McFadden, Joe [University of California, Santa Barbara
This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-KUT KUOM Turfgrass Field. Site Description - The site was a low-maintenace lawn consisting of cool-season turfgrasses, typical of residential lawns or urban parks in the study area. It was mowed to a height of 70 mm approximately once per week with clippings left to decompose on the surface, was not irrigated, and received one application of inorganic N fertilizer per year. The surrounding suburban residential neighborhood experienced rapid residential development in the 1950s; prior to that time, farms and nurseries were the predominant land-use types. Note that the land management of the field site changed (removal of the turfgrass lawn and planting of trees) AFTER the flux study was completed--this means that imagery after 2009 does not show the land conditions during the flux study.
Detwiler, R. S.; Pfund, D. M.; Myjak, M. J.; Kulisek, J. A.; Seifert, C. E.
This work discusses the application and optimization of a spectral anomaly method for the real-time detection of gamma radiation sources from an aerial helicopter platform. Aerial detection presents several key challenges over ground-based detection. For one, larger and more rapid background fluctuations are typical due to higher speeds, larger field of view, and geographically induced background changes. As well, the possible large altitude or stand-off distance variations cause significant steps in background count rate as well as spectral changes due to increased gamma-ray scatter with detection at higher altitudes. The work here details the adaptation and optimization of the PNNL-developed algorithm Nuisance-Rejecting Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection (NSCRAD), a spectral anomaly method previously developed for ground-based applications, for an aerial platform. The algorithm has been optimized for two multi-detector systems; a NaI(Tl)-detector-based system and a CsI detector array. The optimization here details the adaptation of the spectral windows for a particular set of target sources to aerial detection and the tailoring for the specific detectors. As well, the methodology and results for background rejection methods optimized for the aerial gamma-ray detection using Potassium, Uranium and Thorium (KUT) nuisance rejection are shown. Results indicate that use of a realistic KUT nuisance rejection may eliminate metric rises due to background magnitude and spectral steps encountered in aerial detection due to altitude changes and geographically induced steps such as at land-water interfaces.
Madkour, W.; Yamamoto, M.
The Kochi University of Technology (KUT) meteor radar is an educational low cost observation system built at Kochi, Japan by successive graduate students since 2004. The system takes advantage of the continuous VHF- band beacon signal emitted from Fukui National College of Technology (FNCT) for scientific usage all over Japan by receiving the forward scattered signals. The system uses the classical forward scattering setup similar to the setup described by the international meteor organization (IMO), gradually developed from the most basic single antenna setup to the multi-site meteor path determination setup. The primary objective is to automate the observation of the meteor parameters continuously to provide amounts of data sufficient for statistical analysis. The developed software system automates the observation of the astronomical meteor parameters such as meteor direction, velocity and trajectory. Also, automated counting of meteor echoes and their durations are used to observe mesospheric ozone concentration by analyzing the duration distribution of different meteor showers. The meteor parameters observed and the methodology used for each are briefly summarized.
Hunt, Russell A.
This paper discusses an Owen Wister poem published in 1920 in "The Atlantic Monthly" and brought to the attention of a university class without any information as to its context or its references, and read in various ways by various individuals, as information about the poem's context was gradually discovered. The central issue explored in the…
Rodionov, V. P.
The available paleomagnetic data on the Verkhnyaya Lena Group from different areas of the southern Siberian Platform are revised. The group rests unconformably upon the Lower Cambrian strata and is overlain by Lower Ordovician rocks, which determines conditionally the age of its red-colored deposits. Paleomagnetic correlation of composite sections through the region using defined zones of normal and reversed magnetic polarity serves as a basis for development of the magnetostratigraphic scale for the Verkhnyaya Lena Group. The scale includes nine magnetic zones, which play the role of markers; seven of them are traceable in all the examined sections of the southern Siberian Platform. By the distribution of zones with normal (N) and reversed (R) polarity, the magnetostratigraphic scale is subdivided into three parts. Its lower part is represented by reversed polarity, which is characteristic of the second half of the Lower Cambrian. The middle part is characterized by frequently alternating zones with normal and reversed polarity corresponding to the Middle Cambrian. The upper part of the scale corresponds to the interval of reversed polarity characteristic of the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician. The Middle-Upper Cambrian boundary is located near the last N-R reversal of the geomagnetic field in the Cambrian. The magnetostratigraphic scale includes nine orthozones united into three superzones, which are attributed to two hyperzones of magnetic polarity.
Kogure, Toshiaki; Tatsumi, Takeshi; Oku, Yuko
Traditional herbal (Kampo) medicines have been used since ancient times to treat patients with mental disorders. In the present report, we describe four patients with dysthymia successfully treated with Kampo medicines: Kamiuntanto (KUT). These four patients fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for dysthymic disorder with easy fatigability and sleeplessness, but did not fulfill the criteria for major depressive disorder. Treatment with KUT relieved depressive status, fatigue and sleeplessness in these patients. As a result, their QOL (quality of life) was considerably improved. KUT may be useful as an additional or alternative treatment for dysthymia, especially in the field of primary health care. PMID:21614161
Dufour, Sophie; Brunelliere, Angele; Nguyen, Noel
This combined ERP and behavioral experiment explores the dynamics of processing during the discrimination of vowels in a non-native regional variety. Southern listeners were presented with three word forms, two of which are encountered in both Standard and Southern French ([kot] and [kut]), whereas the third one exists in Standard but not Southern…
Yamamoto, Masa-Yuki; Horiuchi, Hirotaka; Okamoto, Goro; Hamaguchi, Haruko; Noguchi, Kazuya
As a typical radio meteor observation method, the Ham-band Radio meteor Observation (HRO) has been spread to many amateur meteor observers in the world, resulting in worldwide continuous detection of each meteor echo at precise time of appearance in any weather condition as well as in daytime. However, direction finding of incoming electromagnetic waves by meteors is difficult to obtain by a usual HRO system. An application of HRO with interferometer technique was developed in 2004-2005 in Kochi University of Technology (KUT), Japan. Within a context of the forwardscattering radar method, an HRO interferometer (HRO-IF) with 3 antennas was developed. Detailed structure of the HRO-IF system at KUT as well as calibration experiments of establishing accurate direction determination are presented.
Shukolyukov, A.; Lugmair, G. W.
Isotopic analyses of nickel in samples from the differentiated meteorite Chervony Kut revealed the presence of relative excesses of Ni-60 ranging from 2.4 up to 50 parts per 10 exp 4. These isotopic excesses are from the decay of the now extinct short-lived nuclide Fe-60 and provide clear evidence for the existence of Fe-60 over large scales in the early solar system. Not only was Fe-60 present at the time of melting and differentiation (that is, Fe-Ni fractionation) of the parent body of Chervony Kut but also later at the time when basaltic magma solidified at or near the surface of the planetesimal. The inferred abundance of Fe-60 suggests that its decay alone could have provided sufficient heat to melt small (diameters of several hundred kilometers) planetary bodies shortly after their accretion.
Mizumoto, S.; Madkour, W.; Yamamoto, M.
At Kochi University of Technology (KUT), the development of an HRO (Ham-band Radio meteor Observation) -Interferometer (IF) was started in 2003, and we realized the meteor orbit calculation system by multiple-site radio observation with GPS time-keeping combining with the 5 channel (5ch) HRO-IF in 2012. Here, we introduce a future plan of comprehensive meteor observation by Radio, Optical and Infrasound observation.
Li, Baisheng; Luo, Jinyan; Tan, Hailing; Ke, Bixia; He, Dongmei; Ke, Changwen; Klena, John D.; Zhang, Yonghui
Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged as a common foodborne pathogen of global concern. In this study, 108 V. parahaemolyticus isolates that recovered from diarrhea cases (n = 96) and seafood products (n = 12) in Guangdong Province from 2007 to 2011 were characterized by serotyping, tdh and trh toxin gene detection and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The dominant serotypes from the cases were O3:K6, O4:K8 and O1: KUT (untyped). However, most isolates recovered from seafood products belonged to other serotypes. None of the isolates carried the trh gene, while the major isolates from the cases were tdh positive. MLST analysis revealed 31 sequence types (STs); 17 STs were unique in this study. eBURST analysis revealed four clonal complexes (CC), The majority of the isolates (n = 58, all from cases and tdh+) were grouped into the CC3, which included O3:K6, O4:K68 and O1:KUT isolates. The CC3 was the most prevalent clonal complex, and all of the CC3 isolates were recovered from clinical cases of geographically diverse origin. As to the CC345, which was completely constituted by O4:K8, was another important clonal complex affecting Guangdong Province. Ongoing surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus in diarrhea patients and seafood products remains a public health priority for Guangdong Province, China. PMID:25662708
Mysore, Deepa; Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari; Jin, Yee-Chung
The main objective of this study was to examine the removal of oil from water by expanded and hydrophobized vermiculite. A pH of 9 showed a higher removal efficiency of oil by vermiculite. Oil removal efficiencies at pH 9 were found to be 79%, 93%, 90%, 57% for standard mineral oil (SMO), Canola oil (CO), Kutwell oil (KUT45), refinery effluent (RE), respectively, in the case of expanded vermiculite, and 56%, 58%, 47%, 43% for SMO, CO, KUT45 and RE, respectively, for hydrophobized vermiculite. Kinetic data satisfied both the Lagergren and Ho models. Equilibrium studies showed that the Langmuir isotherm was the best-fit isotherm for oil removal by both expanded and hydrophobized vermiculite. The data showed a higher adsorptive capacity by the expanded vermiculite compared to the hydrophobized vermiculite. Desorption studies showed that the expanded vermiculite did not desorb oil to the same extent compared to hydrophobized vermiculite. The Freundlich isotherm was the best-fit model for desorption. Expanded vermiculite showed better retention than hydrophobic vermiculite. The results showed that the expanded vermiculite had a greater affinity for oil than hydrophobized vermiculite.
Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Lozano-Leon, Antonio; DePaola, Angelo; Ishibashi, Masanori; Shimada, Kanae; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Liebana, Ernesto
In spite of the potential risk involved with contamination of seafood with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, there is a lack of information on the occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in Europe. This organism was isolated in 1999 from a large outbreak (64 cases admitted to a single hospital) associated with raw oyster consumption in Galicia, Spain, one of the most important regions in shellfish production worldwide. Two V. parahaemolyticus isolates from the 1999 Galicia outbreak, three additional clinical isolates obtained in the same period from hospitals in Spain, two reference strains from clinical sources, and five Spanish environmental isolates were examined. Seventeen isolates belonging to the pandemic clone isolated in Asia and North America were included in the study for comparison. All isolates were characterized by serotyping, PCR for virulence-related genes, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and plasmid analysis. Four of the five clinical isolates from hospitals in Spain belonged to serotype O4:K11; the remaining isolate was O4:K untypeable (KUT). All five isolates were positive for V. parahaemolyticus toxR and tlh (species-specific genes) and tdh and negative for trh and group-specific PCR (a PCR method for detection of the pandemic clone). PFGE analysis with NotI and SfiI discriminated the European isolates in two closely related PFGE types included in a homogeneous cluster, clearly differentiated from the Asian and North American isolates. The five environmental isolates belonged to serotypes O2:K28, O2:KUT, O3:K53, O4:KUT, and O8:K22 and were negative for all virulence genes. The five isolates were discriminated into five different PFGE types unrelated to any other isolate included in the study. While the virulence characteristics (tdh positive, trh negative) of the Spanish clinical isolates matched those of the O3:K6 clone from Asia and North America, they were clearly excluded from this clone by group-specific PCR, PFGE, and serotyping. The
Mala, Wanida; Alam, Munirul; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch; Wongwajana, Suwin; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Huttayananont, Sriwanna; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Faksri, Kiatichai; Chomvarin, Chariya
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is responsible for seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Isolates of V. parahaemolyticus from clinical samples (n=74) and cockles (Anadara granosa) (n=74) in Thailand were analyzed by serotyping, determination of virulence and related marker genes present, response to antimicrobial agents, and genetic relatedness. Serological analysis revealed 31 different serotypes, 10 of which occurred among both clinical and cockle samples. The clinical isolates commonly included the pandemic serogroup O3:K6, while a few of the cockle isolates exhibited likely pandemic serovariants such as O3:KUT and O4:KUT, but not O3:K6. The pandemic (orf8 gene-positive) strains were more frequently found among clinical isolates (78.4%) than cockle isolates (28.4%) (p<0.001). Likewise, the virulence and related marker genes were more commonly detected among clinical than cockle isolates; i.e., tdh gene (93.2% versus 29.7%), vcrD2 (97.3% versus 23.0%), vopB2 (89.2% versus 13.5%), vopT (98.6% versus 36.5%) (all p<0.001) and trh (10.8% versus 1.4%) (p<0.05). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of NotI-digested genomic DNA of 41 randomly selected V. parahaemolyticus isolates representing different serotypes produced 33 pulsotypes that formed 5 different clusters (clonal complexes) (A-E) in a dendrogram. Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 and likely related pandemic serotypes were especially common among the numerous clinical isolates in cluster C, suggesting a close clonal link among many of these isolates. Most clinical and cockle isolates were resistant to ampicillin. This study indicates that O3:K6 and its likely serovariants based on the PFGE clusters, are causative agents. Seafoods such as cockles potentially serve as a source of virulent V. parahaemolyticus, but further work is required to identify possible additional sources.
Jones, Jessica L; Lüdeke, Catharina H M; Bowers, John C; Garrett, Nancy; Fischer, Markus; Parsons, Michele B; Bopp, Cheryl A; DePaola, Angelo
In this study, 77 clinical and 67 oyster Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from North America were examined for biochemical profiles, serotype, and the presence of potential virulence factors (tdh, trh, and type III secretion system [T3SS] genes). All isolates were positive for oxidase, indole, and glucose fermentation, consistent with previous reports. The isolates represented 35 different serotypes, 9 of which were shared by clinical and oyster isolates. Serotypes associated with pandemic strains (O1:KUT, O1:K25, O3:K6, and O4:K68) were observed for clinical isolates, and 7 (9%) oyster isolates belonged to serotype O1:KUT. Of the clinical isolates, 27% were negative for tdh and trh, while 45% contained both genes. Oyster isolates were preferentially selected for the presence of tdh and/or trh; 34% contained both genes, 42% had trh but not tdh, and 3% had tdh but not trh. All but 1 isolate (143/144) had at least three of the four T3SS1 genes examined. The isolates lacking both tdh and trh contained no T3SS2α or T3SS2β genes. All clinical isolates positive for tdh and negative for trh possessed all T3SS2α genes, and all isolates negative for tdh and positive for trh possessed all T3SS2β genes. The two oyster isolates containing tdh but not trh possessed all but the vopB2 gene of T3SS2α, as reported previously. In contrast to the findings of previous studies, all strains examined that were positive for both tdh and trh also carried T3SS2β genes. This report identifies the serotype as the most distinguishing feature between clinical and oyster isolates. Our findings raise concerns about the reliability of the tdh, trh, and T3SS genes as virulence markers and highlight the need for more-detailed pathogenicity investigations of V. parahaemolyticus.
Mala, Wanida; Alam, Munirul; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch; Wongwajana, Suwin; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Huttayananont, Sriwanna; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Faksri, Kiatichai; Chomvarin, Chariya
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is responsible for seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Isolates of V. parahaemolyticus from clinical samples (n=74) and cockles (Anadara granosa) (n=74) in Thailand were analyzed by serotyping, determination of virulence and related marker genes present, response to antimicrobial agents, and genetic relatedness. Serological analysis revealed 31 different serotypes, 10 of which occurred among both clinical and cockle samples. The clinical isolates commonly included the pandemic serogroup O3:K6, while a few of the cockle isolates exhibited likely pandemic serovariants such as O3:KUT and O4:KUT, but not O3:K6. The pandemic (orf8 gene-positive) strains were more frequently found among clinical isolates (78.4%) than cockle isolates (28.4%) (p<0.001). Likewise, the virulence and related marker genes were more commonly detected among clinical than cockle isolates; i.e., tdh gene (93.2% versus 29.7%), vcrD2 (97.3% versus 23.0%), vopB2 (89.2% versus 13.5%), vopT (98.6% versus 36.5%) (all p<0.001) and trh (10.8% versus 1.4%) (p<0.05). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of NotI-digested genomic DNA of 41 randomly selected V. parahaemolyticus isolates representing different serotypes produced 33 pulsotypes that formed 5 different clusters (clonal complexes) (A-E) in a dendrogram. Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 and likely related pandemic serotypes were especially common among the numerous clinical isolates in cluster C, suggesting a close clonal link among many of these isolates. Most clinical and cockle isolates were resistant to ampicillin. This study indicates that O3:K6 and its likely serovariants based on the PFGE clusters, are causative agents. Seafoods such as cockles potentially serve as a source of virulent V. parahaemolyticus, but further work is required to identify possible additional sources. PMID:26773828
Yamamoto, Masa-Yuki; Okamoto, Sumito; Miyoshi, Terunori; Takamura, Yuzaburo; Aoshima, Akira; Hinokuchi, Jin
As one of the space educational projects in Japan, a triangulation observation project of TLE (Transient Luminous Events: sprites, elves, blue-jets, etc.) has been carried out since 2006 in collaboration between 29 Super Science High-schools (SSH) and Kochi University of Technol-ogy (KUT). Following with previous success of sprite observations by "Astro High-school" since 2004, the SSH consortium Kochi was established as a national space educational project sup-ported by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). High-sensitivity CCD camera (Watec, Neptune-100) with 6 mm F/1.4 C-mount lens (Fujinon) and motion-detective software (UFO-Capture, SonotaCo) were given to each participating team in order to monitor Northern night sky of Japan with almost full-coverage. During each school year (from April to March in Japan) since 2006, thousands of TLE images were taken by many student teams, with considerably large numbers of successful triangulations, i.e., (School year, Numbers of TLE observations, Numbers of triangulations) are (2006, 43, 3), (2007, 441, 95), (2008, 734, 115), and (2009, 337, 78). Note that, school year in Japan begins on April 1 and ends on March 31. The observation campaign began in December 2006, numbers are as of Feb. 28, 2010. Recently, some high schools started wide field observations using multiple cameras, and others started VLF observations using handmade loop antennae and amplifiers. Infomation exchange among the SSH consortium Kochi is frequently communicated with scientific discussion via KUT's mailing lists. Also, interactions with amateur observers in Japan are made through an internet forum of "SonotaCo Network Japan" (http://sonotaco.jp). Not only as an educational project but also as a scientific one, the project is also in success. In February 2008, simultaneous observations of Elves were obtained, in November 2009 a Giant "Graft-shaped" Sprites driven by Jets was clearly imaged with VLF signals. Most recently, ob-servations of Elves
de Jesús Hernández-Díaz, Lucio; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor; Guadron-Llanos, Alma M.; Martinez-Garcia, J. Javier; Vidal, Jorge E.; Canizalez-Roman, Adrián
Between September and October of 2004, more than 1230 cases of gastroenteritis due to pandemic O3:K6 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) were reported in the relatively small geographical area of Southern Sinaloa, a state located in Northwest Mexico. Since then, V. parahaemolyticus-associated gastroenteritis cases have gradually increased in prevalence spreading from south to north. The present study conducted an epidemiological surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus strains in both environmental and clinical samples along the Pacific coast of Sinaloa from 2011 to 2013. The genetic relatedness, serotype dominance and antibiotic resistance of isolates were investigated. A total of 46 strains were isolated from environmental samples (e.g., sediment, seawater and shrimp), whereas 249 strains were obtained from stools of patients with gastroenteritis. Nine different O serogroups and 16 serovars were identified. Serovars O3:K6 and O6:K46 were identified in both environmental and clinical strains. Whereas most environmental isolates carried the tdh gene (71.74%, 33/46), only three (6.52%) belonged to pandemic clones (O3:K6, O3:KUT and OUT:KUT). In contrast, 81.1% (202/249) of clinical isolates belonged to pandemic serotypes, with O3:K6 (tdh, toxRS/new, and/or orf8) representing the predominant serovar (97%, 196/202). This prevalence of pathogenic (tdh and/or trh positive) and O3:K6 pandemic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in this study were similar to those found from 2004 to 2010. As investigated by REP-PCR, genetic lineages of selected O3:K6 strains isolated in this study and some isolated earlier were nearly identical. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that most strains (93.8%) were resistant to ampicillin but sensitive to chloramphenicol (98.8%). Multidrug resistance significantly increased from 8.6% (2004–2010) to 22.93% (2011–2013; p < 0.05). Our data indicate that pandemic O3:K6 clone has endemically established in the Pacific Coast of
Dougherty, R. L.; Kim, Kwang Su
This paper provides an overview of the Joint MS Degree Program between Korea University of Technology and Education’ s (KUT) Mechatronics Department and Kansas University’ s (KU) Mechanical Engineering Department. Discussions were initiated in early 2005 which resulted in a formal agreement being approved by both parties in mid-2007. The Joint MS Degree Program is composed of 30 semester credit hours, equally split between the two universities, with the actual degree being awarded by the institution at which the thesis work is performed. Issues addressed during the development of this Joint MS Program included: joint versus dual degrees, institutional acceptance of the transfer of fifteen hours of credit for an MS degree, different admissions requirements and procedures for the two institutions, financial support of the students, faculty advisors at each institution, Graduate Directors at each institution, transcript acknowledgement of the Joint Degree, residency requirements, English speaking requirements/abilities, thesis publication allowances/requirements, and time zone differences for virtual meetings. These issues have been addressed, and the Joint MS Degree Program is functioning with a small number of students having taken advantage of the opportunity since the Program’ s inception. Future considerations are: growing the number of students in the Program, expansion to other Departments besides KU-Mechanical Engineering and KUTMechatronics, including other universities in the Program, expansion to a Joint PhD Degree Program, and stronger funding resources.
Madkour, Waleed; Yamamoto, Masa-yuki; Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Mizumoto, Satoshi
We present a low cost meteor observation system based on the radio forward scattering and interferometry technique at Kochi University of Technology (KUT). The system can be a suitable model for low budget educational institutes that target practical learning of astronomical objects and upper atmospheric characteristics. The system methodology for the automatic counting of meteor echoes, filtering noise and detecting meteor echo directions is described. Detection of the meteor echo directions, which is the basic element for determining the meteor trajectories and the orbital parameters of parent comets, is based on a software system developed for analysis of phase differences detected by interferometry. Randomly selected observation samples measured by the radio interferometer are compared to simultaneous optical observations by video cameras to verify the system accuracy. Preliminary error analysis revealed that the system accuracy is directly related to the duration of observed meteor echoes. Eighty percent of meteor echo samples with durations longer than 3 s showed agreement in azimuth and elevation angles measurements to within a 10° error range, while meteor echo samples with shorter durations showed lower agreement levels probably due to the low system sampling resolution of 0.1 s. The reasonable agreement level of meteor echoes with duration longer than 3 s demonstrated the applicability of the system methodology. Accurate observation of shorter duration meteor echoes could possibly be achieved by improving the system resolution.
Mitchell, Lee J.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Wulf, Eric A.; Hutcheson, Anthony L.; Gwon, Chul; Woolf, Richard S.; Polaski, Donald
Gamma-ray and neutron background surveys were performed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in U.S. cities, including Washington, D.C.; Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri; Chicago, Illinois; Richmond, Virginia; Boston, Massachusetts and Baltimore, Maryland. Measurements covered a range of industrial, residential and commercial areas. Germanium grade gamma-ray data over the energy range of 0.05-3.0 MeV and neutron count rates with unmoderated He-3 sensitivity were recorded as a function of latitude, longitude and elevation in one second intervals. Typical Potassium Uranium Thorium (KUT) backgrounds were seen along with several anomalies. For example, a decrease in the thermal neutron flux in large urban canyons was seen and verified via Monte Carlo simulations. The data were collected to provide natural background models for simulation work. Germanium grade spectroscopy is required, because it provides sufficiently detailed isotopic information of the gamma-ray background. As expected a comparison of the background shows significant differences between the individual cities.
Zu, Youli; Shigesada, Katsuya; Hanaoka, Masao; Namba, Yuziro ); Nishida, Eisuke ); Kubota, Ichiro ); Kohno, Michiaki )
The authors have previously characterized a 65-kilodalton protein (p65) as an interleukin 2 stimulated phosphoprotein in human T cells and showed that three endopeptide sequences of p65 are present in the sequence of l-plastin. In this paper, they present the complete primary structure of p65 based on the cDNA isolated from a human T lymphocyte (KUT-2) cDNA library. Analysis of p65 sequences and the amino acid composition of cleaved p65 N-terminal peptide indicated that the deduced p65 amino acid sequence exactly coincides with that of l-plastin over the C-terminal 580 residues and has a 57-residue extension at the N-terminus to l-plastin. Computer-assisted structural analysis revealed that p65 is a multidomain molecule involving at least three intriguing functional domains: two putative calcium-binding sites along the N-terminal 80 amino acid residues; a putative calmodulin-binding site following the calcium-binding region; and two tandem repeats of putative actin-binding domains in its middle and C-terminal parts, each containing approximately 240 amino acid residues. These results suggest that p65 belongs to actin-binding proteins.
Lindstrom, M. M.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.
As part of our ongoing project on HED meteorites we have begun a study of several Russian eucrites and howardites in collaboration with Michael Nazarov of the Vernadsky Institute in Moscow. We report here the results of our INAA analyses of whole rock and eucritic clasts from eucrites Chervony Kut, Padvarninkai and Vetluga, and howardites Erevan, Yurtuk, and Zmenj. Dr. Nazarov is studying the petrography of these samples. Eucrites and Eucritic Clasts. Chervony Kut is an extremely coarse-grained eucrite, with an estimated average grain size of ~3 mm. The Vernadsky sample is a typical Juvinas group eucrite with Ca, Na, Fe, Sc, Cr, Co and incompatible trace elements (ITE) indistinguishable from the Juvinas group average. Another sample of the meteorite obtained from L. Nyquist appears to be unrepresentative of the whole rock. The very low Ca, Na, and Eu, high Fe, Sc, and Cr, and slightly high ITE suggest that this split is enriched in pyroxene and depleted in plagioclase. Our Padvarninkai clast and whole rock samples are identical within limits of analyses and sample heterogeneity, and are very similar in composition to Juvinas group eucrites. The meteorite is highly shocked and contains some maskelynite and glass veins, and as such has been compared to shergottites, but the composition is clearly that of a typical eucrite. Vetluga appears to be a more unusual eucrite. The meteorite is a light gray breccia with abundant basaltic clasts. Both whole rock and analyzed clast have Fe and Sc slightly higher than Juvinas group eucrites, and have slight negative Eu anomalies (CI normalized Eu/Sm of 0.89 and 0.80, respectively). Vetluga appears to be intermediate between Juvinas group eucrites and Nuevo Laredo and Lakagaon, and hence, may be a residual liquid. Cumulate Eucrites. Two of the clast samples appear to be cumulate eucrites. The Erevan clast was coarse-grained and has extremely low Na and ITE concentrations. La and Sm concentrations are only 5% and 1.4%, respectively
Li, Jingjiao; Xue, Feng; Yang, Zhenquan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zeng, Dexin; Chao, Guoxiang; Jiang, Yuan; Li, Baoguang
Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged as a major foodborne pathogen in China, Japan, Thailand, and other Asian countries. In this study, 72 strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from clinical and environmental samples between 2006 and 2014 in Jiangsu, China. The serotypes and six virulence genes including thermostable direct hemolysin (TDR) and TDR-related hemolysin (TRH) genes were assessed among the isolates. Twenty five serotypes were identified and O3:K6 was one of the dominant serotypes. The genetic diversity was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, and 48 sequence types (STs) were found, suggesting this V. parahaemolyticus group is widely dispersed and undergoing rapid evolution. A total of 25 strains of pandemic serotypes such as O3:K6, O5:K17, and O1:KUT were identified. It is worth noting that the pandemic serotypes were not exclusively identified from clinical samples, rather, nine strains were also isolated from environmental samples; and some of these strains harbored several virulence genes, which may render those strains pathogenicity potential. Therefore, the emergence of these “environmental” pandemic V. parahaemolyticus strains may poses a new threat to the public health in China. Furthermore, six novel serotypes and 34 novel STs were identified among the 72 isolates, indicating that V. parahaemolyticus were widely distributed and fast evolving in the environment in Jiangsu, China. The findings of this study provide new insight into the phylogenic relationship between V. parahaemolyticus strains of pandemic serotypes from clinical and environmental sources and enhance the MLST database; and our proposed possible O- and K- antigen evolving paths of V. parahaemolyticus may help understand how the serotypes of this dispersed bacterial population evolve. PMID:27303379
Ma, Cong; Deng, Xiaoling; Ke, Changwen; He, Dongmei; Liang, Zhaoming; Li, Wei; Ke, Bixia; Li, BoSheng; Zhang, Yonghui; Ng, Laiking; Cui, Zhigang
Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection has been considered the leading cause of bacterial illnesses mainly associated with seafood consumption in Guangdong province in China. In this study, epidemiological and etiological characteristics of 36 V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks that occurred from 2008 to 2010 in Guangdong province were analyzed; 284 strains involved were characterized by serotyping; virulence genes and 66 strains from four outbreaks therein were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Epidemiological evidence showed that 36% (13/36) of outbreaks were caused by food contamination, of which 84.6 % (11/13) were related to salted food, including viscera of pigs and cattle, meat, and vegetable salad. It was also indicated that 88.9% (32/36) of V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks appeared from June to September, 44.4% (16/36) of which occurred in canteens as well as 41.7% (15/36) in restaurants. As for the etiology, 31% (11/36) of outbreaks were caused by single serovar of strains, while 69% (25/36) were caused by multiserovars; O3:K6, O4:K8, O1:Kut, and O2:K3 were the dominant serovars. Among the 284 strains, 98.8% (254/257) of strains from patients were tdh-present and trh-absent, whereas 37.0% (10/27) from food were tdh-present. Cluster analysis of PFGE patterns demonstrated that strains in the same outbreak with identical serovar seemed to be diversified, whereas strains with various serovars could be closely related genetically. Moreover, cross-contamination between salted food and seafood was first confirmed by molecular subtyping in Guangdong, revealing that salted food might be a vital risk factor associated with V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks.
Li, Jingjiao; Xue, Feng; Yang, Zhenquan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zeng, Dexin; Chao, Guoxiang; Jiang, Yuan; Li, Baoguang
Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged as a major foodborne pathogen in China, Japan, Thailand, and other Asian countries. In this study, 72 strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from clinical and environmental samples between 2006 and 2014 in Jiangsu, China. The serotypes and six virulence genes including thermostable direct hemolysin (TDR) and TDR-related hemolysin (TRH) genes were assessed among the isolates. Twenty five serotypes were identified and O3:K6 was one of the dominant serotypes. The genetic diversity was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, and 48 sequence types (STs) were found, suggesting this V. parahaemolyticus group is widely dispersed and undergoing rapid evolution. A total of 25 strains of pandemic serotypes such as O3:K6, O5:K17, and O1:KUT were identified. It is worth noting that the pandemic serotypes were not exclusively identified from clinical samples, rather, nine strains were also isolated from environmental samples; and some of these strains harbored several virulence genes, which may render those strains pathogenicity potential. Therefore, the emergence of these "environmental" pandemic V. parahaemolyticus strains may poses a new threat to the public health in China. Furthermore, six novel serotypes and 34 novel STs were identified among the 72 isolates, indicating that V. parahaemolyticus were widely distributed and fast evolving in the environment in Jiangsu, China. The findings of this study provide new insight into the phylogenic relationship between V. parahaemolyticus strains of pandemic serotypes from clinical and environmental sources and enhance the MLST database; and our proposed possible O- and K- antigen evolving paths of V. parahaemolyticus may help understand how the serotypes of this dispersed bacterial population evolve. PMID:27303379
Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.
Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.
Han, Chongxu; Tang, Hui; Ren, Chuanli; Zhu, Xiaoping; Han, Dongsheng
Pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an emerging public health concern as it has caused numerous gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Currently, the absence of a global overview of the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of pandemic strains restricts our overall understanding of these strains, especially for environmental strains. To generate a global picture of the sero-prevalence and genetic diversity of pandemic V. parahaemolyticus, pandemic isolates from worldwide collections were selected and analyzed in this study. After a thorough analysis, we found that the pandemic isolates represented 49 serotypes, which are widely distributed in 22 countries across four continents (Asia, Europe, America and Africa). All of these serotypes were detected in clinical isolates but only nine in environmental isolates. O3:K6 was the most widely disseminated serotype, followed by O3:KUT, while the others were largely restricted to certain countries. The countries with the most abundant pandemic serotypes were China (26 serotypes), India (24 serotypes), Thailand (15 serotypes) and Vietnam (10 serotypes). Based on MLST analysis, 14 sequence types (STs) were identified among the pandemic strains, nine of which fell within clonal complex (CC) 3. ST3 and ST305 were the only two STs that have been reported in environmental pandemic strains. Pandemic ST3 has caused a wide range of infections in as many as 16 countries. Substantial serotypic diversity was mainly observed among isolates within pandemic ST3, including as many as 12 combinations of O/K serotypes. At the allele level, the dtdS and pntA, two loci that perfectly conserved in CC3, displayed a degree of polymorphism in some pandemic strains. In conclusion, we provide a comprehensive understanding of sero-prevalence and genetic differentiation of clinical and environmental pandemic isolates collected from around the world. Although, further studies are needed to delineate the specific mechanisms by which the pandemic
Kholmiansky, Mikhail; Anokhin, Vladimir
reaches 480 m. Observations of the authors of the glaciers of Novaya Zemlya (Hammer and Sickle, Rose et al.), Carried out in the monitor mode, the last 15 years show an intensive retreat from the shoreline inland archipelago and sharply higher flow of silt-pelitic material kut bays. Lithological changes the picture of the bottom of the bays, which causes certain biogenic transformation of ecosystems.
Yanko-Hombach, Valentina; Motnenko, Irena
Karangatian by A.D. Arkhangel'skiy and N.M. Strakhov (1938) and were studied by numerous scientists including the present authors. Our material includes detailed study of foraminifera and lithological properties from many outcrops: "Eltigen," "Karangat," "Chokrack" (all Kerch peninsula); "Chushka," "Tuzla," "Krotkov Cape," "Maliy Kut" (all Taman peninsula); "Ashe," "Slot Neozhidannaya," "Agoy," "Chemitakwaga," "Lazurniy coast," "Mamayka," "Krashiy storm," "Adler," "Gudauta" (all Caucasian coast); "Chakvata," "Ureki" (all Western Georgian coast); and two drill holes and 200 vibro- and gravity cores recovered from the Black Sea bottom (Yanko, 1989). The most complete Karangatian sediments sequence (120-70 ka BP) is in the "Eltigen" parastratotype that contains 73 species of foraminifera, predominantly benthic but a few planktonic also. Most do not live today in the Black Sea but are widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin, with twice the salinity of the Black Sea. In our presentation, we will describe foraminifera and lithology of that parastratotype, comparing it with other outcrops and cores. We will show that the Karangatian transgression increased salinity in the Black Sea above 30 psu and raised its level to at least the present elevation. This transgression was not gradual but oscillating in nature.
Wadhwa, M.; Lugmair, G. W.
Caldera (CAL), a find from Chile, is one of only two known unbrecciated non-cumulate eucrites (the other being Ibitira). For this reason it was deemed of great importance to perform on this meteorite extensive radiochronological studies in an attempt to better constrain the time of solidification of basalts on the eucrite parent body (EPB) and, thus, the evolutionary time scale of planetesimals. Compared to other non-cumulate eucrites CAL has very coarse grain size. Unfortunately, there is extensive yellow-brown staining on almost all grain surfaces pervading throughout the whole meteorite. Because of the meteorite's unknown terrestrial residence time, and the possible terrestrial origin of this staining, it was clear that it had to be removed before reliable isotopic measurements on mineral separates could be attempted. This proved to be very difficult and up to 2 h of etching in 1.8N HCl was required to achieve satisfactory results. Mineral separates of plagioclase (Pl) and pyroxene (Px), though partially etched but mostly clean of the surface coating, together with an aliquot of an acid cleaned bulk sample and an unetched chip, were dissolved and analyzed for Sm-Nd isotopic systematics. There is a large spread in ^147Sm/^144Nd ratios between Pl and Px (0.0896 and 0.278, respectively). Excellent isochrons for both the ^147Sm-^143Nd and the ^146Sm-^142Nd systems were obtained. Note that even the data from the unetched bulk sample fall on the isochrons which indicates that only insignificant amounts of REE could have been introduced on earth. The ^147Sm-^143Nd system yields an age of 4.544+/-0.019 Ga with an initial ^143Nd/^144Nd = 0.506741=+/-24. The short lived ^146Sm-^142Nd system results in a ^146Sm/^144Sm ratio of 0.0075+/-0.0010 and an initial of epsilon (sub)142 = -3.1+/-0.5. All these results from Caldera are indistinguishable from data obtained previously in our laboratory on angrites [1,2] and the non-cumulate eucrites Juvinas  and Chervony Kut (CK) [4