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Sample records for kuru research background

  1. Lessons of kuru research: background to recent studies with some personal reflections

    PubMed Central

    Collinge, John

    2008-01-01

    The widespread exposure of the UK population to bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions, and the potential consequences for public health, led to a renewed interest in kuru, the principal example of epidemic human prion disease. Kuru research in Papua New Guinea was expanded to study the range of incubation periods possible in human prion infection, to investigate maternal and other possible natural routes of transmission, to characterize genetic susceptibility and resistance factors and to gain insights into the peripheral pathogenesis of orally acquired prion disease in humans. Although now essentially over, the kuru epidemic continues to provide important lessons. PMID:18849283

  2. Kuru

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by an infectious protein found in contaminated human brain tissue. Kuru is found among people from New ... The main risk factor for kuru is eating human brain tissue, which can contain the infectious particles.

  3. [Kuru].

    PubMed

    Mori, S

    1997-04-01

    Kuru, the progressive and fatal neurologic disorder which occurred exclusively among natives of the New Guinea Highlands, were reviewed. Early history of kuru investigation, epidemiology, clinical findings, pathological findings, successful transmission with chimpanzees, from unconventional virus to prion hypothesis and the similarities to "variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease" were discussed in the literature. Although the incidence of kuru has markedly declined with the suppression of cannibalism, it is important from a historical perspective because it was the first human transmissible prion disease to be recognized. PMID:9103906

  4. Kuru: genes, cannibals and neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Liberski, Pawel P; Sikorska, Beata; Lindenbaum, Shirley; Goldfarb, Lev G; McLean, Catriona; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Brown, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Kuru was the first human transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) or prion disease identified, occurring in the Fore linguistic group of Papua New Guinea. Kuru was a uniformly fatal cerebellar ataxic syndrome, usually followed by choreiform and athetoid movements. Kuru imposed a strong balancing selection on the Fore population, with individuals homozygous for the 129 Met allele of the gene (PRNP) encoding for prion protein (PrP) being the most susceptible. The decline in the incidence of kuru in the Fore has been attributed to the exhaustion of the susceptible genotype and ultimately by discontinuation of exposure via cannibalism. Neuropathologically, kuru-affected brains were characterized by widespread degeneration of neurons, astroglial and microglial proliferation, and the presence of amyloid plaques. These early findings have been confirmed and extended by recent immunohistochemical studies for the detection of the TSE-specific PrP (PrP). Confocal laser microscopy also showed the concentration of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytic processes at the plaque periphery. The fine structure of plaques corresponds to that described earlier by light microscopy. The successful experimental transmission of kuru led to the awareness of its similarity to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease and formed a background against which the recent epidemics of iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease could be studied. PMID:22249461

  5. Cannibalism, kuru and anthropology.

    PubMed

    Lindenbaum, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    This essay discusses the image and practice of cannibalism in a wide range of studies. It also presents the anthropological research on kuru which led to the proposal that cannibalism had enabled transmission of the infectious agent, as well as doubts about the hypothesis, and the assertion by some that cannibalism as a socially approved custom did not exist. The figure of the cannibal as an icon of primitivism took form in the encounter between Europe and the Americas. Cannibalism was to become the prime signifier of "barbarism" for a language of essentialized difference that would harden into the negative racism of the nineteenth century. Anthropological and medical research now challenge the derogatory image of the cannibal as we learn more about the many past consumers of human flesh, including ourselves.

  6. Cannibalism, kuru and anthropology.

    PubMed

    Lindenbaum, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    This essay discusses the image and practice of cannibalism in a wide range of studies. It also presents the anthropological research on kuru which led to the proposal that cannibalism had enabled transmission of the infectious agent, as well as doubts about the hypothesis, and the assertion by some that cannibalism as a socially approved custom did not exist. The figure of the cannibal as an icon of primitivism took form in the encounter between Europe and the Americas. Cannibalism was to become the prime signifier of "barbarism" for a language of essentialized difference that would harden into the negative racism of the nineteenth century. Anthropological and medical research now challenge the derogatory image of the cannibal as we learn more about the many past consumers of human flesh, including ourselves. PMID:19618336

  7. Review. Understanding kuru: the contribution of anthropology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Lindenbaum, Shirley

    2008-11-27

    To understand kuru and solve the problems of its cause and transmission required the integration of knowledge from both anthropological and medical research. Anthropological studies elucidated the origin and spread of kuru, the local mortuary practices of endocannibalism, the social effects of kuru, the life of women and child-rearing practices, the kinship system of the Fore and their willingness to incorporate outsiders into it, the myths, folklore and history of the Fore and their neighbours, sorcery as a powerful social phenomenon and way of explaining the causation of disease, and concepts of the treatment of disease. Many scientists from different disciplines, government officers and others have contributed to this chapter of medical history but it is the Fore people who have contributed the most, through their suffering, their cooperative and reliable witness to kuru, and their participation, in various ways, in the research process itself. PMID:18849287

  8. Review. The changing face of kuru: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Mathews, John D

    2008-11-27

    The epidemic of kuru is now known to have been transmitted among the Fore by ritual consumption of infected organs from deceased relatives. As cannibalism was suppressed by government patrol officers during the 1950s, most transmission had ceased by 1957, when the kuru research programme first commenced. As predicted in the 1960s, the epidemic has waned, with progressive ageing of kuru-affected cohorts over the years to 2007. The few cases seen in the twenty-first century, with the longest incubation periods, were almost certainly exposed as children prior to 1960. Although the research programme had almost no role in bringing the kuru epidemic to an end, it did provide important knowledge that was to help the wider world in controlling the later epidemics of iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. PMID:18672465

  9. The changing face of kuru: a personal perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The epidemic of kuru is now known to have been transmitted among the Fore by ritual consumption of infected organs from deceased relatives. As cannibalism was suppressed by government patrol officers during the 1950s, most transmission had ceased by 1957, when the kuru research programme first commenced. As predicted in the 1960s, the epidemic has waned, with progressive ageing of kuru-affected cohorts over the years to 2007. The few cases seen in the twenty-first century, with the longest incubation periods, were almost certainly exposed as children prior to 1960. Although the research programme had almost no role in bringing the kuru epidemic to an end, it did provide important knowledge that was to help the wider world in controlling the later epidemics of iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. PMID:18672465

  10. Kuru: the first prion disease.

    PubMed

    Liberski, Paweł P; Sikorska, Beata; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Kuru disease is linked with the name of D. Carleton Gajdusek and he was the first to show that this human neurodegenerative disease can be transmitted to chimpanzees and subsequently classified as a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), or slow unconventional virus disease. It was first reported to Western world in 1957 by Gajdusek and Vincent Zigas,(1,2) and in 1975 a complete bibliography of kuru was published by Alpers et al.(3) "Kuru" in the Fore language in Papua New Guinea means to shiver from fever and cold. The disease has been found to spread through ritualistic cannibalism and is an invariably fatal cerebellar ataxia accompanied by tremor, choreiform and athetoid movements. Neuropathologically, kuru is characterized by the presence of amyloid "kuru" plaques. PMID:22411241

  11. Kuru and "new variant" CJD.

    PubMed

    Verdrager, J

    1997-09-01

    Acquired transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in humans include Kuru (a disease which was associated with ritualistic cannibalism in Papua New Guinea), iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and a newly recognized variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD). Clinical and neuropathological features of nvCJD are reminiscent of Kuru: early and progressive cerebellar ataxia and numerous characteristic Kuru-type amyloid plaques surrounded by spongiform change. In contrast to typical cases of sporadic CJD, Kuru and nvCJD affect young patients. The newly recognized form of CJD has been identified in ten young people in the UK in 1996, approximately 10 years after the beginning of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the UK. Molecular analysis has shown that nvCJD has strain characteristics that are distinct from other types of CJD but similar to those of BSE. In the UK an estimated half a million BSE-infected cows entered the human food chain before the bovine offal ban of 1989. To be effective the oral route probably requires high-infectivity titers which are encountered only in the brain, spinal cord and eyes of naturally infected cows. In patients with Kuru, titers of more than 10(8) infectious doses per gram were reported in the brain tissues. As a result of the estimated very long incubation period of nvCJD (10 to 30 years or more) the predicted nvCJD epidemic will have the shape of a normal distribution curve with a peak expected in 2009. The epidemic may extend until 2030. There is already an example to illustrate such a curve in its descending line: the decline of Kuru deaths following the interruption of ritual cannibalism. PMID:9561604

  12. Kuru: a half-opened window onto the landscape of neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Liberski, Paweł P; Brown, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Kuru, the first human neurodegenerative disease classified as a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), prion disease or, in the past, as a slow unconventional virus disease, was first reported to Western medicine in 1957 by Gajdusek and Zigas. A complete bibliography of kuru through 1975 has been published by Alpers et al. The solution of the kuru riddle opened a novel field of biomedical sciences and initiated more than a quarter of century of research that has already resulted in two Nobel prizes (to D. Carleton Gajdusek in 1976 and to Stanley B. Prusiner in 1997) and was linked to a third (to Kurt Wüthrich who determined the structure of the prion protein). Kuru research has impacted the concepts of nucleation-polymerization "protein cancers", and "conformational disorders". This paper is dedicated to Dr. Carleton Gajdusek on the occasion of his 80th birthday. "Kuru" in the Fore (Fig. 1) language means to shiver from fever or cold. The Fore used the noun of the kuru-verb to describe the always fatal disease which decimated their children and adult women but rarely men. It has been and still is restricted to natives of the Fore linguistic group at Papua New Guinea's Eastern Highlands and those neighboring linguistic groups which exchange women with Fore people (Auiana, Awa, Usurufa, Kanite, Keiagana, late, Kamano, Kimi; Fig. 2). Neighboring groups into which kuru-affected people did not settle through marriage or adoption, such as the Anga (Kukukuku), and remote lagaria, Kamano and Auiana people, were not affected. It seems that Kuru first appeared at or shortly after the turn of XX century in Uwami village of Keiagana people and spread to the Awande in the North Fore where the Uwami had social contacts. Within 20 years it had spread further into the Kasokana (in 1922 according to Lindebaum) and Miarasa villages of North Fore, and a decade later had reached the South Fore at the Wanikanto and Kamira villages. Kuru became endemic in all villages that it

  13. Kuru

    MedlinePlus

    ... type to also change shape. Other TSEs include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and fatal familial insomnia in humans, bovine spongiform ... and Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Foundation Inc. 341 W. 38th Street, Suite ...

  14. Kuru: the old epidemic in a new mirror.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Lev G

    2002-07-01

    The kuru epidemic lasted almost a century; it started in 1901-1902, reached epidemic proportions in the mid-1950s, and disappeared in the 1990s. Kuru is the prototype member of a group of disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases. Recent data on the genetics and pathogenesis of TSEs contribute to a better understanding of the documented kuru phenomena, and vice versa, observations made during the kuru epidemic are immensely helpful in understanding the epidemic of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease that is currently developing in Europe. The major goal of this review is to identify and illustrate these points. PMID:12270735

  15. Kuru and its contribution to medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gajdusek, D. Carleton

    2008-01-01

    The solution of kuru led us to the solution of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and to the elucidation, in humans and other species, of previously unknown mechanisms of infection. These require very close three-dimensional matching, which determines infectious nucleant or prion activity. Evidence for nucleation processes is found widely in the organic and inorganic worlds and in the interactions between them: in the formation of amyloid fibrils; in the biochemistry of silicon; in cave formations deep in the Earth; and in outer space. Kuru in its location in Papua New Guinea has also led to an understanding of the cultural achievements of the Palaeo-Melanesians, with deep roots in human history. PMID:18849284

  16. Mortuary rites of the South Fore and kuru.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Jerome T; Pako, Wandagi H; Collinge, John; Alpers, Michael P

    2008-11-27

    This paper is part of a wider study to explain the historical spread and changing epidemiological patterns of kuru by analysing factors that affect the transmission of kuru. Part of the study has been to look at the mortuary feasts that were the means of transmission of the kuru agent. This paper shows the complexity of Fore eschatology, and the variations and contradictions of human behaviour in relation to mortuary rites and the transmission of kuru. It also confirms that oral ingestion was the primary route of inoculation though some cases of parenteral inoculation may have occurred. The exclusion of alternative routes of transmission is of importance owing to the dietary exposure of the UK and other populations to bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions. PMID:18849288

  17. The epidemiology of kuru in the period 1987 to 1995.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Michael P

    2005-01-01

    Kuru is an encephalopathy or neuro-degenerative disease found only in the Okapa District of the Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea. It is always fatal, with a subacute course, on average, of about 12 months from onset to death. In the 9-year period 1987 to 1995 there were 66 deaths from kuru, 17 males and 49 females. The number of deaths per year ranged from 3 to 12. All deaths occurred south of a line drawn through the centre of the kuru region perpendicular to the axis of social change. The mean age at death was 49 years, with a gradual increase in this age with time. The last patient aged in their 20s died in 1987 and the last in their 30s died in 1991. The period shows a waning epidemic, with dramatically fewer deaths than in the early years of epidemiological surveillance 30 years before. Nevertheless, the clinical features and duration of the disease were unchanged. Transmission of kuru stopped by 1960 and patients seen in the period 1987-1995 showed long incubation periods, which in 1995 would have been at least 35 years. The proportion of males was much higher than in the early years; because males were effectively exposed only in childhood their incubation periods were in many cases likely to be over 50 years. The work of the Kuru Surveillance Team in maintaining a rigorous surveillance of kuru epidemiology over this period is described. PMID:16465931

  18. Research. Go8 Backgrounder 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been an overall lack of a clear and cohesive research funding policy for higher education which poses real risks in Australia's ability to sustain research excellence and is likely to lead to a decline in Australia's research performance at the international level. This could well lead to a decline in the reputation of…

  19. Genetic studies in relation to kuru: an overview.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, L G; Cervenakova, L; Gajdusek, D C

    2004-06-01

    Kuru is a subacute neurodegenerative disease presenting with limb ataxia, dysarthria, and a shivering tremor. The disease progress to complete motor and mental incapacity and death within 6 to 24 months. Neuropathologically, a typical pattern of neuronal loss, astrocytic and microglial proliferation, characteristic "kuru-type" amyloid plaques, and PrP deposits in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are observed. Kuru is the prototype of a group of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or "prion" diseases, that include hereditary, sporadic and infectious forms. The latest member of this group, the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), linked to transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to humans, shows features similar to kuru. Kuru has emerged at the beginning of the 1900s in a small indigenous population of New-Guinean Eastern Highlands, reached epidemic proportions in the mid-1950s and disappeared progressively in the latter half of the century to complete absence at the end of the 1990s. Early studies made infection, the first etiologic assumption, seem unlikely and led to a hypothesis that kuru might be a genetically determined or genetically mediated illness. After transmissibility of kuru had been discovered and all major epidemiologic phenomena adequately explained by the spread of an infectious agent with long incubation period through the practice of cannibalism, the pattern of occurrence still continued to suggest a role for genetic predisposition. Recent studies indicate that individuals homozygous for Methionine at a polymorphic position 129 of the prion protein were preferentially affected during the kuru epidemic. The carriers of the alternative 129Met/Val and 129Val/Val genotypes had a longer incubation period and thus developed disease at a later age and at a later stage of the epidemic. Observations made during the kuru epidemic are helpful in the understanding of the current vCJD outbreak, and vice versa clinical

  20. Kuru: A Journey Back in Time from Papua New Guinea to the Neanderthals’ Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Liberski, Pawel P.

    2013-01-01

    Kuru, the first human transmissible spongiform encephalopathy was transmitted to chimpanzees by D. Carleton Gajdusek (1923–2008). In this review, I briefly summarize the history of this seminal discovery along its epidemiology, clinical picture, neuropathology and molecular genetics. The discovery of kuru opened new windows into the realms of human medicine and was instrumental in the later transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease as well as the relevance that bovine spongiform encephalopathy had for transmission to humans. The transmission of kuru was one of the greatest contributions to biomedical sciences of the 20th century. PMID:25437203

  1. Research Workforce. Go8 Backgrounder 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The demand for workers (employers, self-employed people and employees) having research training extends beyond the researcher workforce itself and is increasing. The research workforce is not uniform but segmented according to disciplines and the economic and sectoral contexts in which researchers work. The growth of cross-disciplinary and…

  2. Review. The epidemiology of kuru: monitoring the epidemic from its peak to its end.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Michael P

    2008-11-27

    Kuru is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy restricted to the Fore people and their neighbours in a remote region of the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. When first investigated in 1957 it was found to be present in epidemic proportions, with approximately 1000 deaths in the first 5 years, 1957-1961. The changing epidemiological patterns and other significant findings such as the transmissibility of kuru are described in their historical progression. Monitoring the progress of the epidemic has been carried out by epidemiological surveillance in the field for 50 years. From its peak, the number of deaths from kuru declined to 2 in the last 5 years, indicating that the epidemic is approaching its end. The mode of transmission of the prion agent of kuru was the local mortuary practice of transumption. The prohibition of this practice in the 1950s led to the decline in the epidemic, which has been prolonged into the present century by incubation periods that may exceed 50 years. Currently, the epidemiological surveillance is being maintained and further studies on human genetics and the past mortuary practices are being conducted in the kuru-affected region and in communities beyond it. PMID:18849286

  3. Problematising "Background": (Re)Constructing Categories in Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comber, Barbara

    In educational research the problem of student description is eternal. On what basis do researchers make decisions about aspects of students' material lives to count as data, interpretive categories, contextual information, results? This paper focuses specifically on the problem of "background" in researching the student subject. The paper argues…

  4. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ashenfelter, J.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffroni, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yeh, M.; Yen, Y. -R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including -ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  5. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yen, Y. -R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  6. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ashenfelter, J.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; et al

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including -ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the backgroundmore » fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.« less

  7. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; et al

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the backgroundmore » fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.« less

  8. An Enduring Shell Artefact Tradition from Timor-Leste: Oliva Bead Production from the Pleistocene to Late Holocene at Jerimalai, Lene Hara, and Matja Kuru 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    O‘Connor, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe 485 Oliva spp. shell beads recovered from four archaeological cave sites Jerimalai, Lene Hara, Matja Kuru 1, and Matja Kuru 2, located in Timor-Leste, Island Southeast Asia. While Pleistocene-aged examples of modified marine shells used for personal ornamentation are common in African and Eurasian assemblages, they are exceedingly rare in Southeast Asia, leading some researchers to suggest that these Modern Human societies were less complex than those found further west. In Timor-Leste, the lowest Oliva bead to be recovered was directly dated to ca. 37,000 cal. BP, making it the oldest piece of personal ornamentation in Southeast Asia. Morphometric, taphonomic, use wear, and residue analyses of these beads alongside modern reference specimens, and experimentally made examples indicate that the Oliva shells were modified to be strung consecutively (as in a necklace), and while their mode of production changed remarkably little over the thousands of years they were utilised, an increase in their deposition around 6,000 cal. BP suggests that there was a change in their use coinciding with sea-level stabilisation. These tiny beads demonstrate that early Island Southeast Asian societies produced the same kinds of symbolic material culture we have come to expect from the more intensively studied African/Eurasian region, and that limited sampling and poor recovery methods have biased our perspectives of this region. PMID:27537696

  9. An Enduring Shell Artefact Tradition from Timor-Leste: Oliva Bead Production from the Pleistocene to Late Holocene at Jerimalai, Lene Hara, and Matja Kuru 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Langley, Michelle C; O'Connor, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe 485 Oliva spp. shell beads recovered from four archaeological cave sites Jerimalai, Lene Hara, Matja Kuru 1, and Matja Kuru 2, located in Timor-Leste, Island Southeast Asia. While Pleistocene-aged examples of modified marine shells used for personal ornamentation are common in African and Eurasian assemblages, they are exceedingly rare in Southeast Asia, leading some researchers to suggest that these Modern Human societies were less complex than those found further west. In Timor-Leste, the lowest Oliva bead to be recovered was directly dated to ca. 37,000 cal. BP, making it the oldest piece of personal ornamentation in Southeast Asia. Morphometric, taphonomic, use wear, and residue analyses of these beads alongside modern reference specimens, and experimentally made examples indicate that the Oliva shells were modified to be strung consecutively (as in a necklace), and while their mode of production changed remarkably little over the thousands of years they were utilised, an increase in their deposition around 6,000 cal. BP suggests that there was a change in their use coinciding with sea-level stabilisation. These tiny beads demonstrate that early Island Southeast Asian societies produced the same kinds of symbolic material culture we have come to expect from the more intensively studied African/Eurasian region, and that limited sampling and poor recovery methods have biased our perspectives of this region. PMID:27537696

  10. The NIMH Research Domain Criteria Initiative: Background, Issues, and Pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Michael J; Cuthbert, Bruce N

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. The description includes background, rationale, goals, and the way the initiative has been developed and organized. The central RDoC concepts are summarized and the current matrix of constructs that have been vetted by workshops of extramural scientists is depicted. A number of theoretical and methodological issues that can arise in connection with the nature of RDoC constructs are highlighted: subjectivism and heterophenomenology, desynchrony and theoretical neutrality among units of analysis, theoretical reductionism, endophenotypes, biomarkers, neural circuits, construct "grain size," and analytic challenges. The importance of linking RDoC constructs to psychiatric clinical problems is discussed. Some pragmatics of incorporating RDoC concepts into applications for NIMH research funding are considered, including sampling design.

  11. From Best Research to What Works: Background Knowledge & Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert Shanker Institute, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This publication is a transcription of a forum held at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. on May 19, 2006 on background knowledge and reading proficiency. This topic goes to the heart of the education reform agenda, according to the first speaker, Eugenia Kemble, executive director of the Albert Shanker Institute, the sponsor of this…

  12. Research on recognition methods of aphid objects in complex backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Ji-Hong

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the recognition accuracy among the kinds of aphids in the complex backgrounds, the recognition method among kinds of aphids based on Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT) and Support Vector Machine (Libsvm) is proposed. Firstly the image is pretreated; secondly the aphid images' texture feature of three crops are extracted by DT-CWT in order to get the training parameters of training model; finally the training model could recognize aphids among the three kinds of crops. By contrasting to Gabor wavelet transform and the traditional extracting texture's methods based on Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), the experiment result shows that the method has a certain practicality and feasibility and provides basic for aphids' recognition between the identification among same kind aphid.

  13. Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy: Theoretical Background, Empirical Research, and Dissemination.

    PubMed

    Roddy, McKenzie K; Nowlan, Kathryn M; Doss, Brian D; Christensen, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT), developed by Drs. Andrew Christensen and Neil Jacobson, builds off the tradition of behavioral couple therapy by including acceptance strategies as key components of treatment. Results from a large randomized clinical trial of IBCT indicate that it yields large and significant gains in relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, these benefits have been shown to persist for at least 5 years after treatment for the average couple. Not only does IBCT positively impact relationship constructs such as satisfaction and communication, but the benefits of therapy extend to individual, co-parenting, and child functioning. Moreover, IBCT has been shown to operate through the putative mechanisms of improvements in emotional acceptance, behavior change, and communication. IBCT was chosen for nationwide training and dissemination through the Veteran Affairs Medical Centers. Furthermore, the principles of IBCT have been translated into a web-based intervention for distressed couples, OurRelationship.com. IBCT is continuing to evolve and grow as research and technologies allow for continued evaluation and dissemination of this well-supported theoretical model.

  14. Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy: Theoretical Background, Empirical Research, and Dissemination.

    PubMed

    Roddy, McKenzie K; Nowlan, Kathryn M; Doss, Brian D; Christensen, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT), developed by Drs. Andrew Christensen and Neil Jacobson, builds off the tradition of behavioral couple therapy by including acceptance strategies as key components of treatment. Results from a large randomized clinical trial of IBCT indicate that it yields large and significant gains in relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, these benefits have been shown to persist for at least 5 years after treatment for the average couple. Not only does IBCT positively impact relationship constructs such as satisfaction and communication, but the benefits of therapy extend to individual, co-parenting, and child functioning. Moreover, IBCT has been shown to operate through the putative mechanisms of improvements in emotional acceptance, behavior change, and communication. IBCT was chosen for nationwide training and dissemination through the Veteran Affairs Medical Centers. Furthermore, the principles of IBCT have been translated into a web-based intervention for distressed couples, OurRelationship.com. IBCT is continuing to evolve and grow as research and technologies allow for continued evaluation and dissemination of this well-supported theoretical model. PMID:27226235

  15. Community Owned Development amongst the Marginalised San Communities of the Kalahari, as Adopted by a San Community Development Organisation, the Kuru Development Trust. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    le Roux, Braam

    The Kuru Development Trust is a development support program that is owned and controlled by the communities in which the organization operates, the majority being San, or Bushmen, communities in the Kalahari region of Africa. Following a holistic approach to development, Kuru is involved in a wide range of activities, including income-generating…

  16. Perceptions of Australia as a Postgraduate Research Destination. Go8 Backgrounder 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the Group of Eight (Go8) commissioned market research to examine the attitudes, perceptions and experiences of Australia as a destination for study at the Higher Research Degree level. This backgrounder highlights some of the positive aspects of the Australian experience. The top five aggregated strengths of Australia as a research…

  17. Policies and Background Literature for Self-Education on Research Data Management: An Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goben, Abigail; Raszewski, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Librarians navigating research data management self-education have an increasing body of literature to choose from, which may become overwhelming. This annotated bibliography reviews: (1) U.S. federal policies; (2) articles; and (3) books to assist librarians who are self-educating on research data management or are seeking background reading…

  18. Australians from a Non-English Speaking Background with Intellectual Disability: The Importance of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brolan, Claire E.; Gomez, Miriam Taylor; Lennox, Nicholas G.; Ware, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors review available data on Australians from a non-English speaking background (NESB) with intellectual disability (ID). They find that intellectual disability in the Australian NESB community has received limited attention in terms of both qualitative and quantitative research. The existing literature is over 10 years old and is relevant…

  19. Background-Oriented Schlieren Applications in NASA Glenn Research Center's Ground Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Woike, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    This is a presentation for an invited session at the 2015 SciTech Conference 53rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting. The presentation covers the recent applications of Background-Oriented Schlieren in NASA Glenn Research Center's ground test facilities, such as the 8x6 SWT, open jet rig, and AAPL.

  20. "'Lad" Research, the Reproduction of Stereotypes? Ethnographic Dilemmas When Researching Boys from Working-Class Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosvall, Per-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Previous research presented in this journal and elsewhere has suggested that vocational education is highly gender segregated and it is the heavy industrial sectors such as industry, vehicle and construction programmes that mainly attract boys with an anti-school attitude who are not interested in academic school work. However, there are good…

  1. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  2. How Should We Be Determining Background and Baseline Antibiotic Resistance Levels in Agroecosystem Research?

    PubMed

    Rothrock, Michael J; Keen, Patricia L; Cook, Kimberly L; Durso, Lisa M; Franklin, Alison M; Dungan, Robert S

    2016-03-01

    Although historically, antibiotic resistance has occurred naturally in environmental bacteria, many questions remain regarding the specifics of how humans and animals contribute to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. Additional research is necessary to completely understand the potential risks to human, animal, and ecological health in systems altered by antibiotic-resistance-related contamination. At present, analyzing and interpreting the effects of human and animal inputs on antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems is difficult, since standard research terminology and protocols do not exist for studying background and baseline levels of resistance in the environment. To improve the state of science in antibiotic-resistance-related research in agroecosystems, researchers are encouraged to incorporate baseline data within the study system and background data from outside the study system to normalize the study data and determine the potential impact of antibiotic-resistance-related determinants on a specific agroecosystem. Therefore, the aims of this review were to (i) present standard definitions for commonly used terms in environmental antibiotic resistance research and (ii) illustrate the need for research standards (normalization) within and between studies of antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. To foster synergy among antibiotic resistance researchers, a new surveillance and decision-making tool is proposed to assist researchers in determining the most relevant and important antibiotic-resistance-related targets to focus on in their given agroecosystems. Incorporation of these components within antibiotic-resistance-related studies should allow for a more comprehensive and accurate picture of the current and future states of antibiotic resistance in the environment. PMID:27065388

  3. How Should We Be Determining Background and Baseline Antibiotic Resistance Levels in Agroecosystem Research?

    PubMed

    Rothrock, Michael J; Keen, Patricia L; Cook, Kimberly L; Durso, Lisa M; Franklin, Alison M; Dungan, Robert S

    2016-03-01

    Although historically, antibiotic resistance has occurred naturally in environmental bacteria, many questions remain regarding the specifics of how humans and animals contribute to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. Additional research is necessary to completely understand the potential risks to human, animal, and ecological health in systems altered by antibiotic-resistance-related contamination. At present, analyzing and interpreting the effects of human and animal inputs on antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems is difficult, since standard research terminology and protocols do not exist for studying background and baseline levels of resistance in the environment. To improve the state of science in antibiotic-resistance-related research in agroecosystems, researchers are encouraged to incorporate baseline data within the study system and background data from outside the study system to normalize the study data and determine the potential impact of antibiotic-resistance-related determinants on a specific agroecosystem. Therefore, the aims of this review were to (i) present standard definitions for commonly used terms in environmental antibiotic resistance research and (ii) illustrate the need for research standards (normalization) within and between studies of antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. To foster synergy among antibiotic resistance researchers, a new surveillance and decision-making tool is proposed to assist researchers in determining the most relevant and important antibiotic-resistance-related targets to focus on in their given agroecosystems. Incorporation of these components within antibiotic-resistance-related studies should allow for a more comprehensive and accurate picture of the current and future states of antibiotic resistance in the environment.

  4. A comparative immunohistochemical study of Kuru and senile plaques with a special reference to glial reactions at various stages of amyloid plaque formation.

    PubMed Central

    Miyazono, M.; Iwaki, T.; Kitamoto, T.; Kaneko, Y.; Doh-ura, K.; Tateishi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined 10 patients with Gerstmann-Sträussler syndrome or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and 10 with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immunohistochemistry using anti-prion protein (PrP) and anti-beta/A4 protein (beta/A4) coupled with formic acid pretreatment could detect Congophilic and non-Congophilic deposits. Prion protein deposits were classified into five types and compared with types of beta/A4 deposits. Kuru plaques with multicentric cores and fine granular deposits were a characteristic feature of PrP deposits. Some types of PrP or beta/A4 deposits depend on the anatomic sites. To clarify the relationship of microglia and astrocytes to PrP or beta/A4 deposits, double-immunostaining method was performed. In both kuru and senile plaques, microglia were closely linked to the Congophilic plaques. Astrocytes, however, extended their processes toward the plaques even in the non-Congophilic plaques. These observations strongly suggest that similar glial association with plaque formation may be involved in both kuru and senile plaques, although the amyloid core proteins differ. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 p595-a Figure 5 PMID:1679596

  5. Development of Background-Oriented Schlieren for NASA Langley Research Center Ground Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Borg, Stephen; Jones, Stephen; Overmeyer, Austin; Walker, Eric; Goad, William; Clem, Michelle; Schairer, Edward T.; Mizukaki, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent wind tunnel tests performed at the NASA Langley Research Center where the Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS) technique was used to provide information pertaining to flow-field density disturbances. The facilities in which the BOS technique was applied included the National Transonic Facility (NTF), Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT), 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel, 15-Inch Mach 6 High-Temperature Air Tunnel, Rotor Test Cell at the 14 by 22 Subsonic Tunnel, and a 13-Inch Low-Speed Tunnel.

  6. [Soil heavy metal cadmium standard limit and range of background value research].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Jun; Lu, Si-Jin; Xu, Ren-Ji; Li, Bo-Ling; Wu, Guo-Ping; Wei, Fu-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    With the rapid development of industrial and agricultural production in China, problems such as excessive soil pollutants worsen year by year, and soil cadmium pollution resulting from the emergence of "cadmium rice" and other food security incidents occur frequently. It causes the extensive concern of society on soil cadmium environmental standards. A soil environmental standard is the foundation for the evaluation of soil environmental quality. The maximum allowable value of cadmium that affects plant and animal and human health is regarded as the basis value all over the world; however, the certification methods and the goals of standard application are different, thus the standard limit has a great difference. Through the research on domestic and foreign soil cadmium standard limits and the soil cadmium background values in China, the soil cadmium background content range values of the provinces and of some types of soil are given. We report the outstanding problems existing in China's current environmental quality standard of soil cadmium. It is proposed that the soil environmental quality standard should allow the coexistence of gradient of soil cadmium standard limit, effective state and total standard limit, and anthropogenic pollution and background values exceeding the standard should be strictly distinguished.

  7. Atypical sporadic CJD-MM phenotype with white matter kuru plaques associated with intranuclear inclusion body and argyrophilic grain disease.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Anna S; Trummert, Anita; Unterberger, Ursula; Ströbel, Thomas; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Kovacs, Gabor G

    2015-08-01

    We describe an atypical neuropathological phenotype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a 76-year-old man. The clinical symptoms were characterized by progressive dementia, gait ataxia, rigidity and urinary incontinence. The disease duration was 6 weeks. MRI did not show prominent atrophy or hyperintensities in cortical areas, striatum or thalamus. Biomarker examination of the cerebrospinal fluid deviated from that seen in pure Alzheimer's disease. Triphasic waves in the EEG were detected only later in the disease course, while 14-3-3 assay was positive. PRNP genotyping revealed methionine homozygosity (MM) at codon 129. Neuropathology showed classical CJD changes corresponding to the MM type 1 cases. However, a striking feature was the presence of abundant kuru-type plaques in the white matter. This rare morphology was associated with neuropathological signs of intranuclear inclusion body disease and advanced stage of argyrophilic grain disease. These alterations did not show correlation with each other, thus seemed to develop independently. This case further highlights the complexity of neuropathological alterations in the ageing brain.

  8. Atypical sporadic CJD-MM phenotype with white matter kuru plaques associated with intranuclear inclusion body and argyrophilic grain disease.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Anna S; Trummert, Anita; Unterberger, Ursula; Ströbel, Thomas; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Kovacs, Gabor G

    2015-08-01

    We describe an atypical neuropathological phenotype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a 76-year-old man. The clinical symptoms were characterized by progressive dementia, gait ataxia, rigidity and urinary incontinence. The disease duration was 6 weeks. MRI did not show prominent atrophy or hyperintensities in cortical areas, striatum or thalamus. Biomarker examination of the cerebrospinal fluid deviated from that seen in pure Alzheimer's disease. Triphasic waves in the EEG were detected only later in the disease course, while 14-3-3 assay was positive. PRNP genotyping revealed methionine homozygosity (MM) at codon 129. Neuropathology showed classical CJD changes corresponding to the MM type 1 cases. However, a striking feature was the presence of abundant kuru-type plaques in the white matter. This rare morphology was associated with neuropathological signs of intranuclear inclusion body disease and advanced stage of argyrophilic grain disease. These alterations did not show correlation with each other, thus seemed to develop independently. This case further highlights the complexity of neuropathological alterations in the ageing brain. PMID:25783686

  9. A new scenario framework for climate change research. Background, process, and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Ebi, Kristie L.; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kram, Tom; Arnell, Nigel W.; Carter, Tim; Edmonds, James A.; Kriegler, Elmar; Mathur, Ritu; O'Neill, Brian; Riahi, Keywan; Winkler, Harald; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Zwickel, Timm

    2013-09-27

    The scientific community is developing new integrated global, regional, and sectoral scenarios to facilitate interdisciplinary research and assessment to explore the range of possible future climates and related physical changes could pose to human and natural systems; how these could interact with social, economic, and environmental development pathways; the degree to which mitigation and adaptation policies can avoid and reduce those risks; the costs and benefits of various policy mixes; residual impacts under alternative pathways; and the relationship with sustainable development. This paper provides the background to, and process of, developing the conceptual framework for these scenarios, described in three other papers in this Special Issue (van Vuuren et al.; O'Neill et al.; Kriegler et al.). The paper also discusses research needs to further develop and apply this framework. The goal is to encourage climate change researchers from a broad range of perspectives and disciplines to work together to develop policy-relevant scenarios and explore the implications of different possible futures for the challenges and opportunities human and natural systems could face with increasing climate change.

  10. PROSPECT Background Studies and Operation of Li-Loaded Liquid Scintillator Detectors at a Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, Thomas; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Segmented antineutrino detectors placed near compact research reactors provide an excellent opportunity to probe short-baseline neutrino oscillations and precisely measure the reactor antineutrino spectrum. PROSPECT is a phased experiment that will explore the favored reactor anomaly parameter space at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab. Measurements of the reactor correlated and ambient backgrounds will be presented, as well as a discussion of active and passive mitigation plans. A lithium-loaded liquid scintillator test detector is currently in operation at HFIR within a prototype shielding cave. Results from recent operation will be presented along with a discussion of their impact on PROSPECT. on behalf of the PROSPECT collaboration.

  11. Cannibalism, Kuru, and Mad Cows: Prion Disease As a "Choose-Your-Own-Experiment" Case Study to Simulate Scientific Inquiry in Large Lectures.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonio; Liebner, Jeffrey; Hines, Justin K

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant efforts to reform undergraduate science education, students often perform worse on assessments of perceptions of science after introductory courses, demonstrating a need for new educational interventions to reverse this trend. To address this need, we created An Inexplicable Disease, an engaging, active-learning case study that is unusual because it aims to simulate scientific inquiry by allowing students to iteratively investigate the Kuru epidemic of 1957 in a choose-your-own-experiment format in large lectures. The case emphasizes the importance of specialization and communication in science and is broadly applicable to courses of any size and sub-discipline of the life sciences. PMID:26788803

  12. Cannibalism, Kuru, and Mad Cows: Prion Disease As a “Choose-Your-Own-Experiment” Case Study to Simulate Scientific Inquiry in Large Lectures

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Antonio; Liebner, Jeffrey; Hines, Justin K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant efforts to reform undergraduate science education, students often perform worse on assessments of perceptions of science after introductory courses, demonstrating a need for new educational interventions to reverse this trend. To address this need, we created An Inexplicable Disease, an engaging, active-learning case study that is unusual because it aims to simulate scientific inquiry by allowing students to iteratively investigate the Kuru epidemic of 1957 in a choose-your-own-experiment format in large lectures. The case emphasizes the importance of specialization and communication in science and is broadly applicable to courses of any size and sub-discipline of the life sciences. PMID:26788803

  13. Beams, brightness, and background: Using active spectroscopy techniques for precision measurements in fusion plasma research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Dan M.

    2012-05-15

    The use of an injected neutral beam-either a dedicated diagnostic beam or the main heating beams-to localize and enhance plasma spectroscopic measurements can be exploited for a number of key physics issues in magnetic confinement fusion research, yielding detailed profile information on thermal and fast ion parameters, the radial electric field, plasma current density, and turbulent transport. The ability to make these measurements has played a significant role in much of our recent progress in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas. The measurements can utilize emission from excited state transitions either from plasma ions or from the beam atoms themselves. The primary requirement is that the beam 'probe' interacts with the plasma in a known fashion. Advantages of active spectroscopy include high spatial resolution due to the enhanced localization of the emission and the use of appropriate imaging optics, background rejection through the appropriate modulation and timing of the beam and emission collection/detection system, and the ability of the beam to populate emitter states that are either nonexistent or too dim to utilize effectively in the case of standard or passive spectroscopy. In addition, some active techniques offer the diagnostician unique information because of the specific quantum physics responsible for the emission. This paper will describe the general principles behind a successful active spectroscopic measurement, emphasize specific techniques that facilitate the measurements and include several successful examples of their implementation, briefly touching on some of the more important physics results. It concludes with a few remarks about the relevance and requirements of active spectroscopic techniques for future burning plasma experiments.

  14. Research on tracking approach to weak small targets under sky background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinling; Miao, Dong; Zhou, Wensheng; Shen, Jiarui; Chen, Nao; Kang, Bo

    2014-09-01

    The infrared (IR) target recognizing and tracking technique is widely applied to many fields such as industries, navigation, weapon controlling and guiding and so on. Its application in military field has become the research hotspot. The stability of target tracking is the most important in military applications. However, it is difficult to track the aerial target because of the complex background and noise interference, especially from long distance, which make tracking targets even harder. In this paper, a novel image tracking system is designed, which uses template matching algorithm combined with Kalman filter. Because of the noise in image, the presence of occlusion, and the deformation of tracked target, some tracking algorithms may fail. So it is the main idea in this paper to merge the advantages from the tracking algorithms, and track the target real time. The algorithm for weak small targets from the image is based on template matching algorithm. In order to overcome the problems related to the changes of unpredictable circumstance, Kalman filter tracking algorithm is used. For the disadvantage of template matching algorithm towards occasions in target tracking, such as target occlusion, drastic change of image intensity, the relevant solutions are proposed. In cases when the target is occluded or moves more than the operational limits of the tracking module, Kalman filter is used to predict the object location. Thus, automatic detection and tracking of target in real-time is achieved and the proposed method is more robust in target tracking. The results show that the algorithm can realize target tracking under complicated scenes. It also improves the tracking stability, capacity of anti-interfering and running efficiency.

  15. IBSS earth backgrounds experiment. Quick-look report. Environmental research papers

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tassel, R.A.

    1991-06-24

    The Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS) was an SDIO- sponsored and managed experiment designed to collect infrared, ultraviolet, and visible data for use in the development of Ballistic Missile Defense Sensor Systems. The IBSS backgrounds experiment was designed to acquire SWIR and MWIR data in the low earthlimb and against the hard earth. The infrared sensors were located on a Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) which was berthed in the orbiter until its deployment for measurements. The Shuttle Discovery, STS-39, was launched on April 28, 1991 at 0733 from Kennedy Space Center. Twenty-two measurement blocks were made. These included measurements of the solar specular region, hard earth, earthlimb, and aurora. This report is a quick look at the earth background results using the real-time 8 Kbit telemetry stream.

  16. Vocational Education and Training--The European Research Field. Background Report. Volume II. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This document contains 10 papers on vocational education and training and related research that were developed for a 1998 European research report titled "Training for a Changing Society." The following papers are included: "Research on Transition" (B. Clasquin, F. Gerardin, V. Toresse); "Objectives, Realisation and Organisation of Continuing…

  17. Role of Research Universities in Health and Medicine. Go8 Backgrounder 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Universities have much to contribute to the improvement of health delivery, research, and teaching/learning. In progressing health reform, the Government should be mindful of the need to: (1) strengthen high quality medical research; (2) promote translation of research to teaching, population health and health services; and (3) address Health…

  18. Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement: Research on What Works in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Everyone knows that students from disadvantaged backgrounds, who are not well prepared for school, have the toughest time making the grade. But what hasn't been so clear is what schools can do about it ... until now. Here at last is a book that spells out how to overcome the deficiencies that hamper the achievement of so many students. Learn why…

  19. A Mentor Training Program Improves Mentoring Competency for Researchers Working with Early-Career Investigators from Underrepresented Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mallory O.; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective…

  20. Assessment study of infrared detector arrays for low-background astronomical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ando, K. J.

    1978-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art of infrared detector arrays employing charge coupled devices (CCD) or charge injection devices (CID) readout are assessed. The applicability, limitations and potentials of such arrays under the low-background astronomical observing conditions of interest for SIRFT (Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility) are determined. The following are reviewed: (1) monolithic extrinsic arrays; (2) monolithic intrinsic arrays; (3) charge injection devices; and (4) hybrid arrays.

  1. Background, Structure and Priorities of the 2013 Geneva Declaration on Person-centered Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Cloninger, C Robert; Thornicroft, Amalia; Mezzich, Juan E.

    2015-01-01

    Declarations are relevant tools to frame new areas in health care, to raise awareness and to facilitate knowledge-to-action. The International College on Person Centered Medicine (ICPCM) is seeking to extend the impact of the ICPCM Conference Series by producing a declaration on every main topic. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the 2013 Geneva Declaration on Person-centered Health Research and to provide additional information on the research priority areas identified during this iterative process. There is a need for more PCM research and for the incorporation of the PCM approach into general health research. Main areas of research focus include: Conceptual, terminological, and ontological issues; research to enhance the empirical evidence of PCM main components such as PCM informed clinical communication; PCM-based diagnostic models; person-centered care and interventions; and people-centered care, research on training and curriculum development. Dissemination and implementation of PCM knowledge-base is integral to Person-centered Health Research and shall engage currently available scientific and translational dissemination tools such journals, events and eHealth. PMID:26146541

  2. Etic and Emic: Research with Children from Socially and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the distinction between etic and emic approaches to research, which are defined as the study of human behavior from outside a given system (etic) and from inside the system (emic). These concepts can help researchers and practitioners understand the social and linguistic differences of children from varied cultural…

  3. Vocational Education and Training--The European Research Field. Background Report. Volume I. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This document contains 12 papers on vocational education and training (VET) and related research that were developed for a 1998 European research report titled "Training for a Changing Society." The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Stavros Stavrou, Manfred Tessaring); "Institutional Framework Conditions and Regulation of Initial…

  4. How should we be determining background and baseline antibiotic resistance levels in agroecosystem research?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although historically antibiotic resistance has occurred naturally in environmental bacteria, many questions remain regarding the specifics of how humans and animals contribute to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. Additional research is necessary to completely u...

  5. Functional abdominal pain in childhood: Background studies and recent research trends

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Rona L; van Tilburg, Miranda AL

    2012-01-01

    The present review summarizes many of the major research trends investigated in the past five years regarding pediatric functional abdominal pain, and also summarizes the primary related findings from the authors’ research program. Specific areas discussed based on work within the authors’ group include familial illness patterns, genetics, traits, and mechanisms or processes related to abdominal pain. Topics covered from research published in the past five years include prevalence and cost, longitudinal follow-up, overlap with other disorders, etiology and mechanisms behind functional abdominal pain and treatment studies. It is hoped that findings from this work in abdominal pain will be interpreted as a framework for understanding the processes by which other pain phenomena and, more broadly, reactions to any physical state, can be developed and maintained in children. The present article concludes with recommendations for clinical practice and research. PMID:23248815

  6. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. A case report, with special attention to the electroencephalogram in this disorder and to its possible relationships to kuru, scrapie and "mad cow disease".

    PubMed

    Chapman, A H; Vieira e Silva, D

    1993-06-01

    A case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a 58-year-old Brazilian cattle rancher and businessman is presented. The EEG was normal, which is consistent with the fact that it was made during the first half of his illness; in a later stage suppression of normal rhythms by slow moderate voltage waves would be expected. The resemblances of kuru, scrapie and "mad cow disease" to C-J disease are discussed. In each of these 4 illnesses the patient or affected animal (scrapie and "mad cow disease") (a) has a widespread spongiform encephalopathy and consequent dementia, myoclonic epilepsy and cerebellar and corticospinal symptoms. (b) Each illness is caused by a virus (or virus-like organism called a PrP or prion) which is unusually resistant to heat and entirely resistant to ultraviolet light and x-rays. (c) This causative agent can be transmitted to other mammals by intracerebral injection or, in the proved cases of 3 of them, by the oral route. Unresolved questions about C-J disease include the following: Are C-J disease, kuru, scrapie and "mad cow disease" essentially similar illnesses caused by the same virus or by subtle variants of it? What is the incubation period of C-J disease, and does its virus exist for long periods of time in some asymptomatic persons, some of whom may never become neurologically ill? How does this virus enter the bodies of most persons with C-J disease, and why does the clinical disease characteristically occur only in middle age?

  7. Recent trends in humanoid robotics research: scientific background, applications, and implications.

    PubMed

    Solis, Jorge; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2010-11-01

    Even though the market size is still small at this moment, applied fields of robots are gradually spreading from the manufacturing industry to the others as one of the important components to support an aging society. For this purpose, the research on human-robot interaction (HRI) has been an emerging topic of interest for both basic research and customer application. The studies are especially focused on behavioral and cognitive aspects of the interaction and the social contexts surrounding it. As a part of these studies, the term of "roboethics" has been introduced as an approach to discuss the potentialities and the limits of robots in relation to human beings. In this article, we describe the recent research trends on the field of humanoid robotics. Their principal applications and their possible impact are discussed.

  8. The research on infrared small-target detection technology under complex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jilu; Huang, Zhijian

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detecting are described. Then, according to actual needs and the comparison results of those algorithms, some of them are optimized in combination with the image pre-processing. On the foundation of above works, a moving target detecting and tracking software base on the OpenCV is developed by the software developing platform MFC. Three kinds of detecting algorithms are integrated in this software. These three detecting algorithms are Frame Difference method, Background Estimation method and Mixture Gaussian Modeling method. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detecting targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. This paper is very significant in the application of the infrared target detecting technology.

  9. Computer-Managed Instruction in the Navy: I. Research Background and Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Nick

    This report describes a computer managed instruction (CMI) system operated by the Navy which involves approximately 9,000 students a day in ten technical training schools, and the research and development effort that has taken place to ensure the most cost-effective and productive technical training system. Major system problems were identified…

  10. Integrating Research Methods into Substantive Courses: A Class Project to Identify Social Backgrounds of Political Elites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Margaret A.; Steward, Gary Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a class project that combined an examination of social class and political power with an introduction to sociological research. The project consisted of compiling biographical profiles of cabinet members from the Ronald Reagan, George Bush, and Bill Clinton administrations. Introduces students to issues of conceptualization,…

  11. Attention to Background Strain Is Essential for Metabolic Research: C57BL/6 and the International Knockout Mouse Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Danielle A; Davis, Dawn Belt

    2016-01-01

    The International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) introduces its targeted constructs into C57BL/6N embryonic stem cells. However, breeding with a Cre-recombinase and/or Flp-recombinase mouse is required for the generation of a null allele with the IKMC cassette. Many recombinase strains are in the C57BL/6J background, resulting in knockout animals on a mixed strain background. This can lead to variability in metabolic data and the use of improper control groups. While C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J are derived from the same parental C57BL/6 strain, there are key genotypic and phenotypic differences between these substrains. Many researchers may not even be aware of these differences, as the shorthand C57BL/6 is often used to describe both substrains. We found that 58% of articles involving genetically modified mouse models did not completely address background strain. This review will describe these two substrains and highlight the importance of separate consideration in mouse model development. Our aim is to increase awareness of this issue in the diabetes research community and to provide practical strategies to enable researchers to avoid mixed strain animals when using IKMC knockout mice. PMID:26696638

  12. Navigating a Transdisciplinary Research Project with a Non-Traditional Academic Background: Climate Change, Soil Health and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basche, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate and Corn-based Cropping Systems Coordinated Agriculture Project (CSCAP) is a collaboration of 150+ team members spanning a range of scientific disciplinary backgrounds. The project goal is to produce collaborative research, education and extension aimed at mitigating and adapting Midwest cropping systems to climate variability and change. My PhD work in Agronomy and Sustainable Agriculture is a part of the CSCAP although my prior academic background was in applied climate science and biology, thus proposing a potential challenge to the new academic landscape. Further, graduate students within CSCAP are a part of a natural experiment in how the next generation of scientists operates in a transdisciplinary environment. As part of my leadership in the CSCAP, I helped to develop a "roadmap" document outlining the learning opportunities available to students. This document was meant to underscore the skills and experiences that will aid us in future collaborative research projects. Through these leadership experiences, I believe that the underpinning of any successful collaborative research project requires time: to develop relationships, earn trust and develop shared understandings and respect for different academic backgrounds.

  13. Attention to Background Strain Is Essential for Metabolic Research: C57BL/6 and the International Knockout Mouse Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Danielle A; Davis, Dawn Belt

    2016-01-01

    The International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) introduces its targeted constructs into C57BL/6N embryonic stem cells. However, breeding with a Cre-recombinase and/or Flp-recombinase mouse is required for the generation of a null allele with the IKMC cassette. Many recombinase strains are in the C57BL/6J background, resulting in knockout animals on a mixed strain background. This can lead to variability in metabolic data and the use of improper control groups. While C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J are derived from the same parental C57BL/6 strain, there are key genotypic and phenotypic differences between these substrains. Many researchers may not even be aware of these differences, as the shorthand C57BL/6 is often used to describe both substrains. We found that 58% of articles involving genetically modified mouse models did not completely address background strain. This review will describe these two substrains and highlight the importance of separate consideration in mouse model development. Our aim is to increase awareness of this issue in the diabetes research community and to provide practical strategies to enable researchers to avoid mixed strain animals when using IKMC knockout mice.

  14. Initially Researches for the Development of SSME under the Background of IOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kun; Liu, Shurong; Zhang, Dacheng; Han, Ying

    The Internet Of Things (IOT) is proposed in the 1990s. The original intention has been put forward is people to things and things to things can deliver information like person as. IOT broke the human traditional thinking. This paper researches the practical function of IOT to expand the theory of Services Sciences, Management and Engineering (SSME). On the analysis of the key technology and model of IOT, the events-driven SSME model based on IOT, and the IOT framework based on SSME, it further studies the importance of IOT in the field of SSME.

  15. Design and Operation of Cryogenic Distillation Research Column for Ultra-Low Background Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiller, Christopher; Alanson Chiller, Angela; Jasinski, Benjamin; Snyder, Nathan; Mei, Dongming

    2013-04-01

    Motivated by isotopically enriched germanium (76Ge and 73Ge) for monocrystalline crystal growth for neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter experiments, a cryogenic distillation research column was developed. Without market availability of distillation columns in the temperature range of interest with capabilities necessary for our purposes, we designed, fabricated, tested, refined and operated a two-meter research column for purifying and separating gases in the temperature range from 100-200K. Due to interest in defining stratification, purity and throughput optimization, capillary lines were integrated at four equidistant points along the length of the column such that real-time residual gas analysis could guide the investigation. Interior gas column temperatures were monitored and controlled within 0.1oK accuracy at the top and bottom. Pressures were monitored at the top of the column to four significant figures. Subsequent impurities were measured at partial pressures below 2E-8torr. We report the performance of the column in this paper.

  16. Research on infrared dim-point target detection and tracking under sea-sky-line complex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yu-xing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Hai-bo

    2011-08-01

    Target detection and tracking technology in infrared image is an important part of modern military defense system. Infrared dim-point targets detection and recognition under complex background is a difficulty and important strategic value and challenging research topic. The main objects that carrier-borne infrared vigilance system detected are sea-skimming aircrafts and missiles. Due to the characteristics of wide field of view of vigilance system, the target is usually under the sea clutter. Detection and recognition of the target will be taken great difficulties .There are some traditional point target detection algorithms, such as adaptive background prediction detecting method. When background has dispersion-decreasing structure, the traditional target detection algorithms would be more useful. But when the background has large gray gradient, such as sea-sky-line, sea waves etc .The bigger false-alarm rate will be taken in these local area .It could not obtain satisfactory results. Because dim-point target itself does not have obvious geometry or texture feature ,in our opinion , from the perspective of mathematics, the detection of dim-point targets in image is about singular function analysis .And from the perspective image processing analysis , the judgment of isolated singularity in the image is key problem. The foregoing points for dim-point targets detection, its essence is a separation of target and background of different singularity characteristics .The image from infrared sensor usually accompanied by different kinds of noise. These external noises could be caused by the complicated background or from the sensor itself. The noise might affect target detection and tracking. Therefore, the purpose of the image preprocessing is to reduce the effects from noise, also to raise the SNR of image, and to increase the contrast of target and background. According to the low sea-skimming infrared flying small target characteristics , the median filter is used to

  17. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS) is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and wellbeing of children

  18. Biological component of the NIMH clinical research branch collaborative program on the psychobiology of depression: I. Background and theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Maas, J W; Koslow, S H; Davis, J M; Katz, M M; Mendels, J; Robins, E; Stokes, P E; Bowden, C L

    1980-11-01

    There are many reports which suggest that patients with effective illness (mania and/or depression) have abnormalities in the functioning of one or more neurobiological systems. At a conference convened by the Clinical Research Branch, Division of Extramural Research Programs, National Institute of Mental Health, these findings were reviewed and some of the factors impeding movement towards a more complete and integrated view of the functioning of neurobiological systems in patients with mania or depression were identified. As a result, a multi-research centre, collaborative approach to the study of the psychobiology of affective disorders was developed. In this collaborative programme, which has now been underway for several years, the focus has been upon: (a) the assessment of the functioning of several different types of biological systems in the same patient, both before and during treatment; (b) obtaining a reasonably large number of patients and comparison subjects; and (c) the use within and across centres of standardized diagnostic categories and behavioural rating methodologies. In this paper the history, background, and rationale for this collaborative effort are reviewed. Those biological systems chosen for study are noted, and issues such as reliability and validity of diagnoses, measurement of state variables, assessment of change with treatment, and logistical and coordinating problems are discussed.

  19. A mentor training program improves mentoring competency for researchers working with early-career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mallory O; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-08-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective mentors, and the few that exist have a dearth of empirical support of their impact. In 2013, we recruited 34 faculty from across the US engaged in HIV-related clinical research to participate in a 2-day Mentoring the Mentors workshop. The workshop included didactic and interactive content focused on a range of topics, such as mentor-mentee communication, leadership styles, emotional intelligence, understanding the impact of diversity (unconscious bias, microaggressions, discrimination, tokenism) for mentees, and specific tools and techniques for effective mentoring. Pre- and post-workshop online evaluations documented high rates of satisfaction with the program and statistically significant improvements in self-appraised mentoring skills (e.g. addressing diversity in mentoring, communication with mentees, aligning mentor-mentee expectations), as assessed via a validated mentoring competency tool. This is the first mentoring training program focused on enhancing mentors' abilities to nurture investigators of diversity, filling an important gap, and evaluation results offer support for its effectiveness. Results suggest a need for refinement and expansion of the program and for more comprehensive, long-term evaluation of distal mentoring outcomes for those who participate in the program. PMID:25274417

  20. A mentor training program improves mentoring competency for researchers working with early-career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mallory O; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-08-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective mentors, and the few that exist have a dearth of empirical support of their impact. In 2013, we recruited 34 faculty from across the US engaged in HIV-related clinical research to participate in a 2-day Mentoring the Mentors workshop. The workshop included didactic and interactive content focused on a range of topics, such as mentor-mentee communication, leadership styles, emotional intelligence, understanding the impact of diversity (unconscious bias, microaggressions, discrimination, tokenism) for mentees, and specific tools and techniques for effective mentoring. Pre- and post-workshop online evaluations documented high rates of satisfaction with the program and statistically significant improvements in self-appraised mentoring skills (e.g. addressing diversity in mentoring, communication with mentees, aligning mentor-mentee expectations), as assessed via a validated mentoring competency tool. This is the first mentoring training program focused on enhancing mentors' abilities to nurture investigators of diversity, filling an important gap, and evaluation results offer support for its effectiveness. Results suggest a need for refinement and expansion of the program and for more comprehensive, long-term evaluation of distal mentoring outcomes for those who participate in the program.

  1. Cultural Transition and Academic Achievement of Students from Ethnic Minority Backgrounds: A Content Analysis of Empirical Research on Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The achievement gap between immigrant and non-immigrant students that has been identified in most OECD countries and the considerable educational dropout rate among students from ethnic minority backgrounds in some countries have become serious challenges for national educational systems. The educational underachievement of young…

  2. Research on the algorithm of infrared target detection based on the frame difference and background subtraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Hui, Mei; Liu, Xiaohua; Wu, Yijian

    2015-09-01

    As an important branch of infrared imaging technology, infrared target tracking and detection has a very important scientific value and a wide range of applications in both military and civilian areas. For the infrared image which is characterized by low SNR and serious disturbance of background noise, an innovative and effective target detection algorithm is proposed in this paper, according to the correlation of moving target frame-to-frame and the irrelevance of noise in sequential images based on OpenCV. Firstly, since the temporal differencing and background subtraction are very complementary, we use a combined detection method of frame difference and background subtraction which is based on adaptive background updating. Results indicate that it is simple and can extract the foreground moving target from the video sequence stably. For the background updating mechanism continuously updating each pixel, we can detect the infrared moving target more accurately. It paves the way for eventually realizing real-time infrared target detection and tracking, when transplanting the algorithms on OpenCV to the DSP platform. Afterwards, we use the optimal thresholding arithmetic to segment image. It transforms the gray images to black-white images in order to provide a better condition for the image sequences detection. Finally, according to the relevance of moving objects between different frames and mathematical morphology processing, we can eliminate noise, decrease the area, and smooth region boundaries. Experimental results proves that our algorithm precisely achieve the purpose of rapid detection of small infrared target.

  3. Critical Issues: Sounding Like More Than Background Noise to Policy Makers: Qualitative Researchers in the Policy Arena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Cathy M.; Long, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the relationships of qualitative researchers to the policy-making process. Uses the example of the Reading Excellence Act to demonstrate that qualitative researchers have many points of access to the policy-making process. Suggests qualitative researchers must provide relevant information, communicate in a straightforward manner,…

  4. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Human Health & Support Systems Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikins, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps. Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  5. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Title of CRM Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooke, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps "Title." Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  6. Training in Europe: Second Report on Vocational Training Research in Europe, 2000. Background Report. Volumes 1-3. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Pascaline, Ed.; Tessaring, Manfred, Ed.

    These three volumes comprise the background publication of the second report on vocational education and training (VET) research in Europe. The two parts of Volume 1 contain 10 papers; Volume 2 contains 11 papers in two parts; and there are 10 papers in the two parts and annex of Volume 3. In Volume 1 are the following: "Steering, Networking, and…

  7. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  8. A brief background on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, K. G.; Nichols, M. H.; Woolhiser, D. A.; Osborn, H. B.

    2008-05-01

    Watershed research is critical for quantifying the unique characteristics of hydrologic processes worldwide and especially in semiarid regions. In 1953, the United States Department of Agriculture established the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) near Tombstone, Arizona, to conduct hydrologic and erosion research. This manuscript (1) provides a historical context summarizing the evolution of the Southwest Watershed Research Center research program, (2) describes significant contributions to instrumentation development and contributions to science, and (3) describes the current WGEW data collection program in the context of contemporary research questions. The development of specialized flumes for streamflow measurement and the establishment of the core monitoring networks are described. WGEW data have been used to quantify semiarid rainfall, runoff, infiltration, and transmission losses; to develop and validate simulation models; and to support broader, regional, basin-scale research. Currently, rainfall, runoff, sediment, meteorology, and flux data collection continue at the WGEW, but the monitoring network has been expanded, and data use has evolved to support several multiple government agencies, universities, and international research programs.

  9. A brief background on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed 1857

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed research is critical for quantifying the unique characteristics of hydrologic processes worldwide and especially in semiarid regions. In 1953, the United States Department of Agriculture established the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) near Tombstone, Arizona, to conduct hydrolog...

  10. School Completion: What We Learn from Different Measures of Family Background. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report 59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homel, Jacqueline; Mavisakalyan, Astghik; Nguyen, Ha Trong; Ryan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how disadvantage affects educational outcomes, in this instance, Year 12 completion. While previous studies have found a strong link between parental education or occupational status and Year 12 completion, this research was able to capture a broader set of cultural, material and resource aspects of disadvantage. It did this by…

  11. Learning Process in Terms of Styles and Strategies: Theoretical Background and Pilot Study. Research Bulletin. No. 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leino, Anna-Liisa

    A pilot study was conducted to determine effective methods for testing students' learning processes. The theoretical framework within which learning processes were investigated is based on the B-P-E paradigm. This states that "Behavior (B) is a function of the Person (P) and the Environment (E)". After reviewing research done in related areas, the…

  12. Executive Summary: Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Background information on, and the objectives of, the NASA Global Biology Research Program are given. The following issues were addressed: (1) geographic distribution of wetland parameters, (2) the processes of wetland material fluxes, and (3) the relation of local fluxes with global processes. Wetland inventorying and categorizing, gas-phase exchanges with the atmosphere, material exchange with the aquatic environment, and material storage in wetland sediments were identified as topics requiring further research.

  13. A Micromegas-based low-background x-ray detector coupled to a slumped-glass telescope for axion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aznar, F.; Castel, J.; Christensen, F. E.; Dafni, T.; Decker, T. A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Garcia, J. A.; Giomataris, I.; Garza, J. G.; Hailey, C. J.; Hill, R. M.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Luzon, G.; Mirallas, H.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Ruz, J.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the design, construction and operation of a low background x-ray detection line composed of a shielded Micromegas detector of the microbulk technology. The detector is made from radiopure materials and is placed at the focal point of a ~ 5 cm diameter, 1.5 m focal-length, cone-approximation Wolter I x-ray telescope (XRT) assembled from thermally-formed (or "slumped") glass substrates deposited with multilayer coatings. The system has been conceived as a technological pathfinder for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), as it combines two of the techniques (optic and detector) proposed in the conceptual design of the project. It is innovative for two reasons: it is the first time an x-ray optic has been designed and fabricated specifically for axion research, and the first time a Micromegas detector has been operated with an x-ray optic. The line has been installed at one end of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) magnet and is currently looking for solar axions. The combination of the XRT and Micromegas detector provides the best signal-to-noise ratio obtained so far by any detection system of the CAST experiment with a background rate of 5.4×10-3 counts per hour in the energy region-of-interest and signal spot area.

  14. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  15. REsearch into implementation STrategies to support patients of different ORigins and language background in a variety of European primary care settings (RESTORE): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The implementation of guidelines and training initiatives to support communication in cross-cultural primary care consultations is ad hoc across a range of international settings with negative consequences particularly for migrants. This situation reflects a well-documented translational gap between evidence and practice and is part of the wider problem of implementing guidelines and the broader range of professional educational and quality interventions in routine practice. In this paper, we describe our use of a contemporary social theory, Normalization Process Theory and participatory research methodology—Participatory Learning and Action—to investigate and support implementation of such guidelines and training initiatives in routine practice. Methods This is a qualitative case study, using multiple primary care sites across Europe. Purposive and maximum variation sampling approaches will be used to identify and recruit stakeholders—migrant service users, general practitioners, primary care nurses, practice managers and administrative staff, interpreters, cultural mediators, service planners, and policy makers. We are conducting a mapping exercise to identify relevant guidelines and training initiatives. We will then initiate a PLA-brokered dialogue with stakeholders around Normalization Process Theory’s four constructs—coherence, cognitive participation, collective action, and reflexive monitoring. Through this, we will enable stakeholders in each setting to select a single guideline or training initiative for implementation in their local setting. We will prospectively investigate and support the implementation journeys for the five selected interventions. Data will be generated using a Participatory Learning and Action approach to interviews and focus groups. Data analysis will follow the principles of thematic analysis, will occur in iterative cycles throughout the project and will involve participatory co-analysis with key stakeholders

  16. The Role of Noncognitive Constructs and Other Background Variables in Graduate Education. ETS GRE® Board Research Report. ETS GREB-00-11. GRE Board Research Report No. 03-01. ETS Research Report No. RR-11-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Walters, Alyssa M.; Kaufman, James C.

    2011-01-01

    This report reviews the literature on noncognitive and other background predictors (e.g., personality, attitudes, and interests) as it pertains to graduate education. The first section reviews measures typically used in studies of graduate school outcomes, such as attrition and time to degree. A review of qualities faculty members and…

  17. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability. Roadmaps for Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis. Agency Objectives. Strategic Planning Transformation. Review Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Review Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  18. RESEARCH NOTE FROM COLLABORATION: Production and decay of the 73Ge*(1/2-) metastable state in a low-background germanium detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, H. Y.; Chang, H. M.; Chou, M. H.; Deniz, M.; Huang, H. X.; Lee, F. S.; Li, H. B.; Li, J.; Lin, C. W.; Lin, F. K.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, S. T.; Singh, V.; Wong, H. T.; Wu, S. C.; TEXONO Collaboration

    2008-07-01

    The 73Ge*(1/2-) metastable state decays with a very characteristic signature which allows it to be tagged event-by-event. Studies were performed using data taken with a high-purity germanium detector in a low-background laboratory near a nuclear power reactor core where the \\rm{\\bar{\

  19. Re-Searching Secondary Teacher Trainees in Distance Education and Face-to-Face Mode: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…

  20. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progesss on NASA's Human Exploration Systems and Mobility Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps: Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Technology and Capability Readiness Levels. Relationships Between Roadmaps. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Team Progress to Date).

  1. Social Background, Personality and Attitudinal Factors Influencing the Decision to Volunteer and Level of Involvement among Adult 4-H Leaders. Summary of Research 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohs, Frederick R.; Warmbrod, J. Robert

    A study was conducted to investigate, using a portion of Smith's Sequential Specificity Model, the relationship between social background, personality, and attitudinal factors and the participation of adult volunteers in the 4-H program in Ohio. Data were collected from a sample of 300 adult 4-H volunteers in Ohio through a mailed questionnaire; a…

  2. Investigating the Impact of Early Institutional Deprivation on Development: Background and Research Strategy of the English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Castle, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with the mid adolescent follow-up of a group of adoptees from Romania and from within the United Kingdom who were first assessed at the age of 4 years (or 6 years in the case of the oldest children). After describing the structure of this monograph, this chapter provides the background as it applied at the time that the…

  3. Equity or Equality? Students with Language Backgrounds Other Than English. Centre for the Study of Higher Education Research Working Papers, 93.8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Anne

    This paper reviews participation patterns of migrants, refugees, and permanent residents with language backgrounds other than English (LBOTE), at Australian universities in general, and the University of Melbourne in particular. It critically examines the effectiveness of current measures designed to improve the opportunities and university…

  4. Use of an Aptitude Test in University Entrance--A Validity Study: Relationships between SAT[R] Scores, Attainment Measures and Background Variables. Research Report RR846

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkup, Catherine; Schagen, Ian; Wheater, Rebecca; Morrison, Jo; Whetton, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In September 2005 the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) in association with the Department for Education and Skills (DfES), the Sutton Trust and the College Board, began a five-year research study to examine the validity of an aptitude test in higher education admissions. This report describes and explores the relationships…

  5. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  6. Genetical background of intelligence.

    PubMed

    Junkiert-Czarnecka, Anna; Haus, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence as an ability to reason, think abstractly and adapt effectively to the environment is a subject of research in the field of psychology, neurobiology, and in the last twenty years genetics as well. Genetical testing of twins carried out from XX century indicated heritebility of intelligence, therefore confirmed an influence of genetic factor on cognitive processes. Studies on genetic background of intelligence focus on dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, SLC6A3, DAT1, CCKAR) and adrenergic system (ADRB2, CHRM2) genes as well as, neutrofins (BDNF) and oxidative stress genes (LTF, PRNP). Positive effect of investigated gene polymorphism was indicated by variation c.957C>T DRD2 gene (if in polymorphic site is thymine), polymorphism c.472G>A COMT gene (presence of adenine) and also gene ADRB2 c.46A->G (guanine), CHRM2 (thymine in place c.1890A>T) and BDNF (guanine in place c.472G>A) Obtained results indicate that intelligence is a feature dependent not only on genetic but also an environmental factor. PMID:27333929

  7. Background on the development of a nonfunded cooperative agreement between USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding (CDCB)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers, dairy record providers, breed associations, artificial-insemination companies, and the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, which is part of USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in Beltsville, Maryland, have collaborated for many decades to provide the dairy industry with i...

  8. International Congress on Universal Availability of Publications (Paris, France, May 3-7, 1982). Summary of Research of the UAP Programme. Background Document N.1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The summaries of seven research projects concerned with the universal availability of publications (UAP) which are presented describe (1) a literature review on the availability of book materials through commercial channels, particularly in developing countries, by John Clews and others; (2) a concomitant survey, by Priscilla Oakeshott, of…

  9. A Summary of the Research Background of the New Children's Television Series "Big Blue Marble," September 1, 1973 to October 1, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Telephone and Telegraph Corp., New York, NY.

    The results of research undertaken to assess the impact of "Big Blue Marble," an international series of children's television shows sponsored by the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation, are outlined in this paper. Summaries of the following projects are included: a concept study of consultants' roles in the early stages of program…

  10. Creating High-Quality Health Care Workplaces. A Background Paper for Canadian Policy Research Networks' National Roundtable (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, October 29, 2001). CPRN Work Network Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehoorn, Mieke; Lowe, Graham S.; Rondeau, Kent V.; Schellenberg, Grant; Wagar, Terry H.

    Insights from a variety of research streams were synthesized to identify the key ingredients of a high-quality work environment in Canada's health care sector and ways of achieving high-quality workplaces in the sector. The following sets of interacting factors were considered: (1) the work environment and the human resource practices that shape…

  11. Pathways to Banking: Improving Access for Students from Non-Privileged Backgrounds. Research by The Boston Consulting Group for the Sutton Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    The financial services sector is a vital and vibrant part of a national economy but it recruits from a small and relatively privileged segment of society. This report, which summarises research from the Boston Consulting Group (BCG), shows for the first time the extent of the challenge. The Sutton Trust's "Pathways to Banking" programme…

  12. Is There Any Interaction between Background Knowledge and Language Proficiency That Affects "TOEFL iBT"® Reading Performance? TOEFL iBT® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-18. ETS Research Report RR-12-22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Yao Zhang; Liu, Ou Lydia

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the interaction between test takers' background knowledge and language proficiency on their performance on the "TOEFL iBT"® reading section. Test takers with the target content background knowledge (the focal groups) and those without (the reference groups) were identified for each of the 5 selected…

  13. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  14. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  15. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  16. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Transformational Spaceport and Range Technologies Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelly, Darin M.

    2005-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the National Research Council's diaglog to assess progress on NASA's transformational spaceport and range technologies capability roadmap development is presented. The topics include: 1) Agency Goals and Objectives; 2) Strategic Planning Transformation; 3) Advanced Planning Organizational Roles; 4) Public Involvement in Strategic Planning; 5) Strategic Roadmaps; 6) Strategic Roadmaps Schedule; 7) Capability Roadmaps; 8) Capability Charter; 9) Process for Team Selection; 10) Capability Roadmap Development Schedule Overview; 11) Purpose of NRC Review; 12) Technology Readiness Levels; 13) Capability Readiness Levels; 14) Crosswalk Matrix Trans Spaceport & Range; 15) Example linkage to other roadmaps; 16) Capability Readiness Levels Defined; and 17) Crosswalk Matrix Ratings Work In-progress.

  17. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  18. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J.F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Mizuno, T.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-17

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  19. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  20. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theorists expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theories.

  1. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  2. School Law: Background Checks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1988-01-01

    In an Oklahoma case, the district court ruled that the school district had failed to investigate the background of a teacher convicted of a second sexual abuse charge. School districts should examine personnel polices and practices, and the school lawyer should review state laws, regulations, and court cases. (MLF)

  3. Foregrounding the Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Argues that when introductory activities to the classics begin with background information, it can upstage or confine the life of the story, and shows little faith in the students as readers or in the literature itself. Suggests sometimes letting the literature begin, and then helping students make sense of it. Discusses examples from "To Kill a…

  4. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  5. Thermal background noise limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  6. In Researcher's Background, Some Warning Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2009-01-01

    When Robert D. Felner applied to become dean of education at the University of Louisville in 2003, he carried a genuinely impressive vita. But two of the most recent large grants listed on that vita could not have survived close scrutiny--and it isn't clear that Louisville's search committee scrutinized them at all. First, the impressive part:…

  7. Diffuse UV Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn Henry, Richard; Murthy, J.

    2012-01-01

    The diffuse UV sky is expected to glow with significant amounts of starlight that is scattered from the interstellar dust. The albedo and scattering pattern of the dust in the ultraviolet are both well established, and are both fairly independent of wavelength from 912 Å to 3000 Å. We present 1943 Voyager spectra of the diffuse cosmic background radiation from 500 Å to 1200 Å, and we compare their brightnesses, and their distribution on the sky, to those observed (Murthy et al., ApJ 724, 1389, 2010) from the GALEX mission at longer wavelengths (1530 Å). Significant differences appear, suggesting that background radiation components in addition to dust-scattered starlight may be present in both spectral regions.

  8. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.

  9. PROPHE Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel C.

    This paper describes the Program for Research on Private Higher Education (PROPHE), a program that seeks to build knowledge about private higher education around the world. The program focuses on discovery, analysis, and dissemination of information, as well as creation of an international base of trained researchers. The main mission of the…

  10. Plutonium measurements near background levels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of a nationwide nuclear weapons research, development, and production complex administered by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Low-levels of environmental Plutonium occurs in and about RFP as a result of plant operations. Plutonium is a key element in remediation investigations and surface water discharge limits. Most of the plutonium analyses at RFP measure concentrations at or near background levels. Measurements often show little, if any, plutonium in the media being sampled, except at known contamination sites. Many plutonium results are less than the calculated minimum detectable-level (MDL). (MDL is an a priori estimate of the activity concentration that can be practically achieved under a specified set of typical measurement conditions.) This paper investigates the relationship between plutonium concentrations and the counting uncertainty when measurements are near background, and suggests why the MDL should not be used as a criteria for limiting data. Issues with defining site background and determining attainment of standards are presented.

  11. Plutonium measurements near background levels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of a nationwide nuclear weapons research, development, and production complex administered by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Low-levels of environmental Plutonium occurs in and about RFP as a result of plant operations. Plutonium is a key element in remediation investigations and surface water discharge limits. Most of the plutonium analyses at RFP measure concentrations at or near background levels. Measurements often show little, if any, plutonium in the media being sampled, except at known contamination sites. Many plutonium results are less than the calculated minimum detectable-level (MDL). (MDL is an a priori estimate of the activity concentration that can be practically achieved under a specified set of typical measurement conditions.) This paper investigates the relationship between plutonium concentrations and the counting uncertainty when measurements are near background, and suggests why the MDL should not be used as a criteria for limiting data. Issues with defining site background and determining attainment of standards are presented.

  12. Background level care.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    The framework enabled by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System to allow appropriate, patient-centred caries management includes a frequently encountered scenario in which a comprehensive assessment of the teeth and the patient reveals no lesions in need of active preventive or operative care. The issue addressed here is: what background care is appropriate for patients attending a dental practice for routine caries care who, at present, appear to have no active or progressing caries lesions? It is proposed that, in addition to the use of criteria for lesion extent, treatment planning systems should also express the results of lesion assessments in terms of background level care (BLC), preventive treatment options and operative treatment options. The specific treatment options recommended for specific lesions and patients will depend upon a variety of other factors, including lesion activity, monitoring lesion behaviour over time and a range of other prognostic factors. Over recent decades, there has been comparatively little focus on appropriate BLC in a general practice setting. There are a range of issues around the need to support caries prevention and health maintenance from a behavioural and patient-focussed perspective. Even if a patient is deemed to be at low risk of future caries at a particular examination, there is a need for maintenance care. Intrinsic issues which need to be managed for both patients and their caries lesions in this patient group are: (1) the possibility of a change in caries risk status and (2) the impact of incorrect lesion assessments/diagnoses.

  13. The Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  14. Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William A.; Gursky, Herbert; Heckathorn, Harry M.; Lucke, Bob L.; Dorland, Bryan N.; Kessel, R. A.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.

    1994-09-01

    The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) is the designated archive for backgrounds data collected by Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) programs, some of which include ultraviolet sensors. Currently, the BDC holds ultraviolet data from the IBSS, UVPI, UVLIM, and FUVCAM sensors. The BDC will also be the prime archive for Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) data and is prepared to negotiate with program managers to handle other datasets. The purpose of the BDC is to make data accessible to users and to assist them in analyzing it. The BDC maintains the Science Catalog Information Exchange System (SCIES) allowing remote users to log in, read or post notices about current programs, search the catalogs for datasets of interest, and submit orders for data. On-site facilities are also available for the analysis of data, and consist of VMS and UNIX workstations with access to software analysis packages such as IDL, IRAF, and Khoros. Either on-site or remotely, users can employ the BDC-developed graphical user interface called the Visual Interface for Space and Terrestrial Analysis (VISTA) to generate catalog queries and to display and analyze data. SCIES and VISTA permit nearly complete access to BDC services and capabilities without the need to be physically present at the data center.

  15. Cosmic microwave background theory.

    PubMed

    Bond, J R

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant.

  16. Ultraviolet Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R. C.; Murthy, J.

    1993-12-01

    The UVX experiment was carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia between 1986 January 12 and 19 (STS-61C). Several ultraviolet spectrometers were used to obtain measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet background at 8 locations in the sky. We have reanalysed the UVX measurements of the surface brightness of the diffuse ultraviolet background above b = 40 using the dust-scattering model of Onaka & Kodaira (1991), which explicitly takes into account the variation of the source function with galactic longitude. The range of allowed values of interstellar grain albedoJa, and scattering asymmetry parameter g, is considerably expanded over those of a previous analysis. The new chi square probability contours come close to, but do not include, the values of a and g found for the interstellar grains by Witt et al. (1992) using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) on the Astro mission. If we hypothesize in additon to the dust-scattered light an extragalactic component, of 300 1 100 photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1 A-1, attenuated by a cosecant b law, the new reduction of the UVX data gives complete consistency with the Witt et al. determination of the optical parameters of the grains in the ultraviolet. This work was supported by United States Air Force Contract F19628-93-K-0004, and by National Aeronautics and Space Administration grant NASA NAG5-619. We are grateful for the encouragement of Dr. Stephan Price, and we thank Dr. L. Danly for information. Onaka, T., & Kodaira, K. 1991, ApJ, 379, 532 Witt, A. N., Petersohn, J. K., Bohlin, R. C., O'Connell, R. W., Roberts, M. S., Smith, A. M., & Stecher, T. P. 1992, ApJ, 395, L5

  17. Background of the workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The long-term effects of the Challenger accident on solar-terrestrial science resulted in the need to examine the near-term missions under development for the next five years. The workshop was organized to seek ideas and opinions about the future of solar-terrestrial flight programs. Included are considerations of all types of space platforms, i.e., balloons, rockets, free flying satellites, and the variety of platforms supported by NASA astronauts. Specific issues include: the establishment of the level of understanding to be accomplished with the completion of the current worldwide program of research in solar-terrestrial sciences; the identification of major questions to be answered by the future solar-terrestrial sciences research program as it might be if initiated within the next ten years; the identification of space capabilities to be available to the future program and provision of input about the Space Physics Division's priorities for using these to accomplish its future scientific program; and mapping a program strategy to accomplish a future program of research in the solar-terrestrial sciences within the research community's perception of capabilities and constraints.

  18. The cosmic background explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Gulkis, G. ); Lubin, P.M. ); Meyer, S.S. ); Silverberg, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Late last year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched its first satellite dedicated to the study of phenomena related to the origins of the universe. The satellite, called the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), carries three complementary detectors that will make fundamental measurements of the celestial radiation. Part of that radiation is believed to have originated in processes that occurred at the very dawn of the universe. By measuring the remnant radiation at wavelengths from one micrometer to one centimeter across the entire sky, scientists hope to be able to solve many mysteries regarding the origin and evolution of the early universe. Unfortunately, these radiative relics of the early universe are weak and veiled by local astrophysical and terrestrial sources of radiation. The wavelengths of the various cosmic components may also overlap, thereby making the understanding of the diffuse celestial radiation a challenge. Nevertheless, the COBE instruments, with their full-sky coverage, high sensitivity to a wide range of wavelengths and freedom from interference from the earth's atmosphere, will constitute for astrophysicists an observatory of unprecedented sensitivity and scope. The interesting cosmic signals will then be separated from one another and from noncosmic radiation sources by a comprehensive analysis of the data.

  19. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  20. Historical background of itch.

    PubMed

    Weisshaar, Elke; Eckart, Wolfgang U; Bernhard, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Itch as a disease, and especially as a symptom, was the object of medical and scientific curiosity for centuries. The reluctance of historians to focus on the history of itch relates to its nature as a subjective symptom. After all, how can historians have known what itch really felt like in previous centuries? Since the establishment of dermatology as an independent discipline of medicine in the middle of the nineteenth century, itch has become a subject of investigation in its own right. This chapter summarises research we conducted on the medical history of itch in ancient medicine and up through the twentieth century. PMID:25861771

  1. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10-7, where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  2. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  3. Background sources in optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    The characterization and measurement of background radiation relevant to optical communications system performance is addressed. The necessary optical receiver parameters are described, and radiometric concepts required for the calculation of collected background power are developed. The most important components of optical background power are discussed, and their contribution to the total collected background power in various communications scenarios is examined.

  4. Low background aspects of GERDA

    SciTech Connect

    Simgen, Hardy

    2011-04-27

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

  5. Cosmic microwave background images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herranz, D.; Vielva, P.

    2010-01-01

    Cosmology concerns itself with the fundamental questions about the formation, structure, and evolution of the Universe as a whole. Cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is one of the foremost pillars of physical cosmology. Joint analyses of CMB and other astronomical observations are able to determine with ever increasing precision the value of the fundamental cosmological parameters and to provide us with valuable insight about the dynamics of the Universe in evolution. The CMB radiation is a relic of the hot and dense first moments of the Universe: a extraordinarily homogeneous and isotropic blackbody radiation, which shows small temperature anisotropies that are the key for understanding the conditions of the primitive Universe, testing cosmological models and probing fundamental physics at the very dawn of time. CMB observations are obtained by imaging of the sky at microwave wavelengths. However, the CMB signal is mixed with other astrophysical signals of both Galactic and extragalactic origin. To properly exploit the cosmological information contained in CMB images, they must be cleansed of these other astrophysical emissions first. Blind source separation (BSS) has been a very active field in the last few years. Conversely, the term "compact sources" is often used in the CMB literature referring to spatially bounded, small features in the images, such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. Compact sources and diffuse sources are usually treated separately in CMB image processing. We devote this tutorial to the case of compact sources. Many of the compact source-detection techniques that are widespread inmost fields of astronomy are not easily applicable to CMB images. In this tutorial, we present an overview of the fundamentals of compact object detection theory keeping in mind at every moment these particularities. Throughout the article, we briefly consider Bayesian object detection, model selection, optimal linear filtering, nonlinear filtering, and

  6. Low background physics at the Kimballton Mine

    SciTech Connect

    MacMullin, S.

    2011-04-27

    The Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) is home to several experiments. One consists to two HPGe detectors designed to screen candidate materials to be used in low-background experiments for radioactivity. Analysis techniques, including our efficiency calculations will be presented. We have also deployed a customized BEGe (Broad Energy Germanium) detector in a low-background cryostat. This paper will focus on the shield design, detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a detector in a low-background environment.

  7. Exploiting background knowledge in automated discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Aronis, J.M.; Buchanan, B.G.; Provost, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    Prior work in automated scientific discovery has been successful in finding patterns in data, given that a reasonably small set of mostly relevant features is specified. The work described in this paper places data in the context of large bodies of background knowledge. Specifically, data items are connected to multiple databases of background knowledge represented as inheritance networks. The system has made a practical impact on botanical toxicology research, which required linking examples of cases of plant exposures to databases of botanical, geographical, and climate background knowledge.

  8. Beam induced backgrounds: CDF experience

    SciTech Connect

    Tesarek, R.J.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    We summarize the experiences of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment in the presence of backgrounds originating from the counter circulating beams in the Fermilab Tevatron. These backgrounds are measured and their sources identified. Finally, we outline the strategies employed to reduce the effects of these backgrounds on the experiment.

  9. Investigating the Relationship between Test-Taker Background Characteristics and Test Performance in a Heterogeneous English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) Test Population: A Factor Analytic Approach. Research Report. ETS RR-15-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manna, Venessa F.; Yoo, Hanwook

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the heterogeneity in the English-as-a-second-language (ESL) test population by modeling the relationship between test-taker background characteristics and test performance as measured by the "TOEFL iBT"® using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with covariate approach. The background characteristics studied…

  10. Background issues for defensive interceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Mean nuclear backgrounds are large, but are arguably amenable to frame-to-frame subtraction. Striated backgrounds on the sensors for defensive interceptors could, however, cause clutter leak-through, which could make detection and track difficult. Nominal motions and backgrounds give signal to clutter ratios too low to be useful. Clutter leakage due to line-of-sight drift can be reduced by stabilizing the line of sight around the background clutter itself. Current interceptors have detector arrays large enough for operation independent of nuclear backgrounds in their fields of view. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…

  12. 22 CFR 1501.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fund development research by Africans. Priority shall be given to projects which community groups... Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ORGANIZATION Substantive Rule of General Applicability § 1501.2 Background. (a) The African Development Foundation (“ADF”) is a wholly-owned corporation of the United...

  13. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications.

    PubMed

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB. PMID:27069645

  14. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications

    PubMed Central

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-01-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB. PMID:27069645

  15. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications.

    PubMed

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB.

  16. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  17. Background Reduction in Cryogenic Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.

    2005-09-08

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  18. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-06-01

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  19. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  20. Background Television and Reading Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, G. Blake; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Tests G. Armstrong's and B. Greenberg's model of the effect of background television on cognitive performance, applied to reading comprehension and memory. Finds significant deleterious effects of background television, stronger and more consistent effects when testing immediately after reading, and more consistently negative effects resulting…

  1. Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Hurley, D. L.; Wang, B. S.

    2013-08-08

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3π muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO{sub 2} for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

  2. Research on Youth Employment and Employability Development. Youth Employment Policies and Programs for the 1890s. Background Analysis for the Department of Labor Employment and Training Components of the Youth Act of 1980. Youth Knowledge Development Report 2.12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Robert

    Prepared as a basic background document for an interagency task force on youth employment, this report analyzes youth employment policies and programs for the 1980s. The main body of the report consists of three sections. Section 1, entitled "Policy Perspectives on the Youth Employment Problem," contains a discussion of pathways to career…

  3. Low background techniques in XMASS

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Atsushi

    2011-04-27

    The XMASS project aims to detect pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, neutrino-less double beta decay, and dark matter searches using ultra-pure liquid xenon. The first stage of XMASS project is concentrated on dark matter searches using 800 kg liquid xenon detector which requires low background and low threshold. Several techniques applied to XMASS detector for low background will be presented.

  4. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, J. G.; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J. F.; Christensen, F. E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R. M.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10-6 counts/keV/cm2/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10-7 counts/keV/cm2/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  5. Background simulations and shielding calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2011-04-27

    Key improvements in the sensitivity of the underground particle astrophysics experiments can only be achieved if the radiation causing background events in detectors is well understood and proper measures are taken to suppress it. The background radiation arising from radioactivity and cosmic-ray muons is discussed here together with the methods of its suppression. Different shielding designs are considered to attenuate gamma-rays and neutrons coming from radioactivity in rock and lab walls. Purity of materials used in detector construction is analysed and the background event rates due to the presence of radioactive isotopes in detector components are discussed. Event rates in detectors caused by muon-induced neutrons with and without active veto systems are presented leading to the requirements for the depth of an underground laboratory and the efficiency of the veto system.

  6. Generative electronic background music system

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  7. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A review the implications of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background for cosmology. Thermalization and processes generating spectral distortions are discussed. Anisotropy predictions are described and compared with observational constraints. If the evidence for large-scale power in the galaxy distribution in excess of that predicted by the cold dark matter model is vindicated, and the observed structure originated via gravitational instabilities of primordial density fluctuations, the predicted amplitude of microwave background anisotropies on angular scales of a degree and larger must be at least several parts in 10 exp 6.

  8. Exotic branes and nongeometric backgrounds.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Jan; Shigemori, Masaki

    2010-06-25

    When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries. PMID:20867363

  9. Atmospheric Neutrinos: Background and Signal

    SciTech Connect

    Mocioiu, Irina

    2010-11-24

    We discuss a brief history of atmospheric neutrinos, from background to proton decay searches to proving neutrino oscillations. We then discuss how high statistics atmospheric neutrino measurements in the IceCube Deep Core Array can provide useful information about neutrino oscillation parameters and other neutrino properties.

  10. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Naktani, N.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-08-01

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using 48Ca in CaF2 crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  11. Integrated Global Background Monitoring Network

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, G.B.; Franklin, J.F.; Kohler, A.; Croze, H.; Boelcke, C.

    1986-12-01

    One of the more significant problems when trying to determine what impact is having on global cycles is not knowing what ''natural'' levels should be for both abiotic (gases, trace elements) and biotic (ecosystem functions) processes. The authors believe that a well designed, coordinated network of baseline stations in remote areas around the world can provide a data base will allow best current estimates to be made of biotic and abiotic baseline conditions. These baseline conditions will then help us make better comparisons with more impacted areas, and thus help us more fully understand the impact man is having on his world. This paper examines the history of background pollution monitoring at the international level, describes current activities in the field of ''integrated'' background monitoring, and proposes criteria for the development of a global network of baseline stations to coordinate background monitoring for the presence, accumulation and behavior of pollutants in remote ecosystems. In this paper, this network is called the Integrated Global Background Monitoring Network.

  12. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  13. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  14. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, K. E-mail: nkyohei@u-fukui.ac.jp; Iida, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; and others

    2015-08-17

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using {sup 48}Ca in CaF{sub 2} crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  15. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  16. Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S.

    2008-01-01

    Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster…

  17. Argon-39 Background in DUNE Photon Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinev, Gleb; DUNE Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a 40-kt liquid argon detector that will be constructed 5000 ft underground in the Sanford Underground Research Facility in order to study neutrino and proton decay physics. Instrumenting liquid argon with photon detectors to record scintillation in addition to the ionization signal can significantly improve time and energy resolution of the experiment. Argon produces light with wavelength of 128 nm. The reference design for the photon detectors includes acrylic bars covered in wavelength shifter, where the scintillation light can be captured and reemitted with longer wavelengths, then detected using silicon photomultipliers. Radiological backgrounds may noticeably deteriorate the photon detection system performance, especially for low-energy interactions. A particularly important background comes from argon-39 decays, because argon-39 is present in natural argon that will be used in DUNE and the background rate increases with the size of the experiment. The effect of the argon-39 background has been studied and is presented in this talk.

  18. Ambient background particulate composition, outdoor natural background: interferents/clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno, Dorothea

    2012-06-01

    It has proven a very difficult task to discriminate an actual BW threat from the natural occurring ambient particulate aerosol, which includes a significant fraction of particles consisting of mixed mineral and biological material. The interferent particles [clutter] (bio and non bio) concentration varies widely both by location, weather and season and diurnally. Naturally occurring background particulates are composed of fungal and bacterial spores both fragments and components, plant fragments and debris, animal fragments and debris, all of which may be associated with inert dust or combustion material. Some or all of which could also be considered to be an interferent to a biological warfare detector and cause these biodector systems to cause False Alarms by non specific BW bio detectors. I will share analysis of current long term background data sets.

  19. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  20. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  1. Background stratospheric aerosol reference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

    1989-01-01

    In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

  2. WFC3/UVIS Sky Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, Sylvia; Anderson, Jay

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the on-orbit background levels present in WFC3/UVIS full-frame images. The results are based on nearly all standard readout images taken since the installation of WFC3 on HST in May 2009, with a relatively small number of exclusions e.g. images with obvious anomalous backgrounds (such as extended targets filling the field of view) or those taken with the quad filters (different bandpass in each amp). Comparisons are provided to estimates from the Exposure Time Calculator (ETC). We anticipate these results to be helpful in fine-tuning the level of post-flash required to achieve the optimum balance of charge transfter efficiency (CTE) loss mitigation versus noise penalty. Observers considering the use of post-flash should refer to the White Paper (MacKenty & Smith 2012) on the CTE WWW page (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/wfc3/ins_performance/CTE/).

  3. Trial SNAPSHOT: measurements for terrain background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Mitchell, Alistair A.; Bell, Christopher R.; Thomas, David J.; Evans, Roger

    2000-07-01

    The spatial and spectral characteristics of targets and backgrounds must be known and understood for a wide variety of reasons such as: synthetic scene simulation and validation; target description for modelling; in- service target material characterisation and background variability assessment. Without this information it will be impossible to design effective camouflage systems and to maximise the capabilities of new sensors. Laboratory measurements of background materials are insufficient to provide the data required. A series of trials are being undertaken in the UK to quantify both diurnal and seasonal changes of a terrain background, as well as the statistical variability within a scene. These trials are part of a collaborative effort between the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (UK), Defence Clothing and Textile Agency (UK) and the T.A.C.O.M., USA). Data are being gathered at a single site consisting primarily of south facing mixed coniferous and deciduous woodland, but also containing uncultivated grassland and tracks. Ideally each point in the scene needs to be characterized at all relevant wavelengths but his is unrealistic. In addition there are a number of important environmental variables that are required. The goal of the measurement programme is to acquire data across the spectrum from 0.4 - 14 microns. Sensors used to include visible band imaging spectroradiometers, telespectroradiometers (visual, NIR, SWIR and LWIR), calibrate colour cameras, broad band SWIR and LWIR imagers and contact reflectance measurement equipment. Targets consist of painted panels with known material properties and a wheeled vehicle, which is in some cases covered with camouflage netting. Measurements have bene made of the background with and without the man- made objects present. This paper will review the results to date and present an analysis of the spectral characteristics fo different surfaces. In addition some consideration will be given to the implications of

  4. Quantum chromodynamics in background fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Huang, Zheng

    1989-02-01

    We try to build a framework for quantum chromodynamics in background fields. The nonvanishing vacuum condensates are described by the classical fields, while the corresponding quantum fields are quantized in the Furry representation and the physical states are defined in the physical QCD vacuum. The complete quark and gluon propagators are discussed in this framework and running condensate parameters are introduced by the renormalization requirement. A modified Callan-Symanzik equation is derived by taking account of the nonperturbative corrections.

  5. The Cosmic Background Explorer /COBE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, under study by NASA since 1976, will map the spectrum and the angular distribution of diffuse radiation from the universe over the entire wavelength range from 1 micron to 1.3 cm. It carries three instruments: a set of differential microwave radiometers (DMR) at 23.5, 31.4, 53, and 90GHz, a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 1 to 100 per cm, and a diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) covering 1 to 300 microns. They will use the ideal space environment, a one year lifetime, and standard instrument techniques to achieve orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity and accuracy, providing a fundamental data base for cosmology. The instruments are united by common purpose as well as similar environmental and orbital requirements. The data from all three experiments will be analyzed together, to distinguish nearby sources of radiation from the cosmologically interesting diffuse background radiations. Construction is planned to begin in 1982 for a launch in 1988.

  6. The isotropic radio background revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.

    2014-04-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

  7. Background independence in a background dependent renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labus, Peter; Morris, Tim R.; Slade, Zöe H.

    2016-07-01

    Within the derivative expansion of conformally reduced gravity, the modified split Ward identities are shown to be compatible with the flow equations if and only if either the anomalous dimension vanishes or the cutoff profile is chosen to have a power-law form. No solutions exist if the Ward identities are incompatible. In the compatible case, a clear reason is found for why Ward identities can still forbid the existence of fixed points; however, for any cutoff profile, a background independent (and parametrization independent) flow equation is uncovered. Finally, expanding in vertices, the combined equations are shown generically to become either overconstrained or highly redundant beyond the six-point level.

  8. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen

    In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

  9. Teaching about natural background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-07-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also demonstrated to emphasize the important role of shielding in radiation protection. The measurements were carried out with a Geiger-Muller (GM)-based dosimeter and a NaI scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer, which are normally available in physics laboratories. Radioactivity in household materials was demonstrated using a gas mantle as an example.

  10. [Toothache with a neuropathic background].

    PubMed

    Khatchaturian, V; de Wijer, A; Kalaykova, S I; Steenks, M H

    2015-03-01

    A 48-year old woman in good general health was referred to the orofacial pain clinic in a centre for special dentistry with a toothache in the premolar region of the left maxillary quadrant. The complaints had existed for 15 years and various dental treatments, including endodontic treatments, apical surgery, extraction and splint therapy, had not helped to alleviate the complaints. As a result of the fact that anti-epileptic drugs were able to reduce the pain it was concluded that this 'toothache' satisfied the criteria of an atypical odontalgia: 'toothache' with a neuropathic background. PMID:26181392

  11. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  12. Computerized background-oriented schlieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, G. E. A.

    2002-06-01

    A schlieren measurement technique based on computer evaluation of image variations due to refractive index variations in the propagation medium is presented; in what follows, this concept is referred to as the "background-oriented schlieren" (BOS) method. The differences between BOS and other optical techniques for refractive index measurement are the governing role of numerical methods, the extremely small amount of optical equipment, the high accuracy, the bidirectional sensitivity, the fast evaluation, and the missing field limitations. The principle of the method is the numerical comparison of a schlieren distorted and an undistorted image of a deliberate background. The method has become usable in practice owing to the immense progress in computing power and to newly developed fast-correlation algorithms. The extension of this method to space resolving techniques is possible. Some experimental studies show the applicability. Examples are a mixing turbulent jet, a supersonic jet, a shed vortex, and the sound wave of a gun shot. These few results underline the encouraging prospect for the future applicability of this technique. The BOS method offers not only the possibility of qualitative and quantitative schlieren investigations but also has the potential to determine density fields by integration of the measured gradient fields.

  13. Video coding with dynamic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

  14. Low Background Assay Results for LZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver-Mallory, Kelsey; Thomas, Keenan; Lux-Zeplin Collaboration; Berkeley Low Background Facility Team

    2016-03-01

    The next generation dark matter experiment LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) requires careful control of intrinsic radioactivity in all critical detector components in order to reach its unprecedented target sensitivity to Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs): 2 ×10-48 cm2 at 50 GeV/c2. Appropriate material selection is essential to meeting this goal, and an extensive campaign of low background screening is currently being carried out using assay devices at the Sanford Underground Research Facility and the Boulby Underground Laboratory. We will present results from this work, including measurements for the Ti cryostat, PMT bases, PMT raw materials, PTFE, and other components. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Award Number DE-AC02-05CH11231, and is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1106400.

  15. Neutron background characterization of deep underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Andreas; Görres, Joachim; Long, Alex; Smith, Karl; Stech, Ed; Wiescher, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Low-energy (,) reactions in stellar helium and carbon burning provide the neutrons for the formation of elements beyond iron by the slow neutron capture process. The very low cross sections at stellar energies necessitate the use of high-efficiency detectors as well as measuring in a very low neutron background environment. By going deep underground the neutron flux can be reduced by orders of magnitude compared to surface levels, enabling the measurement of reactions for nuclear astrophysics at previously inaccessible energies. The remaining neutron flux is mostly due to spontaneous fission of ^238U in the cavity walls and (,) reactions induced by α-particles from the natural radioactivity of the underground environment. Using a portable setup consisting of 4 ^3He counters and polyethylene moderators the DIANA collaboration is conducting neutron background measurements at various deep underground laboratories in the US. We present first results from the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory and the 4100 feet level of the Sanford Undeground Research Facility (SURF). Measurements at other depths in SURF and at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are in planning.

  16. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Because angular anisotropies and spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background radiation are judged to be inevitable at some level, in a realistic cosmological model, the evidence for spectral distortions and its theoretical implications are described. The evidence for anisotropy is then discussed, and theoretical predictions of radiation anisotropy are summarized and compared with the data available. It is found that spectral distortions at the 3-sigma level near the peak of the blackbody spectrum, although inconsistent with the predicted distortions due to Compton scattering in the early universe, are elegantly interpreted in terms of radiation from an early, pregalactic generation of massive stars which had been thermalized by a modest amount of dust at high redshift. The quadrupole anisotropy at the 4-sigma level is most simply interpreted in terms of the large-scale structure of the universe.

  17. Deleterious background selection with recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R.R.; Kaplan, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2011-04-27

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  19. Texture induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

    1994-03-01

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  20. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  1. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  2. The microwave background anisotropies: observations.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D

    1998-01-01

    Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation-fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 microK fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1 degrees and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe--the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century.

  3. The Diffuse Extreme Ultraviolet Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, John; Slavin, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    Observations of the diffuse EUV background towards 138 different directions using the spectrometers aboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (EUVE) have been combined into a spectrum from 150A to 730A and represent an effective exposure of 18 million seconds. There is no significant evidence of any non-local line flux in the resultant spectrum such as that from a hot coronal plasma. These results are inconsistent with the Wisconsin C and B broad-band surveys assuming the source is a logT = 5.8 - 6.1 hot plasma in ionization equilibrium with solar abundances, confirming the previous result of Jelinksy, Vallerga and Edelstein) (hereafter Paper 1) using an observation along the ecliptic with the same instrument. To make these results consistent with the previous broad-band surveys, the plasma responsible for the emission must either be depleted in Fe by a factor of approximately 6, be behind an absorbing slab of neutral H with a column of 2 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, or not be in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE). One such non-CIE model (Breitswerdt and Schmutzier) that explains the soft x-ray results is also inconsistent with this EUV data.

  4. Acid rain: a background report

    SciTech Connect

    Glustrom, L.; Stolzenberg, J.

    1982-07-08

    This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the measurement, formation and effects of acid rain. As described in Part I, the term acid rain is used to describe the deposition of acidic components through both wet deposition (e.g., rain or snow) and dry deposition (e.g., direct contact between atmospheric constituents and the land, water or vegetation of the earth). Part II presents background information on state agency activities relating to acid rain in Wisconsin, describes what is known about the occurrence of, susceptibility to and effects of acid rain in Wisconsin, and provides information related to man-made sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in Wisconsin. Part III describes major policies and regulations relating to acid rain which have been or are being developed jointly by the United States and Canadian governments, by the United States government and by the State of Wisconsin. Part IV briefly discusses possible areas for Committee action.

  5. DarkLight radiation backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantarians, Narbe

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

  6. Experiences of School Belonging for Young Children with Refugee Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Due, Clemence; Riggs, Damien W.; Augoustinos, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Previous research with adolescents with refugee backgrounds living in countries of resettlement has found that school belonging has an impact on a range of well-being and developmental outcomes, including mental health, peer relationships, self-esteem and self-efficacy, and academic achievement. However, very little research has explored school…

  7. A Background in Science: What Science Means for Australian Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kerri-Lee

    2012-01-01

    Prior to this research little was known about the ways in which people draw upon their science backgrounds. An earlier CSHE [Centre for the Study of Higher Education] study for the ACDS [Australian Council of Deans of Science] examined employment outcomes and confirmed that many science graduates pursue careers outside scientific research. There…

  8. The German Excellence Initiative: Update. Go8 Backgrounder 24a

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    As described in "Go8 Backgrounder 24: Answering the Global Challenge--Experiences from European Excellence Initiatives," Germany began a debate about how to strengthen its position as an excellent location for science and research in 2004. This debate focussed in particular on the competitiveness of the country's universities and research centres…

  9. Logistics background study: underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  10. CT detector evaluation with complex random backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Helen; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2012-02-01

    Modern computed tomography (CT) uses detector arrays consisting of large numbers of photodiodes with scintil- lator crystals. The number of pixels in the array can play an important role in system performance. Considerable research has been performed on signal detection in flat backgrounds under various conditions, but little has been done with complex, random backgrounds in CT; our work investigates in particular the effect of the number of detector elements on signal detection by a channelized Hotelling observer in a complex background. For this project, a simulated three-dimensional phantom is generated with its attenuation equal to that of water. The phantom contains a smaller central section with random variations to simulate random anatomical structures. Cone-beam projections of the phantom are acquired at different angles and used to calculate the covariance matrix of the raw projection data. Laguerre-Gauss channels are used to reduce the dimensionality of each 2D projection and hence the size of the covariance matrix, but the covariance is still a function of two projection angles. A strong cross-channel correlation is observed as a function of the difference between the angles. A signal with known location and size is used, and the performance of the observer is calculated from the channel outputs at multiple projection angles. A contrast-detail diagram is computed for different variables such as signal size, number of incident x-ray photons, pixel size, etc. At a fixed observer signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the contrast required to detect a signal increases dramatically as the signal size decreases.

  11. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported

  12. Background Characterization Techniques For Pattern Recognition Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noah, Meg A.; Noah, Paul V.; Schroeder, John W.; Kessler, Bernard V.; Chernick, Julian A.

    1989-08-01

    The Department of Defense has a requirement to investigate technologies for the detection of air and ground vehicles in a clutter environment. The use of autonomous systems using infrared, visible, and millimeter wave detectors has the potential to meet DOD's needs. In general, however, the hard-ware technology (large detector arrays with high sensitivity) has outpaced the development of processing techniques and software. In a complex background scene the "problem" is as much one of clutter rejection as it is target detection. The work described in this paper has investigated a new, and innovative, methodology for background clutter characterization, target detection and target identification. The approach uses multivariate statistical analysis to evaluate a set of image metrics applied to infrared cloud imagery and terrain clutter scenes. The techniques are applied to two distinct problems: the characterization of atmospheric water vapor cloud scenes for the Navy's Infrared Search and Track (IRST) applications to support the Infrared Modeling Measurement and Analysis Program (IRAMMP); and the detection of ground vehicles for the Army's Autonomous Homing Munitions (AHM) problems. This work was sponsored under two separate Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) programs by the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), White Oak MD, and the Army Material Systems Analysis Activity at Aberdeen Proving Ground MD. The software described in this paper will be available from the respective contract technical representatives.

  13. Radon-related backgrounds in the LUX dark matter search

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bradley, A.; Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850’ level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily taggedmore » and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.« less

  14. Radon-related backgrounds in the LUX dark matter search

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, A.; Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Coffey, T.; Currie, A.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Flores, C.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G.D.; Hall, C.; Hertel, S. A.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kazkaz, K.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Mannino, R.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D. -M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J.; Murphy, A. St.J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H.; Neves, F.; Ott, R. A.; Pangilinan, M.; Parker, P. D.; Pease, E. K.; Pech, K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Shutt, T.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; O'Sullivan, K.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D.; Tennyson, B.; Tiedt, D. R.; Tripathi, M.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Walsh, N.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L.H.; Woods, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850’ level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily tagged and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.

  15. Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Background Radiation for Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Ricky; Blackmon, J. C.; Rasco, B. C.; Mumm, H. P.; mTC; NuLat Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Prior measurements of reactor antineutrinos have found a lower flux than expected. Precision measurements of antineutrino energy spectra are important for understanding the anomaly, reactor safeguards, and nuclear nonproliferation. Antineutrino detector designs rely on good characterization of gamma-ray and neutron backgrounds near the reactor core. To study the gamma-ray background at the NIST research reactor, spectra were collected using a 6.25 cm diameter × 5.5 cm germanium detector. We analyzed the measured spectra using simulations of the detector response using the GEANT4 toolkit to determine background fluxes and build a background model that will be used to understand shielding requirements and the impact of backgrounds on potential short-baseline reactor antineutrino studies at NIST. This work supported by the National Science Foundation and LSU.

  16. BACKGROUND DOCUMENT ON CLEAN PRODUCTS RESEARCH AND IMPLEMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept that products can be made "environmentally friendly" or "clean" has been attracting much attention. As yet, however, there is no accepted definition of what is meant by "environmentally friendly," nor any agreement on how to achieve clean products. The full report sum...

  17. Multipurpose background for standardization in medical photography.

    PubMed

    Hallock, G G

    1985-08-01

    A dual photography background system consisting of a quadrilled format on one side and a plain background on the other is described. It is mobile and efficient as a space- and time-saving device for medical photography.

  18. Automatic Background Knowledge Selection for Matching Biomedical Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Santos, Emanuel; Cruz, Isabel F.; Couto, Francisco M.

    2014-01-01

    Ontology matching is a growing field of research that is of critical importance for the semantic web initiative. The use of background knowledge for ontology matching is often a key factor for success, particularly in complex and lexically rich domains such as the life sciences. However, in most ontology matching systems, the background knowledge sources are either predefined by the system or have to be provided by the user. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for automatically selecting background knowledge sources for any given ontologies to match. This methodology measures the usefulness of each background knowledge source by assessing the fraction of classes mapped through it over those mapped directly, which we call the mapping gain. We implemented this methodology in the AgreementMakerLight ontology matching framework, and evaluate it using the benchmark biomedical ontology matching tasks from the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) 2013. In each matching problem, our methodology consistently identified the sources of background knowledge that led to the highest improvements over the baseline alignment (i.e., without background knowledge). Furthermore, our proposed mapping gain parameter is strongly correlated with the F-measure of the produced alignments, thus making it a good estimator for ontology matching techniques based on background knowledge. PMID:25379899

  19. Automated video screening for unattended background monitoring in dynamic environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2004-03-01

    This report addresses the development of automated video-screening technology to assist security forces in protecting our homeland against terrorist threats. A threat of specific interest to this project is the covert placement and subsequent remote detonation of bombs (e.g., briefcase bombs) inside crowded public facilities. Different from existing video motion detection systems, the video-screening technology described in this report is capable of detecting changes in the static background of an otherwise, dynamic environment - environments where motion and human activities are persistent. Our goal was to quickly detect changes in the background - even under conditions when the background is visible to the camera less than 5% of the time. Instead of subtracting the background to detect movement or changes in a scene, we subtracted the dynamic scene variations to produce an estimate of the static background. Subsequent comparisons of static background estimates are used to detect changes in the background. Detected changes can be used to alert security forces of the presence and location of potential threats. The results of this research are summarized in two MS Power-point presentations included with this report.

  20. Automatic background knowledge selection for matching biomedical ontologies.

    PubMed

    Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Santos, Emanuel; Cruz, Isabel F; Couto, Francisco M

    2014-01-01

    Ontology matching is a growing field of research that is of critical importance for the semantic web initiative. The use of background knowledge for ontology matching is often a key factor for success, particularly in complex and lexically rich domains such as the life sciences. However, in most ontology matching systems, the background knowledge sources are either predefined by the system or have to be provided by the user. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for automatically selecting background knowledge sources for any given ontologies to match. This methodology measures the usefulness of each background knowledge source by assessing the fraction of classes mapped through it over those mapped directly, which we call the mapping gain. We implemented this methodology in the AgreementMakerLight ontology matching framework, and evaluate it using the benchmark biomedical ontology matching tasks from the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) 2013. In each matching problem, our methodology consistently identified the sources of background knowledge that led to the highest improvements over the baseline alignment (i.e., without background knowledge). Furthermore, our proposed mapping gain parameter is strongly correlated with the F-measure of the produced alignments, thus making it a good estimator for ontology matching techniques based on background knowledge. PMID:25379899

  1. Automatic background knowledge selection for matching biomedical ontologies.

    PubMed

    Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Santos, Emanuel; Cruz, Isabel F; Couto, Francisco M

    2014-01-01

    Ontology matching is a growing field of research that is of critical importance for the semantic web initiative. The use of background knowledge for ontology matching is often a key factor for success, particularly in complex and lexically rich domains such as the life sciences. However, in most ontology matching systems, the background knowledge sources are either predefined by the system or have to be provided by the user. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for automatically selecting background knowledge sources for any given ontologies to match. This methodology measures the usefulness of each background knowledge source by assessing the fraction of classes mapped through it over those mapped directly, which we call the mapping gain. We implemented this methodology in the AgreementMakerLight ontology matching framework, and evaluate it using the benchmark biomedical ontology matching tasks from the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) 2013. In each matching problem, our methodology consistently identified the sources of background knowledge that led to the highest improvements over the baseline alignment (i.e., without background knowledge). Furthermore, our proposed mapping gain parameter is strongly correlated with the F-measure of the produced alignments, thus making it a good estimator for ontology matching techniques based on background knowledge.

  2. Observations and Modeling of Seismic Background Noise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon R.

    1993-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The preparation of this report had two purposes. One was to present a catalog of seismic background noise spectra obtained from a worldwide network of seismograph stations. The other purpose was to refine and document models of seismic background noise that have been in use for several years. The second objective was, in fact, the principal reason that this study was initiated and influenced the procedures used in collecting and processing the data. With a single exception, all of the data used in this study were extracted from the digital data archive at the U.S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). This archive dates from 1972 when ASL first began deploying digital seismograph systems and collecting and distributing digital data under the sponsorship of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). There have been many changes and additions to the global seismograph networks during the past twenty years, but perhaps none as significant as the current deployment of very broadband seismographs by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of California San Diego (UCSD) under the scientific direction of the IRIS consortium. The new data acquisition systems have extended the bandwidth and resolution of seismic recording, and they utilize high-density recording media that permit the continuous recording of broadband data. The data improvements and continuous recording greatly benefit and simplify surveys of seismic background noise. Although there are many other sources of digital data, the ASL archive data were used almost exclusively because of accessibility and because the data systems and their calibration are well documented for the most part. Fortunately, the ASL archive contains high-quality data from other stations in addition to those deployed by the USGS. Included are data from UCSD IRIS/IDA stations, the Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) deployed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the

  3. Opening Minds in Canada: Background and Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Heather; Chen, Shu-Ping; Christie, Romie; Dobson, Keith; Kirsh, Bonnie; Knaak, Stephanie; Koller, Michelle; Krupa, Terry; Lauria-Horner, Bianca; Luong, Dorothy; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B; Pietrus, Mike; Szeto, Andrew; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the background and rationale of the approach taken by the Mental Health Commission of Canada’s Opening Minds (OM) Anti-Stigma Initiative. Method: The approach taken by OM incorporates a grassroots, community development philosophy, has clearly defined target groups, uses contact-based education as the central organizing element across interventions, and has a strong evaluative component, so that best practices can be identified, replicated, and disseminated. Contact-based education occurs when people who have experienced a mental illness share their personal story of recovery and hope. Results: OM has acted as a catalyst to develop partnerships between community groups who are undertaking anti-stigma work and an interdisciplinary team of academic researchers in 5 universities who are evaluating the results of these programs. Conclusions: Building partnerships with existing community programs and promoting systematic evaluation using standardized approaches and instruments have contributed to our understanding of best practices in the field of anti-stigma programming. PMID:25565705

  4. Seeking Solution: High-Performance Computing for Science. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This is the second publication from the Office of Technology Assessment's assessment on information technology and research, which was requested by the House Committee on Science and Technology and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. The first background paper, "High Performance Computing & Networking for Science,"…

  5. NASA's Role in Aeronautics: A Workshop. Volume VII - Background Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    Sixteen background papers presented to a plenary session at a 1980 workshop on the role of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in aeronautics are presented. The central task of the workshop was to examine the relationship of NASA's research capabilities to the state of U.S. aviation and to make recommendations about NASA's…

  6. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

  7. Comparison of Speech Perception in Background Noise with Acceptance of Background Noise in Aided and Unaided Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabelek, Anna K.; Tampas, Joanna W.; Burchfield, Samuel B.

    2004-01-01

    l, speech perception in noiseBackground noise is a significant factor influencing hearing-aid satisfaction and is a major reason for rejection of hearing aids. Attempts have been made by previous researchers to relate the use of hearing aids to speech perception in noise (SPIN), with an expectation of improved speech perception followed by an…

  8. Color gradient background oriented schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mier, Frank Austin; Hargather, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Background oriented schlieren (BOS) imaging is a method of visualizing refractive disturbances through the comparison of digital images. By comparing images with and without a refractive disturbance visualizations can be achieved via a range of image processing methods. Traditionally, backgrounds consist of random distributions of high contrast speckle patterns. To image a refractive disturbance, a digital image correlation algorithm is used to identify the location and magnitude of apparent pixel shifts in the background pattern. Here a novel method of using color gradient backgrounds is explored as an alternative. The gradient background eliminates the need to perform an image correlation between the two digital images, as simple image subtraction can be used to identify the location, magnitude, and direction of the image distortions. This allows for quicker processing. Two-dimensional gradient backgrounds using multiple colors are shown. The gradient backgrounds are demonstrated to provide quantitative data limited only by the camera's pixel resolution, whereas speckle backgrounds limit resolution to the size of the random pattern features and image correlation window size. Additional results include the use of a computer screen as a background.

  9. Color gradient background-oriented schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mier, Frank Austin; Hargather, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    Background-oriented schlieren is a method of visualizing refractive disturbances by comparing digital images with and without a refractive disturbance distorting a background pattern. Traditionally, backgrounds consist of random distributions of high-contrast color transitions or speckle patterns. To image a refractive disturbance, a digital image correlation algorithm is used to identify the location and magnitude of apparent pixel shifts in the background pattern between the two images. Here, a novel method of using color gradient backgrounds is explored as an alternative that eliminates the need to perform a complex image correlation between the digital images. A simple image subtraction can be used instead to identify the location, magnitude, and direction of the image distortions. Gradient backgrounds are demonstrated to provide quantitative data only limited by the camera's pixel resolution, whereas speckle backgrounds limit resolution to the size of the random pattern features and image correlation window size. Quantitative measurement of density in a thermal boundary layer is presented. Two-dimensional gradient backgrounds using multiple colors are demonstrated to allow measurement of two-dimensional refractions. A computer screen is used as the background, which allows for rapid modification of the gradient to tune sensitivity for a particular application.

  10. Family Background and Academic Achievement: Does Self-Efficacy Mediate Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiser, Dana A.; Riggio, Heidi R.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates both family background and self-efficacy influence academic outcomes; however, family background also impacts self-efficacy development. The purpose of the current study was to establish whether self-efficacy mediates the relationship between family background and academic achievement. Results indicated family background…

  11. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  12. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  13. Child Care: State Requirements for Background Checks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnoni, Cynthia

    Background checks involve gathering information from state and federal databases to determine if child care providers have a history of child abuse or other criminal convictions that would make them unacceptable for working with children. Background checks include state criminal history checks, state child abuse registry checks, and Federal Bureau…

  14. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal activity may...

  15. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal activity may...

  16. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal activity may...

  17. 16 CFR 1031.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Background. 1031.2 Section 1031.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES General Policies § 1031.2 Background. (a) Congress enacted the Consumer Product Safety Act in 1972...

  18. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of...

  19. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of...

  20. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of...

  1. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  2. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  3. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  4. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  5. 16 CFR 1101.1 - General background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Background § 1101.1 General background. (a) Basic purpose. This rule sets forth the Consumer Product Safety Commission's policy and procedure...

  6. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal activity may...

  7. Rogue waves and solitons on a cnoidal background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedziora, D. J.; Ankiewicz, A.; Akhmediev, N.

    2014-01-01

    Solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, appearing as rogue waves on a spatially-periodic background envelope, are obtained using the Darboux transformation scheme. Several particular examples are illustrated numerically. These include soliton and breather solutions on a periodic background as well as higher-order structures. The results enrich our knowledge of possible analytic solutions that describe the appearance of rogue waves in a variety of situations. This work is prepared on the occasion of Prof. Helmut Brand's 60th birthday. He has made significant contributions to the science of solitons and his ideas have inspired our research into localised formations in various physical contexts.

  8. Predicting detection probabilities for gas mixtures over HSI backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tardiff, Mark F.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence

    2009-12-29

    Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal image data acquired by airborne detectors is an area of ongoing research. This contribution investigates the relative detectability of gas mixtures over different backgrounds and a range of plume temperatures that are warmer and cooler than the ground. The focus of this analysis to support mission planning. When the mission is intended to collect evidence of particular chemicals, the analysis presented is this report can be used to determine conditions under which useful data can be acquired. Initial analyses can be used to determine whether LWIR is useful for the anticipated gas, temperature, and background combination.

  9. Eliminate background interference from latent fingerprints using ultraviolet multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Guiqiang

    2014-02-01

    Fingerprints are the most important evidence in crime scene. The technology of developing latent fingerprints is one of the hottest research areas in forensic science. Recently, multispectral imaging which has shown great capability in fingerprints development, questioned document detection and trace evidence examination is used in detecting material evidence. This paper studied how to eliminate background interference from non-porous and porous surface latent fingerprints by rotating filter wheel ultraviolet multispectral imaging. The results approved that background interference could be removed clearly from latent fingerprints by using multispectral imaging in ultraviolet bandwidth.

  10. Current status of federal involvement in US aquaculture. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The United States lacks a strong national aquaculture policy and supporting federal presence. Over the years, levels and focii of agency involvement in aquaculture development have shifted in response to legislation and its differing interpretations. The National Aquaculture Act (NAA), the primary piece of aquaculture-related legislation, is slated for reauthorization of the NAA and related legislation is the federal role in research and regulation of this emerging industry. Congress requested this Background Paper to provide information on technology issues of immediate importance to the U.S. aquaculture industry. This is a companion piece to the Background Paper on Selected Technology Issues in U.S. Aquaculture.

  11. Natural-background-oriented schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargather, Michael John; Settles, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    The background-oriented schlieren (BOS) flow visualization method has the potential for large-scale flow imaging outside the laboratory by using natural backgrounds instead of the artificial patterns normally used indoors. The natural surroundings of an outdoor test site can sometimes be used as such a background, subject to criteria of fine scale, randomness and contrast that are developed here. Some natural backgrounds are more appropriate than others for a given application. Backgrounds used here to visualize both high- and low-speed schlieren disturbances include a sunlit cornfield and a backlit grove of trees. A range of image post-processing methods is considered for qualitative BOS. It is found that high sensitivity and a broad measuring range are in conflict here, much as they are in traditional schlieren instruments. Applications of natural-BOS include explosive characterization, firearms and artillery testing, chemical and natural-gas leak detection, and related phenomena.

  12. Integrated far-infrared background from galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Boqi

    1991-01-01

    The integrated radiation from galaxies is calculated at far-IR and submillimeter wavelengths. The peak of the far-IR background radiation is 100-130 microns, and its total energy content is 0.5-6 percent of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). At wavelengths longward of 400 microns, the CMB dominates over the far-IR radiation from galaxies in intensity. The autocorrelation of fluctuations from the average angle of the far-IR background of galaxies is calculated. The contribution of galaxies to the anisotropy of the background radiation at wavelengths longer than about 400 microns where the CMB is predominant is obtained. It is found that, in general, earlier galaxy formation predicts stronger far-IR background radiation. The prompt initial enrichment model for the chemical evolution of disk galaxies, in particular those with an exponential star formation rate, produces much larger intensity of the integrated radiation than the accretion model.

  13. Characterization and Prediction of the SPI Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teegarden, B. J.; Jean, P.; Knodlseder, J.; Skinner, G. K.; Weidenspointer, G.

    2003-01-01

    The INTEGRAL Spectrometer, like most gamma-ray instruments, is background dominated. Signal-to-background ratios of a few percent are typical. The background is primarily due to interactions of cosmic rays in the instrument and spacecraft. It characteristically varies by +/- 5% on time scales of days. This variation is caused mainly by fluctuations in the interplanetary magnetic field that modulates the cosmic ray intensity. To achieve the maximum performance from SPI it is essential to have a high quality model of this background that can predict its value to a fraction of a percent. In this poster we characterize the background and its variability, explore various models, and evaluate the accuracy of their predictions.

  14. Research 101: Understanding Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Angela; Bagby, Janet; Sulak, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the Montessori community is increasing its focus on the importance of research. The purpose of this article is to provide some background for critical readers of research related to Montessori education and to provide the tools to implement these findings in one's own Montessori work. Research articles are generally organized in a way…

  15. The efficiency of reading around learned backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Miguel P.; Pham, Binh T.; Abbey, Craig K.; Zhang, Yani

    2006-03-01

    Most metrics of medical image quality typically treat all variability components of the background as a Gaussian noise process. This includes task based model observers (non-prewhitening matched filter without and with an eye filter, NPW and NPWE; Hotelling and Channelized Hotelling) as well as Fourier metrics of medical image quality based on the noise power spectra. However, many investigators have observed that unlike many of the models/metrics, physicians often can discount signal-looking structures that are part of the normal anatomic background. This process has been referred to as reading around the background or noise. The purpose of this paper is to develop an experimental framework to systematically study the ability of human observers to read around learned backgrounds and compare their ability to that of an optimal ideal observer which has knowledge of the background. We measured human localization performance of one of twelve targets in the presence of a fixed background consisting of randomly placed Gaussians with random contrasts and sizes, and white noise. Performance was compared to a condition in which the test images contained only white noise but with higher contrast. Human performance was compared to standard model observers that treat the background as a Gaussian noise process (NPW, NPWE and Hotelling), a Fourier-based prewhitening matched filter, and an ideal observer. The Hotelling, NPW, NPWE models as well as the Fourier-based prewhitening matched filter predicted higher performance for the white noise test images than the background plus white noise. In contrast, ideal and human performance was higher for the background plus white noise condition. Furthermore, human performance exceeded that of the NPW, NPWE and Hotelling models and reached an efficiency of 19% relative to the ideal observer. Our results demonstrate that for some types of images human signal localization performance is consistent with use of knowledge about the high order

  16. Holographic thermalization in a quark confining background

    SciTech Connect

    Ageev, D. S. Aref’eva, I. Ya.

    2015-03-15

    We study holographic thermalization of a strongly coupled theory inspired by two colliding shock waves in a vacuum confining background. Holographic thermalization means a black hole formation, in fact, a trapped surface formation. As the vacuum confining background, we considered the well-know bottom-up AdS/QCD model that provides the Cornell potential and reproduces the QCD β-function. We perturb the vacuum background by colliding domain shock waves that are assumed to be holographically dual to heavy ions collisions. Our main physical assumption is that we can make a restriction on the time of trapped surface formation, which results in a natural limitation on the size of the domain where the trapped surface is produced. This limits the intermediate domain where the main part of the entropy is produced. In this domain, we can use an intermediate vacuum background as an approximation to the full confining background. We find that the dependence of the multiplicity on energy for the intermediate background has an asymptotic expansion whose first term depends on energy as E{sup 1/3}, which is very similar to the experimental dependence of particle multiplicities on the colliding ion energy obtained from the RHIC and LHC. However, this first term, at the energies where the approximation of the confining metric by the intermediate background works, does not saturate the exact answer, and we have to take the nonleading terms into account.

  17. Career Choices: Linguistic and Educational Socialization of Sudanese-Background High-School Students in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatoss, Aniko; O'Neill, Shirley; Eacersall, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the linguistic and educational socialization of Sudanese refugee-background youth in Australia. The study focussed on exploring Sudanese-background secondary school students' career aspirations, motivations and obstacles. The research used a mixed-method approach including a survey conducted with students studying in six…

  18. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Stawarz, L.; Lawrence, A.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  19. Can background cosmology hold the key for modified gravity tests?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceron-Hurtado, Juan J.; He, Jian-hua; Li, Baojiu

    2016-09-01

    Modified gravity theories are a popular alternative to dark energy as a possible explanation for the observed accelerating cosmic expansion, and their cosmological tests are currently an active research field. Studies in recent years have been increasingly focused on testing these theories in the nonlinear regime, which is computationally demanding. Here we show that, under certain circumstances, a whole class of theories can be ruled out by using background cosmology alone. This is possible because certain classes of models (i) are fundamentally incapable of producing specific background expansion histories, and (ii) said histories are incompatible with local gravity tests. As an example, we demonstrate that a popular class of models, f (R ) gravity, would not be viable if observations suggest even a slight deviation of the background expansion history from that of the Λ CDM paradigm.

  20. Sensitivity curves for searches for gravitational-wave backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrane, Eric; Romano, Joseph D.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a graphical representation of detector sensitivity curves for stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds that takes into account the increase in sensitivity that comes from integrating over frequency in addition to integrating over time. This method is valid for backgrounds that have a power-law spectrum in the analysis band. We call these graphs “power-law integrated curves.” For simplicity, we consider cross-correlation searches for unpolarized and isotropic stochastic backgrounds using two or more detectors. We apply our method to construct power-law integrated sensitivity curves for second-generation ground-based detectors such as Advanced LIGO, space-based detectors such as LISA and the Big Bang Observer, and timing residuals from a pulsar timing array. The code used to produce these plots is available at https://dcc.ligo.org/LIGO-P1300115/public for researchers interested in constructing similar sensitivity curves.

  1. Background Suppression Effects on Signal Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. One performance challenge involves the fact that vehicles suppress the natural background, thus potentially reducing detection probability for threat items. Methods to adjust for background suppression have been considered in related but different settings. Here, methods to adjust for background suppression are tested in the context of signal estimation. Adjustment methods include several clustering options. We find that for the small-to-moderate suppression magnitudes exhibited in the analyzed data, suppression adjustment is only moderatel helpful in locating the signal peak, and in estimating its width or magnitude.

  2. Background considerations for SuperCDMS

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, J.; Collaboration: SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    Rejection and protection from background is a key issue for the next generation SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment that will have a cross-section sensitivity of better than 8 × 10{sup −46} cm{sup 2} for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions. This paper presents the details of the methods used to reject electromagnetic backgrounds using the new iZIP detectors that are currently operated in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, MN and the methods the collaboration is investigating to protect against neutron background in the next generation SuperCDMS experiment.

  3. Optimization of background subtraction for image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venetsky, Larry; Boczar, Ross; Lee-Own, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of foreground objects in scenery via image processing often involves a background subtraction process. This process aims to improve blob (connected component) content in the image. Quality blob content is often needed for defining regions of interest for object recognition and tracking. Three techniques are examined which optimize the background to be subtracted - genetic algorithm, an analytic solution based on convex optimization, and a related application of the CVX solver toolbox. These techniques are applied to a set of images and the results are compared. Additionally, a possible implementation architecture that uses multiple optimization techniques with subsequent arbitration to produce the best background subtraction is considered.

  4. Effect of background electrolytes on gypsum dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Putnis, Christine; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the dissolution behaviour of gypsum (CaSO4· 2H2O) in aqueous solutions is of primary importance in many natural and technological processes (Pachon-Rodriguez and Colombani, 2007), including the weathering of rocks and gypsum karst formations, deformation of gypsum-bearing rocks, the quality of drinking water, amelioration of soil acidity, scale formation in the oil and gas industry or measurement of water motion in oceanography. Specific ions in aqueous solutions can play important but very different roles on mineral dissolution. For example, the dissolution rates and the morphology of dissolution features may be considerably modified by the presence of the foreign ions in the solution, which adsorb at the surface and hinder the detachment of the ions building the crystal. Dissolution processes in the aqueous environment are closely related to the rearrangement of water molecules around solute ions and the interaction between the solvent molecules themselves. The rearrangement of water molecules with respect to solute species has been recognized as the main kinetic barrier for crystal dissolution in many systems (Davis, 2000; De Yoreo and Dove 2004; Wasylenki et al. 2005). Current research suggest that the control that electrolytes exert on water structure is limited to the local environment surrounding the ions and is not related to long-range electric fields emanating from the ions but results from effects associated with the hydration shell(s) of the ions (Collins et al. 2007) and the ions' capacity to break or structure water (i.e. chaotropic and kosmotropic ions, respectively). These effects will ultimately affect the kinetics of crystal dissolution, and could be correlated with the water affinity of the respective background ions following a trend known as the lyotropic or Hofmeister series (Kunz et al. 2004; Dove and Craven, 2005). In situ macroscopic and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) flow-through dissolution experiments were conducted at a

  5. Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2013-08-08

    Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

  6. Capabilities of the cosmic background explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    The cosmic background explorer, now being redesigned for a launch on a Delta rocket in 1989, will carry three instruments to measure the cosmic infrared and microwave background radiation and other diffuse sources from 1 micron to 1 cm wavelength. These instruments will be orders of magnitude more sensitive and accurate than previous equipment and will help determine the structure of the early universe. The instruments are (1) an absolute spectrophotometer, covering 100 microns to 1 cm, (2) an absolute infrared radiometer covering 1 to 300 microns, and (3) differential microwave radiometers at 32, 53, and 90 GHz. They will measure the large scale anisotropy and the spectrum of the 3 K cosmic background, and search for the extragalactic infrared background, to a sensitivity limited by the astrophysical environment. The first two instruments require liquid helium cooling, limiting their lifetime to about 14 months.

  7. Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollaine, S.

    1978-01-01

    The Alfven and Mendis (1977) conclusion that dust grains in galaxies render the universe opaque to cosmic microwave background at a red shift ratio equal to 40 is challenged by a calculation of the opacity of galactic dust grains to the microwave background radiation from the time of decoupling at emission red shift ratio equal to 1500 to the present in the standard big bang model. In the present calculation, evolutionary effects on grain opacity and abundance are estimated. At wavelengths used in studying the microwave background, the optical depth of the grains is found to be 0.18 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.03, and 0.05 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.5. The results indicate that microwave background can provide information on an early dense phase of the universe.

  8. High-energy radiation background in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rester, A. C., Jr. (Editor); Trombka, J. I. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The radiation environment of near-earth space and its effects on biological and hardware systems are examined in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to particle interactions and propagation, data bases, instrument background and dosimetry, detectors and experimental progress, biological effects, and future needs and strategies. Particular attention is given to angular distributions and spectra of geomagnetically trapped protons in LEO, bremsstrahlung production by electrons, nucleon-interaction data bases for background estimates, instrumental and atmospheric background lines observed by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer, the GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica, space protons and brain tumors, a new radioprotective antioxidative agent, LEO radiation measurements on the Space Station, and particle-background effects on the Hubble Space Telescope and the Lyman FUV Spectroscopic Explorer.

  9. 44 CFR 334.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY PREPAREDNESS GRADUATED MOBILIZATION RESPONSE § 334.3 Background. (a) The GMR system is designed to... warning indicators may emanate from the political, socio-economic and/or industrial sectors. (c) The...

  10. Expected background in the LZ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2015-08-17

    The LZ experiment, featuring a 7-tonne active liquid xenon target, is aimed at achieving unprecedented sensitivity to WIMPs with the background expected to be dominated by astrophysical neutrinos. To reach this goal, extensive simulations are carried out to accurately calculate the electron recoil and nuclear recoil rates in the detector. Both internal (from target material) and external (from detector components and surrounding environment) backgrounds are considered. A very efficient suppression of background rate is achieved with an outer liquid scintillator veto, liquid xenon skin and fiducialisation. Based on the current measurements of radioactivity of different materials, it is shown that LZ can achieve the reduction of a total background for a WIMP search down to about 2 events in 1000 live days for 5.6 tonne fiducial mass.

  11. 36 CFR 401.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental... participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were undertaken without adequate regard...

  12. 36 CFR 401.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental... participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were undertaken without adequate regard...

  13. 36 CFR 401.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental... participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were undertaken without adequate regard...

  14. 36 CFR 401.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental... participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were undertaken without adequate regard...

  15. 36 CFR 401.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental... participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were undertaken without adequate regard...

  16. Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian C. Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2010-02-01

    We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields.

  17. Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2014-06-13

    Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

  18. The pregalactic cosmic gravitational wave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzner, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    An outline is given that estimates the expected gravitational wave background, based on plausible pregalactic sources. Some cosmologically significant limits can be put on incoherent gravitational wave background arising from pregalactic cosmic evolution. The spectral region of cosmically generated and cosmically limited radiation is, at long periods, P greater than 1 year, in contrast to more recent cosmological sources, which have P approx. 10 to 10(exp -3).

  19. Background noise model development for seismic stations of KMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Youngsoo

    2010-05-01

    The background noise recorded at seismometer is exist at any seismic signal due to the natural phenomena of the medium which the signal passed through. Reducing the seismic noise is very important to improve the data quality in seismic studies. But, the most important aspect of reducing seismic noise is to find the appropriate place before installing the seismometer. For this reason, NIMR(National Institution of Meteorological Researches) starts to develop a model of standard background noise for the broadband seismic stations of the KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration) using a continuous data set obtained from 13 broadband stations during the period of 2007 and 2008. We also developed the model using short period seismic data from 10 stations at the year of 2009. The method of Mcmara and Buland(2004) is applied to analyse background noise of Korean Peninsula. The fact that borehole seismometer records show low noise level at frequency range greater than 1 Hz compared with that of records at the surface indicate that the cultural noise of inland Korean Peninsula should be considered to process the seismic data set. Reducing Double Frequency peak also should be regarded because the Korean Peninsula surrounded by the seas from eastern, western and southern part. The development of KMA background model shows that the Peterson model(1993) is not applicable to fit the background noise signal generated from Korean Peninsula.

  20. Experiences with active cosmic background suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, R.M.; Lamaze, G.P.

    1994-12-31

    The dominant source of background in a bare germanium gamma-ray detector is natural radiation originating from potassium, uranium, and thorium decay in the laboratory environment and from cosmic rays. Most of the background is removed by surrounding the detector with lead shielding, which is commonly 20 cm thick. In a well-shielded detector, the largest contributor to the integral counting rate is cosmic rays, and to a lesser extent beta particles from {sup 210}Pb. Most of the counting rate in the continuum is due to highly penetrating muons. Many of the characteristic peaks in the background also originate from fast tertiary neutrons of cosmic-ray origin, which generate neutron activation products or create gamma rays from inelastic scattering in materials of the detector and shield. Very massive shielding is required to remove this penetrating component of background; we have found a fivefold reduction in the cosmic components by moving the detector into a laboratory 20 m underground. However, lacking an underground lab, we have attempted to use active shielding to reduce the background of a Ge detector located above ground. The guard detector is a proportional counter forming a roof 23 cm above the detector. The counter is placed inside the lead shielding to reduce it`s background counting rate.

  1. Low background screening capability in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-17

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  2. Low background screening capability in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-01

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  3. Study of Natural Background Radiation around Gurvanbulag Uranium Deposit Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkhbat, N.; Norov, N.; Bat-Erdene, B.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.; Otgooloi, B.

    2009-03-01

    In this work, we will show the study of natural background radiation level around the Gurvanbulag (GB) uranium deposit area in the eastern part of Mongolia. We collected environmental soil samples from 102 points around GB Uranium deposit. Collected samples were measured by HPGe gamma spectrometer at Nuclear Research Center, National University of Mongolia. The averaged activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, K-40, and Cs-137 were 37.1, 29, 939, and 17.7 Bq/kg, respectively.

  4. Effects of background gravity stimuli on gravity-controlled behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    Physiological and developmental effects of altered gravity were researched. The stimulus properties of gravity have been found to possess reinforcing and aversive properties. Experimental approaches taken, used animals placed into fields of artificial gravity, in the form of parabolic or spiral centrifuges. Gravity preferences were noted and it was concluded that the psychophysics of gravity and background factors which support these behaviors should be further explored.

  5. Background matrix subtraction (BMS): A novel background removal algorithm for GPR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashed, Mohamed; Harbi, Hussein

    2014-07-01

    Background noise is a common type of coherent noise that severely compromises the integrity of the high-resolution images provided by ground penetrating radar survey. Several existing techniques employ different approaches to attenuate background noise. In this study, we present the background matrix subtraction (BMS) as an alternative technique to remove horizontal background noise and we compare its efficiency to that of the conventional background removal technique. Instead of calculating an average trace that is subtracted from the GPR data in the conventional background removal methods, the BMS technique is based on calculating a complete background matrix of the same size of the GPR section. The background matrix is created through a series of windowing, sample exclusion, weighting, and iteration. This series of processes guarantees that the background matrix is least affected by target response and is composed purely of horizontal background noise. The computed background matrix is then subtracted from the GPR data to remove horizontal events. Results of experiments conducted on both synthetic and real GPR data show that the BMS technique yields better results than the commonly used background removal technique.

  6. Background environmental pollution of the Eurasian continent.

    PubMed

    Rovinsky, F Y; Afanasjev, M I; Burtseva, L V; Yegorov, V I

    1982-12-01

    (1) The interest to studying pollution of environmental media on the background level has grown in the recent years. There arose a necessity to establish a specialized observational system for conducting observations of changes in the state of the environment, and of ecological consequences of pollution as well as to produce assessments of the current and predicted states. The realized program of background monitoring and first results of integrated background measurements have already been published. The paper presented illustrates time-and-space features of the background pollution of natural environmental media according to data from various background stations. (2) Long-term systematic measurements at the 'Borovoe' station (Kazakh SSR) commenced in 1976 have been supplemented with the results of the background pollution studies carried out in Berezinskyi, Caucasian, Central-Chernozem, Sary-Chelek, and Repetek Biosphere Reserves and in locations of the background stations in Hungary and Czechoslovakia. The data from the Hungarian and Czechoslovak stations were obtained during joint expeditions. Details are given in the relevant publications. (3) Ozone. Ozone measurements show the diurnal variation with the day-time maxima from 35 up to 160 μg m(-3). The correlation between day-time and nocturnal concentrations is a good indicator of the anthropogenic effect. (4) Sulphur dioxide and sulphates. The annual variation of sulphur dioxide characterised by winter maximum and summer minimum indicates the direct dependence on the amount of fuel burnt in the given region. Mean values of the sulphur dioxide content in the surface layer of the atmosphere correlates with the extent of the region urbanization and varies within 0.2-12.5 μg m(-3). The value of sulphur dioxide and sulphates correlation in the atmosphere is rather stable and varies within 0.18-0.37 μg m(-3). (5) Heavy metals. The annual cycle of the atmospheric content of lead, cadmium and arsenic is well

  7. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Andreas; Görres, Joachim; Junker, Matthias; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Laubenstein, Matthias; Long, Alexander; Nisi, Stefano; Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of 3He counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  8. Scientific writing training for academic physicians of diverse language backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Carrie; Deming, Stephanie P; Notzon, Beth; Cantor, Scott B; Broglio, Kristine R; Pagel, Walter

    2009-04-01

    Research articles are the coin of the realm for anyone working in academia, and success or failure to publish determines a biomedical researcher's career path. At the same time, the dramatic increase in foreign faculty and trainees in U.S. academia, as well as in international scientific collaboration, adds another dimension to this developmental vacuum: limited English-language skills. Paradoxically, few programs exist to develop and support the skills needed to accomplish the vital task of writing English-language research articles, which does not come naturally to most. To better prepare all trainees for research careers, editors in the Department of Scientific Publications at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center created an in-depth training program that would target the writing skills gap effectively. Instruction focused on structure, rhetorical organization, and the conventions of biomedical publishing. More than 300 trainees have participated in 22 workshops. Results of a survey of 46 participants at 6 months to 2.5 years after workshop completion indicated that participants from all language backgrounds believed the course to have improved their writing (97.8% strongly agreed or agreed), made it easier to begin a manuscript (80.4%), and helped them to get published (56.8%), with nonnative speakers of English reporting somewhat greater perceived benefit than native English speakers. On the basis of these results, the authors conclude that researchers of varied linguistic backgrounds appreciate the need for, and benefit from, instruction in the conventions of scientific writing.

  9. Federal technology transfer and the human genome project. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    As with other areas of biomedical research, the expectation is that the results of genome research will yield commercially valuable products of benefits to human health. The report, analyzes universities`, companies`, and researchers` experiences and perspectives since enactment of federal laws to enhance technology transfer--especially as it pertains to research funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Energy, the agencies funding U.S. efforts in the Human Genome Project. OTA prepared this background paper with the assistance of a panel of advisors and reviewers selected for their expertise and diverse points of view. Additionally, hundreds of individuals cooperated with OTA staff through interviews or by providing written material. These authorities were drawn from government, academia, industry, and professional societies worldwide.

  10. A review on natural background radiation

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Setayandeh, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    The world is naturally radioactive and approximately 82% of human-absorbed radiation doses, which are out of control, arise from natural sources such as cosmic, terrestrial, and exposure from inhalation or intake radiation sources. In recent years, several international studies have been carried out, which have reported different values regarding the effect of background radiation on human health. Gamma radiation emitted from natural sources (background radiation) is largely due to primordial radionuclides, mainly 232Th and 238U series, and their decay products, as well as 40K, which exist at trace levels in the earth's crust. Their concentrations in soil, sands, and rocks depend on the local geology of each region in the world. Naturally occurring radioactive materials generally contain terrestrial-origin radionuclides, left over since the creation of the earth. In addition, the existence of some springs and quarries increases the dose rate of background radiation in some regions that are known as high level background radiation regions. The type of building materials used in houses can also affect the dose rate of background radiations. The present review article was carried out to consider all of the natural radiations, including cosmic, terrestrial, and food radiation. PMID:24223380

  11. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-01

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with 130Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier's. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 102 -103 in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  12. Background compensation for a radiation level monitor

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, D.J.

    1975-12-01

    Background compensation in a device such as a hand and foot monitor is provided by digital means using a scaler. With no radiation level test initiated, a scaler is down-counted from zero according to the background measured. With a radiation level test initiated, the scaler is up-counted from the previous down-count position according to the radiation emitted from the monitored object and an alarm is generated if, with the scaler having crossed zero in the positive going direction, a particular number is exceeded in a specific time period after initiation of the test. If the test is initiated while the scale is down-counting, the background count from the previous down- count stored in a memory is used as the initial starting point for the up-count.

  13. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ββ} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and α emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  14. Enhancements to the MCNP6 background source

    SciTech Connect

    McMath, Garrett E.; McKinney, Gregg W.

    2015-10-19

    The particle transport code MCNP has been used to produce a background radiation data file on a worldwide grid that can easily be sampled as a source in the code. Location-dependent cosmic showers were modeled by Monte Carlo methods to produce the resulting neutron and photon background flux at 2054 locations around Earth. An improved galactic-cosmic-ray feature was used to model the source term as well as data from multiple sources to model the transport environment through atmosphere, soil, and seawater. A new elevation scaling feature was also added to the code to increase the accuracy of the cosmic neutron background for user locations with off-grid elevations. Furthermore, benchmarking has shown the neutron integral flux values to be within experimental error.

  15. Enhancements to the MCNP6 background source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McMath, Garrett E.; McKinney, Gregg W.

    2015-10-19

    The particle transport code MCNP has been used to produce a background radiation data file on a worldwide grid that can easily be sampled as a source in the code. Location-dependent cosmic showers were modeled by Monte Carlo methods to produce the resulting neutron and photon background flux at 2054 locations around Earth. An improved galactic-cosmic-ray feature was used to model the source term as well as data from multiple sources to model the transport environment through atmosphere, soil, and seawater. A new elevation scaling feature was also added to the code to increase the accuracy of the cosmic neutronmore » background for user locations with off-grid elevations. Furthermore, benchmarking has shown the neutron integral flux values to be within experimental error.« less

  16. Non-perturbative background field calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    New methods are developed for calculating one loop functional determinants in quantum field theory. Instead of relying on a calculation of all the eigenvalues of the small fluctuation equation, these techniques exploit the ability of the proper time formalism to reformulate an infinite dimensional field theoretic problem into a finite dimensional covariant quantum mechanical analog, thereby allowing powerful tools such as the method of Jacobi fields to be used advantageously in a field theory setting. More generally the methods developed herein should be extremely valuable when calculating quantum processes in non-constant background fields, offering a utilitarian alternative to the two standard methods of calculation—perturbation theory in the background field or taking the background field into account exactly. The formalism developed also allows for the approximate calculation of covariances of partial differential equations from a knowledge of the solutions of a homogeneous ordinary differential equation.

  17. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, W. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. K.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  18. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Qββ come from 214Bi, 228Th, 42K, 60Co and α emitting isotopes in the 226Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  19. Olfactory signal coding in an odor background.

    PubMed

    Renou, Michel; Party, Virginie; Rouyar, Angéla; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-10-01

    Insects communicating with pheromones are confronted with an olfactory environment featuring a diversity of volatile organic compounds from plant origin. These volatiles constitute a rich and fluctuant background from which the information carried by the pheromone signal must be extracted. Thus, the pheromone receptor neurons must encode into spike trains the quality, intensity and temporal characteristics of the signal that are determinant to the recognition and localization of a conspecific female. We recorded and analyzed the responses of the pheromone olfactory receptor neurons of male moths to sex pheromone in different odor background conditions. We show that in spite of the narrow chemical tuning of the pheromone receptor neurons, the sensory input can be altered by odorant background. PMID:26116090

  20. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example usingmore » powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.« less

  1. Neutrino refraction by the cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, J. S.; Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2016-03-01

    We have determined the dispersion relation of a neutrino test particle propagating in the cosmic neutrino background. Describing the relic neutrinos and antineutrinos from the hot big bang as a dense medium, a matter potential or refractive index is obtained. The vacuum neutrino mixing angles are unchanged, but the energy of each mass state is modified. Using a matrix in the space of neutrino species, the induced potential is decomposed into a part which produces signatures in beta-decay experiments and another part which modifies neutrino oscillations. The low temperature of the relic neutrinos makes a direct detection extremely challenging. From a different point of view, the identified refractive effects of the cosmic neutrino background constitute an ultralow background for future experimental studies of nonvanishing Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector.

  2. X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

  3. Search for the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, A.; Hodak, R.; Kovalenko, S.; Simkovic, F.

    2015-02-01

    One expects three Cosmic Backgrounds: (1) The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) originated 380000 years after the Big Bang (BB). (2) The Neutrino Background decoupled about one second after the BB, while (3) the Cosmic Gravitational Wave Background created by the inflationary expansion decoupled directly after the BB. Only the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been detected and is well studied. Its spectrum follows Planck's black body radiation formula and shows a remarkable constant temperature of T0γ ≈ 2.7 K independent of the direction. The present photon density is about 370 photons per cm3. The size of the hot spots, which deviates only in the fifth decimal of the temperature from the average value, tells us, that the universe is flat. About 380 000 years after the Big Bang at a temperature of T0γ = 3000 K already in the matter dominated era the electrons combine with the protons and 4He and the photons move freely in the neutral universe and form the CMB. So the temperature and distribution of the photons give us information of the universe 380 000 years after the Big Bang. The Cosmic Neutrino Background (CνB) decoupled from matter already one second after the BB at a temperature of about 1010 K. Today their temperature is ~ 1.95 K and the average density is 56 electron-neutrinos and the total density of all neutrinos about 336 per cm3. Measurement of these neutrinos is an extremely challenging experimental problem which can hardly be solved with the present technologies. On the other hand it represents a tempting opportunity to check one of the key elements of the Big Bang Cosmology and to probe the early stages of the universe. The search for the CνB with the induced beta decay νe+3H → 3He + e- using KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment) is the topic of this contribution.

  4. Improved Background Corrections for Uranium Holdup Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R.B.; Gunn, C.A.; Chiang, L.G.

    2004-06-21

    In the original Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) model, all holdup deposits were modeled as points, lines, and areas[1, 5]. Two improvements[4] were recently made to the GGH model and are currently in use at the Y-12 National Security Complex. These two improvements are the finite-source correction CF{sub g} and the self-attenuation correction. The finite-source correction corrects the average detector response for the width of point and line geometries which in effect, converts points and lines into areas. The result of a holdup measurement of an area deposit is a density-thickness which is converted to mass by multiplying it by the area of the deposit. From the measured density-thickness, the true density-thickness can be calculated by correcting for the material self-attenuation. Therefore the self-attenuation correction is applied to finite point and line deposits as well as areas. This report demonstrates that the finite-source and self-attenuation corrections also provide a means to better separate the gamma rays emitted by the material from the gamma rays emitted by background sources for an improved background correction. Currently, the measured background radiation is attenuated for equipment walls in the case of area deposits but not for line and point sources. The measured background radiation is not corrected for attenuation by the uranium material. For all of these cases, the background is overestimated which causes a negative bias in the measurement. The finite-source correction and the self-attenuation correction will allow the correction of the measured background radiation for both the equipment attenuation and material attenuation for area sources as well as point and line sources.

  5. Neutron spallation measurements and impacts on low-background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguayo, E.; Kouzes, R. T.; Siciliano, E. R.

    2014-09-01

    Ultralow-background experiments, such as neutrinoless double-β decay, solar neutrino, and dark-matter searches, are carried out deep underground to escape background events created by cosmic-ray muons passing through the detector volumes. However, such experiments may nevertheless be limited in sensitivity by cosmogenically induced backgrounds. This limit can be attributable to cosmogenically created radioactive isotopes produced either in situ during operation or prior to construction when the detector construction materials are above ground. An accurate knowledge of the production of the latter source of background is of paramount importance to be able to interpret the results of low-background experiments. One way to deal with the characterization of cosmogenic background production is to use Monte Carlo simulations to model the spallation reactions arising from cosmic-ray neutrons, protons, and muons. The objective of this work was to evaluate the degree of accuracy that such simulations could provide by comparing measurements for various materials to results from two standard Monte Carlo codes using the same physics model for generating intranuclear cascades. The simulated results from both codes provide the correct trends of neutron production with increasing material density. However, there was substantial disagreement between the models and experimental results for lower-density materials of Al, Fe, and Cu. The model values, when normalized to the Pb experimental results, show disagreement with experiment by a factor of about two for Fe and Cu and significantly greater for Al. It is concluded that additional neutron-induced spallation measurements are required to refine models routinely employed in underground physics research. Further data collection against the above materials is an initial list for benchmarking.

  6. Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.; Mendis, A.

    1977-01-01

    It is argued that the 'surface of last scattering' of the observed microwave background radiation corresponds to the distribution of dust in galaxies or protogalaxies with a temperature of about 110 K at the epoch corresponding to Z roughly equal to 40. This is in contrast with the plasma temperature of over 3,000 K at an earlier epoch (Z greater than about 1,000), as given by the canonical model of big bang cosmologies. In view of this, the claim that the microwave background radiation lends strong support to hot big bang cosmologies is without foundation.

  7. Cosmology and the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggess, Nancy W.

    1989-01-01

    COBE, planned for launch aboard a Delta rocket, is NASA's first space mission specifically designed to study the diffuse IR and microwave background radiation. COBE has three instruments for performing precision measurements of the spectrum and angular distribution of the 3 K cosmic background radiation and for making an all-sky survey of the diffuse IR emission at wavelengths of 1-300 microns. COBE will carry differential microwave radiameters to search for anisotropies to a sensitivity per 7-deg pixel of 0.15 mK at frequencies of 53 and 90 GHz and of 0.3 mK at 32 GHz.

  8. Background-oriented schlieren (BOS) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffel, Markus

    2015-03-01

    This article gives an overview of the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique, typical applications and literature in the field. BOS is an optical density visualization technique, belonging to the same family as schlieren photography, shadowgraphy or interferometry. In contrast to these older techniques, BOS uses correlation techniques on a background dot pattern to quantitatively characterize compressible and thermal flows with good spatial and temporal resolution. The main advantages of this technique, the experimental simplicity and the robustness of correlation-based digital analysis, mean that it is widely used, and variant versions are reviewed in the article. The advantages of each variant are reviewed, and further literature is provided for the reader.

  9. Low-background direct readout array performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Mccreight, C. R.; Anderson, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    The development and evaluation of an integrated array of antimony-doped silicon detectors is described. The spectral range of extrinsic silicon-integrated arrays useful for low-background IR astronomical applications is extended to about 31 microns with this development. The 58 x 62-element array is accessed by a direct readout multiplexer. The device is evaluated with a flexible microcomputer-based drive and readout electronics system in a low-background test dewar. Acceptance testing indicates single-pixel NEPs in the mid-10 to the -18th W/sq rt Hz range, and good global uniformity statistics.

  10. Background studies for particle astrophysics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2005-09-08

    Background radiations typical for the high-sensitivity underground experiments in particle astrophysics are discussed. An emphasis is given to the neutron background coming from spontaneous fission and ({alpha},n) reactions from U and Th traces in rock and detector components, and from cosmic-ray muons. Gammas from radioactivity in various materials are also considered. Special case of a xenon-based large-scale dark matter detector is studied. Several Monte Carlo codes capable of producing, transporting and detecting neutrons are compared with each other and with available experimental data.

  11. Experimental limits of the extreme ultraviolet background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wulf-Mathies, C.; Grewing, M.; Kraemer, G.; Schulz-Luepertz, E.; Kimble, R.; Bixler, J.; Bowyer, S.

    1983-01-01

    Photometric observations of the diffuse extreme ultraviolet background with two photometers having bandpasses of 750-940 A and 1040-1080 A are reported. The payload, which was flown aboard an ARIES sounding rocket in June 1982, is described, including the electron detectors, filters, and calibration. The operation of the probe during the experiment, including its motions, are described. The primary experiment involved spectroscopic observation of the hot white dwarf HZ43. The photometer count rate is shown and the measurements of the diffuse background are compared with theoretical predictions. Despite the lower limits obtained using a narrowband detector, the measurements are not sensitive enough to draw any relevant astrophysical conclusions.

  12. Electromagnetic wave collapse in a radiation background.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Mattias; Brodin, Gert; Stenflo, Lennart

    2003-10-17

    The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects between an electromagnetic pulse and a radiation background, is investigated by combining the methods of radiation hydrodynamics with the QED theory for photon-photon scattering. For the case of a single coherent electromagnetic pulse, we obtain a Zakharov-like system, where the radiation pressure of the pulse acts as a driver of acoustic waves in the photon gas. For a sufficiently intense pulse and/or background energy density, there is focusing and the subsequent collapse of the pulse. The relevance of our results for various astrophysical applications are discussed.

  13. Microwave background anisotropy induced by gravitational waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    1988-01-01

    A cosmological background of gravitational waves induces redshift perturbations in light transversing it. Calculations of this Sachs-Wolfe effect on the microwave background are presented in an Omega = 1 Friedmann universe as a function of angular scale and gravitational wave spectrum. Blurriness of the last-scattering surface can cause nonnegligible dilution of the anisotropy for wavelengths less than about 100 Mpc. The limit implied for the energy density of the gravitational waves is given. A difficulty in associating a linear scale with an angular anisotropy, due to the clumpiness of the universe, is also pointed out.

  14. Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1988-01-01

    A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, Earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

  15. Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1989-01-01

    A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

  16. Compensatable muon collider calorimeter with manageable backgrounds

    DOEpatents

    Raja, Rajendran

    2015-02-17

    A method and system for reducing background noise in a particle collider, comprises identifying an interaction point among a plurality of particles within a particle collider associated with a detector element, defining a trigger start time for each of the pixels as the time taken for light to travel from the interaction point to the pixel and a trigger stop time as a selected time after the trigger start time, and collecting only detections that occur between the start trigger time and the stop trigger time in order to thereafter compensate the result from the particle collider to reduce unwanted background detection.

  17. Polarimetric Imaging of the Cosmic Ultraviolet Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordsieck, K. H.; Bershady, M. A.; Harris, W.

    1999-05-01

    The nature of (and even the existence of) the ultraviolet cosmic background is controversial, because of the uncertain contribution of light from bright UV stars scattered by dust within our Galaxy (the UV Diffuse Galactic Light, or "DGL"). Because the DGL consists of light scattered at large angles from a small number of stars, it should be highly polarized, while most proposed sources of extragalactic UV background would be unpolarized, providing a potential way of disentangling the two components. We will discuss such an experiment: an existing sounding rocket payload, the Wide-Field Imaging Survey Polarimeter ("WISP"), and a proposed payload, the Cosmic Ultraviolet Polarimetric Imaging Device ("CUPID"), which would have 20 times the sensitivity of WISP. WISP, a 20 cm off-axis Schmidt telescope with a stressed CaF2 waveplate and a Brewster-angle polarizer, has a 2x4 degree field of view with 1 arcmin resolution at 1700 Ang. The first DGL target for WISP is the "Sandage Region" near M81/M82, an area observed (with different results) by both the UC Berkeley and the JHU UVX UV background experiments. It has known visible-wavelength and IRAS-wavelength "cirrus" which has been identified with DGL. WISP should be able to measure the polarization of any UV cirrus and establish the presence of an unpolarized background. Preliminary data from this target may be available, depending on the actual launch time. CUPID, a 50 cm Paul Baker telescope using reflective filter coatings, should have adequate precision to perform a pixel-by-pixel separation of polarized UV cirrus from any unpolarized background, and its very much improved stray light rejection should allow an accurate zero-point for this putative extragalactic background. Thus the detailed structure of the cosmic background from 15 arcsec to degrees will be determined. We will discuss how such a measurement may be used to confirm or eliminate several possible sources of UV cosmic background. WISP is supported by

  18. Cosmic microwave background probes models of inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Richard L.; Hodges, Hardy M.; Smoot, George F.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turner, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Inflation creates both scalar (density) and tensor (gravity wave) metric perturbations. We find that the tensor-mode contribution to the cosmic microwave background anisotropy on large-angular scales can only exceed that of the scalar mode in models where the spectrum of perturbations deviates significantly from scale invariance. If the tensor mode dominates at large-angular scales, then the value of DeltaT/T predicted on 1 deg is less than if the scalar mode dominates, and, for cold-dark-matter models, bias factors greater than 1 can be made consistent with Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) DMR results.

  19. THE TEMPERATURE OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Fixsen, D. J.

    2009-12-20

    The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer data are independently recalibrated using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data to obtain a cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature of 2.7260 +- 0.0013. Measurements of the temperature of the CMB are reviewed. The determination from the measurements from the literature is CMB temperature of 2.72548 +- 0.00057 K.

  20. ESTIMATION OF BACKGROUND LEVELS OF CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from hazardous waste site investigations frequently come from two or more statistical populations. Assessment of "background" levels of contaminants can be a significant problem. This problem is being investigated at the US EPA's EMSL in Las Vegas. This paper describes a ...

  1. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  2. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  3. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  4. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  5. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  6. 45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the Bayh-Dole Act (35 U.S.C. 202(f)) as implemented by 37 CFR 401.12). ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Background rights. 650.16 Section 650.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS §...

  7. 45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the Bayh-Dole Act (35 U.S.C. 202(f)) as implemented by 37 CFR 401.12). ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Background rights. 650.16 Section 650.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS §...

  8. 16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Background. 1406.2 Section 1406.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS COAL AND WOOD BURNING... Consumer Product Safety Commission disclose a number of incidents involving coal and wood...

  9. 16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Background. 1406.2 Section 1406.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS COAL AND WOOD BURNING... Consumer Product Safety Commission disclose a number of incidents involving coal and wood...

  10. 16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Background. 1406.2 Section 1406.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS COAL AND WOOD BURNING... Consumer Product Safety Commission disclose a number of incidents involving coal and wood...

  11. Contemporary Rhetoric: A Conceptual Background with Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterowd, W. Ross, Ed.

    Designed for use by composition students as well as teachers, the essays and background discussions in this book address themselves to questions of theory and practice in rhetoric. The book is divided into sections on invention, form, and style, and contains articles by such authors as Janet Emig, Wayne C. Booth, Richard L. Larson, Kenneth Burke,…

  12. 40 CFR 761.380 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 761.380 Section 761.380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) §...

  13. 40 CFR 761.380 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 761.380 Section 761.380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) §...

  14. 40 CFR 761.380 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 761.380 Section 761.380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) §...

  15. 40 CFR 761.380 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 761.380 Section 761.380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) §...

  16. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing support to...

  17. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing support to...

  18. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing support to...

  19. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing support to...

  20. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing support to...

  1. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a Volunteer is consistent with the national interest, no applicant is eligible for Peace Corps Volunteer...

  2. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a Volunteer is consistent with the national interest, no applicant is eligible for Peace Corps Volunteer...

  3. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a Volunteer is consistent with the national interest, no applicant is eligible for Peace Corps Volunteer...

  4. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a Volunteer is consistent with the national interest, no applicant is eligible for Peace Corps Volunteer...

  5. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a Volunteer is consistent with the national interest, no applicant is eligible for Peace Corps Volunteer...

  6. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law 97-446 provided for the duty-free entry into the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Background. 1217.102 Section 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES §...

  7. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law 97-446 provided for the duty-free entry into the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Background. 1217.102 Section 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES §...

  8. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law 97-446 provided for the duty-free entry into the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Background. 1217.102 Section 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES §...

  9. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law 97-446 provided for the duty-free entry into the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 1217.102 Section 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES §...

  10. 14 CFR 1214.302 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Background. 1214.302 Section 1214.302 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Payload Specialists for Space... dedicated space flight training, allowing them to concentrate their efforts on the accomplishment of...

  11. 14 CFR 1214.302 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Background. 1214.302 Section 1214.302 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Payload Specialists for Space... dedicated space flight training, allowing them to concentrate their efforts on the accomplishment of...

  12. 14 CFR 1214.302 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Background. 1214.302 Section 1214.302 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Payload Specialists for Space... dedicated space flight training, allowing them to concentrate their efforts on the accomplishment of...

  13. 14 CFR 1214.302 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 1214.302 Section 1214.302 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Payload Specialists for Space... dedicated space flight training, allowing them to concentrate their efforts on the accomplishment of...

  14. 44 CFR 334.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... strength of the national economy into U.S. national security strategy. ... SECURITY PREPAREDNESS GRADUATED MOBILIZATION RESPONSE § 334.3 Background. (a) The GMR system is designed to... take small or large, often reversible, steps to increase its national security emergency...

  15. 43 CFR 2610.0-7 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) CAREY ACT GRANTS Carey Act Grants, General § 2610.0-7 Background. The Carey Act authorizes the Secretary of the Interior, with the approval of the... allowed up to 2 million acres. Idaho was allowed up to 3 million acres....

  16. Background noise levels in PC home environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Rina; Salskov, Eric; Corriveau, Philip J.; Sorenson, Paul; Gabel, Doug; Beltman, Willem M.

    2005-09-01

    A study was designed and conducted to determine the background noise levels in the home environment. This is an important factor in determining the acoustic performance of the computing devices that go into these environments. A specialized methodology was developed and measurements were carried out in homes in the United States, Sweden, Germany, and China. The sound levels in three rooms in 15-18 homes in each country were collected over 24-h periods. The results indicated that the background noise levels ranged between 30 and 40 dBA across the four countries. Variations in the background noise levels between the different rooms in the homes were minimal. No significant variations were found between home types (detached, semi-detached, and apartment) and community types (urban, suburban). However, European homes were quieter than United States and Chinese homes. The variations between countries were statistically significant. In addition to the background noise levels, the acoustical characteristics of the rooms were measured. The results indicated that the reverberation radius was typically below 1 m and was fairly consistent between geographies.

  17. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... participants over a broad geographical area. The exposure of such ongoing networks of criminal activity can be aided by the pooling of information about such activities. However, because the collection and...

  18. 16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Background. 1406.2 Section 1406.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS COAL AND WOOD BURNING... Consumer Product Safety Commission disclose a number of incidents involving coal and wood...

  19. Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

    2001-05-01

    Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

  20. 33 CFR 236.4 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 236.4 Background. (a) The role of the Corps of Engineers in the development of water and related... Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... navigation on the Mississippi River in 1824, the Corps role has grown to encompass, among others,...

  1. 33 CFR 236.4 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 236.4 Background. (a) The role of the Corps of Engineers in the development of water and related... Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... navigation on the Mississippi River in 1824, the Corps role has grown to encompass, among others,...

  2. 33 CFR 236.4 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 236.4 Background. (a) The role of the Corps of Engineers in the development of water and related... Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... navigation on the Mississippi River in 1824, the Corps role has grown to encompass, among others,...

  3. 33 CFR 236.4 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 236.4 Background. (a) The role of the Corps of Engineers in the development of water and related... Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... navigation on the Mississippi River in 1824, the Corps role has grown to encompass, among others,...

  4. 33 CFR 236.4 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 236.4 Background. (a) The role of the Corps of Engineers in the development of water and related... Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... navigation on the Mississippi River in 1824, the Corps role has grown to encompass, among others,...

  5. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... inspection and copying from FHWA headquarters and field offices as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (1) There is... participation with title 23, U.S. Code, funds. (c) 33 CFR parts 320 through 330, Regulatory Program, U.S....

  6. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... inspection and copying from FHWA headquarters and field offices as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (1) There is... participation with title 23, U.S. Code, funds. (c) 33 CFR parts 320 through 330, Regulatory Program, U.S....

  7. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... inspection and copying from FHWA headquarters and field offices as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (1) There is... participation with title 23, U.S. Code, funds. (c) 33 CFR parts 320 through 330, Regulatory Program, U.S....

  8. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... inspection and copying from FHWA headquarters and field offices as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (1) There is... participation with title 23, U.S. Code, funds. (c) 33 CFR parts 320 through 330, Regulatory Program, U.S....

  9. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... inspection and copying from FHWA headquarters and field offices as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (1) There is... participation with title 23, U.S. Code, funds. (c) 33 CFR parts 320 through 330, Regulatory Program, U.S....

  10. 32 CFR 735.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 735.2 Section 735.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL REPORTING BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN COOPERATION...) policy is that military services will require their members to make official record of births,...

  11. 32 CFR 735.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 735.2 Section 735.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL REPORTING BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN COOPERATION...) policy is that military services will require their members to make official record of births,...

  12. 32 CFR 735.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 735.2 Section 735.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL REPORTING BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN COOPERATION...) policy is that military services will require their members to make official record of births,...

  13. 32 CFR 735.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 735.2 Section 735.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL REPORTING BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN COOPERATION...) policy is that military services will require their members to make official record of births,...

  14. 32 CFR 735.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 735.2 Section 735.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL REPORTING BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN COOPERATION...) policy is that military services will require their members to make official record of births,...

  15. Psychological Adaptation of Adolescents with Immigrant Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, David Lackland

    2000-01-01

    Examines three theoretical perspectives (family values, acculturation strategies, and social group identity) as predictors of the psychological well-being of adolescents from immigrant backgrounds. Reveals that the perspectives accounted for between 12% and 22% of variance of mental health, life satisfaction, and self-esteem, while social group…

  16. Social Background Differences in Early Family Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Robert; Landale, Nancy S.; Daniels, Kimberly; Cheng, Yen-Hsin Alice

    2009-01-01

    Social background has historically been recognized as a major factor influencing family behavior, though recent work has largely emphasized racial/ethnic influences. Here we use 1994 - 1995 and 2001 - 2002 Add Health data to examine the cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth experience of young women. In a multi state life table context,…

  17. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 701.40 Section 701.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  18. 32 CFR 701.56 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 701.56 Section 701.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  19. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 701.40 Section 701.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  20. 32 CFR 701.56 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 701.56 Section 701.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  1. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 701.40 Section 701.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  2. 32 CFR 701.56 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 701.56 Section 701.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  3. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 701.40 Section 701.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  4. 32 CFR 701.56 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 701.56 Section 701.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  5. 32 CFR 701.56 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 701.56 Section 701.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  6. The Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixsen, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer data are independently recalibrated using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data to obtain a cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature of 2.7260 ± 0.0013. Measurements of the temperature of the CMB are reviewed. The determination from the measurements from the literature is CMB temperature of 2.72548 ± 0.00057 K.

  7. 44 CFR 334.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Background. 334.3 Section 334.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... emergency situations. GMR is a flexible decision making process of preparedness and response actions...

  8. 44 CFR 334.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Background. 334.3 Section 334.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... emergency situations. GMR is a flexible decision making process of preparedness and response actions...

  9. 20 CFR 410.700 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... explaining the review procedures for these claims are published at 20 CFR part 727. ... LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 § 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977...

  10. 20 CFR 410.700 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... explaining the review procedures for these claims are published at 20 CFR part 727. ... LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 § 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977...

  11. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of 1950... designates military commanders of Army, Navy, Air Force, and Defense Agency activities as having authority...

  12. 44 CFR 334.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background. 334.3 Section 334.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... capability and to use it to reduce the probability of conflict. Alternatively, if deterrence should fail,...

  13. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS §...

  14. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS §...

  15. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS §...

  16. Building Background Knowledge within Literature Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Diane; Barone, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the strength of literature circles in developing background knowledge--an acknowledged sticking point in the development of understanding for middle graders--with a special focus on the literature circle role of "investigator," where it is student initiative and not teacher direction that guides comprehension. Observing…

  17. 14 CFR § 1214.302 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... developed to expand the Nation's capabilities to utilize the unique environment of space. It provides... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Background. § 1214.302 Section § 1214.302 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Payload Specialists for...

  18. Charter Schools. Background Paper 97-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kelan J.

    Unlike many proposed educational reforms in the United States, charter schools enjoy support from policymakers across the political spectrum, making such schools a major focus of public school reform among educators and legislators. The origin of charter schools and how these schools are affecting education is the subject of this background paper.…

  19. Developing a Policy on Applicant Background Checks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidler, Edward H.

    1990-01-01

    School districts should develop policies and procedures that cover the area of background checks, yet ensure that potential employees' civil rights are not violated. In developing policies, employers might consider the following areas: reference checks, physical examinations, drug and alcohol screening, conviction record, and credential checking.…

  20. 16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background. As a result of numerous electrocutions which have occurred when consumers contacted powerlines with CB base station and outside TV... antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact with overhead powerlines....

  1. 16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background. As a result of numerous electrocutions which have occurred when consumers contacted powerlines with CB base station and outside TV... antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact with overhead powerlines....

  2. 16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background. As a result of numerous electrocutions which have occurred when consumers contacted powerlines with CB base station and outside TV... antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact with overhead powerlines....

  3. 16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background. As a result of numerous electrocutions which have occurred when consumers contacted powerlines with CB base station and outside TV... antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact with overhead powerlines....

  4. 28 CFR 61.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C... environmental effects of their proposed actions in their decisionmaking and to prepare detailed...

  5. 28 CFR 61.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C... environmental effects of their proposed actions in their decisionmaking and to prepare detailed...

  6. 28 CFR 61.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C... environmental effects of their proposed actions in their decisionmaking and to prepare detailed...

  7. 28 CFR 61.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C... environmental effects of their proposed actions in their decisionmaking and to prepare detailed...

  8. 28 CFR 61.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C... environmental effects of their proposed actions in their decisionmaking and to prepare detailed...

  9. 7 CFR 799.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... The U.S. Department of Agriculture adopted such procedures in a final rule (7 CFR part 3100) published... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 799.1 Section 799.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 7 CFR 799.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... The U.S. Department of Agriculture adopted such procedures in a final rule (7 CFR part 3100) published... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Background. 799.1 Section 799.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 7 CFR 799.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... The U.S. Department of Agriculture adopted such procedures in a final rule (7 CFR part 3100) published... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Background. 799.1 Section 799.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. Cultural background shapes spatial reference frame proclivity

    PubMed Central

    Goeke, Caspar; Kornpetpanee, Suchada; Köster, Moritz; Fernández-Revelles, Andrés B.; Gramann, Klaus; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Spatial navigation is an essential human skill that is influenced by several factors. The present study investigates how gender, age, and cultural background account for differences in reference frame proclivity and performance in a virtual navigation task. Using an online navigation study, we recorded reaction times, error rates (confusion of turning axis), and reference frame proclivity (egocentric vs. allocentric reference frame) of 1823 participants. Reaction times significantly varied with gender and age, but were only marginally influenced by the cultural background of participants. Error rates were in line with these results and exhibited a significant influence of gender and culture, but not age. Participants’ cultural background significantly influenced reference frame selection; the majority of North-Americans preferred an allocentric strategy, while Latin-Americans preferred an egocentric navigation strategy. European and Asian groups were in between these two extremes. Neither the factor of age nor the factor of gender had a direct impact on participants’ navigation strategies. The strong effects of cultural background on navigation strategies without the influence of gender or age underlines the importance of socialized spatial cognitive processes and argues for socio-economic analysis in studies investigating human navigation. PMID:26073656

  13. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It consists of transient... among affected Federal agencies information concerning the telecommunications effects of EMP...

  14. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It consists of transient... among affected Federal agencies information concerning the telecommunications effects of EMP...

  15. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It consists of transient... among affected Federal agencies information concerning the telecommunications effects of EMP...

  16. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It consists of transient... among affected Federal agencies information concerning the telecommunications effects of EMP...

  17. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It consists of transient... among affected Federal agencies information concerning the telecommunications effects of EMP...

  18. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of 1950... designates military commanders of Army, Navy, Air Force, and Defense Agency activities as having authority...

  19. 40 CFR 761.360 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 761.360 Section 761.360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Double Wash/Rinse Method for...

  20. 16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 1406.2 Section 1406.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS COAL AND WOOD BURNING... Consumer Product Safety Commission disclose a number of incidents involving coal and wood...

  1. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS §...

  2. 18 CFR 707.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Background. 707.1 Section 707.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE... required to give appropriate consideration to the environmental effects of their proposed actions in...

  3. 18 CFR 707.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Background. 707.1 Section 707.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE... required to give appropriate consideration to the environmental effects of their proposed actions in...

  4. 18 CFR 707.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Background. 707.1 Section 707.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE... required to give appropriate consideration to the environmental effects of their proposed actions in...

  5. Measurement and analysis of sky background spectra in passive ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhang; Liu, Bingqi; Yu, Hao; Li, Xiaoming; Yan, Zongqun; Hua, Wenshen; Shi, Yunsheng; Chen, Yichao

    2015-10-01

    Experimental program is designed to analyze the radiation and absorption characteristic of the sky background at near-infrared Oxygen A absorption band of passive ranging based on Oxygen spectral absorption; an acousto-optic tunable hyper spectral imaging spectrometer is used as the measuring device. Under the condition of sunny, cloudy, and snowy weather, the sky background spectral distribution is collected using the acousto-optic tunable hyper spectral imaging spectrometer. Then the Oxygen absorption rate is calculated according to the principle of Oxygen spectrum absorption passive ranging. The measurement result shows: absorption lines exist in the sky background spectral distribution at the Oxygen A absorption band, and the absorption rates are different at different weather conditions. The Oxygen absorption rates are the biggest under snowy weather, bigger under cloudy weather, and the smallest under sunny weather. The general change pattern of Oxygen absorption rate under different weather conditions is obtained and the result has laid solid foundation for suppressing the interference of the background and extracting target spectral accurately in subsequent passive ranging researching.

  6. Background correction using dinucleotide affinities improves the performance of GCRMA

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, Raad Z; Fodor, Anthony A; Gibas, Cynthia J

    2008-01-01

    Background High-density short oligonucleotide microarrays are a primary research tool for assessing global gene expression. Background noise on microarrays comprises a significant portion of the measured raw data, which can have serious implications for the interpretation of the generated data if not estimated correctly. Results We introduce an approach to calculate probe affinity based on sequence composition, incorporating nearest-neighbor (NN) information. Our model uses position-specific dinucleotide information, instead of the original single nucleotide approach, and adds up to 10% to the total variance explained (R2) when compared to the previously published model. We demonstrate that correcting for background noise using this approach enhances the performance of the GCRMA preprocessing algorithm when applied to control datasets, especially for detecting low intensity targets. Conclusion Modifying the previously published position-dependent affinity model to incorporate dinucleotide information significantly improves the performance of the model. The dinucleotide affinity model enhances the detection of differentially expressed genes when implemented as a background correction procedure in GeneChip preprocessing algorithms. This is conceptually consistent with physical models of binding affinity, which depend on the nearest-neighbor stacking interactions in addition to base-pairing. PMID:18947404

  7. An Assessment of a Technique for Modeling Lidar Background Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, K. A.; Hunt, W. H.; Vaughan, M. A.; Hair, J. W.; Butler, C. F.; Hostetler, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    A high-fidelity lidar simulation tool has been developed to generate synthetic lidar backscatter data that closely matches the expected performance of various lidars, including the noise characteristics inherent to analog detection and uncertainties related to the measurement environment. This tool supports performance trade studies and scientific investigations for both the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), which flies aboard Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), and the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The simulation tool models the lidar instrument characteristics, the backscatter signals generated from aerosols, clouds, ocean surface and subsurface, and the solar background signals. The background signals are derived from the simulated aerosol and cloud characteristics, the surface type, and solar zenith angle, using a look-up table of upwelling radiance vs scene type. The upwelling radiances were derived from the CALIOP RMS background noise and were correlated with measurements of the particulate intensive and extensive optical properties, including surface scattering for transparent layers. Tests were conducted by tuning the tool for both HSRL and CALIOP instrument settings and the atmospheres were defined using HSRL measurements from underflights of CALIPSO. For similar scenes, the simulated and measured backgrounds were compared. Overall, comparisons showed good agreement, verifying the accuracy of the tool to support studies involving instrument characterization and advanced data analysis techniques.

  8. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-17

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with {sup 130}Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier’s. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 10{sup 2} -10{sup 3} in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  9. Density measurements in water using background oriented schlieren technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Shi; Wang, Chuanxi; Eliasson, Veronica

    2012-11-01

    Undersea earthquakes, tsunamis and underwater explosions are examples of phenomena that cause compressible wave propagation in oceans leading to changes in density and pressure. Here, a direct impact method is used to generate a shock wave in a water-filled channel and the following changes in the density of the fluid is quantified using an extended background oriented schlieren technique. Background oriented schlieren technique relies on measuring variations in index of refraction in the fluid. A high-speed camera is used to capture multiple frames of the shock wave propagation. A code has been developed to quantify the change in index of refection, and map it to the change in density. Results of density changes due to shock wave propagation in converging water-filled channels will be presented. Supported by Office of Naval Research through a MURI Grant Number N00014-06-1-0730 (Dr. Y.D.S. Rajapakse, Program Manager).

  10. Rocket observations of the diffuse ultraviolet background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakobsen, P.; Bowyer, S.; Kimble, R.; Jelinsky, P.; Grewing, M.; Kraemer, G.; Wulf-Mathies, C.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the experiment reported here was to obtain additional information on the absolute intensity level and spatial variation of the diffuse ultraviolet background and thereby gain insight into the origin of this radiation. The experiment used three ultraviolet sensitive photometers placed in the focal plane of a 95-cm, f/2.8 normal incidence telescope flown on board an Aries sounding rocket. The measured intensities clearly refute the hypothesis of an isotropic background, the intensities of the high galactic latitude being definitely lower than the intensities seen at intermediate latitudes. Moreover, the count rates in all three channels along the slow scan exhibit local enhancements as well as an overall trend. In general, the spatial variations exhibited by the data correlate with the line of sight of neutral hydrogen column density as determined from 21-cm radio observations. This fact demonstrates that there is a galactic component to the diffuse ultraviolet radiation field.

  11. Anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical predictions of the angular anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation on both small and large angular scales are presented, and the effect of massive neutrinos on both the background radiation anisotropy and on the galaxy correlation function over very large scales is reviewed. Current observations show that the quadrupole anisotropy provides the greatest constraint on theory, and the values for the gravitational potential fluctuations indicate that small amplitude but sufficiently large-scale density fluctuations, both at the present epoch and on the surface of last scattering, can produce significant large angular scale variations in the radiation temperature. Most importantly, it is proposed that the quadrupole moment is most simply and elegantly interpreted in terms of the density fluctuations on very large scales whose presence is inferred from the requirement that an initial fluctuation spectrum is required in order for structure to develop.

  12. Measuring anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Tully, Christopher G.

    2014-10-01

    Neutrino capture on tritium has emerged as a promising method for detecting the cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ). We show that relic neutrinos are captured most readily when their spin vectors are antialigned with the polarization axis of the tritium nuclei and when they approach along the direction of polarization. As a result, C ν B observatories may measure anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino velocity and spin distributions by polarizing the tritium targets. A small dipole anisotropy in the C ν B is expected due to the peculiar velocity of the lab frame with respect to the cosmic frame and due to late-time gravitational effects. The PTOLEMY experiment, a tritium observatory currently under construction, should observe a nearly isotropic background. This would serve as a strong test of the cosmological origin of a potential signal. The polarized-target measurements may also constrain nonstandard neutrino interactions that would induce larger anisotropies and help discriminate between Majorana versus Dirac neutrinos.

  13. Radioactive Background Evaluation by Atom Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Orzel, Chad; McKinsey, Daniel

    2005-09-08

    We propose a new method of measuring 85Kr background levels by direct counting of impurity atoms. The beta-decay of 85Kr is a significant radioactive background for experiments that use liquified noble gases to search for dark matter and measure the low-energy solar neutrino flux. While there are several proposed methods for reducing Kr levels in these experiments, an independent technique is needed for measuring very low Kr levels. By selectively exciting Kr atoms to a metastable state, capturing them in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), and detecting fluorescence from the trapped atoms, individual Kr atoms can be counted with a high signal-to-noise ratio. This approach offers both higher sensitivity and shorter measurement times than more conventional techniques, with an estimated sensitivity of 3 x 10-14 in only 3 hours of integration.

  14. Blackfolds in (anti)-de Sitter backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A.

    2011-04-15

    We construct different neutral blackfold solutions in Anti-de Sitter and de Sitter background spacetimes in the limit where the cosmological constant is taken to be much smaller than the horizon size. This includes a class of blackfolds with horizons that are products of odd-spheres times a transverse sphere, for which the thermodynamic stability is also studied. Moreover, we exhibit a specific case in which the same blackfold solution can describe different limiting black hole spacetimes therefore illustrating the geometric character of the blackfold approach. Furthermore, we show that the higher-dimensional Kerr-(Anti)-de Sitter black hole allows for ultraspinning regimes in the same limit under consideration and demonstrate that this is correctly described by a pancaked blackfold geometry. We also give evidence for the possibility of saturating the rigidity theorem in these backgrounds.

  15. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE): Emergency support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, R.; Mattson, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Mission will measure the diffuse radiation from the universe in the wavelength band 1 micron to 9.6 mm. The band includes the 3 K cosmic background radiation, the known relic of the primeval cosmic explosion. The COBE satellite will be launched from the Western Space and Missile Center (EWSMC) via a Delta launch vehicle into a circular parking orbit of about 300 km. COBE will be placed into a 900-km altitude circular orbit. Coverage will be provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN) for COBE emergencies that would prevent communications via the normal channels of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Emergency support will be provided by the DSN 26-m subnetwork. Information is given in tabular form for DSN network support, frequency assignments, telemetry, and command.

  16. Cosmology with the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souradeep, Tarun

    The standard model of cosmology must not only explain the dynamics of the homogeneous background universe, but also satisfactorily describe the perturbed universe - the generation, evolution and finally, the formation of large-scale structures in the universe. Cosmic microwave background (CMB) has been by far the most influential cosmological observation driving advances in current cosmology. Exquisite measurements from CMB experiments have seen the emergence of a concordant cosmological model. Besides precise determination of various parameters of the standard cosmological model, observations have also established some important basic tenets that underlie models of cosmology and structure formation in the universe. The article reviews this aspect of recent progress in cosmology for a general science reader.

  17. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector

    SciTech Connect

    Fard, Ali Dastgheibi; Loaiza, Pia; Piquemal, Fabrice; Giomataris, Ioannis; Gray, David; Gros, Michel; Magnier, Patrick; Navick, Xavier-François

    2015-08-17

    The Spherical gaseous detector (or Spherical Proportional Counter, SPC) is a novel type of detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. The detector allows 100 % detection efficiency. SEDINE is a low background version of SPC installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e) looking for rare events at very low energy threshold, below 100 eV. This work presents the details on the chemical cleaning to reduce internal {sup 210}Pb surface contamination on the copper vessel and the external radon reduction achieved via circulation of pure air inside anti-radon tent. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases (Ar, N, Ne, etc) which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.

  18. Background investigation in EDELWEISS-III

    SciTech Connect

    Scorza, Silvia

    2015-08-17

    Protection from and rejection of backgrounds is a key issue for the EDELWEISS-III direct dark matter detection experiment which aims at exploring the 10{sup −9} pb cross-section region for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction. The detector is located in the low radioactivity environment of the Modane Underground Laboratory and consists of 36 advanced FID germanium detectors operating at 18 mK in a dilution refrigerator in order to identify eventual rare nuclear recoils induced by elastic scattering of WIMPs from our Galactic halo. I will discuss the background and the methods of rejecting it with the FID detectors. Detector performances and the first analysis of data acquired in a long-term campaign will be presented as well. The FID detector technology is not limited to EDELWEISS-III but can further be employed in the next generation of cryogenic detector experiments.

  19. Topology of microwave background fluctuations - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gott, J. Richard, III; Park, Changbom; Bies, William E.; Bennett, David P.; Juszkiewicz, Roman

    1990-01-01

    Topological measures are used to characterize the microwave background temperature fluctuations produced by 'standard' scenarios (Gaussian) and by cosmic strings (non-Gaussian). Three topological quantities: total area of the excursion regions, total length, and total curvature (genus) of the isotemperature contours, are studied for simulated Gaussian microwave background anisotropy maps and then compared with those of the non-Gaussian anisotropy pattern produced by cosmic strings. In general, the temperature gradient field shows the non-Gaussian behavior of the string map more distinctively than the temperature field for all topology measures. The total contour length and the genus are found to be more sensitive to the existence of a stringy pattern than the usual temperature histogram. Situations when instrumental noise is superposed on the map, are considered to find the critical signal-to-noise ratio for which strings can be detected.

  20. The cosmic mult-messenger background field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    The cosmic star formation history associated with baryon flows within the large scale structure of the expanding Universe has many important consequences, such as cosmic chemical- and galaxy evolution. Stars and accreting compact objects subsequently produce light, from the radio band to the highest photon energies, and dust within galaxies reprocesses a significant fraction of this light into the IR region. The Universe creates a radiation background that adds to the relic field from the big bang, the CMB. In addition, Cosmic Rays are created on variouys scales, and interact with this diffuse radiation field, and neutrinos are added as well. A multi-messenger field is created whose evolution with redshift contains a tremendous amount of cosmological information. We discuss several aspects of this story, emphasizing the background in the HE regime and the neutrino sector, and disccus the use of gamma-ray sources as probes.

  1. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fard, Ali Dastgheibi; Loaiza, Pia; Piquemal, Fabrice; Giomataris, Ioannis; Gray, David; Gros, Michel; Magnier, Patrick; Navick, Xavier-François; Savvidis, Ilias

    2015-08-01

    The Spherical gaseous detector (or Spherical Proportional Counter, SPC) is a novel type of detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. The detector allows 100 % detection efficiency. SEDINE is a low background version of SPC installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e) looking for rare events at very low energy threshold, below 100 eV. This work presents the details on the chemical cleaning to reduce internal 210Pb surface contamination on the copper vessel and the external radon reduction achieved via circulation of pure air inside anti-radon tent. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases (Ar, N, Ne, etc) which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.

  2. Does a Rater's Professional Background Influence Communication Skills Assessment?

    PubMed

    Artemiou, Elpida; Hecker, Kent G; Adams, Cindy L; Coe, Jason B

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing pressure in veterinary education to teach and assess communication skills, with the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) being the most common assessment method. Previous research reveals that raters are a large source of variance in OSCEs. This study focused on examining the effect of raters' professional background as a source of variance when assessing students' communication skills. Twenty-three raters were categorized according to their professional background: clinical sciences (n=11), basic sciences (n=4), clinical communication (n=5), or hospital administrator/clinical skills technicians (n=3). Raters from each professional background were assigned to the same station and assessed the same students during two four-station OSCEs. Students were in year 2 of their pre-clinical program. Repeated-measures ANOVA results showed that OSCE scores awarded by the rater groups differed significantly: (F(matched_station_1) [2,91]=6.97, p=.002), (F(matched_station_2) [3,90]=13.95, p=.001), (F(matched_station_3) [3,90]=8.76, p=.001), and ((Fmatched_station_4) [2,91]=30.60, p=.001). A significant time effect between the two OSCEs was calculated for matched stations 1, 2, and 4, indicating improved student performances. Raters with a clinical communication skills background assigned scores that were significantly lower compared to the other rater groups. Analysis of written feedback provided by the clinical sciences raters showed that they were influenced by the students' clinical knowledge of the case and that they did not rely solely on the communication checklist items. This study shows that it is important to consider rater background both in recruitment and training programs for communication skills' assessment.

  3. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, P.; Villela, T.

    1986-01-01

    Data on the cosmic microwave background radiation obtained with a maser at 12 mm and a Schottky diode mixer at 3 mm are presented. The dipole anisotropy, apparently due to our motion, has been measured sufficiently well to determine our direction of motion within two degrees. The results show that the Galaxy is moving in a direction that is about 44 deg from the center of the Virgo cluster.

  4. Soudan Low Background Counting Facility (SOLO)

    SciTech Connect

    Attisha, Michael; Viveiros, Luiz de; Gaitksell, Richard; Thompson, John-Paul

    2005-09-08

    The Soudan Low Background Counting Facility (SOLO) has been in operation at the Soudan Mine, MN since March 2003. In the past two years, we have gamma-screened samples for the Majorana, CDMS and XENON experiments. With individual sample exposure times of up to two weeks we have measured sample contamination down to the 0.1 ppb level for 238U / 232Th, and down to the 0.25 ppm level for 40K.

  5. 14 CFR § 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law 97-446 provided for the duty-free entry into the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Background. § 1217.102 Section § 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES...

  6. Semiconductor Bolometers Give Background-Limited Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John; McMurray, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor bolometers that are capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation over most or all of the infrared spectrum and that give background-limited performance at operating temperatures from 20 to 300 K have been invented. The term background-limited performance as applied to a bolometer, thermopile, or other infrared detector signifies that the ability to detect infrared signals that originate outside the detector is limited primarily by thermal noise attributable to the background radiation generated external to the bolometer. The signal-to-noise ratios and detectivities of the bolometers and thermopiles available prior to this invention have been lower than those needed for background-limited performance by factors of about 100 and 10, respectively. Like other electrically resistive bolometers, a device according to the invention exhibits an increase in electrical resistance when heated by infrared radiation. Depending on whether the device is operated under the customary constant- current or constant-voltage bias, the increase in electrical resistance can be measured in terms of an increase in voltage across the device or a decrease in current through the device, respectively. In the case of a semiconductor bolometer, it is necessary to filter out visible and shorter-wavelength light that could induce photoconductivity and thereby counteract all or part of the desired infrared- induced increase in resistance. The basic semiconductor material of a bolometer according to the invention is preferably silicon doped with one or more of a number of elements, each of which confers a different variable temperature coefficient of resistance. Suitable dopants include In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, As, P, and Sb. The concentration of dopant preferably lies in the range between 0.1 and 1,000 parts per billion.

  7. Background light measurements at the DUMAND site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoki, T.; Kitamura, T.; Matsuno, S.; Mitsui, K.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Cady, D. R.; Learned, J. G.; Oconnor, D.; Mcmurdo, M.

    1985-01-01

    Ambient light intensities at the DUMAND site, west of the island of Hawaii were measured around the one photoelectron level. Throughout the water column between 1,500m and 4,700m, a substantial amount of stimulateable bioluminescence is observed with a ship suspended detector. But non-stimulated bioluminescence level is comparable, or less than, K sup 40 background, when measured with a bottom tethered detector typical of a DUMAND optical module.

  8. Strings in plane wave backgrounds reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Jofre, O.; Nunez, C. Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires )

    1994-10-15

    String theory in an exact plane wave background is explored. The four-tachyon scattering amplitude is constructed. The spectrum of states found from the poles in the factorization turns out to be equivalent to that of the theory in flat space-time. The massless vertex operator is obtained from the residue of the first order pole. It exhibits nontrivial modifications with respect to the flat space case.

  9. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOEpatents

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-11-10

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  10. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOEpatents

    Affleck, Rhett L.; Ambrose, W. Patrick; Demas, James N.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Johnson, Mitchell E.; Keller, Richard A.; Petty, Jeffrey T.; Schecker, Jay A.; Wu, Ming

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  11. The High Dispersion Background Algorithm in NEWSIPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. A.; Grady, C. A.; O'Brien, P.; de la Pena, M.; Nichols, J.; Garhart, M.; Coulter, B.; Michalitsianos, A.

    1993-12-01

    A two-dimensional interpolating scheme, followed by modeling of the point spread function, is outlined for use in the final archiving NEWSIPS program in removing background fluxes of high dispersion IUE images. So far our tests have been limited mainly to SWP camera images. An integral facet of our background removal algorithm, basisiue, is its execution in a totally automated environment. Toward this end several conditioning steps are required before the background fluxes can be sampled. These include the removal of ``wiggles" of echelle orders as well as rotation of the camera format and removal of order ``splaying" and avoiding pixels with high fluxes due to permanent image blemishes and cosmic ray hits. Image-specific pixels with such pathologies are eliminated, along with on-order pixels, for a sample of pixels along 26 "swaths" (SWP camera) in the cross-dispersion direction. Smoothed, one-dimensional 7-th degree Chebyshev fits are then computed from the interpolated fluxes modified by a global point spread function determined from the interorder overlap pattern in an ensemble of science images. A second set of continuous Chebyshev functions, perpendicular to the first, is computed next along the positions of the IUE orders by interpolating across fluxes determined from the first set. Thus, this algorithm determines both the of background fluxes at arbitrary locations on the image and also determines the amount of interorder flux-overlap among short-wavelength orders, which is necessary to the final extraction of spectral fluxes. This work has been supported under NASA Contact NAS5-31230 to the Computer Sciences Corporation.

  12. Lidar backscattering measurements of background stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.; Northam, G. B.; Butler, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    A comparative lidar-dustsonde experiment was conducted in San Angelo, Texas, in May 1974 in order to estimate the uncertainties in stratospheric-aerosol backscatter for the NASA Langley 48-inch lidar system. The lidar calibration and data-analysis procedures are discussed. Results from the Texas experiment indicate random and systematic uncertainties of 35 and 63 percent, respectively, in backscatter from a background stratospheric-aerosol layer at 20 km.

  13. COS SMOV Calibration: Detector Background Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ake, Thomas B., III; McPhate, J.; Osterman, S.; Sahnow, D.; Penton, S.; Keyes, C.; STScI COS Team; COS IDT Team

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), installed in May 2009 into the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), was designed with two low noise, photon counting detectors. The FUV channel utilizes a windowless, cross delay line (XDL) microchannel plate detector, with heritage from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) mission. The NUV side employs a closed tube MAMA detector, which had been the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) flight spare. The background performance of both channels was measured during the COS Servicing Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV) program. For the FUV detector, the background rate is as expected from prelaunch estimates, 2.4×10-6 counts/sec/pixel, except at times when HST is close to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Close to the SAA boundary, the rate can be as high as 8×10-5. Several weak structures are found in the dark exposures. Some of these are likely due to energetic particles trapped in the geomagnetic field and can be recognized by their large pulse heights. Others are low gain events. For TIME-TAG exposures, most features are removed in ground processing by pulse height filtering of the individual events. For ACCUM mode, which is only used for bright objects, suspect regions of the spectra will be marked by data quality flags, but the features are expected to be too weak to be of consequence. For the NUV detector, the background rate is 6.7×10-5 counts/sec/pixel, about three times lower than predicted from prelaunch estimates and about 15 times lower than the pre-Servicing Mission 4 performance of the STIS NUV detector. A difference in windows between the MAMAs accounts for much of the improvement. In particular, although the COS background is elevated near the SAA, up to 1×10-3 counts/sec/pixel, no long-term phosphorescence occurs in the window after HST passes through the SAA. Little structure is seen in the NUV darks.

  14. Cosmological origin of anomalous radio background

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, James M.; Vincent, Aaron C. E-mail: vincent@ific.uv.es

    2013-02-01

    The ARCADE 2 collaboration has reported a significant excess in the isotropic radio background, whose homogeneity cannot be reconciled with clustered sources. This suggests a cosmological origin prior to structure formation. We investigate several potential mechanisms and show that injection of relativistic electrons through late decays of a metastable particle can give rise to the observed excess radio spectrum through synchrotron emission. However, constraints from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, on injection of charged particles and on the primordial magnetic field, present a challenge. The simplest scenario is with a ∼>9 GeV particle decaying into e{sup +}e{sup −} at a redshift of z ∼ 5, in a magnetic field of ∼ 5μG, which exceeds the CMB B-field constraints, unless the field was generated after decoupling. Decays into exotic millicharged particles can alleviate this tension, if they emit synchroton radiation in conjunction with a sufficiently large background magnetic field of a dark U(1)' gauge field.

  15. Background complexity affects colour preference in bumblebees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Jessica; Thomson, James D.

    2009-08-01

    Flowers adapted for hummingbird pollination are typically red. This correlation is usually explained by the assertion that nectar- or pollen-stealing bees are “blind” to red flowers. However, laboratory studies have shown that bees are capable of locating artificial red flowers and often show no innate preference for blue over red. We hypothesised that these findings might be artefacts of the simplified laboratory environment. Using bumblebees ( Bombus impatiens) that had been trained to visit red and blue artificial flowers, we tested whether colour preference was influenced by complexity of the background on which they were foraging. Many bees were indifferent to flower colour when tested using a uniform green background like those commonly used in laboratory studies, but all bees showed strong colour preferences (usually for blue) when flowers were presented against a photograph of real foliage. Overall, preference for blue flowers was significantly greater on the more realistic, complex background. These results support the notion that the red of “hummingbird syndrome” flowers can function to reduce bee visits despite the ability of bees to detect red and highlight the need to consider context when drawing inferences about pollinator preferences from laboratory data.

  16. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a prototype system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta (0v BB) decay in 76Ge. In view of the requirement that the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0vBB-decay experiment be capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of theMajorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using Geant4 simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  17. Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations and Zodiacal Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Kashlinsky, A.; Moseley, S. H.; Mather, J.

    2016-06-01

    We performed a specific observational test to measure the effect that the zodiacal light can have on measurements of the spatial fluctuations of the near-IR background. Previous estimates of possible fluctuations caused by zodiacal light have often been extrapolated from observations of the thermal emission at longer wavelengths and low angular resolution or from IRAC observations of high-latitude fields where zodiacal light is faint and not strongly varying with time. The new observations analyzed here target the COSMOS field at low ecliptic latitude where the zodiacal light intensity varies by factors of ˜2 over the range of solar elongations at which the field can be observed. We find that the white-noise component of the spatial power spectrum of the background is correlated with the modeled zodiacal light intensity. Roughly half of the measured white noise is correlated with the zodiacal light, but a more detailed interpretation of the white noise is hampered by systematic uncertainties that are evident in the zodiacal light model. At large angular scales (≳100″) where excess power above the white noise is observed, we find no correlation of the power with the modeled intensity of the zodiacal light. This test clearly indicates that the large-scale power in the infrared background is not being caused by the zodiacal light.

  18. Low-Background Counting at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Iseley

    2009-10-01

    Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from materials used still interferes. Specifically, our group is working on designing the first low-background counting facility at the Homestake mine. Using a high-purity germanium crystal detector from ORTEC, measurements will be taken within a shield that is made to specifically account for radiation underground and fits the detector. Currently, in the design, there is a layer of copper surrounded by an intricate stainless steel casing, which will be manufactured air tight to accommodate for nitrogen purging. Lead will surround the stainless steel shell to further absorb gamma rays. A mobile lift system has been designed for easy access to the detector. In the future, this project will include multiple testing stations located in the famous Davis Cavern where future experiments will have the ability to use the site as an efficient and accurate counting facility for their needs (such as measuring radioactive isotopes in materials). Overall, this detector (and its shield system) is the beginning of a central testing facility that will serve Homestake's scientific community.

  19. Mode coupling evolution in arbitrary inflationary backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardeau, Francis

    2011-02-01

    The evolution of high order correlation functions of a test scalar field in arbitrary inflationary backgrounds is computed. Whenever possible, exact results are derived from quantum field theory calculations. Taking advantage of the fact that such calculations can be mapped, for super-horizon scales, into those of a classical system, we express the expected correlation functions in terms of classical quantities, power spectra, Green functions, that can be easily computed in the long-wavelength limit. Explicit results are presented that extend those already known for a de Sitter background. In particular the expressions of the late time amplitude of bispectrum and trispectrum, as well as the whole high-order correlation structure, are given in terms of the expansion factor behavior. When compared to the case of a de Sitter background, power law inflation and chaotic inflation induced by a massive field are found to induce high order correlation functions the amplitudes of which are amplified by almost one order of magnitude. These results indicate that the dependence of the related non-Gaussian parameters — such as f{sub NL} — on the wave-modes is at percent level.

  20. Localised anti-branes in flux backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnett, Gavin S.

    2015-06-01

    Solutions corresponding to finite temperature (anti)-D3 and M2 branes localised in flux backgrounds are constructed in a linear approximation. The flux backgrounds considered are toy models for the IR of the Klebanov-Strassler solution and its M-theory analogue, the Cvetič-Gibbons-Lü-Pope solution. Smooth solutions exist for either sign charge, in stark contrast with the previously considered case of smeared black branes. That the singularities of the anti-branes in the zero temperature extremal limit can be shielded behind a finite temperature horizon indicates that the singularities are physical and resolvable by string theory. As the charge of the branes grows large and negative, the flux at the horizon increases without bound and diverges in the extremal limit, which suggests a resolution via brane polarisation à la Polchinski-Strassler. It therefore appears that the anti-brane singularities do not indicate a problem with the SUSY-breaking metastable states corresponding to expanded anti-brane configurations in these backgrounds, nor with the use of these states in constructing the de Sitter landscape.

  1. Developing an Interest in Science: Background Experiences of Preservice Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Mizrap; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2010-01-01

    Research on playfulness, science, and creativity suggests that there is a connection between having positive background experiences with science and the development of interest in science. However, there is little empirical research on where, how, and when teachers' interests in science develop. The purpose of this research was to explore…

  2. More Efficient e-Learning through Design: Color of Text and Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zufic, Janko; Kalpic, Damir

    2009-01-01

    Background: The area of research aimed for a more efficient e-learning is slowly widening from purely technical to the areas of psychology, didactics and methodology. The question is whether the text or background color influence the efficiency of memory, i.e. learning. If the answer to that question is positive, then another question arises which…

  3. Mitigation of Neutron Background Hazard in F-Wing of SRTC

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.A.

    2001-07-18

    Analytical Development Section researchers have completed extensive data acquisitions to completely understand and describe the observed neutron backgrounds in F-wing of SRTC. This report will discuss the approach, methodology, results, conclusions, and recommendations.

  4. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples.

  5. Using Correlated Photons to Suppress Background Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah; Hockney, George; Dowling, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    A proposed method of suppressing the effect of background noise in an optical communication system would exploit the transmission and reception of correlated photons at the receiver. The method would not afford any advantage in a system in which performance is limited by shot noise. However, if the performance of the system is limited by background noise (e.g., sunlight in the case of a free-space optical communication system or incoherently scattered in-band photons in the case of a fiber-optic communication system), then the proposed method could offer an advantage: the proposed method would make it possible to achieve a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) significantly greater than that of an otherwise equivalent background- noise-limited optical communication system based on the classical transmission and reception of uncorrelated photons. The figure schematically depicts a classical optical-communication system and a system according to the proposed method. In the classical system, a modulated laser beam is transmitted along an optical path to a receiver, the optics of which include a narrow-band-pass filter that suppresses some of the background noise. A photodetector in the receiver detects the laser-beam and background photons, most or all of which are uncorrelated. In the proposed system, correlated photons would be generated at the transmitter by making a modulated laser beam pass through a nonlinear parametric down-conversion crystal. The sum of frequencies of the correlated photons in each pair would equal the frequency of the incident photon from which they were generated. As in the classical system, the correlated photons would travel along an optical path to a receiver, where they would be band-pass filtered and detected. Unlike in the classical system, the photodetector in the receiver in this system would be one that intrinsically favors the detection of pairs of correlated photons over the detection of uncorrelated photons. Even though there would be no

  6. Cosmology on compact and stable supergravity background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailu, Girma

    2012-11-01

    We propose a cosmological model of a D3-brane universe on a compact and stable supergravity background of wrapped D7-branes in type IIB string theory, previously argued to be dual to pure N=1 SU(N) gauge theory in four dimensions. A model universe of order Planck size near the UV boundary dynamically flows toward the IR with constant total energy density and accelerating expansion, followed by smooth transition to decelerating expansion, and collides with the wrapped D7-branes at the IR boundary. The model addresses the horizon and flatness problems, with most of the expansion produced during the decelerating expansion phase. The inflationary scenario is used to generate sources of inhomogeneities in the cosmic microwave background radiation and seeds for large-scale structure formation from quantum fluctuations which exit the Hubble radius early during the accelerating expansion phase, and the model addresses the inhomogeneity problem with red tilt in the power spectrum. We propose that the kinetic energy of the model universe is converted to matter and radiation by the collision followed by the formation of baryons, stabilizing the model universe against gravitational force from the background at a finite distance from the IR boundary, with the wrapped D7-branes serving as sources of color. Friedmann evolution then takes over, with a positive cosmological constant term coming from the remaining potential energy density, which is interpreted as dark energy. The magnitude of the dark energy density is smaller than the total energy density during the flow by a ratio of the scale factor when the model universe appears in the UV to the scale factor at the moment of collision, and stays constant while the matter-radiation density falls during Friedmann expansion.

  7. Extracting the cosmic history from diffuse backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Jonathan Robin

    The modern picture of the Universe resembles a detective novel with the first page and the middle chapters removed and the ending unwritten. Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) have given cosmologists a snapshot of the Universe when it was only a few hundred thousand years old. At the same time, large galaxy surveys, such as SDSS and 2dF, have shed light on the distribution of matter in the local Universe. From the combination of these two data sets, cosmological parameters can be measured to percent accuracy. Two main frontiers remain: inflation, the domain of high-energy physics, and the epoch of reionization, the period connecting the linear age of the CMB with that of the present day. Added to this are the indications from supernovae of an acceleration in the expansion rate suggesting modifications to gravity or the presence of an esoteric new form of energy.In this work, we investigate uses of various radiation backgrounds for probing the different epochs of this cosmic history. We examine (i) the use of B-mode polarization of the CMB induced by an inflationary gravitational wave background to probe inflation, (ii) the importance of higher Lyman series photons in pumping of the 21 cm line and the consequences for the 21 cm signal from the first stars, (iii) the atomic physics of Lyman series photon scattering in the intergalactic medium and the consequences for heating and coupling of the 21 cm line, (iv) the possibility of using the 21 cm line to probe inhomogeneous X-ray heating of the IGM by a population of early X-ray sources, and (v) the impact of inhomogeneous reionization on galaxy formation and the consequences for our ability to use large galaxy surveys to constrain dark energy. Together, these chapters significantly extend our understanding of important windows into the early Universe.

  8. Spectral observations of the extreme ultraviolet background.

    PubMed

    Labov, S E; Bowyer, S

    1991-04-20

    A grazing incidence spectrometer was designed to measure the diffuse extreme ultraviolet background. It was flown on a sounding rocket, and data were obtained on the diffuse background between 80 and 650 angstroms. These are the first spectral measurements of this background below 520 angstroms. Several emission features were detected, including interplanetary He I 584 angstroms emission and geocoronal He II 304 angstroms emission. Other features observed may originate in a hot ionized interstellar gas, but if this interpretation is correct, gas at several different temperatures is present. The strongest of these features is consistent with O V emission at 630 angstroms. This emission, when combined with upper limits for other lines, restricts the temperature of this component to 5.5 < log T < 5.7, in agreement with temperatures derived from O VI absorption studies. A power-law distribution of temperatures is consistent with this feature only if the power-law coefficient is negative, as is predicted for saturated evaporation of clouds in a hot medium. In this case, the O VI absorption data confine the filling factor of the emission of f < or = 4% and the pressure to more than 3.7 x 10(4) cm-3 K, substantially above ambient interstellar pressure. Such a pressure enhancement has been predicted for clouds undergoing saturated evaporation. Alternatively, if the O V emission covers a considerable fraction of the sky, it would be a major source of ionization. A feature centered at about 99 angstroms is well fitted by a cluster of Fe XVIII and Fe XIX lines from gas at log T = 6.6-6.8. These results are consistent with previous soft X-ray observations with low-resolution detectors. A feature found near 178 angstroms is consistent with Fe X and Fe XI emission from gas at log T = 6; this result is consistent with results from experiments employing broad-band soft X-ray detectors.

  9. The Dortmund Low Background Facility - Low-background gamma ray spectrometry with an artificial overburden.

    PubMed

    Gastrich, Holger; Gößling, Claus; Klingenberg, Reiner; Kröninger, Kevin; Neddermann, Till; Nitsch, Christian; Quante, Thomas; Zuber, Kai

    2016-06-01

    The Dortmund Low Background Facility is an instrument for low-level gamma ray spectrometry with an artificial overburden of ten meters of water equivalent, an inner shielding, featuring a neutron absorber, and an active muon veto. An integral background count rate between 40keV and 2700keV of (2.528±0.004)counts/(kgmin) enables low-background gamma ray spectrometry with sensitivities in the range of some 10mBq/kg within a week of measurement time. PMID:27082973

  10. Beam Delivery WG Summary: Optics, Collimation & Background

    SciTech Connect

    Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jackson, F.; Mokhov, N.V.; Kuroda, S.; Seryi, A.A.; /SLAC

    2006-01-20

    The presented paper partially summarizes the work of the Beam Delivery working group (WG4) at Snowmass, concentrating on status of optics, layout, collimation, and background. The strawman layout with 2 interaction regions was recommended at the first ILC workshop at KEK in November 2004. Two crossing-angle designs were included in this layout. The design of the ILC BDS has evolved since the first ILC workshop. The progress on the BDS design and extraction line design has been reviewed and the design issues were discussed during the optics and layout session at the Snowmass.

  11. Spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Freese, Katherine; Levin, Janna

    1989-01-01

    Recent experiments indicate that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background deviates from a pure blackbody; here, spectral distortions produced by cosmic dust are considered. The main result is that cosmic dust in conjunction with an injected radiation field (perhaps produced by an early generation of very massive stars) can explain the observed spectral distortions without violating existing cosmological constraints. In addition, it is shown that Compton y-distortions can also explain the observed spectral shape, but the energetic requirements are more severe.

  12. Spectrum of the microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    A review is given of the present status of measurements of the spectrum of the microwave background. Factors that limit experimental accuracy are discussed with particular reference to high-frequency measurements. A selection of the available measurements yields a data set that is reasonably consistent with the black-body spectrum for a temperature of 2.9 K. A simple statistical analysis suggests either that there are errors in the data set, or that deviations from a black-body spectrum exist. The difficulties inherent in properly averaging the results from different observers are described. Prospects for improved measurements are summarized.

  13. Neutron background in underground particle astrophysics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, V. A.

    2007-03-28

    Neutron background for the high-sensitivity underground particle astrophysics experiments, such as dark matter searches, double-beta decay detectors, low-energy neutrino physics and astrophysics, is discussed. Neutron production via spontaneous fission and ({alpha},n) reactions from U and Th, and by cosmic-ray muons is considered. We describe the method of calculating neutron spectra from radioactivity and effects produced in the detectors. The requirements for passive neutron shielding are given and the efficiency of an active veto system is discussed. It is shown that muon-induced neutrons require complex and accurate simulations where any simplification may lead to a significant error in the result.

  14. Emergence of oscillons in an expanding background

    SciTech Connect

    Farhi, E.; Guth, A. H.; Iqbal, N.; Graham, N.; Rosales, R. R.; Stamatopoulos, N.

    2008-04-15

    We consider a (1+1) dimensional scalar field theory that supports oscillons, which are localized, oscillatory, stable solutions to nonlinear equations of motion. We study this theory in an expanding background and show that oscillons now lose energy, but at a rate that is exponentially small when the expansion rate is slow. We also show numerically that a universe that starts with (almost) thermal initial conditions will cool to a final state where a significant fraction of the energy of the universe--on the order of 50%--is stored in oscillons. If this phenomenon persists in realistic models, oscillons may have cosmological consequences.

  15. Spectrum of the microwave background radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, P.L.

    1982-04-01

    A review is given of the present status of measurements of the spectrum of the microwave background. Factors which limit experimental accuracy are discussed with particular reference to high frequency measurements. A selection of the available measurements yields a data set which is reasonably consistent with the blackbody spectrum for a temperature of 2.9 K. A simple statistical analysis suggests either that there are errors in the data set, or that deviations from a blackbody spectrum exist. The difficulties inherent in property averaging the results from different observers are described. Prospects for improved measurements will be summarized.

  16. Signatures of a hidden cosmic microwave background.

    PubMed

    Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2008-09-26

    If there is a light Abelian gauge boson gamma' in the hidden sector its kinetic mixing with the photon can produce a hidden cosmic microwave background (HCMB). For meV masses, resonant oscillations gamma<-->gamma' happen after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) but before CMB decoupling, increasing the effective number of neutrinos Nnu(eff) and the baryon to photon ratio, and distorting the CMB blackbody spectrum. The agreement between BBN and CMB data provides new constraints. However, including Lyman-alpha data, Nnu(eff) > 3 is preferred. It is tempting to attribute this effect to the HCMB. The interesting parameter range will be tested in upcoming laboratory experiments. PMID:18851438

  17. Background instrumental music and serial recall.

    PubMed

    Nittono, H

    1997-06-01

    Although speech and vocal music are consistently shown to impair serial recall for visually presented items, instrumental music does not always produce a significant disruption. This study investigated the features of instrumental music that would modulate the disruption in serial recall. 24 students were presented sequences of nine digits and required to recall the digits in order of presentation. Instrumental music as played either forward or backward during the task. Forward music caused significantly more disruption than did silence, whereas the reversed music did not. Some higher-order factor may be at work in the effect of background music on serial recall.

  18. Quantum treatment of neutrino in background matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenikin, A. I.

    2006-05-01

    Motivated by the need of elaboration of the quantum theory of the spin light of neutrino in matter (SLν), we have studied in more detail the exact solutions of the Dirac equation for neutrinos moving in background matter. These exact neutrino wavefunctions form a basis for a rather powerful method of investigation of different neutrino processes in matter, which is similar to the Furry representation of quantum electrodynamics in external fields. Within this method we also derive the corresponding Dirac equation for an electron moving in matter and consider the electromagnetic radiation ('spin light of electron in matter', (SLe)) that can be emitted by the electron in this case.

  19. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  20. Defining the background status of a debris cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maclay, Timothy D.; Madler, Ronald A.; Mcnamara, Roger; Culp, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    When a satellite fragments, a debris cloud is produced which continues to orbit the earth in its place. The fragments do not remain in the same orbit as their parent, however, and the shape of this cloud begins to evolve. Over the course of several years, the cloud changes from an ellipsoid, to a pinched torus in the parent orbital plane, to a full torus in the equatorial plane, after which time it is considered to be part of the background environment. The elapsed time between breakup and background is called the time-to-background (TTB) and is calculated differently by different researchers. This report reviews existing methods employed by programs DEBRIS and SCREEN for determining the TTB, and offers two others for consideration for a community-wide standard. It is concluded that while each method has its merits, the debris community should agree on a specific computational definition for TTB that could be used as an industry-wide standard for comparing results.

  1. Background music as a quasi clock in retrospective duration judgments.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Nicole; Areni, Charles S

    2006-04-01

    The segmentation-change model of time perception proposes that individuals engaged in cognitive tasks during a given interval of time retrospectively estimate duration by recalling events that occurred during the interval and inferring each event's duration. Previous research suggests that individuals can recall the number of songs heard during an interval and infer the length of each song, exactly the conditions that foster estimates of duration based on the segmentation-change model. The results of a laboratory experiment indicated that subjects who solved word-search puzzles for 20 min. estimated the duration of the interval to be longer when 8 short songs (<3 min.) as opposed to 4 long songs (6+ min.) were played in the background, regardless of whether the musical format was Contemporary Dance or New Age. Assuming each song represented a distinct segment in memory, these results are consistent with the segmentation-change model. These results suggest that background music may not always reduce estimates of duration by drawing attention away from the passage of time. Instead, background music may actually expand the subjective length of an interval by creating accessible traces in memory, which are retrospectively used to infer duration.

  2. Simulation of natural radioactivity backgrounds in the JUNO central detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin-Ying; Deng, Zi-Yan; Wen, Liang-Jian; Li, Wei-Dong; You, Zheng-Yun; Yu, Chun-Xu; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Lin, Tao

    2016-02-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is an experiment proposed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and probe the fundamental properties of neutrino oscillation. The JUNO central detector is a spherical liquid scintillator detector with 20 kton fiducial mass. It is required to achieve a energy resolution with very low radioactive background, which is a big challenge to the detector design. In order to ensure the detector performance can meet the physics requirements, reliable detector simulation is necessary to provide useful information for the detector design. A simulation study of natural radioactivity backgrounds in the JUNO central detector has been performed to guide the detector design and set requirements for the radio-purity of the detector materials. The accidental background induced by natural radioactivity in the JUNO central detector is 1.1/day. The result is satisfied for the experiment. Supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA10010900), CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large-Scale Scientific Facility Program, Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of NSFC and CAS (U1332201)

  3. Detection of weak and small infrered targets under complicated background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinling; Zhang, Jiming; Deng, Linming; Niu, Xiaoming; Wei, Xueming; Xu, Jing; Wu, Jian

    2010-10-01

    The technique of weak small target detection and recognition has been the key technique of the electro-optical detecting system, many scholars are engaging the research of detection for weak and small targets. The effective detection for small targets in low SNR images is still a hot research field. Because infrared sensor is easily affected by atmosphere hot radiation, long distance and sensor noise, the detected targets in infrared images often present like small targets and drowned in noise. The basic problem inherent to extent the detection range is the detection of small, low observable, no obvious structural information in images and complicated background. In order to improve the detection ratio of weak small targets and decrease the false alarming ratio in the condition of complicated background, the paper presents the technology of pretreatment of infrared images and the technology of detection for weak small targets, mainly including the technology of Sobel edge algorithm and multi-degree and multi-orientation gradient. Based upon horizon-correlative characteristic of infrared images which were gotten by scanning, considering of the target properties in complicated background, an algorithm of weak and small target detection is presented. Because the images appear horizon-correlative characteristic, Sobel horizontal operator is adopted. By this algorithm, the background clutter was suppressed. Then an adaptive threshold was proposed to extract the precise location of small target. Incorporated with the two methods, a single frame weak and small target detection algorithm was built. Its high performance was then proved in a serial of experiments. In order to solve the detection problems of weak and small infrared targets under complicated background, a detection algorithm integrating with multi-degree and multi-orientation gradient fusion is proposed. Based on the principle of infrared radiation property of target, i.e., the gradient variations of pixel

  4. The Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiffert, M.

    1996-12-01

    Since 1988 the UCSB Cosmology Group has performed a number of measurements of the degree scale structure in the Cosmic Background Radiation. These include 3 South Pole expeditions in 1989, 91 and 94. and 8 balloon flights using SIS, HEMTs and bolometer based detectors. We will present a summary of these measurements focusing onthe recent results. In addition, we will describe the recent flight of HACME, a balloon- borne experiment to map CMB anisotropies with 0.75 degree angular resolution over several hundred square degrees. This experiment is a prototype for our next generation CMB experiment, the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST). BEAST will feature a 2 m diameter carbon fiber composite primary mirror for high angular resolution and a sensitive array of ultra-low noise HEMT amplifiers at 30, 40, and 90 GHz. BEAST is designed for an Antarctic long duration balloon flight allowing an observing time of order two weeks. This experiment will provide an unprecedented combination of sensitivty and angular resolution across a significant region of sky.

  5. Electromagnetic polarizabilities: Lattice QCD in background fields

    SciTech Connect

    W. Detmold, B.C. Tiburzi, A. Walker-Loud

    2012-04-01

    Chiral perturbation theory makes definitive predictions for the extrinsic behavior of hadrons in external electric and magnetic fields. Near the chiral limit, the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of pions, kaons, and nucleons are determined in terms of a few well-known parameters. In this limit, hadrons become quantum mechanically diffuse as polarizabilities scale with the inverse square-root of the quark mass. In some cases, however, such predictions from chiral perturbation theory have not compared well with experimental data. Ultimately we must turn to first principles numerical simulations of QCD to determine properties of hadrons, and confront the predictions of chiral perturbation theory. To address the electromagnetic polarizabilities, we utilize the background field technique. Restricting our attention to calculations in background electric fields, we demonstrate new techniques to determine electric polarizabilities and baryon magnetic moments for both charged and neutral states. As we can study the quark mass dependence of observables with lattice QCD, the lattice will provide a crucial test of our understanding of low-energy QCD, which will be timely in light of ongoing experiments, such as at COMPASS and HI gamma S.

  6. Organic acids in continental background aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbeck, Andreas; Puxbaum, Hans

    With a newly developed method aerosol samples from three distinctly different continental sites were analyzed: an urban site (Vienna), a savanna site in South Africa (Nylsvley Nature Reserve, NNR) and a free tropospheric continental background site (Sonnblick Observatory, SBO). In all samples a range of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) and dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) has been identified and quantified. The three most abundant MCAs in Vienna were the C18, C16 and C14 acids with concentrations of 66, 45 and 36 ng m -3, respectively. At the mid tropospheric background site (SBO) the three most abundant MCAs were the C18, C16 and C12 acid. For the DCAs at all three sites oxalic, malonic and succinic acid were the dominant compounds. For some individual compounds an information about the sources could be obtained. For example the determined unsaturated MCAs in South Africa appear to result from biogenic sources whereas in Vienna those acids are considered to be derived from combustion processes. Oxalic and glyoxalic acid appear to have a free tropospheric air chemical source. The relative high amounts at SBO in comparison to Vienna can only be explained by secondary formation of oxalic acid in the atmosphere.

  7. Bayesian Analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background! Experiments designed to map the microwave sky are returning a flood of data (time streams of instrument response as a beam is swept over the sky) at several different frequencies (from 30 to 900 GHz), all with different resolutions and noise properties. The resulting analysis challenge is to estimate, and quantify our uncertainty in, the spatial power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background given the complexities of "missing data", foreground emission, and complicated instrumental noise. Bayesian formulation of this problem allows consistent treatment of many complexities including complicated instrumental noise and foregrounds, and can be numerically implemented with Gibbs sampling. Gibbs sampling has now been validated as an efficient, statistically exact, and practically useful method for low-resolution (as demonstrated on WMAP 1 and 3 year temperature and polarization data). Continuing development for Planck - the goal is to exploit the unique capabilities of Gibbs sampling to directly propagate uncertainties in both foreground and instrument models to total uncertainty in cosmological parameters.

  8. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, K.D.; Chu, T.J.; Pitt, W.G.

    1992-05-12

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through amino groups contained on the surface. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to the target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membranes may be reprobed numerous times. No Drawings

  9. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, Karin D.; Chu, Tun-Jen; Pitt, William G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through said smino groups contained on the surface thereof. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to said target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membrances may be reprobed numerous times.

  10. Metal mixtures modeling evaluation project: 1. Background.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joseph S; Farley, Kevin J; Garman, Emily R

    2015-04-01

    Despite more than 5 decades of aquatic toxicity tests conducted with metal mixtures, there is still a need to understand how metals interact in mixtures and to predict their toxicity more accurately than what is currently done. The present study provides a background for understanding the terminology, regulatory framework, qualitative and quantitative concepts, experimental approaches, and visualization and data-analysis methods for chemical mixtures, with an emphasis on bioavailability and metal-metal interactions in mixtures of waterborne metals. In addition, a Monte Carlo-type randomization statistical approach to test for nonadditive toxicity is presented, and an example with a binary-metal toxicity data set demonstrates the challenge involved in inferring statistically significant nonadditive toxicity. This background sets the stage for the toxicity results, data analyses, and bioavailability models related to metal mixtures that are described in the remaining articles in this special section from the Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation project and workshop. It is concluded that although qualitative terminology such as additive and nonadditive toxicity can be useful to convey general concepts, failure to expand beyond that limited perspective could impede progress in understanding and predicting metal mixture toxicity. Instead of focusing on whether a given metal mixture causes additive or nonadditive toxicity, effort should be directed to develop models that can accurately predict the toxicity of metal mixtures.

  11. Estimating background precipitation quality from network data.

    PubMed

    Hicks, B B; Artz, R S

    1992-01-01

    Assessments of the relative merits of alternative acid-rain control strategies revolve around considerations of potential benefit per unit effort and/or cost. A question that often arises concerns the changes in deposition that would follow if all industrial (or societal) emissions were eliminated, in which case precipitation chemistry would be dominated by emissions from natural sources. Estimates of the 'natural background' of precipitation chemistry can be based on (a) measurements made at distant locations, (b) reducing emissions to zero in numerical simulations, or (c) examinations of existing data. Each alternative is flawed because (a) of the assumption that natural emissions in one location are like those in another, (b) no existing model contains descriptions of chemical processes involving all of the chemical species of importance, and (c) all contemporary data records or relevance are affected by precisely the emissions we wish to reduce. Here, the third alternative is explored in detail, using event precipitation chemistry data from North America. The analysis reveals a background pH level that varies from site to site, but always lies in the range 5.0-5.3.

  12. Black branes on the linear dilaton background

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, Gerard; Leygnac, Cedric; Gal'tsov, Dmitri

    2005-04-15

    We show that the complete static black p-brane supergravity solution with a single charge contains two and only two branches with respect to behavior at infinity in the transverse space. One branch is the standard family of asymptotically flat black branes, and another is the family of black branes which asymptotically approach the linear dilaton background (LDB) with antisymmetric form flux. Such configurations were previously obtained in the near-horizon near-extreme limit of the dilatonic asymptotically flat p-branes, and used to describe the thermal phase of field theories involved in the domain wall (DW)/quantum field theory (QFT) dualities and the thermodynamics of little string theory in the case of the NS5-brane. Here we show by direct integration of the Einstein equations that the asymptotically LDB p-branes are indeed exact supergravity solutions, and we prove a new uniqueness theorem for static p-brane solutions satisfying cosmic censorship. In the nondilatonic case, our general nonasymptotically flat p-branes are black branes on the background AdS{sub p+2}xS{sup D-p-2} supported by the form flux. We develop the general formalism of quasilocal quantities for nonasymptotically flat supergravity solutions with antisymmetric form fields, and show that our solutions satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We also suggest a constructive procedure to derive rotating asymptotically LDB brane solutions.

  13. Role of genetic background in induced instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadhim, Munira A.; Nelson, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Genomic instability is effectively induced by ionizing radiation. Recently, evidence has accumulated supporting a relationship between genetic background and the radiation-induced genomic instability phenotype. This is possibly due to alterations in proteins responsible for maintenance of genomic integrity or altered oxidative metabolism. Studies in human cell lines, human primary cells, and mouse models have been performed predominantly using high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, or high doses of low LET radiation. The interplay between genetics, radiation response, and genomic instability has not been fully determined at low doses of low LET radiation. However, recent studies using low doses of low LET radiation suggest that the relationship between genetic background and radiation-induced genomic instability may be more complicated than these same relationships at high LET or high doses of low LET radiation. The complexity of this relationship at low doses of low LET radiation suggests that more of the population may be at risk than previously recognized and may have implications for radiation risk assessment.

  14. The ``X component'' of the radio background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, T. A.; Pariiskii, Yu. N.; Bursov, N. N.

    2009-01-01

    The recent publication of evidence for a new mechanism producing background radio emission of the Galaxy at centimeter wavelengths (in addition to synchrotron radiation, free—free transitions in ionized gas, and the weak radio emission of standard dust) gave rise to a strong reaction among observers, and requires independent experimental verification. This signal is of special concern in connection with studies of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using new-generation experiments. We have derived independent estimates of the validity of the “spinning-dust” hypothesis (dipole emission of macromolecules) using multi-frequency RATAN-600 observations. Test studies in the Perseus molecular cloud show evidence for anomalous extended emission in the absence of strong radio sources (compact HII regions) that could imitate an anomalous radio spectrum in this region. A statistical analysis at centimeter wavelengths over the Ratan Zenith Field shows that the upper limit for the polarized noise from this new component in the spinning-dust hypothesis is unlikely to exceed 1 µK at wavelengths of 1 cm or shorter on the main scales of the EE mode of Sakharov oscillations. Thus, this emission should not hinder studies of this mode, at least to within several percent of the predicted level of polarization of the CMB emission.

  15. Cosmic axion background propagation in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Francesca V.

    2016-02-01

    Many extensions of the Standard Model include axions or axion-like particles (ALPs). Here we study ALP to photon conversion in the magnetic field of the Milky Way and starburst galaxies. By modelling the effects of the coherent and random magnetic fields, the warm ionized medium and the warm neutral medium on the conversion process, we simulate maps of the conversion probability across the sky for a range of ALP energies. In particular, we consider a diffuse cosmic ALP background (CAB) analogous to the CMB, whose existence is suggested by string models of inflation. ALP-photon conversion of a CAB in the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters has been proposed as an explanation of the cluster soft X-ray excess. We therefore study the phenomenology and expected photon signal of CAB propagation in the Milky Way. We find that, for the CAB parameters required to explain the cluster soft X-ray excess, the photon flux from ALP-photon conversion in the Milky Way would be unobservably small. The ALP-photon conversion probability in galaxy clusters is 3 orders of magnitude higher than that in the Milky Way. Furthermore, the morphology of the unresolved cosmic X-ray background is incompatible with a significant component from ALP-photon conversion. We also consider ALP-photon conversion in starburst galaxies, which host much higher magnetic fields. By considering the clumpy structure of the galactic plasma, we find that conversion probabilities comparable to those in clusters may be possible in starburst galaxies.

  16. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, P.; Villela, T.

    1987-01-01

    Maps of the large scale structure (theta is greater than 6 deg) of the cosmic background radiation covering 90 percent of the sky are now available. The data show a very strong 50-100 sigma (statistical error) dipole component, interpreted as being due to our motion, with a direction of alpha = 11.5 + or - 0.15 hours, sigma = -5.6 + or - 2.0 deg. The inferred direction of the velocity of our galaxy relative to the cosmic background radiation is alpha = 10.6 + or - 0.3 hours, sigma = -2.3 + or - 5 deg. This is 44 deg from the center of the Virgo cluster. After removing the dipole component, the data show a galactic signature but no apparent residual structure. An autocorrelation of the residual data, after substraction of the galactic component from a combined Berkeley (3 mm) and Princeton (12 mm) data sets, show no apparent structure from 10 to 180 deg with a rms of 0.01 mK(sup 2). At 90 percent confidence level limit of .00007 is placed on a quadrupole component.

  17. The effect of background music on the taste of wine.

    PubMed

    North, Adrian C

    2012-08-01

    Research concerning cross-modal influences on perception has neglected auditory influences on perceptions of non-auditory objects, although a small number of studies indicate that auditory stimuli can influence perceptions of the freshness of foodstuffs. Consistent with this, the results reported here indicate that independent groups' ratings of the taste of the wine reflected the emotional connotations of the background music played while they drank it. These results indicate that the symbolic function of auditory stimuli (in this case music) may influence perception in other modalities (in this case gustation); and are discussed in terms of possible future research that might investigate those aspects of music that induce such effects in a particular manner, and how such effects might be influenced by participants' pre-existing knowledge and expertise with regard to the target object in question.

  18. Correlation between work concentration level and background music: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Huang, Rong-Hwa; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2009-01-01

    It is a common phenomenon for office workers {to listen to music} while executing daily routines at their desks. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between work concentration level and background music. This research would first follow examples in previous researches, and then explore the influence of background music on participants' scores on attention tests. We hope to gain a preliminary understanding of the possible influence of background music on people's focus and concentration when doing work. Thirty-two college students were separated into three controlled groups; all were given the attention test. Group [a] listened to background music while being tested for 10 minutes; group [b] had no background music at all; and group [c] listened to the music for 10 minutes prior to the attention test. The test was conducted in a "noise free" environment. The means and error rates for each group were then calculated. The findings showed that, in comparison with "no music at all", those who listened to music prior to testing obtained higher scores in attentiveness (most probably a supplemental effect of the music), whereas those who listened to music during attention test showed extremely high level of variation in attention test scoring. Background music does affect people's job-site behavior. In fact, all three test conditions - no background music at all, background music before the work shift, and background music during work - have affected worker performance on different levels.

  19. Data analysis of cosmic microwave background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abroe, Matthew Edmund

    2004-12-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a powerful tool for determining and constraining the fundamental properties of our universe. In this thesis we present various computational and statistical techniques used to analyze datasets from CMB experiments, and apply them to both simulated and actual datasets. The algorithms presented in this thesis perform a variety of tasks in relation to the goal of extracting scientific information from CMB data sets. The CMB anisotropy power spectrum is sensitive to numerous parameters that determine the evolutionary and large scale properties of our universe. Now that numerous experiments have mapped the CMB intensity fluctuations on overlapping regions of the sky it is important to ensure that the various experiments are indeed observing the same signal. We cross-correlate the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy maps from the WMAP, MAXIMA-I, and MAXIMA-II experiments. The results conclusively show that the three experiments not only display the same statistical properties of the CMB anisotropy, but also detect the same features wherever the observed sky areas overlap. We conclude that the contribution of systematic errors to these maps is negligible and that MAXIMA and WMAP have accurately mapped the cosmic microwave background anisotropy. Due to a quadrapole anisotropy at last scattering it is predicted that the CMB photons should be linearly polarized, and that the polarization intensity will be roughly an order of magnitude lower than the intensity fluctuations. Two computationally intensive methods for simulating the CMB polarization signal on the sky are presented. Now that CMB polarization experiments are currently producing data sets new algorithms for analyzing polarization time stream data must be developed and tested. We demonstrate how to generate simulations of a polarization experiment in the temporal domain and apply these simulations to the MAXIPOL case. We develop a maximum likelihood map making

  20. [Orthorexia nervosa and it's background factors].

    PubMed

    Varga, Márta; Dukay-Szabo, Szilvia; Túry, Ferenc

    2013-07-30

    The place of orthorexia nervosa (ON)--described by Bratman in 1997--is not clearly defined in the diagnostic systems. However, the increasing number of clinical experiences and research data gives us more and more information about the epidemiology, and the social and individual characteristics of ON. The general population shows a 6.9% prevalence of ON; healthcare professionals are at high risk of ON with the prevalence rate of 35-57.6%. Education, the choice of profession, socioeconomic status and the internalization of the ideals of society are significant factors in the development of ON, while sex, age and body mass index do not seem to be determining variables in this respect. The lack of common criteria and proper research results on ON makes it impossible to generalize data on the general population. Further studies with larger representative samples and assessment instruments with good psychometric properties are necessary to make research data on ON comparable. PMID:23971352