Sample records for kuts kaimo vahter

  1. AmeriFlux US-KUT KUOM Turfgrass Field

    DOE Data Explorer

    McFadden, Joe [University of California, Santa Barbara


    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-KUT KUOM Turfgrass Field. Site Description - The site was a low-maintenace lawn consisting of cool-season turfgrasses, typical of residential lawns or urban parks in the study area. It was mowed to a height of 70 mm approximately once per week with clippings left to decompose on the surface, was not irrigated, and received one application of inorganic N fertilizer per year. The surrounding suburban residential neighborhood experienced rapid residential development in the 1950s; prior to that time, farms and nurseries were the predominant land-use types. Note that the land management of the field site changed (removal of the turfgrass lawn and planting of trees) AFTER the flux study was completed--this means that imagery after 2009 does not show the land conditions during the flux study.

  2. Spectral anomaly methods for aerial detection using KUT nuisance rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detwiler, R. S.; Pfund, D. M.; Myjak, M. J.; Kulisek, J. A.; Seifert, C. E.


    This work discusses the application and optimization of a spectral anomaly method for the real-time detection of gamma radiation sources from an aerial helicopter platform. Aerial detection presents several key challenges over ground-based detection. For one, larger and more rapid background fluctuations are typical due to higher speeds, larger field of view, and geographically induced background changes. As well, the possible large altitude or stand-off distance variations cause significant steps in background count rate as well as spectral changes due to increased gamma-ray scatter with detection at higher altitudes. The work here details the adaptation and optimization of the PNNL-developed algorithm Nuisance-Rejecting Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection (NSCRAD), a spectral anomaly method previously developed for ground-based applications, for an aerial platform. The algorithm has been optimized for two multi-detector systems; a NaI(Tl)-detector-based system and a CsI detector array. The optimization here details the adaptation of the spectral windows for a particular set of target sources to aerial detection and the tailoring for the specific detectors. As well, the methodology and results for background rejection methods optimized for the aerial gamma-ray detection using Potassium, Uranium and Thorium (KUT) nuisance rejection are shown. Results indicate that use of a realistic KUT nuisance rejection may eliminate metric rises due to background magnitude and spectral steps encountered in aerial detection due to altitude changes and geographically induced steps such as at land-water interfaces.

  3. Paleomagnetic studies of late pleistocene rocks from the Malyi Kut section (Taman Peninsula, Krasnodar krai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, O. V.; Trubikhin, V. M.


    Paleomagnetic studies of Quaternary deposits from the Malyi Kut rock sequence (Krasnodar krai, western part of the Taman Peninsula) in two time intervals of Late Pleistocene are carried out. The Malyi Kut sequence is a marine terrace of the Baku age, which is embedded in the disturbed marine Sarmatian deposits. The terrace of the Bakinian age nests the Karangat marine terrace. The presence of the marine molluscan fauna in the both terraces enables reliable dating of the studied deposits. The composition, grain size, and concentration of ferromagnetic fraction present in the studied rocks are investigated by a set of rock magnetic methods. The directions of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) are studied, and the reliability of their isolation is estimated. The results are compared with the paleomagnetic records of NRM in the rocks of the parallel coeval sections of the Tuzla (Taman Peninsula) and Roxolany (Ukraine). This correlation suggests that the studied rock sequences recorded the Mono Lake geomagnetic excursion.

  4. The KUT meteor radar: An educational low cost meteor observation system by radio forward scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madkour, W.; Yamamoto, M.


    The Kochi University of Technology (KUT) meteor radar is an educational low cost observation system built at Kochi, Japan by successive graduate students since 2004. The system takes advantage of the continuous VHF- band beacon signal emitted from Fukui National College of Technology (FNCT) for scientific usage all over Japan by receiving the forward scattered signals. The system uses the classical forward scattering setup similar to the setup described by the international meteor organization (IMO), gradually developed from the most basic single antenna setup to the multi-site meteor path determination setup. The primary objective is to automate the observation of the meteor parameters continuously to provide amounts of data sufficient for statistical analysis. The developed software system automates the observation of the astronomical meteor parameters such as meteor direction, velocity and trajectory. Also, automated counting of meteor echoes and their durations are used to observe mesospheric ozone concentration by analyzing the duration distribution of different meteor showers. The meteor parameters observed and the methodology used for each are briefly summarized.

  5. Establishment and molecular cytogenetic characterization of non-small cell lung cancer cell line KU-T1 by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization, comparative genomic hybridization, and chromosome microdissection.


    Kume, Motohiko; Taguchi, Takahiro; Okada, Hironobu; Anayama, Takashi; Tominaga, Akira; Shuin, Taro; Sasaguri, Shiro


    A human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, designated KU-T1, was established from a Japanese man in Kochi Medical School. Conventional banding and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) analyses of KU-T1 cells revealed a hyperdiploid chromosomal constitution and complex karyotypes. Comparative genomic hybridization showed several chromosomal copy number changes, and five regions that were highly amplified. Two of the five highly amplified regions, 1q and 3q, were identified from distributions of DNA sequences on a metaphase cell by FISH using chromosome microdissection-generated probes hybridized to 1q32 approximately q34 and 3q26 approximately q28, respectively. The 3q probe depicted a homogeneously staining region (hsr) in a derivative chromosome 3 of KU-T1. An hsr probe was regenerated by chromosome microdissection and was hybridized back to KU-T1 and normal metaphases. This hybridization experiment confirmed the probe derived from an hsr and indicated original locations of DNA sequences of hsr on normal chromosome 3. Intense hybridized signals shown at three loci (3p12, 3q26.3, and 3q28) suggests that oncogenes may be involved in the hsr formation. The present study provides a comprehensive analysis of the chromosomal abnormalities, including hsr formation and related oncogenes, in the KU-T1 cell line.

  6. Four cases of dysthymic disorder and general malaise successfully treated with traditional herbal (kampo) medicines: kamiuntanto.


    Kogure, Toshiaki; Tatsumi, Takeshi; Oku, Yuko


    Traditional herbal (Kampo) medicines have been used since ancient times to treat patients with mental disorders. In the present report, we describe four patients with dysthymia successfully treated with Kampo medicines: Kamiuntanto (KUT). These four patients fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for dysthymic disorder with easy fatigability and sleeplessness, but did not fulfill the criteria for major depressive disorder. Treatment with KUT relieved depressive status, fatigue and sleeplessness in these patients. As a result, their QOL (quality of life) was considerably improved. KUT may be useful as an additional or alternative treatment for dysthymia, especially in the field of primary health care.

  7. The Multinational Division: Is it Viable in Peace Enforcement Operations?

    DTIC Science & Technology



  8. 78 FR 58286 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ...: Magic Circle Corporation d/b/a Dixie Chopper (Coatesville, IN) and Briggs & Stratton Corporation... Ingersoll Equipment Company, Inc., Winnecone, WI Kut-Kwick Corporation, Brunswick, GA Magic Circle...

  9. The Influence of Field Marshal Colmar Von Der Goltz on Ottoman Military Effectiveness in Mesopotamia: December 1915 to April 1916

    DTIC Science & Technology


    of the Kut relief force, Townshend used this information regarding von der Goltz’s intentions to encourage the relief force to act . He stated that...assumption was not surprising as the British commander invested at Kut, Major General Townshend , was an admirer of von der Goltz. From his arrival...Poona Division, commanded by Major General Charles Townshend . An army that the British considered to be second rate defeated them and forced the

  10. The Mesopotamian Campaign: The British Experience in Iraq in the First World War

    DTIC Science & Technology


    R.R. and Colton, Joel. A History of the Modern World. 6th ed. New York: Alfred E. Knopf, Inc., 1984. Schmitt, B.E. and Vedeler, H.C. The World inaC.ibl...Kut al Amara 153 330 6.5 26 Kut al Amara to Baghdad 213 380 6.5 26 TABLE 2. TEMPERATURES ( FAHR .) OF DIFFERENT CENTERS IN MESOPOTAMIA Jan Feb Mar Apr

  11. Analysis of Military Organizational Effectiveness (AMORE). Programmer’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology


    8217 - ~.. .•............. ". ......... ... ....-........... ..... ... . .. START OUTS KOUNT 0 ITAG *0 II 2 j J~+ YES K__ __=_ __1_ __NO__ KUT C-2PN(OJ ?,K.K A L N OUNTO? NO (OUNNT AL LPRJ,1TAGJ, KUNT LTAG = 0 Note i: (TEX’, S

  12. To What Extent Do We Hear Phonemic Contrasts in a Non-Native Regional Variety? Tracking the Dynamics of Perceptual Processing with EEG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Sophie; Brunelliere, Angele; Nguyen, Noel


    This combined ERP and behavioral experiment explores the dynamics of processing during the discrimination of vowels in a non-native regional variety. Southern listeners were presented with three word forms, two of which are encountered in both Standard and Southern French ([kot] and [kut]), whereas the third one exists in Standard but not Southern…

  13. To What Extent Do We Hear Phonemic Contrasts in a Non-Native Regional Variety? Tracking the Dynamics of Perceptual Processing with EEG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Sophie; Brunelliere, Angele; Nguyen, Noel


    This combined ERP and behavioral experiment explores the dynamics of processing during the discrimination of vowels in a non-native regional variety. Southern listeners were presented with three word forms, two of which are encountered in both Standard and Southern French ([kot] and [kut]), whereas the third one exists in Standard but not Southern…

  14. [Distribution of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH)- and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH)-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in coastal Shimane Prefecture and TDH and TRH V parahaemolyticus contamination of retail shellfish].


    Fukushima, Hiroshi


    We studied distribution of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH)- and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH)-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in coastal sea water, sediment, and shellfish and related retail shellfish contamination in Shimane Prefecture, Japan, between 2002 and 2004. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from > 80% of sea water, sediment, and shellfish. The detection of TDH gene (tdh) and TRH gene (trh)-positive V parahaemolyticus in sea water was 11%, in sediment 16%, and in shellfish 26%. The number of genes and gene-related in seawater was 23 MPN/L, in sediment 29 MPN/100 g, and in shellfish 460 MPN/10 g. TDH- and TRH-producing V. parahaemolyticus detected in seawater was 5%, in sediment 11% and in shellfish 14%. The continuous distribution of TDH-producing O2:K28, O4:K88, O4:K37, and O4:KUT organisms on the western coast and TRH2-producing O5:k30, O5:K43, O10:K19, O10:KUT, O11:K40, O11:KUT, and OUT:KUT organisms on the Oki Island coast suggested the settlement of these organisms in these coastal environments. From 7 (12%) of 59 retail short-necked clam samples, we isolated TDH-producing O 1:KUT, O3:K6 (2 strains from 2 samples imported from Korea), O4:K12, OUT:K8, and TRH2-producing OUT:K40 and OUT:K51 organisms. These findings suggested that TDH- and TRH-producing V. parahaemolyticus are widely distributed along the coast of this prefecture and are transported by contaminated retail shellfish from other areas.

  15. Live Iron-60 in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukolyukov, A.; Lugmair, G. W.


    Isotopic analyses of nickel in samples from the differentiated meteorite Chervony Kut revealed the presence of relative excesses of Ni-60 ranging from 2.4 up to 50 parts per 10 exp 4. These isotopic excesses are from the decay of the now extinct short-lived nuclide Fe-60 and provide clear evidence for the existence of Fe-60 over large scales in the early solar system. Not only was Fe-60 present at the time of melting and differentiation (that is, Fe-Ni fractionation) of the parent body of Chervony Kut but also later at the time when basaltic magma solidified at or near the surface of the planetesimal. The inferred abundance of Fe-60 suggests that its decay alone could have provided sufficient heat to melt small (diameters of several hundred kilometers) planetary bodies shortly after their accretion.

  16. Civil-Military Relations in Iraq (1921-2006): An Introductory Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology


    commanded by general Townshend , surrendered to the Ottomans in Kut after a brutal siege for five months, beginning in early December 1915. There...that the foolishness of some Arab individuals disturbed the nation of Britain and its honorable mission [i.e. the occupation of Iraq]. These acts were...Iraqi agents that Faysal was chosen by the Iraqis themselves, by pretending to be against the choice. The assumption was that Iraqis would always act

  17. Review of Polymerization and Properties of Aminoalkyl Acrylates and Aminoalkyl Methacrylates

    DTIC Science & Technology


    to Russian investigators Korshunov, Bodnaryuk, and Kut’in, in 1975.2 The patent concerned the synthesis of methacrylate monomers containing an through transesterification. These researchers used alkyl methacrylates , mainly methyl methacrylate (MMA), as precursors for the synthesis. For...Ratios (rl, r2) of Aminoalkyl Methacrylates and Other Vinyl Monomers Monomer1 Moromer2 rl r2 DMAEMA MMA 0.717 0.676 DMAEMA BMA 0.705 0.66 BDIMA MMA 0.612

  18. Serogroup, Virulence, and Genetic Traits of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Estuarine Ecosystem of Bangladesh▿

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Munirul; Chowdhury, Wasimul B.; Bhuiyan, N. A.; Islam, Atiqul; Hasan, Nur A.; Nair, G. Balakrish; Watanabe, H.; Siddique, A. K.; Huq, Anwar; Sack, R. Bradley; Akhter, M. Z.; Grim, Christopher J.; Kam, K.-M.; Luey, C. K. Y.; Endtz, Hubert P.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Colwell, Rita R.


    Forty-two strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were isolated from Bay of Bengal estuaries and, with two clinical strains, analyzed for virulence, phenotypic, and molecular traits. Serological analysis indicated O8, O3, O1, and K21 to be the major O and K serogroups, respectively, and O8:K21, O1:KUT, and O3:KUT to be predominant. The K antigen(s) was untypeable, and pandemic serogroup O3:K6 was not detected. The presence of genes toxR and tlh were confirmed by PCR in all but two strains, which also lacked toxR. A total of 18 (41%) strains possessed the virulence gene encoding thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), and one had the TDH-related hemolysin (trh) gene, but not tdh. Ten (23%) strains exhibited Kanagawa phenomenon that surrogates virulence, of which six, including the two clinical strains, possessed tdh. Of the 18 tdh-positive strains, 17 (94%), including the two clinical strains, had the seromarker O8:K21, one was O9:KUT, and the single trh-positive strain was O1:KUT. None had the group-specific or ORF8 pandemic marker gene. DNA fingerprinting employing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of SfiI-digested DNA and cluster analysis showed divergence among the strains. Dendrograms constructed using PFGE (SfiI) images from a soft database, including those of pandemic and nonpandemic strains of diverse geographic origin, however, showed that local strains formed a cluster, i.e., “clonal cluster,” as did pandemic strains of diverse origin. The demonstrated prevalence of tdh-positive and diarrheagenic serogroup O8:K21 strains in coastal villages of Bangladesh indicates a significant human health risk for inhabitants. PMID:19684167

  19. The antenatal urinary tract dilation classification system accurately predicts severity of kidney and urinary tract abnormalities.


    Kaspar, C D W; Lo, M; Bunchman, T E; Xiao, N


    Urinary tract dilation (UTD) is a commonly diagnosed prenatal condition; however, it is currently unknown which features lead to benign and resolving or pathologic abnormalities. A consensus UTD classification system (antenatal UTD classification, UTD-A) was created by Nguyen et al. in 2014 [1], but has not yet been validated. To evaluate the ability of the UTD-A system to identify kidney and urinary tract (KUT) abnormalities, assess whether UTD-A can predict severity of KUT conditions, and perform a cost analysis of screening ultrasound (US). A retrospective single-center study was conducted at an academic medical center. Inclusion criteria were: neonates in the well or sick nursery who had a complete abdominal or limited renal US performed in the first 30 days of life between January 01, 2011 and December 31, 2013. Data were collected on prenatal US characteristics from which UTD-A classification was retrospectively applied, and postnatal data were collected up to 2 years following birth. A total of 203 patients were identified. Of the 36 abnormal postnatal KUT diagnoses, 90% were identified prenatally as UTD A1 or UTD A2-3. The remaining 10% developed postnatal KUT abnormalities due to myelomeningocele, such as VUR or UTD, which were not evident prenatally. Overall sensitivity and specificity of the UTD-A system was 0.767 (95% CI 0.577, 0.901) and 0.836 (95% CI 0.758, 0.897), respectively, when resolved UTD was counted as a normal diagnosis. Postnatal diagnoses differed by UTD-A classification as shown in the Summary fig. Of all the obstructive uropathies, 90.9% occurred in the UTD A2-3 class and none occurred in UTD-A Normal. Rate of postnatally resolved UTD was significantly higher in the UTD A1 group (78%) compared with UTD A2-3 (31%) or UTD-A Normal (12%, all P < 0.001). There was a notable trend towards more UT surgeries, UTI, and positive VUR among UTD A2-3 patients, but statistical significance was limited by a small number of patients. This study

  20. Analysis of Factors that have Influenced Outcomes of Battles and Wars: A Data Base of Battles and Engagements. Volume 4. Wars from 1904 through 1940. Part 2. Wars of the 20th Century

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Soumussalm±, 11 December 1939-8 January 1940 (Continued) Acting quickly, the commnder of the Finnish 9th Division sent patrols to discover the...32d Brigade, acting on their own initiative, succeeded in securing the Scimitar Hill above the beach, on 8 August. The two battalions were then ordered...132 WORLD WAR I (TURKISH FRONrS, 191S) Kut-el-Amara, 27-28 September, 1915 In August 1915 Major Caneral Charles Townshend , commander of the British 6th

  1. Limitations on Design Principles for Public Key Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology


    receiving the increase such as a full name, employee ID number, etc. There are bearer authorizations, messages which apply to the bearer of that...protocol is that Alice’s signature on the unencrypted H and T is useless. If Bob wants to argue before a judge that Alice engaged in this protocol run...ACM Press, New York, November 1993. [5] R. Bird, I. Gopal, A. Herzberg , P. Janson, S. Kut- ten, R. Molva, and M. Yung. Systematic Design of a Family

  2. On bi-orthogonal systems of trigonometric functions and quadrature formulas for periodic integrands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Barroso, Ruymán; González-Vera, Pablo; Njåstad, Olav


    In this paper, quadrature formulas with an arbitrary number of nodes and exactly integrating trigonometric polynomials up to degree as high as possible are constructed in order to approximate 2?-periodic weighted integralsE For this purpose, certain bi-orthogonal systems of trigonometric functions are introduced and their most relevant properties studied. Some illustrative numerical examples are also given. The paper completes the results previously given by Szeg? in Magy Tud Akad Mat Kut Intez K?zl 8:255?273, 1963 and by some of the authors in Annales Mathematicae et Informaticae 32:5?44, 2005.

  3. US-Ukraine Military Relations and the Value of Interoperability

    DTIC Science & Technology


    and Ukraine, considering the complaints by Americans that the Ukrainians made the same errors and encouraged "price- gouging " in the early days of U.S...drove into Kut before dawn Friday, pushing out members of the militia headed by radical Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr that had seized the southern textile...Patrol," KFOR Chronicle, April 18, 2003, littp:// wwVZi’. t/for/chronicich,/2003/chronicleO4/18. h tin. 61. Ibid. 62. From interview with Warsaw

  4. Treatment of oily waters using vermiculite.


    Mysore, Deepa; Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari; Jin, Yee-Chung


    The main objective of this study was to examine the removal of oil from water by expanded and hydrophobized vermiculite. A pH of 9 showed a higher removal efficiency of oil by vermiculite. Oil removal efficiencies at pH 9 were found to be 79%, 93%, 90%, 57% for standard mineral oil (SMO), Canola oil (CO), Kutwell oil (KUT45), refinery effluent (RE), respectively, in the case of expanded vermiculite, and 56%, 58%, 47%, 43% for SMO, CO, KUT45 and RE, respectively, for hydrophobized vermiculite. Kinetic data satisfied both the Lagergren and Ho models. Equilibrium studies showed that the Langmuir isotherm was the best-fit isotherm for oil removal by both expanded and hydrophobized vermiculite. The data showed a higher adsorptive capacity by the expanded vermiculite compared to the hydrophobized vermiculite. Desorption studies showed that the expanded vermiculite did not desorb oil to the same extent compared to hydrophobized vermiculite. The Freundlich isotherm was the best-fit model for desorption. Expanded vermiculite showed better retention than hydrophobic vermiculite. The results showed that the expanded vermiculite had a greater affinity for oil than hydrophobized vermiculite.

  5. Factors associated with dengue prevention and control in two villages in a central Thai province: a retrospective review.


    Thakolwiboon, Smathorn; Benjatikul, Nattorn; Sathianvichitr, Kanchalika; Prapathrangsee, Kawintra; Tienmontri, Taniya; Ratanaamonsakul, Wirote; Assantachai, Prasert; Homsanit, Mayuree


    To study the factors associated with dengue prevention and control in Moo 6 (the 6th village) and Moo 7 of Tambon Kaeng-phak-kut, Thaluang District, Lopburi Province. The authors reviewed the raw data collected by public health officers and village health volunteers (VHVs) as their routine tasks. The authors analyzed the data, 30 dwellings per each village, to compare the demographics, knowledge, attitude, and practice of subjects from Moo 6, a dengue-outbreak community, with that from Moo 7, a control group, as well as larval indices between these 2 studied groups. The present retrospective study is approved by Siriraj Institutional Review Board, Certificate of Approval No. Si393/2012. Both groups of subjects had no statistically significant difference in basic dengue knowledge (p = 0.862), attitude towards dengue prevention and control, practical knowledge (p = 0.457), and actual practice to eliminate Aedes larvae and prevent it laying eggs, except for the practice of managing water container in bathroom or toilet (p = 0.015). On the other hand, dengue incidence and larval indices of both villages were apparently different. Although incorrect basic dengue and practical knowledge of subjects from both villages were similar dengue outbreak in Moo 6 of Tambon Kaeng-phak-kut was superior. It may be due to difference in actual practice on larval elimination in water container in bathroom or toilet as well as other factors other than personal factors such as public services, public places, and community surroundings.

  6. Serotype, virulence, and genetic traits of foodborne and clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates in Shanghai, China.


    Zhang, Hongzhi; Sun, Shuangfu; Shi, Weimin; Cui, Lin; Gu, Qifang


    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a major foodborne pathogen in China and other countries. In this study, a total of 578 clinical V. parahaemolyticus strains and 51 foodborne strains were isolated during the period from 2009 to 2011 in the eastern coastal city of Shanghai, China. Their serotypes, virulence genes, pandemic traits, and genotyping were investigated. A total of nine O groups and 20 K types were identified by serological analysis of all isolates. Six different O groups and 14 different K types were detected among the 578 clinical strains. Eight different O groups and five K types were detected among the 51 foodborne strains. The O3:K6 serotype was the dominant serotype. A total of 200 representative clinical strains and 51 foodborne isolates were analyzed for virulence genes, pandemic traits, and genotyping. Of the clinical strains, 92.5% had the virulence genes tdh and/or trh. Four foodborne isolates had virulence genes; one trh-positive strain was O3:K6 and three tdh-positive strains were either O4:KUT or O3:KUT. Molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis also showed divergence among the nonpandemic strains, although the pandemic strains formed a cluster. These results suggest high serodiversity and genetic diversity of V. parahaemolyticus. Pathogenic isolates were present in food, thus representing a public health risk and warranting epidemiological and ecological monitoring to ensure safety.

  7. Discussion of Berta Bornstein's "The Analysis of a Phobic Child".


    Alvarez, Anne


    Bornstein's paper is a true psychoanalytic study of a child, if ever there was one. The fine tracing and discussion of the technical detail, together with the clarity and exposition of the theoretical underpinning make it a truly deep and thorough study and a model for those of us doing this work and trying to understand what indeed we do and why. I should say that although I have read the writings of the (then) Hampstead Clinic's borderline workshop (Kut Rosenfeld and Sprince, 1965), I had not read this outstanding paper by Berta Bornstein, and I wish I had done so long ago. I shall begin with some comments about psychoanalytic theory and then go on to discuss Bornstein's abundant and fascinating analyses of technique. I shall conclude with some observations on the child's psychopathology.

  8. Predatory Bacteria as Natural Modulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in Seawater and Oysters

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Johnna P.; Dickens, Keyana A.; Parent, Michelle A.; Soroka, Douglas S.; Boyd, E. Fidelma


    This study shows that naturally occurring Vibrio predatory bacteria (VPB) exert a major role in controlling pathogenic vibrios in seawater and shellfish. The growth and persistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus were assessed in natural seawater and in the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. The pathogens examined were V. vulnificus strain VV1003, V. parahaemolyticus O1:KUT (KUT stands for K untypeable), and V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 and corresponding O3:K6 mutants deficient in the toxRS virulence regulatory gene or the rpoS alternative stress response sigma factor gene. Vibrios were selected for streptomycin resistance, which facilitated their enumeration. In natural seawater, oysters bioconcentrated each Vibrio strain for 24 h at 22°C; however, counts rapidly declined to near negligible levels by 72 h. In natural seawater with or without oysters, vibrios decreased more than 3 log units to near negligible levels within 72 h. Neither toxRS nor rpoS had a significant effect on Vibrio levels. In autoclaved seawater, V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 counts increased 1,000-fold over 72 h. Failure of the vibrios to persist in natural seawater and oysters led to screening of the water samples for VPB on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 host cells. Many VPB, including Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs; Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Bacteriovorax stolpii) and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus-like predators, were detected by plaque assay and electron microscopic analysis of plaque-purified isolates from Atlantic, Gulf Coast, and Hawaiian seawater. When V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 was added to natural seawater containing trace amounts of VPB, Vibrio counts diminished 3 log units to nondetectable levels, while VPB increased 3 log units within 48 h. We propose a new paradigm that VPB are important modulators of pathogenic vibrios in seawater and oysters. PMID:22904049

  9. Serogroup, virulence, and molecular traits of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from clinical and cockle sources in northeastern Thailand.


    Mala, Wanida; Alam, Munirul; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch; Wongwajana, Suwin; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Huttayananont, Sriwanna; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Faksri, Kiatichai; Chomvarin, Chariya


    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is responsible for seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Isolates of V. parahaemolyticus from clinical samples (n=74) and cockles (Anadara granosa) (n=74) in Thailand were analyzed by serotyping, determination of virulence and related marker genes present, response to antimicrobial agents, and genetic relatedness. Serological analysis revealed 31 different serotypes, 10 of which occurred among both clinical and cockle samples. The clinical isolates commonly included the pandemic serogroup O3:K6, while a few of the cockle isolates exhibited likely pandemic serovariants such as O3:KUT and O4:KUT, but not O3:K6. The pandemic (orf8 gene-positive) strains were more frequently found among clinical isolates (78.4%) than cockle isolates (28.4%) (p<0.001). Likewise, the virulence and related marker genes were more commonly detected among clinical than cockle isolates; i.e., tdh gene (93.2% versus 29.7%), vcrD2 (97.3% versus 23.0%), vopB2 (89.2% versus 13.5%), vopT (98.6% versus 36.5%) (all p<0.001) and trh (10.8% versus 1.4%) (p<0.05). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of NotI-digested genomic DNA of 41 randomly selected V. parahaemolyticus isolates representing different serotypes produced 33 pulsotypes that formed 5 different clusters (clonal complexes) (A-E) in a dendrogram. Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 and likely related pandemic serotypes were especially common among the numerous clinical isolates in cluster C, suggesting a close clonal link among many of these isolates. Most clinical and cockle isolates were resistant to ampicillin. This study indicates that O3:K6 and its likely serovariants based on the PFGE clusters, are causative agents. Seafoods such as cockles potentially serve as a source of virulent V. parahaemolyticus, but further work is required to identify possible additional sources.

  10. Biochemical, serological, and virulence characterization of clinical and oyster Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates.


    Jones, Jessica L; Lüdeke, Catharina H M; Bowers, John C; Garrett, Nancy; Fischer, Markus; Parsons, Michele B; Bopp, Cheryl A; DePaola, Angelo


    In this study, 77 clinical and 67 oyster Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from North America were examined for biochemical profiles, serotype, and the presence of potential virulence factors (tdh, trh, and type III secretion system [T3SS] genes). All isolates were positive for oxidase, indole, and glucose fermentation, consistent with previous reports. The isolates represented 35 different serotypes, 9 of which were shared by clinical and oyster isolates. Serotypes associated with pandemic strains (O1:KUT, O1:K25, O3:K6, and O4:K68) were observed for clinical isolates, and 7 (9%) oyster isolates belonged to serotype O1:KUT. Of the clinical isolates, 27% were negative for tdh and trh, while 45% contained both genes. Oyster isolates were preferentially selected for the presence of tdh and/or trh; 34% contained both genes, 42% had trh but not tdh, and 3% had tdh but not trh. All but 1 isolate (143/144) had at least three of the four T3SS1 genes examined. The isolates lacking both tdh and trh contained no T3SS2α or T3SS2β genes. All clinical isolates positive for tdh and negative for trh possessed all T3SS2α genes, and all isolates negative for tdh and positive for trh possessed all T3SS2β genes. The two oyster isolates containing tdh but not trh possessed all but the vopB2 gene of T3SS2α, as reported previously. In contrast to the findings of previous studies, all strains examined that were positive for both tdh and trh also carried T3SS2β genes. This report identifies the serotype as the most distinguishing feature between clinical and oyster isolates. Our findings raise concerns about the reliability of the tdh, trh, and T3SS genes as virulence markers and highlight the need for more-detailed pathogenicity investigations of V. parahaemolyticus.

  11. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on light transmission of translucent zirconias.


    Putra, Armand; Chung, Kwok-Hung; Flinn, Brian D; Kuykendall, Tuesday; Zheng, Cheng; Harada, Kosuke; Raigrodski, Ariel J


    Studies of the light transmission of translucent zirconias after hydrothermal treatment are limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the light transmission of translucent zirconias for monolithic restorations. Four commercially available zirconia products, BruxZir Anterior Solid Zirconia (BruxAnt, BA), Lava Plus High Translucency (LPHT), Katana Zirconia Super Translucent (KST), and Katana Zirconia Ultra Translucent (KUT) were assessed and 1 type of lithium disilicate, e.max Press LT (LDLT) was used as a control. Plate specimens, 20×20×1 mm (n=80) for the translucency assessment were sectioned from postsintered zirconia bulk materials and ground with a #400-grit diamond wheel and coolant. The specimens were placed under hydrothermal conditions of 134°C at 0.2 MPa (n=5 per group at 0, 5, 50, and 100 hours). Percentage of total transmittance of light (Tt%) of each specimen was measured using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. X-ray diffraction analyses were used to measure tetragonal-monoclinic phase transformation. Surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. Data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey test (α=.05). The Tt% ranged from 6.5% to 28.3%. Group LDLT obtained significantly higher transmittance than other tested groups, whereas groups KST and KUT had significantly higher Tt% than groups BA and LPHT (P<.05). A statistically significant increase in the amount of monoclinic phase was revealed within all translucent zirconia groups (P<.05), and the increase in group LPHT was significantly higher than those of the other 3 translucent zirconias (P<.05). Minimal changes in the percentages of light transmittance were revealed after 100-hour hydrothermal treatment for all tested translucent zirconias and a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic control. Hydrothermal treatment had minimal effects on the translucency of translucent

  12. Tle Triangulation Campaign by Japanese High School Students as a Space Educational Project of the Ssh Consortium Kochi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masa-Yuki; Okamoto, Sumito; Miyoshi, Terunori; Takamura, Yuzaburo; Aoshima, Akira; Hinokuchi, Jin

    As one of the space educational projects in Japan, a triangulation observation project of TLE (Transient Luminous Events: sprites, elves, blue-jets, etc.) has been carried out since 2006 in collaboration between 29 Super Science High-schools (SSH) and Kochi University of Technol-ogy (KUT). Following with previous success of sprite observations by "Astro High-school" since 2004, the SSH consortium Kochi was established as a national space educational project sup-ported by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). High-sensitivity CCD camera (Watec, Neptune-100) with 6 mm F/1.4 C-mount lens (Fujinon) and motion-detective software (UFO-Capture, SonotaCo) were given to each participating team in order to monitor Northern night sky of Japan with almost full-coverage. During each school year (from April to March in Japan) since 2006, thousands of TLE images were taken by many student teams, with considerably large numbers of successful triangulations, i.e., (School year, Numbers of TLE observations, Numbers of triangulations) are (2006, 43, 3), (2007, 441, 95), (2008, 734, 115), and (2009, 337, 78). Note that, school year in Japan begins on April 1 and ends on March 31. The observation campaign began in December 2006, numbers are as of Feb. 28, 2010. Recently, some high schools started wide field observations using multiple cameras, and others started VLF observations using handmade loop antennae and amplifiers. Infomation exchange among the SSH consortium Kochi is frequently communicated with scientific discussion via KUT's mailing lists. Also, interactions with amateur observers in Japan are made through an internet forum of "SonotaCo Network Japan" ( Not only as an educational project but also as a scientific one, the project is also in success. In February 2008, simultaneous observations of Elves were obtained, in November 2009 a Giant "Graft-shaped" Sprites driven by Jets was clearly imaged with VLF signals. Most recently, ob-servations of Elves

  13. Vibrio parahaemolyticus O4:K8 forms a potential predominant clone in southern China as detected by whole-genome sequence analysis.


    Li, Baisheng; Yang, Xingfen; Tan, Hailing; Ke, Bixia; He, Dongmei; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yonghui


    Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been the most common food-borne pathogen in southern China, especially the O3:K6 pandemic clone and its serovariants. Recently, the serotype O4:K8 became more and more prevalent in southern China, which was different from the O3:K6 pandemic clone. Thus, the aim of the present work was to elucidate the molecular characteristics of the O4:K8. Some O3:K6 pandemic clone and its serovariants isolated in the same period were selected for comparative analysis, which were still dominant clone locally. The whole genome sequencing (WGS) was applied to characterize 20 strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from food-borne diarrheal cases and belonging to the serotype O4:K8, O3:K6 and O1:KUT (untypable), prevalent serotypes in recent southern China. The results showed that all these isolates were positive for the thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh), while negative for the TDH-related hemolysin gene (trh). We compared the V. parahaemolyticus strains to those of 31 strains isolated overseas and were available from NCBI genome database. A WGS-SNPs phylogenetic analysis of all the genomes revealed that the strains formed an important genetic lineage, which was genetically distinct from the O3:K6, O1:KUT and other internationals strains. Comparative genome analysis also revealed that all the O4:K8 strains carried the entire T3SS-1 and VpaI-7 (T3SS-2) regions, the most important virulent elements of the O3:K6 pandemic clone. However, all the O4:K8 strains lacked the entire VpaI-1 and VpaI-4 regions and carried only few ORFs of the VpaI-5 and VpaI-6, which were considered to be unique among post-1995 strains belonging to the O3:K6 pandemic clone. Our data showed that the O4:K8 strains possessed the virulence factors similar to the O3:K6 pandemic clone, which may have enabled them to become prevalent in southern China. Our study also revealed that WGS-bases analysis may help improve understanding epidemiology of this bacterium in food-borne disease

  14. A pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 clone causing most associated diarrhea cases in the Pacific Northwest coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    de Jesús Hernández-Díaz, Lucio; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor; Guadron-Llanos, Alma M.; Martinez-Garcia, J. Javier; Vidal, Jorge E.; Canizalez-Roman, Adrián


    Between September and October of 2004, more than 1230 cases of gastroenteritis due to pandemic O3:K6 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) were reported in the relatively small geographical area of Southern Sinaloa, a state located in Northwest Mexico. Since then, V. parahaemolyticus-associated gastroenteritis cases have gradually increased in prevalence spreading from south to north. The present study conducted an epidemiological surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus strains in both environmental and clinical samples along the Pacific coast of Sinaloa from 2011 to 2013. The genetic relatedness, serotype dominance and antibiotic resistance of isolates were investigated. A total of 46 strains were isolated from environmental samples (e.g., sediment, seawater and shrimp), whereas 249 strains were obtained from stools of patients with gastroenteritis. Nine different O serogroups and 16 serovars were identified. Serovars O3:K6 and O6:K46 were identified in both environmental and clinical strains. Whereas most environmental isolates carried the tdh gene (71.74%, 33/46), only three (6.52%) belonged to pandemic clones (O3:K6, O3:KUT and OUT:KUT). In contrast, 81.1% (202/249) of clinical isolates belonged to pandemic serotypes, with O3:K6 (tdh, toxRS/new, and/or orf8) representing the predominant serovar (97%, 196/202). This prevalence of pathogenic (tdh and/or trh positive) and O3:K6 pandemic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in this study were similar to those found from 2004 to 2010. As investigated by REP-PCR, genetic lineages of selected O3:K6 strains isolated in this study and some isolated earlier were nearly identical. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that most strains (93.8%) were resistant to ampicillin but sensitive to chloramphenicol (98.8%). Multidrug resistance significantly increased from 8.6% (2004–2010) to 22.93% (2011–2013; p < 0.05). Our data indicate that pandemic O3:K6 clone has endemically established in the Pacific Coast of

  15. Joint MS Degree Program between the Korea University of Technology and Education and the University of Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, R. L.; Kim, Kwang Su

    This paper provides an overview of the Joint MS Degree Program between Korea University of Technology and Education’ s (KUT) Mechatronics Department and Kansas University’ s (KU) Mechanical Engineering Department. Discussions were initiated in early 2005 which resulted in a formal agreement being approved by both parties in mid-2007. The Joint MS Degree Program is composed of 30 semester credit hours, equally split between the two universities, with the actual degree being awarded by the institution at which the thesis work is performed. Issues addressed during the development of this Joint MS Program included: joint versus dual degrees, institutional acceptance of the transfer of fifteen hours of credit for an MS degree, different admissions requirements and procedures for the two institutions, financial support of the students, faculty advisors at each institution, Graduate Directors at each institution, transcript acknowledgement of the Joint Degree, residency requirements, English speaking requirements/abilities, thesis publication allowances/requirements, and time zone differences for virtual meetings. These issues have been addressed, and the Joint MS Degree Program is functioning with a small number of students having taken advantage of the opportunity since the Program’ s inception. Future considerations are: growing the number of students in the Program, expansion to other Departments besides KU-Mechanical Engineering and KUTMechatronics, including other universities in the Program, expansion to a Joint PhD Degree Program, and stronger funding resources.

  16. Gamma-ray and neutron background comparison of US metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Lee J.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Wulf, Eric A.; Hutcheson, Anthony L.; Gwon, Chul; Woolf, Richard S.; Polaski, Donald


    Gamma-ray and neutron background surveys were performed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in U.S. cities, including Washington, D.C.; Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri; Chicago, Illinois; Richmond, Virginia; Boston, Massachusetts and Baltimore, Maryland. Measurements covered a range of industrial, residential and commercial areas. Germanium grade gamma-ray data over the energy range of 0.05-3.0 MeV and neutron count rates with unmoderated He-3 sensitivity were recorded as a function of latitude, longitude and elevation in one second intervals. Typical Potassium Uranium Thorium (KUT) backgrounds were seen along with several anomalies. For example, a decrease in the thermal neutron flux in large urban canyons was seen and verified via Monte Carlo simulations. The data were collected to provide natural background models for simulation work. Germanium grade spectroscopy is required, because it provides sufficiently detailed isotopic information of the gamma-ray background. As expected a comparison of the background shows significant differences between the individual cities.

  17. Hydrolysis of ionized deoxycholic acid in the aqueous phase and rate analysis for transfer of neutralized deoxycholic acid into the benzene phase across the benzene/water interface.


    Ohno, Ryo; Nakamura, Shohei; Moroi, Yoshikiyo; Isoda-Yamashita, Teruyo


    Sodium deoxycholate in water dissociates into sodium cation and deoxycholate anion in the aqueous phase, and then, the latter anions partially hydrolyze to form deionized deoxycholic acids. The acids move into the benzene phase, when liquid benzene is placed upon the aqueous phase, and finally the partition equilibrium is reached. The above processes were traced by pH change in the aqueous phase by a pH meter or the change in [OH-] with time, from which the rate for transfer of neutralized acid to the organic phase was analyzed. From the trace, the rate constants for hydrolysis of acid anion ( kf), neutralization of acid ( kb), transfer of neutralized acid from the aqueous phase to the organic phase ( kin*), and its back-transfer from the organic phase to the aqueous phase ( kut*) were evaluated; kf = 2.18 x 10 (-4) mol (-1) dm (3) min (-1), kb = 1.24 x 10 (5) mol (-1) dm (3) min (-1), kin* = 4.06 x 10 (-1) min (-1) cm (-2), and kout*) = 8.00 x 10 (-2) min (-1) cm (-2). The above values are supported by the partition constant of deoxycholic acid between the benzene phase and the aqueous phase.

  18. A low cost meteor observation system using radio forward scattering and the interferometry technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madkour, Waleed; Yamamoto, Masa-yuki; Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Mizumoto, Satoshi


    We present a low cost meteor observation system based on the radio forward scattering and interferometry technique at Kochi University of Technology (KUT). The system can be a suitable model for low budget educational institutes that target practical learning of astronomical objects and upper atmospheric characteristics. The system methodology for the automatic counting of meteor echoes, filtering noise and detecting meteor echo directions is described. Detection of the meteor echo directions, which is the basic element for determining the meteor trajectories and the orbital parameters of parent comets, is based on a software system developed for analysis of phase differences detected by interferometry. Randomly selected observation samples measured by the radio interferometer are compared to simultaneous optical observations by video cameras to verify the system accuracy. Preliminary error analysis revealed that the system accuracy is directly related to the duration of observed meteor echoes. Eighty percent of meteor echo samples with durations longer than 3 s showed agreement in azimuth and elevation angles measurements to within a 10° error range, while meteor echo samples with shorter durations showed lower agreement levels probably due to the low system sampling resolution of 0.1 s. The reasonable agreement level of meteor echoes with duration longer than 3 s demonstrated the applicability of the system methodology. Accurate observation of shorter duration meteor echoes could possibly be achieved by improving the system resolution.

  19. Ethnobotanical Study of Herbaceous Flora along an Altitudinal Gradient in Bharmour Forest Division, District Chamba of Himachal Pradesh, India.


    Thakur, Kehar S; Kumar, Munesh; Bawa, Rajan; Bussmann, Rainer W


    The present ethnobotanical study was carried out in Holi (Deol, Kut, Dal, and Lahaud Dhar) forest range and in Bharmor (Seri, Bharmour, Malkauta, Bharmani, Harsar, Dhancho, Sundrasi, Gorikund, and Manimahesh) forest range to obtain information on the plants used by the local inhabitants for several purposes. A total of 54 plants were recorded in this study. The plants are employed to treat simple diseases (cough, cold, fever, and burns) and some serious diseases (typhoid, jaundice, and kidney disease). Some of the plants are also used as incense for religious ceremonies and several other daily needs. But due to absence of scientific monitoring of plants, their cultivation, harvesting, and management techniques as well as sustainable use and lack of awareness of social factors, the availability of valuable plant resources is decreasing at an alarming rate. In addition, the indigenous knowledge regarding the use of lesser-known plants of this region is also rapidly declining. Therefore, the documentation of plant resources is a necessary step towards the goal of raising awareness in local communities about the importance of these plants and their further conservation.

  20. Ethnobotanical Study of Herbaceous Flora along an Altitudinal Gradient in Bharmour Forest Division, District Chamba of Himachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Kehar S.; Kumar, Munesh; Bawa, Rajan; Bussmann, Rainer W.


    The present ethnobotanical study was carried out in Holi (Deol, Kut, Dal, and Lahaud Dhar) forest range and in Bharmor (Seri, Bharmour, Malkauta, Bharmani, Harsar, Dhancho, Sundrasi, Gorikund, and Manimahesh) forest range to obtain information on the plants used by the local inhabitants for several purposes. A total of 54 plants were recorded in this study. The plants are employed to treat simple diseases (cough, cold, fever, and burns) and some serious diseases (typhoid, jaundice, and kidney disease). Some of the plants are also used as incense for religious ceremonies and several other daily needs. But due to absence of scientific monitoring of plants, their cultivation, harvesting, and management techniques as well as sustainable use and lack of awareness of social factors, the availability of valuable plant resources is decreasing at an alarming rate. In addition, the indigenous knowledge regarding the use of lesser-known plants of this region is also rapidly declining. Therefore, the documentation of plant resources is a necessary step towards the goal of raising awareness in local communities about the importance of these plants and their further conservation. PMID:24876884

  1. Global Dissemination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Serotype O3:K6 and Its Serovariants

    PubMed Central

    Nair, G. Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.; Dutta, Basabjit; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Sack, David A.


    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is recognized as a cause of food-borne gastroenteritis, particularly in the Far East, where raw seafood consumption is high. An unusual increase in admissions of V. parahaemolyticus cases was observed at the Infectious Diseases Hospital in Calcutta, a city in the northeastern part of India, beginning February 1996. Analysis of the strains revealed that a unique serotype, O3:K6, not previously isolated during the surveillance in Calcutta accounted for 50 to 80% of the infections in the following months. After this report, O3:K6 isolates identical to those isolated in Calcutta were reported from food-borne outbreaks and from sporadic cases in Bangladesh, Chile, France, Japan, Korea, Laos, Mozambique, Peru, Russia, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, and the United States. Other serotypes, such as O4:K68, O1:K25, and O1:KUT (untypeable), that had molecular characteristics identical to that of the O3:K6 serotype were subsequently documented. These serotypes appeared to have diverged from the O3:K6 serotype by alteration of the O:K antigens and were defined as “serovariants” of the O3:K6 isolate. O3:K6 and its serovariants have now spread into Asia, America, Africa, and Europe. This review traces the genesis, virulence features, molecular characteristics, serotype variants, environmental occurrence, and global spread of this unique clone of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:17223622

  2. Vibrio parahaemolyticus serovar O3:K6 gastroenteritis in northeast Brazil.


    Leal, N C; da Silva, S C; Cavalcanti, V O; Figueiroa, A C T de A; Nunes, V V F; Miralles, I S; Hofer, E


    To examine the virulence factors and the genetic relationship isolates of the serogroup O3 of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in outbreaks of diarrhoea in the northeast region of Brazil. Eighteen samples of the O3:K6 and O3:KUT serotypes of V. parahaemolyticus were analysed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) for detection of the tl, tdh and trh genes, by random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using two primers, and by amplification of the rDNA 16S-23S region. The gene tl was amplified in all the samples, tdh in 16 while trh in none; amplification of rDNA 16S-23S generated only one profile; each RAPD primer produced two amplification patterns allowing grouping two tdh(-) Kanagawa-negative isolates. V. parahaemolyticus with characteristics of the pandemic clone appears to be widely disseminated in the studied region. Because of the genetic uniformity of the isolates, elucidation of outbreaks or tracking the source of contamination by the present molecular techniques seems useless. Detection of V. parahaemolyticus with virulence potential of pandemic clone from two outbreaks and from several isolated gastroenteritis cases points out the need for inclusion of this micro-organism in the Brazilian routine monitoring of the diarrhoeas for elucidation of their aetiology.

  3. 65-kilodalton protein phosphorylated by interleukin 2 stimulation bears two putative actin-binding sites and two calcium-binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zu, Youli; Shigesada, Katsuya; Hanaoka, Masao; Namba, Yuziro ); Nishida, Eisuke ); Kubota, Ichiro ); Kohno, Michiaki )


    The authors have previously characterized a 65-kilodalton protein (p65) as an interleukin 2 stimulated phosphoprotein in human T cells and showed that three endopeptide sequences of p65 are present in the sequence of l-plastin. In this paper, they present the complete primary structure of p65 based on the cDNA isolated from a human T lymphocyte (KUT-2) cDNA library. Analysis of p65 sequences and the amino acid composition of cleaved p65 N-terminal peptide indicated that the deduced p65 amino acid sequence exactly coincides with that of l-plastin over the C-terminal 580 residues and has a 57-residue extension at the N-terminus to l-plastin. Computer-assisted structural analysis revealed that p65 is a multidomain molecule involving at least three intriguing functional domains: two putative calcium-binding sites along the N-terminal 80 amino acid residues; a putative calmodulin-binding site following the calcium-binding region; and two tandem repeats of putative actin-binding domains in its middle and C-terminal parts, each containing approximately 240 amino acid residues. These results suggest that p65 belongs to actin-binding proteins.

  4. [Serotypes of urease producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and their relation to possession of tdh and trh genes].


    Suzuki, N; Ueda, Y; Mori, H; Miyagi, K; Noda, K; Hirose, H; Oosumi, Y; Ishibashi, M; Yoh, M; Yamamoto, K


    We analysed 467 isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus for possession of tdh/trh gene in comparison with urease production and serotypes. Strains possessing tdh+/trh-, tdh+/trh+, tdh-/trh-, and tdh-/trh- show positive urease production 2.1, 100, 65.7, 100%, respectively. Serotypes of O1:K69, O3:K6, O3:K72, O6:K18, O6:K46 and O1:KUT were frequently positive (100% except 91.7% of the latest one) in urease production. All isolates of O3:K6 prossessed trh, whereas all isolates of certain serotypes including O1:K69 and O3:K72 possessed both trh and trh and tdh genes. Among these, most of O1:K69 and O3:K72 were urease producer. From these results, we speculate that urease production is closely related to the presence of the trh gene or/and lesser production of TDH. We also found the new combination of serovar, O3:K25, O4:K37 and O13:K72 in Kanagawa phenomenon-positive strains.

  5. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses reveal distinct biological functions for cold shock proteins (VpaCspA and VpaCspD) in Vibrio parahaemolyticus CHN25 during low-temperature survival.


    Zhu, Chunhua; Sun, Boyi; Liu, Taigang; Zheng, Huajun; Gu, Wenyi; He, Wei; Sun, Fengjiao; Wang, Yaping; Yang, Meicheng; Bei, Weicheng; Peng, Xu; She, Qunxin; Xie, Lu; Chen, Lanming


    Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes serious seafood-borne gastroenteritis and death in humans. Raw seafood is often subjected to post-harvest processing and low-temperature storage. To date, very little information is available regarding the biological functions of cold shock proteins (CSPs) in the low-temperature survival of the bacterium. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus CHN25 (serotype: O5:KUT). The two main CSP-encoding genes (VpacspA and VpacspD) were deleted from the bacterial genome, and comparative transcriptomic analysis between the mutant and wild-type strains was performed to dissect the possible molecular mechanisms that underlie low-temperature adaptation by V. parahaemolyticus. The 5,443,401-bp V. parahaemolyticus CHN25 genome (45.2% G + C) consisted of two circular chromosomes and three plasmids with 4,724 predicted protein-encoding genes. One dual-gene and two single-gene deletion mutants were generated for VpacspA and VpacspD by homologous recombination. The growth of the ΔVpacspA mutant was strongly inhibited at 10 °C, whereas the VpacspD gene deletion strongly stimulated bacterial growth at this low temperature compared with the wild-type strain. The complementary phenotypes were observed in the reverse mutants (ΔVpacspA-com, and ΔVpacspD-com). The transcriptome data revealed that 12.4% of the expressed genes in V. parahaemolyticus CHN25 were significantly altered in the ΔVpacspA mutant when it was grown at 10 °C. These included genes that were involved in amino acid degradation, secretion systems, sulphur metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism along with ATP-binding cassette transporters. However, a low temperature elicited significant expression changes for 10.0% of the genes in the ΔVpacspD mutant, including those involved in the phosphotransferase system and in the metabolism of nitrogen and amino acids. The major metabolic pathways that were altered by the dual-gene deletion

  6. A Geochemical Study of Russian Eucrites and Howardites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.


    As part of our ongoing project on HED meteorites we have begun a study of several Russian eucrites and howardites in collaboration with Michael Nazarov of the Vernadsky Institute in Moscow. We report here the results of our INAA analyses of whole rock and eucritic clasts from eucrites Chervony Kut, Padvarninkai and Vetluga, and howardites Erevan, Yurtuk, and Zmenj. Dr. Nazarov is studying the petrography of these samples. Eucrites and Eucritic Clasts. Chervony Kut is an extremely coarse-grained eucrite, with an estimated average grain size of ~3 mm. The Vernadsky sample is a typical Juvinas group eucrite with Ca, Na, Fe, Sc, Cr, Co and incompatible trace elements (ITE) indistinguishable from the Juvinas group average. Another sample of the meteorite obtained from L. Nyquist appears to be unrepresentative of the whole rock. The very low Ca, Na, and Eu, high Fe, Sc, and Cr, and slightly high ITE suggest that this split is enriched in pyroxene and depleted in plagioclase. Our Padvarninkai clast and whole rock samples are identical within limits of analyses and sample heterogeneity, and are very similar in composition to Juvinas group eucrites. The meteorite is highly shocked and contains some maskelynite and glass veins, and as such has been compared to shergottites, but the composition is clearly that of a typical eucrite. Vetluga appears to be a more unusual eucrite. The meteorite is a light gray breccia with abundant basaltic clasts. Both whole rock and analyzed clast have Fe and Sc slightly higher than Juvinas group eucrites, and have slight negative Eu anomalies (CI normalized Eu/Sm of 0.89 and 0.80, respectively). Vetluga appears to be intermediate between Juvinas group eucrites and Nuevo Laredo and Lakagaon, and hence, may be a residual liquid. Cumulate Eucrites. Two of the clast samples appear to be cumulate eucrites. The Erevan clast was coarse-grained and has extremely low Na and ITE concentrations. La and Sm concentrations are only 5% and 1.4%, respectively

  7. Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains of Pandemic Serotypes Identified from Clinical and Environmental Samples from Jiangsu, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjiao; Xue, Feng; Yang, Zhenquan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zeng, Dexin; Chao, Guoxiang; Jiang, Yuan; Li, Baoguang


    Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged as a major foodborne pathogen in China, Japan, Thailand, and other Asian countries. In this study, 72 strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from clinical and environmental samples between 2006 and 2014 in Jiangsu, China. The serotypes and six virulence genes including thermostable direct hemolysin (TDR) and TDR-related hemolysin (TRH) genes were assessed among the isolates. Twenty five serotypes were identified and O3:K6 was one of the dominant serotypes. The genetic diversity was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, and 48 sequence types (STs) were found, suggesting this V. parahaemolyticus group is widely dispersed and undergoing rapid evolution. A total of 25 strains of pandemic serotypes such as O3:K6, O5:K17, and O1:KUT were identified. It is worth noting that the pandemic serotypes were not exclusively identified from clinical samples, rather, nine strains were also isolated from environmental samples; and some of these strains harbored several virulence genes, which may render those strains pathogenicity potential. Therefore, the emergence of these “environmental” pandemic V. parahaemolyticus strains may poses a new threat to the public health in China. Furthermore, six novel serotypes and 34 novel STs were identified among the 72 isolates, indicating that V. parahaemolyticus were widely distributed and fast evolving in the environment in Jiangsu, China. The findings of this study provide new insight into the phylogenic relationship between V. parahaemolyticus strains of pandemic serotypes from clinical and environmental sources and enhance the MLST database; and our proposed possible O- and K- antigen evolving paths of V. parahaemolyticus may help understand how the serotypes of this dispersed bacterial population evolve. PMID:27303379

  8. Major tdh(+)Vibrio parahaemolyticus serotype changes temporally in the Bay of Bengal estuary of Bangladesh.


    Akther, Farhana; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Chowdhury, Wasimul B; Sadique, Abdus; Islam, Atiqul; Akhter, Marufa Zerin; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Ohnishi, Makoto; Watanabe, Haruo; Boucher, Yan; Alam, Munirul


    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is responsible for seafood-related gastroenteritis worldwide. In Bangladesh, diarrhea is endemic and diarrheagenic V. parahaemolyticus serotypes occur naturally in the coastal and estuarine aquatic environment. V. parahaemolyticus strains, isolated from estuarine surface water of the Bay of Bengal villages of Bangladesh during 2006-2008, were tested for the presence of virulence and pandemic-marker genes, serodiversity, and phylogenetic relatedness. PCR analysis of V. parahaemolyticus (n=175) showed 53 (30.3%) strains to possess tdh, the major virulence gene encoding thermostable direct hemolysin. Serotyping results revealed the tdh(+)V. parahaemolyticus strains to belong to 10 different serotypes, of which the O8:K21 (30.2%) and O3:K6 (24.5%) were predominantly non-pandemic and pandemic serotypes, respectively; while O5:K30 and O9:KUT were new. The pandemic markers, orf8 and toxRS(variant), were present only in the pandemic serotype O3:K6 (n=13) and its serovariant O4:K68 (n=2). Temporal distribution of the tdh(+) serotypes revealed the O8:K21 to be predominant in 2006 and 2007, while O3:K6 was the predominant tdh(+) serotype in 2008. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of SfiI-digested genomic DNA revealed high genetic diversity among the V. parahaemolyticus strains, while dendrogram constructed with the PFGE patterns formed two major clusters separating the tdh(+) O3:K6 and its pandemic serovariants from the tdh(+) non-pandemic (O8:K21) strains, suggesting different lineages for them. The potential health risk related to the prevalent tdh(+) strains, including the observed temporal change of the predominant tdh(+) serotype, from O8:K21 to the pandemic serotype O3:K6 in estuarine surface waters serving as the major source of drinking water suggests the need for routine environmental monitoring to prevent V. parahaemolyticus infection in Bangladesh.

  9. Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.


    Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

  10. Cognitive evoked potentials P300 after radiation exposure.


    Loganovsky, K M; Kuts, K V


    monitoring of individuals exposed to ionizing radiation is necessary. To identify the neurophysiological biological markers of ionizing radiation further international researches with adequate dosimetry support are needed. K. M. Loganovsky, K. V. Kuts.

  11. Epidemiological evidence of lesser role of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH)-related hemolysin (TRH) than TDH on Vibrio parahaemolyticus pathogenicity.


    Saito, Shioko; Iwade, Yoshito; Tokuoka, Eisuke; Nishio, Tomohiro; Otomo, Yoshimitsu; Araki, Emiko; Konuma, Hirotaka; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Kanji; Hasegawa, Akio; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko


    Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying the tdh gene, encoding the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), or the trh gene, encoding the TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), are both considered virulent strains. There are, however, disproportionally fewer reports of infections caused by seafood contaminated with trh-positive strains than by seafood contaminated with tdh-positive strains. Bivalves such as clams and oysters are the major seafood varieties associated with the infections. In this study, the prevalence of strains possessing the tdh and trh genes was investigated in Japan in 74 samples collected in 2007-2008 and in 177 samples collected in 2010 of domestic bivalves, bloody clams, hen clams, short-neck clams, and rock oysters. The tdh-positive and trh-negative, tdh-negative and trh-positive, and tdh-positive and trh-positive samples represented 5.4%, 12.2%, and 4.1% of all samples collected in 2007-2008, and 5.1%, 18.6%, and 5.6% of all samples collected in 2010, respectively. As determined by polymerase chain reaction, the prevalence of tdh negative and trh positive in all samples was two to four times higher than that of tdh positive and trh negative. In the samples collected in 2010, the tdh-negative and trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus (20 samples) was more often isolated than tdh-positive and trh-negative V. parahaemolyticus (7 samples). The most common serotype of tdh-positive isolates (22 of 24 strains) was pandemic O3:K6. The trh-positive isolates (61 strains) were various serotypes including OUT:KUT. In 330 V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks and sporadic infections in Japan, most outbreaks and sporadic infections were caused by tdh-positive and trh-negative strains (89.4%). The frequencies of infections caused by tdh-negative and trh-positive, and both tdh- and trh-positive strains were 1.2% and 3.0%, respectively. This finding suggests that the virulence of trh might be less than that of tdh, although trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus frequently contaminated bivalves.

  12. Development of a Simple Tool for Identifying Alcohol Use Disorder in Female Korean Drinkers from Previous Questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yu Ri; Kim, Sung Soo; Yoon, Seok Joon; Suh, Won Yoon; Youn, Kwangmi


    Background This study aimed to develop a simple tool for identifying alcohol use disorders in female Korean drinkers from previous questionnaires. Methods This research was conducted on 400 women who consumed at least one alcoholic drink during the past month and visited the health promotion center at Chungnam National University Hospital between June 2013 to May 2014. Drinking habits and alcohol use disorders were assessed by structured interviews using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition diagnostic criteria. The subjects were also asked to answer the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), AUDIT-Consumption, CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener), TWEAK (Tolerance, Worried, Eye-opener, Amnesia, Kut down), TACE (Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut down, Eye-opener), and NET (Normal drinker, Eye-opener, Tolerance) questionnaires. The area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) of each question of the questionnaires on alcohol use disorders was assessed. After combining two questions with the largest AUROC, it was compared to other previous questionnaires. Results Among the 400 subjects, 58 (14.5%) were identified as having an alcohol use disorder. Two questions with the largest AUROC were question no. 7 in AUDIT, "How often during the last year have you had a feeling of guilt or remorse after drinking?" and question no. 5 in AUDIT, "How often during the past year have you failed to do what was normally expected from you because of drinking?" with an AUROC (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.886 (0.850–0.915) and 0.862 (0.824–0.894), respectively. The AUROC (95% CI) of the combination of the two questions was 0.958 (0.934–0.976) with no significant difference as compared to the existing AUDIT with the largest AUROC. Conclusion The above results suggest that the simple tool consisting of questions no. 5 and no. 7 in AUDIT is useful in identifying alcohol use disorders in Korean female drinkers. PMID:26885318

  13. Microbial communities in the reef water at Kham Island, lower Gulf of Thailand.


    Somboonna, Naraporn; Wilantho, Alisa; Monanunsap, Somchai; Chavanich, Suchana; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Tongsima, Sissades


    Coral reefs are among the most biodiverse habitats on Earth, but knowledge of their associated marinemicrobiome remains limited. To increase the understanding of the coral reef ecosystem in the lower Gulf of Thailand, this study utilized 16S and 18S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing to identify the prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbiota present in the reef water at Kham Island, Trat province, Thailand (N6.97 E100.86). The obtained result was then compared with the published microbiota from different coral reef water and marine sites. The coral reefs at Kham Island are of the fringe type. The reefs remain preserved and abundant. The community similarity indices (i.e., Lennon similarity index, Yue & Clayton similarity index) indicated that the prokaryotic composition of Kham was closely related to that of Kra, another fringing reef site in the lower Gulf of Thailand, followed by coral reef water microbiota at GS048b (Cooks Bay, Fr. Polynesia), Palmyra (Northern Line Islands, United States) and GS108b (Coccos Keeling, Australia), respectively. Additionally, the microbial eukaryotic populations at Kham was analyzed and compared with the available database at Kra. Both eukaryotic microbiota, in summer and winter seasons, were correlated. An abundance of Dinophysis acuminata was noted in the summer season, in accordance with its reported cause of diarrhoeatic shellfish outbreak in the summer season elsewhere. The slightly lower biodiversity in Kham than at Kra might reflect the partly habitat difference due to coastal anthropogenic activities and minor water circulation, as Kham locates close to the mainland and is surrounded by islands (e.g., Chang and Kut islands). The global marine microbiota comparison suggested relatively similar microbial structures among coral sites irrespective of geographical location, supporting the importance of coral-associated marine microbiomes, and Spearman's correlation analysis between community membership and factors of shore distance and

  14. FE-60 and the evolution of eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukolyukov, A.; Lugmair, G. W.


    We have recently presented evidence for the existence of live Fe-60 in the early solar system. This evidence comes from observations of 2.4 to 50 epsilon unit (1 part in 10(exp 4)) relative excesses of Ni-60 measured in samples from the eucrite Chervony Kut (CK). These isotopic excesses have been produced by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide Fe-60 (T(sub 1/2) = 1.5 Ma). Because CK originates from a planetesimal which was totally molten and its high Fe/Ni ratio is due to a planet-wide Fe-Ni fractionation during metal-silicate segregation, the presence of the Fe-60 decay product indicates the large scale abundance of Fe-60 in the early solar system and its presence during differentiation of this planetesimal. The observed variable Ni-60 excesses in different bulk samples and mineral separates from CK can only be understood if some Fe-60 was still alive at the time when basaltic magma had solidified on the eucrite parent body. The lack of a correlation between Ni-60 and the respective Fe/Ni ratios in different mineral fractions from CK indicates a metamorphic remobilization of Ni after essentially all Fe-60 has decayed. However, Ni-60 from three bulk samples from different locations within the meteorite appears to correlate reasonably well with the respective Fe/Ni ratios. If we regard this correlation as an isochron then its slope yields a Fe-60/Fe-56 ratio f (3.9 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -9) and an initial Ni-60 of 3.2 plus or minus 0.9 epsilon units at the time of crystallization of CK. Estimates based on these values and a approximately 10 Ma time interval between CK solidification and formation of the earliest condensates in the solar system followed by rapid accretion of planetary bodies indicate that the decay of Fe-60 could produce sufficient heat to melt these planetesimals. If Al-26 was present on a planetary scale as Fe-60 and at abundances close to values observed in Allende inclusions then melting of small early formed planets is inevitable. As an

  15. Microbial communities in the reef water at Kham Island, lower Gulf of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wilantho, Alisa; Monanunsap, Somchai; Chavanich, Suchana; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke


    Coral reefs are among the most biodiverse habitats on Earth, but knowledge of their associated marinemicrobiome remains limited. To increase the understanding of the coral reef ecosystem in the lower Gulf of Thailand, this study utilized 16S and 18S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing to identify the prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbiota present in the reef water at Kham Island, Trat province, Thailand (N6.97 E100.86). The obtained result was then compared with the published microbiota from different coral reef water and marine sites. The coral reefs at Kham Island are of the fringe type. The reefs remain preserved and abundant. The community similarity indices (i.e., Lennon similarity index, Yue & Clayton similarity index) indicated that the prokaryotic composition of Kham was closely related to that of Kra, another fringing reef site in the lower Gulf of Thailand, followed by coral reef water microbiota at GS048b (Cooks Bay, Fr. Polynesia), Palmyra (Northern Line Islands, United States) and GS108b (Coccos Keeling, Australia), respectively. Additionally, the microbial eukaryotic populations at Kham was analyzed and compared with the available database at Kra. Both eukaryotic microbiota, in summer and winter seasons, were correlated. An abundance of Dinophysis acuminata was noted in the summer season, in accordance with its reported cause of diarrhoeatic shellfish outbreak in the summer season elsewhere. The slightly lower biodiversity in Kham than at Kra might reflect the partly habitat difference due to coastal anthropogenic activities and minor water circulation, as Kham locates close to the mainland and is surrounded by islands (e.g., Chang and Kut islands). The global marine microbiota comparison suggested relatively similar microbial structures among coral sites irrespective of geographical location, supporting the importance of coral-associated marine microbiomes, and Spearman’s correlation analysis between community membership and factors of shore distance and

  16. Sero-Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Pandemic V. parahaemolyticus Strains Occurring at a Global Scale

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chongxu; Tang, Hui; Ren, Chuanli; Zhu, Xiaoping; Han, Dongsheng


    Pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an emerging public health concern as it has caused numerous gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Currently, the absence of a global overview of the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of pandemic strains restricts our overall understanding of these strains, especially for environmental strains. To generate a global picture of the sero-prevalence and genetic diversity of pandemic V. parahaemolyticus, pandemic isolates from worldwide collections were selected and analyzed in this study. After a thorough analysis, we found that the pandemic isolates represented 49 serotypes, which are widely distributed in 22 countries across four continents (Asia, Europe, America and Africa). All of these serotypes were detected in clinical isolates but only nine in environmental isolates. O3:K6 was the most widely disseminated serotype, followed by O3:KUT, while the others were largely restricted to certain countries. The countries with the most abundant pandemic serotypes were China (26 serotypes), India (24 serotypes), Thailand (15 serotypes) and Vietnam (10 serotypes). Based on MLST analysis, 14 sequence types (STs) were identified among the pandemic strains, nine of which fell within clonal complex (CC) 3. ST3 and ST305 were the only two STs that have been reported in environmental pandemic strains. Pandemic ST3 has caused a wide range of infections in as many as 16 countries. Substantial serotypic diversity was mainly observed among isolates within pandemic ST3, including as many as 12 combinations of O/K serotypes. At the allele level, the dtdS and pntA, two loci that perfectly conserved in CC3, displayed a degree of polymorphism in some pandemic strains. In conclusion, we provide a comprehensive understanding of sero-prevalence and genetic differentiation of clinical and environmental pandemic isolates collected from around the world. Although, further studies are needed to delineate the specific mechanisms by which the pandemic

  17. Geocryological Structure and Glaciers Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the context of global climate processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmiansky, Mikhail; Anokhin, Vladimir


    reaches 480 m. Observations of the authors of the glaciers of Novaya Zemlya (Hammer and Sickle, Rose et al.), Carried out in the monitor mode, the last 15 years show an intensive retreat from the shoreline inland archipelago and sharply higher flow of silt-pelitic material kut bays. Lithological changes the picture of the bottom of the bays, which causes certain biogenic transformation of ecosystems.

  18. 60Fe -- Light My Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukolyukov, A.; Lugmair, G. W.


    In [1] we reported on the first long-sought evidence for live 60Fe in the early solar system. 60Fe decays with T(sub)1/2 = 1.5 My [2] and forms, via 60Co, the stable nuclide 60Ni. The importance of the 60Fe-60Ni system is determined by the fact that it could serve as a sensitive chronometer for early solar system events and, if 60Fe was present in sufficient amounts, as a heat source for melting and differentiation of early formed planetesimals. To search for the presence of 60Fe in the early solar system we have chosen the relatively unbrecciated eucrite Chervony Kut (CK) whose igneous origin is well established [3]. Their extremely high Fe/Ni ratio clearly suggests that eucrites are the basaltic products of planet-wide melting and differentiation and, together with an old age, are prerequisites for the detection of effects from the decay of 60Fe and for the demonstration of its large-scale occurrence. The first analysis of a fine-grained "bulk" sample of CK with 56Fe/58Ni = 3.4 x 10^4 revealed a distinct and well resolved excess of 60Ni of 6.6 +- 0.6 epsilon units [1]. Considering several potential sources for this effect it has been concluded that this excess is due to the decay of 60Fe and represents the first clear evidence for the existence of live 60Fe in the early solar system [1]. We calculated the 60Fe/56Fe ratio at the time of Ni depletion as ~7.5 x 10^-9. It was also shown that the decay of 60Fe could provide considerable amounts of heat within planetesimals during the very early stages of accretion. After this original discovery we set out to a) provide corroborating evidence from other samples of CK and b) ascertain whether 60Fe was still alive at the time of solidification of CK and if so, attempt to determine the 60Fe/56Fe ratio at that time. It was found that Ni is very heterogeneously distributed within the meteorite and may reside mainly within tiny metal grains rather than within the major mineral phases. For example, several 'bulk' samples had

  19. The Karangatian epoch in the Neopleistocene history of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanko-Hombach, Valentina; Motnenko, Irena


    Karangatian by A.D. Arkhangel'skiy and N.M. Strakhov (1938) and were studied by numerous scientists including the present authors. Our material includes detailed study of foraminifera and lithological properties from many outcrops: "Eltigen," "Karangat," "Chokrack" (all Kerch peninsula); "Chushka," "Tuzla," "Krotkov Cape," "Maliy Kut" (all Taman peninsula); "Ashe," "Slot Neozhidannaya," "Agoy," "Chemitakwaga," "Lazurniy coast," "Mamayka," "Krashiy storm," "Adler," "Gudauta" (all Caucasian coast); "Chakvata," "Ureki" (all Western Georgian coast); and two drill holes and 200 vibro- and gravity cores recovered from the Black Sea bottom (Yanko, 1989). The most complete Karangatian sediments sequence (120-70 ka BP) is in the "Eltigen" parastratotype that contains 73 species of foraminifera, predominantly benthic but a few planktonic also. Most do not live today in the Black Sea but are widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin, with twice the salinity of the Black Sea. In our presentation, we will describe foraminifera and lithology of that parastratotype, comparing it with other outcrops and cores. We will show that the Karangatian transgression increased salinity in the Black Sea above 30 psu and raised its level to at least the present elevation. This transgression was not gradual but oscillating in nature.