using internal transcribed spacer sequences, showed that these isolates belonged to the species Simplicillium lanosoniveum. Although this fungal species is known to be mycoparasitic, the isolates obtained in this study were unable to infect fungi. However, silkworms (Bombyx mori) inoculated with the fungal isolates died during the larval or pupal stages, as has been shown for the strongly entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This study is the first report of the entomopathogenicity of S. lanosoniveum and indicates its potential for use in biological control of insects. PMID:25606002

  9. [Patterns of unintentional domestic injuries in Korea].

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jung; Lee, Jin Seok; Kim, Yoon; Park, Kunhee; Eun, Sang Jun; Suh, Soo Kyung; Kim, Yong Ik

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the patterns of unintentional home injuries in Korea. The study population was 12,382,088 people who utilized National Health Insurance services due to injuries (main diagnosis codes S00 to T28) during 2006. Stratified samples(n=459,501) were randomly selected by sex, age group and severity of injury. A questionnaire was developed based on the International Classification of External Causes of Injury and 18,000 cases surveyed by telephone were analyzed after being projected into population proportionately according to the response rates of their strata. Domestic injury cases were finally included. Domestic injuries (n=3,804) comprised 21.1% of total daily life injuries during 2006. Women were vulnerable to home injuries, with the elderly and those of lower income (medical-aid users) tending to suffer more severe injuries. Injury occurred most often due to a slipping fall (33.9%), overexertion (15.3%), falling (9.5%) and stumbling (9.4%), with severe injury most often resulting from slipping falls, falls and stumbles. Increasing age correlated with domestic injury-related disability. The present findings provide basic information for development of home injury prevention strategies, with focus on the elderly.

  10. Economic burden of colorectal cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Byun, Ju-Young; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Oh, In-Hwan; Kim, Young Ae; Seo, Hye-Young; Lee, Yo-Han

    2014-03-01

    The incidence and survival rate of colorectal cancer in Korea are increasing because of improved screening, treatment technologies, and lifestyle changes. In this aging population, increases in economic cost result. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden of colorectal cancer utilizing claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Economic burdens of colorectal cancer were estimated using prevalence data and patients were defined as those who received ambulatory treatment from medical institutions or who had been hospitalized due to colorectal cancer under the International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes from C18-C21. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer were calculated as direct costs and indirect costs. The prevalence rate (per 100 000 people) of those who were treated for colorectal cancer during 2010 was 165.48. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer in 2010 were 3 trillion and 100 billion Korean won (KRW), respectively. Direct costs included 1 trillion and 960 billion KRW (62.85%), respectively and indirect costs were 1 trillion and 160 billion (37.15%), respectively. Colorectal cancer has a large economic burden. Efforts should be made to reduce the economic burden of the disease through primary and secondary prevention.

  11. Perceptions of Prophylactic Mastectomy in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Han Young; Lee, Jong Won

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasingly, prophylactic mastectomy has been evaluated as a treatment of breast cancer. Hereditary breast cancer now accounts for approximately 5%–10% of all cases of breast cancer, meaning that the widespread implementation of prophylactic mastectomy may significantly reduce the occurrence of breast cancer. However, prophylactic mastectomy is rarely performed in Korea. Therefore, in this study, we assessed Koreans' attitudes toward and awareness of preventive mastectomy. Methods This was a prospective study of a cohort of patients attending outpatient clinics and their relatives. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires assessing sex, age, educational level, knowledge of breast cancer, understanding of prophylactic mastectomy, attitudes toward prophylactic mastectomy, and reasons for choosing prophylactic mastectomy. Results Sixty-five patients were included. Most patients (36.9%) were between 40 and 49 years of age and 58.4% were college graduates. Only six respondents (9%) understood prophylactic mastectomy, and 17 respondents (27%) stated that they would agree to undergo prophylactic mastectomy if necessary. Reasons given for refusing prophylactic mastectomy included aesthetic concerns (38%), the perception that it would not cure the disease (26%), possible surgical complications (24%), and financial cost (6%). Conclusions In this study, most of the respondents showed a poor knowledge of prophylactic mastectomy. Ultimately, it will be necessary to establish medical guidelines for patients with a high risk of breast cancer, with the objective of providing accurate information and proper treatment at hospitals. PMID:26848446

  12. Economic Burden of Schizophrenia in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sung Man; Cho, Seong-Jin; Jeon, Hong Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Hyo Jung; Park, Jong-Ik

    2008-01-01

    This study estimates the treated prevalence of schizophrenia and the annual costs associated with the illness in Korea in 2005, from a societal perspective. Annual direct healthcare costs associated with schizophrenia were estimated from National Health Insurance and Medical Aid records. Annual direct non-healthcare costs were estimated for incarceration, transport, community mental health centers, and institutions related to schizophrenia. Annual indirect costs were estimated for the following components of productivity loss due to illness: unemployment, reduced productivity, premature mortality, and caregivers' productivity loss using a human capital approach based on market wages. All costs were adjusted to 2005 levels using the healthcare component of the Consumer Price Index. The treated prevalence of schizophrenia in 2005 was 0.4% of the Korean population. The overall cost of schizophrenia was estimated to be $ 3,174.8 million (3,251.0 billion Won), which included a direct healthcare cost of $ 418.7 million (428.6 billion Won). Total direct non-healthcare costs were estimated to be $ 121 million (123.9 billion Won), and total indirect costs were estimated at $ 2,635.1 million (2,698.3 billion Won). Unemployment was identified as the largest component of overall cost. These findings demonstrate that schizophrenia is not rare, and that represents a substantial economic burden. PMID:18436996

  13. HIV-1 Transmission Networks Across South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Mi Young; Wertheim, Joel O; Kim, Woo Joo; Kim, Shin-Woo; Lee, Jin Soo; Ann, Hea Won; Jeon, Yongduk; Ahn, Jin Young; Song, Je Eun; Oh, Dong Hyun; Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Eun Jin; Jung, In Young; Kim, Moo Hyun; Jeong, Wooyoung; Jeong, Su Jin; Ku, Nam Su; Kim, June Myung; Smith, Davey M; Choi, Jun Yong

    2017-03-27

    Molecular epidemiology can help clarify the properties and dynamics of HIV-1 transmission networks in both global and regional scales. We studied 143 HIV-1-infected individuals recruited from four medical centers of three cities in South Korea between April 2013 and May 2014. HIV-1 env V3 sequence data were generated (337-793 bp) and analyzed using a pairwise distance-based clustering approach to infer putative transmission networks. Participants whose viruses were ≤2.0% divergent according to Tamura-Nei 93 genetic distance were defined as clustering. We collected demographic, risk, and clinical data and analyzed these data in relation to clustering. Among 143 participants, we identified nine putative transmission clusters of different sizes (range 2-4 participants). The reported risk factor of participants were concordant in only one network involving two participants, that is, both individuals reported homosexual sex as their risk factor. The participants in the other eight networks did not report concordant risk factors, although they were phylogenetically linked. About half of the participants refused to report their risk factor. Overall, molecular epidemiology provides more information to understand local transmission networks and the risks associated with these networks.

  14. The Prevalence of Marfan Syndrome in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Marfan syndrome (MFS) in Korean adults. Data were collected from the National Health Insurance Service in Korea from 2006 through 2013. The data consisted of primary diagnoses related to MFS (Q87.4) diagnosed according to the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The age-standardized prevalence of MFS in adults was calculated using the estimated Korean population in 2010 as a reference. Overall, the prevalence of MFS was 0.90 per 100,000 persons in 2006 and 2.27 in 2013. For males in 2013, the prevalence per 100,000 persons was 2.61 in overall and 4.32 in 15–19 years-old. For females in 2013, the prevalence per 100,000 persons was 1.92 in overall and 3.02 in 10–14 years-old. In conclusion, currently, the age-standardized overall prevalence of MFS was 2.27 persons per 100,000 persons. And the overall age-standardized prevalence of MFS increased between 2006 and 2013 especially in 15–19 years-old males and 10–14 years-old females. PMID:28244281

  15. Quitline Activity in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, E Hwa; Lim, Min Kyung; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Ki, In Ha; Shin, Sang-Hwa; Jeong, Bo Yoon

    2016-01-01

    To reduce tobacco use and related harm in Korea, telephone based cessation services (Quitlines) began full operation to provide regular behavioral counseling for smoking cessation in 2006. After registration in the cessation program, at least 21 calls per year are given to each client to help quit and encourage maintenance. Tailored programs for males, females, and adolescent smokers have been offered taking into account smokers' characteristics and smoking behavior. Mailing self-help quit packs and e-mail and SMS services are allowable as additional services.A total of 23,201 smokers were registered on the Quitline program from 2006 to 2014. In 2014, an average of 13,343 calls per month have been received by 28 coaches, the 1 year abstinence rate of clients is 26%, and clients' satisfaction rate is 81.6%. After introduction of the call system in 2007, client convenience and effective operations have been achieved with high technology support of a computer-based telephone system. Systematic education and evaluation programs for quit coaches have contributed to quality assurance of the services. Currently, research into development of new programs and evaluation of Quitline performance is being undertaken. A Comprehensive Multi-channel Cessation Center (CMCC) has been suggested and is now planned as a next step in the national program for smoking cessation.

  16. Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability in Changwon, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.; Bae, G.; Lee, K.; Suk, H.

    2005-12-01

    In Book-Myeon and Daesan-Myeon in Changwon city, South Korea, riverbank filtration and groundwater pumping plants have been constructed and pumping wells have been operated to extract water from the subsurface. To keep the quality of water that is extracted from those pumping wells to a proper level, contaminant discharge from the background area is needed to be controlled. Knowing the vulnerability of groundwater to contaminants is important for this. The adjoint backward equation of advection dispersion equation is applied in assessing the vulnerability of groundwater. The location and travel time probability of contaminants to a pumping well is derived from the adjoint backward equation. The backward probability model has an advantage that it is physically based on the process of contaminant transport. It can be used to predict the impact of contamination event to a well. With the backward probability model one can have information about the travel time and location of the contaminant discharged at any point in the field site to the pumping well. This method is applied to Book-Myeon and Daesan-Myeon to assess the vulnerability of groundwater from pumping wells to contaminant. From the result of the backward probability model, the information about the location of high risk and the acceptable quantity of contaminant discharge from the background area are given. This information can be useful in setting the better management plan to protect the water quality of the water supply plants.

  17. Entomopathogenicity of Simplicillium lanosoniveum Isolated in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung Yeol; Lee, Sehee; Kong, Hyun Gi; Lee, Jungkwan

    2014-12-01

    Fruiting bodies similar to those of the ascomycete fungi Podostroma cornu-damae and Cordyceps militaris were collected from Mt. Seunghak in Busan, Korea on August 21, 2012. The fruiting bodies were cylindrical, with tapered ends and golden red in color. The fruiting bodies contained abundant conidiophores bearing single-celled conidia, but no perithecia or asci. Pure culture of the fungal isolates was obtained through single-spore isolation. Analyses of morphological characteristics, including conidia shape, and phylogenetic traits, using internal transcribed spacer sequences, showed that these isolates belonged to the species Simplicillium lanosoniveum. Although this fungal species is known to be mycoparasitic, the isolates obtained in this study were unable to infect fungi. However, silkworms (Bombyx mori) inoculated with the fungal isolates died during the larval or pupal stages, as has been shown for the strongly entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This study is the first report of the entomopathogenicity of S. lanosoniveum and indicates its potential for use in biological control of insects.

  18. Hypertension in Korea: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Jones, D W; Kim, S J; Hong, Y P

    1994-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) and its risk factors, we performed a population-based national cross-sectional blood pressure (BP) survey in Korea in 1990. Through cluster sampling, we selected for study individuals older than 30 years of age in 190 of 154,082 districts. Among 25,567 eligible individuals, 21,242 subjects had measurements of BP and body mass index (BMI) and underwent a standard interview. BP was recorded as the mean of two measurements on a standard mercury manometer. The prevalence of HTN varied widely by area of residence. Overall prevalence was 19.8% for HTN defined as BP > or = 140/90 mm Hg or subject on medication, and 12.4% for BP > or = 160/95 mm Hg or subject on medication. Correlates for HTN identified by logistic regression analysis included positive family history of HTN (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2,), age (10 years); OR = 1.9), alcohol intake (500 cc; OR = 1.4), urban location (versus rural; OR = 1.3), and BMI (1 BMI unit; OR = 1.2). [Am J Prev Med 1994;10:200-4

  19. Seismicity of microearthquakes around Gyeongju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula which is located in an intraplate area is known as seismically inactive region. However there were unusual several offshore earthquakes occurred around the southwestern Korean Peninsula in 2013. In addition, a small earthquake (Ml 3.5) occurred on 23 September 2014 around Gyeongju close to a nuclear power plant and many people felt a shock of the earthquake. Concerns over the safety of nuclear power plants were rising and therefore seismicity in this region was investigated. There were 61 earthquakes with local magnitude (Ml) greater than 1.7 occurred around Gyeongju since 1994 by KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) catalog. These events were relocated and calculated focal mechanisms. Also, I analyzed using continuous waveform data within 7 days before and after the mainshock recorded at HDB station with the epicentral distance of about 9 km, to find smaller events of the 2014 Gyeongju earthquake. 84 foreshocks and 108 aftershocks were identified and I located events with a minimum of 5 phases (4 P and 1 S). According to the relocated results, I may classify seismicity roughly into two groups. One group is aligned along right-hand side of the Ulsan Fault and the other is located near by the Bomunho. 13 quakes occurred from 1999 to 2003 close by artificial lake called Bomunho created in the late 1970s may be triggered microearthquakes by artificial water reservoirs but further research is needed to find causes of the events.

  20. Virulence of ’Entamoeba histolytica’ According to the Strains in Korea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    During the years of 1969 to 1973, an investigation on the virulence of Entamoeba histolytica strains in Korea was carried out in series. Samples were...pathogenic strain of Entamoeba histolytica was recognized in Korea. (Modified author abstract)

  1. 77 FR 39319 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Korea Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... resources, conservation and protection of biodiversity, and strengthening of environmental law enforcement... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Korea Environmental Cooperation... the first United States--Korea Environmental Cooperation Work Program. SUMMARY: The Department...

  2. 78 FR 51802 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Silla: Korea's Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Silla: Korea's Golden Kingdom... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Silla: Korea's Golden Kingdom,'' imported...

  3. Musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology in Korea: targeted ultrasound initiative survey.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taeyoung; Wakefield, Richard J; Emery, Paul

    2016-04-01

    In collaboration with the Targeted Ultrasound Initiative (TUI), to conduct the first study in Korea to investigate current practices in ultrasound use among Korean rheumatologists. We translated the TUI Global Survey into Korean and added questions to better understand the specific challenges facing rheumatologists in Korea. To target as many rheumatologists in Korea as possible, we created an on-line version of this survey, which was conducted from March to April 2013. Rheumatologists are in charge of ultrasound in many Korean hospitals. Rheumatologists in hospitals and private clinics use ultrasound to examine between one and five patients daily; they use ultrasound for diagnosis more than monitoring and receive compensation of about US$30-50 per patient. There are marked differences in the rates of ultrasound usage between rheumatologists who work in private practice compared with tertiary hospitals. Korean rheumatologists not currently using ultrasound in their practice appear eager to do so. This survey provides important insights into the current status of ultrasound in rheumatology in Korea and highlights several priorities; specifically, greater provision of formal training, standardization of reporting and accrual of greater experience among ultrasound users. If these needs are addressed, all rheumatology departments in Korea are likely to use ultrasound or have access to it in the future. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Tissue parasitic helminthiases are prevalent at Cheongjin, North Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chenghua; Li, Shunyu; Zheng, Shanzi; Choi, Min-Ho; Bae, Young Mee

    2007-01-01

    We investigated a small-scale serological survey to screen tissue-parasitic helminthiases of North Koreans as one of research programs for re-unification of Korea. Soil-transmitted helminthiases were found highly prevalent among North Korean residents at the border with China. ELISA using 4 tissue-parasitic helminth antigens was applied to 137 residents living in Cheongjin-shi, Hamgyeongbuk-do, North Korea and 133 female refugees in South Korea in 2004-2005. Among a total of 270 samples, 31 (11.5%), 25 (9.3%), and 11 (4.1%) were positive for specific IgG antibodies to antigens of Clonorchis sinensis, Taenia solium metacestode, and sparganum, respectively. The overall positive rate was 21.5%; 38.2% in males and 15.8% in females. The present finding suggests that tissue parasites, such as C. sinensis, T. solium metacestode and sparganum are highly prevalent in some limited areas of North Korea. These foodborne tissue-parasitic helminthiases should be considered for future control measures of parasitic diseases in North Korea. PMID:17570978

  5. Human Taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: Hidden or Gone?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea. PMID:23467688

  6. Strategy development for the implementation of telenursing in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Kyoung; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of telenursing, to analyze the issues that should be considered for the development of telenursing in the future, and to provide efficient strategies for the implementation of telenursing in Korea. The authors used the Delphi survey method and a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis. A total of 30 experts and specialists in the field of nursing informatics and telemedicine contributed to a three-round Delphi survey. The results of the study suggest that telenursing can potentially be implemented in Korea. However, to implement telenursing in Korea, it is necessary to identify telenursing specialties, to construct an infrastructure within which telenursing can function, to develop a business model, and to integrate strategies with government plans to develop the e-health industry. The issues that emerged as important requirements for the successful introduction of telenursing were classified as systematic, economic, societal, or technical. Issues such as driving force, target market, and expense sharing were examined in detail from both ideal and realistic points of view. The results of this study will enable health professionals to appreciate the feasibility of implementing telenursing in Korea. In addition, the study suggests that telenursing could be used efficiently in a variety of environments as a practical strategy to improve healthcare in Korea.

  7. Prevalence of vitiligo and associated comorbidities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hemin; Lee, Mu-Hyoung; Lee, Dong Youn; Kang, Hee Young; Kim, Ki Ho; Choi, Gwang Seong; Shin, Jeonghyun; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Tae Heung; Lee, Ai-Young; Lee, Seung Chul; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Kyoung Wan; Hann, Seung-Kyung; Park, Chul Jong; Oh, Sang Ho

    2015-05-01

    Vitiligo prevalence and its associated comorbidities rate have been reported variably among different populations. We aimed to determine the prevalence of vitiligo in Korea along with the baseline rate of comorbidities and compared the risks to the general population using hospital visit information of the total population in Korea. We assessed demographic characteristics of vitiligo patients in Korean population from 2009 to 2011 in a nationwide data from Health Insurance Review Assessment Service. Patients who had at least one visit to Korea's primary, secondary, or tertiary referral hospitals with International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code for vitiligo were identified. As a supplementary study, comorbidities associated with vitiligo were selected for further review to calculate relative risks compared to the general population. The annual prevalence of vitiligo determined by hospital-visiting rate in Korea was 0.12% to 0.13% over a three year period. In sync with other previous epidemiological studies, there was bimodal distribution among the age groups and no difference between genders. Also, vitiligo in Korean population was associated with various autoimmune/non-autoimmune diseases such as thyroiditis, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. This study was by far the most comprehensive review on prevalence of vitiligo using a data of total population in Korea. The prevalence is within a range of those reported in previous literatures, and increased risk of comorbidities such as thyroid diseases and psoriasis in vitiligo might aid clinicians in the initial work up of vitiligo patients and concurrent follow ups.

  8. Human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: hidden or gone?

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-02-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea.

  9. Tissue parasitic helminthiases are prevalent at Cheongjin, North Korea.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chenghua; Li, Shunyu; Zheng, Shanzi; Choi, Min Ho; Bae, Young Mee; Hong, Sung Tae

    2007-06-01

    We investigated a small-scale serological survey to screen tissue-parasitic helminthiases of North Koreans as one of research programs for re-unification of Korea. Soil-transmitted helminthiases were found highly prevalent among North Korean residents at the border with China. ELISA using 4 tissue-parasitic helminth antigens was applied to 137 residents living in Cheongjin-shi, Hamgyeongbuk-do, North Korea and 133 female refugees in South Korea in 2004-2005. Among a total of 270 samples, 31 (11.5%), 25 (9.3%), and 11 (4.1%) were positive for specific IgG antibodies to antigens of Clonorchis sinensis, Taenia solium metacestode, and sparganum, respectively. The overall positive rate was 21.5%; 38.2% in males and 15.8% in females. The present finding suggests that tissue parasites, such as C. sinensis, T. solium metacestode and sparganum are highly prevalent in some limited areas of North Korea. These foodborne tissue-parasitic helminthiases should be considered for future control measures of parasitic diseases in North Korea.

  10. South Korea--U.S. Economic Relations: Cooperation, Friction, and Future Prospects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    Major U.S. exports to South Korea include semiconductors, machinery (particularly semiconductor production machinery), aircraft, agricultural products ...and beef. South Korea is among United States’ largest markets for agricultural products and beef. South Korea at a Glance C Head of State: President...result of the reforms, South Korea has opened its doors to foreign investors, ushering in billions of dollars of foreign portfolio and foreign direct

  11. Monitoring of viruses in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) migrating to Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, C-H; Kim, S-R; Kim, W-S; Lee, C-H; Seong, K-B; Lee, C-S; Oh, M-J; Kim, J-H

    2011-06-01

    It is important to investigate the prevalence of salmonid pathogens because they can affect the amount of release of salmonid fry and the migration rate of adult salmonids. In this study, routine surveys were conducted for investigating virus distribution in migrating chum salmon spawners (Oncorhynchus keta) and their offsprings at the Namdae River, Yangyang, Korea, during 2006-2008. Anterior kidneys were removed from chum salmon spawner individuals, homogenized with minimal essential medium, and centrifuged to make supernatants for conducting RT-PCR. Five offspring were pooled to for conducting RT-PCR. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) were the target viruses for monitoring. In 2006, only spawners were investigated, and 27.5% of fish (22/80) were found to be IHNV-positive by nested PCR. In 2007, 65.6% of pooled fry (21/32) were IHNV-positive, and 9.4% (3/32) were IPNV-positive by one-step PCR. When nested PCR was conducted, 84.4% (27/32) were IHNV-positive, and 28.1% (9/32) were IPNV-positive. However, only 1.3% of spawners (1/80) were IHNV-positive by nested PCR. In 2008, 25% (8/32) of pooled fry were IHNV-positive by one-step PCR, but 59.4% (19/32) were IHNV-positive and 12.5% (4/32) were IPNV-positive by nested PCR. All of the samples tested were VHSV-negative. Although all viruses detected in this study were from chum salmon, phylogenetic analysis showed that they possibly originated from rainbow trout or clustered with the rainbow trout isolates. More extensive long-term studies are needed to clarify the origins of these viruses and their potential effects on chum salmon migration in Korea.

  12. Source identification and mass balance studies of mercury in Lake An-dong, S. Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Byeon, M.; Yoon, J.; Park, J.; Lee, M.; Huh, I.; Na, E.; Chung, D.; Shin, S.; Kim, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In this study, mercury and methylmercury were measured in atmospheric, tributary, open-lake water column, sediment, planktons and fish samples in the catchments area of Lake An-dong, S. Korea. Lake An-dong, an artificial freshwater lake is located on the upstream of River Nak-dong. It has 51.5 km2 of open surface water and 1.33 year of hydraulic residence time. It is a source of drinking water for 0.3 million S. Koreans. Recently, the possibilities of its mercury contamination became an issue since current studies showed that the lake had much higher mercury level in sediment and certain freshwater fish species than any other lakes in S. Korea. This catchments area has the possibilities of historical mercury pollution by the location of more than 50 abandoned gold mines and Young-poong zinc smelter. The objective of this study was to develop a mercury mass balance and identify possible mercury sources in the lake. The results of this study are thus expected to offer valuable insights for the sources of mercury loading through the watershed. In order to estimate the mercury flux, TGM, RGM and particulate mercury were measured using TEKRAN 2537 at the five sites surrounding Lake An-dong from May, 2009 with wet and dry deposition. The fate and transport of mercury in water body were predicted by using EFDC (Environmental Dynamic Fluid Code) and Mercury module in WASP7 (Water quality analysis program) after subsequent distribution into water body, sediments, followed by bioaccumulation and ultimate uptake by humans. The mercury mass balance in Young-poong zinc smelter was also pre-estimated by measuring mercury content in zinc ores, emission gases, sludge, wastewater and products.

  13. Ancient Rivers

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-14

    Early in Martian history, liquid water energetically carved the surface, forming channel systems that look remarkably similar to river valleys and drainage networks on Earth. Exactly how these channels formed -- by rainfall, snowmelt, or seepage from underground springs -- is often debated. The answer has important ramifications about the early Martian climate. Clues about the source of the water may indicate the shape, layout, and scale of the various tributaries in a channel system. Our image shows an example of just such a water-carved channel. The channel pattern, called "dendritic" because of its tree-like branching, begins at the top of the image and runs down over the rim of an ancient impact basin across the basin floor. The soil surface overlying these channels, and indeed the entire landscape, has been changed and reworked over the intervening millions of years, by the combined actions of wind and ice. Over time, the original channels become muted or even erased. Nevertheless, some characteristics of the smallest tributary channels are still visible at scales seen by HiRISE. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20337

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-51 - Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea... and Vegetables § 319.56-51 Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea. Shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medick) with roots from the Republic of Korea may be imported only under...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-51 - Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea... and Vegetables § 319.56-51 Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea. Shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medick) with roots from the Republic of Korea may be imported only under...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-51 - Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea... and Vegetables § 319.56-51 Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea. Shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medick) with roots from the Republic of Korea may be imported only under...

  17. Variations in Spike Glycoprotein Gene of MERS-CoV, South Korea, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Won; Kim, You-Jin; Park, Sung Han; Yun, Mi-Ran; Yang, Jeong-Sun; Kang, Hae Ji; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Han Saem; Kim, Heui Man; Kim, Hak; Kim, A-Reum; Heo, Deok Rim; Kim, Su Jin; Jeon, Jun Ho; Park, Deokbum; Kim, Joo Ae; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Kisoon; Kim, Sung Soon

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of nosocomial infections with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus occurred in South Korea in May 2015. Spike glycoprotein genes of virus strains from South Korea were closely related to those of strains from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. However, virus strains from South Korea showed strain-specific variations.

  18. 76 FR 76437 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on certain welded stainless steel pipe from Korea and Taiwan would... Publication 4280 (December 2011), entitled Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe from Korea and...

  19. 31 CFR 500.584 - Energy sector projects in North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Energy sector projects in North Korea... Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.584 Energy sector projects in North Korea... energy sector projects in North Korea in connection with that country's transition to light-water...

  20. 19 CFR 10.1034 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Korea. 10.1034 Section 10.1034 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.1034 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Korea. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply for...

  1. 19 CFR 10.1034 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Korea. 10.1034 Section 10.1034 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.1034 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Korea. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply for...

  2. 77 FR 28623 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From Korea and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... COMMISSION Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis... Korea, provided for in subheadings 8418.10.00, 8418.21.00, 8418.99.40, and 8418.99.80 of the Harmonized... subsidized by the Government of Korea and sold in the United States at less than fair value (LTFV). The...

  3. 19 CFR 10.1034 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Korea. 10.1034 Section 10.1034 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.1034 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Korea. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply for...

  4. 19 CFR 10.1009 - Certification for goods exported to Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certification for goods exported to Korea. 10.1009...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Export Requirements § 10.1009 Certification for goods exported to Korea. (a...

  5. 19 CFR 10.1009 - Certification for goods exported to Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certification for goods exported to Korea. 10.1009...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Export Requirements § 10.1009 Certification for goods exported to Korea. (a...

  6. 19 CFR 10.1009 - Certification for goods exported to Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certification for goods exported to Korea. 10.1009...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Export Requirements § 10.1009 Certification for goods exported to Korea. (a...

  7. 76 FR 29791 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From Korea and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... COMMISSION Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Korea of bottom mount combination... than fair value (LTFV) and subsidized by the Government of Korea. The Commission further determines...

  8. 75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan Determinations On the basis...)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel wire rod from Italy, Japan, Korea... contained in USITC Publication 4154 (May 2010), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, Korea...

  9. 75 FR 30437 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The... strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  10. 75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan AGENCY... steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission... sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

  11. 78 FR 69047 - Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan and Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... International Trade Administration Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan and Korea AGENCY... notice ] for the Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan and Korea scheduled for March 10-14... executive lead the Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan and Korea, March 10-14, 2014, published...

  12. 75 FR 53714 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... 564 (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

  13. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and...

  14. 76 FR 46323 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan... the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan \\3\\ would... and strip from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Background The Commission instituted this review on June 1...

  15. 76 FR 58040 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...), entitled Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-825 and...

  16. 76 FR 11268 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted... whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and...

  17. 76 FR 52313 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea and Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... International Trade Administration Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea and...) initiated antidumping duty investigations of imports of bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers from the Republic of Korea (Korea) and Mexico. See Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From...

  18. 76 FR 23298 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea... bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers (bottom mount refrigerators) from the Republic of Korea... mount refrigerators. See ``Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea...

  19. 76 FR 32142 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea: Postponement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... International Trade Administration Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea... of bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers from the Republic of Korea. See Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

  20. Globalization and Native English Speakers in English Programme in Korea (EPIK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates how English Programme in Korea (EPIK) is an example of Korea's active response to the globalization process through which Korea not only accommodates external demands but also strategically pursues national interests through equipping its citizens with a command of English. EPIK, affiliated with the Korean Ministry of…

  1. 77 FR 73420 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... International Trade Administration Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary... conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on diamond sawblades and parts thereof (``diamond sawblades'') from the Republic of Korea (``Korea''). The period of review (``POR'') is November...

  2. The 7th Japan-Korea chemical biology symposium: chemical biology of natural bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Ahn, Jong Seog; Osada, Hiroyuki; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-05-16

    Natural bioactive molecules possess supreme chemical diversity and drug-like properties and are an important source for drug lead compounds. At the seventh Japan-Korea Chemical Biology Symposium at Jeju Island, Korea, chemical biologists from Korea and Japan highlighted the remarkable features of natural products and their significance.

  3. 76 FR 75870 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Korea: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Korea: Notice of... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, ] and strip from Korea on July 28, 2011.\\1\\ This review covers one... the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip from Korea with regard...

  4. Brain Korea 21 Phase II: A New Evaluation Model. Monograph. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Somi; Popper, Steven W.; Goldman, Charles A.; Evans, David K.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the Korea Ministry of Education and Human Resources, in response to concern over the relatively low standing of the nation's universities and researchers, launched the Brain Korea 21 program BK21). BK21 seeks to make Korean research universities globally competitive and to produce more high-quality researchers in Korea. It…

  5. The Analysis on the Length and Content Changes on Secondary Mathematics Textbooks in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hoyun

    2010-01-01

    North Korea is one of the most closed nations in the world. It is difficult to access information about their education system. North Korea's economic system was reorganized on July 1, 2002, as well as the education system. This change has impacted North Korea's mathematics education. With limited information on North Korean mathematics textbooks,…

  6. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to North Korea Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 14, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... necessary to maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that would otherwise have been lifted...

  7. 31 CFR 500.602 - Reporting of claims of U.S. nationals against North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... against North Korea. 500.602 Section 500.602 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Reports § 500.602 Reporting of claims of U.S. nationals against North Korea. (a) Requirement for... North Korea or any North Korean government entity. (b) Who must report. A report must be submitted by...

  8. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to North Korea Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 21, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that would otherwise have been lifted pursuant to...

  9. 31 CFR 500.580 - Authorization of U.S. dollar clearing transactions involving North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transactions involving North Korea. 500.580 Section 500.580 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... Authorization of U.S. dollar clearing transactions involving North Korea. Banking institutions organized under... North Korea or a national thereof has an interest. Persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction who are...

  10. Korea's Attempts to Eliminate Chinese Characters and the Implications for Romanizing Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannas, William C.

    1995-01-01

    Examines Korea's experience with abandoning Chinese characters for an all-phonetic script. Despite efforts to replace characters with "all-hangul" in South Korea, reform opponents reinstated Chinese characters. In North Korea, a similar reform was also rescinded. Certain "linguistic" problems need to be solved for the reform to…

  11. 78 FR 38193 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0... Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466, the President declared a... restrictions with respect to North Korea that would otherwise have been lifted pursuant to Proclamation 8271 of...

  12. 76 FR 37235 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... With Respect to North Korea Notice of June 23, 2011--Continuation of the National Emergency With... ] Notice of June 23, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26... also found that it was necessary to maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that...

  13. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to North Korea Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 18, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that would otherwise have been lifted pursuant to...

  14. The Analysis on the Length and Content Changes on Secondary Mathematics Textbooks in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hoyun

    2010-01-01

    North Korea is one of the most closed nations in the world. It is difficult to access information about their education system. North Korea's economic system was reorganized on July 1, 2002, as well as the education system. This change has impacted North Korea's mathematics education. With limited information on North Korean mathematics textbooks,…

  15. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to North Korea Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 23, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that would otherwise have been lifted pursuant to...

  16. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to North Korea Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 24, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... necessary to maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that would otherwise have been lifted...

  17. 76 FR 22289 - Prohibiting Certain Transactions With Respect to North Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Respect to North Korea #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 76... 13570 of April 18, 2011 Prohibiting Certain Transactions With Respect to North Korea By the authority... States, directly or indirectly, of any goods, services, or technology from North Korea is prohibited. Sec...

  18. 75 FR 53837 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to North Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...--Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to North Korea #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0... Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to North Korea By the authority vested in me as President... the situation in North Korea, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, hereby...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-35 - Persimmons from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persimmons from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-35... § 319.56-35 Persimmons from the Republic of Korea. Persimmons (fruit) (Disopyros khaki) may be imported into the United States from the Republic of Korea only in accordance with this section and all...

  20. 78 FR 145 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Korea Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Korea Environmental Cooperation... the 2013-2014 United States-Korea Work Program for Environmental Cooperation. SUMMARY: The Department... Program implementing the U.S.-Korea Environmental Cooperation Agreement (ECA), signed on January 23,...