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Sample records for kuru research background

  1. Kuru

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by an infectious protein found in contaminated human brain tissue. Kuru is found among people from New ... The main risk factor for kuru is eating human brain tissue, which can contain the infectious particles.

  2. A history of kuru.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    Kuru is placed in its geographic and linguistic setting in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. The epidemic of kuru has declined over the period 1957 to 2005 from more than 200 deaths a year to 1 or none. Since transmission of the kuru prion agent through the mortuary practice of transumption ceased by the early 1960s, the continuation of the epidemic into the present century demonstrates the long incubation periods that are possible in human prion diseases. Several histories of kuru are portrayed, from the different perspectives of the Fore people, of the scientists striving to elucidate the disease, of those engaged in research on prions, and of humans confronting the implications of kuru-like epidemics in the remote past. Kuru has connections to bovine spongiform encephalopathy through intraspecies recycling. The influence of host genetics on the incubation period in kuru may help to predict the shape of the still ongoing epidemic of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  3. Cannibalism, kuru and anthropology.

    PubMed

    Lindenbaum, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    This essay discusses the image and practice of cannibalism in a wide range of studies. It also presents the anthropological research on kuru which led to the proposal that cannibalism had enabled transmission of the infectious agent, as well as doubts about the hypothesis, and the assertion by some that cannibalism as a socially approved custom did not exist. The figure of the cannibal as an icon of primitivism took form in the encounter between Europe and the Americas. Cannibalism was to become the prime signifier of "barbarism" for a language of essentialized difference that would harden into the negative racism of the nineteenth century. Anthropological and medical research now challenge the derogatory image of the cannibal as we learn more about the many past consumers of human flesh, including ourselves.

  4. Epidemiological mechanisms of genetic resistance to kuru

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Katherine E.; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison P.

    2013-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), such as kuru, are invariably fatal neurodegenerative conditions caused by a malformation of the prion protein. Heterozygosity of codon 129 of the prion protein gene has been associated with increased host resistance to TSEs, although the mechanism by which this resistance is achieved has not been determined. To evaluate the epidemiological mechanism of human resistance to kuru, we developed a model that combines the dynamics of kuru transmission and the population genetics of human resistance. We fitted our model to kuru data from the epidemic that occurred in Papua New Guinea over the last hundred years. To elucidate the epidemiological mechanism of human resistance, we estimated the incubation period and transmission rate of kuru for codon 129 heterozygotes and homozygotes using kuru incidence data and human genotype frequency data from 1957 to 2004. Our results indicate that human resistance arises from a combination of both a longer incubation period and reduced susceptibility to infection. This work provides evidence for balancing selection acting on a human population and the mechanistic basis for the heterozygote resistance to kuru. PMID:23740487

  5. Kuru

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mad cow disease), scrapie in sheep and goats, and chronic wasting disease in deer and elk. × ... as mad cow disease), scrapie in sheep and goats, and chronic wasting disease in deer and elk. ...

  6. Kuru and its contribution to medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gajdusek, D. Carleton

    2008-01-01

    The solution of kuru led us to the solution of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and to the elucidation, in humans and other species, of previously unknown mechanisms of infection. These require very close three-dimensional matching, which determines infectious nucleant or prion activity. Evidence for nucleation processes is found widely in the organic and inorganic worlds and in the interactions between them: in the formation of amyloid fibrils; in the biochemistry of silicon; in cave formations deep in the Earth; and in outer space. Kuru in its location in Papua New Guinea has also led to an understanding of the cultural achievements of the Palaeo-Melanesians, with deep roots in human history. PMID:18849284

  7. Research. Go8 Backgrounder 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been an overall lack of a clear and cohesive research funding policy for higher education which poses real risks in Australia's ability to sustain research excellence and is likely to lead to a decline in Australia's research performance at the international level. This could well lead to a decline in the reputation of…

  8. Cultural factors that affected the spatial and temporal epidemiology of kuru

    PubMed Central

    Pako, W. H.; Collinge, J.; Alpers, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    Kuru is a prion disease which became epidemic among the Fore and surrounding linguistic groups in Papua New Guinea, peaking in the late 1950s. It was transmitted during the transumption (endocannibalism) of dead family members at mortuary feasts. In this study, we aimed to explain the historical spread and the changing epidemiological patterns of kuru by analysing factors that affected its transmission. We also examined what cultural group principally determined a family's behaviour during mortuary rituals. Our investigations showed that differences in mortuary practices were responsible for the initial pattern of the spread of kuru and the ultimate shape of the epidemic, and for subsequent spatio-temporal differences in the epidemiology of kuru. Before transumption stopped altogether, the South Fore continued to eat the bodies of those who had died of kuru, whereas other linguistic groups, sooner or later, stopped doing so. The linguistic group was the primary cultural group that determined behaviour but at linguistic boundaries the neighbouring group's cultural practices were often adopted. The epidemiological changes were not explained by genetic differences, but genetic studies led to an understanding of genetic susceptibility to kuru and the selection pressure imposed by kuru, and provided new insights into human history and evolution. PMID:28280581

  9. Kuru: A Journey Back in Time from Papua New Guinea to the Neanderthals’ Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Liberski, Pawel P.

    2013-01-01

    Kuru, the first human transmissible spongiform encephalopathy was transmitted to chimpanzees by D. Carleton Gajdusek (1923–2008). In this review, I briefly summarize the history of this seminal discovery along its epidemiology, clinical picture, neuropathology and molecular genetics. The discovery of kuru opened new windows into the realms of human medicine and was instrumental in the later transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease as well as the relevance that bovine spongiform encephalopathy had for transmission to humans. The transmission of kuru was one of the greatest contributions to biomedical sciences of the 20th century. PMID:25437203

  10. Background character research for synthetical performance of thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Song-lin; Wang, Ji-hui; Wang, Xiao-wei; Jin, Wei-qi

    2014-05-01

    Background is assumed to be uniform usually for evaluating the performance of thermal imaging systems, however the impact of background cannot be ignored for target acquisition in reality, background character is important research content for thermal imaging technology. A background noise parameter 𝜎 was proposed in MRTD model and used to describe background character. Background experiments were designed, and some typical backgrounds (namely lawn background, concrete pavement background, trees background and snow background) character were analyzed by 𝜎. MRTD including 𝜎 was introduced into MRTD-Channel Width (CW) model, the impact of above typical backgrounds for target information quantity were analyzed by MRTD-CW model with background character. Target information quantity for different backgrounds was calculated by MRTD-CW, and compared with that of TTP model. A target acquisition performance model based on MRTD-CW with background character will be research in the future.

  11. Research Workforce. Go8 Backgrounder 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The demand for workers (employers, self-employed people and employees) having research training extends beyond the researcher workforce itself and is increasing. The research workforce is not uniform but segmented according to disciplines and the economic and sectoral contexts in which researchers work. The growth of cross-disciplinary and…

  12. A clinical study of kuru patients with long incubation periods at the end of the epidemic in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Collinge, John; Whitfield, Jerome; McKintosh, Edward; Frosh, Adam; Mead, Simon; Hill, Andrew F.; Brandner, Sebastian; Thomas, Dafydd; Alpers, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Kuru is so far the principal human epidemic prion disease. While its incidence has steadily declined since the cessation of its route of transmission, endocannibalism, in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s, the arrival of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD), also thought to be transmitted by dietary prion exposure, has given kuru a new global relevance. We investigated all suspected cases of kuru from July 1996 to June 2004 and identified 11 kuru patients. There were four females and seven males, with an age range of 46–63 years at the onset of disease, in marked contrast to the age and sex distribution when kuru was first investigated 50 years ago. We obtained detailed histories of residence and exposure to mortuary feasts and performed serial neurological examination and genetic studies where possible. All patients were born a significant period before the mortuary practice of transumption ceased and their estimated incubation periods in some cases exceeded 50 years. The principal clinical features of kuru in the studied patients showed the same progressive cerebellar syndrome that had been previously described. Two patients showed marked cognitive impairment well before preterminal stages, in contrast to earlier clinical descriptions. In these patients, the mean clinical duration of 17 months was longer than the overall average in kuru but similar to that previously reported for the same age group, and this may relate to the effects of both patient age and PRNP codon 129 genotype. Importantly, no evidence for lymphoreticular colonization with prions, seen uniformly in vCJD, was observed in a patient with kuru at tonsil biopsy. PMID:18849289

  13. An Enduring Shell Artefact Tradition from Timor-Leste: Oliva Bead Production from the Pleistocene to Late Holocene at Jerimalai, Lene Hara, and Matja Kuru 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    O‘Connor, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe 485 Oliva spp. shell beads recovered from four archaeological cave sites Jerimalai, Lene Hara, Matja Kuru 1, and Matja Kuru 2, located in Timor-Leste, Island Southeast Asia. While Pleistocene-aged examples of modified marine shells used for personal ornamentation are common in African and Eurasian assemblages, they are exceedingly rare in Southeast Asia, leading some researchers to suggest that these Modern Human societies were less complex than those found further west. In Timor-Leste, the lowest Oliva bead to be recovered was directly dated to ca. 37,000 cal. BP, making it the oldest piece of personal ornamentation in Southeast Asia. Morphometric, taphonomic, use wear, and residue analyses of these beads alongside modern reference specimens, and experimentally made examples indicate that the Oliva shells were modified to be strung consecutively (as in a necklace), and while their mode of production changed remarkably little over the thousands of years they were utilised, an increase in their deposition around 6,000 cal. BP suggests that there was a change in their use coinciding with sea-level stabilisation. These tiny beads demonstrate that early Island Southeast Asian societies produced the same kinds of symbolic material culture we have come to expect from the more intensively studied African/Eurasian region, and that limited sampling and poor recovery methods have biased our perspectives of this region. PMID:27537696

  14. An Enduring Shell Artefact Tradition from Timor-Leste: Oliva Bead Production from the Pleistocene to Late Holocene at Jerimalai, Lene Hara, and Matja Kuru 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Langley, Michelle C; O'Connor, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe 485 Oliva spp. shell beads recovered from four archaeological cave sites Jerimalai, Lene Hara, Matja Kuru 1, and Matja Kuru 2, located in Timor-Leste, Island Southeast Asia. While Pleistocene-aged examples of modified marine shells used for personal ornamentation are common in African and Eurasian assemblages, they are exceedingly rare in Southeast Asia, leading some researchers to suggest that these Modern Human societies were less complex than those found further west. In Timor-Leste, the lowest Oliva bead to be recovered was directly dated to ca. 37,000 cal. BP, making it the oldest piece of personal ornamentation in Southeast Asia. Morphometric, taphonomic, use wear, and residue analyses of these beads alongside modern reference specimens, and experimentally made examples indicate that the Oliva shells were modified to be strung consecutively (as in a necklace), and while their mode of production changed remarkably little over the thousands of years they were utilised, an increase in their deposition around 6,000 cal. BP suggests that there was a change in their use coinciding with sea-level stabilisation. These tiny beads demonstrate that early Island Southeast Asian societies produced the same kinds of symbolic material culture we have come to expect from the more intensively studied African/Eurasian region, and that limited sampling and poor recovery methods have biased our perspectives of this region.

  15. Unusual resistance to ionizing radiation of the viruses of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, D C; Latarjet, R

    1978-12-01

    The titers of several preparations of kuru. Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, and scrapie viruses were reduced by only 1/10th or less by high doses of gamma radiation of 50 kGy and by only 1/10th-1/1000th or less for 200 kGy. This unusual radiation resistance of the two human viruses further links them with the scrapie virus and suggests that the genetic information of all three viruses is considerably smaller than that of any other known viruses of mammals.

  16. Unusual resistance to ionizing radiation of the viruses of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie.

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, D C; Latarjet, R

    1978-01-01

    The titers of several preparations of kuru. Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, and scrapie viruses were reduced by only 1/10th or less by high doses of gamma radiation of 50 kGy and by only 1/10th-1/1000th or less for 200 kGy. This unusual radiation resistance of the two human viruses further links them with the scrapie virus and suggests that the genetic information of all three viruses is considerably smaller than that of any other known viruses of mammals. PMID:104301

  17. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yen, Y. -R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  18. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yeh, M.; Yen, Y.-R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. The general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  19. Experimental and numerical study of drill bit drop tests on Kuru granite.

    PubMed

    Fourmeau, Marion; Kane, Alexandre; Hokka, Mikko

    2017-01-28

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of Kuru grey granite impacted with a seven-buttons drill bit mounted on an instrumented drop test machine. The force versus displacement curves during the impact, so-called bit-rock interaction (BRI) curves, were obtained using strain gauge measurements for two levels of impact energy. Moreover, the volume of removed rock after each drop test was evaluated by stereo-lithography (three-dimensional surface reconstruction). A modified version of the Holmquist-Johnson-Cook (MHJC) material model was calibrated using Kuru granite test results available from the literature. Numerical simulations of the single drop tests were carried out using the MHJC model available in the LS-DYNA explicit finite-element solver. The influence of the impact energy and additional confining pressure on the BRI curves and the volume of the removed rock is discussed. In addition, the influence of the rock surface shape before impact was evaluated using two different mesh geometries: a flat surface and a hyperbolic surface. The experimental and numerical results are compared and discussed in terms of drilling efficiency through the mechanical specific energy.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  20. Experimental and numerical study of drill bit drop tests on Kuru granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmeau, Marion; Kane, Alexandre; Hokka, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of Kuru grey granite impacted with a seven-buttons drill bit mounted on an instrumented drop test machine. The force versus displacement curves during the impact, so-called bit-rock interaction (BRI) curves, were obtained using strain gauge measurements for two levels of impact energy. Moreover, the volume of removed rock after each drop test was evaluated by stereo-lithography (three-dimensional surface reconstruction). A modified version of the Holmquist-Johnson-Cook (MHJC) material model was calibrated using Kuru granite test results available from the literature. Numerical simulations of the single drop tests were carried out using the MHJC model available in the LS-DYNA explicit finite-element solver. The influence of the impact energy and additional confining pressure on the BRI curves and the volume of the removed rock is discussed. In addition, the influence of the rock surface shape before impact was evaluated using two different mesh geometries: a flat surface and a hyperbolic surface. The experimental and numerical results are compared and discussed in terms of drilling efficiency through the mechanical specific energy. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  1. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; ...

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the backgroundmore » fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.« less

  2. The NIMH Research Domain Criteria Initiative: Background, Issues, and Pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Michael J; Cuthbert, Bruce N

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. The description includes background, rationale, goals, and the way the initiative has been developed and organized. The central RDoC concepts are summarized and the current matrix of constructs that have been vetted by workshops of extramural scientists is depicted. A number of theoretical and methodological issues that can arise in connection with the nature of RDoC constructs are highlighted: subjectivism and heterophenomenology, desynchrony and theoretical neutrality among units of analysis, theoretical reductionism, endophenotypes, biomarkers, neural circuits, construct "grain size," and analytic challenges. The importance of linking RDoC constructs to psychiatric clinical problems is discussed. Some pragmatics of incorporating RDoC concepts into applications for NIMH research funding are considered, including sampling design.

  3. From Best Research to What Works: Background Knowledge & Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert Shanker Institute, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This publication is a transcription of a forum held at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. on May 19, 2006 on background knowledge and reading proficiency. This topic goes to the heart of the education reform agenda, according to the first speaker, Eugenia Kemble, executive director of the Albert Shanker Institute, the sponsor of this…

  4. Disarmament and Employment: Background for a Research Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabolo, Yves

    1983-01-01

    As background to a series of articles on the effects of disarmament on employment, the author assesses the present importance of armaments industries in the world economy, including the number of people directly or indirectly employed in military equipment production and services. He also discusses employment problems posed by disarmament.…

  5. Research on recognition methods of aphid objects in complex backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Ji-Hong

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the recognition accuracy among the kinds of aphids in the complex backgrounds, the recognition method among kinds of aphids based on Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT) and Support Vector Machine (Libsvm) is proposed. Firstly the image is pretreated; secondly the aphid images' texture feature of three crops are extracted by DT-CWT in order to get the training parameters of training model; finally the training model could recognize aphids among the three kinds of crops. By contrasting to Gabor wavelet transform and the traditional extracting texture's methods based on Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), the experiment result shows that the method has a certain practicality and feasibility and provides basic for aphids' recognition between the identification among same kind aphid.

  6. Background, Purpose, and Scope of the GRE Board Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Bryce, Jr.

    The GRE Board established the Research Program to investigate ways to improve the GRE and its overall operation. Approximately 30 projects have been undertaken and funded by the GRE Board; perhaps a third of these have been completed. These projects can be divided into three groups: (1) those dealing with product or process or marketing…

  7. Background of the completed research; relevances to solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellin, I. A.

    1973-01-01

    Research activities reported consider the atomic structures of highly stripped heavy ions and their modes of formation and destruction in collisions. The lifetime of the metastable 2 3p1 state of the two electron ion F-7(+) was determined by measuring the radiative decay of an excited helium-like fluorine beam, Metastable state quenching measurements were performed on a helium-like ion to obtain the 1 1S0 to 2 3p2 transition probability. Exponential exchange state dependence of X-ray production cross sections was studied in heavy target atoms during collisions with light charged particles.

  8. Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy: Theoretical Background, Empirical Research, and Dissemination.

    PubMed

    Roddy, McKenzie K; Nowlan, Kathryn M; Doss, Brian D; Christensen, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT), developed by Drs. Andrew Christensen and Neil Jacobson, builds off the tradition of behavioral couple therapy by including acceptance strategies as key components of treatment. Results from a large randomized clinical trial of IBCT indicate that it yields large and significant gains in relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, these benefits have been shown to persist for at least 5 years after treatment for the average couple. Not only does IBCT positively impact relationship constructs such as satisfaction and communication, but the benefits of therapy extend to individual, co-parenting, and child functioning. Moreover, IBCT has been shown to operate through the putative mechanisms of improvements in emotional acceptance, behavior change, and communication. IBCT was chosen for nationwide training and dissemination through the Veteran Affairs Medical Centers. Furthermore, the principles of IBCT have been translated into a web-based intervention for distressed couples, OurRelationship.com. IBCT is continuing to evolve and grow as research and technologies allow for continued evaluation and dissemination of this well-supported theoretical model.

  9. Perceptions of Australia as a Postgraduate Research Destination. Go8 Backgrounder 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the Group of Eight (Go8) commissioned market research to examine the attitudes, perceptions and experiences of Australia as a destination for study at the Higher Research Degree level. This backgrounder highlights some of the positive aspects of the Australian experience. The top five aggregated strengths of Australia as a research…

  10. Policies and Background Literature for Self-Education on Research Data Management: An Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goben, Abigail; Raszewski, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Librarians navigating research data management self-education have an increasing body of literature to choose from, which may become overwhelming. This annotated bibliography reviews: (1) U.S. federal policies; (2) articles; and (3) books to assist librarians who are self-educating on research data management or are seeking background reading…

  11. Cannibalism, Kuru, and Mad Cows: Prion Disease As a “Choose-Your-Own-Experiment” Case Study to Simulate Scientific Inquiry in Large Lectures

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Antonio; Liebner, Jeffrey; Hines, Justin K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant efforts to reform undergraduate science education, students often perform worse on assessments of perceptions of science after introductory courses, demonstrating a need for new educational interventions to reverse this trend. To address this need, we created An Inexplicable Disease, an engaging, active-learning case study that is unusual because it aims to simulate scientific inquiry by allowing students to iteratively investigate the Kuru epidemic of 1957 in a choose-your-own-experiment format in large lectures. The case emphasizes the importance of specialization and communication in science and is broadly applicable to courses of any size and sub-discipline of the life sciences. PMID:26788803

  12. Transition of Students from Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds to Research Led Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on software development students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds that have dropped out of universities which have a strong research emphasis. In the UK, these universities are generally part of the Russell Group of Universities. The participants were all male, mainly black, working class and…

  13. Australians from a Non-English Speaking Background with Intellectual Disability: The Importance of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brolan, Claire E.; Gomez, Miriam Taylor; Lennox, Nicholas G.; Ware, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors review available data on Australians from a non-English speaking background (NESB) with intellectual disability (ID). They find that intellectual disability in the Australian NESB community has received limited attention in terms of both qualitative and quantitative research. The existing literature is over 10 years old and is relevant…

  14. New perspectives in forest management: Background, science issues, and research agenda. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, D.J.; Grant, G.E.

    1992-09-01

    Scientific, management, and social factors that have contributed to the changes in United States forest management are examined in the report. Principles underlying new approaches are developed and implications are considered at various spatial and temporal scales. A general framework for a research program is outlined.

  15. "'Lad" Research, the Reproduction of Stereotypes? Ethnographic Dilemmas When Researching Boys from Working-Class Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosvall, Per-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Previous research presented in this journal and elsewhere has suggested that vocational education is highly gender segregated and it is the heavy industrial sectors such as industry, vehicle and construction programmes that mainly attract boys with an anti-school attitude who are not interested in academic school work. However, there are good…

  16. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  17. Research on Extraction of Ship Target in Complex Sea-sky Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, W. J.; Ding, X. M.; Cui, J. W.; Ao, L.

    2006-10-01

    Research on the extraction of ship target in complex sea-sky background has important value to improve the capability of imaging-typed sea navigation and nautical traffic control systems. According to the imaging property of complex sea-sky background, a reliable ship target extraction method is proposed in this paper. The general guide line is that getting the sea-sky division line as a priori knowledge and then the target potential area is determined through discontinuous region of the sea-sky division line. Firstly, a local selective window filter is adopted to filter the image; secondly, eight directions Sobel operator edge detection method and gradient Hough transform are combined to extract sea-sky division line in the image; then a multi-histogram matching technique is adopted to remove the sea and sky background and thus ship target is extracted from complex background. The experiments show that our method has the merits of robustness to noise, small computational complexity and stability.

  18. Development of Background-Oriented Schlieren for NASA Langley Research Center Ground Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Borg, Stephen; Jones, Stephen; Overmeyer, Austin; Walker, Eric; Goad, William; Clem, Michelle; Schairer, Edward T.; Mizukaki, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent wind tunnel tests performed at the NASA Langley Research Center where the Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS) technique was used to provide information pertaining to flow-field density disturbances. The facilities in which the BOS technique was applied included the National Transonic Facility (NTF), Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT), 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel, 15-Inch Mach 6 High-Temperature Air Tunnel, Rotor Test Cell at the 14 by 22 Subsonic Tunnel, and a 13-Inch Low-Speed Tunnel.

  19. A new scenario framework for climate change research. Background, process, and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Ebi, Kristie L.; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kram, Tom; Arnell, Nigel W.; Carter, Tim; Edmonds, James A.; Kriegler, Elmar; Mathur, Ritu; O'Neill, Brian; Riahi, Keywan; Winkler, Harald; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Zwickel, Timm

    2013-09-27

    The scientific community is developing new integrated global, regional, and sectoral scenarios to facilitate interdisciplinary research and assessment to explore the range of possible future climates and related physical changes could pose to human and natural systems; how these could interact with social, economic, and environmental development pathways; the degree to which mitigation and adaptation policies can avoid and reduce those risks; the costs and benefits of various policy mixes; residual impacts under alternative pathways; and the relationship with sustainable development. This paper provides the background to, and process of, developing the conceptual framework for these scenarios, described in three other papers in this Special Issue (van Vuuren et al.; O'Neill et al.; Kriegler et al.). The paper also discusses research needs to further develop and apply this framework. The goal is to encourage climate change researchers from a broad range of perspectives and disciplines to work together to develop policy-relevant scenarios and explore the implications of different possible futures for the challenges and opportunities human and natural systems could face with increasing climate change.

  20. The research of moving object detection based on background difference compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yan-bin; Ying, Jie; Lu, Lin-li

    2013-08-01

    Moving object detection was implemented in dynamic background based on background difference compensation. Background differential can effectively segment the moving object in static background. But in moving video, the camera motion causes corresponding movement of the target and background, which makes the prospect moving object hard to separate from the background. In order to detect moving object, we can compensate the movement of the background and transfer the dynamic background to static. Moving object detection in static background image was implemented using a new weights updating method that the weights were updated during a certain period. This method based on classical Gaussian mixture model improved the efficiency of image segmentation greatly. Moving object detection in dynamic background was realized using background differential compensation. The global motion of the background was established according to the affined parameters model. The model parameters were estimated by feature points matching based on the search strategy. Invalid matching points were eliminated using the method of distance consistency. Backward mapping was used to get the motion parameters of the background. After compensation of the background with the global motion parameters, frame difference between the current frame and the background can detect moving objects effectively. Experiments were done on computer with the programming tools of VS2010 and MATLAB. Experimental results showed that the algorithm based on differential compensation was effective.

  1. Merit or Family Background? Problems in Research Policy Initiatives in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeTendre, Gerald K.; Rohlen, Thomas P.; Zeng, Kangmin

    1998-01-01

    Studied national educational datasets in Japan during the post-World War II era. Found that current datasets do not contain questions about family background or rank of school attended that are detailed enough to permit an analysis of the impact of family background on educational attainment. (SLD)

  2. Research on tracking approach to weak small targets under sky background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinling; Miao, Dong; Zhou, Wensheng; Shen, Jiarui; Chen, Nao; Kang, Bo

    2014-09-01

    The infrared (IR) target recognizing and tracking technique is widely applied to many fields such as industries, navigation, weapon controlling and guiding and so on. Its application in military field has become the research hotspot. The stability of target tracking is the most important in military applications. However, it is difficult to track the aerial target because of the complex background and noise interference, especially from long distance, which make tracking targets even harder. In this paper, a novel image tracking system is designed, which uses template matching algorithm combined with Kalman filter. Because of the noise in image, the presence of occlusion, and the deformation of tracked target, some tracking algorithms may fail. So it is the main idea in this paper to merge the advantages from the tracking algorithms, and track the target real time. The algorithm for weak small targets from the image is based on template matching algorithm. In order to overcome the problems related to the changes of unpredictable circumstance, Kalman filter tracking algorithm is used. For the disadvantage of template matching algorithm towards occasions in target tracking, such as target occlusion, drastic change of image intensity, the relevant solutions are proposed. In cases when the target is occluded or moves more than the operational limits of the tracking module, Kalman filter is used to predict the object location. Thus, automatic detection and tracking of target in real-time is achieved and the proposed method is more robust in target tracking. The results show that the algorithm can realize target tracking under complicated scenes. It also improves the tracking stability, capacity of anti-interfering and running efficiency.

  3. Research Support for the Analysis and Management of Celestial Backgrounds Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    2000-09-01

    TerraSystems, Inc. (TSI) supported the validation and analysis of celestial backgrounds data collected by various sensors (including MSX) and assisted in incorporating the results of these analyses into improved computer models which were then integrated into existing Celestial Backgrounds codes. The results of this activity will improve the quality of the data and the ability to accurately simulate and predict the behavior of the infrared environment on operational spaced borne systems. TSI's effort included: (1) methods of improving the quality of collected data through error analysis and post-event correction, especially with respect to removing known and unknown asteroids from the MSX point and source list and improving the celestial background asteroid model with new sources of data from SIMPS, ISO, and polarimetry and (2) developing techniques useful in promoting collaborative analysis by geographically dispersed teams either in small groups or at large, topical meetings.

  4. The historical, ethical, and legal background of human-subjects research.

    PubMed

    Rice, Todd W

    2008-10-01

    The current system of human-subject-research oversight and protections has developed over the last 5 decades. The principles of conducting human research were first developed as the Nuremberg code to try Nazi war criminals. The 3 basic elements of the Nuremberg Code (voluntary informed consent, favorable risk/benefit analysis, and right to withdraw without repercussions) became the foundation for subsequent ethical codes and research regulations. In 1964 the World Medical Association released the Declaration of Helsinki, which built on the principles of the Nuremberg Code. Numerous research improprieties between 1950 and 1974 in the United States prompted Congressional deliberations about human-subject-research oversight. Congress's first legislation to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects was the National Research Act of 1974, which created the National Commission for Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, which issued the Belmont Report. The Belmont Report stated 3 fundamental principles for conducting human-subjects research: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. The Office of Human Research Protections oversees Title 45, Part 46 of the Code for Federal Regulations, which pertains to human-subjects research. That office indirectly oversees human-subjects research through local institutional review boards (IRB). Since their inception, the principles of conducting human research, IRBs, and the Code for Federal Regulations have all advanced substantially. This paper describes the history and current status of human-subjects-research regulations.

  5. Measuring the Impact of Research--The Context for Metric Development. Go8 Backgrounder 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymer, Les

    2011-01-01

    Current economic conditions and the increasing competition for government funding are leading to an increased focus on the impact of research. Measuring the impact of research is difficult because not all impacts are direct and some can be negative or result from the identification of problems that require a non-research response. The time between…

  6. Role of Research Universities in Health and Medicine. Go8 Backgrounder 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Universities have much to contribute to the improvement of health delivery, research, and teaching/learning. In progressing health reform, the Government should be mindful of the need to: (1) strengthen high quality medical research; (2) promote translation of research to teaching, population health and health services; and (3) address Health…

  7. The Spectrumof the Cosmic Background Radiation: Early and RecentMeasurements from the White Mountain Research Station

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, G.F.

    1985-09-01

    The White Mountain Research Station has provided a support facility at a high, dry, radio-quiet site for measurements that have established the blackbody character of the cosmic microwave background radiation. This finding has confirmed the interpretation of the radiation as a relic of the primeval fireball and helped to establish the hot Big Bang theory as the standard cosmological model.

  8. A Mentor Training Program Improves Mentoring Competency for Researchers Working with Early-Career Investigators from Underrepresented Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mallory O.; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective…

  9. Assessment study of infrared detector arrays for low-background astronomical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ando, K. J.

    1978-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art of infrared detector arrays employing charge coupled devices (CCD) or charge injection devices (CID) readout are assessed. The applicability, limitations and potentials of such arrays under the low-background astronomical observing conditions of interest for SIRFT (Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility) are determined. The following are reviewed: (1) monolithic extrinsic arrays; (2) monolithic intrinsic arrays; (3) charge injection devices; and (4) hybrid arrays.

  10. Background, Structure and Priorities of the 2013 Geneva Declaration on Person-centered Health Research.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Cloninger, C Robert; Thornicroft, Amalia; Mezzich, Juan E

    Declarations are relevant tools to frame new areas in health care, to raise awareness and to facilitate knowledge-to-action. The International College on Person Centered Medicine (ICPCM) is seeking to extend the impact of the ICPCM Conference Series by producing a declaration on every main topic. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the 2013 Geneva Declaration on Person-centered Health Research and to provide additional information on the research priority areas identified during this iterative process. There is a need for more PCM research and for the incorporation of the PCM approach into general health research. Main areas of research focus include: Conceptual, terminological, and ontological issues; research to enhance the empirical evidence of PCM main components such as PCM informed clinical communication; PCM-based diagnostic models; person-centered care and interventions; and people-centered care, research on training and curriculum development. Dissemination and implementation of PCM knowledge-base is integral to Person-centered Health Research and shall engage currently available scientific and translational dissemination tools such journals, events and eHealth.

  11. Etic and Emic: Research with Children from Socially and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the distinction between etic and emic approaches to research, which are defined as the study of human behavior from outside a given system (etic) and from inside the system (emic). These concepts can help researchers and practitioners understand the social and linguistic differences of children from varied cultural…

  12. Vocational Education and Training--The European Research Field. Background Report. Volume I. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This document contains 12 papers on vocational education and training (VET) and related research that were developed for a 1998 European research report titled "Training for a Changing Society." The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Stavros Stavrou, Manfred Tessaring); "Institutional Framework Conditions and…

  13. How should we be determining background and baseline antibiotic resistance levels in agroecosystem research?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although historically antibiotic resistance has occurred naturally in environmental bacteria, many questions remain regarding the specifics of how humans and animals contribute to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. Additional research is necessary to completely u...

  14. Recent trends in humanoid robotics research: scientific background, applications, and implications.

    PubMed

    Solis, Jorge; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2010-11-01

    Even though the market size is still small at this moment, applied fields of robots are gradually spreading from the manufacturing industry to the others as one of the important components to support an aging society. For this purpose, the research on human-robot interaction (HRI) has been an emerging topic of interest for both basic research and customer application. The studies are especially focused on behavioral and cognitive aspects of the interaction and the social contexts surrounding it. As a part of these studies, the term of "roboethics" has been introduced as an approach to discuss the potentialities and the limits of robots in relation to human beings. In this article, we describe the recent research trends on the field of humanoid robotics. Their principal applications and their possible impact are discussed.

  15. The research on infrared small-target detection technology under complex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jilu; Huang, Zhijian

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detecting are described. Then, according to actual needs and the comparison results of those algorithms, some of them are optimized in combination with the image pre-processing. On the foundation of above works, a moving target detecting and tracking software base on the OpenCV is developed by the software developing platform MFC. Three kinds of detecting algorithms are integrated in this software. These three detecting algorithms are Frame Difference method, Background Estimation method and Mixture Gaussian Modeling method. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detecting targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. This paper is very significant in the application of the infrared target detecting technology.

  16. Research and application of air mercury measurement based on transverse Zeeman background correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Si, Fuqi; Zeng, Yi; Li, Chuangxin; Liu, Wenqing

    2016-10-01

    Mercury is known as a highly toxic metal, which will have a significant health hazard to the human body. To monitor the trace mercury pollution in air, the development of monitoring instruments has been conducted. In this paper the mercury analyzer is developed based on the cold atomic absorption spectrometry theory by exploiting the transverse Zeeman-Effect background correction technology. The experiments have been done to test the performance of the system. At the same time, the same experiments with RA-915 mercury analyzer have been done to compare with the results. First, zero gas was measured for an hour and high concentration mercury sample gas was measured for four days. The results of zero gas shows that the detection limit of the system is 2.19ng/m3 and the standard deviation is 0.73. The concentration fluctuation is within a tight range of +/-1.5ng/m3. The results of high concentration sample gas are in good agreement with the results of RA-915, and the correlation coefficient is 0.95. Second, laboratory air was measured for 12 hours. The results compared with RA-915 are in good agreement and have the same variation trend. Additionally, the atmospheric mercury concentration near the non-ferrous metal smelter in Tongling city has been measured by the system and the RA-915. The measurement results from two analyzers have a good linear correlation with correlation coefficient of 0.98 and slope of 1.027. It indicates that the system has accurate background correction ability, low detection limit and is applicable to long-term air mercury on-line monitoring.

  17. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E): Background, Status, and Selected Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-29

    Reserve funds.28 An analogous situation might be research supported through the Ultra - Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum... Deepwater Oil and Gas Leases, by Marc Humphries. 27 Testimony of Melanie Kenderdine, Vice President, Gas Technology Institute in U.S. Congress

  18. Training Methodology. Part 1: Background Theory and Research. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    The annotated bibliography, including 310 abstracts, pertains to research and theory on individual behavior, group behavior, and educational and training philosophy. This is the first of four publications on training methodology; its content was selected from over 6,000 items mostly published from January 1960 to March 1968. Areas included are:…

  19. ALEPH: Israel's Research Library Network: Background, Evolution, and Implications for Networking in a Small Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazinger, Susan S.

    1991-01-01

    Describes ALEPH, the research library network in Israel, and analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of its decentralized structure. Highlights include comparisons between RLIN and ALEPH; centralized versus decentralized networks; the format of ALEPH; authority control in ALEPH; and non-Roman scripts in both networks. (16 references) (LRW)

  20. Integrating Research Methods into Substantive Courses: A Class Project to Identify Social Backgrounds of Political Elites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Margaret A.; Steward, Gary Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a class project that combined an examination of social class and political power with an introduction to sociological research. The project consisted of compiling biographical profiles of cabinet members from the Ronald Reagan, George Bush, and Bill Clinton administrations. Introduces students to issues of conceptualization,…

  1. Navigating a Transdisciplinary Research Project with a Non-Traditional Academic Background: Climate Change, Soil Health and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basche, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate and Corn-based Cropping Systems Coordinated Agriculture Project (CSCAP) is a collaboration of 150+ team members spanning a range of scientific disciplinary backgrounds. The project goal is to produce collaborative research, education and extension aimed at mitigating and adapting Midwest cropping systems to climate variability and change. My PhD work in Agronomy and Sustainable Agriculture is a part of the CSCAP although my prior academic background was in applied climate science and biology, thus proposing a potential challenge to the new academic landscape. Further, graduate students within CSCAP are a part of a natural experiment in how the next generation of scientists operates in a transdisciplinary environment. As part of my leadership in the CSCAP, I helped to develop a "roadmap" document outlining the learning opportunities available to students. This document was meant to underscore the skills and experiences that will aid us in future collaborative research projects. Through these leadership experiences, I believe that the underpinning of any successful collaborative research project requires time: to develop relationships, earn trust and develop shared understandings and respect for different academic backgrounds.

  2. Radiology trainees in the UK and Ireland: academic background, publication rates and research plans.

    PubMed

    McWeeney, D M; Walker, T W M; Gilbert, F J; McCarthy, P A

    2009-12-01

    To assess the level of achievement of current trainees, we investigated the academic qualifications, publication rates and future research plans of 240 radiology trainees in the UK and Ireland. All radiology trainees in the UK and Ireland were surveyed by a questionnaire enquiring about academic record and career ambitions. Our study shows that the level of academic achievement of radiology trainees is high, and provides interesting information concerning the current group of radiology trainees in these regions. It will be of interest both to radiology trainers and to doctors hoping to pursue a career in radiology. It also demonstrates that a potential recruitment crisis in academic radiology exists.

  3. Design and Operation of Cryogenic Distillation Research Column for Ultra-Low Background Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiller, Christopher; Alanson Chiller, Angela; Jasinski, Benjamin; Snyder, Nathan; Mei, Dongming

    2013-04-01

    Motivated by isotopically enriched germanium (76Ge and 73Ge) for monocrystalline crystal growth for neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter experiments, a cryogenic distillation research column was developed. Without market availability of distillation columns in the temperature range of interest with capabilities necessary for our purposes, we designed, fabricated, tested, refined and operated a two-meter research column for purifying and separating gases in the temperature range from 100-200K. Due to interest in defining stratification, purity and throughput optimization, capillary lines were integrated at four equidistant points along the length of the column such that real-time residual gas analysis could guide the investigation. Interior gas column temperatures were monitored and controlled within 0.1oK accuracy at the top and bottom. Pressures were monitored at the top of the column to four significant figures. Subsequent impurities were measured at partial pressures below 2E-8torr. We report the performance of the column in this paper.

  4. Research on infrared dim-point target detection and tracking under sea-sky-line complex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yu-xing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Hai-bo

    2011-08-01

    Target detection and tracking technology in infrared image is an important part of modern military defense system. Infrared dim-point targets detection and recognition under complex background is a difficulty and important strategic value and challenging research topic. The main objects that carrier-borne infrared vigilance system detected are sea-skimming aircrafts and missiles. Due to the characteristics of wide field of view of vigilance system, the target is usually under the sea clutter. Detection and recognition of the target will be taken great difficulties .There are some traditional point target detection algorithms, such as adaptive background prediction detecting method. When background has dispersion-decreasing structure, the traditional target detection algorithms would be more useful. But when the background has large gray gradient, such as sea-sky-line, sea waves etc .The bigger false-alarm rate will be taken in these local area .It could not obtain satisfactory results. Because dim-point target itself does not have obvious geometry or texture feature ,in our opinion , from the perspective of mathematics, the detection of dim-point targets in image is about singular function analysis .And from the perspective image processing analysis , the judgment of isolated singularity in the image is key problem. The foregoing points for dim-point targets detection, its essence is a separation of target and background of different singularity characteristics .The image from infrared sensor usually accompanied by different kinds of noise. These external noises could be caused by the complicated background or from the sensor itself. The noise might affect target detection and tracking. Therefore, the purpose of the image preprocessing is to reduce the effects from noise, also to raise the SNR of image, and to increase the contrast of target and background. According to the low sea-skimming infrared flying small target characteristics , the median filter is used to

  5. Plant metabolomics and its potential for systems biology research background concepts, technology, and methodology.

    PubMed

    Allwood, J William; De Vos, Ric C H; Moing, Annick; Deborde, Catherine; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Goodacre, Royston; Hall, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    The "metabolome" comprises the entire complement of small molecules in a plant or any other organism. It represents the ultimate phenotype of cells, deduced from the perturbation of gene expression and the modulation of protein function, as well as environmental cues. Extensive advances over the past decade, regarding the high-throughput (HTP) nature of "omics" research, have given birth to the expectation that a type of "systems level" overview may soon be possible. Having such a global overview of the molecular organization of a plant in the context of a particular set of genetic or environmental conditions, be it at cell, organ, or whole plant level, would clearly be very powerful. Currently, we are far from achieving this goal; however, within our hands, plant metabolomics is an HTP and informative "omics" approach to both sample generation and data generation, as well as raw data preprocessing, statistical analysis, and biological interpretation. Within this chapter, we aim to describe the great attention given to experimental design to ensure that the correct sample set and control are included and to, thereby, enable reliable statistical analysis of the data. For as comprehensive metabolite coverage as possible, we advocate the use of multiparallel approaches; thus, we describe a step-by-step standardized method for Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as discussing with reference to standardized methodologies the techniques of gas chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  6. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS) is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and wellbeing of children

  7. A mentor training program improves mentoring competency for researchers working with early-career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mallory O; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-08-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective mentors, and the few that exist have a dearth of empirical support of their impact. In 2013, we recruited 34 faculty from across the US engaged in HIV-related clinical research to participate in a 2-day Mentoring the Mentors workshop. The workshop included didactic and interactive content focused on a range of topics, such as mentor-mentee communication, leadership styles, emotional intelligence, understanding the impact of diversity (unconscious bias, microaggressions, discrimination, tokenism) for mentees, and specific tools and techniques for effective mentoring. Pre- and post-workshop online evaluations documented high rates of satisfaction with the program and statistically significant improvements in self-appraised mentoring skills (e.g. addressing diversity in mentoring, communication with mentees, aligning mentor-mentee expectations), as assessed via a validated mentoring competency tool. This is the first mentoring training program focused on enhancing mentors' abilities to nurture investigators of diversity, filling an important gap, and evaluation results offer support for its effectiveness. Results suggest a need for refinement and expansion of the program and for more comprehensive, long-term evaluation of distal mentoring outcomes for those who participate in the program.

  8. Cultural Transition and Academic Achievement of Students from Ethnic Minority Backgrounds: A Content Analysis of Empirical Research on Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The achievement gap between immigrant and non-immigrant students that has been identified in most OECD countries and the considerable educational dropout rate among students from ethnic minority backgrounds in some countries have become serious challenges for national educational systems. The educational underachievement of young…

  9. Long open-path TDL based system for monitoring background concentration for deployment at Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station- Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Valentin; van den Bergh, Hubert; Parlange, Marc

    2010-05-01

    A new, long open-path instrument for monitoring of path-averaged methane and water vapor concentrations will be presented. The instrument is built on the monostatic scheme (transceiver - distant retroreflector). A VCSEL tunable diode laser (TDL) with a central wavelength of 1654 nm is used as a light source. A specially designed, single-cell, hollow-cube retroreflector with 150 mm aperture will be installed at 1200 m from the transceiver in the final deployment at Jungfraujjoch and 100 mm retroreflectors will be used in the other applications. The receiver is built around a 20 cm Newtonian telescope. To avoid distortions in the shape of a methane line, caused by atmospheric turbulences, the line is scanned within 1 µs. Fast InGaAs photodiodes and 200 MHz are used to achieve this scanning rate. The expected concentration resolution for the above mentioned path lengths is of the order of 2 ppb. The instrument is developed at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - Lausanne (EPFL) Switzerland and will be used within the GAW+ CH program for long-term monitoring of background methane concentration in the Swiss Alps. After completing the initial tests at EPFL the instrument will be installed in 2012 at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (HARSJ) located at 3580 m ASL. The HARSJ is one of the 24 global GAW stations and carries on continuous observations of a number of trace gasses, including methane. One of the goals of the project is to compare path-averaged to ongoing point measurements of methane in order to identify possible influence of the station. Future deployments of a copy of the instrument include the Colombian part of Amazonia and Siberian wetlands.

  10. Research on the algorithm of infrared target detection based on the frame difference and background subtraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Hui, Mei; Liu, Xiaohua; Wu, Yijian

    2015-09-01

    As an important branch of infrared imaging technology, infrared target tracking and detection has a very important scientific value and a wide range of applications in both military and civilian areas. For the infrared image which is characterized by low SNR and serious disturbance of background noise, an innovative and effective target detection algorithm is proposed in this paper, according to the correlation of moving target frame-to-frame and the irrelevance of noise in sequential images based on OpenCV. Firstly, since the temporal differencing and background subtraction are very complementary, we use a combined detection method of frame difference and background subtraction which is based on adaptive background updating. Results indicate that it is simple and can extract the foreground moving target from the video sequence stably. For the background updating mechanism continuously updating each pixel, we can detect the infrared moving target more accurately. It paves the way for eventually realizing real-time infrared target detection and tracking, when transplanting the algorithms on OpenCV to the DSP platform. Afterwards, we use the optimal thresholding arithmetic to segment image. It transforms the gray images to black-white images in order to provide a better condition for the image sequences detection. Finally, according to the relevance of moving objects between different frames and mathematical morphology processing, we can eliminate noise, decrease the area, and smooth region boundaries. Experimental results proves that our algorithm precisely achieve the purpose of rapid detection of small infrared target.

  11. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Human Health & Support Systems Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikins, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps. Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  12. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Title of CRM Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooke, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps "Title." Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  13. Training in Europe: Second Report on Vocational Training Research in Europe, 2000. Background Report. Volumes 1-3. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Pascaline, Ed.; Tessaring, Manfred, Ed.

    These three volumes comprise the background publication of the second report on vocational education and training (VET) research in Europe. The two parts of Volume 1 contain 10 papers; Volume 2 contains 11 papers in two parts; and there are 10 papers in the two parts and annex of Volume 3. In Volume 1 are the following: "Steering, Networking,…

  14. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  15. The Institute of Medicine's Report on "Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform"--Background, Results, and Follow Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Joel; Greden, John; Abrams, Michael; Riba, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) determined that declines in the psychiatrist-researcher workforce are harming public needs and that significant steps are necessary to alter current trends. Method: The NIMH commissioned the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to examine the undersupply and recommend solutions. The NIMH…

  16. Learning Process in Terms of Styles and Strategies: Theoretical Background and Pilot Study. Research Bulletin. No. 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leino, Anna-Liisa

    A pilot study was conducted to determine effective methods for testing students' learning processes. The theoretical framework within which learning processes were investigated is based on the B-P-E paradigm. This states that "Behavior (B) is a function of the Person (P) and the Environment (E)". After reviewing research done in related…

  17. Training Methodology. Part I: Background Theory and Research; An Annotated Bibliography. Public Health Service Publication No. 1862, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    A total of 310 annotated references pertaining to research and theory on individual behavior, group behavior, and educational philosophy are organized under the following headings: (1) Human Factors Engineering, (2) Human Behavior and Behavioral Charge (General), (3) Perception, (4) Motivation, (5) Communication, (6) Sociology of Education and…

  18. Modeling zero-modified count and semicontinuous data in health services research Part 1: background and overview.

    PubMed

    Neelon, Brian; O'Malley, A James; Smith, Valerie A

    2016-11-30

    Health services data often contain a high proportion of zeros. In studies examining patient hospitalization rates, for instance, many patients will have no hospitalizations, resulting in a count of zero. When the number of zeros is greater or less than expected under a standard count model, the data are said to be zero modified relative to the standard model. A similar phenomenon arises with semicontinuous data, which are characterized by a spike at zero followed by a continuous distribution with positive support. When analyzing zero-modified count and semicontinuous data, flexible mixture distributions are often needed to accommodate both the excess zeros and the typically skewed distribution of nonzero values. Various models have been introduced over the past three decades to accommodate such data, including hurdle models, zero-inflated models, and two-part semicontinuous models. This tutorial describes recent modeling strategies for zero-modified count and semicontinuous data and highlights their role in health services research studies. Part 1 of the tutorial, presented here, provides a general overview of the topic. Part 2, appearing as a companion piece in this issue of Statistics in Medicine, discusses three case studies illustrating applications of the methods to health services research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. ISPOR Code of Ethics for Researchers background article--report of the ISPOR Task Force on Code of Ethics for Researchers.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Francis B; Barnes, Rod; Deverka, Patricia; McGhan, William; Mullany, Lawrence; Wertheimer, Albert

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, ISPOR convened a Task Force on Code of Ethics for Researchers (The Task Force). This Task Force was to build on the previous work of ISPOR Health Science Policy Task Forces and develop a code of ethics that would be applicable to all ISPOR members and to ISPOR itself. The Task Force developed a code of ethics that was subsequently adopted by the ISPOR Board of Directors. The Code of Ethics is appended to this article and can be found on ISPOR's Web page at http://www.ispor.org/workpaper/code_ethic.htm. This article provides supportive information and justification for the ISPOR Code of Ethics for Researchers and includes a discussion of the stakeholders as well as ethical considerations for the researcher on research practices, research sponsorship, research publication and dissemination, and relationships with others. It also includes a discussion of the ethical considerations for the Society.

  20. A Micromegas-based low-background x-ray detector coupled to a slumped-glass telescope for axion research

    SciTech Connect

    Aznar, F.; Castel, J.; Dafni, T. E-mail: jfcastel@unizar.es [Grupo de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Universidad de Zaragoza, C and others

    2015-12-01

    We report on the design, construction and operation of a low background x-ray detection line composed of a shielded Micromegas detector of the microbulk technology. The detector is made from radiopure materials and is placed at the focal point of a ∼ 5 cm diameter, 1.5 m focal-length, cone-approximation Wolter I x-ray telescope (XRT) assembled from thermally-formed (or 'slumped') glass substrates deposited with multilayer coatings. The system has been conceived as a technological pathfinder for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), as it combines two of the techniques (optic and detector) proposed in the conceptual design of the project. It is innovative for two reasons: it is the first time an x-ray optic has been designed and fabricated specifically for axion research, and the first time a Micromegas detector has been operated with an x-ray optic. The line has been installed at one end of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) magnet and is currently looking for solar axions. The combination of the XRT and Micromegas detector provides the best signal-to-noise ratio obtained so far by any detection system of the CAST experiment with a background rate of 5.4×10{sup −3} counts per hour in the energy region-of-interest and signal spot area.

  1. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  2. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability. Roadmaps for Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis. Agency Objectives. Strategic Planning Transformation. Review Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Review Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  3. Re-Searching Secondary Teacher Trainees in Distance Education and Face-to-Face Mode: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…

  4. Investigating the Impact of Early Institutional Deprivation on Development: Background and Research Strategy of the English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Castle, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with the mid adolescent follow-up of a group of adoptees from Romania and from within the United Kingdom who were first assessed at the age of 4 years (or 6 years in the case of the oldest children). After describing the structure of this monograph, this chapter provides the background as it applied at the time that the…

  5. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: Background and Methodology. United States-1967-72. Vital and Health Statistics. Data Evaluation and Methods Research. Series 2, No. 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    The report describes the initial design and the preliminary background exploration, subsequent development, and feasibility testing of methods for conducting a continuing National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). Selected feasibility study findings are presented to illustrate collected data and suggest kinds of information that may be…

  6. Social Background, Personality and Attitudinal Factors Influencing the Decision to Volunteer and Level of Involvement among Adult 4-H Leaders. Summary of Research 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohs, Frederick R.; Warmbrod, J. Robert

    A study was conducted to investigate, using a portion of Smith's Sequential Specificity Model, the relationship between social background, personality, and attitudinal factors and the participation of adult volunteers in the 4-H program in Ohio. Data were collected from a sample of 300 adult 4-H volunteers in Ohio through a mailed questionnaire; a…

  7. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progesss on NASA's Human Exploration Systems and Mobility Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps: Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Technology and Capability Readiness Levels. Relationships Between Roadmaps. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Team Progress to Date).

  8. Extragalactic Backgrounds after Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, Olivier

    Among the potentially most important results of cosmology in the last decade is the realization that the star formation rate at redshifts greater than 1 is higher than at present by about an order of magnitude, and that half of the energy produced since the surface of last scattering has been absorbed and reemitted by dust. Most of the light produced by stars at high redshifts thus reaches us in the far infrared. This radiation is referred to as the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and is emitted primarily by dusty, star-forming galaxies at redshift z=1-4. Embedded in far infrared emission of the CIB is the history of star formation, dust production, and the growth of large scale structures. Our research project aims at shedding new light on several extragalactic backgrounds investigated by NASA surveys, in light of recent observational progresses in mapping the CIB. Most lately, two new missions, Planck and Herschel, released ground-breaking measurements of the CIB. These measurements are an order of magnitude deeper and wider than previous ones, and they are literally revolutionizing the field. Our understanding of these data is now advanced enough for us to leverage our measurement of the CIB in Planck and Herschel, in order to extract new scientific insights from past missions. We propose to combine Planck and Herschel public data with archival data from WISE, GALEX, Chandra and Fermi. Not only original, the impact of our research project should be immediate. Using the CIB as a full sky, bright, high redshift reference extragalactic background, we will exploit the underlying physical connection among these various cosmological datasets. We expect new insights about the CIB, but also about the multiple extragalactic backgrounds probed in combination with it. In particular, we will investigate the cosmic star formation history at a period where it peaks, and because the clustering of matter is driven by dark matter, the measurement of the CIB clustering also

  9. Background sources at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Background on the development of a nonfunded cooperative agreement between USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding (CDCB)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers, dairy record providers, breed associations, artificial-insemination companies, and the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, which is part of USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in Beltsville, Maryland, have collaborated for many decades to provide the dairy industry with i...

  11. Creating High-Quality Health Care Workplaces. A Background Paper for Canadian Policy Research Networks' National Roundtable (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, October 29, 2001). CPRN Work Network Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehoorn, Mieke; Lowe, Graham S.; Rondeau, Kent V.; Schellenberg, Grant; Wagar, Terry H.

    Insights from a variety of research streams were synthesized to identify the key ingredients of a high-quality work environment in Canada's health care sector and ways of achieving high-quality workplaces in the sector. The following sets of interacting factors were considered: (1) the work environment and the human resource practices that shape…

  12. Pathways to Banking: Improving Access for Students from Non-Privileged Backgrounds. Research by The Boston Consulting Group for the Sutton Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    The financial services sector is a vital and vibrant part of a national economy but it recruits from a small and relatively privileged segment of society. This report, which summarises research from the Boston Consulting Group (BCG), shows for the first time the extent of the challenge. The Sutton Trust's "Pathways to Banking" programme…

  13. International Congress on Universal Availability of Publications (Paris, France, May 3-7, 1982). Summary of Research of the UAP Programme. Background Document N.1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The summaries of seven research projects concerned with the universal availability of publications (UAP) which are presented describe (1) a literature review on the availability of book materials through commercial channels, particularly in developing countries, by John Clews and others; (2) a concomitant survey, by Priscilla Oakeshott, of…

  14. Is There Any Interaction between Background Knowledge and Language Proficiency That Affects "TOEFL iBT"® Reading Performance? TOEFL iBT® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-18. ETS Research Report RR-12-22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Yao Zhang; Liu, Ou Lydia

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the interaction between test takers' background knowledge and language proficiency on their performance on the "TOEFL iBT"® reading section. Test takers with the target content background knowledge (the focal groups) and those without (the reference groups) were identified for each of the 5 selected…

  15. 45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background rights. 650.16 Section 650.16 Public... Background rights. The Foundation will acquire rights to a research performer's pre-existing technology only... of the cognizant Program Manager, will negotiate a background rights provision. If the...

  16. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  17. Feasibility of Epidemiologic Research on Nonauditory Health Effects of Residential Aircraft Noise Exposure. Volume 2. Background, General Process Model and Potential Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-27

    are not feasible for ethical and practical reasons. Intervention trials and adventitious experiments in which exposure changes for other than research...sort is worth consideration only for the sake of exposition, since such a study is unattainable for pragmatic and ethical reasons (cf. Section 2.2.2.7...feasible. Neither ethical considerations nor the cooperation of potential participants allows random assignment of individuals to geographic areas

  18. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  19. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; ...

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  20. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Transformational Spaceport and Range Technologies Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelly, Darin M.

    2005-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the National Research Council's diaglog to assess progress on NASA's transformational spaceport and range technologies capability roadmap development is presented. The topics include: 1) Agency Goals and Objectives; 2) Strategic Planning Transformation; 3) Advanced Planning Organizational Roles; 4) Public Involvement in Strategic Planning; 5) Strategic Roadmaps; 6) Strategic Roadmaps Schedule; 7) Capability Roadmaps; 8) Capability Charter; 9) Process for Team Selection; 10) Capability Roadmap Development Schedule Overview; 11) Purpose of NRC Review; 12) Technology Readiness Levels; 13) Capability Readiness Levels; 14) Crosswalk Matrix Trans Spaceport & Range; 15) Example linkage to other roadmaps; 16) Capability Readiness Levels Defined; and 17) Crosswalk Matrix Ratings Work In-progress.

  1. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  2. The Athena Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Lotti, Simone; Macculi, Claudio; Molendi, Silvano; Eraerds, Tanja; Laurent, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Estimating, reducing and controlling the residual particle background is fundamental for achieving the objectives of several science topics of Athena, in particular those connected with background dominated observations of faint and/or diffuse sources. This requires assessing the particle environment in L2, propagating the various particle components throughout the mirror, spacecraft, and instruments via proper modelling and simulations of various physical processes, implementing design and h/w measures at instrument and mission level to reduce the un-rejected background and identifying proper calibration methods to control the background variations. Likewise, an adequate knowledge of the XRB, made of components that may vary spatially or temporally, is required as well. Here we will review the present status of the background knowledge, and summarize the activities on-going within Athena at various levels.

  3. [The practical theory of occupational health planning: Part One--The theoretical background of the target population setting and needs assessment procedures (OPST research report 2)].

    PubMed

    Jahng, D J; Hashimoto, H; Furuki, K

    1996-09-01

    The OPSS is an 8 stage program which was developed as a practical tool for occupational health services planning. This paper examines the theoretical aspects of the first two stages. The OPSS is a planning tool with a theoretical grounding in OHP (The practical theory of Occupational Health Planning). The target population setting has two functions. The first is to establish the physician's first-hypothesis to design a program. The other is deciding the group which has an occupational health problem in a company. The Needs Assessment helps to clarify the physician's hypothesis, which may be weak due to the limited knowledge of various demands of the employees and senior management. On the other hand, the risks and needs vary according to what kind of expert looks at a situation. To date, occupational physicians have been limited to their medical background in determining only risks and needs. However, understanding the various stakeholders in a particular environment means that any project will be more relevant to all concerned. Another limitation of the occupational physicians hypothesis can be the lack of objective data to support it. This makes it difficult to persuade senior management to sign on to a program. The Needs Assessment procedure with OHQ steps is useful in a number of ways. The Observation step allows for finding risks and needs from various situations in the company from the occupational physician's viewpoint (prehypothesis setting). Hearing is for understanding the subject's demands and finding common themes in the company (final hypothesis setting). Finally, the questionnaire step is for providing objectivity of these common themes and quantitative data for the next Priority Setting procedure. The BITOP (Budget, Information, Time, Order, key Person) has been proposed as a way to diagnose the structural and functional aspects of an organization's procedures. Budget tracks the financial flow through the organization, while Information identifies

  4. The cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dar, Arnon

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

  5. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  6. Relationships between the academic community and the pharmaceutical industry: the legislative background and its effect on spending on medical research and development.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J H

    1996-12-01

    Patent legislation governing drugs has evolved through a series of amendments to the Patent Act. From 1923 until 1993, Canada operated a system of "compulsory licensing," allowing generic copies of patented medicines to be manufactured within Canada and, by 1969, to be imported. In 1987, the act was amended (Bill C-22) to provide patented medicines with a fixed period of market protection before a compulsory license could be issued and to create a price review board to monitor and control prices charged. In return for patent protection, brand-name drug companies promised to invest a growing percentage of sales revenue in research and development in Canada. A 1993 amendment to the Patent Act (Bill C-91) brought a fundamental change to the legislation by abolishing the system of compulsory licensing and applying general patent regulations to medicines, thereby bringing Canadian law into line with that of its trading partners. It is now illegal to sell a copy of a drug until the patent expires (20 years after the patent is filed). This means that marketed drugs are protected for 8 to 13 years, since drug development takes a large proportion of the life of the patent. Since this amendment was passed, the brand-name drug companies have made major contributions to research and development in Canada, increasing from 6.5% of sales revenue in 1987 to 11.6% in 1994. Major irritants in the legislation remain. Generic drug companies have complained about "linkage regulations" that allow brand-name drug companies to legally challenge generic drug production on the basis of alleged infringements of linked patents, delaying the marketing of the generic drug. The act also prohibits Canadian manufacturers from exporting a generic drug to a country where it is not protected if it still protected in Canada. Brand-name manufacturers want some means of patent term restoration if regulatory authorities prolong the time taken before marketing a drug. This legislation is being reviewed by

  7. Notification: Background Investigation Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY15-0029, February 26, 2015. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to begin field work for our audit of background investigation services.

  8. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J. F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Ritz, S.; Mizuno, T.

    2007-07-12

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  9. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J.F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Mizuno, T.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-17

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  10. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  11. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  12. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  13. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Ross, Donna; Grant, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on their ability to ask questions and wonder--both key components of inquiry. In this article,…

  14. Personnel Security Research - Prescreening and Background Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    of aptitude scores in predicting training success . While the accuracy of suitability screening would be further improved through use of the measures...or physical defects? i. Ever received medical or psychological treatment for emotional problems? j. Ever exhibited any behavior or activities which...specialties as communications, intelligence , and nuclear weapons duties. Defense tries to meet its personnel security objectives primarily through a number

  15. In Researcher's Background, Some Warning Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2009-01-01

    When Robert D. Felner applied to become dean of education at the University of Louisville in 2003, he carried a genuinely impressive vita. But two of the most recent large grants listed on that vita could not have survived close scrutiny--and it isn't clear that Louisville's search committee scrutinized them at all. First, the impressive part:…

  16. 45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Background rights. 650.16 Section 650.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.16 Background rights. The Foundation will acquire rights to a research performer's pre-existing technology...

  17. Ultraviolet Background Radiation (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    5.4 Apollo-Soyuz 3 5 5.5 Evidence for Scattering From Dust ? 3 8 5.6 More Evidence For Scattering From Dust ? 4 0 5.7 More Observations 4 2...Emission from cold interstellar dust . This has been observed by IRAS as the 100 u.m cosmic cirrus (64). The existence of such dust at moderate and... DUST 4 6 CONCLUSIONS 4 7 6.1 Spectral Structure in the Diffuse 4 7 Ultraviolet Background 6.2 Is There Light Scattered From Dust ? 4 7 6.3

  18. Cosmic Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidharth, B. G.; Valluri, S. R.

    2015-08-01

    It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a "condensation" type of phenomenon corresponding to a peak intensity. The observed cosmic background radiation can be explained from this standpoint. We have obtained analogous results by extremization of the occupation number for photons with the use of the Lambert W function. Some of the interesting applications of this function are briefly discussed in the context of graphene which exhibits an interesting two dimensional structure with several characteristic properties and diverse practical applications.

  19. The Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  20. 45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.16 Background rights. The Foundation will acquire rights to a research performer's pre-existing technology only in exceptional circumstances where, due to the nature of the research being supported, the...

  1. The cosmic background explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Gulkis, G. ); Lubin, P.M. ); Meyer, S.S. ); Silverberg, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Late last year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched its first satellite dedicated to the study of phenomena related to the origins of the universe. The satellite, called the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), carries three complementary detectors that will make fundamental measurements of the celestial radiation. Part of that radiation is believed to have originated in processes that occurred at the very dawn of the universe. By measuring the remnant radiation at wavelengths from one micrometer to one centimeter across the entire sky, scientists hope to be able to solve many mysteries regarding the origin and evolution of the early universe. Unfortunately, these radiative relics of the early universe are weak and veiled by local astrophysical and terrestrial sources of radiation. The wavelengths of the various cosmic components may also overlap, thereby making the understanding of the diffuse celestial radiation a challenge. Nevertheless, the COBE instruments, with their full-sky coverage, high sensitivity to a wide range of wavelengths and freedom from interference from the earth's atmosphere, will constitute for astrophysicists an observatory of unprecedented sensitivity and scope. The interesting cosmic signals will then be separated from one another and from noncosmic radiation sources by a comprehensive analysis of the data.

  2. Historical background of itch.

    PubMed

    Weisshaar, Elke; Eckart, Wolfgang U; Bernhard, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Itch as a disease, and especially as a symptom, was the object of medical and scientific curiosity for centuries. The reluctance of historians to focus on the history of itch relates to its nature as a subjective symptom. After all, how can historians have known what itch really felt like in previous centuries? Since the establishment of dermatology as an independent discipline of medicine in the middle of the nineteenth century, itch has become a subject of investigation in its own right. This chapter summarises research we conducted on the medical history of itch in ancient medicine and up through the twentieth century.

  3. Environmental Background Measurement Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-15

    harmonic frequencies. In an effort to be quantity to use in studying this phenomena. In Fig. objective , the spacing of these reference lines has been 9b...waves, mesoseale eddies, and other phenomena. A current objective of considerable importance to both the Naval and the research communities is to...WAVENUMBER(CP) SLANT WAvENUMERCPM) 70 "t: UPWARD 70kNz DOWN WARID 3%1"ENERGY PROPAGATION a 01ENERGY PROPAGATION4 _jTP 06 F1 0 T1083 F1 I ~jj 03 0n0 ..) Cj

  4. Integrable Background Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderbank, David M. J.

    2014-03-01

    This work has its origins in an attempt to describe systematically the integrable geometries and gauge theories in dimensions one to four related to twistor theory. In each such dimension, there is a nondegenerate integrable geometric structure, governed by a nonlinear integrable differential equation, and each solution of this equation determines a background geometry on which, for any Lie group G, an integrable gauge theory is defined. In four dimensions, the geometry is selfdual conformal geometry and the gauge theory is selfdual Yang-Mills theory, while the lower-dimensional structures are nondegenerate (i.e., non-null) reductions of this. Any solution of the gauge theory on a k-dimensional geometry, such that the gauge group H acts transitively on an ℓ-manifold, determines a (k+ℓ)-dimensional geometry (k+ℓ≤4) fibering over the k-dimensional geometry with H as a structure group. In the case of an ℓ-dimensional group H acting on itself by the regular representation, all (k+ℓ)-dimensional geometries with symmetry group H are locally obtained in this way. This framework unifies and extends known results about dimensional reductions of selfdual conformal geometry and the selfdual Yang-Mills equation, and provides a rich supply of constructive methods. In one dimension, generalized Nahm equations provide a uniform description of four pole isomonodromic deformation problems, and may be related to the {SU}(∞) Toda and dKP equations via a hodograph transformation. In two dimensions, the {Diff}(S^1) Hitchin equation is shown to be equivalent to the hyperCR Einstein-Weyl equation, while the {SDiff}(Σ^2) Hitchin equation leads to a Euclidean analogue of Plebanski's heavenly equations. In three and four dimensions, the constructions of this paper help to organize the huge range of examples of Einstein-Weyl and selfdual spaces in the literature, as well as providing some new ! ones. The nondegenerate reductions have a long ancestry. More ! recently

  5. Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-27

    Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments David F. Burrelli Specialist in Military Manpower Policy Barbara Salazar Torreon...COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Recent Developments Congressional Research Service Summary The military retirement system is a noncontributory, defined benefit system that has

  6. Exploiting background knowledge in automated discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Aronis, J.M.; Buchanan, B.G.; Provost, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    Prior work in automated scientific discovery has been successful in finding patterns in data, given that a reasonably small set of mostly relevant features is specified. The work described in this paper places data in the context of large bodies of background knowledge. Specifically, data items are connected to multiple databases of background knowledge represented as inheritance networks. The system has made a practical impact on botanical toxicology research, which required linking examples of cases of plant exposures to databases of botanical, geographical, and climate background knowledge.

  7. Investigating the Relationship between Test-Taker Background Characteristics and Test Performance in a Heterogeneous English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) Test Population: A Factor Analytic Approach. Research Report. ETS RR-15-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manna, Venessa F.; Yoo, Hanwook

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the heterogeneity in the English-as-a-second-language (ESL) test population by modeling the relationship between test-taker background characteristics and test performance as measured by the "TOEFL iBT"® using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with covariate approach. The background characteristics studied…

  8. 45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Background rights. 650.16 Section 650.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.16... in exceptional circumstances where, due to the nature of the research being supported, the...

  9. 45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Background rights. 650.16 Section 650.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.16... in exceptional circumstances where, due to the nature of the research being supported, the...

  10. Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…

  11. Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was made of the UF6 fueled gas core reactor as a function of cavity reactor criticality and fluid mechanics tests, investigations of uranium optical emission spectra, and radiant heat transfer power plant studies. Data are also given on nuclear and thermodynamic cycle analysis.

  12. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications

    PubMed Central

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-01-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB. PMID:27069645

  13. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications.

    PubMed

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB.

  14. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  15. BOOK REVIEW: The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Peter

    2009-08-01

    With the successful launch of the European Space Agency's Planck satellite earlier this year the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is once again the centre of attention for cosmologists around the globe. Since its accidental discovery in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, this relic of the Big Bang has been subjected to intense scrutiny by generation after generation of experiments and has gradually yielded up answers to the deepest questions about the origin of our Universe. Most recently, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has made a full-sky analysis of the pattern of temperature and polarization variations that helped establish a new standard cosmological model, confirmed the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and provided strong evidence that there was an epoch of primordial inflation. Ruth Durrer's book reflects the importance of the CMB for future developments in this field. Aimed at graduate students and established researchers, it consists of a basic introduction to cosmology and the theory of primordial perturbations followed by a detailed explanation of how these manifest themselves as measurable variations in the present-day radiation field. It then focuses on the statistical methods needed to obtain accurate estimates of the parameters of the standard cosmological model, and finishes with a discussion of the effect of gravitational lensing on the CMB and on the evolution of its spectrum. The book apparently grew out of various lecture notes on CMB anisotropies for graduate courses given by the author. Its level and scope are well matched to the needs of such an audience and the presentation is clear and well-organized. I am sure that this book will be a useful reference for more senior scientists too. If I have a criticism, it is not about what is in the book but what is omitted. In my view, one of the most exciting possibilities for future CMB missions, including Planck, is the possibility that they might discover physics

  16. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  17. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-06-01

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  18. Background events in microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J.; Wargelin, B.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements have been made to assess the characteristics and origins of background events in microchannel plates (MCPs). An overall background rate of about 0.4 events/sq cm persec has been achieved consistently for MCPs that have been baked and scrubbed. The temperature and gain of the MCPs are found to have no significant effect on the background rate. Detection of 1.46-MeV gamma rays from the MCP glass confirms the presence of K-40, with a concentration of 0.0007 percent, in MCP glass. It is shown that beta decay from K-40 is sufficient to cause the background rate and spectrum observed. Anticoincidence measurements indicate the the background rate caused by cosmic ray interactions is small (less than 0.016 events/sq cm per sec).

  19. Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Hurley, D. L.; Wang, B. S.

    2013-08-08

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3π muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO{sub 2} for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

  20. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorovits, B.; Abt, I.; Laubenstein, M.; Volynets, O.

    2011-08-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10 -5 counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q-value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of 22Na, 26Al, 226Ra and 228Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  1. Research on Youth Employment and Employability Development. Youth Employment Policies and Programs for the 1890s. Background Analysis for the Department of Labor Employment and Training Components of the Youth Act of 1980. Youth Knowledge Development Report 2.12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Robert

    Prepared as a basic background document for an interagency task force on youth employment, this report analyzes youth employment policies and programs for the 1980s. The main body of the report consists of three sections. Section 1, entitled "Policy Perspectives on the Youth Employment Problem," contains a discussion of pathways to…

  2. Analysis of the XRS background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Boyce, K. R.; Brown, G. V.; Cottam, J.; Fujimoto, R.; Furusho, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; McCammon, D.; Mitsuda, K.

    2005-01-01

    Background counts on the XRS Calorimeter spectrometer of Astro-E2 have several sources, including primary cosmic rays and secondary particles interacting with the pixels and with the silicon structure of the array. After rejecting events coincident between pixels or between a pixel and the anti-coincidence detector behind the calorimeter array, the residual background on the ground in the 0.1 - 10 keV band is 1e-3 counts/s (8e-3 counts/s/sq cm). We will present the details of the ground background events and the rejection criteria required lo remove them while minimizing deadtime. We will also present preliminary analysis of the in-orbit background.

  3. Greater need for background checks.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1999-11-01

    The push is on for a more uniform system of background checks for health care employees. Studies and crimes against patients have prompted regulation by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), state governments, hospitals, and Congress.

  4. Robust background modelling in DIALS

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, James M.; Winter, Graeme; Waterman, David G.; Fuentes-Montero, Luis; Gildea, Richard J.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2016-01-01

    A method for estimating the background under each reflection during integration that is robust in the presence of pixel outliers is presented. The method uses a generalized linear model approach that is more appropriate for use with Poisson distributed data than traditional approaches to pixel outlier handling in integration programs. The algorithm is most applicable to data with a very low background level where assumptions of a normal distribution are no longer valid as an approximation to the Poisson distribution. It is shown that traditional methods can result in the systematic underestimation of background values. This then results in the reflection intensities being overestimated and gives rise to a change in the overall distribution of reflection intensities in a dataset such that too few weak reflections appear to be recorded. Statistical tests performed during data reduction may mistakenly attribute this to merohedral twinning in the crystal. Application of the robust generalized linear model algorithm is shown to correct for this bias. PMID:27980508

  5. Background simulations and shielding calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2011-04-01

    Key improvements in the sensitivity of the underground particle astrophysics experiments can only be achieved if the radiation causing background events in detectors is well understood and proper measures are taken to suppress it. The background radiation arising from radioactivity and cosmic-ray muons is discussed here together with the methods of its suppression. Different shielding designs are considered to attenuate gamma-rays and neutrons coming from radioactivity in rock and lab walls. Purity of materials used in detector construction is analysed and the background event rates due to the presence of radioactive isotopes in detector components are discussed. Event rates in detectors caused by muon-induced neutrons with and without active veto systems are presented leading to the requirements for the depth of an underground laboratory and the efficiency of the veto system.

  6. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  7. Background music and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance.

  8. Generative electronic background music system

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  9. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, K. E-mail: nkyohei@u-fukui.ac.jp; Iida, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; and others

    2015-08-17

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using {sup 48}Ca in CaF{sub 2} crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  10. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  11. Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S.

    2008-01-01

    Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster…

  12. Ambient background particulate composition, outdoor natural background: interferents/clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno, Dorothea

    2012-06-01

    It has proven a very difficult task to discriminate an actual BW threat from the natural occurring ambient particulate aerosol, which includes a significant fraction of particles consisting of mixed mineral and biological material. The interferent particles [clutter] (bio and non bio) concentration varies widely both by location, weather and season and diurnally. Naturally occurring background particulates are composed of fungal and bacterial spores both fragments and components, plant fragments and debris, animal fragments and debris, all of which may be associated with inert dust or combustion material. Some or all of which could also be considered to be an interferent to a biological warfare detector and cause these biodector systems to cause False Alarms by non specific BW bio detectors. I will share analysis of current long term background data sets.

  13. Background and introduction: Chapter 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2010-01-01

    The Salt Cedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; hereafter the Act) directs the Department of the Interior to submit a report to Congress1 that includes an assessment of several issues surrounding these two nonnative trees, now dominant components of the vegetation along many rivers in the Western United States. Specifically, the Act calls for “…an assessment of the extent of salt cedar and Russian olive infestation on public and private land in the western United States,” which shall“A) consider existing research on methods to control salt cedar and Russian olive trees; B) consider the feasibility of reducing water consumption by salt cedar and Russian olive trees; C) consider methods of and challenges associated with the revegetation or restoration of infested land; and D) estimate the costs of destruction of salt cedar and Russian olive trees, related biomass removal, and revegetation or restoration and maintenance of the infested land.”Finally, the Act calls for discussion of“(i) long-term management and funding strategies…that could be implemented by Federal, State, tribal, and private land managers and owners to address the infestation by salt cedar and Russian olive; (ii) any deficiencies in the assessment or areas for additional study; and (iii) any field demonstrations that would be useful in the effort to control salt cedar and Russian olive.”The primary intent of this report is to provide the science assessment called for under the Act. A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. In addition to relying on the direction provided under Section C of the Act, the authors of this report also drew upon the detailed list of considerations presented in Section E of the Act to guide development of more expansive discussions of topics relevant to saltcedar and Russian olive control

  14. The cosmic infrared background experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James; Battle, John; Cooray, Asantha; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Keating, Brian; Lange, Andrew; Lee, Dae-Hea; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Pak, Soojong; Renbarger, Tom; Sullivan, Ian; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Watabe, Toyoki

    2006-03-01

    The extragalactic background, based on absolute measurements reported by DIRBE and IRTS at 1.2 and 2.2 μm, exceeds the brightness derived from galaxy counts by up to a factor 5. Furthermore, both DIRBE and the IRTS report fluctuations in the near-infrared sky brightness that appear to have an extra-galactic origin, but are larger than expected from local ( z = 1-3) galaxies. These observations have led to speculation that a new class of high-mass stars or mini-quasars may dominate primordial star formation at high-redshift ( z ˜ 10-20), which, in order to explain the excess in the near-infrared background, must be highly luminous but produce a limited amount of metals and X-ray photons. Regardless of the nature of the sources, if a significant component of the near-infrared background comes from first-light galaxies, theoretical models generically predict a prominent near-infrared spectral feature from the redshifted Lyman cutoff, and a distinctive fluctuation power spectrum. We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7″ to 2°, where a first-light galaxy signature is expected to peak, over a range of angular scales poorly covered by previous experiments. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by the IRTS arise from first-light galaxies or have a local origin. In a short rocket flight CIBER has sensitivity to probe fluctuations 100× fainter than IRTS/DIRBE, with sufficient resolution to remove local-galaxy correlations. By jointly observing regions of the sky studied by Spitzer and ASTRO-F, CIBER will build a multi-color view of the near

  15. Ambient Background Particulate Compositiion Outdoor Natural Background: Interferents/Clutter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    the biological warfare detection world), you must conduct long term ( seasonally ) particulate monitoring. Anecdotal short term monitoring attempts...particulates (interferents or clutter) in the lower atmosphere at four locations along a transect in the UK for 2 years. In addition, seasonal , diurnal...CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND 9 2. UK AEROSOL BIODIVERSITY STUDY-2 YEARS, FOUR LOCATIONS. FOUR SEASONS 10 3. DoD SPONSORED ANAL YSIS OF UK

  16. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  17. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-21

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL31872 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background...00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background and Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background and

  19. WFC3/UVIS Sky Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, Sylvia; Anderson, Jay

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the on-orbit background levels present in WFC3/UVIS full-frame images. The results are based on nearly all standard readout images taken since the installation of WFC3 on HST in May 2009, with a relatively small number of exclusions e.g. images with obvious anomalous backgrounds (such as extended targets filling the field of view) or those taken with the quad filters (different bandpass in each amp). Comparisons are provided to estimates from the Exposure Time Calculator (ETC). We anticipate these results to be helpful in fine-tuning the level of post-flash required to achieve the optimum balance of charge transfter efficiency (CTE) loss mitigation versus noise penalty. Observers considering the use of post-flash should refer to the White Paper (MacKenty & Smith 2012) on the CTE WWW page (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/wfc3/ins_performance/CTE/).

  20. The Cosmic Background Explorer /COBE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, under study by NASA since 1976, will map the spectrum and the angular distribution of diffuse radiation from the universe over the entire wavelength range from 1 micron to 1.3 cm. It carries three instruments: a set of differential microwave radiometers (DMR) at 23.5, 31.4, 53, and 90GHz, a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 1 to 100 per cm, and a diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) covering 1 to 300 microns. They will use the ideal space environment, a one year lifetime, and standard instrument techniques to achieve orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity and accuracy, providing a fundamental data base for cosmology. The instruments are united by common purpose as well as similar environmental and orbital requirements. The data from all three experiments will be analyzed together, to distinguish nearby sources of radiation from the cosmologically interesting diffuse background radiations. Construction is planned to begin in 1982 for a launch in 1988.

  1. Heritage Learners in the Chinese Language Classroom: Home Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Yun

    2006-01-01

    Studies from information-processing and language comprehension research have reported that background knowledge facilitates reading and writing. By comparing Chinese language development of heritage students who had home background in Chinese language and culture with those who did not, this study found that heritage learners did significantly…

  2. Background independence in a background dependent renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labus, Peter; Morris, Tim R.; Slade, Zöe H.

    2016-07-01

    Within the derivative expansion of conformally reduced gravity, the modified split Ward identities are shown to be compatible with the flow equations if and only if either the anomalous dimension vanishes or the cutoff profile is chosen to have a power-law form. No solutions exist if the Ward identities are incompatible. In the compatible case, a clear reason is found for why Ward identities can still forbid the existence of fixed points; however, for any cutoff profile, a background independent (and parametrization independent) flow equation is uncovered. Finally, expanding in vertices, the combined equations are shown generically to become either overconstrained or highly redundant beyond the six-point level.

  3. Libya: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-04

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL33142 Libya: Background...insurance and guarantees from the Export- Import Bank or its agents (H. Rept. 109-265, November 2, 2005). CRS-12 24 Khaled El- Deeb ,”Gadhafi: Regrets...Khaled El Deeb , “Libya Pardons More Than 1,600 Criminals in Prison to Celebrate Gadhafi Coup,” Associated Press, Sept. 2, 2005. Minister Abd Al Rahman

  4. Teaching about natural background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-07-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also demonstrated to emphasize the important role of shielding in radiation protection. The measurements were carried out with a Geiger-Muller (GM)-based dosimeter and a NaI scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer, which are normally available in physics laboratories. Radioactivity in household materials was demonstrated using a gas mantle as an example.

  5. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  6. Low Background Assay Results for LZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver-Mallory, Kelsey; Thomas, Keenan; Lux-Zeplin Collaboration; Berkeley Low Background Facility Team

    2016-03-01

    The next generation dark matter experiment LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) requires careful control of intrinsic radioactivity in all critical detector components in order to reach its unprecedented target sensitivity to Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs): 2 ×10-48 cm2 at 50 GeV/c2. Appropriate material selection is essential to meeting this goal, and an extensive campaign of low background screening is currently being carried out using assay devices at the Sanford Underground Research Facility and the Boulby Underground Laboratory. We will present results from this work, including measurements for the Ti cryostat, PMT bases, PMT raw materials, PTFE, and other components. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Award Number DE-AC02-05CH11231, and is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1106400.

  7. Video coding with dynamic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

  8. Texture induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

    1994-03-01

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  9. Background illumination and automated perimetry.

    PubMed

    Klewin, K M; Radius, R L

    1986-03-01

    Visual field function in the right and left eyes of 31 normal volunteers was evaluated with an automated projection perimeter (OCTOPUS). Serial visual field evaluations were repeated in these same eyes with neutral filters of increasing optical density. We compared the results of threshold determinations with the different neutral filters in place before the examined eye. Significant reduction in threshold sensitivity at several test spots throughout the central 30 degrees visual field was seen with neutral density filters of 0.5 log units or greater. The low level of background illumination of the OCTOPUS perimeter (4.0 apostilbs) may allow relatively minor reduction in light transmission by the ocular media to produce significant changes in the recorded level of threshold sensitivity during visual field evaluation.

  10. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  11. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  12. Deleterious background selection with recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R.R.; Kaplan, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. How Do Different Background Variables Predict Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallio, Manne; Metsärinne, Mika

    2017-01-01

    This article is a part of a research project aimed to find out how different background variables are related to learning outcomes in school subject Sloyd as found in the national evaluation of the Finnish National Board of Education. Results from this larger research project were previously published in this journal, where pupils' readiness for…

  14. Experiences of School Belonging for Young Children with Refugee Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Due, Clemence; Riggs, Damien W.; Augoustinos, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Previous research with adolescents with refugee backgrounds living in countries of resettlement has found that school belonging has an impact on a range of well-being and developmental outcomes, including mental health, peer relationships, self-esteem and self-efficacy, and academic achievement. However, very little research has explored school…

  15. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  16. The Diffuse Extreme Ultraviolet Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, John; Slavin, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    Observations of the diffuse EUV background towards 138 different directions using the spectrometers aboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (EUVE) have been combined into a spectrum from 150A to 730A and represent an effective exposure of 18 million seconds. There is no significant evidence of any non-local line flux in the resultant spectrum such as that from a hot coronal plasma. These results are inconsistent with the Wisconsin C and B broad-band surveys assuming the source is a logT = 5.8 - 6.1 hot plasma in ionization equilibrium with solar abundances, confirming the previous result of Jelinksy, Vallerga and Edelstein) (hereafter Paper 1) using an observation along the ecliptic with the same instrument. To make these results consistent with the previous broad-band surveys, the plasma responsible for the emission must either be depleted in Fe by a factor of approximately 6, be behind an absorbing slab of neutral H with a column of 2 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, or not be in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE). One such non-CIE model (Breitswerdt and Schmutzier) that explains the soft x-ray results is also inconsistent with this EUV data.

  17. CT detector evaluation with complex random backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Helen; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2012-02-01

    Modern computed tomography (CT) uses detector arrays consisting of large numbers of photodiodes with scintil- lator crystals. The number of pixels in the array can play an important role in system performance. Considerable research has been performed on signal detection in flat backgrounds under various conditions, but little has been done with complex, random backgrounds in CT; our work investigates in particular the effect of the number of detector elements on signal detection by a channelized Hotelling observer in a complex background. For this project, a simulated three-dimensional phantom is generated with its attenuation equal to that of water. The phantom contains a smaller central section with random variations to simulate random anatomical structures. Cone-beam projections of the phantom are acquired at different angles and used to calculate the covariance matrix of the raw projection data. Laguerre-Gauss channels are used to reduce the dimensionality of each 2D projection and hence the size of the covariance matrix, but the covariance is still a function of two projection angles. A strong cross-channel correlation is observed as a function of the difference between the angles. A signal with known location and size is used, and the performance of the observer is calculated from the channel outputs at multiple projection angles. A contrast-detail diagram is computed for different variables such as signal size, number of incident x-ray photons, pixel size, etc. At a fixed observer signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the contrast required to detect a signal increases dramatically as the signal size decreases.

  18. Logistics background study: underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  19. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported

  20. Radon-related backgrounds in the LUX dark matter search

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, A.; Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Coffey, T.; Currie, A.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Flores, C.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G.D.; Hall, C.; Hertel, S. A.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kazkaz, K.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Mannino, R.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D. -M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J.; Murphy, A. St.J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H.; Neves, F.; Ott, R. A.; Pangilinan, M.; Parker, P. D.; Pease, E. K.; Pech, K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Shutt, T.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; O'Sullivan, K.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D.; Tennyson, B.; Tiedt, D. R.; Tripathi, M.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Walsh, N.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L.H.; Woods, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850’ level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily tagged and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.

  1. Radon-related backgrounds in the LUX dark matter search

    DOE PAGES

    Bradley, A.; Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; ...

    2015-01-01

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850’ level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily taggedmore » and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.« less

  2. Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Background Radiation for Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Ricky; Blackmon, J. C.; Rasco, B. C.; Mumm, H. P.; mTC; NuLat Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Prior measurements of reactor antineutrinos have found a lower flux than expected. Precision measurements of antineutrino energy spectra are important for understanding the anomaly, reactor safeguards, and nuclear nonproliferation. Antineutrino detector designs rely on good characterization of gamma-ray and neutron backgrounds near the reactor core. To study the gamma-ray background at the NIST research reactor, spectra were collected using a 6.25 cm diameter × 5.5 cm germanium detector. We analyzed the measured spectra using simulations of the detector response using the GEANT4 toolkit to determine background fluxes and build a background model that will be used to understand shielding requirements and the impact of backgrounds on potential short-baseline reactor antineutrino studies at NIST. This work supported by the National Science Foundation and LSU.

  3. Chaotic background phase matching signal separation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wu; Hui, Xia; Chen, Wang

    2016-07-01

    Aiming at the problem of separating the useful signal in the chaos background and using the phase matching method, the signal can be extracted effectively from the chaotic background. In this method, the chaotic background is not estimated with phase reconstruction and the geometric analysis of phase space is not required. Through the separation Simulation of the sinusoidal signal in the chaos background and the separation degree analysis, the low signal to noise ratio of the signal in the chaos background can be effectively separated. The effect of removing the chaotic background noise is obvious.

  4. Historical background and anticipated developments.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2002-12-01

    Expression profiling using DNA arrays is often believed to have appeared during the second half of the 1990s, and to be based exclusively on nonisotopic methods. In fact, the first article describing the application of cDNA arrays to expression analysis was published in 1992, relied on radioactive labeling, and was a new development of "high-density" membranes used until then essentially for efficient screening of libraries. Several papers described the use of this technology for simultaneous expression measurement of thousands of genes at the time when the first glass microarrays were published. Simultaneously, oligonucleotide chips, originally developed for resequencing and mutation detection applications, were shown to be capable of expression measurement as well. The three approaches have developed over the years and still coexist, as each of them has specific advantages (and drawbacks); the major issues have become those of data quality, data analysis and storage (ideally in a common public database). Meanwhile, the technology continues to evolve. The most obvious trend is a shift towards using arrays of relatively long oligonucleotides that combine most of the advantages of very long (cDNA) and very short (25-mer) DNA segments. The search for better detection methods, ideally without labeling of the sample, is continuing, although it seems difficult to reach the required sensitivity. New materials for microarray manufacture and new implementations of existing methods have appeared. In addition, the field is progressively becoming segmented into high gene number, low volume (research) applications on the one hand, and low gene number, high throughput (diagnostic) uses on the other.

  5. 16 CFR 1101.1 - General background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General background. 1101.1 Section 1101.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Background § 1101.1 General background....

  6. 16 CFR 1101.1 - General background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General background. 1101.1 Section 1101.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Background § 1101.1 General background. (a) Basic purpose. This rule sets...

  7. Automated video screening for unattended background monitoring in dynamic environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2004-03-01

    This report addresses the development of automated video-screening technology to assist security forces in protecting our homeland against terrorist threats. A threat of specific interest to this project is the covert placement and subsequent remote detonation of bombs (e.g., briefcase bombs) inside crowded public facilities. Different from existing video motion detection systems, the video-screening technology described in this report is capable of detecting changes in the static background of an otherwise, dynamic environment - environments where motion and human activities are persistent. Our goal was to quickly detect changes in the background - even under conditions when the background is visible to the camera less than 5% of the time. Instead of subtracting the background to detect movement or changes in a scene, we subtracted the dynamic scene variations to produce an estimate of the static background. Subsequent comparisons of static background estimates are used to detect changes in the background. Detected changes can be used to alert security forces of the presence and location of potential threats. The results of this research are summarized in two MS Power-point presentations included with this report.

  8. Background Extraction Using Random Walk Image Fusion.

    PubMed

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Wang, Hong-Cyuan; Yeh, Chih-Hsiang; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Lai, Yu-Chi

    2016-12-23

    It is important to extract a clear background for computer vision and augmented reality. Generally, background extraction assumes the existence of a clean background shot through the input sequence, but realistically, situations may violate this assumption such as highway traffic videos. Therefore, our probabilistic model-based method formulates fusion of candidate background patches of the input sequence as a random walk problem and seeks a globally optimal solution based on their temporal and spatial relationship. Furthermore, we also design two quality measures to consider spatial and temporal coherence and contrast distinctness among pixels as background selection basis. A static background should have high temporal coherence among frames, and thus, we improve our fusion precision with a temporal contrast filter and an optical-flow-based motionless patch extractor. Experiments demonstrate that our algorithm can successfully extract artifact-free background images with low computational cost while comparing to state-of-the-art algorithms.

  9. Effect of Atmospheric Background Aerosols on Biological Agent Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA Chemical and Biological Sensor Standards Study. 32 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory, JBPDS...the Research Program on BW Detection, Space General, AD480357, 1966. (U) The goal of this project was to examine the effects of background...that relied on detection of chemiluminescence resulting from a chemical reaction UNCLASSIFIED 8 UNCLASSIFIED with luminal and porphyrin4. During

  10. Observations and Modeling of Seismic Background Noise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon R.

    1993-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The preparation of this report had two purposes. One was to present a catalog of seismic background noise spectra obtained from a worldwide network of seismograph stations. The other purpose was to refine and document models of seismic background noise that have been in use for several years. The second objective was, in fact, the principal reason that this study was initiated and influenced the procedures used in collecting and processing the data. With a single exception, all of the data used in this study were extracted from the digital data archive at the U.S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). This archive dates from 1972 when ASL first began deploying digital seismograph systems and collecting and distributing digital data under the sponsorship of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). There have been many changes and additions to the global seismograph networks during the past twenty years, but perhaps none as significant as the current deployment of very broadband seismographs by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of California San Diego (UCSD) under the scientific direction of the IRIS consortium. The new data acquisition systems have extended the bandwidth and resolution of seismic recording, and they utilize high-density recording media that permit the continuous recording of broadband data. The data improvements and continuous recording greatly benefit and simplify surveys of seismic background noise. Although there are many other sources of digital data, the ASL archive data were used almost exclusively because of accessibility and because the data systems and their calibration are well documented for the most part. Fortunately, the ASL archive contains high-quality data from other stations in addition to those deployed by the USGS. Included are data from UCSD IRIS/IDA stations, the Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) deployed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the

  11. Seeking Solution: High-Performance Computing for Science. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This is the second publication from the Office of Technology Assessment's assessment on information technology and research, which was requested by the House Committee on Science and Technology and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. The first background paper, "High Performance Computing & Networking for…

  12. Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-18

    Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress Andrew Feickert Specialist in Military Ground Forces February 18......Congressional Research Service Summary The Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) is being developed by the Army and the Marine Corps as a successor to the High

  13. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-12

    Issues,” Al Ikhbariyah Satellite Channel in Arabic, Riyadh, (continued...) Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research...their occupied territories, including Al-Quds [ Jerusalem ]. The Crown Prince expressed the kingdom’s condemnation of all Israeli plans to build

  14. NASA's Role in Aeronautics: A Workshop. Volume VII - Background Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    Sixteen background papers presented to a plenary session at a 1980 workshop on the role of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in aeronautics are presented. The central task of the workshop was to examine the relationship of NASA's research capabilities to the state of U.S. aviation and to make recommendations about NASA's…

  15. Department of Defense Food Procurement: Background and Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-25

    Operational Rations, Produce, Food Safety Office, Supplier Support, and the Common Food Management System (CFMS).14 A description of the work of each...Department of Defense Food Procurement: Background and Status Congressional Research Service 5 The Product Services Office is responsible for food safety and

  16. The German Excellence Initiative: Update. Go8 Backgrounder 24a

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    As described in "Go8 Backgrounder 24: Answering the Global Challenge--Experiences from European Excellence Initiatives," Germany began a debate about how to strengthen its position as an excellent location for science and research in 2004. This debate focussed in particular on the competitiveness of the country's universities and…

  17. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-16

    Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi Arabia : Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 4 discovery in 1938 of substantial oil reserves...appropriated by the bill for assistance to Saudi Arabia , subject to national security waiver authority granted to the Secretary of State. This...21 U.S. Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM) ........................................... 22 Saudi Arabian National Guard

  18. Nontraditional Males: Familial Background, Life Satisfaction, and Personality Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenwasser, Shirley Miller; Patterson, William

    Research indicates that the family roles of men are slowly changing, with a small minority of those sampled having primary childcare/household duties. To examine the background, life satisfaction, motives, and personality traits of such men, 16 married, male adults, whose wives were employed outside the home, and who had over 50% of the…

  19. Opening Minds in Canada: Background and Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Heather; Chen, Shu-Ping; Christie, Romie; Dobson, Keith; Kirsh, Bonnie; Knaak, Stephanie; Koller, Michelle; Krupa, Terry; Lauria-Horner, Bianca; Luong, Dorothy; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B; Pietrus, Mike; Szeto, Andrew; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the background and rationale of the approach taken by the Mental Health Commission of Canada’s Opening Minds (OM) Anti-Stigma Initiative. Method: The approach taken by OM incorporates a grassroots, community development philosophy, has clearly defined target groups, uses contact-based education as the central organizing element across interventions, and has a strong evaluative component, so that best practices can be identified, replicated, and disseminated. Contact-based education occurs when people who have experienced a mental illness share their personal story of recovery and hope. Results: OM has acted as a catalyst to develop partnerships between community groups who are undertaking anti-stigma work and an interdisciplinary team of academic researchers in 5 universities who are evaluating the results of these programs. Conclusions: Building partnerships with existing community programs and promoting systematic evaluation using standardized approaches and instruments have contributed to our understanding of best practices in the field of anti-stigma programming. PMID:25565705

  20. Low Background Counting with the Berkeley Low Background Facility and the Black Hills State University Underground Campus at SURF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Alan; Thomas, Keenan; Mount, Brianna; Lesko, Kevin; Smith, Alan; Norman, Eric; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Berkeley Low Background Facility Team; Black Hills State University Underground Campus Team

    2016-09-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility provides a variety of low background gamma spectroscopy services to a variety of projects and experiments. It operates HPGe spectrometers in two unique facilities: a surface low background lab at LBNL and 4,850 feet underground (4300 m.w.e.) at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD in a dedicated cleanroom at the Black Hills State University Underground Campus (BHUC). A large component of the measurements performed by the BLBF are for ultralow background experiments concerned with U, Th, K, and other radioisotopes within candidate construction materials to be used to construct sensitive detectors. Experiments utilizing these needs often include those studying dark matter, neutrinos, or neutrinoless double beta decay. A general overview of the services and facilities will be presented. The BHUC will ultimately host several HPGe low background counting stations and other sensitive instruments from several incoming low background groups and projects that will operate in a coordinated manner to provide low background measurements to the scientific community. An overview and description of the BHUC facility, status, and future plans will also be discussed.

  1. Background removal procedure for rapid scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Czechowski, Tomasz; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2009-01-01

    In rapid scan EPR the changing magnetic field creates a background signal with components at the scan frequency and its harmonics. The amplitude of the background signal increases with scan width and is more significant for weak EPR signals such as are obtained in the presence of magnetic field gradients. A procedure for distinguishing this background from the EPR signal is proposed, mathematically described, and tested for various experimental conditions.

  2. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

  3. Low-background Gamma Spectroscopy at Sanford Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiller, Christopher; Alanson, Angela; Mei, Dongming

    2014-03-01

    Rare-event physics experiments require the use of material with unprecedented radio-purity. Low background counting assay capabilities and detectors are critical for determining the sensitivity of the planned ultra-low background experiments. A low-background counting, LBC, facility has been built at the 4850-Level Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility to perform screening of material and detector parts. Like many rare event physics experiments, our LBC uses lead shielding to mitigate background radiation. Corrosion of lead brick shielding in subterranean installations creates radon plate-out potential as well as human risks of ingestible or respirable lead compounds. Our LBC facilities employ an exposed lead shield requiring clean smooth surfaces. A cleaning process of low-activity silica sand blasting and borated paraffin hot coating preservation was employed to guard against corrosion due to chemical and biological exposures. The resulting lead shield maintains low background contribution integrity while fully encapsulating the lead surface. We report the performance of the current LBC and a plan to develop a large germanium well detector for PMT screening. Support provided by Sd governors research center-CUBED, NSF PHY-0758120 and Sanford Lab.

  4. Glycemic carbohydrate and health: background and synopsis of the symposium.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shuichi

    2003-05-01

    Carbohydrates are global foodstuffs and important energy sources. They also influence many physiologic functions, including brain function and physical performance and are ultimately related to human health. In 1998, ILSI Japan formed a team to conduct research on "The Medical and Nutritional Aspects of Sugars." The research included studies of several new aspects of the metabolic characteristics and physiologic effects of sugars. This paper presents some highlights of our research, including the background of the project, the metabolic characteristics of sugars, and the effect of sugars on glycemic response, memory, and appetite and food intake in humans, etc.

  5. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  6. Predicting detection probabilities for gas mixtures over HSI backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tardiff, Mark F.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence

    2009-12-29

    Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal image data acquired by airborne detectors is an area of ongoing research. This contribution investigates the relative detectability of gas mixtures over different backgrounds and a range of plume temperatures that are warmer and cooler than the ground. The focus of this analysis to support mission planning. When the mission is intended to collect evidence of particular chemicals, the analysis presented is this report can be used to determine conditions under which useful data can be acquired. Initial analyses can be used to determine whether LWIR is useful for the anticipated gas, temperature, and background combination.

  7. Current status of federal involvement in US aquaculture. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The United States lacks a strong national aquaculture policy and supporting federal presence. Over the years, levels and focii of agency involvement in aquaculture development have shifted in response to legislation and its differing interpretations. The National Aquaculture Act (NAA), the primary piece of aquaculture-related legislation, is slated for reauthorization of the NAA and related legislation is the federal role in research and regulation of this emerging industry. Congress requested this Background Paper to provide information on technology issues of immediate importance to the U.S. aquaculture industry. This is a companion piece to the Background Paper on Selected Technology Issues in U.S. Aquaculture.

  8. Eliminate background interference from latent fingerprints using ultraviolet multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Guiqiang

    2014-02-01

    Fingerprints are the most important evidence in crime scene. The technology of developing latent fingerprints is one of the hottest research areas in forensic science. Recently, multispectral imaging which has shown great capability in fingerprints development, questioned document detection and trace evidence examination is used in detecting material evidence. This paper studied how to eliminate background interference from non-porous and porous surface latent fingerprints by rotating filter wheel ultraviolet multispectral imaging. The results approved that background interference could be removed clearly from latent fingerprints by using multispectral imaging in ultraviolet bandwidth.

  9. Research 101: Understanding Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Angela; Bagby, Janet; Sulak, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the Montessori community is increasing its focus on the importance of research. The purpose of this article is to provide some background for critical readers of research related to Montessori education and to provide the tools to implement these findings in one's own Montessori work. Research articles are generally organized in a way…

  10. Measurement of Acceptable Noise Level with Background Music

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acceptable noise level (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background noise level (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background noise has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investigated the relationships between individual ANLs and the familiarity of music samples and between music ANLs and subjective preference. Subjects and Methods Forty-one participants were seperated into two groups according to their ANLs, 29 low-ANL listeners and 12 high-ANL listeners. Using Korean ANL material, the individual ANLs were measured based on the listeners' most comfortable listening level and BNL. The ANLs were measured in six conditions, with different music tempo (fast, slow) and genre (K-pop, pop, classical) in a counterbalanced order. Results Overall, ANLs did not differ by the tempo of background music, but music genre significantly affected individual ANLs. We observed relatively higher ANLs with K-pop music and relatively lower ANLs with classical music. This tendency was similar in both low-ANL and high-ANL groups. However, the subjective ratings of music familiarity and preference affected ANLs differently for low-ANL and high-ANL groups. In contrast to the low-ANL listeners, the ANLs of the high-ANL listeners were significantly affected by music familiarity and preference. Conclusions The genre of background music affected ANLs obtained using background music. The degree of music familiarity and preference appears to be associated with individual susceptibility to background music only for listeners who are greatly annoyed by background noise (high-ANL listeners). PMID:26413573

  11. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  12. Child Care: State Requirements for Background Checks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnoni, Cynthia

    Background checks involve gathering information from state and federal databases to determine if child care providers have a history of child abuse or other criminal convictions that would make them unacceptable for working with children. Background checks include state criminal history checks, state child abuse registry checks, and Federal Bureau…

  13. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  14. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  15. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  16. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of...

  17. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  18. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug...

  19. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  20. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  1. 40 CFR 761.380 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 761.380 Section 761.380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT....380 Background. This subpart provides self-implementing criteria for validating the conditions for...

  2. 32 CFR 763.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 763.3 Section 763.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION RULES GOVERNING PUBLIC ACCESS Entry Regulations for Kaho'olawe Island, Hawaii § 763.3 Background. (a) Kaho'olawe...

  3. 32 CFR 763.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 763.3 Section 763.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION RULES GOVERNING PUBLIC ACCESS Entry Regulations for Kaho'olawe Island, Hawaii § 763.3 Background. (a) Kaho'olawe...

  4. Multiple Scatters in Single Site Gamma Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, J. P.

    2016-09-16

    nEXO aims to reduce its gamma backgrounds by taking advantage of the fact that a large number of gammas that would otherwise be backgrounds will undergo multiple compton scattering in the TPC and produce spatially distinct signals. These multi-sited (MS) events can be excluded from the 0νββ search.

  5. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  6. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  7. 47 CFR 32.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Background. 32.1 Section 32.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.1 Background. The revised Uniform System of Accounts (USOA) is a...

  8. 47 CFR 32.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Background. 32.1 Section 32.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.1 Background. The revised Uniform System of Accounts (USOA) is a...

  9. 47 CFR 32.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Background. 32.1 Section 32.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.1 Background. The revised Uniform System of Accounts (USOA) is a...

  10. A Study of Nuclear Recoil Backgrounds in Dark Matter Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the $1-1000$ GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering from nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating ($\\alpha$, n)yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and development

  11. Career Choices: Linguistic and Educational Socialization of Sudanese-Background High-School Students in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatoss, Aniko; O'Neill, Shirley; Eacersall, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the linguistic and educational socialization of Sudanese refugee-background youth in Australia. The study focussed on exploring Sudanese-background secondary school students' career aspirations, motivations and obstacles. The research used a mixed-method approach including a survey conducted with students studying in six…

  12. The efficiency of reading around learned backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Miguel P.; Pham, Binh T.; Abbey, Craig K.; Zhang, Yani

    2006-03-01

    Most metrics of medical image quality typically treat all variability components of the background as a Gaussian noise process. This includes task based model observers (non-prewhitening matched filter without and with an eye filter, NPW and NPWE; Hotelling and Channelized Hotelling) as well as Fourier metrics of medical image quality based on the noise power spectra. However, many investigators have observed that unlike many of the models/metrics, physicians often can discount signal-looking structures that are part of the normal anatomic background. This process has been referred to as reading around the background or noise. The purpose of this paper is to develop an experimental framework to systematically study the ability of human observers to read around learned backgrounds and compare their ability to that of an optimal ideal observer which has knowledge of the background. We measured human localization performance of one of twelve targets in the presence of a fixed background consisting of randomly placed Gaussians with random contrasts and sizes, and white noise. Performance was compared to a condition in which the test images contained only white noise but with higher contrast. Human performance was compared to standard model observers that treat the background as a Gaussian noise process (NPW, NPWE and Hotelling), a Fourier-based prewhitening matched filter, and an ideal observer. The Hotelling, NPW, NPWE models as well as the Fourier-based prewhitening matched filter predicted higher performance for the white noise test images than the background plus white noise. In contrast, ideal and human performance was higher for the background plus white noise condition. Furthermore, human performance exceeded that of the NPW, NPWE and Hotelling models and reached an efficiency of 19% relative to the ideal observer. Our results demonstrate that for some types of images human signal localization performance is consistent with use of knowledge about the high order

  13. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Stawarz, L.; Lawrence, A.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  14. Cosmic Coincidences: Investigations for Neutron Background Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Heimbach, Craig R.

    2007-01-01

    Two experimental investigations were made in order to reduce background counts in neutron detectors. Each investigation relied upon the fact that neutron background is largely due to cosmic ray interactions with the air and ground. The first attempt was to look at neutron arrival times. Neutron events close in time were taken to have been of a common origin due to cosmic rays. The second investigation was similar, but based on coincident neutron/muon events. The investigations showed only a small effect, not practical for the suppression of neutron background. PMID:27110457

  15. Cosmic Coincidences: Investigations for Neutron Background Suppression.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, Craig R

    2007-01-01

    Two experimental investigations were made in order to reduce background counts in neutron detectors. Each investigation relied upon the fact that neutron background is largely due to cosmic ray interactions with the air and ground. The first attempt was to look at neutron arrival times. Neutron events close in time were taken to have been of a common origin due to cosmic rays. The second investigation was similar, but based on coincident neutron/muon events. The investigations showed only a small effect, not practical for the suppression of neutron background.

  16. Gravitational wave background from rotating neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosado, Pablo A.

    2012-11-01

    The background of gravitational waves produced by the ensemble of rotating neutron stars (which includes pulsars, magnetars, and gravitars) is investigated. A formula for Ω(f) (a function that is commonly used to quantify the background, and is directly related to its energy density) is derived, without making the usual assumption that each radiating system evolves on a short time scale compared to the Hubble time; the time evolution of the systems since their formation until the present day is properly taken into account. Moreover, the formula allows one to distinguish the different parts of the background: the unresolvable (which forms a stochastic background or confusion noise, since the waveforms composing it cannot be either individually observed or subtracted out of the data of a detector) and the resolvable. Several estimations of the background are obtained, for different assumptions on the parameters that characterize neutron stars and their population. In particular, different initial spin period distributions lead to very different results. For one of the models, with slow initial spins, the detection of the background by present or planned detectors can be rejected. However, other models do predict the detection of the background, that would be unresolvable, by the future ground-based gravitational wave detector ET. A robust upper limit for the background of rotating neutron stars is obtained; it does not exceed the detection threshold of two cross-correlated Advanced LIGO interferometers. If gravitars exist and constitute more than a few percent of the neutron star population, then they produce an unresolvable background that could be detected by ET. Under the most reasonable assumptions on the parameters characterizing a neutron star, the background is too faint to be detected. Previous papers have suggested neutron star models in which large magnetic fields (like the ones that characterize magnetars) induce big deformations in the star, which

  17. Effect of background electrolytes on gypsum dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Putnis, Christine; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the dissolution behaviour of gypsum (CaSO4· 2H2O) in aqueous solutions is of primary importance in many natural and technological processes (Pachon-Rodriguez and Colombani, 2007), including the weathering of rocks and gypsum karst formations, deformation of gypsum-bearing rocks, the quality of drinking water, amelioration of soil acidity, scale formation in the oil and gas industry or measurement of water motion in oceanography. Specific ions in aqueous solutions can play important but very different roles on mineral dissolution. For example, the dissolution rates and the morphology of dissolution features may be considerably modified by the presence of the foreign ions in the solution, which adsorb at the surface and hinder the detachment of the ions building the crystal. Dissolution processes in the aqueous environment are closely related to the rearrangement of water molecules around solute ions and the interaction between the solvent molecules themselves. The rearrangement of water molecules with respect to solute species has been recognized as the main kinetic barrier for crystal dissolution in many systems (Davis, 2000; De Yoreo and Dove 2004; Wasylenki et al. 2005). Current research suggest that the control that electrolytes exert on water structure is limited to the local environment surrounding the ions and is not related to long-range electric fields emanating from the ions but results from effects associated with the hydration shell(s) of the ions (Collins et al. 2007) and the ions' capacity to break or structure water (i.e. chaotropic and kosmotropic ions, respectively). These effects will ultimately affect the kinetics of crystal dissolution, and could be correlated with the water affinity of the respective background ions following a trend known as the lyotropic or Hofmeister series (Kunz et al. 2004; Dove and Craven, 2005). In situ macroscopic and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) flow-through dissolution experiments were conducted at a

  18. Physics of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wands, David; Piattella, Oliver F.; Casarini, Luciano

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation provides a remarkable window onto the early universe, revealing its composition and structure. In these lectures we review and discuss the physics underlying the main features of the CMB.

  19. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to...

  20. Expected background in the LZ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2015-08-17

    The LZ experiment, featuring a 7-tonne active liquid xenon target, is aimed at achieving unprecedented sensitivity to WIMPs with the background expected to be dominated by astrophysical neutrinos. To reach this goal, extensive simulations are carried out to accurately calculate the electron recoil and nuclear recoil rates in the detector. Both internal (from target material) and external (from detector components and surrounding environment) backgrounds are considered. A very efficient suppression of background rate is achieved with an outer liquid scintillator veto, liquid xenon skin and fiducialisation. Based on the current measurements of radioactivity of different materials, it is shown that LZ can achieve the reduction of a total background for a WIMP search down to about 2 events in 1000 live days for 5.6 tonne fiducial mass.

  1. 16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... APPLIANCES-NOTIFICATION OF PERFORMANCE AND TECHNICAL DATA § 1406.2 Background. (a) Fire data analyzed by the... mechanical defects or excessive deposits of flammable creosote. (b) After considering the available data...

  2. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... among affected Federal agencies information concerning the telecommunications effects of EMP and... Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  3. Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian C. Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2010-02-01

    We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields.

  4. Ablation Plume Dynamics in a Background Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Amoruso, Salvatore; Schou, Joergen; Lunney, James G.

    2010-10-08

    The expansion of a plume in a background gas of pressure comparable to that used in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been analyzed in terms of the model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (PM). This approach gives a relatively clear and simple description of the essential hydrodynamics during the expansion. The model also leads to an insightful treatment of the stopping behavior in dimensionless units for plumes and background gases of different atomic/molecular masses. The energetics of the plume dynamics can also be treated with this model. Experimental time-of-flight data of silver ions in a neon background gas show a fair agreement with predictions from the PM-model. Finally we discuss the validity of the model, if the work done by the pressure of the background gas is neglected.

  5. Activating Background Knowledge in Reading Comprehension Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Deborah Wells; Rayford, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that a broad age range of students can use some purpose questions as cues to activate background knowledge. Suggest topic familiarity, amount of information presented, and the presence of genre clues as text features affecting schema activation. (NKA)

  6. High-energy radiation background in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rester, A. C., Jr.; Trombka, J. I.

    The radiation environment of near-earth space and its effects on biological and hardware systems are examined in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to particle interactions and propagation, data bases, instrument background and dosimetry, detectors and experimental progress, biological effects, and future needs and strategies. Particular attention is given to angular distributions and spectra of geomagnetically trapped protons in LEO, bremsstrahlung production by electrons, nucleon-interaction data bases for background estimates, instrumental and atmospheric background lines observed by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer, the GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica, space protons and brain tumors, a new radioprotective antioxidative agent, LEO radiation measurements on the Space Station, and particle-background effects on the Hubble Space Telescope and the Lyman FUV Spectroscopic Explorer.

  7. Good clinical practice: historical background and key aspects.

    PubMed

    Otte, Andreas; Maier-Lenz, Herbert; Dierckx, Rudi A

    2005-07-01

    Clinical research trials (both academic and industry sponsored) are increasingly playing a role in various medical disciplines, including younger fields of clinical trial interest, such as nuclear medicine research. Knowledge for and compliance with good clinical practice (GCP) is essential for anyone involved. In this review article, key aspects of GCP and the responsibilities of investigators, monitors and sponsors are described. In addition, a comprehensive overview of the historical background on the development of GCP from the US Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906 over the Nuremberg Code, the Kefauver-Harris Amendments and the Declaration of Helsinki until now is given. Knowledge of the historical background may help understand the developments in GCP.

  8. Gravitational wave background from binary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado, Pablo A.

    2011-10-15

    Basic aspects of the background of gravitational waves and its mathematical characterization are reviewed. The spectral energy density parameter {Omega}(f), commonly used as a quantifier of the background, is derived for an ensemble of many identical sources emitting at different times and locations. For such an ensemble, {Omega}(f) is generalized to account for the duration of the signals and of the observation, so that one can distinguish the resolvable and unresolvable parts of the background. The unresolvable part, often called confusion noise or stochastic background, is made by signals that cannot be either individually identified or subtracted out of the data. To account for the resolvability of the background, the overlap function is introduced. This function is a generalization of the duty cycle, which has been commonly used in the literature, in some cases leading to incorrect results. The spectra produced by binary systems (stellar binaries and massive black hole binaries) are presented over the frequencies of all existing and planned detectors. A semi-analytical formula for {Omega}(f) is derived in the case of stellar binaries (containing white dwarfs, neutron stars or stellar-mass black holes). Besides a realistic expectation of the level of background, upper and lower limits are given, to account for the uncertainties in some astrophysical parameters such as binary coalescence rates. One interesting result concerns all current and planned ground-based detectors (including the Einstein Telescope). In their frequency range, the background of binaries is resolvable and only sporadically present. In other words, there is no stochastic background of binaries for ground-based detectors.

  9. Supermembrane actions for Gaiotto-Maldacena backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefański, Bogdan

    2014-06-01

    We write down the supermembrane actions for M-theory backgrounds dual to general N=2 four-dimensional superconformal field theories. The actions are given to all orders in fermions and are in a particular κ-gauge. When an extra U(1) isometry is present, our actions reduce to κ-gauge fixed Green-Schwarz actions for the corresponding Type IIA backgrounds.

  10. The pregalactic cosmic gravitational wave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzner, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    An outline is given that estimates the expected gravitational wave background, based on plausible pregalactic sources. Some cosmologically significant limits can be put on incoherent gravitational wave background arising from pregalactic cosmic evolution. The spectral region of cosmically generated and cosmically limited radiation is, at long periods, P greater than 1 year, in contrast to more recent cosmological sources, which have P approx. 10 to 10(exp -3).

  11. Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2014-06-13

    Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

  12. Low background screening capability in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-17

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  13. Effects of background gravity stimuli on gravity-controlled behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    Physiological and developmental effects of altered gravity were researched. The stimulus properties of gravity have been found to possess reinforcing and aversive properties. Experimental approaches taken, used animals placed into fields of artificial gravity, in the form of parabolic or spiral centrifuges. Gravity preferences were noted and it was concluded that the psychophysics of gravity and background factors which support these behaviors should be further explored.

  14. Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-28

    more than 50 miles from shore. NSC Program National Security Cutters (Figure 1), also known as Legend (WMSL-750) class cutters,11 are the Coast...panel [discussion] during the Navy League Sea Air Space conference in National Harbor, Md., echoed Coast Guard Commandant Robert Papp in stating that...Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress Congressional Research Service 34 Since commissioning of the first NSC in 2008 the Legend -class cutters

  15. Scientific writing training for academic physicians of diverse language backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Carrie; Deming, Stephanie P; Notzon, Beth; Cantor, Scott B; Broglio, Kristine R; Pagel, Walter

    2009-04-01

    Research articles are the coin of the realm for anyone working in academia, and success or failure to publish determines a biomedical researcher's career path. At the same time, the dramatic increase in foreign faculty and trainees in U.S. academia, as well as in international scientific collaboration, adds another dimension to this developmental vacuum: limited English-language skills. Paradoxically, few programs exist to develop and support the skills needed to accomplish the vital task of writing English-language research articles, which does not come naturally to most. To better prepare all trainees for research careers, editors in the Department of Scientific Publications at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center created an in-depth training program that would target the writing skills gap effectively. Instruction focused on structure, rhetorical organization, and the conventions of biomedical publishing. More than 300 trainees have participated in 22 workshops. Results of a survey of 46 participants at 6 months to 2.5 years after workshop completion indicated that participants from all language backgrounds believed the course to have improved their writing (97.8% strongly agreed or agreed), made it easier to begin a manuscript (80.4%), and helped them to get published (56.8%), with nonnative speakers of English reporting somewhat greater perceived benefit than native English speakers. On the basis of these results, the authors conclude that researchers of varied linguistic backgrounds appreciate the need for, and benefit from, instruction in the conventions of scientific writing.

  16. Modeling background radiation in Southern Nevada.

    PubMed

    Haber, Daniel A; Burnley, Pamela C; Adcock, Christopher T; Malchow, Russell L; Marsac, Kara E; Hausrath, Elisabeth M

    2017-02-06

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials by creating a high resolution background model. The intention is for this method to be used in an emergency response scenario where the background radiation environment is unknown. Two study areas in Southern Nevada have been modeled using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas that are homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th, referred to as background radiation units, are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by the Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Lab - Nellis, allowing for the refinement of the technique. By using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide and define radiation background units within alluvium, successful models have been produced for Government Wash, north of Lake Mead, and for the western shore of Lake Mohave, east of Searchlight, NV.

  17. Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deporzio, Nicholas; Cuore Collaboration

    This study presents the modification of bolometer detectors used in particle searches to veto or otherwise reject alpha radiation background and the statistical advantages of doing so. Several techniques are presented in detail - plastic film scintillator vetoes, metallic film ionization vetoes, and Cherenkov radiation vetoes. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles representative of documented detector background. Quantum dot based liquid scintillator is similarly bombarded to produce a background induced scintillation light. Photomultipliers detect this scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Layered metallic films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as gold-polyethylene-gold films, are cooled to milli-kelvin temperatures and biased to produce a current signal veto when incident 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Calibration of veto signal to background energy is presented. These findings are extrapolated to quantify the statistical impact of such modifications to bolometer searches. Effects of these techniques on experiment duration and signal-background ratio are discussed.

  18. On conformal higher spins in curved background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, M.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    We address the question of how to represent an interacting action for a tower of conformal higher spin fields in a form covariant with respect to a background metric. We use the background metric to define the star product which plays a central role in the definition of the corresponding gauge transformations. By analogy with the kinetic term in the 4-derivative Weyl gravity action expanded near an on-shell background one expects that the kinetic term in such an action should be gauge-invariant in a Bach-flat metric. We demonstrate this fact to first order in expansion in powers of the curvature of the background metric. This generalizes the result of arXiv:1404.7452 for spin 3 case to all conformal higher spins. We also comment on a possibility of extending this claim to terms quadratic in the curvature and discuss the appearance of background-dependent mixing terms in the quadratic part of the conformal higher spin action.

  19. A review on natural background radiation

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Setayandeh, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    The world is naturally radioactive and approximately 82% of human-absorbed radiation doses, which are out of control, arise from natural sources such as cosmic, terrestrial, and exposure from inhalation or intake radiation sources. In recent years, several international studies have been carried out, which have reported different values regarding the effect of background radiation on human health. Gamma radiation emitted from natural sources (background radiation) is largely due to primordial radionuclides, mainly 232Th and 238U series, and their decay products, as well as 40K, which exist at trace levels in the earth's crust. Their concentrations in soil, sands, and rocks depend on the local geology of each region in the world. Naturally occurring radioactive materials generally contain terrestrial-origin radionuclides, left over since the creation of the earth. In addition, the existence of some springs and quarries increases the dose rate of background radiation in some regions that are known as high level background radiation regions. The type of building materials used in houses can also affect the dose rate of background radiations. The present review article was carried out to consider all of the natural radiations, including cosmic, terrestrial, and food radiation. PMID:24223380

  20. Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    Background: Action Research about my 2nd grade classroom in the Buffalo School District. I examined three areas of interest and tried to find some conclusions related to behavior management. Purpose: The purpose of this study is how will implementing procedures, rules, and consequences help improve student behavior. Research Design: Descriptive;…

  1. Background Rejection in the ARA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfendner, Carl

    2017-03-01

    The Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) is a radio frequency observatory under construction at the South Pole that is searching for ultrahigh energy neutrinos via the Askaryan effect. Thermal fluctuations currently dominate the trigger-level background for the observatory and anthropogenic sources also introduce a significant source of noise. By taking advantage of the observatory's regular geometry and the expected coincident nature of the RF signals arriving from neutrino-induced events, this background can be filtered efficiently. This contribution will discuss techniques developed for the ARA analyses to reject these thermal signals, to reject anthropogenic backgrounds, and to search for neutrino-induced particle showers in the Antarctic ice. The results of a search for neutrinos from GRBs using the prototype station using some of these techniques will be presented.

  2. X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

  3. Enhancements to the MCNP6 background source

    DOE PAGES

    McMath, Garrett E.; McKinney, Gregg W.

    2015-10-19

    The particle transport code MCNP has been used to produce a background radiation data file on a worldwide grid that can easily be sampled as a source in the code. Location-dependent cosmic showers were modeled by Monte Carlo methods to produce the resulting neutron and photon background flux at 2054 locations around Earth. An improved galactic-cosmic-ray feature was used to model the source term as well as data from multiple sources to model the transport environment through atmosphere, soil, and seawater. A new elevation scaling feature was also added to the code to increase the accuracy of the cosmic neutronmore » background for user locations with off-grid elevations. Furthermore, benchmarking has shown the neutron integral flux values to be within experimental error.« less

  4. Enhancements to the MCNP6 background source

    SciTech Connect

    McMath, Garrett E.; McKinney, Gregg W.

    2015-10-19

    The particle transport code MCNP has been used to produce a background radiation data file on a worldwide grid that can easily be sampled as a source in the code. Location-dependent cosmic showers were modeled by Monte Carlo methods to produce the resulting neutron and photon background flux at 2054 locations around Earth. An improved galactic-cosmic-ray feature was used to model the source term as well as data from multiple sources to model the transport environment through atmosphere, soil, and seawater. A new elevation scaling feature was also added to the code to increase the accuracy of the cosmic neutron background for user locations with off-grid elevations. Furthermore, benchmarking has shown the neutron integral flux values to be within experimental error.

  5. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ββ} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and α emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  6. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE PAGES

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; ...

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example usingmore » powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.« less

  7. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, W. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. K.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  8. Pythia Jet Finding Study with Trento Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Joseph; Soltz, Ron

    2016-06-22

    We present results applying the Pythia SlowJet Finder to Pythia generated QCD and QED hard processes in the presence of simulated heavy ion backgrounds. The hard process events are generated with Pythia version 8.219 for √sNN=200 GeV proton-proton collisions and the backgrounds are generated by the Reduced Thickness Event-by-event Nuclear Topology model TRENTo for Au-Au collisions with a nucleon-nucleon cross-section of 4.23 fm2. The TRENTo model is used to calculate the initial entropy and ellipticity from which the total charged particle multiplicity and elliptic ow are determined. We report results in the form of event displays, total pT distributions, and fragmentation distributions for SlowJet applied to Pythia events with and without the simulated heavy ion backgrounds.

  9. Background compensation for a radiation level monitor

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, D.J.

    1975-12-01

    Background compensation in a device such as a hand and foot monitor is provided by digital means using a scaler. With no radiation level test initiated, a scaler is down-counted from zero according to the background measured. With a radiation level test initiated, the scaler is up-counted from the previous down-count position according to the radiation emitted from the monitored object and an alarm is generated if, with the scaler having crossed zero in the positive going direction, a particular number is exceeded in a specific time period after initiation of the test. If the test is initiated while the scale is down-counting, the background count from the previous down- count stored in a memory is used as the initial starting point for the up-count.

  10. The homogeneity conjecture for supergravity backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José Miguel

    2009-06-01

    These notes record three lectures given at the workshop "Higher symmetries in Physics", held at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in November 2008. In them we explain how to construct a Lie (super)algebra associated to a spin manifold, perhaps with extra geometric data, and a notion of privileged spinors. The typical examples are supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds; although there are more classical instances of this construction. We focus on two results: the geometric constructions of compact real forms of the simple Lie algebras of type B4, F4 and E8 from S7, S8 and S15, respectively; and the construction of the Killing superalgebra of eleven-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. As an application of this latter construction we show that supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds with enough supersymmetry are necessarily locally homogeneous.

  11. Compensatable muon collider calorimeter with manageable backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, Rajendran

    2015-02-17

    A method and system for reducing background noise in a particle collider, comprises identifying an interaction point among a plurality of particles within a particle collider associated with a detector element, defining a trigger start time for each of the pixels as the time taken for light to travel from the interaction point to the pixel and a trigger stop time as a selected time after the trigger start time, and collecting only detections that occur between the start trigger time and the stop trigger time in order to thereafter compensate the result from the particle collider to reduce unwanted background detection.

  12. Cosmic microwave background probes models of inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Richard L.; Hodges, Hardy M.; Smoot, George F.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turner, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Inflation creates both scalar (density) and tensor (gravity wave) metric perturbations. We find that the tensor-mode contribution to the cosmic microwave background anisotropy on large-angular scales can only exceed that of the scalar mode in models where the spectrum of perturbations deviates significantly from scale invariance. If the tensor mode dominates at large-angular scales, then the value of DeltaT/T predicted on 1 deg is less than if the scalar mode dominates, and, for cold-dark-matter models, bias factors greater than 1 can be made consistent with Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) DMR results.

  13. Elastic lattice in an incommensurate background

    SciTech Connect

    Dickman, R.; Chudnovsky, E.M. )

    1995-01-01

    We study a harmonic triangular lattice, which relaxes in the presence of an incommensurate short-wavelength potential. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the elastic lattice exhibits only short-ranged translational correlations, despite the absence of defects in either lattice. Extended orientational order, however, persists in the presence of the background. Translational correlation lengths exhibit approximate power-law dependence upon cooling rate and background strength. Our results may be relevant to Wigner crystals, atomic monolayers on crystals surfaces, and flux-line and magnetic bubble lattices.

  14. Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1988-01-01

    A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, Earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

  15. Measurement and analysis of sky background spectra in passive ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhang; Liu, Bingqi; Yu, Hao; Li, Xiaoming; Yan, Zongqun; Hua, Wenshen; Shi, Yunsheng; Chen, Yichao

    2015-10-01

    Experimental program is designed to analyze the radiation and absorption characteristic of the sky background at near-infrared Oxygen A absorption band of passive ranging based on Oxygen spectral absorption; an acousto-optic tunable hyper spectral imaging spectrometer is used as the measuring device. Under the condition of sunny, cloudy, and snowy weather, the sky background spectral distribution is collected using the acousto-optic tunable hyper spectral imaging spectrometer. Then the Oxygen absorption rate is calculated according to the principle of Oxygen spectrum absorption passive ranging. The measurement result shows: absorption lines exist in the sky background spectral distribution at the Oxygen A absorption band, and the absorption rates are different at different weather conditions. The Oxygen absorption rates are the biggest under snowy weather, bigger under cloudy weather, and the smallest under sunny weather. The general change pattern of Oxygen absorption rate under different weather conditions is obtained and the result has laid solid foundation for suppressing the interference of the background and extracting target spectral accurately in subsequent passive ranging researching.

  16. 32 CFR 735.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 735.2 Section 735.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL REPORTING BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN COOPERATION...) policy is that military services will require their members to make official record of births,...

  17. 32 CFR 735.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 735.2 Section 735.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL REPORTING BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN COOPERATION...) policy is that military services will require their members to make official record of births,...

  18. 32 CFR 735.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 735.2 Section 735.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL REPORTING BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN COOPERATION...) policy is that military services will require their members to make official record of births,...

  19. 32 CFR 735.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 735.2 Section 735.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL REPORTING BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN COOPERATION...) policy is that military services will require their members to make official record of births,...

  20. 32 CFR 735.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 735.2 Section 735.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL REPORTING BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN COOPERATION...) policy is that military services will require their members to make official record of births,...

  1. Background Oriented Schlieren Using Celestial Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward, A., Jr. (Inventor); Hill, Michael A (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method of visualizing fluid flow around an object, such as an aircraft or wind turbine, by aligning the object between an imaging system and a celestial object having a speckled background, taking images, and comparing those images to obtain fluid flow visualization.

  2. 40 CFR 761.360 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 761.360 Section 761.360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... procedure is used to quickly and effectively remove PCBs on surfaces. It is important to select and use...

  3. 32 CFR 3.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contracts, grants or cooperative agreements. “Other transactions” are generally not subject to the Federal laws and regulations limited in applicability to contracts, grants or cooperative agreements. As such..., GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.2 Background. “Other transactions” is...

  4. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS §...

  5. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element of the national... only. (f) These entry regulations are being promulgated under the authority of Commander, Naval...

  6. 32 CFR 770.37 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Entry Regulations for Naval Installations and Property in Puerto Rico § 770.37 Background. In accordance with 32 CFR 765.4, Naval installations and properties in Puerto Rico are not open to the general public, i.e., they are “closed” military bases. Therefore admission to...

  7. 32 CFR 770.49 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington § 770.49 Background. (a) Puget Sound Naval Shipyard is a major naval ship repair facility, with operational requirements to complete repairs and overhaul of conventionally powered and nuclear powered...

  8. Computer Software & Intellectual Property. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This background paper reviews copyright, patent, and trade secret protections as these issues are related to computer software. Topics discussed include current issues regarding legal protection for computer software including the necessity for defining intellectual property, determining what should or should not be protected, commerical piracy,…

  9. 16 CFR 1031.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES General Policies § 1031.2 Background. (a) Congress enacted the Consumer Product Safety Act in 1972 to protect consumers against unreasonable risks of injury...

  10. 14 CFR 1214.302 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 1214.302 Section 1214.302 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Payload Specialists for Space... dedicated space flight training, allowing them to concentrate their efforts on the accomplishment of...

  11. 14 CFR 1214.302 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Background. 1214.302 Section 1214.302 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Payload Specialists for Space... dedicated space flight training, allowing them to concentrate their efforts on the accomplishment of...

  12. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug trafficking... participants over a broad geographical area. The exposure of such ongoing networks of criminal activity can...

  13. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug trafficking... participants over a broad geographical area. The exposure of such ongoing networks of criminal activity can...

  14. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug trafficking... participants over a broad geographical area. The exposure of such ongoing networks of criminal activity can...

  15. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug trafficking... participants over a broad geographical area. The exposure of such ongoing networks of criminal activity can...

  16. BACKGROUND RADIATION IN THE UNIVERSE - Short Contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, R. D.

    A determination of the motion of the Sun and Local Group relative to the backdrop of galaxies extending to 70 Mpc is used to correct the observed dipole anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background. The resultant intrinsic dipole component of ΔT/T = 3±2×10-4 is consistent with no detected anisotropy.

  17. Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deporzio, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the modification of bolometer detectors used in particle searches to veto or otherwise reject alpha radiation background and the statistical advantages of doing so. Several techniques are presented in detail - plastic film scintillator vetoes, metallic film ionization vetoes, and scintillating bolometer vetoes. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles representative of documented detector background. Photomultipliers detect this scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Layered metallic films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as gold-polyethylene-gold films, are cooled to milli-kelvin temperatures and biased to produce a current signal veto when incident 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Modified Zinc Molybdate Bolometers are used to produce scintillation light when stimulated by alpha background. Calibration of veto signal to background energy is presented. Results are used to quantify the statistical impact of such modifications on bolometer searches.

  18. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  19. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  20. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  1. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  2. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  3. 16 CFR 1031.17 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 1031.17 Section 1031.17 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION... that it was launching a pilot program to open CPSC staff activities for public review and comment....

  4. 14 CFR 1214.302 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Background. 1214.302 Section 1214.302 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Payload Specialists for Space... dedicated space flight training, allowing them to concentrate their efforts on the accomplishment of...

  5. 14 CFR 1214.302 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Background. 1214.302 Section 1214.302 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Payload Specialists for Space... dedicated space flight training, allowing them to concentrate their efforts on the accomplishment of...

  6. 10 CFR 37.25 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Background investigations. 37.25 Section 37.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE... at a minimum: (1) Fingerprinting and an FBI identification and criminal history records check...

  7. ESTIMATION OF BACKGROUND LEVELS OF CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from hazardous waste site investigations frequently come from two or more statistical populations. Assessment of "background" levels of contaminants can be a significant problem. This problem is being investigated at the US EPA's EMSL in Las Vegas. This paper describes a ...

  8. 32 CFR 770.49 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 770.49 Section 770.49 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Puget Sound Naval Shipyard,...

  9. 32 CFR 770.49 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 770.49 Section 770.49 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Puget Sound Naval Shipyard,...

  10. 32 CFR 770.49 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 770.49 Section 770.49 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Puget Sound Naval Shipyard,...

  11. 32 CFR 770.49 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 770.49 Section 770.49 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Puget Sound Naval Shipyard,...

  12. 38 CFR 200.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the fullest extent possible, analyses and consultations required by other environmental laws be... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 200.2 Background. (a) The NEPA and the Council on Environmental Quality... prescribe procedures to be followed. Other laws, executive orders, and regulations provide related...

  13. 38 CFR 200.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the fullest extent possible, analyses and consultations required by other environmental laws be... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 200.2 Background. (a) The NEPA and the Council on Environmental Quality... prescribe procedures to be followed. Other laws, executive orders, and regulations provide related...

  14. 38 CFR 200.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the fullest extent possible, analyses and consultations required by other environmental laws be... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 200.2 Background. (a) The NEPA and the Council on Environmental Quality... prescribe procedures to be followed. Other laws, executive orders, and regulations provide related...

  15. 38 CFR 200.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the fullest extent possible, analyses and consultations required by other environmental laws be... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 200.2 Background. (a) The NEPA and the Council on Environmental Quality... prescribe procedures to be followed. Other laws, executive orders, and regulations provide related...

  16. 33 CFR 236.4 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 236.4 Background. (a) The role of the Corps of Engineers in the development of water and related..., water quality, fish and wildlife and low-flow augmentation. Laws, executive orders, and national... preserve or enhance critical habitat for fish and wildlife; maintain or enhance water quality;...

  17. Social Background Differences in Early Family Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Robert; Landale, Nancy S.; Daniels, Kimberly; Cheng, Yen-Hsin Alice

    2009-01-01

    Social background has historically been recognized as a major factor influencing family behavior, though recent work has largely emphasized racial/ethnic influences. Here we use 1994 - 1995 and 2001 - 2002 Add Health data to examine the cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth experience of young women. In a multi state life table context,…

  18. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a Volunteer is consistent with the national interest, no applicant is eligible for Peace Corps Volunteer...

  19. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a Volunteer is consistent with the national interest, no applicant is eligible for Peace Corps Volunteer...

  20. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a Volunteer is consistent with the national interest, no applicant is eligible for Peace Corps Volunteer...

  1. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a Volunteer is consistent with the national interest, no applicant is eligible for Peace Corps Volunteer...

  2. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a Volunteer is consistent with the national interest, no applicant is eligible for Peace Corps Volunteer...

  3. 40 CFR 761.380 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 761.380 Section 761.380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE...

  4. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... natural habitats which result from projects funded pursuant to title 23, U.S. Code, as eligible for... consultation procedures relative to impacts to species listed under the authority of the Act and their...

  5. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... natural habitats which result from projects funded pursuant to title 23, U.S. Code, as eligible for... consultation procedures relative to impacts to species listed under the authority of the Act and their...

  6. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... natural habitats which result from projects funded pursuant to title 23, U.S. Code, as eligible for... consultation procedures relative to impacts to species listed under the authority of the Act and their...

  7. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... natural habitats which result from projects funded pursuant to title 23, U.S. Code, as eligible for... consultation procedures relative to impacts to species listed under the authority of the Act and their...

  8. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... natural habitats which result from projects funded pursuant to title 23, U.S. Code, as eligible for... consultation procedures relative to impacts to species listed under the authority of the Act and their...

  9. OH Background Measurements and Their Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldin, L.; Kosciuch, E.; Josh, M.

    2007-12-01

    The hydroxyl radical, OH is known to be the primary gas phase oxidant in most tropospheric environments, however other species can contribute to the total overall oxidizing capacity. Our CIMS technique for the measurement of OH involves both a signal and a background measurement. The signal measurement is a measure of all species that react with SO2 to produce H2SO4 (which presumably is mainly OH), while the background accounts for all species that can convert SO2 into H2SO4, yet do not react with propane. This background measurement while necessary for the determination of OH, is also a measure of other strong oxidants and can be quite large even in the absence of OH (as determined via the CIMS technique). Here we will focus on OH background data obtained in marine, urban, and remote continental conditions. Correlation of these measurements with other species such as NO and SO2 will be presented. Atmospheric implications will also be discussed.

  10. 38 CFR 200.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 200.2 Background. (a) The NEPA and the Council on Environmental Quality... means, consistent with other essential considerations of national policy, to improve and coordinate... widest range of beneficial uses of the environment without degradation, risk to health or safety,...

  11. 40 CFR 90.422 - Background sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drawing a sample during the collection phase of each test cycle mode. Hence, a single cumulative... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background sample. 90.422 Section 90...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust...

  12. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., method or device in their waste treatment and pollution abatement programs. The wastewater management... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)...

  13. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., method or device in their waste treatment and pollution abatement programs. The wastewater management... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)...

  14. Can one measure the Cosmic Neutrino Background?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand; Hodák, Rastislav; Kovalenko, Sergey; Šimkovic, Fedor

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) yields information about our Universe at around 380,000 years after the Big Bang (BB). Due to the weak interaction of the neutrinos with matter, the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB) should give information about a much earlier time of our Universe, around one second after the BB. Probably, the most promising method to “see” the CNB is the capture of the electron neutrinos from the Background by Tritium, which then decays into 3He and an electron with the energy of the the Q-value = 18.562keV plus the electron neutrino rest mass. The “KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino” (KATRIN) experiment, which is in preparation, seems presently the most sensitive proposed method for measuring the electron antineutrino mass. At the same time, KATRIN can also look by the reaction νe(˜ 1.95K) +3H →3He + e‑(Q = 18.6keV + m νec2). The capture of the Cosmic Background Neutrinos (CNB) should show in the electron spectrum as a peak by the electron neutrino rest mass above Q. Here, the possibility to see the CNB with KATRIN is studied. A detection of the CNB by KATRIN seems not to be possible at the moment. But KATRIN should be able to determine an upper limit for the local electron neutrino density of the CNB.

  15. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law 97-446 provided for the duty-free entry into the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Background. 1217.102 Section 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES §...

  16. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law 97-446 provided for the duty-free entry into the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Background. 1217.102 Section 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES §...

  17. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law 97-446 provided for the duty-free entry into the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 1217.102 Section 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES §...

  18. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law 97-446 provided for the duty-free entry into the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Background. 1217.102 Section 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES §...

  19. Model-based target and background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Markus; Krueger, Wolfgang; Heinze, Norbert

    2000-07-01

    Up to now most approaches of target and background characterization (and exploitation) concentrate solely on the information given by pixels. In many cases this is a complex and unprofitable task. During the development of automatic exploitation algorithms the main goal is the optimization of certain performance parameters. These parameters are measured during test runs while applying one algorithm with one parameter set to images that constitute of image domains with very different domain characteristics (targets and various types of background clutter). Model based geocoding and registration approaches provide means for utilizing the information stored in GIS (Geographical Information Systems). The geographical information stored in the various GIS layers can define ROE (Regions of Expectations) and may allow for dedicated algorithm parametrization and development. ROI (Region of Interest) detection algorithms (in most cases MMO (Man- Made Object) detection) use implicit target and/or background models. The detection algorithms of ROIs utilize gradient direction models that have to be matched with transformed image domain data. In most cases simple threshold calculations on the match results discriminate target object signatures from the background. The geocoding approaches extract line-like structures (street signatures) from the image domain and match the graph constellation against a vector model extracted from a GIS (Geographical Information System) data base. Apart from geo-coding the algorithms can be also used for image-to-image registration (multi sensor and data fusion) and may be used for creation and validation of geographical maps.

  20. 36 CFR 805.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 11991 of May 24, 1977, directed the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) to issue regulations to... IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 805.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act... to the environmental effects of their proposed actions in their decisionmaking and to...

  1. 12 CFR 408.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., directed the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) to issue regulations to implement the procedural... Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 408.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42...

  2. 36 CFR 805.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 11991 of May 24, 1977, directed the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) to issue regulations to... IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 805.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act... to the environmental effects of their proposed actions in their decisionmaking and to...

  3. 28 CFR 61.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Order No. 11991 of May 24, 1977, directed the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) to issue... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42...

  4. 7 CFR 799.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), directed the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) to issue regulations to implement the procedural... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS-COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 799.1 Background. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42...

  5. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing support to...

  6. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing support to...

  7. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing support to...

  8. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing support to...

  9. 7 CFR 799.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), directed the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) to issue regulations to implement the procedural... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS-COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 799.1 Background. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42...

  10. 18 CFR 707.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) General § 707.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy... required to give appropriate consideration to the environmental effects of their proposed actions in their decisionmaking and to prepare detailed environmental statements on recommendations or reports on proposals...

  11. 7 CFR 799.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), directed the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) to issue regulations to implement the procedural... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS-COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 799.1 Background. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42...

  12. 12 CFR 408.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., directed the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) to issue regulations to implement the procedural... Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 408.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42...

  13. 18 CFR 707.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) General § 707.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy... required to give appropriate consideration to the environmental effects of their proposed actions in their decisionmaking and to prepare detailed environmental statements on recommendations or reports on proposals...

  14. 7 CFR 799.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), directed the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) to issue regulations to implement the procedural... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS-COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 799.1 Background. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42...

  15. 18 CFR 707.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) General § 707.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy... required to give appropriate consideration to the environmental effects of their proposed actions in their decisionmaking and to prepare detailed environmental statements on recommendations or reports on proposals...

  16. 36 CFR 805.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 11991 of May 24, 1977, directed the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) to issue regulations to... IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 805.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act... to the environmental effects of their proposed actions in their decisionmaking and to...

  17. 28 CFR 61.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Order No. 11991 of May 24, 1977, directed the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) to issue... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42...

  18. 28 CFR 61.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Order No. 11991 of May 24, 1977, directed the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) to issue... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42...

  19. 36 CFR 805.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 11991 of May 24, 1977, directed the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) to issue regulations to... IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 805.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act... to the environmental effects of their proposed actions in their decisionmaking and to...

  20. 18 CFR 707.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) General § 707.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy... required to give appropriate consideration to the environmental effects of their proposed actions in their decisionmaking and to prepare detailed environmental statements on recommendations or reports on proposals...

  1. 18 CFR 707.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) General § 707.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy... required to give appropriate consideration to the environmental effects of their proposed actions in their decisionmaking and to prepare detailed environmental statements on recommendations or reports on proposals...

  2. 28 CFR 61.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Order No. 11991 of May 24, 1977, directed the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) to issue... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42...

  3. Light incoherence due to background space fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziashvili, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Working by analogy, we use the description of light fluctuations due to random collisions of the radiating atoms to figure out why the reduction of the coherence for light propagating a cosmological distance in the fluctuating background space is negligibly small to be observed by the stellar interferometry.

  4. Thermal neutron background measurement in CJPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Z. M.; Gong, H.; Yue, Q.; Li, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the measurement of thermal neutron flux in the CJPL underground laboratory in the proximity of the CDEX experiment. A low background thermal neutron detection system is designed which applies a combination of a 3He proportional tube and a 4He proportional tube as the detector. Thermal neutrons can be captured by the 3He proportional tube while the 4He proportional tube is for the purpose of background measurement. The tube wall is made up of oxygen-free copper to reduce the background due to radioactivity of the wall material. The electronics readout system has been developed to store triggered events' waveforms so as to get the amplitude spectrum and monitor the data quality. We observed an average thermal neutron flux of Φ = 4.00 ± 0.08 ×10-6 /cm2 s in the CJPL experiment hall in the proximity of CDEX experiment and the neutron and background events both distribute uniformly along the tube.

  5. Background-Oriented Schlieren Pattern Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Wind Tunnel Model using Background-Oriented Schlieren”. volume AIAA 2010-1736. US Air Force Test and Evaluation Days, Nashville...1 1.2 System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3 Existing Work...extensively been through trial and error and PIV particle size recommendations. 3 1.2 System Description The BOS technique is based on analyzing the

  6. 33 CFR 236.4 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... control, beach erosion control and hurricane protection, hydroelectric power, recreation, water supply... Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... QUALITY § 236.4 Background. (a) The role of the Corps of Engineers in the development of water and...

  7. 33 CFR 236.4 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... control, beach erosion control and hurricane protection, hydroelectric power, recreation, water supply... Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... QUALITY § 236.4 Background. (a) The role of the Corps of Engineers in the development of water and...

  8. 33 CFR 236.4 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... control, beach erosion control and hurricane protection, hydroelectric power, recreation, water supply... Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... QUALITY § 236.4 Background. (a) The role of the Corps of Engineers in the development of water and...

  9. Contemporary Rhetoric: A Conceptual Background with Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterowd, W. Ross, Ed.

    Designed for use by composition students as well as teachers, the essays and background discussions in this book address themselves to questions of theory and practice in rhetoric. The book is divided into sections on invention, form, and style, and contains articles by such authors as Janet Emig, Wayne C. Booth, Richard L. Larson, Kenneth Burke,…

  10. Building for Reauthorization: Background and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.

    The report provides background information on the next reauthorization of the federal Higher Education Act, and is intended for college and university financial aid officers. An introductory section chronicles the history of federal legislation for student financial aid. The next section outlines the congressional reauthorization process,…

  11. 16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background. As a result of numerous... and their supporting structures so that consumers can be made aware of the hazards involved and of... antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact with overhead powerlines....

  12. 16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background. As a result of numerous... and their supporting structures so that consumers can be made aware of the hazards involved and of... antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact with overhead powerlines....

  13. 16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background. As a result of numerous... and their supporting structures so that consumers can be made aware of the hazards involved and of... antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact with overhead powerlines....

  14. 16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background. As a result of numerous... and their supporting structures so that consumers can be made aware of the hazards involved and of... antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact with overhead powerlines....

  15. 16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background. As a result of numerous... and their supporting structures so that consumers can be made aware of the hazards involved and of... antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact with overhead powerlines....

  16. 20 CFR 410.700 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 § 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977 broadens... establish entitlement to black lung benefits. Section 435 of the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of...

  17. 20 CFR 410.700 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 § 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977 broadens... establish entitlement to black lung benefits. Section 435 of the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of...

  18. Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

    2001-05-01

    Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

  19. 16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 1406.2 Section 1406.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS COAL AND WOOD BURNING... Consumer Product Safety Commission disclose a number of incidents involving coal and wood...

  20. Building Background Knowledge within Literature Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Diane; Barone, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the strength of literature circles in developing background knowledge--an acknowledged sticking point in the development of understanding for middle graders--with a special focus on the literature circle role of "investigator," where it is student initiative and not teacher direction that guides comprehension. Observing…

  1. Cosmogenic Induced Background Estimation for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Brandon; Majorana Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Neutrino-less double beta (0 νββ) decay experiments probe for such rare events that the suppression and understanding of backgrounds are major experimental concerns. Cosmogenic induced isotopes have the potential to be a major background for such experiments. For the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR Experiment 76Ge isotope is used as both detector and source and pure electroformed copper is primarily used for detector housing. The isotopes 68Ge and 60Co are cosmogenically produced when the Germanium and Copper components are near Earth's surface. The decay of these isotopes can mimic events in the region of interest. The experiment is located at the 4850 foot level at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota to suppress cosmogenic activation. In this talk I will present the calculations of cosmogenic backgrounds for the enriched 76Ge and electroformed Copper materials used in the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The activation is determined by the surface exposure time of materials. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  2. Background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Fukao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Lamb waves of the Earth's atmosphere in the millihertz band have been considered as transient phenomena excited only by large events [e.g. the major volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in 1833, the impact of Siberian meteorite in 1908, the testing of large nuclear tests and the huge earthquakes, Garrett1969]. In a case of the solid Earth, observation of background free oscillations in the millihertz band-now known as Earth's background free oscillations or seismic hum, has been firmly established. Above 5 mHz, their dominant excitation sources are oceanic infragravity waves. At 3.7 and 4.4 mHz an elasto-acoustic resonance between the solid Earth and the atmosphere was observed [Nishida et al., 2000]. These seismic observations show that the contribution of atmospheric disturbances to the seismic hum is dominant below 5 mHz. Such contribution implies background excitations of acoustic-gravity waves in this frequency range. For direct detection of the background acoustic-gravity waves, our group conducted observations using an array of barometers [Nishida et al. 2005]. However, the spatial scale of the array of about 10 km was too small to detect acoustic modes below 10 mHz. Since then, no direct observations of these waves have been reported. In 2011, 337 high-resolution microbarometers were installed on a continental scale at USArray Transportable Array. The large and dense array enables us to detect the background atmospheric waves. Here, we show the first evidence of background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere from 0.2 to 10 mHz, based on the array analysis of microbarometer data from the USArray in 2012. The observations suggest that the excitation sources are atmospheric disturbances in the troposphere. Theoretically, their energy in the troposphere tunnels into the thermosphere at a resonant frequency via thermospheric gravity wave, where the observed amplitudes indeed take a local minimum. The energy leak through the frequency window could partly contribute to

  3. X-Ray Background from Early Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    What impact did X-rays from the first binary star systems have on the universe around them? A new study suggests this radiation may have played an important role during the reionization of our universe.Ionizing the UniverseDuring the period of reionization, the universe reverted from being neutral (as it was during recombination, the previous period)to once again being ionized plasma a state it has remained in since then. This transition, which occurred between 150 million and one billion years after the Big Bang (redshift of 6 z 20), was caused by the formation of the first objects energetic enough to reionize the universes neutral hydrogen.ROSAT image of the soft X-ray background throughout the universe. The different colors represent different energy bands: 0.25 keV (red), 0.75 keV (green), 1.5 keV (blue). [NASA/ROSAT Project]Understanding this time period in particular, determining what sources caused the reionization, and what the properties were of the gas strewn throughout the universe during this time is necessary for us to be able to correctly interpret cosmological observations.Conveniently, the universe has provided us with an interesting clue: the large-scale, diffuse X-ray background we observe all around us. What produced these X-rays, and what impact did this radiation have on the intergalactic medium long ago?The First BinariesA team of scientists led by Hao Xu (UC San Diego) has suggested that the very first generation of stars might be an important contributor to these X-rays.This hypothetical first generation, Population III stars, are thought to have formed before and during reionization from large clouds of gas containing virtually no metals. Studies suggest that a large fraction of Pop III stars formed in binaries and when those stars ended their lives as black holes, ensuing accretion from their companions could produceX-ray radiation.The evolution with redshift of the mean X-ray background intensities. Each curve represents a different

  4. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-17

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with {sup 130}Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier’s. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 10{sup 2} -10{sup 3} in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  5. Background characterization of an ultra-low background liquid scintillation counter

    DOE PAGES

    Erchinger, J. L.; Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, C. E.; ...

    2017-01-26

    The Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will expand the application of liquid scintillation counting by enabling lower detection limits and smaller sample volumes. By reducing the overall count rate of the background environment approximately 2 orders of magnitude below that of commercially available systems, backgrounds on the order of tens of counts per day over an energy range of ~3–3600 keV can be realized. Finally, initial test results of the ULB LSC show promising results for ultra-low background detection with liquid scintillation counting.

  6. Background Stress Inventory: Developing a Measure of Understudied Stress.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Alexandra L; Gjerde, Jill M; Garofalo, John P

    2015-10-01

    Background stress is an understudied source of stress that involves both ambient stress and daily hassles upon which new stressors are superimposed. To date, an accurate measure of the background stress construct has not been available. We developed the Background Stress Inventory, a 25-item self-report measure that asks respondents to indicate how distressed they have felt over the past month and the majority of the past year across five domains: financial, occupation, environment, health and social. Seven hundred seventy-two participants completed the paper-and-pencil measure; the sample was randomly split into two separate subsamples for analyses. Exploratory factor analysis suggested five factors corresponding to these domains, and confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable global fit (X(2)(255) = 456.47, comparative fit index = 0.94, root mean square error of approximation = 0.045). Cronbach's alpha (0.89) indicated good internal reliability. Construct validity analyses showed significant positive relationships with measures of perceived stressfulness (r = 0.62) and daily hassles (0.41), p's < 0.01. Depressive symptoms (0.62) and basal blood pressure (0.21) were both significantly associated with background stress, p's < 0.01. The importance of the proposed measure is reflected in the limited research base on the impact of background stress. Systematic investigation of this measure will provide insight into this understudied form of chronic stress and its potential influence on both psychological and physical endpoints.

  7. Does a Rater's Professional Background Influence Communication Skills Assessment?

    PubMed

    Artemiou, Elpida; Hecker, Kent G; Adams, Cindy L; Coe, Jason B

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing pressure in veterinary education to teach and assess communication skills, with the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) being the most common assessment method. Previous research reveals that raters are a large source of variance in OSCEs. This study focused on examining the effect of raters' professional background as a source of variance when assessing students' communication skills. Twenty-three raters were categorized according to their professional background: clinical sciences (n=11), basic sciences (n=4), clinical communication (n=5), or hospital administrator/clinical skills technicians (n=3). Raters from each professional background were assigned to the same station and assessed the same students during two four-station OSCEs. Students were in year 2 of their pre-clinical program. Repeated-measures ANOVA results showed that OSCE scores awarded by the rater groups differed significantly: (F(matched_station_1) [2,91]=6.97, p=.002), (F(matched_station_2) [3,90]=13.95, p=.001), (F(matched_station_3) [3,90]=8.76, p=.001), and ((Fmatched_station_4) [2,91]=30.60, p=.001). A significant time effect between the two OSCEs was calculated for matched stations 1, 2, and 4, indicating improved student performances. Raters with a clinical communication skills background assigned scores that were significantly lower compared to the other rater groups. Analysis of written feedback provided by the clinical sciences raters showed that they were influenced by the students' clinical knowledge of the case and that they did not rely solely on the communication checklist items. This study shows that it is important to consider rater background both in recruitment and training programs for communication skills' assessment.

  8. 32 CFR 770.54 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assigned; to perform manufacturing, research, development, and test work, as assigned; and to provide.... Additionally, most of Portsmouth Naval Shipyard is dedicated to heavy industrial activity where...

  9. 32 CFR 770.54 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... assigned; to perform manufacturing, research, development, and test work, as assigned; and to provide.... Additionally, most of Portsmouth Naval Shipyard is dedicated to heavy industrial activity where...

  10. Rocket observations of the diffuse ultraviolet background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakobsen, P.; Bowyer, S.; Kimble, R.; Jelinsky, P.; Grewing, M.; Kraemer, G.; Wulf-Mathies, C.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the experiment reported here was to obtain additional information on the absolute intensity level and spatial variation of the diffuse ultraviolet background and thereby gain insight into the origin of this radiation. The experiment used three ultraviolet sensitive photometers placed in the focal plane of a 95-cm, f/2.8 normal incidence telescope flown on board an Aries sounding rocket. The measured intensities clearly refute the hypothesis of an isotropic background, the intensities of the high galactic latitude being definitely lower than the intensities seen at intermediate latitudes. Moreover, the count rates in all three channels along the slow scan exhibit local enhancements as well as an overall trend. In general, the spatial variations exhibited by the data correlate with the line of sight of neutral hydrogen column density as determined from 21-cm radio observations. This fact demonstrates that there is a galactic component to the diffuse ultraviolet radiation field.

  11. Cosmology with the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souradeep, Tarun

    The standard model of cosmology must not only explain the dynamics of the homogeneous background universe, but also satisfactorily describe the perturbed universe - the generation, evolution and finally, the formation of large-scale structures in the universe. Cosmic microwave background (CMB) has been by far the most influential cosmological observation driving advances in current cosmology. Exquisite measurements from CMB experiments have seen the emergence of a concordant cosmological model. Besides precise determination of various parameters of the standard cosmological model, observations have also established some important basic tenets that underlie models of cosmology and structure formation in the universe. The article reviews this aspect of recent progress in cosmology for a general science reader.

  12. Topology of microwave background fluctuations - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gott, J. Richard, III; Park, Changbom; Bies, William E.; Bennett, David P.; Juszkiewicz, Roman

    1990-01-01

    Topological measures are used to characterize the microwave background temperature fluctuations produced by 'standard' scenarios (Gaussian) and by cosmic strings (non-Gaussian). Three topological quantities: total area of the excursion regions, total length, and total curvature (genus) of the isotemperature contours, are studied for simulated Gaussian microwave background anisotropy maps and then compared with those of the non-Gaussian anisotropy pattern produced by cosmic strings. In general, the temperature gradient field shows the non-Gaussian behavior of the string map more distinctively than the temperature field for all topology measures. The total contour length and the genus are found to be more sensitive to the existence of a stringy pattern than the usual temperature histogram. Situations when instrumental noise is superposed on the map, are considered to find the critical signal-to-noise ratio for which strings can be detected.

  13. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fard, Ali Dastgheibi; Loaiza, Pia; Piquemal, Fabrice; Giomataris, Ioannis; Gray, David; Gros, Michel; Magnier, Patrick; Navick, Xavier-François; Savvidis, Ilias

    2015-08-01

    The Spherical gaseous detector (or Spherical Proportional Counter, SPC) is a novel type of detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. The detector allows 100 % detection efficiency. SEDINE is a low background version of SPC installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e) looking for rare events at very low energy threshold, below 100 eV. This work presents the details on the chemical cleaning to reduce internal 210Pb surface contamination on the copper vessel and the external radon reduction achieved via circulation of pure air inside anti-radon tent. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases (Ar, N, Ne, etc) which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.

  14. Cosmic Microwave Background Bispectrum from Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiqi; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2013-03-01

    We compute the cosmic microwave background temperature bispectrum generated by nonlinearities at recombination on all scales. We use CosmoLib2nd, a numerical Boltzmann code at second order to compute cosmic microwave background bispectra on the full sky. We consistently include all effects except gravitational lensing, which can be added to our result using standard methods. The bispectrum is peaked on squeezed triangles and agrees with the analytic approximation in the squeezed limit at the few percent level for all the scales where this is applicable. On smaller scales, we recover previous results on perturbed recombination. For cosmic-variance limited data to lmax⁡=2000, its signal-to-noise ratio is S/N=0.47, corresponding to fNLeff=-2.79, and will bias a local signal by fNLloc≃0.82.

  15. Background investigation in EDELWEISS-III

    SciTech Connect

    Scorza, Silvia

    2015-08-17

    Protection from and rejection of backgrounds is a key issue for the EDELWEISS-III direct dark matter detection experiment which aims at exploring the 10{sup −9} pb cross-section region for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction. The detector is located in the low radioactivity environment of the Modane Underground Laboratory and consists of 36 advanced FID germanium detectors operating at 18 mK in a dilution refrigerator in order to identify eventual rare nuclear recoils induced by elastic scattering of WIMPs from our Galactic halo. I will discuss the background and the methods of rejecting it with the FID detectors. Detector performances and the first analysis of data acquired in a long-term campaign will be presented as well. The FID detector technology is not limited to EDELWEISS-III but can further be employed in the next generation of cryogenic detector experiments.

  16. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector

    SciTech Connect

    Fard, Ali Dastgheibi; Loaiza, Pia; Piquemal, Fabrice; Giomataris, Ioannis; Gray, David; Gros, Michel; Magnier, Patrick; Navick, Xavier-François

    2015-08-17

    The Spherical gaseous detector (or Spherical Proportional Counter, SPC) is a novel type of detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. The detector allows 100 % detection efficiency. SEDINE is a low background version of SPC installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e) looking for rare events at very low energy threshold, below 100 eV. This work presents the details on the chemical cleaning to reduce internal {sup 210}Pb surface contamination on the copper vessel and the external radon reduction achieved via circulation of pure air inside anti-radon tent. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases (Ar, N, Ne, etc) which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.

  17. Supersymmetric backgrounds and generalised special holonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, André; Strickland-Constable, Charles; Waldram, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    We define intrinsic torsion in generalised geometry and use it to introduce a new notion of generalised special holonomy. We then consider generic warped supersymmetric flux compactifications of M theory and Type II of the form {{{R}}}D-{1,1}× M. Using the language of {E}d(d)× {{{R}}}+ generalised geometry, we show that, for D≥slant 4, preserving minimal supersymmetry is equivalent to the manifold M having generalised special holonomy and list the relevant holonomy groups. We conjecture that this result extends to backgrounds preserving any number of supersymmetries. As a prime example, we consider { N }=1 in D = 4. The corresponding generalised special holonomy group is {SU}(7), giving the natural M theory extension to the notion of a G 2 manifold, and, for Type II backgrounds, reformulating the pure spinor {SU}(3)× {SU}(3) conditions as an integrable structure.

  18. A Detector for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E.; Cao, N.; Chuss, D.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, T.; U-yen, K.

    2008-01-01

    We present preliminary design and development work on polarized detectors intended to enable Cosmic Microwave Background polarization measurements that will probe the first moments of the universe. The ultimate measurement will be challenging, requiring background-limited detectors and good control of systematic errors. Toward this end, we are integrating the beam control of HE-11 feedhorns with the sensitivity of transition-edge sensors. The coupling between these two devices is achieved via waveguide probe antennas and superconducting microstrip lines. This implementation allows band-pass filters to be incorporated on the detector chip. We believe that a large collection of single-mode polarized detectors will eventually be required for the reliable detection of the weak polarized signature that is expected to result from gravitational waves produced by cosmic inflation. This focal plane prototype is an important step along the path to this detection, resulting in a capability that will enable various future high performance instrument concepts.

  19. Ion Beam Scattering by Background Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillet, Anne; Hughes, Thomas; Boerner, Jeremiah

    2015-11-01

    The presence of background gases can cause charged particle beams to become more diffuse due to scattering. Calculations for the transport of an ion beam have been performed using Aleph, a particle-in-cell plasma modeling code, and verified against a general envelop equation for charged particle beams. We have investigated the influence of background helium on the coherence and transmitted current of the ion beam. Collisions between ions and neutral particles were calculated assuming isotropic elastic scattering. Since this tends to predict larger scattering angles than are expected at high energies, these are conservative estimates for beam scattering. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.

  20. Blackfolds in (anti)-de Sitter backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A.

    2011-04-15

    We construct different neutral blackfold solutions in Anti-de Sitter and de Sitter background spacetimes in the limit where the cosmological constant is taken to be much smaller than the horizon size. This includes a class of blackfolds with horizons that are products of odd-spheres times a transverse sphere, for which the thermodynamic stability is also studied. Moreover, we exhibit a specific case in which the same blackfold solution can describe different limiting black hole spacetimes therefore illustrating the geometric character of the blackfold approach. Furthermore, we show that the higher-dimensional Kerr-(Anti)-de Sitter black hole allows for ultraspinning regimes in the same limit under consideration and demonstrate that this is correctly described by a pancaked blackfold geometry. We also give evidence for the possibility of saturating the rigidity theorem in these backgrounds.

  1. Measuring anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Tully, Christopher G.

    2014-10-01

    Neutrino capture on tritium has emerged as a promising method for detecting the cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ). We show that relic neutrinos are captured most readily when their spin vectors are antialigned with the polarization axis of the tritium nuclei and when they approach along the direction of polarization. As a result, C ν B observatories may measure anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino velocity and spin distributions by polarizing the tritium targets. A small dipole anisotropy in the C ν B is expected due to the peculiar velocity of the lab frame with respect to the cosmic frame and due to late-time gravitational effects. The PTOLEMY experiment, a tritium observatory currently under construction, should observe a nearly isotropic background. This would serve as a strong test of the cosmological origin of a potential signal. The polarized-target measurements may also constrain nonstandard neutrino interactions that would induce larger anisotropies and help discriminate between Majorana versus Dirac neutrinos.

  2. Background field method in the gradient flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    In perturbative consideration of the Yang-Mills gradient flow, it is useful to introduce a gauge non-covariant term (“gauge-fixing term”) to the flow equation that gives rise to a Gaussian damping factor also for gauge degrees of freedom. In the present paper, we consider a modified form of the gauge-fixing term that manifestly preserves covariance under the background gauge transformation. It is shown that our gauge-fixing term does not affect gauge-invariant quantities as does the conventional gauge-fixing term. The formulation thus allows a background gauge covariant perturbative expansion of the flow equation that provides, in particular, a very efficient computational method of expansion coefficients in the small flow time expansion. The formulation can be generalized to systems containing fermions.

  3. BACKGROUND RADIATION IN THE UNIVERSE - Short Contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, J. D.; Juszkiewicz, R.; Sonoda, D. H.

    The authors predict the possible microwave background temperature distributions in anisotropic and inhomogeneous universes close to the Friedmann model. Homogeneous, anisotropic universes are found to possess either quadrupole or hot-spot temperature variations. The detailed appearance of the hot-spot is predicted. The discovery of such a feature would demonstrate the universe to be open and allow the total density to be measured directly.

  4. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOEpatents

    Affleck, Rhett L.; Ambrose, W. Patrick; Demas, James N.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Johnson, Mitchell E.; Keller, Richard A.; Petty, Jeffrey T.; Schecker, Jay A.; Wu, Ming

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  5. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOEpatents

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-11-10

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  6. Semiconductor Bolometers Give Background-Limited Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John; McMurray, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor bolometers that are capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation over most or all of the infrared spectrum and that give background-limited performance at operating temperatures from 20 to 300 K have been invented. The term background-limited performance as applied to a bolometer, thermopile, or other infrared detector signifies that the ability to detect infrared signals that originate outside the detector is limited primarily by thermal noise attributable to the background radiation generated external to the bolometer. The signal-to-noise ratios and detectivities of the bolometers and thermopiles available prior to this invention have been lower than those needed for background-limited performance by factors of about 100 and 10, respectively. Like other electrically resistive bolometers, a device according to the invention exhibits an increase in electrical resistance when heated by infrared radiation. Depending on whether the device is operated under the customary constant- current or constant-voltage bias, the increase in electrical resistance can be measured in terms of an increase in voltage across the device or a decrease in current through the device, respectively. In the case of a semiconductor bolometer, it is necessary to filter out visible and shorter-wavelength light that could induce photoconductivity and thereby counteract all or part of the desired infrared- induced increase in resistance. The basic semiconductor material of a bolometer according to the invention is preferably silicon doped with one or more of a number of elements, each of which confers a different variable temperature coefficient of resistance. Suitable dopants include In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, As, P, and Sb. The concentration of dopant preferably lies in the range between 0.1 and 1,000 parts per billion.

  7. Background light measurements at the DUMAND site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoki, T.; Kitamura, T.; Matsuno, S.; Mitsui, K.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Cady, D. R.; Learned, J. G.; Oconnor, D.; Mcmurdo, M.

    1985-01-01

    Ambient light intensities at the DUMAND site, west of the island of Hawaii were measured around the one photoelectron level. Throughout the water column between 1,500m and 4,700m, a substantial amount of stimulateable bioluminescence is observed with a ship suspended detector. But non-stimulated bioluminescence level is comparable, or less than, K sup 40 background, when measured with a bottom tethered detector typical of a DUMAND optical module.

  8. 14 CFR § 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law 97-446 provided for the duty-free entry into the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Background. § 1217.102 Section § 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES...

  9. Lidar backscattering measurements of background stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.; Northam, G. B.; Butler, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    A comparative lidar-dustsonde experiment was conducted in San Angelo, Texas, in May 1974 in order to estimate the uncertainties in stratospheric-aerosol backscatter for the NASA Langley 48-inch lidar system. The lidar calibration and data-analysis procedures are discussed. Results from the Texas experiment indicate random and systematic uncertainties of 35 and 63 percent, respectively, in backscatter from a background stratospheric-aerosol layer at 20 km.

  10. Z > 6 Galaxy Signatures in the Infrared Background and the 21-cm background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, A.

    2006-08-01

    We will discuss the signatures of the high-redshift galaxy formation in the near-infrared background. Ionizing sources at high redshift generically imprint a distinctive Lyman-cutoff feature and a unique spatial anisotropy signature to the IRB, both of which may be detectable in a short rocket flight. We will discuss the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER), a rocket-borne instrument to probe the absolute spectrum and spatial anisotropy of the extragalactic InfraRed Background (IRB) optimized for detection of the integrated spatial anisotropies in the IR background from high-redshift galaxies. We will also discuss the signatures of first galaxies in the low radio frequency 21-cm background from the neutral Hydrogen distribution at z > 6; When combined with arcminute-scale temperature anisotropy and the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, the 21-cm background will allow a determination of inhomogeneous distribution of Lyman-alpha photons from first galaxies. We will discuss these and other possibilities to understand the first galaxy population with IR, 21-cm, and CMB backgrounds.

  11. Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations and Zodiacal Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Kashlinsky, A.; Moseley, S. H.; Mather, J.

    2017-01-01

    We performed a specific observational test to measure the effect that the zodiacal light can have on measurements of the spatial fluctuations of the near-IR (near-infrared)background. Previous estimates of possible fluctuations caused by zodiacal light have often been extrapolated from observations of the thermal emission at longer wavelengths and low angular resolution or from IRAC (Infrared Array Camera) observations of high-latitude fields where zodiacal light is faint and not strongly varying with time. The new observations analyzed here target the COSMOS (Cosmic Evolution Survey) field at low ecliptic latitude where the zodiacal light intensity varies by factors of approximately 2 over the range of solar elongations at which the field can be observed. We find that the white-noise component of the spatial power spectrum of the background is correlated with the modeled zodiacal light intensity. Roughly half of the measured white noise is correlated with the zodiacal light, but a more detailed interpretation of the white noise is hampered by systematic uncertainties that are evident in the zodiacal light model. At large angular scales (greater than or approximately equal to 100 arcseconds) where excess power above the white noise is observed, we find no correlation of the power with the modeled intensity of the zodiacal light. This test clearly indicates that the large-scale power in the infrared background is not being caused by the zodiacal light.

  12. Advances in String Theory in Curved Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, N. G.

    A synthetic report of the advances in the study of classical and quantum string dynamics in curved backgrounds is provided, namely : the new feature of Multistring solutions; the mass spectrum of Strings in Curved backgrounds; The effect of a Cosmological Constant and of Spacial Curvature on Classical and Quantum Strings; Classical splitting of Fundamental Strings; The General String Evolution in constant Curvature Spacetimes; The Conformal Invariance Effects; Strings on plane fronted and gravitational shock waves, string falling on spacetime singularities and its spectrum. New Developments in String Gravity and String Cosmology are reported: String driven cosmology and its Predictions; The primordial gravitational wave background; Non-singular string cosmologies from Exact Conformal Field Theories; Quantum Field Theory, String Temperature and the String Phase of de Sitter space-time Hawking Radiation in String Theory and the String Phase of Black Holes; New Dual Relation between Quantum Field Theory regime and String regime and the "QFT/String Tango" New Coherent String States and Minimal Uncertainty Principle in string theory.

  13. Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations and Zodiacal Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Kashlinsky, A.; Moseley, S. H.; Mather, J.

    2016-06-01

    We performed a specific observational test to measure the effect that the zodiacal light can have on measurements of the spatial fluctuations of the near-IR background. Previous estimates of possible fluctuations caused by zodiacal light have often been extrapolated from observations of the thermal emission at longer wavelengths and low angular resolution or from IRAC observations of high-latitude fields where zodiacal light is faint and not strongly varying with time. The new observations analyzed here target the COSMOS field at low ecliptic latitude where the zodiacal light intensity varies by factors of ˜2 over the range of solar elongations at which the field can be observed. We find that the white-noise component of the spatial power spectrum of the background is correlated with the modeled zodiacal light intensity. Roughly half of the measured white noise is correlated with the zodiacal light, but a more detailed interpretation of the white noise is hampered by systematic uncertainties that are evident in the zodiacal light model. At large angular scales (≳100″) where excess power above the white noise is observed, we find no correlation of the power with the modeled intensity of the zodiacal light. This test clearly indicates that the large-scale power in the infrared background is not being caused by the zodiacal light.

  14. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a prototype system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta (0v BB) decay in 76Ge. In view of the requirement that the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0vBB-decay experiment be capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of theMajorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using Geant4 simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  15. EXO-200 results and cosmogenic backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, V. A.; EXO-200 collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Status update and recent results from the double beta decay search experiment EXO-200 are presented. Detector is a liquid xenon TPC with charge and light readout located underground in low-background laboratory at 1600 m.w.e. depth. It contains 175 kg of xenon with 80.6% abundance of 136Xe, which acts as both the decaying nucleus and detection medium. Detector showed good performance and achieved remarkable results. The detector has demonstrated excellent energy resolution and background rejection capabilities and has set a lower limit on the 0νββ-decay half-life of 1.1 × 1025 years at 90% C.L. in early 2014. The EXO-200 collaboration has since published several papers on experimental backgrounds and searches for rare or exotic processes. After a two-year data interruption, EXO-200 is now back online with significant hardware improvements, including a radon reduction air system and a front end electronics upgrade for better energy resolution.

  16. Low-Background Counting at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Iseley

    2009-10-01

    Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from materials used still interferes. Specifically, our group is working on designing the first low-background counting facility at the Homestake mine. Using a high-purity germanium crystal detector from ORTEC, measurements will be taken within a shield that is made to specifically account for radiation underground and fits the detector. Currently, in the design, there is a layer of copper surrounded by an intricate stainless steel casing, which will be manufactured air tight to accommodate for nitrogen purging. Lead will surround the stainless steel shell to further absorb gamma rays. A mobile lift system has been designed for easy access to the detector. In the future, this project will include multiple testing stations located in the famous Davis Cavern where future experiments will have the ability to use the site as an efficient and accurate counting facility for their needs (such as measuring radioactive isotopes in materials). Overall, this detector (and its shield system) is the beginning of a central testing facility that will serve Homestake's scientific community.

  17. Heterotic string in an arbitrary background field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Ashoke

    1985-10-01

    An expression for the light-cone gauge action for the first-quantized heterotic string in the presence of arbitrary background gauge, gravitational, and antisymmetric tensor fields is derived. The result is a two-dimensional local field theory with N=1/2 supersymmetry. The constraints imposed on the background fields in order to make this theory one-loop finite are derived. These constraints are identical to the equations of motion for the massless fields at the linearized level. Finally, it is shown that if there is no background antisymmetric tensor field, and if the gauge connection is set equal to the spin connection, the effective action is that of an N=1 supersymmetric nonlinear and N=2 supersymmetric Georgi-Glashow models the occurrence of the fermion fractionization is the necessity; the ignorance of it results in the inconsistency in the perturbative calculation of the mass splittings among the members of the supermultiplets. The notable feature of our result is that the degeneracy due to the Jackiw-Rebbi zero mode is not independent of the one required by the supersymmetry, suggesting a nontrivial structure in embedding the topology of Higgs fields into supersymmetric gauge theories.

  18. Background complexity affects colour preference in bumblebees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Jessica; Thomson, James D.

    2009-08-01

    Flowers adapted for hummingbird pollination are typically red. This correlation is usually explained by the assertion that nectar- or pollen-stealing bees are “blind” to red flowers. However, laboratory studies have shown that bees are capable of locating artificial red flowers and often show no innate preference for blue over red. We hypothesised that these findings might be artefacts of the simplified laboratory environment. Using bumblebees ( Bombus impatiens) that had been trained to visit red and blue artificial flowers, we tested whether colour preference was influenced by complexity of the background on which they were foraging. Many bees were indifferent to flower colour when tested using a uniform green background like those commonly used in laboratory studies, but all bees showed strong colour preferences (usually for blue) when flowers were presented against a photograph of real foliage. Overall, preference for blue flowers was significantly greater on the more realistic, complex background. These results support the notion that the red of “hummingbird syndrome” flowers can function to reduce bee visits despite the ability of bees to detect red and highlight the need to consider context when drawing inferences about pollinator preferences from laboratory data.

  19. Gamma Reaction History Backgrounds at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, J. A.; Stoeffl, W. S.; Watts, P. W.; Carpenter, A. C.; Liebman, J.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Grafil, E.

    2011-10-01

    The Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at NIF detects gamma-rays, emitted directly from DT fusion reactions (DT γ) , through the use of four Gas Cherenkov detectors with adjustable gamma-ray energy thresholds. It is primarily used to determine bang time, burn width and total DT yield of the implosion. Background interference to the signal is insignificant when capsules are driven directly by the lasers, but can be significant during indirect-drive using a hohlraum, forming an approximately 20 ns plateau under the narrow ~200 ps FWHM fusion signal. This background is independent of fusion yield and most likely the result of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) induced hot electron bremsstrahlung radiation. These hard x-rays stream out target chamber ports and take multiple scatter paths to reach the GRH photomultiplier tubes (PMT), where they then bypass the Cherenkov conversion process and generate signal by direct interaction with the PMT microchannel plates. An examination of this background contribution to the GRH signal and possible mitigation strategies will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, LLNL-ABS-490832.

  20. Inputs and Processes in Education: A Background Paper. Final Report Deliverable #1-2.2b.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Judy A.

    This background paper is a result of a literature review conducted under Project FORUM that identifies research-based inputs and processes related to student outcomes. It was intended to provide background information for the participants attending the Wingspread Conference on Inputs and Processes in October, 1998. In addition, the report is…

  1. More Efficient e-Learning through Design: Color of Text and Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zufic, Janko; Kalpic, Damir

    2009-01-01

    Background: The area of research aimed for a more efficient e-learning is slowly widening from purely technical to the areas of psychology, didactics and methodology. The question is whether the text or background color influence the efficiency of memory, i.e. learning. If the answer to that question is positive, then another question arises which…

  2. Mitigation of Neutron Background Hazard in F-Wing of SRTC

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.A.

    2001-07-18

    Analytical Development Section researchers have completed extensive data acquisitions to completely understand and describe the observed neutron backgrounds in F-wing of SRTC. This report will discuss the approach, methodology, results, conclusions, and recommendations.

  3. Multiple gold-dimer detection from large scattering background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xin; Jin, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles exhibit unique plasmonic optical properties in visible to near infrared band. Especially the coupling effect existing at the gap between a closely linked particle pair can make the local field strongly enhanced. These properties make gold particles more attractive to be employed as molecular probes in biomedical related fundamental and clinical researches. However in the bio-system exist many large molecules or groups, whose optical signals can strongly depress the gold particles without detectable. In this paper, we proposed a method to extract the targets which are labelled by gold dimer pairs from large scattering background.

  4. Canada's physical activity guides: background, process, and development.

    PubMed

    Sharratt, Michael T; Hearst, William E

    2007-01-01

    This historical background paper chronicles the major events leading to the development of Canada's physical activity guides (for children, youth, adults, and older adults). The paper outlines the process and the steps used, including information (where applicable) regarding national partners, project administration, Health Canada communications, product development, endorsement, distribution and implementation, collateral activities, media relations and evaluation framework. Brief summaries of the science that led to the recommended guidelines are included. The paper also summarizes the various physical activity guide assessment and evaluation projects and their findings, particularly as they relate to research carried out on Canada's physical activity guides for children and youth (and the associated support resources).

  5. Investigation of a background suppression transimpedance amplifier for photovoltaic detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Ferdinand J., Jr.

    1992-12-01

    The current generation of transimpedance amplifier based detector systems are limited by opamp saturation when operating at a high gain or in the presence of a large background signal. To eliminate saturation, an amplifier that is frequency dependent is developed. Additionally, the noise sources in the conventional transimpedance amplifier and photovoltaic detector are quantified for comparison to any modified circuit. Initial results indicate that the frequency dependent detector system is a viable system, however, further development is required. Further research of this technology is expected to support future infrared and long range detection applications.

  6. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples.

  7. Background radiation: natural and man-made.

    PubMed

    Thorne, M C

    2003-03-01

    A brief overview and comparison is given of dose rates arising from natural background radiation and the fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Although there are considerable spatial variations in exposure to natural background radiation, it is useful to give estimates of worldwide average overall exposures from the various components of that background. Cosmic-ray secondaries of low linear energy transfer (LET), mainly muons and photons, deliver about 280 microSv a(-1). Cosmic-ray neutrons deliver about another 100 microSv a(-1). These low- and high-LET exposures are relatively uniform to the whole body. The effective dose rate from cosmogenic radionuclides is dominated by the contribution of 12 microSv a(-1) from 14C. This is due to relatively uniform irradiation of all organs and tissues from low-energy beta particles. Primordial radionuclides and their progeny (principally the 238U and 232Th series, and 40K) contribute about 480 microSv a(-1) of effective dose by external irradiation. This is relatively uniform photon irradiation of the whole body. Internally incorporated 40K contributes a further 165 microSv a(-1) of effective dose in adults, mainly from beta particles, but with a significant gamma component. Equivalent doses from 40K are somewhat higher in muscle than other soft tissues, but the distinction is less than a factor of three. Uranium and thorium series radionuclides give rise to an average effective dose rate of around 120 microSv a(-1). This includes a major alpha particle component, and exposures of radiosensitive tissues in lung, liver, kidney and the skeleton are recognised as important contributors to effective dose. Overall, these various sources give a worldwide average effective dose rate of about 1160 microSv a(-1). Exposure to 222Rn, 220Rn and their short-lived progeny has to be considered separately. This is very variable both within and between countries. For 222Rn and its progeny, a worldwide average effective dose

  8. Using Correlated Photons to Suppress Background Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah; Hockney, George; Dowling, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    A proposed method of suppressing the effect of background noise in an optical communication system would exploit the transmission and reception of correlated photons at the receiver. The method would not afford any advantage in a system in which performance is limited by shot noise. However, if the performance of the system is limited by background noise (e.g., sunlight in the case of a free-space optical communication system or incoherently scattered in-band photons in the case of a fiber-optic communication system), then the proposed method could offer an advantage: the proposed method would make it possible to achieve a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) significantly greater than that of an otherwise equivalent background- noise-limited optical communication system based on the classical transmission and reception of uncorrelated photons. The figure schematically depicts a classical optical-communication system and a system according to the proposed method. In the classical system, a modulated laser beam is transmitted along an optical path to a receiver, the optics of which include a narrow-band-pass filter that suppresses some of the background noise. A photodetector in the receiver detects the laser-beam and background photons, most or all of which are uncorrelated. In the proposed system, correlated photons would be generated at the transmitter by making a modulated laser beam pass through a nonlinear parametric down-conversion crystal. The sum of frequencies of the correlated photons in each pair would equal the frequency of the incident photon from which they were generated. As in the classical system, the correlated photons would travel along an optical path to a receiver, where they would be band-pass filtered and detected. Unlike in the classical system, the photodetector in the receiver in this system would be one that intrinsically favors the detection of pairs of correlated photons over the detection of uncorrelated photons. Even though there would be no

  9. The Dortmund Low Background Facility - Low-background gamma ray spectrometry with an artificial overburden.

    PubMed

    Gastrich, Holger; Gößling, Claus; Klingenberg, Reiner; Kröninger, Kevin; Neddermann, Till; Nitsch, Christian; Quante, Thomas; Zuber, Kai

    2016-06-01

    The Dortmund Low Background Facility is an instrument for low-level gamma ray spectrometry with an artificial overburden of ten meters of water equivalent, an inner shielding, featuring a neutron absorber, and an active muon veto. An integral background count rate between 40keV and 2700keV of (2.528±0.004)counts/(kgmin) enables low-background gamma ray spectrometry with sensitivities in the range of some 10mBq/kg within a week of measurement time.

  10. Spectral observations of the extreme ultraviolet background.

    PubMed

    Labov, S E; Bowyer, S

    1991-04-20

    A grazing incidence spectrometer was designed to measure the diffuse extreme ultraviolet background. It was flown on a sounding rocket, and data were obtained on the diffuse background between 80 and 650 angstroms. These are the first spectral measurements of this background below 520 angstroms. Several emission features were detected, including interplanetary He I 584 angstroms emission and geocoronal He II 304 angstroms emission. Other features observed may originate in a hot ionized interstellar gas, but if this interpretation is correct, gas at several different temperatures is present. The strongest of these features is consistent with O V emission at 630 angstroms. This emission, when combined with upper limits for other lines, restricts the temperature of this component to 5.5 < log T < 5.7, in agreement with temperatures derived from O VI absorption studies. A power-law distribution of temperatures is consistent with this feature only if the power-law coefficient is negative, as is predicted for saturated evaporation of clouds in a hot medium. In this case, the O VI absorption data confine the filling factor of the emission of f < or = 4% and the pressure to more than 3.7 x 10(4) cm-3 K, substantially above ambient interstellar pressure. Such a pressure enhancement has been predicted for clouds undergoing saturated evaporation. Alternatively, if the O V emission covers a considerable fraction of the sky, it would be a major source of ionization. A feature centered at about 99 angstroms is well fitted by a cluster of Fe XVIII and Fe XIX lines from gas at log T = 6.6-6.8. These results are consistent with previous soft X-ray observations with low-resolution detectors. A feature found near 178 angstroms is consistent with Fe X and Fe XI emission from gas at log T = 6; this result is consistent with results from experiments employing broad-band soft X-ray detectors.

  11. The background is remapped across saccades.

    PubMed

    Cha, Oakyoon; Chong, Sang Chul

    2014-02-01

    Physiological studies have found that neurons prepare for impending eye movements, showing anticipatory responses to stimuli presented at the location of the post-saccadic receptive fields (RFs) (Wurtz in Vis Res 48:2070-2089, 2008). These studies proposed that visual neurons with shifting RFs prepared for the stimuli they would process after an impending saccade. Additionally, psychophysical studies have shown behavioral consequences of those anticipatory responses, including the transfer of aftereffects (Melcher in Nat Neurosci 10:903-907, 2007) and the remapping of attention (Rolfs et al. in Nat Neurosci 14:252-258, 2011). As the physiological studies proposed, the shifting RF mechanism explains the transfer of aftereffects. Recently, a new mechanism based on activation transfer via a saliency map was proposed, which accounted for the remapping of attention (Cavanagh et al. in Trends Cogn Sci 14:147-153, 2010). We hypothesized that there would be different aspects of the remapping corresponding to these different neural mechanisms. This study found that the information in the background was remapped to a similar extent as the figure, provided that the visual context remained stable. We manipulated the status of the figure and the ground in the saliency map and showed that the manipulation modulated the remapping of the figure and the ground in different ways. These results suggest that the visual system has an ability to remap the background as well as the figure, but lacks the ability to modulate the remapping of the background based on the visual context, and that different neural mechanisms might work together to maintain visual stability across saccades.

  12. Background music as a quasi clock in retrospective duration judgments.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Nicole; Areni, Charles S

    2006-04-01

    The segmentation-change model of time perception proposes that individuals engaged in cognitive tasks during a given interval of time retrospectively estimate duration by recalling events that occurred during the interval and inferring each event's duration. Previous research suggests that individuals can recall the number of songs heard during an interval and infer the length of each song, exactly the conditions that foster estimates of duration based on the segmentation-change model. The results of a laboratory experiment indicated that subjects who solved word-search puzzles for 20 min. estimated the duration of the interval to be longer when 8 short songs (<3 min.) as opposed to 4 long songs (6+ min.) were played in the background, regardless of whether the musical format was Contemporary Dance or New Age. Assuming each song represented a distinct segment in memory, these results are consistent with the segmentation-change model. These results suggest that background music may not always reduce estimates of duration by drawing attention away from the passage of time. Instead, background music may actually expand the subjective length of an interval by creating accessible traces in memory, which are retrospectively used to infer duration.

  13. Senegal: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-16

    Radio France Internationale (RFI), “Abdoulaye Wade Déclare Sa Candidature Pour 2012,” September 17, 2009. 7 See Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU...Sénégalais,” April 14, 2010. 16 Wal Fadjri, “Face à la Crise Sociale, Politique, Economique - La Société Civile Vers la Création d’un Système d’Alerte et...2010. 42 IHS Global Insight, “Senegal (Country Intelligence ),” updated April 20, 2010. Senegal: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional

  14. Muon-induced spallation backgrounds in DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guanying; Li, Shirley; Beacom, John

    2017-01-01

    Galactic supernovae are rare, just a few per century, so it is important to be prepared. If we are, then the long-baseline detector DUNE could detect thousands of events, compared to the tens from SN 1987A. An important question is backgrounds from muon-induced spallation reactions. We simulate particle energy-loss processes in liquid argon, and compare relevant isotope yields with those in the water-Cherenkov detector SuperK. Our approach will help optimize the design of DUNE and further benefit the study of supernova neutrinos. GZ, SWL, and JFB are supported by NSF Grant PHY-1404311.

  15. Existence of a persistent background of turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    A plausible scenario for the existence of a persistent back-ground of turbulence in the free atmosphere is described. The MST radar technique is the only existing technique that can be used to describe the morphology of occurrence of turbulence as a function of altitude, wind speed, shear, weather conditions, geographical location, etc. This technique was used also to assess the degree of universality of shape and amplitude of the buoyancy wave spectrum and the relation between the buoyancy wave spectrum and turbulence.

  16. Cosmic X-ray background and solitars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, H.-Y.

    In this paper the authors has examined the observational consequences of a class of new astronomical objects proposed by Friedberg, Lee and Pang, called solitars which are degenerate vacuum states embedded with particles. A study is made to include finite temperature effect and pair creation. Quark is believed to be the only species that can exist in the interior of solitars. Massive quark solitars are primarily X-ray emitters and may account for the large unexplained thermal component of the cosmic X-ray background.

  17. The Cosmic Microwave Background and its Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollack, Edward

    2017-01-01

    The subtle spatial variations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation provide a unique astrophysical probe of the early Universe. Characterization of this relic radiation and its polarization have the power to reveal and constrain the properties of light astroparticle species, long wave gravitational radiation, and intervening mass concentrations. Recent advances in theory, observation, and instrumentation have set the stage to experimentally confront the inflationary paradigm via precision polarimetric surveys of the CMB. Current and proposed future observational efforts from the ground, balloon, and spaceborne platforms will be briefly surveyed in this presentation. Recent community activities by the Inflation Probe Science Interest Group (IPSIG) will also be presented.

  18. Background instrumental music and serial recall.

    PubMed

    Nittono, H

    1997-06-01

    Although speech and vocal music are consistently shown to impair serial recall for visually presented items, instrumental music does not always produce a significant disruption. This study investigated the features of instrumental music that would modulate the disruption in serial recall. 24 students were presented sequences of nine digits and required to recall the digits in order of presentation. Instrumental music as played either forward or backward during the task. Forward music caused significantly more disruption than did silence, whereas the reversed music did not. Some higher-order factor may be at work in the effect of background music on serial recall.

  19. Diffusion Background Model for Moving Objects Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakov, B. V.; Sidyakin, S. V.; Vizilter, Y. V.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new approach for moving objects detection in video surveillance systems. It is based on construction of the regression diffusion maps for the image sequence. This approach is completely different from the state of the art approaches. We show that the motion analysis method, based on diffusion maps, allows objects that move with different speed or even stop for a short while to be uniformly detected. We show that proposed model is comparable to the most popular modern background models. We also show several ways of speeding up diffusion maps algorithm itself.

  20. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  1. Detection of weak and small infrered targets under complicated background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinling; Zhang, Jiming; Deng, Linming; Niu, Xiaoming; Wei, Xueming; Xu, Jing; Wu, Jian

    2010-10-01

    The technique of weak small target detection and recognition has been the key technique of the electro-optical detecting system, many scholars are engaging the research of detection for weak and small targets. The effective detection for small targets in low SNR images is still a hot research field. Because infrared sensor is easily affected by atmosphere hot radiation, long distance and sensor noise, the detected targets in infrared images often present like small targets and drowned in noise. The basic problem inherent to extent the detection range is the detection of small, low observable, no obvious structural information in images and complicated background. In order to improve the detection ratio of weak small targets and decrease the false alarming ratio in the condition of complicated background, the paper presents the technology of pretreatment of infrared images and the technology of detection for weak small targets, mainly including the technology of Sobel edge algorithm and multi-degree and multi-orientation gradient. Based upon horizon-correlative characteristic of infrared images which were gotten by scanning, considering of the target properties in complicated background, an algorithm of weak and small target detection is presented. Because the images appear horizon-correlative characteristic, Sobel horizontal operator is adopted. By this algorithm, the background clutter was suppressed. Then an adaptive threshold was proposed to extract the precise location of small target. Incorporated with the two methods, a single frame weak and small target detection algorithm was built. Its high performance was then proved in a serial of experiments. In order to solve the detection problems of weak and small infrared targets under complicated background, a detection algorithm integrating with multi-degree and multi-orientation gradient fusion is proposed. Based on the principle of infrared radiation property of target, i.e., the gradient variations of pixel

  2. The effect of background music on the taste of wine.

    PubMed

    North, Adrian C

    2012-08-01

    Research concerning cross-modal influences on perception has neglected auditory influences on perceptions of non-auditory objects, although a small number of studies indicate that auditory stimuli can influence perceptions of the freshness of foodstuffs. Consistent with this, the results reported here indicate that independent groups' ratings of the taste of the wine reflected the emotional connotations of the background music played while they drank it. These results indicate that the symbolic function of auditory stimuli (in this case music) may influence perception in other modalities (in this case gustation); and are discussed in terms of possible future research that might investigate those aspects of music that induce such effects in a particular manner, and how such effects might be influenced by participants' pre-existing knowledge and expertise with regard to the target object in question.

  3. The Beta Cage: Screening Low Radioactive Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinar, K.; Akerib, D.; Grant, D.; Schnee, R.; Shutt, T.; Golwala, S.; Ahmed, Z.

    2006-10-01

    The beta cage is a proposed multi-wire proportional chamber that will be the most sensitive device available to screen low-energy (200 keV) betas emitted at rates as low as 10-5 counts keV^1 cm-2 day-1 (of order 10-4 Bq/m^2). The expected sensitivity and details of the construction and commissioning of its prototype chamber are presented. The prototype beta cage is a 50x50x25 cm frame gridded by stacked wire planes contained in a chamber of gas. To reduce background, the chamber contains only enough mass to stop betas of interest. Samples are placed beneath the grid; the wires multiply the betas and collect their electron avalanche. Readouts allow discrimination of its events from background and determination of the beta (or alpha) source. The beta cage has potential use in carbon or tritium dating, with ^3H/^1H sensitivity of 10-20 and ^ 14C/ ^12C sensitivity of 10-18. Its design was motivated by CDMS, whose sensitivity to the dark matter candidate WIMPs is currently limited by low-energy beta contamination.

  4. New window into stochastic gravitational wave background.

    PubMed

    Rotti, Aditya; Souradeep, Tarun

    2012-11-30

    A stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB) would gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons. We correct the results provided in existing literature for modifications to the CMB polarization power spectra due to lensing by gravitational waves. Weak lensing by gravitational waves distorts all four CMB power spectra; however, its effect is most striking in the mixing of power between the E mode and B mode of CMB polarization. This suggests the possibility of using measurements of the CMB angular power spectra to constrain the energy density (Ω(GW)) of the SGWB. Using current data sets (QUAD, WMAP, and ACT), we find that the most stringent constraints on the present Ω(GW) come from measurements of the angular power spectra of CMB temperature anisotropies. In the near future, more stringent bounds on Ω(GW) can be expected with improved upper limits on the B modes of CMB polarization. Any detection of B modes of CMB polarization above the expected signal from large scale structure lensing could be a signal for a SGWB.

  5. Bayesian Analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background! Experiments designed to map the microwave sky are returning a flood of data (time streams of instrument response as a beam is swept over the sky) at several different frequencies (from 30 to 900 GHz), all with different resolutions and noise properties. The resulting analysis challenge is to estimate, and quantify our uncertainty in, the spatial power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background given the complexities of "missing data", foreground emission, and complicated instrumental noise. Bayesian formulation of this problem allows consistent treatment of many complexities including complicated instrumental noise and foregrounds, and can be numerically implemented with Gibbs sampling. Gibbs sampling has now been validated as an efficient, statistically exact, and practically useful method for low-resolution (as demonstrated on WMAP 1 and 3 year temperature and polarization data). Continuing development for Planck - the goal is to exploit the unique capabilities of Gibbs sampling to directly propagate uncertainties in both foreground and instrument models to total uncertainty in cosmological parameters.

  6. The Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiffert, M.

    1996-12-01

    Since 1988 the UCSB Cosmology Group has performed a number of measurements of the degree scale structure in the Cosmic Background Radiation. These include 3 South Pole expeditions in 1989, 91 and 94. and 8 balloon flights using SIS, HEMTs and bolometer based detectors. We will present a summary of these measurements focusing onthe recent results. In addition, we will describe the recent flight of HACME, a balloon- borne experiment to map CMB anisotropies with 0.75 degree angular resolution over several hundred square degrees. This experiment is a prototype for our next generation CMB experiment, the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST). BEAST will feature a 2 m diameter carbon fiber composite primary mirror for high angular resolution and a sensitive array of ultra-low noise HEMT amplifiers at 30, 40, and 90 GHz. BEAST is designed for an Antarctic long duration balloon flight allowing an observing time of order two weeks. This experiment will provide an unprecedented combination of sensitivty and angular resolution across a significant region of sky.

  7. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, P.; Villela, T.

    1987-01-01

    Maps of the large scale structure (theta is greater than 6 deg) of the cosmic background radiation covering 90 percent of the sky are now available. The data show a very strong 50-100 sigma (statistical error) dipole component, interpreted as being due to our motion, with a direction of alpha = 11.5 + or - 0.15 hours, sigma = -5.6 + or - 2.0 deg. The inferred direction of the velocity of our galaxy relative to the cosmic background radiation is alpha = 10.6 + or - 0.3 hours, sigma = -2.3 + or - 5 deg. This is 44 deg from the center of the Virgo cluster. After removing the dipole component, the data show a galactic signature but no apparent residual structure. An autocorrelation of the residual data, after substraction of the galactic component from a combined Berkeley (3 mm) and Princeton (12 mm) data sets, show no apparent structure from 10 to 180 deg with a rms of 0.01 mK(sup 2). At 90 percent confidence level limit of .00007 is placed on a quadrupole component.

  8. Low Background Phase of KamLAND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefer, Gregory

    2008-04-01

    The KamLAND collaboration operates a 1 kton liquid scintillation detector in the Kamioka mine in Japan. KamLAND's main scientific results are the precision measurement of the solar δm^2 utilizing reactor anti-neutrinos and first evidence for the observation of geologically produced anti-neutrinos. The KamLAND collaboration has been working toward upgrading the detector for a low background phase. During the spring of 2007, we performed the first phase of purification by circulating 1.3 ktons of KamLAND liquid scintillator through a newly developed distillation and purging system. The ultimate goal of purification is to allow for a direct measurement of the 862 keV, ^7Be neutrinos originating from the Sun. A description of the purification process, liquid scintillator quality control measures, and detector monitoring will be presented. The achieved background reduction after this first phase of purification and planned future work on KamLAND will be discussed.

  9. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, Karin D.; Chu, Tun-Jen; Pitt, William G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through said smino groups contained on the surface thereof. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to said target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membrances may be reprobed numerous times.

  10. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, K.D.; Chu, T.J.; Pitt, W.G.

    1992-05-12

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through amino groups contained on the surface. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to the target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membranes may be reprobed numerous times. No Drawings

  11. Role of genetic background in induced instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadhim, Munira A.; Nelson, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Genomic instability is effectively induced by ionizing radiation. Recently, evidence has accumulated supporting a relationship between genetic background and the radiation-induced genomic instability phenotype. This is possibly due to alterations in proteins responsible for maintenance of genomic integrity or altered oxidative metabolism. Studies in human cell lines, human primary cells, and mouse models have been performed predominantly using high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, or high doses of low LET radiation. The interplay between genetics, radiation response, and genomic instability has not been fully determined at low doses of low LET radiation. However, recent studies using low doses of low LET radiation suggest that the relationship between genetic background and radiation-induced genomic instability may be more complicated than these same relationships at high LET or high doses of low LET radiation. The complexity of this relationship at low doses of low LET radiation suggests that more of the population may be at risk than previously recognized and may have implications for radiation risk assessment.

  12. Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaldarriaga, Matias

    1998-06-01

    In this thesis we investigate several aspects related to the theory of fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background. We develop a new algorithm to calculate the angular power spectrum of the anisotropies which is two orders of magnitude faster than the standard Boltzmann hierarchy approach (Chapter 3). The new algorithm will become essential when comparing the observational results of the next generation of CMB experiments with theoretical predictions. The parameter space of the models is so large that an exhaustive exploration to find the best fit model will only be feasible with this new type of algorithm. We also investigate the polarization properties of the CMB field. We develop a new formalism to describe the statistics of the polarization variables that takes into account their spin two nature (Chapter 2). In Chapter 4 we explore several physical effects that create distinct features in the polarization power spectrum. We study the signature of the reionization of the universe and a stochastic background of gravitational waves. We also describe how the polarization correlation functions can be used to test the causal structure of the universe. Finally in Chapter 5 we quantify the amount of information the next generation of satellites can obtain by measuring both temperature and polarization anisotropies. We calculate the expected error bars on the cosmological parameters for the specifications of the MAP and Planck satellite missions.

  13. Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujikawa, Shinji; Tamaki, Takashi; Tavakol, Reza E-mail: tamaki@gravity.phys.waseda.ac.jp

    2009-05-15

    We study the field profile of a scalar field {phi} that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V({phi}) = M{sup 4+n}{phi}{sup -n} by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for {Phi}{sub c}{approx}

  14. Particle production in a gravitational wave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Preston; McDougall, Patrick; Singleton, Douglas

    2017-03-01

    We study the possibility that massless particles, such as photons, are produced by a gravitational wave. That such a process should occur is implied by tree-level Feynman diagrams such as two gravitons turning into two photons, i.e., g +g →γ +γ . Here we calculate the rate at which a gravitational wave creates a massless scalar field. This is done by placing the scalar field in the background of a plane gravitational wave and calculating the 4-current of the scalar field. Even in the vacuum limit of the scalar field it has a nonzero vacuum expectation value (similar to what occurs in the Higgs mechanism) and a nonzero current. We associate this with the production of scalar field quanta by the gravitational field. This effect has potential consequences for the attenuation of gravitational waves since the massless field is being produced at the expense of the gravitational field. This is related to the time-dependent Schwinger effect, but with the electric field replaced by the gravitational wave background and the electron/positron field quanta replaced by massless scalar "photons." Since the produced scalar quanta are massless there is no exponential suppression, as occurs in the Schwinger effect due to the electron mass.

  15. Correlation between work concentration level and background music: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Huang, Rong-Hwa; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2009-01-01

    It is a common phenomenon for office workers {to listen to music} while executing daily routines at their desks. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between work concentration level and background music. This research would first follow examples in previous researches, and then explore the influence of background music on participants' scores on attention tests. We hope to gain a preliminary understanding of the possible influence of background music on people's focus and concentration when doing work. Thirty-two college students were separated into three controlled groups; all were given the attention test. Group [a] listened to background music while being tested for 10 minutes; group [b] had no background music at all; and group [c] listened to the music for 10 minutes prior to the attention test. The test was conducted in a "noise free" environment. The means and error rates for each group were then calculated. The findings showed that, in comparison with "no music at all", those who listened to music prior to testing obtained higher scores in attentiveness (most probably a supplemental effect of the music), whereas those who listened to music during attention test showed extremely high level of variation in attention test scoring. Background music does affect people's job-site behavior. In fact, all three test conditions - no background music at all, background music before the work shift, and background music during work - have affected worker performance on different levels.

  16. kHz Ion Acceleration Under Variable Background Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, John T.; Feister, S.; Frische, K.; Austin, D. R.; Ngirmang, G. K.; Peterson, A. C.; Smith, J.; Klim, A.; Orban, C.; Chowdhury, E. A.; Roquemore, W. R.

    2016-10-01

    High-repetition rate, ultra-high intensity lasers are coming online, opening new possibilities for statistical approaches and applications to High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) research through relativistic laser-plasma interactions (RLPI). A new experimental framework including high-repetition rate solid-density targets, high-acquisition rate detectors, data acquisition, and analysis is needed to take advantage of these new possibilities. At the Extreme Light Laboratory at AFRL, development of a liquid target system has enabled us to perform 1kHz RLPI experiments in 0.03-20 mbar background pressures and intensities up to 5 1018 W/cm2. However, RLPI studied here transpires within a moderate vacuum, which may affect the strength of the electrostatic coupling between the energetic electrons and target ions, altering expected results for both the detected electrons and accelerated ions. Both the experimental methods and measurements of the ion acceleration from sub-micron solid density targets with variable background pressures will be presented. This research was sponsored by the Quantum and Non-Equilibrium Processes Division of the AFOSR, under the management of Dr. Enrique Parra and from the DOD HPCMP Internship Program.

  17. Development of a low-level background gamma-ray spectrometer by KRISS.

    PubMed

    Lee, K B; Park, Tae Soon; Lee, Jong Man; Oh, Phil-Je; Lee, Sang-Han

    2008-01-01

    A new low-level background and high-efficiency gamma-ray spectrometric system, to be used mainly for the activity certification of natural-matrix certified reference materials (CRMs) and environmental reference materials (RMs) that has been developed on the grounds of the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). The spectrometer consists of a low-background high-purity germanium detector with a relative efficiency of 120% and various shielding devices to reduce radiation background. The cabinet-shaped device made of 10ton of shielding materials encloses the germanium detector for protection against background from natural radioactivity and neutrons. Three plates of 50-mm-thick plastic scintillation detectors on top of the passive shielding cabinet suppress cosmogenic background by detecting high-energetic cosmic muons bombarding the germanium detector. The measured background rate of the spectrometer for the energy range 50-3000keV was 1.72s(-1).

  18. Data analysis of cosmic microwave background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abroe, Matthew Edmund

    2004-12-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a powerful tool for determining and constraining the fundamental properties of our universe. In this thesis we present various computational and statistical techniques used to analyze datasets from CMB experiments, and apply them to both simulated and actual datasets. The algorithms presented in this thesis perform a variety of tasks in relation to the goal of extracting scientific information from CMB data sets. The CMB anisotropy power spectrum is sensitive to numerous parameters that determine the evolutionary and large scale properties of our universe. Now that numerous experiments have mapped the CMB intensity fluctuations on overlapping regions of the sky it is important to ensure that the various experiments are indeed observing the same signal. We cross-correlate the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy maps from the WMAP, MAXIMA-I, and MAXIMA-II experiments. The results conclusively show that the three experiments not only display the same statistical properties of the CMB anisotropy, but also detect the same features wherever the observed sky areas overlap. We conclude that the contribution of systematic errors to these maps is negligible and that MAXIMA and WMAP have accurately mapped the cosmic microwave background anisotropy. Due to a quadrapole anisotropy at last scattering it is predicted that the CMB photons should be linearly polarized, and that the polarization intensity will be roughly an order of magnitude lower than the intensity fluctuations. Two computationally intensive methods for simulating the CMB polarization signal on the sky are presented. Now that CMB polarization experiments are currently producing data sets new algorithms for analyzing polarization time stream data must be developed and tested. We demonstrate how to generate simulations of a polarization experiment in the temporal domain and apply these simulations to the MAXIPOL case. We develop a maximum likelihood map making

  19. [Orthorexia nervosa and it's background factors].

    PubMed

    Varga, Márta; Dukay-Szabo, Szilvia; Túry, Ferenc

    2013-07-30

    The place of orthorexia nervosa (ON)--described by Bratman in 1997--is not clearly defined in the diagnostic systems. However, the increasing number of clinical experiences and research data gives us more and more information about the epidemiology, and the social and individual characteristics of ON. The general population shows a 6.9% prevalence of ON; healthcare professionals are at high risk of ON with the prevalence rate of 35-57.6%. Education, the choice of profession, socioeconomic status and the internalization of the ideals of society are significant factors in the development of ON, while sex, age and body mass index do not seem to be determining variables in this respect. The lack of common criteria and proper research results on ON makes it impossible to generalize data on the general population. Further studies with larger representative samples and assessment instruments with good psychometric properties are necessary to make research data on ON comparable.

  20. Polarization of the cosmic background radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, Philip M.; Smoot, George F.

    1980-08-01

    We discuss the technique and results of a measurement of the linear polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation. Data taken between May 1978 and February 1980 from both the northern hemisphere (Berkeley Lat. 38{sup o}N) and the southern hemisphere (Lima Lat. 12{sup o}s) over 11 declinations from -37{sup o} to +63{sup o} show the radiation to be essentially unpolarized over all areas surveyed. Fitting all data gives the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component of 0.3 mK for spherical harmonics through third order. A fit of all data to the anisotropic axisymmetric model of Rees (1968) yields a 95% confidence level limit of 0.15 mK for the magnitude of the polarized component. Constraints on various cosmological models are discussed in light of these limits.

  1. Microwave background distortions from domain walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Guenter; Noetzold, Dirk

    1990-01-01

    Domain walls arising in a cosmic phase transition after decoupling were recently proposed as seeds for the formation of large scale structure. The distortion induced in the microwave background radiation is calculated in dependence of the wall thickness, surface density, scalar field potential, cosmic redshift and the velocity of the wall. It was found that the maximal redshift distortion for both spherical and planar walls is of the order pi G sigma H(sup -1)(sub 0), where sigma is the surface energy density and H(sup -1)(sub 0) the Hubble parameter. It was also found that, for a wall thickness smaller than the horizon, walls can be treated as infinitely thin, i.e., the redshift distortion is independent of the wall thickness and the specific form of the scalar potential. For planar walls moving with a Lorentz-factor gamma the redshift distortion is enhanced by gamma cubed.

  2. Microwave background distortions from domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, Guenter; Noetzold, Dirk

    1990-08-01

    Domain walls arising in a cosmic phase transition after decoupling were recently proposed as seeds for the formation of large scale structure. The distortion induced in the microwave background radiation is calculated in dependence of the wall thickness, surface density, scalar field potential, cosmic redshift and the velocity of the wall. It was found that the maximal redshift distortion for both spherical and planar walls is of the order pi G sigma H(sup -1)(sub 0), where sigma is the surface energy density and H(sup -1)(sub 0) the Hubble parameter. It was also found that, for a wall thickness smaller than the horizon, walls can be treated as infinitely thin, i.e., the redshift distortion is independent of the wall thickness and the specific form of the scalar potential. For planar walls moving with a Lorentz-factor gamma the redshift distortion is enhanced by gamma cubed.

  3. Microwave background distortions from domain walls.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, G.; Nötzold, D.

    1991-03-01

    Domain walls arising in a cosmic phase transition after decoupling were recently proposed as seeds for the formation of large-scale structure. The distortion induced in the microwave background radiation is calculated in dependence of the wall thickness, surface density, scalar field potential, cosmic redshift and the velocity of the wall. The authors find that the maximal redshift distortion for both spherical and planar walls is of the order πGσH0-1, where σ is the surface energy density and H0 the Hubble parameter. They also find that, for a wall thickness smaller than the horizon, walls can be treated as infinitely thin, i.e. the redshift distortion is independent of the wall thickness and the specific form of the scalar potential. For planar walls moving with a Lorentz-factor γ the redshift distortion is enhanced by γ3.

  4. Texture-induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, J.; Copeland, E.J.; Liddle, A.R.; Stebbins, A.; Veeraraghavan, S. Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College of Science and Technology, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laoratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 685, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 )

    1994-08-15

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and nonlinear [sigma] model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60--75 % and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  5. Polarization of the cosmic background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, P. M.; Smoot, G. F.

    1981-04-01

    The technique and results of a measurement of the linear polarization of the cosmic background radiation at a wavelength of 9 mm are discussed. Data taken between 1978 May and 1980 February from both the Northern Hemisphere (Berkeley latitude 38 deg N) and the Southern Hemisphere (Lima latitude 12 deg S) over 11 declinations from -37 to +63 deg show the radiation to be essentially unpolarized over all areas surveyed. Fitting all data gives the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component of 0.3 mK for spherical harmonics through third order. A fit of all data to the anisotropic axisymmetric model of Rees (1968) yields a 95% confidence level limit of 0.15 mK for the magnitude of the polarized component. Constraints on various cosmological models are discussed in light of these limits.

  6. Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy: Python V Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, K.; Dragovan, M.; Kovac, J.; Halverson, N. W.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Knox, L.; Dodelson, S.; Ganga, K.; Peterson, J. B.; Alvarez, D.; Griffin, G.; Newcomb, M.; Miller, K.; Platt, S. R.; Novak, G.

    1999-05-01

    Observations of the microwave sky using the Python telescope in its fifth season of operation at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica are presented. The system consists of a 0.75 m off-axis telescope instrumented with a HEMT amplifier-based radiometer having continuum sensitivity from 37-45 GHz in two frequency bands. With a 0.91 x 1.02 deg beam the instrument fully sampled 598 deg(2) of sky, including fields measured during the previous four seasons of Python observations. Interpreting the observed fluctuations as anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, we place constraints on the angular power spectrum of fluctuations in multipole bands up to l ~ 260. The observed spectrum is consistent with both the COBE experiment and previous Python results. There is no significant contamination from known foregrounds. The results show a discernible rise in the angular power spectrum from large (l ~ 40) to small (l ~ 200) angular scales.

  7. Anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, S.

    1998-02-01

    Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contain a wealth of information about the past history of the universe and the present values of cosmological parameters. I online some of the theoretical advances of the last few years. In particular, I emphasize that for a wide class of cosmological models, theorists can accurately calculate the spectrum to better than a percent. The spectrum of anisotropies today is directly related to the pattern of inhomogeneities present at the time of recombination. This recognition leads to a powerful argument that will enable us to distinguish inflationary models from other models of structure formation. If the inflationary models turn out to be correct, the free parameters in these models will be determined to unprecedented accuracy by the upcoming satellite missions.

  8. Cosmic ultraviolet background radiation and zodiacal light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, P. D.; Henry, R. C.; Feldman, P. D.; Hartig, G. F.

    1988-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of the diffuse cosmic UV background in the 1700-2850-A range are presented. In agreement with previous results, the data have resulted in the detection at high Galactic latitude of an intensity of 300 + or - 100 photons/sq cm s sr A at 1800 A without correction for starlight or airglow, a similar intensity over the 1900-2500-A range after correction for measured airglow, and a similar intensity over the 2500-2800-A range after correction for zodiacal light. It is suggested that this radiation may originate partly in line radiation from a Galactic halo and partly from extragalactic sources, perhaps the integrated light of distant galaxies.

  9. Polarization of the cosmic background radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, P.M.

    1980-03-01

    The results and technique of a measurement of the linear polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation are discussed. The ground-based experiment utilizes a single horn (7/sup 0/ beam width) Dicke-type microwave polarimeter operating at 33 GHz (9.1 mm). Data taken between May 1978 and February 1980 from both the northern hemisphere (Berkeley Lat. = 38/sup 0/N) and the southern hemisphere (Lima Lat. = 12/sup 0/S) show the radiation to be essentially unpolarized over all areas surveyed. For the 38/sup 0/ declination data the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component is 0.3 mK for the average and 12 and 24 hour periods. Fitting all data gives the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component of 0.3 mK for spherical harmonics through third order. Constraints on various cosmological models are discussed in light of these limits.

  10. Genetic background of Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis.

    PubMed

    Saari, M; Vuorre, I; Tiilikainen, A; Algvere, P

    1978-10-01

    We studied the genetic background of 24 patients with Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis (FHC). Each was given a careful eye examination which included family history and serological determination of HLA antigens. Two families each had 2 cases of FHC in the same family; in addition an ancestor in the second family possibly had FHC; in both families one healthy member had simple heterochromia. One patient with FHC had congenital uveal coloboma, one pigmentary retinal dystrophy, and four had cysts of the ciliary body. The frequencies of all HLA antigens in patients with FHC compared well with the frequencies in the controls. In a family in which HLA haplotypes could be derived, the patients with FHC showed different HLA haplotypes. We conclude that FHC has a hereditary basis but its immunological component is not genetically associated with the HLA system.

  11. Chiral pions in a magnetic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, G.; Fraga, E. S.; Sedrakian, A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the modification of the pion self-energy at finite temperature due to its interaction with a low-density, isospin-symmetric nuclear medium embedded in a constant magnetic background. To one loop, for fixed temperature and density, we find that the pion effective mass increases with the magnetic field. For the π-, interestingly, this happens solely due to the trivial Landau quantization shift ∼|eB|, since the real part of the self-energy is negative in this case. In a scenario in which other charged particle species are present and undergo an analogous trivial shift, the relevant behavior of the effective mass might be determined essentially by the real part of the self-energy. In this case, we find that the pion mass decreases by ∼10% for a magnetic field |eB|∼mπ2, which favors pion condensation at high density and low temperatures.

  12. Background ionising radiation: a pictorial perspective.

    PubMed

    Bibbo, Giovanni; Piotto, Lino

    2014-09-01

    Ionising radiation from natural sources, known as background radiation, has existed on earth since the earth's formation. The exposure of humans and other living creatures to this radiation is a feature of the earth's environment which is continuing and inescapable. The word "radiation" brings fear to many people: a fear of the unknown, as human's senses cannot detect the presence of ionising radiation. In this study, a catalogue of images of the distribution of radioactivity in every day objects and foods has been produced using an imaging plate from a computed radiography cassette. The aim of the study is that by visually demonstrating that every day objects and foods are radioactive would alleviate the fear of "radiation" by becoming aware that we live in a radioactive environment and even our body is radioactive.

  13. [The psychosocial background of sterile patients].

    PubMed

    Pusch, H H; Urdl, W; Walcher, W

    1989-01-01

    The psychosocial background of 300 childless couples from the Infertility Clinic of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Graz, was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and statistical analysis of data from their files. Points of special interest were problems such as interactions of the couple, motivations for the desire of children, psychosomatics, andrological investigation within the gynecological department, sexual habits and motivation and compliance concerning investigations and treatment. 72% of the questionnaires were returned. 50% of the sterile couples preferred to attend the infertility clinic together. 26% felt restrictions in their sexual behaviour due to the unrealized desire of children, 48% expected improvements in their partnership if they could have children. Compliance of male partners concerning the regular intake of prescribed medicaments was 83%, 63% accepted to stop smoking in cases of pathospermia.

  14. Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization and Inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) offer a means to explore the universe at a very early epoch. Specifically, if the universe went through a brief period of exponential expansion called inflation as current data suggest, gravitational waves from this period would polarize the CMB in a specific pattern. At GSFC, we are currently working towards two experiments that work in concert to measure this polarization pattern in search of evidence for inflation. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization at frequencies between 40 and 150 GHz from the Atacama Desert in Chile. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne experiment that will make similar measurements at frequencies between 200 and 600 GHz.

  15. Cleanliness, backgrounds and surface contamination in CUORE

    SciTech Connect

    Pirro, S.; Capelli, S.; Cremonesi, O.; Pavan, M.; Previtali, E.; Nisi, S.; Palmieri, E.

    2005-09-08

    CUORE is a proposed array of 988, 750 g, TeO2 crystal bolometers. The experiment has been approved by the Scientific Committee of Gran Sasso Laboratories and the special dilution refrigerator, that is intended to house the detector has been funded. The Experiment will search for the 0v-Double Beta Decay of 130Te. As in all the proposed next generation Double Beta Decay Experiments, the main task is the reduction of the radioactive background. A peculiar property of thermal detectors is that they are active over the entire volume and therefore strongly subject to radioactive surface contaminations. Unlike radioactive bulk contaminations, that can be measured through High-Purity Ge Detectors, radioactive surface contaminations are not easily measurable at very low levels. Different techniques were developed in order to reach the required sensitivity. Present results already achieved and studies that are underway are here presented and discussed.

  16. Collective neutrino oscillations in turbulent backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Giles; Adams, Jenni; Seunarine, Suruj

    2011-10-15

    Using a Kolmogorov turbulence model, we investigate the effects of fluctuations in matter and neutrino density in the region near a supernova core on the flavor oscillations of neutrinos emitted in the core collapse in a single-angle, two-flavor approximation. Deviation from a smooth background neutrino density causes significant alterations in the final flavor state of the neutrino ensemble after 400 km, but even very large fluctuations in the matter density do not strongly affect the state of the neutrinos after the collective phase. In both cases, there is a strong effect on the neutrino flavor evolution at intermediate radii, with the flavor evolution becoming much more chaotic. The effect of fluctuations also depends strongly on the initial neutrino spectra. We conclude that the true neutrino fluxes arriving at Earth from core-collapse supernova could differ considerably from predictions of neutrino fluxes based on approximate models with smoothly decreasing matter and neutrino densities.

  17. Detection prospects of the cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2015-04-01

    The existence of the cosmic neutrino background (CνB) is a fundamental prediction of the standard Big Bang cosmology. Although current cosmological probes provide indirect observational evidence, the direct detection of the CνB in a laboratory experiment is a great challenge to the present experimental techniques. We discuss the future prospects for the direct detection of the CνB, with the emphasis on the method of captures on beta-decaying nuclei and the PTOLEMY project. Other possibilities using the electron-capture (EC) decaying nuclei, the annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos (EHECνs) at the Z-resonance, and the atomic de-excitation method are also discussed in this review (talk given at the International Conference on Massive Neutrinos, Singapore, 9-13 February 2015).

  18. Detection Prospects of the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Feng

    The existence of the cosmic neutrino background (CνB) is a fundamental prediction of the standard Big Bang cosmology. Although current cosmological probes provide indirect observational evidence, the direct detection of the CνB in a laboratory experiment is a great challenge to the present experimental techniques. We discuss the future prospects for the direct detection of the CνB, with the emphasis on the method of captures on beta-decaying nuclei and the PTOLEMY project. Other possibilities using the electron-capture (EC) decaying nuclei, the annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos (EHECνs) at the Z-resonance, and the atomic de-excitation method are also discussed in this review.

  19. Holography for Schrödinger backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guica, Monica; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika; van Rees, Balt C.

    2011-02-01

    We discuss holography for Schrödinger solutions of both topologically massive gravity in three dimensions and massive vector theories in ( d + 1) dimensions. In both cases the dual field theory can be viewed as a d-dimensional conformal field theory (two dimensional in the case of TMG) deformed by certain operators that respect the Schrödinger symmetry. These operators are irrelevant from the viewpoint of the relativistic conformal group but they are exactly marginal with respect to the non-relativistic conformal group. The spectrum of linear fluctuations around the background solutions corresponds to operators that are labeled by their scaling dimension and the lightcone momentum k v . We set up the holographic dictionary and compute 2-point functions of these operators both holographically and in field theory using conformal perturbation theory and find agreement. The counterterms needed for holographic renormalization are non-local in the v lightcone direction.

  20. Background-Oriented Schlieren Characterization of Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo, Cynthia; Hargather, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Characterizing the energy release from large explosions is a difficult process using traditional point-pressure gages. The background oriented schlieren technique is used here to provide large-field-of-view visualization of the shock wave propagation from large-scale explosions. This technique is used to allow field-measurements of blast wave properties instead of traditional point-wise measurements. By analyzing the shock wave propagation Mach number the peak overpressure and overpressure duration are estimated for different explosions. The technique is applied to the visualization of encased explosions, including car bombs, to estimate the amount of shock energy lost to the fragmentation and acceleration of the casing. Comparisons are made to un-encased explosions. The optically measured data is compared to experimental data recorded using piezoelectric pressure transducers. Scaling relationships are examined to determine scalability of encased explosions.

  1. Environmental monitoring for nuclear safeguards. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    To assure that states are not violating their Non-Proliferation Treaty commitments, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) must verify that states do not possess convert nuclear facilities-a mission that prior to the 1991 Gulf War, it had neither the political backing nor the resources to conduct. The IAEA recognizes the importance of this new mission and is in the process of assuming it. One of the tools it is exploring to provide some indication of the presence of secret, or undeclared, nuclear activities and facilities is environmental monitoring. Modern sampling and analysis technologies provide powerful tools to detect the presence of characteristic substances that are likely to be emitted by such illicit activities. This background paper examines the prospects for such technologies to improve nuclear safeguards. It concludes that environmental monitoring can greatly increase the ability to detect undeclared activity at declared, or known, sites, and it can significantly increase the chances of detecting and locating undeclared sites.

  2. The microwave background anisotropies: Observations

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, David

    1998-01-01

    Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation—fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 μK fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1° and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe—the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century. PMID:9419320

  3. Speech Recognition in Natural Background Noise

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Julien; Dentel, Laure; Meunier, Fanny

    2013-01-01

    In the real world, human speech recognition nearly always involves listening in background noise. The impact of such noise on speech signals and on intelligibility performance increases with the separation of the listener from the speaker. The present behavioral experiment provides an overview of the effects of such acoustic disturbances on speech perception in conditions approaching ecologically valid contexts. We analysed the intelligibility loss in spoken word lists with increasing listener-to-speaker distance in a typical low-level natural background noise. The noise was combined with the simple spherical amplitude attenuation due to distance, basically changing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, our study draws attention to some of the most basic environmental constraints that have pervaded spoken communication throughout human history. We evaluated the ability of native French participants to recognize French monosyllabic words (spoken at 65.3 dB(A), reference at 1 meter) at distances between 11 to 33 meters, which corresponded to the SNRs most revealing of the progressive effect of the selected natural noise (−8.8 dB to −18.4 dB). Our results showed that in such conditions, identity of vowels is mostly preserved, with the striking peculiarity of the absence of confusion in vowels. The results also confirmed the functional role of consonants during lexical identification. The extensive analysis of recognition scores, confusion patterns and associated acoustic cues revealed that sonorant, sibilant and burst properties were the most important parameters influencing phoneme recognition. . Altogether these analyses allowed us to extract a resistance scale from consonant recognition scores. We also identified specific perceptual consonant confusion groups depending of the place in the words (onset vs. coda). Finally our data suggested that listeners may access some acoustic cues of the CV transition, opening interesting perspectives for future studies

  4. pn-CCDs in a low-background environment: detector background of the CAST x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuster, M.; Cebrián, S.; Rodríquez, A.; Kotthaus, R.; Bräuninger, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Hartmann, R.; Kang, D.; Lutz, G.; Strüder, L.

    2005-08-01

    The CAST experiment at CERN (European Organization of Nuclear Research) searches for axions from the sun. The axion is a pseudoscalar particle that was motivated by theory thirty years ago, with the intention to solve the strong CP problem. Together with the neutralino, the axion is one of the most promising dark matter candidates. The CAST experiment has been taking data during the last two years, setting an upper limit on the coupling of axions to photons more restrictive than from any other solar axion search in the mass range below 10-1 eV. In 2005 CAST will enter a new experimental phase extending the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axion masses. The CAST experiment strongly profits from technology developed for high energy physics and for X-ray astronomy: A superconducting prototype LHC magnet is used to convert potential axions to detectable X-rays in the 1-10 keV range via the inverse Primakoff effect. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a spin-off from space technology, aWolter I type X-ray optics in combination with a prototype pn-CCD developed for ESA's XMM-Newton mission. As in other rare event searches, background suppression and a thorough shielding concept is essential to improve the sensitivity of the experiment to the best possible. In this context CAST offers the opportunity to study the background of pn-CCDs and its long term behavior in a terrestrial environment with possible implications for future space applications. We will present a systematic study of the detector background of the pn-CCD of CAST based on the data acquired since 2002 including preliminary results of our background simulations.

  5. Connecting Students' Background Experiences to Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Christina; Wilson- Lopez, Amy; Mejia, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Many youth do not pursue engineering because they do not see how it connects to their lives and interests. Concerned about this problem, the National Research Council (2012) suggested ways that teachers can make engineering more relevant and accessible to youth who have not traditionally pursued careers in this field. According to the National…

  6. 42 CFR 81.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND.... Among the types of illnesses for which compensation may be provided are cancers. There are two categories of covered employees with cancer under EEOICPA for whom compensation may be provided....

  7. Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

  8. Race, Social Background, and School Choice Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyette, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    This research contributes to discussions about social inequality in school choices in two ways. First, educational choices include the multitude of options families may consider, including choosing a home in a particular area and home-schooling. Decision-making is considered not at a single point in time, but over children's educational careers.…

  9. 76 FR 79567 - Tribal Background Investigations and Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 556 and 558 RIN 3141-AA15 Tribal Background Investigations.... SUMMARY: The proposed rule modifies certain NIGC regulations concerning background investigations and... program'' background investigation and licensing procedures. Parts 556 and 558 address...

  10. Estimating the normal background rate of species extinction.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Jurriaan M; Joppa, Lucas N; Gittleman, John L; Stephens, Patrick R; Pimm, Stuart L

    2015-04-01

    A key measure of humanity's global impact is by how much it has increased species extinction rates. Familiar statements are that these are 100-1000 times pre-human or background extinction levels. Estimating recent rates is straightforward, but establishing a background rate for comparison is not. Previous researchers chose an approximate benchmark of 1 extinction per million species per year (E/MSY). We explored disparate lines of evidence that suggest a substantially lower estimate. Fossil data yield direct estimates of extinction rates, but they are temporally coarse, mostly limited to marine hard-bodied taxa, and generally involve genera not species. Based on these data, typical background loss is 0.01 genera per million genera per year. Molecular phylogenies are available for more taxa and ecosystems, but it is debated whether they can be used to estimate separately speciation and extinction rates. We selected data to address known concerns and used them to determine median extinction estimates from statistical distributions of probable values for terrestrial plants and animals. We then created simulations to explore effects of violating model assumptions. Finally, we compiled estimates of diversification-the difference between speciation and extinction rates for different taxa. Median estimates of extinction rates ranged from 0.023 to 0.135 E/MSY. Simulation results suggested over- and under-estimation of extinction from individual phylogenies partially canceled each other out when large sets of phylogenies were analyzed. There was no evidence for recent and widespread pre-human overall declines in diversity. This implies that average extinction rates are less than average diversification rates. Median diversification rates were 0.05-0.2 new species per million species per year. On the basis of these results, we concluded that typical rates of background extinction may be closer to 0.1 E/MSY. Thus, current extinction rates are 1,000 times higher than natural

  11. Going on to Uni? Access and Participation in University for Students from Backgrounds of Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Judith; Wilson, Katie

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a research project that investigated the aspirations of primary and secondary school students about access to, and participation in higher education. The research was undertaken at schools in low socio-economic status regional and rural areas of north-eastern New South Wales. The paper discusses the background to the…

  12. Embedded Library Services: Beyond Chance Encounters for Students from Low SES Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Anne; Maddox, Alexia; Hagel, Pauline; Currie, Michael; Owen, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports research that examined how the embedding of library services through the learning management system contributed to the experience of students from low socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. To evaluate the embedded practice, the researchers used a mixed-method approach involving surveys with students and interviews with…

  13. The historical background to aerospace pathology.

    PubMed

    Hill, I R

    1982-01-01

    The Joint Committee on Aviation Pathology was born on 14 Nov., 1955. Its formation coincided with the advent of jet-powered commercial air transport, a step recognised by aviators and governments as being of tremendous significance in that it implied a considerable technological advance. Since then, supersonic air transport has become possible and man has walked upon the moon. Although aerospace pathology-which led the way to accident/injury research- has contributed greatly to the very much improved safety record of aviation, it is obvious that additional work is required. A closer relationship between research and development of future aircraft and pathologists is necessary if further inroads are to be made.

  14. National Climate Assessment Indicators: Background, Development, & Examples

    SciTech Connect

    Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Kenney, Melissa A.; Abbasi, Daniel; Armstrong, Tom; Bartuska, Ann; Blair, Maria; Buizer, Jim; Dietz, Tom; Easterling, Dave; Kaye, Jack; Kolian, Michael; McGeehin, Michael; O'Connor, Robert; Pulwarty, Roger; Running, Steve; Schmalensee, Dick; Webb, Robert; Weltzin, Jake; Baptista, Sandra; Enquist, Carolyn A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Hatfield, Jerry; Hayes, Mark L.; Jones, K. Burce; McNutt, Chad; Meier, Wayne R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Svoboda, Mark

    2012-02-28

    Indicators are usually thought of as measurements or calculations that represent important features of the status, trend, or performance of a system of interest (e.g. the economy, agriculture, air quality). They are often used for the most practical of reasons – one cannot measure everything important about systems of interest, so there is a practical need to identify major features that can be reported periodically and used to guide both research and decisions (NRC 2000).

  15. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-14

    and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 21 Sweat Shop Allegations On May 3, 2006, the National Labor Committee ( NLC ), a New York-based...factories in violation of the law. The NLC has recognized the government’s recent actions, though it has suggested that violations of worker rights...monitoring program to check conditions in close to 100 apparel factories operating in the QIZs. According to Charles Kernaghan of the NLC , “a lot of

  16. Background information on high voltage fields.

    PubMed Central

    Janes, D E

    1977-01-01

    The increased demand for power has led to higher voltages for overhead transmission lines. Environmentalists, governmental agencies, and some members of the scientific community have questioned if past biological effects research and experience with lower voltage lines provide adequate bases for predicting the possible health and environmental effects of the higher voltage lines. Only a small amount of work has been done to explore the possible effects, especially long term effects, of the exposure of biological systems to electric fields from transmission lines. Research in Western Europe and the United States has not identified any prompt or acute effects other than spark and electric discharge and no permanent effects. Contrasted with this are the studies of workers in Soviet and Spanish high voltage switchyards that report effects, such as excitability, headaches, drowsiness, fatique, and nausea, that are not found in Soviet line maintenance workers. The results of current and planned research, supported by both U.S. Government agencies and the private sector, should resolve a number of the present uncertanties and provide answers for the many questions concerning potential effects. PMID:598346

  17. Cosmic Needles versus Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aigen

    2003-02-01

    It has been suggested by a number of authors that the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation might have arisen from the radiation of ``Population III'' objects thermalized by conducting cosmic graphite/iron needle-shaped dust. Due to a lack of an accurate solution to the absorption properties of exceedingly elongated grains, in existing literature which studies the CMB thermalizing process they are generally modeled as (1) needle-like spheroids in terms of the Rayleigh approximation, (2) infinite cylinders, and (3) antennae. We show here that the Rayleigh approximation is not valid since the Rayleigh criterion is not satisfied for highly conducting needles. We also show that the available intergalactic iron dust, if modeled as infinite cylinders, is not sufficient to supply the required opacity at long wavelengths to obtain the observed isotropy and Planckian nature of the CMB. If appealing to the antenna theory, conducting iron needles with exceedingly large elongations ( >104) appear able to provide sufficient opacity to thermalize the CMB within the iron density limit. But the applicability of the antenna theory to exceedingly thin needles of nanometer/micrometer thickness has not yet been verified.

  18. Probing inflation with the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braganca, Vinicius Miranda

    The existence of a quasi-deSitter expansion in the early universe, known as inflation, generates the seeds of large-scale structures and is one of the foundations of the standard cosmological model. The main observational predictions from inflation include the existence of a nearly scale-invariant primordial power spectrum that is imprinted on the cosmic microwave background (CMB), which has been corroborated with remarkable precision in recent years. In single-field slow-roll inflation, a field called the inflaton dominates the energy density of the universe and slowly rolls in an almost perfectly flat potential. In addition, the motion of the inflaton field is friction dominated, with its velocity being completely specified by its position in the field space. This basic scenario is known as the slow-roll approximation and its validity is controlled by the magnitude of the so-called slow-roll parameters. Generalizations of single-field slow-roll inflation provide a wealth of observational signatures in the CMB temperature power spectrum, CMB polarization spectrum, primordial non-Guassianity and in lensing reconstruction. This thesis provides a series of consistency checks between these observables that can distinguish slow-roll violations from alternative explanations.

  19. Probing Inflation via Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been a rich source of information about the early Universe. Detailed measurements of its spectrum and spatial distribution have helped solidify the Standard Model of Cosmology. However, many questions still remain. Standard Cosmology does not explain why the early Universe is geometrically flat, expanding, homogenous across the horizon, and riddled with a small anisotropy that provides the seed for structure formation. Inflation has been proposed as a mechanism that naturally solves these problems. In addition to solving these problems, inflation is expected to produce a spectrum of gravitational waves that will create a particular polarization pattern on the CMB. Detection of this polarized signal is a key test of inflation and will give a direct measurement of the energy scale at which inflation takes place. This polarized signature of inflation is expected to be -9 orders of magnitude below the 2.7 K monopole level of the CMB. This measurement will require good control of systematic errors, an array of many detectors having the requisite sensitivity, and a reliable method for removing polarized foregrounds, and nearly complete sky coverage. Ultimately, this measurement is likely to require a space mission. To this effect, technology and mission concept development are currently underway.

  20. Characteristics of family background in bulimia.

    PubMed

    Igoin-Apfelbaum, L

    1985-01-01

    21 women consulting for bulimia were followed in individual psychotherapy and assessed for family background characteristics. Two sets of data are reported: objective data concerning the incidence of 'broken homes', i.e., with a history of separation or divorce or death of parents; subjective data concerning the image of the family and the identifications which are worked through in psychotherapy. Among our 25 bulimic patients, 13 patients came from 'broken homes' in which, in 9 cases, separations were so radical that it was impossible to maintain relationships with both parents; 12 patients came from close-knit families which in 6 cases were actually 'closed families' hiding massive internal tensions. The proportion of broken homes is significantly higher than in a population of 25 overweight patients without bulimia also undergoing individual psychotherapy. There exists a sharp discrepancy between the actual family failings and the wish of patients to maintain their 'family unit' fantasy. The hypothesis is made that the occurrence of bulimia may be related to the combination of a history of violent separations (or threats of violent separation) in the family, and the endless denial of these separations.