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Sample records for kuwayana hemiptera psyllidae

  1. Vibrational communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined the substrate-borne vibrational signals used in communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (an economically devastating disease of citrus), in an anechoic chamber and an olfactometer. Males and females both primarily pro...

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from Guangzhou, China is presented. The circular mitogenome is 14,996 bp in length with an A+T content of 74.5%, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes ...

  3. Associated bacteria of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae: Diaphorina citri)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using a genetics approach two new bacterial species were identified from the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Psyllids are economically important in the U.S. as vectors of the pathogen associated with citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing). Huanglongbing is on...

  4. Bacterial endosymbionts of the psyllid Cacopsylla pyricola in the Pacific Northwestern United States (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insects often have facultative associations with bacterial endosymbionts, which can alter the insects' susceptibility to parasitism, pathogens, plant defenses, and certain classes of insecticides. We collected pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from pear orchards in W...

  5. Relationships between adult abdominal color and reproductive potential in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (citrus greening disease), exhibits three more or less distinct abdominal colors in the adult stage: gray/brown, blue/green, and orange/yellow. A previous report showed that—relative to blue/green individuals—gray/brown indi...

  6. First record of Acizzia jamatonica (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in North America: friend or foe?

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Douglass Miller

    2007-01-01

    Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) is reported for the first time in North America. Because the species is thought to feed exclusively on Albizia, it may prove to be an effective biocontrol agent against the invasive Albizia julibrissin Durazzini in the southeastern United States. Because A. julibrissin is also an ornamental plant of...

  7. Incidence of invasive Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of Huanglongbing or citrus greening, a devastating disease of citrus. A eulophid parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterson, was imported ...

  8. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America.

  9. Internal extracellular bacteria of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid.

    PubMed

    Kolora, Lakshmi D; Powell, Christopher M; Hunter, W; Bextine, B; Lauzon, C R

    2015-05-01

    The Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an invasive insect pest that transmits Candidatus Liberibacter spp. This insect/pathogen system was first identified in North America in the early 2000's and has become the top threat to the citrus industry. Limited options for management of this problem exist; therefore, innovative pest management strategies are being developed. In this study, we describe the first step toward a paratransgenic approach (also referred to symbiotic control) for control of the insect vector or the pathogen. Culturable bacteria from the gut of Asian Citrus Psyllids were identified using standard culture techniques followed by sequencing of the cultured microorganisms. Further, 454 pyrosequencing of the gut was performed to audit bacterial presence in order to begin to identify any relationship between psyllid symbionts and C. Liberibacter spp.

  10. Ultrastructure of wax-producing structures on the integument of the melaleuca psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and honeydew excretion behavior in males and females

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by w...

  11. Evaluation of color and scent attractants used to trap and detect Asian ctirus psyllid (Diaphorina citri; Hemiptera:psyllidae)in urban environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a serious pest of citrus due to its ability to vector the putative causal agent of huanglongbing. Populations of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) can increase in density in urban areas and then move out into adjacent commercial ...

  12. Ontogenic variation in citrus flush shoots and its relation with host plant finding and acceptance by Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a destructive insect mainly because it vectors the bacterial pathogens that cause the deadly and incurable citrus greening disease. Diaphorina citri adult females lay eggs and immature development occurs exclusively on new flush sh...

  13. Exposure to Guava Affects Citrus Olfactory Cues and Attractiveness to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Barman, Jagadish Chandra; Campbell, Stuart A; Zeng, Xinnian

    2016-06-01

    Intercropping can reduce agricultural pest incidence, and represents an important sustainable alternative to conventional pest control methods. Understanding the ecological mechanisms for intercropping could help optimize its use, particularly in tropical systems which present a large number of intercropping possibilities. Citrus is threatened worldwide by greening disease (huanglongbing, HLB) vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Control of HLB and citrus psyllid can be partially achieved through intercropping with guava, Psidium guajava L., but the mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that guava olfactory cues affect psyllid behavior by altering the attractiveness of citrus through plant-plant interactions. In choice and no-choice cage experiments, psyllid settlement was reduced on citrus shoots that had been exposed to guava shoot odors for at least 2 h. In Y-tube olfactometer experiments, psyllids oriented to odors of unexposed, compared with guava-exposed, citrus shoots. These behavioral results indicate that a mechanism for the success of guava intercropping for sustainable, ecological disease management may be the indirect effect of guava on citrus attractiveness.

  14. Effective use of neonicotinoids for protection of citrus seedlings from invasion by Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Katsuya; Bang, Doan V; Tuan, Do H; Dien, Le Q

    2010-02-01

    The application of insecticides to control Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a principal component of the current management for citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing. It is recommended that growers apply systemic insecticides such as imidacloprid and thiamethoxam every 2 mo after seedling planting, but this practice renders the seedlings insecticide-free and vulnerable to psyllid infestation in the first 2 mo. We evaluated the risk of vector invasion during this period from field studies of the psyllid in five new king mandarin, Citrus nobilis Loureiro, orchards in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. The first psyllids were found after the first 2 wk, and 2 to 60% of the trees were finally infested by psyllids during the 2 mo. The risk of psyllid invasion could be significantly reduced if the insecticide were applied to seedlings before planting. Three systemics, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin, were examined in both a net house and in the field to assess how quickly they could be effective after application and how long their efficacy could continue. High psyllid mortality >80% was attained in 10 d after application, and this level was maintained for 90 d in the net house and for 60 d in the field. Based on these results, we propose the effective use of neonicotinoids for protection of citrus seedlings against invasive psyllids during the first 2 mo after planting.

  15. Transmission parameters for Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus by Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Pelz-Stelinski, K S; Brlansky, R H; Ebert, T A; Rogers, M E

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate acquisition and inoculation (together, transmission) efficiency of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), the pathogen associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB) by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). In laboratory studies, nymphs reared on Las infected plants were more likely to acquire the bacterium than adults. Acquisition by nymphs ranged from 60 to 100%, whereas acquisition by adults only reached 40% after 5 wk of feeding on Las-infected plants. Similar rates of pathogen acquisition by psyllids after nymphal and adult feeding were observed in the field. Transmission of Las from parent to offspring (transovarial) occurred at a rate of 2-6%. One year after psyllid inoculations, successful transmission by individual D. citri ranged from 4 to 10%, whereas groups of 100 or more D. citri transmitted the pathogen at a rate of approximately 88%. In addition, the proportion of Las-positive adult psyllids, determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, decreased over time when held on healthy plants. Due to the low rate of pathogen acquisition and long time period required for successful inoculation by adult D. citri, experiments designed to determine the latent period required for replication and successful inoculation of Las by D. citri did not result in Las-infected plants after >1 yr of incubation after inoculation. Collectively, these results indicate that adult D. citri which acquire the HLB pathogen as adults are poor vectors of the pathogen compared with adults that acquired the pathogen as nymphs.

  16. Acizzia solanicola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) probing behaviour on two Solanum spp. and implications for possible pathogen spread

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Isabel; Trebicki, Piotr; Powell, Kevin S.; Vereijssen, Jessica; Norng, Sorn

    2017-01-01

    Piercing-sucking insects are vectors of plant pathogens, and an understanding of their feeding behaviour is crucial for studies on insect population dynamics and pathogen spread. This study examines probing behaviour of the eggplant psyllid, Acizzia solanicola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique, on two widespread and common hosts: eggplant (Solanum melongena) and tobacco bush (S. mauritianum). Six EPG waveforms were observed: waveform NP (non-probing phase), waveform C (pathway phase), G (feeding activities in xylem tissues), D (first contact with phloem tissues), E1 (salivation in the sieve elements) and E2 (ingestion from phloem tissues). Results showed that A. solanicola is predominantly a phloem feeder and time spent in salivation and ingestion phases (E1 and E2) differed between hosts. Feeding was enhanced on eggplant compared to tobacco bush which showed some degree of resistance, as evidenced by shorter periods of phloem ingestion, a higher propensity to return to the pathway phase once in the sieve elements and higher number of salivation events on tobacco bush. We discuss how prolonged phloem feeding could indicate the potential for A. solanicola to become an important pest of eggplant and potential pathogen vector. PMID:28575085

  17. Knockdown mortality, repellency, and residual effects of insecticides for control of adult Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Gharalari, A H; Nansen, C; Lawson, D S; Gilley, J; Munyaneza, J E; Vaughn, K

    2009-06-01

    The psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the vector of a bacterial pathogen causing zebra chip (ZC) disease in potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). Recently, ZC has become important to potato growers and the potato chipping industry in the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. In the current study, we evaluated the knockdown effect of 12 insecticides against adult B. cockerelli, and we examined the effects of treating potato leaves: top side only, bottom side only, or both sides. Within 48 h of exposure, abamectin showed the highest and most consistent rate of adult B. cockerelli mortality and a dosage response to three dosages within labeled field rates. Choice tests conducted in petri dishes, involving untreated potato leaves and leaves treated with abamectin, revealed that abamectin did not affect host preference of adult B. cockerelli. A residual test under field conditions revealed that, although highly effective immediately after application, abamectin-effect was nonsignificantly different from control treatments 24 and 48 h after field application. Higher adult B. cockerelli mortality was recorded from potato plants treated with ground application compared with aerial 48 h after application. Our results indicated that abamectin has a high knockdown effect on adult B. cockerelli and that it can be used effectively in insecticide rotation programs against adult B. cockerelli and ZC control in potatoes.

  18. Sticky trap and stem-tap sampling protocols for the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Hall, David G; Hentz, Matthew G

    2010-04-01

    Sampling statistics were obtained to develop a sampling protocol for estimating numbers of adult Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in citrus by using two different sampling methods: yellow sticky traps and stem-tap samples. A 4.0-ha block of mature orange trees was stratified into 100.4-ha strata and sampled using each method seven times over a 7-mo period. One sticky trap was deployed per tree on each of 16 trees randomly selected in each stratum, and numbers of adults on the traps were counted 1 wk later. One stem-tap sample in which the number of adults falling into a pan after three rapid taps to a branch was taken per tree on each of 16 trees randomly selected in each stratum. A sampling protocol of one yellow sticky trap on each of 20 trees, or of one stem-tap sample on each of 30 trees, distributed uniformly across an area up to 4.0 ha (excluding block edges) was projected to provide an average sampling precision rate of < or = 25% (SEM/mean x 100) at means of one or more adults per trap or stem-tap sample. Validation sampling indicated 20 sticky trap samples consistently provided the desired precision level at means of approximately two or more adults per trap but not at means of 1.0-1.5 per trap. A sample size of 30 stem-tap samples consistently provided the desired average precision level, but the precision of some individual estimates was > 25% at means of around one adult per tap sample.

  19. Effects of soil-applied imidacloprid on Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Serikawa, R H; Backus, E A; Rogers, M E

    2012-10-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is one of the most important pests of citrus (Citrus spp.) because of its status as a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), the bacterium associated with citrus greening disease. The use of insecticides for vector control is the primary method of managing the spread of this pathogen. Imidacloprid is an insecticide commonly applied to the root zone of young citrus trees to provide systemic protection from pests. The effects of imidacloprid on feeding behavior of D. citri have not been studied in much detail. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of imidacloprid application on feeding behavior of D. citri and to determine whether use of this systemic insecticide could have any effect on pathogen transmission by D. citri. A direct current electrical penetration graph monitor was used to record D. citri feeding behaviors for 12-h periods on mature and young leaves of imidacloprid-treated and -untreated citrus seedlings. Overall, compared with untreated plants, the feeding behavior of D. citri was disrupted on imidacloprid-treated plants via reduction in the number of probes, as well as durations of average probes, initial stylet contact with phloem, phloem salivation, and phloem ingestion. The results of this study demonstrate that soil applications of imidacloprid can reduce the probability of citrus plants becoming inoculated with Las through a reduction in the number and duration of phloem salivation events by D. citri. Furthermore, Las acquisition from infected citrus is greatly reduced as a result of decreased phloem ingestion by D. citri on imidacloprid-treated plants.

  20. Energy allocation changes in overwintering adults of the common pistachio Psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, R; Izadi, H; Mahdian, K

    2012-12-01

    The common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is known as the key pest of pistachio orchards in Iran. This pest passes the winter as adults. In this study, energy allocation changes in relation to ambient temperature were investigated in field-collected adults by measuring total body sugar, trehalose, glucose, sorbitol, myoinositol, glycogen, lipid, and protein contents. Glycogen content decreased with decrease in ambient temperature. The decrease in glycogen content was proportional to the increase in total body sugar, trehalose, myoinositol, and sorbitol contents. In January, with mean ambient temperature of 5.4°C, glycogen content was at the lowest level, whereas total body sugar, trehalose, glucose, and sorbitol were at the highest level. Total body sugar, trehalose, myoinositol, and sorbitol contents increased as temperature decreased from 22.7°C in October to 5.4°C in January. In conclusion, low molecular weight carbohydrates and polyols may play a role in winter survival and adaptation to cold of the common pistachio psylla by providing the required cryoprotection. Also, overwintering adults of the common pistachio psylla may store energy in the form of lipid for later utilization during the overwintering.

  1. Testing Spirotetramat as an Alternative Solution to Abamectin for Cacopsylla pyri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Control: Laboratory and Field Tests.

    PubMed

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Cassanelli, Stefano; Tommasini, Maria Grazia; Aschonitis, Vassilis; Fano, Elisa Anna

    2015-12-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate the performance of the new insecticide "spirotetramat" as an alternative solution of "abamectin" for the control of Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in the context of an IPM program in European pear, Pyrus communis L.. Laboratory bioassays for the estimation of LC50 and LC90 of both insecticides were performed using four populations collected in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) orchards where different pest management strategies were used (organic, integrated, and conventional). The same populations were also analyzed for the main insecticide detoxifying activities in nymphs by spectrofluorimetric in vitro assays. The performance of the two insecticides was also tested on field on one population under integrated pest management conditions. The laboratory experiments showed that the LC90 of spirotetramat were lower than the highest field concentration allowed in Europe (172.80 mg AI liter(-1)) giving reassurance about the efficacy of the product. Concerning the abamectin, the laboratory bioassays did not show strong indications of resistance development of C. pyri populations of Emilia-Romagna. A similarity in enzyme detoxifying activity was observed in both insecticides indicating a general absence of a significant insecticide resistance. The field trial showed a high efficacy (>90 %) of spirotetramat on C. pyri already after 15 d from application, and it was significantly higher from abamectin. Overall, spirotetramat is one more choice for C. pyri control, as well as abamectin in order to minimize the risks of occurrence of insecticide resistance.

  2. Rate, placement and timing of aldicarb applications to control Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in oranges.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Jawwad A; Stansly, Philip A

    2008-11-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a cosmopolitan insect pest of citrus and vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, a suspected causal organism of citrus greening or 'huanglongbing' disease. Aldicarb 150 g kg(-1) GR (Temik((R)) 15 G) was evaluated at three rates, two placements and three timings for ACP control in orange trees. Application of aldicarb at 5.6, 2.8 and 1.4 kg AI ha(-1) in March 2006 reduced adults by 58-66%, 45-46% and 25-37% respectively compared with untreated controls in two separate trials. No difference was observed in placement (one versus two sides of the tree) or tree size (8 years old versus 12 years old). Application at 5.6 kg ha(-1) in January 2007 reduced adults by 86% and shoot infestation by 77% in spring, and was generally better than the November and especially February applications. Even more striking results were evident on adults caged on treated plants for 25 days in March. Spiders and ladybeetles were equally abundant in treated and untreated trees. Aldicarb application at 5.6 kg ha(-1) to the bed side of mature citrus trees 2-3 months before spring growth can suppress ACP through spring without a direct effect on principal psyllid natural enemies. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The effects of host, geographic origin, and gender on the thermal requirements of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Nava, Dori E; Gomez-Torres, Mariuxi L; Rodrigues, Marjorie D; Bento, José M S; Haddad, Marinéia L; Parra, José R P

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the vector of the bacteria that causes citrus greening and is considered one of the world's most important citrus diseases. We examined how host, geographic region, and gender affect the thermal requirements of D. citri. The insects were reared in climatic chambers at constant temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH, and a 14 h photophase. Host plants for D. citri included orange (Citrus sinensis [Rutaceae]) varieties Pêra and Natal, the rootstock, Rungpur lime (C. limonia [Rutaceae]) and the natural host, Orange jessamine (Murraya paniculata [Rutaceae]). To study the influence of geographic origin on thermal requirements, we studied D. citri populations from Piracicaba, SP (warmer region) and Itapetininga, SP (cooler region). The duration and survival of the development stages and the duration of the total development (egg-adult) did not differ significantly on the different hosts, but it did vary with temperature. Nymphs of D. citri created on the different hosts have the same thermal requirements. The thermal requirements for this species collected from the two climate regions were identical; males and females also had the same thermal requirements.

  4. Relative Abundance of Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) in Females and Males of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, W. Rodney; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Horton, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect’s diet. Accurate estimations of Carsonella populations are important to studies of Carsonella-psyllid interactions and to developing ways to target Carsonella for control of psyllid pests including pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). We used two methods, namely fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to estimate relative abundance of Carsonella in bacteriocytes and whole bodies of psyllids, respectively. Using these two methods, we compared Carsonella populations between female and male insects. Estimations using fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that Carsonella was more abundant in bacteriocytes of female C. pyricola than in those of males, but Carsonella abundance in bacteriocytes did not differ between sexes of B. cockerelli. Analyses by qPCR using whole-body specimens indicated Carsonella was more abundant in females than in males of both psyllids. Neither fluorescence in situ hybridization nor qPCR indicated that Carsonella populations differed in abundance among adults of different ages (0–3 wk after adult eclosion). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Carsonella was observed in ovarioles of newly emerged females and formed an aggregation in the posterior end of mature oocytes. Results of our study indicate that female psyllids harbor greater populations of Carsonella than do males and that sex should be controlled for in studies which require estimations of Carsonella populations. PMID:26056318

  5. Relative Abundance of Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) in Females and Males of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, W Rodney; Garczynski, Stephen F; Horton, David R

    2015-01-01

    Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect's diet. Accurate estimations of Carsonella populations are important to studies of Carsonella-psyllid interactions and to developing ways to target Carsonella for control of psyllid pests including pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). We used two methods, namely fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to estimate relative abundance of Carsonella in bacteriocytes and whole bodies of psyllids, respectively. Using these two methods, we compared Carsonella populations between female and male insects. Estimations using fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that Carsonella was more abundant in bacteriocytes of female C. pyricola than in those of males, but Carsonella abundance in bacteriocytes did not differ between sexes of B. cockerelli. Analyses by qPCR using whole-body specimens indicated Carsonella was more abundant in females than in males of both psyllids. Neither fluorescence in situ hybridization nor qPCR indicated that Carsonella populations differed in abundance among adults of different ages (0-3 wk after adult eclosion). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Carsonella was observed in ovarioles of newly emerged females and formed an aggregation in the posterior end of mature oocytes. Results of our study indicate that female psyllids harbor greater populations of Carsonella than do males and that sex should be controlled for in studies which require estimations of Carsonella populations.

  6. Insecticidal Potential of Clove Essential Oil and Its Constituents on Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Laboratory and Field.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bao-Liang; Liu, Qi-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Long; Li, Peng; Wang, Jie-Wen

    2015-06-01

    Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang and Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important pest of pear in China. As an alternative to conventional chemical pesticides, botanicals including essential oils and their constituents could provide an eco-friendly and nonhazardous control method. In this study, the essential oil of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum) was obtained by hydrodistillation. Five constituents, accounting for 99.89% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the major constituents were eugenol (88.61%) and eugenol acetate (8.89%), followed by β-caryophyllene (1.89%). In a laboratory bioassay, clove essential oil, commercial eugenol (99.00%) and β-caryophyllene (98.00%) exhibited strong contact toxicity against the summerform adults of C. chinensis with LD50 values of 0.730, 0.673, and 0.708 µg/adult, and against the nymphs with LD50 values of 1.795, 1.668, and 1.770 µg/nymph, respectively. In contrast, commercial eugenol acetate (98%) had LD50 values of 9.266 µg/adult and 9.942 µg/nymph. In a field trial, clove essential oil caused significant population reductions of 73.01% (4.80 mg/ml), 66.18% (2.40 mg/ml) and 46.56% (1.20 mg/ml), respectively. Our results demonstrated that clove essential oil and its constituents have potential as a source of natural insecticides. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Incidence of invasive Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Jawwad A; Rogers, Michael E; Hall, David G; Stansly, Philip A

    2009-02-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of the devastating citrus disease "huanglongbing" or citrus greening. In the United States, D. citri was first discovered in Florida, in 1998. Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was imported from Asia and released in Florida in 1999-2001 to improve biological control of D. citri before citrus greening was detected in Florida in 2005. Florida citrus groves were surveyed during 2006-2007 for D. citri and T. radiata. Results showed that D. citri was established in all 28 citrus groves surveyed across 16 counties. Adult populations averaged 3.52, 1.27, and 1.66 individuals per "tap" sample at locations in the central, southwest, and eastern coastal regions, respectively. A tap sample consisted of 22- by 28-cm white paper sheet (on a clipboard) held under branches selected at random that were tapped three times. Averages of 67, 44, and 45% citrus shoots infested with psyllid eggs or nymphs were obtained in the central, southwest, and eastern coastal regions, respectively. T. radiata was recovered from fourth- and fifth-instar psyllid nymphs at 26 of the 28 locations. However, apparent parasitism rates were variable and averaged < 20% during spring and summer over all locations. Incidence of parasitism increased during fall at some locations, averaging 39% in September and 56% in November in the central and southwest regions, respectively. Further efforts are warranted to enhance the biological control of D. citri and thereby reduce psyllid populations and spread of citrus greening disease.

  8. Internal extracellular bacteria of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citus psyllid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Internal bacteria were isolated and cultured from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), the insect which transmits the plant-infecting bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter, known to infect and kill citrus trees, known as citrus greening disease. The bacteria from Di...

  9. Quantifying dispersal of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) by immunomarking and potential impact of unmanaged groves on commercial citrus management.

    PubMed

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Meyer, Wendy L; Onagbola, Ebenezer O; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2009-08-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important pest of citrus. It is an efficient vector of three bacterial pathogens that are the presumptive causal agents of huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease. The movement patterns and dispersal capabilities of D. citri require study to better understand the spread of HLB and to improve management strategies for D. citri. A recently developed immunomarking technique that uses crude food proteins (chicken egg albumin, bovine casein, and soy protein) was evaluated for marking and tracking movement of D. citri in Florida citrus groves. In general, both egg and milk protein markers exhibited longer residual activity (35 d) than the soy protein marker (20 d) when applied to citrus leaves with a residual activity order of egg > milk > soy protein. However, residues of all three protein markers decreased with a simulated rain; this was more pronounced for soy protein than for egg and milk proteins. Temperature did not significantly affect acquisition of markers by adult D. citri. Egg, milk, and soy protein markers were detected on >90% of adult D. citri for up to 10, 10, and 5 d, respectively, after field application. Addition of tetrasodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (water softener) and/or Silwet L-77 (wetting agent) to marker solutions did not affect longevity of detection. Each of the protein markers was detected on > or =80% of exposed D. citri for up to 30 d after direct application to adults. A field study was conducted to measure movement of D. citri between replicated pairs of 0.4 ha managed and unmanaged citrus plots separated by 60-100 m. Approximately 70% of captured D. citri were found marked 3 d after application of proteins in the field. Using two marker proteins, it was determined that D. citri moved bi-directionally between managed and unmanaged (abandoned) groves within 3 d with a greater number of D. citri adults moving from unmanaged into managed plots than from managed into

  10. Ultrastructure of Wax-Producing Structures on the Integument of the Melaleuca Psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), with Honeydew Excretion Behavior in Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Hentz, Matthew; Hall, David G.; Shatters, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by white waxy secretions, and nymphs of various instars produce long bundles of white waxy filaments extending laterally and posteriorly from their abdomen. Scanning electron microscopy of ‘naturally waxed’ and ‘dewaxed’ nymphs (cleaned from wax) revealed two types of wax pore plates located dorsally and laterally on the integument of posterior abdominal segments starting with the 4th segment. Type-1 wax pore plates, with raised rim, peripheral groove, slits and pits, produce long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that are wound together forming long wax bundles, whereas type-2 wax pore plates, with slits only, produce shorter wax curls. Additionally, in both nymphs and adult females, the circumanal ring contained ornate rows of wax pores that produce wax filaments covering their honeydew excretions. Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward. The possible role(s) of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed. PMID:25793934

  11. Life history and life tables of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on potato under laboratory and field conditions in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Bing; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Hua, Lei; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2010-10-01

    Effective management of potato 'Zebra Chip' (ZC) disease caused by Cadidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (syn. solanacearum) depends on the management of its insect vector insect, potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). To elucidate the age-specific population dynamics of B. cockerelli, the life-table parameters were determined on potato, Solanum tuberosum L., under both laboratory and field conditions in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas. Generally, survival, fecundity, and longevity of B. cockerelli were significantly greater under laboratory than under field conditions. The mortality under laboratory conditions was mainly due to natural intrinsic mortality. However, under field conditions, most (83.2%) B. cockerelli were missing, and of those that were not, they developed slower, and had shorter preoviposition period, shorter oviposition period, shorter longevity, lower fecundity, and higher mortality than those under laboratory conditions. As a result, most of the life-table parameters of B. cockerelli, including the intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, and net reproductive rate, were significantly lower in the field under the environmental conditions of the LRGV of Texas than in the laboratory. The information could help increase our understanding of the epidemiology of the ZC diseases associated with the pathogens transmitted by this insect pest.

  12. Roles of olfactory cues, visual cues, and mating status in orientation of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to four different host plants.

    PubMed

    Wenninger, Erik J; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Hall, David G

    2009-02-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important worldwide pest of citrus that vectors bacteria (Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) responsible for huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). We examined the behavioral responses of mated and unmated D. citri of both sexes to odors from host plants in a Y-tube olfactometer, with and without visual cues. The host plants tested were 'Duncan' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfayden), sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.), navel orange (C. sinensis L.), and Murraya paniculata L. Jack. Responses varied by plant species, psyllid sex and mating status, and the presence of a visual cue. Evidence of attraction generally was stronger in females and in mated individuals of both sexes relative to virgins. The presence of a visual cue typically enhanced attractiveness of olfactory cues; in no case did unmated individuals show evidence of attraction to host plant odors in the absence of avisual cue. In the absence of visual cues, mated females and males showed evidence of attraction only to odors from sour orange and navel orange, respectively. Psyllids exhibited anemotactic responses when assayed with plant odors alone but showed strong evidence of attraction only when olfactory and visual cues were combined, suggesting that olfactory cues facilitate orientation to host plants but may be insufficient alone. Antennal responses to citrus volatiles were confirmed by electroantennogram. The results reported here provide evidence that D. citri uses olfactory and visual cues in orientation to host plants and suggest the possibility of using plant volatiles in monitoring and management of this pest.

  13. Evaluation of acute toxicity of essential oil of garlic (Allium sativum) and its selected major constituent compounds against overwintering Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na Na; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Xue Chang; Luan, Xiao Bing; Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Qi Zhi; Shi, Wang Peng; Liu, Zhi Long

    2013-06-01

    In our screening program for insecticidal activity of the essential oils/extracts derived from some Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oil was found to possess strong insecticidal activity against overwintering adults of Cacopsylla chinensis Yang et Li (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The commercial essential oil of A. sativum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds, accounting for 97.44% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of A. sativum were diallyl trisulfide (50.43%), diallyl disulfide (25.30%), diallyl sulfide (6.25%), diallyl tetrasulfide (4.03%), 1,2-dithiolane (3.12%), allyl methyl disulfide (3.07%), 1,3-dithiane (2.12%), and allyl methyl trisulfide (2.08%). The essential oil of A. sativum possessed contact toxicity against overwintering C. chinensis, with an LC50 value of 1.42 microg per adult. The two main constituent compounds, diallyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide, exhibited strong acute toxicity against the overwintering C. chinensis, with LC50 values of 0.64 and 11.04 /g per adult, respectively.

  14. Gender- and species-specific characteristics of bacteriomes from three psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...

  15. New excised-leaf assay method to test inoculativity of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus associated with citrus huanglongbing disease.

    PubMed

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Walter, Abigail J; Hall, David G

    2013-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) associated with huanglongbing, or citrus greening, the most devastating citrus (Citrus spp.) disease worldwide. Here, we developed a new "excised-leaf assay" that can speed up Las-inoculativity tests on Asian citrus psyllid from the current 3-12 mo (when using whole citrus seedlings for inoculation) to only 2-3 wk. Young adults of Asian citrus psyllid that had been reared on Las-infected plants were caged on excised healthy sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] leaves for a 1-2-wk inoculation access periods (IAP), and then both psyllids and leaves were tested later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). When single adults were tested per leaf, percentages of Las-positive leaves averaged 2-6% by using HLBaspr primers and 10-20% by using the more sensitive LJ900 primers. Higher proportions of Las-positive leaves were obtained with 1) higher densities of inoculating psyllids (5-10 adults per leaf), 2) longer IAPs, and 3) incubation of leaves for 1 wk postinoculation before PCR. Logistic regression analysis indicated a positive correlation between Las titer in Asian citrus psyllid adults tested singly and the probability of detecting Las in the inoculated leaves, correlations that can be very useful in epidemiological studies. Comparison between excised leaves and whole seedlings, inoculated consecutively for 1 wk each by one or a group of psyllids, indicated no significant difference between Las detection in excised leaves or whole plants. This new excised-leaf assay method saves considerable time, materials, and greenhouse space, and it may enhance vector relation and epidemiological studies on Las and potentially other Liberibacter spp. associated with huanglongbing disease.

  16. Population dynamics of Cacopsylla melanoneura (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in northeast Italy and its role in the apple proliferation epidemiology in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Baldessari, Mario; Mazzoni, Valerio; Trona, Federica; Angeli, Gino

    2012-04-01

    In the current study, incidence of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' in an experimental apple orchard in northeast Italy, in addition to abundance and phytoplasma infectivity of Cacopsylla melanoneura (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) was determined and the role of this psyllid as a vector of 'Ca. P. mali' in this region was reviewed. Insect samples collected in the orchard by the beating method indicated high abundance of C. melanoneura (up to 7.92 specimens/branch); however, the psyllid C. picta was not observed. Molecular analyses revealed presence of 'Ca. P. mali' in 6.25% of overwintered psyllids. This infection rate is quite high in comparison to other localities where C. melanoneura is known as the main vector of the phytoplasma. This finding supports the assumption that C. melanoneura also is paramount in the epidemiology of the apple proliferation disease also in northeast Italy. Moreover, we correlated immigration dynamics to the temperatures registered in the apple orchard, and defined an immigration index to predict the progressive arrival of the overwintered adults from winter sites. Psyllids start to reach the apple orchards when either the average of the maximum temperature of the 7 d is above 9.5 degrees C or the immigration index has a positive value. This index will be a useful tool for the growers to prevent apple proliferation phytoplasma spread with well-timed insecticide treatments targeted against C. melanoneura. However, further research is needed to validate or adjust the index to other apple growing regions, which may affect more efficacious management of this disease and psyllid vector.

  17. Behavioral, Ultrastructural and Chemical Studies on the Honeydew and Waxy Secretions by Nymphs and Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Alessandro, Rocco; Shatters Jr, Robert G.; Hall, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the primary vector of the bacterium causing citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most serious disease of citrus worldwide. Psyllids and other hemipterans produce large amounts of honeydew, which has been used previously as an indicator of phloem sap composition and insect feeding or metabolism. Behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on ACP, its honeydew and waxy secretions showed important differences between nymphs, males and females, and suggested some mechanisms by which the psyllids, especially nymphs and adult females, can minimize their contamination with honeydew excretions. The anal opening in ACP, near the posterior end of the abdomen, is on the ventral side in nymphs and on the dorsal side in adult males and females. Video recordings showed that adult males produce clear sticky droplets of honeydew gently deposited behind their body on the leaf surface, whereas adult females produce whitish honeydew pellets powerfully propelled away from the female body, probably to get their excretions away from eggs and newly hatched nymphs. ACP nymphs produce long ribbons or tubes of honeydew that frequently stay attached to the exuviae after molting, or drop when feeding on the lower side of citrus leaves. Furthermore, honeydew excretions of both nymphs and adult females are covered with a thin layer of whitish waxy material ultrastructurally composed of a convoluted network of long fine filaments or ribbons. This material is extruded from intricate arrays of wax pores in the circumanal ring (around the anus) that is found in nymphs and females but not in males of ACP or other psyllid species. Infrared microscopy and mass spectroscopy revealed that, in addition to various sugars, honeydew excretions of ACP nymphs and females are covered with a thin layer of wax similar in profile to ester waxes. PMID:23762268

  18. Morphological characterization of the antennal sensilla of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), with reference to their probable functions.

    PubMed

    Onagbola, Ebenezer O; Meyer, Wendy L; Boina, Dhana Raj; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2008-12-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is one of the most significant economic pests of citrus worldwide. This insect vectors three phloem-restricted bacteria in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter that cause huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most severe disease limiting citrus production worldwide. We examined the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of male and female D. citri using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and determined the putative functions of the identified sensilla using transmission electron microscopic (TEM) techniques. The filiform antennae of D. citri were of the conventional type comprised of a basal scape, pedicel and a long, thread-like flagellum, which is composed of eight flagellomeres. Eleven morphologically unique sensillar types were found and described on the antennae of male and female D. citri. Of those identified, the two apical setae, multiporous types I and II sensilla trichoidea, and the antennal rhinaria were porous and may be involved in perception of host- and mate-related volatile chemicals. However, the aporous types I, II and III sensilla trichoidea may have mechanosensory functions and the chaetica sensilla, cavity sensilla and unidentified uniporous sensilla may be involved in proprioception, thermo-hygroreception and cold detection, respectively. The shape, external morphology and array of sensilla on the antennae of male and female D. citri were similar. The only major difference observed was in the morphology of the short apical setae, whose tips were recessed inward in females but not so in males. The results are discussed in relation to plausible roles of the identified sensilla in mate and host location by this species.

  19. Behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on the honeydew and waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Alessandro, Rocco; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, David G

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the primary vector of the bacterium causing citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most serious disease of citrus worldwide. Psyllids and other hemipterans produce large amounts of honeydew, which has been used previously as an indicator of phloem sap composition and insect feeding or metabolism. Behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on ACP, its honeydew and waxy secretions showed important differences between nymphs, males and females, and suggested some mechanisms by which the psyllids, especially nymphs and adult females, can minimize their contamination with honeydew excretions. The anal opening in ACP, near the posterior end of the abdomen, is on the ventral side in nymphs and on the dorsal side in adult males and females. Video recordings showed that adult males produce clear sticky droplets of honeydew gently deposited behind their body on the leaf surface, whereas adult females produce whitish honeydew pellets powerfully propelled away from the female body, probably to get their excretions away from eggs and newly hatched nymphs. ACP nymphs produce long ribbons or tubes of honeydew that frequently stay attached to the exuviae after molting, or drop when feeding on the lower side of citrus leaves. Furthermore, honeydew excretions of both nymphs and adult females are covered with a thin layer of whitish waxy material ultrastructurally composed of a convoluted network of long fine filaments or ribbons. This material is extruded from intricate arrays of wax pores in the circumanal ring (around the anus) that is found in nymphs and females but not in males of ACP or other psyllid species. Infrared microscopy and mass spectroscopy revealed that, in addition to various sugars, honeydew excretions of ACP nymphs and females are covered with a thin layer of wax similar in profile to ester waxes.

  20. Potential economic pests of solanaceous crops: a new species of Solanum-feeding psyllid from Australia and first record from New Zealand of Acizzia solanicola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Gary S; Kent, Deborah S

    2013-02-11

    Acizzia credoensis sp. n. is described from a single population on the native plant, Solanum lasiophyllum, from semi-arid Western Australia. The host range of Acizzia solanicola Kent & Taylor, initially recorded as damaging eggplant, S. melongena, in commercial crops and gardens and on wild tobacco bush, S. mauritianum in eastern Australia, is expanded to include the following Solanaceae: rock nightshade, S. petrophilum, cape gooseberry, Physalis peruviana, and an undetermined species of angel's trumpet Brugmansia and Datura. New Zealand specimens of A. solanicola collected in early 2012 from S. mauritianum are the first record for this species from outside Australia, and possibly represent a very recent incursion. The potential for the solanaceous-inhabiting Psyllidae to vector Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, an economically important plant pathogen, on native Australian Solanaceae is discussed. The occurrence of A. credoensis and A. solanicola on native Australian Solanum supports the Australian origin for the solanaceous-inhabiting Acizzia psyllids.

  1. Effects of elicitors of host plant defenses on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Foerster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a key pest of cultivated pear (Pyrus communis L.) in North America and Europe. We examined the effects of foliar applications of three commercially available chemical elicitors of host-plant defenses, Actigard, Employ, and ODC, ...

  2. Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a destructive insect pest in the citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. Africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Ca. L. Americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria c...

  3. Studies of in aere formed stylet sheath from the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and other phytophagous Hemiptera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stylet sheath formation is a common feature among phytophagous hemipterans. These sheaths are considered essential to promote a successful feeding event of these piercing-sucking insects. The stylet sheath composition is unknown and it is suggested that it forms through interactions with external (h...

  4. Gene response to stress in the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transcriptional responses of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, under three stress factors were investigated: physical wounding, heat stress, and exposure to low doses of the insecticide imidacloprid. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is a vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium...

  5. Monitoring for Insecticide Resistance in Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations in Florida.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Lambert H B; Eason, Julius; Haseeb, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad; Stansly, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The development of insecticide resistance in Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, populations is a serious threat to the citrus industry. As a contribution to a resistance management strategy, we developed a glass vial technique to monitor field populations of Asian citrus psyllid for insecticide resistance. Diagnostic concentrations needed to separate susceptible genotypes from resistant individuals were determined for cypermethrin (0.5 μg per vial), malathion (1.0 μg per vial), diazinon (1.0 μg per vial), carbaryl (1.0 μg per vial), carbofuran (0.1 μg per vial), methomyl (1.0 μg per vial), propoxur (1.0 μg per vial), endosulfan (1.0 μg per vial), imidacloprid (0.5 μg per vial), acetamiprid (5.0 μg per vial), chlorfenapyr (2.5 μg per vial), and fenpyroximate (2.5 μg per vial). In 2014, resistance to two carbamate insecticides (carbaryl and carbofuran), one organophosphate (malathion), one pyrethroid (cypermethrin), and one pyrazole (fenpyroximate) was detected in field populations of Asian citrus psyllid in Immokalee, FL. There was no resistance detected to diazinon, methomyl, propoxur, endosulfan, imidacloprid, and chlorfenapyr. The levels of insecticide resistance were variable and unstable, suggesting that resistance could be successfully managed. The results validate the use of the glass vial bioassay to monitor for resistance in Asian citrus psyllid populations and provide the basis for the development of a resistance management strategy designed to extend the efficacy of all classes of insecticides used for control of the Asian citrus psyllid.

  6. Effects of soil-applied imidacloprid on Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) feeding behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is one of the most important pests of citrus due to its status as a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB) disease. The use of insecticides for vector control is the primary method of managing...

  7. Daily and seasonal patterns in abdomen color in Diaphoria citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, a psyllid vector of huanglongbing (citrus greening disease), exhibits three more or less distinct abdomen colors in the adult psyllid: gray/brown, blue/green, and orange/yellow. We explored the daily (in individuals in the laboratory) and seasonal (in a field population) p...

  8. Sticky trap and stem-tap sampling protocols for the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sampling statistics were obtained to develop a sampling protocol for estimating numbers of adult Diaphorina citri in citrus using two different sampling methods: yellow sticky traps and stem–tap samples. A 4.0 ha block of mature orange trees was stratified into ten 0.4 ha strata and sampled using...

  9. Sampling Methods for Detection and Monitoring of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Monzo, C; Arevalo, H A; Jones, M M; Vanaclocha, P; Croxton, S D; Qureshi, J A; Stansly, P A

    2015-06-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is a key pest of citrus due to its role as vector of citrus greening disease or "huanglongbing." ACP monitoring is considered an indispensable tool for management of vector and disease. In the present study, datasets collected between 2009 and 2013 from 245 citrus blocks were used to evaluate precision, sensitivity for detection, and efficiency of five sampling methods. The number of samples needed to reach a 0.25 standard error-mean ratio was estimated using Taylor's power law and used to compare precision among sampling methods. Comparison of detection sensitivity and time expenditure (cost) between stem-tap and other sampling methodologies conducted consecutively at the same location were also assessed. Stem-tap sampling was the most efficient sampling method when ACP densities were moderate to high and served as the basis for comparison with all other methods. Protocols that grouped trees near randomly selected locations across the block were more efficient than sampling trees at random across the block. Sweep net sampling was similar to stem-taps in number of captures per sampled unit, but less precise at any ACP density. Yellow sticky traps were 14 times more sensitive than stem-taps but much more time consuming and thus less efficient except at very low population densities. Visual sampling was efficient for detecting and monitoring ACP at low densities. Suction sampling was time consuming and taxing but the most sensitive of all methods for detection of sparse populations. This information can be used to optimize ACP monitoring efforts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Host-choice behavior of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) under laboratory conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the vector of huanglongbing (HLB), considered to be the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Knowledge of the ACP’s host-plant finding behavior aids in our understanding of the epidemiology of HLB and in designing experiments to ...

  11. Responses of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to conspecific vibrational signals and synthetic mimics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mate-seeking in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, a vector of the economically damaging huanglongbing citrus disease, typically includes male-female duetting behaviors. First, the male calls by beating its wings at ca. 170-250 Hz, producing vibrations that are transmitted along the host tree branches to th...

  12. The authority and types for the hackberry gall psyllid genus Pachypsylla (Riley) (Hemiptera-Homoptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nomenclatural problems with the hackberry gall psyllid species names are rectified. The genus Pachypsylla Riley, 1883, type species, Psylla venusta Osten-Sacken, includes 14 nominal species. These are: Pachypsylla venusta (Osten-Sacken, 1861); P. celtidismamma Riley, 1875; P. celtidisgemma Ri...

  13. Attraction of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to Female Psylla in Pear Orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster), is a major economic pest of pears in North America and Europe. Laboratory studies have shown that males of both the summerform and winterform morphotypes in this species are attracted to volatiles from females. The present study tested whether attrac...

  14. Ecological and genetic differences between Cacopsylla melanoneura (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) populations reveal species host plant preference.

    PubMed

    Malagnini, Valeria; Pedrazzoli, Federico; Papetti, Chiara; Cainelli, Christian; Zasso, Rosaly; Gualandri, Valeria; Pozzebon, Alberto; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The psyllid Cacopsylla melanoneura is considered one of the vectors of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali', the causal agent of apple proliferation disease. In Northern Italy, overwintered C. melanoneura adults reach apple and hawthorn around the end of January. Nymph development takes place between March and the end of April. The new generation adults migrate onto conifers around mid-June and come back to the host plant species after overwintering. In this study we investigated behavioural differences, genetic differentiation and gene flow between samples of C. melanoneura collected from the two different host plants. Further analyses were performed on some samples collected from conifers. To assess the ecological differences, host-switching experiments were conducted on C. melanoneura samples collected from apple and hawthorn. Furthermore, the genetic structure of the samples was studied by genotyping microsatellite markers. The examined C. melanoneura samples performed better on their native host plant species. This was verified in terms of oviposition and development of the offspring. Data resulting from microsatellite analysis indicated a low, but statistically significant difference between collected-from-apple and hawthorn samples. In conclusion, both ecological and genetic results indicate a differentiation between C. melanoneura samples associated with the two host plants.

  15. First report of the biological control agent Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in California, USA.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Australian psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae is a specialized herbivore of Melaleuca quinquenervia and other closely related congeners. Boreioglycaspis melaleucae was discovered in Los Angeles County (California, USA) in late 2009, feeding on ornamentally planted M. quinquenervia trees. The ps...

  16. Morphological description of the mouthparts of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Garzo, E; Bonani, J P; Lopes, J R S; Fereres, A

    2012-01-01

    Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy were used to elucidate the morphology of the rostrum, as well as the mandibular and maxillary stylets of the psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of phloem-inhabiting bacteria associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease. D. citri has a cone-shaped rostrum that extends behind the pair of prothoracic coxae. The stylet bundle comprises a pair of mandibular (Md) and maxillary (Mx) stylets with a mean length of 513.3 μm; when retracted, their proximal portions form a loop and are stored in the crumena (Cr). Serial cross-sections of the rostrum revealed that the mandibles are always projected in front of the maxillary stylets. The two maxillary stylets form the food and salivary canals, with diameters of 0.9 μm and 0.4 μm respectively. These two canals merge at the end of the stylets forming a common duct with a length of 4.3 μm and a mean diameter of 0.9 μm. The acrostyle, a distinct anatomical structure present in the common duct of aphid maxillary stylets, was not observed by TEM in the ultrathin cross-sections of the common duct (CD) of D. citri. This study provides new information on D. citri mouthparts that may help to understand the feeding behaviour of this important vector of HLB-associated bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Insecticide sprays, natural enemy assemblages and predation on Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Monzo, C; Qureshi, J A; Stansly, P A

    2014-10-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is considered a key citrus pest due to its role as vector of 'huanglongbing' (HLB) or citrus greening, probably the most economically damaging disease of citrus. Insecticidal control of the vector is still considered a cornerstone of HLB management to prevent infection and to reduce reinoculation of infected trees. The severity of HLB has driven implementation of intensive insecticide programs against ACP with unknown side effects on beneficial arthropod fauna in citrus agroecosystems. We evaluated effects of calendar sprays directed against this pest on natural enemy assemblages and used exclusion to estimate mortality they imposed on ACP populations in citrus groves. Predator exclusion techniques were used on nascent colonies of D. citri in replicated large untreated and sprayed plots of citrus during the four major flushing periods over 2 years. Population of spiders, arboreal ants and ladybeetles were independently assessed. Monthly sprays of recommended insecticides for control of ACP, adversely affected natural enemy populations resulting in reduced predation on ACP immature stages, especially during the critical late winter/early spring flush. Consequently, projected growth rates of the ACP population were greatest where natural enemies had been adversely affected by insecticides. Whereas, this result does not obviate the need for insecticidal control of ACP, it does indicate that even a selective regimen of sprays can impose as yet undetermined costs in terms of reduced biological control of this and probably other citrus pests.

  18. [Ovarian development and analysis of mating effects on ovary maturation of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)].

    PubMed

    Dossi, Fábio C A; Cônsoli, Fernando L

    2010-01-01

    As many other insects with a restricted diet, the citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, which vector the causing agent of the Huanglongbing, the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp., is intimately associated with symbiotic microorganisms. These mutualist symbionts play a key role on their host nutritional ecology, and are vertically transmitted to the progeny. However, despite the role symbionts play on host development and reproduction, and the growing opportunities of exploitation of the association insect-symbiont to control insect vectored-pathogens, there are very few studies on the host reproductive biology and on the symbiont transovarial transmission. Therefore, we aimed at analyzing the ovary development during D. citri adulthood, and at verifying for the mating requirement as a trigger to initiate ovary development. Newly-emerged D. citri females were grouped as virgin or mated and ovary development was observed during adulthood. Newly-emerged females have immature ovaries, and ovaries remain without any mature eggs until females mate. Once female mates, the vitellogenesis synthesis and uptake are estimulated, and oocytes are quickly developed. Oocytes maturation in ovarioles is metachronic, with only one oocyte developing at a time in each oogenic cycle. Morphological observations of the reproductive system including the ovaries and spermatheca, after the first cluster of eggs is laid, indicated D. citri is polyandrous, and may require multiple mating to develop additional oogenic maturation cycles.

  19. Ecological and Genetic Differences between Cacopsylla melanoneura (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) Populations Reveal Species Host Plant Preference

    PubMed Central

    Malagnini, Valeria; Pedrazzoli, Federico; Papetti, Chiara; Cainelli, Christian; Zasso, Rosaly; Gualandri, Valeria; Pozzebon, Alberto; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The psyllid Cacopsylla melanoneura is considered one of the vectors of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’, the causal agent of apple proliferation disease. In Northern Italy, overwintered C. melanoneura adults reach apple and hawthorn around the end of January. Nymph development takes place between March and the end of April. The new generation adults migrate onto conifers around mid-June and come back to the host plant species after overwintering. In this study we investigated behavioural differences, genetic differentiation and gene flow between samples of C. melanoneura collected from the two different host plants. Further analyses were performed on some samples collected from conifers. To assess the ecological differences, host-switching experiments were conducted on C. melanoneura samples collected from apple and hawthorn. Furthermore, the genetic structure of the samples was studied by genotyping microsatellite markers. The examined C. melanoneura samples performed better on their native host plant species. This was verified in terms of oviposition and development of the offspring. Data resulting from microsatellite analysis indicated a low, but statistically significant difference between collected-from-apple and hawthorn samples. In conclusion, both ecological and genetic results indicate a differentiation between C. melanoneura samples associated with the two host plants. PMID:23874980

  20. A revision of the Chinese species of Cyamophiliopsis (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Psyllidae) associated with Spiraea (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Luo, Xinyu; Li, Fasheng; Cai, Wanzhi

    2015-03-20

    Cyamophiliopsis is a small genus restricted to the Palaearctic Region and associated with Spiraea spp. (Rosaceae). In the present work, following five species are recognized in China: C. pseudofasciata sp. nov., C. sarmatica, C. spinosa sp. nov., C. xinjiangana sp. nov. and C. zaisani. Cyamophiliopsis is diagnosed, redescribed in detail, and its phylogenetic relationships are discussed. All the species are described or redescribed, and the fifth instar immature of C. zaisani is described for the first time. Nomenclatorial problems are discussed concerning the Far East Russian Psylla spiraee which is transferred to Cyamophiliopsis as C. spiraee comb. nov.

  1. Insecticidal activity of neem oil against Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) nymphs on Paraguay tea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Formentini, M A; Alves, L F A; Schapovaloff, M E

    2016-01-01

    Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul) is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality), demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.

  2. Saproxylic Hemiptera Habitat Associations

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Robert L. Blinn; Gene. Kritsky

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the habitat requirements of organisms associated with dead wood is important in order to conserve them in managed forests. Unfortunately, many of the less diverse saproxylic taxa, including Hemiptera, remain largely unstudied. An effort to rear insects from dead wood taken from two forest types (an upland pine-dominated and a bottomland mixed hardwood),...

  3. Repellency of a kaolin particle film to potato payllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on tomato under laboratory and field conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, is a vector of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum,” the bacterium causing several diseases in solanaceous crops. Laboratory and field no-choice and choice experiments were conducted to evaluate repellency of kaolin particle film on adults of B. cockerel...

  4. Repellency of a kaolin particle film to potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), on tomato under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Peng, Linian; Trumble, John T; Munyaneza, Joseph E; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2011-07-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, is a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, causing several diseases in solanaceous crops. Laboratory and field no-choice and choice experiments were conducted to evaluate the repellency of kaolin particle film on adults of B. cockerelli on tomato plants that had been sprayed with kaolin particle film on the upper surface only, on the lower surface only and on both leaf surfaces. In no-choice tests in the laboratory, the numbers of adults on leaves were not different between the kaolin particle film and the water control, regardless of which leaf surface(s) were treated, but numbers of eggs were lower on the leaves treated with kaolin particle film than on those treated with water. In choice tests on plants treated with water/plants treated with kaolin particle film at ratios of 1:1, 6:3 or 8:1, fewer adults and eggs were found on the leaves treated with kaolin particle film than on leaves treated with water. Under field conditions, in caged no-choice or choice tests, fewer adults, eggs and nymphs were found on plants treated with kaolin particle film than on plants treated with water. In an uncaged test under field conditions, plants sprayed with kaolin particle film had fewer psyllids than those sprayed with water. Even though potato psyllid adults could land on plants treated with kaolin particle film when no choice was given, fewer eggs were laid. When given a choice, the psyllids avoided plants treated with kaolin particle film under laboratory and field conditions. Kaolin particle film treatment may be a useful alternative for management of potato psyllids under field conditions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Elicitors of Host Plant Defenses Partially Suppress Pear Psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola, Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations under Field Conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Defense elicitors are products that activate acquired defense responses in plants, thus rendering the plants less susceptible to attack by a broad range of pests. We previously demonstrated under laboratory conditions that foliar applications of the defense elicitors Actigard (acibenzolar-S-methyl)...

  6. Sulfur volatiles from Allium spp. affect Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), response to citrus volatiles.

    PubMed

    Mann, R S; Rouseff, R L; Smoot, J M; Castle, W S; Stelinski, L L

    2011-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus (Lam), the presumed causal agents of huanglongbing. D. citri generally rely on olfaction and vision for detection of host cues. Plant volatiles from Allium spp. (Alliaceae) are known to repel several arthropod species. We examined the effect of garlic chive (A. tuberosum Rottl.) and wild onion (A. canadense L.) volatiles on D. citri behaviour in a two-port divided T-olfactometer. Citrus leaf volatiles attracted significantly more D. citri adults than clean air. Volatiles from crushed garlic chive leaves, garlic chive essential oil, garlic chive plants, wild onion plants and crushed wild onion leaves all repelled D. citri adults when compared with clean air, with the first two being significantly more repellent than the others. However, when tested with citrus volatiles, only crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil were repellent, and crushed wild onions leaves were not. Analysis of the headspace components of crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that monosulfides, disulfides and trisulfides were the primary sulfur volatiles present. In general, trisulfides (dimethyl trisulfide) inhibited the response of D. citri to citrus volatiles more than disulfides (dimethyl disulfide, allyl methyl disulfide, allyl disulfide). Monosulfides did not affect the behaviour of D. citri adults. A blend of dimethyl trisulfide and dimethyl disulfide in 1:1 ratio showed an additive effect on inhibition of D. citri response to citrus volatiles. The plant volatiles from Allium spp. did not affect the behaviour of the D. citri ecto-parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). Thus, Allium spp. or the tri- and di-sulphides could be integrated into management programmes for D. citri without affecting natural enemies.

  7. Unreliable pesticide control of the vector psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) for the reduction of microorganism disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Katsuya; Miyazi, Kastuhiko; Matsuhira, Kunihiko; Yasuda, Keiji; Sadoyama, Yasutsune; Do, Hong Tuan; Doan, Van Bang

    2010-07-01

    Systemic insecticides and application methods were examined for the control of the vector psyllid of citrus greening disease, Diaphorina citri, on grown king mandarin trees in an orchard in southern Vietnam from May 2007 to September 2008. Leaf spraying of imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin attained about 50 % to 70 % mortality of the psyllid for one month after the application and showed decreased efficacy thereafter. Imidacloprid was more effective than the other two insecticides, but the efficacy on grown trees was still much lower than that following application to young seedlings. Trunk injection of these insecticides accomplished similar mortality, about 50 %, and the efficacy of the insecticides continued for one month. An adjuvant was used with the goal of protecting the insecticide applied on leaves from precipitation, and mineral oil was used for the same reason, as well as its potential to control the psyllid. Neither the adjuvant nor the mineral oil played an evident role in the increase of insecticide efficacy or longevity. Application of systemic insecticides at even 50 times the dose described above did not show an apparent increase in psyllid mortality. The insecticides commonly used for the control of the psyllid were not as effective on this insect on grown trees as we had expected they would be.

  8. Volatile profiles of young leaves of Rutaceae spp. varying in susceptibility to the Asian citrus psyllid,(Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant volatiles were identified from six species in the family Rutaceae. These species had varying degrees of susceptibility to the Asian citrus psyllid as determined by direct counts of life stages. Using a push system involving charcoal-filtered humidified air, volatiles were adsorbed on SuperQ pa...

  9. Ultrastructure of integument wax and wax-producing structures in the melaleuca psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The melaleuca psyllid has been introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida wetland since its introduction earlier from Australia as an ornamental plant. Colonies of the psyllid on young shoots...

  10. Morphological and molecular characterization of a Hirsutella species infecting the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in Florida.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jason M; Hoy, Marjorie A; Boucias, Drion G

    2007-06-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an invasive pest that vectors citrus greening disease, which recently was detected in Florida. Mycosed adult D. citri were collected at four sites in central Florida between September 2005 and February 2006. Observation of the cadavers using scanning electron microscopy revealed that the pathogen had branched synnemata supporting monophiladic conidiogenous cells. A high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to amplify the 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and beta-tubulin genes of the pathogen for phylogenetic analysis. The morphological and genetic data indicated that the pathogen was a novel isolate related to Hirsutella citriformis Speare. PCR assays using isolate-specific primers designed from the unique putative intron region of the beta-tubulin sequence distinguished the psyllid pathogen from five related Hirsutella species. The pathogen was maintained in vivo by exposing healthy D. citri to the synnemata borne on field-collected cadavers. Infected psyllids had an abundance of septate hyphal bodies in their hemolymph and exhibited behavioral symptoms of disease. In vitro cultures of the pathogen were slow-growing and produced synnemata similar to those found on mycosed D. citri. In laboratory bioassays, high levels of mortality were observed in D. citri that were exposed to the conidia-bearing synnemata produced in vivo and in vitro.

  11. Relative abundance of Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) in females and males of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect’s diet. Accurate estimations of Carsonella populations are important to studies of Carsonella/psyllid interactions and to developing ways to ...

  12. Post-establishment assessment of host plant specificity of Arytainilla spartiophila (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), an adventive biological control agent of Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius (Fabaceae), is a shrub native to Europe that is invasive in the USA, New Zealand and Australia. The psyllid Arytainilla spartiophila has been purposely introduced to Australia and New Zealand as a biological control agent of C. scoparius, but is an accidental introduc...

  13. Impacts of the Adventive Psyllid Arytainilla spartiophila (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on Growth of the Invasive Weed Cytisus scoparius Under Controlled and Field Conditions in California.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Brian N; Smith, Lincoln; Daane, Kent M

    2016-02-01

    The postrelease impact of weed biological control agents on their target weeds is rarely assessed. This study focuses on the impacts of the univoltine broom psyllid Arytainilla spartiophila Forster on the growth of its target weed, the invasive shrub Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (Fabaceae), in California. Arytainilla spartiophila is an adventive species that has been present in North America for several decades. In a greenhouse experiment, plant growth as measured by both height and total stem length (height + length of all branches) was reduced on plants that received psyllids, and psyllid densities were negatively correlated to proportional change in plant height. There were no effects on number of leaves, however. Furthermore, the psyllid had no statistically detectable impacts on plant growth parameters in a field experiment, underscoring how results obtained under controlled conditions may not fully predict the performance of biological control agents in the field. The high psyllid mortality that occurred at higher psyllid densities in both the greenhouse and the field suggests that the impacts of A. spartiophila may be moderated by intraspecific competition.

  14. Geographic distribution and regional impacts of Oxyops vitiosa (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), biological control agents of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake is widely distributed throughout peninsular Florida, USA and poses a significant threat to species diversity in the wetland systems of the Everglades. Mitigation of this threat includes the areawide release campaign of the biological control age...

  15. Protective effects of egg stalk of Paratrioza sinica (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) at various angles and spacing against three predaceous coccinellids, Harmonia axyridis, Coccinella septempunctata and Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Pengxiang; Ma, Baoxu; Yan, Shuo; Xu, Jing; He, Jia; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Runzhi

    2017-08-26

    Paratrioza sinica, is a major pest of wolfberries. Coccinellids could effectively control various developmental stages of P. sinica damage except the stalked egg. To analyze the protective role of egg stalks against predaceous coccinellids, Harmonia axyridis, Coccinella septempunctata and Hippodamia variegata, we studied the functional responses and effects of two potential factors: the angle between egg stalk and leaf plane, and the spacing between egg stalks. The searching rate, handling time and theoretical maximum egg consumption of H. variegata was optimal among 3 ladybug species. The egg consumption by coccinellids were maximum and minimum at 0° and 90°, respectively. Average reduction rates from 0° to 90° of egg consumed by larvae of coccinellids and H. variegata were significantly lower compared to adults and other 2 species, respectively. Optimal spacing of egg consumption varied with different predator species and their developmental stages, which were nearly close to the body lengths of predators. Egg stalk was served as a physical protection against the predators. Selective advantage of egg stalk is a facilitator in protection against predators during evolution, which needs more attention. Reasonable selection of predator and irrigation strategy may exhibit positive control performance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-generational impacts of the psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on growth and survival of the invasive weed Genista monspessulana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pre-release efficacy assessments can identify agents with the most potential to impact the target weed. Experiments typically occur within a single generation of the agent, however, and strong impacts on target weeds may take longer to emerge. This study examined the effects of the prospective agent...

  17. Probing behaviors of adult Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)are not appreciably affected by soil application of field-rate aldicarb to citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2005, Huanglongbing disease (HLB), also known as citrus greening, was discovered in Florida. The presumptive causal agent of this disease is the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), which is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid,Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Following ...

  18. Incidence of huanglongbing-associated ‘Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus’ in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) collected from plants for sale in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was reported for the first time in Florida in June 1998, and huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening), vectored by D. citri, was detected in Florida for the first time in Aug 2005. In Florida, the only known HLB pathogen is ‘Candidatus Liberibacter as...

  19. Detection and relative titer of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in the salivary glands and alimentary canal of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vector of citrus Huanglongbing disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus has been strongly implicated as the causative agent of huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening, which is currently the most devastating citrus disease worldwide. In the Americas and Asia, HLB is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri in a persisten...

  20. Geographic distribution and regional impacts of Oxyops vitiosa (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), biological control agents of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia.

    PubMed

    Balentine, K M; Pratt, P D; Dray, F A; Rayamajhi, M B; Center, T D

    2009-08-01

    The invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake is widely distributed throughout peninsular Florida and poses a significant threat to species diversity in the wetland systems of the Everglades. Mitigation of this threat includes the areawide release campaign of the biological control agents Oxyops vitiosa Pascoe and Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore. We summarize the results of this release effort and quantify the resulting geographic distribution of the herbivores as well as their regional impact on the target weed. A combined total of 3.3 million individual Melaleuca biological control agents have been redistributed to 407 locations and among 15 Florida counties. Surveys of the invaded area indicate that the geographic distribution of O. vitiosa encompasses 71% of the Melaleuca infestation. Although released 5 yr later, the distribution of B. melaleuca is slightly greater than its predecessor, with a range including 78% of the sampled Melaleuca stands. Melaleuca stands outside both biological control agents' distributions occurred primarily in the northern extremes of the tree's range. Strong positive association between herbivore species was observed, with the same density of both species occurring in 162 stands and no evidence of interspecific competition. Soil type also influenced the incidence of biological control agents and the distribution of their impacts. The odds of encountering O. vitiosa or B. melaleucae in cells dominated by sandy soils were 2.2 and 2.9 times more likely than those predominated by organically rich soils. As a result, a greater level of damage from both herbivores was observed for stands growing on sandy versus organic-rich soils.

  1. [First record of Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on adults of the Paraguay tea psyllid, Gyropsylla spegazziniana Lizer & Trelles (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Alves, Luis F A; Leite, Luis G; Oliveira, Daian G P de

    2009-01-01

    We report the first occurrence of Zoophthora radicans infecting adults of Gyropsylla spegazziniana Lizer & Trelles in a commercial Paraguay tea plantation (Ilex paraguariensis), in Cascavel, PR, Brazil. The fungus prevalence was high (90% of mortality), considered a natural epizooty.

  2. Development of ovary structures in the last larval and adult stages of psyllids (Insecta, Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Psylloidea).

    PubMed

    Kot, Marta; Büning, Jürgen; Jankowska, Władysława; Drohojowska, Jowita; Szklarzewicz, Teresa

    2016-07-01

    The development and organization of the ovaries of ten species from four Psylloidea families (Psyllidae, Triozidae, Aphalaridae and Liviidae) have been investigated. The ovaries of the last larval stage (i.e. fifth instar) of all examined species are filled with numerous clusters of cystocytes which undergo synchronous incomplete mitotic division. Cystocytes of the given cluster are arranged into a rosette with polyfusome in the centre. These clusters are associated with single somatic cells. At the end of the fifth instar, the clusters begin to separate from each other, forming spherical ovarioles which are surrounded by a single layer of somatic cells. In the ovarioles of very young females all cystocytes enter the prophase of meiosis and differentiate shortly thereafter into oocytes and trophocytes (nurse cells). Meanwhile, somatic cells differentiate into cells of the inner epithelial sheath surrounding the trophocytes and into the prefollicular cells that encompass the oocytes. During this final differentiation, the trophocytes lose their cell membranes and become syncytial. Oocytes remain cellular and most of them (termed arrested oocytes) do not grow. In the ovarioles of older females, one oocyte encompassed by its follicle cells starts growing, still connected to the syncytial tropharium by a nutritive cord. After the short phase of previtellogenesis alone, the oocyte enters its vitellogenic the growth phase in the vitellarium. At that time, the second oocyte may enter the vitellarium and start its previtellogenic growth. In the light of the obtained results, the phylogeny of psyllids, as well as phylogenetic relationships between taxa of Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex Attraction in Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera (= Paratrioza) cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potato. We examined the role of chemical signals in sex attraction, assessing male and female response to male- and female-produced volatile chemicals. In laboratory olfactometer assays, pot...

  4. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  5. Salivary proteins of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) causes economic damage to a wide-range of crops in the western United States. While stylet-probing, L. hesperus discharge saliva consisting of lytic enzymes that facilitate extraoral digestion of host tissues. L. hesperus saliva primarily consists of poly...

  6. New substitute name for the genus Poliocoris Slater, 1994 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Rhyparochromidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dao-Wei; Chen, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Neopoliocoris nom. n., a new substitute name is proposed for Poliocoris Slater, 1994 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae), preoccupied by Poliocoris Kirkaldy, 1910 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). A new combination, Neopoliocorisumbrosus (Slater, 1994), comb. n. is proposed for Poliocorisumbrosus Slater, 1994.

  7. Metagenomics of Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Metagenomics approach was used to identify unknown organisms which live in association with the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Metagenomics combines molecular biology and genetics to identify, and characterize genetic material from unique biological ...

  8. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, and Platygastridae) of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Argentina are reviewed and keyed. Newly described are Anagrus (Anagrus) empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Mymaridae, parasitoid of M. scutellaris Berg on water hyacinth, Eichhornia cras...

  9. The Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) as a pest in Egypt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) has many common names including sweetpotato whitefly, silverleaf whitefly, tobacco whitefly, tomato whitefly, and cassava whitefly. It is an important global pest of numerous field and greenhouse agricultural crops. It damages plants from its fee...

  10. Metagenomics of Glassy-winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three new insect-infecting viruses, three endosymbiotic bacteria, a fungus, and a bacterial phage were discovered using a metagenomics approach to identify unknown organisms that live in association with the sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The genetic composition of ...

  11. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping; Bu, Cui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha),Cicadomorpha),Heteroptera), and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes) demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  12. A Molecular Phylogeny of Hemiptera Inferred from Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping; Bu, Cui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha),Cicadomorpha),Heteroptera), and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes) demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses. PMID:23144967

  13. Comparative anaylsis of Asian citrus psyllid and potato psyllid antennae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The comparative investigation of the morphological basis for olfactory reception in the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) and the potato/tomato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) was performed using scanning electron microscopy to elucidate the antennal sensory arrays being...

  14. Toxicity of pesticides to Tamarixia radiata, a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixteen pesticides including two fungicides were evaluated for toxicity to adult Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Percentage mortality data were evaluated to generally assess IPM-com...

  15. Genetic diversity of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Amouroux, P; Crochard, D; Germain, J-F; Correa, M; Ampuero, J; Groussier, G; Kreiter, P; Malausa, T; Zaviezo, T

    2017-05-17

    Scale insects (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) are one of the most invasive and agriculturally damaging insect groups. Their management and the development of new control methods are currently jeopardized by the scarcity of identification data, in particular in regions where no large survey coupling morphological and DNA analyses have been performed. In this study, we sampled 116 populations of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and 112 populations of soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Chile, over a latitudinal gradient ranging from 18°S to 41°S, on fruit crops, ornamental plants and trees. We sequenced the COI and 28S genes in each population. In total, 19 Diaspididae species and 11 Coccidae species were identified morphologically. From the 63 COI haplotypes and the 54 28S haplotypes uncovered, and using several DNA data analysis methods (Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, K2P distance, NJ trees), up to 36 genetic clusters were detected. Morphological and DNA data were congruent, except for three species (Aspidiotus nerii, Hemiberlesia rapax and Coccus hesperidum) in which DNA data revealed highly differentiated lineages. More than 50% of the haplotypes obtained had no high-scoring matches with any of the sequences in the GenBank database. This study provides 63 COI and 54 28S barcode sequences for the identification of Coccoidea from Chile.

  16. Initial impacts and field validation of host range for Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae),a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (Myrtales: Myrtaceae: Leptosp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasion of south Florida wetlands by the Australian paperbark tree (“melaleuca”), Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake (melaleuca) has caused adverse economic and environmental impacts. The tree’s biological attributes along with favorable ambient biophysical conditions combine to complicate ...

  17. Initial impacts and field validation of host range for Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (Myrtales: Myrtaceae: Leptospermoideae).

    PubMed

    Center, Ted D; Pratt, Paul D; Tipping, Philip W; Rayamajhi, Min B; Van, Thai K; Wineriter, Susan A; Dray, F Allen

    2007-06-01

    Invasion of south Florida wetlands by the Australian paperbark tree, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake (melaleuca), has caused adverse economic and environmental impacts. The tree's biological attributes and favorable ambient biophysical conditions combine to complicate efforts to restore and maintain south Florida ecosystems. Management requires an integrated strategy that deploys multiple biological control agents to forestall reinvasion and to supplement other control methods, thereby lessening recruitment and regeneration after removal of existing trees. This biological control program began during 1997 when an Australian weevil, Oxyops vitiosa (Pascoe), was released. A second Australian insect, the melaleuca psyllid (Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore), first introduced during 2002, has also widely established. After inoculation of the psyllid in a field study, only 40% of seedlings survived herbivory treatments compared with 95% survival in controls. The resultant defoliation also reduced growth of the surviving seedlings. A weevil-induced decline at a site comprised mainly of coppicing stumps had slowed after a 70% reduction. Psyllids colonized the site, and 37% of the remaining coppices succumbed within 10 mo. The realized ecological host range of B. melaleucae was restricted to M. quinquenervia; 18 other nontarget plant species predicted to be suboptimal or nonhosts during laboratory host range testing were unaffected when interspersed with psyllid-infested melaleuca trees in a common garden study. Evaluations are ongoing, but B. melaleucae is clearly reducing seedling recruitment and stump regrowth without adversely impacting other plant species. Manifestation of impacts on mature trees will require more time, but initial indications suggest that the psyllid will be an effective supplement to the weevil.

  18. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. ...

  19. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae)

    Treesearch

    Colin Favret; Nathan P. Havill; Gary L. Miller; Masakazu Sano; Benjamin Victor

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of...

  20. Temperature-dependent egg development of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key agricultural pest in the western United States, but certain aspects of its temperature-dependent development are poorly defined. Accurate models describing the relationships between temperature and development of L. hesperus would facilitate the s...

  1. Temperature-dependent survival of adult Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a key pest of many horticultural and agronomic crops in the western United States. Despite its well documented pest status, many aspects of the basic biology, including overwintering ecology, of L. hesperus are poorly u...

  2. Catalog of the phylloxerids of the world (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalog of the phylloxerids (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, three being synonyms. Thirty-five genus-group names, of which six are subjectively valid, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. Ni...

  3. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  4. The stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of Washington state

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Froeschner (1988) records 23 species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) as occurring in Washington state. Based onmaterial primarily housed in the M.T. James Entomological Collection at Washington State University, the number of species is increased to 47. Species recorded by Froes...

  5. The mitogenome of the bed bug Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Foox, Jonathan; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A; Brugler, Mercer R; Reeves, Darryl; Benoit, Joshua B; Booth, Warren; Robison, Grant; Steffen, Michael; Sakas, Zoe; Palli, Subba R; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen; Narechania, Apurva; Baker, Richard H; Sorkin, Louis N; Amato, George; Mason, Christopher E; Siddall, Mark E; DeSalle, Rob

    We report the extraction of a bed bug mitogenome from high-throughput sequencing projects originally focused on the nuclear genome of Cimex lectularius. The assembled mitogenome has a similar AT nucleotide composition bias found in other insects. Phylogenetic analysis of all protein-coding genes indicates that C. lectularius is clearly a member of a paraphyletic Cimicomorpha clade within the Order Hemiptera.

  6. Development of DNA barcodes of genus Lygus Hahn (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important group of insects that contains 43 known species worldwide. Some species within this genus are important agricultural pests in North America. Annual economic impacts in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., from Lygus spp. due to yield losses and control ...

  7. Developing resistance for watermelon against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Host plant resistance is a fundamental component of crop sustainability. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of many crops around the world. It is adaptive to its environment and feeds on an impressive (over 1,000) number of plant species. Watermelon (Cit...

  8. Spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum Walker) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) [Chapter XXIV

    Treesearch

    Ann M. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Elatobium abietinum Walker is a spruce-feeding aphid that in Europe is referred to as the green spruce aphid (Day et al., 1998a) (Fig. 1). However, in North America E. abietinum is known simply as the spruce aphid, while the common name "green spruce aphid" refers to a different species, Cinara fornacula Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (http://www.entsoc.org/...

  9. Release and establishment of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Megamelus scutellaris (Berg) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) was recently developed as a classical biological control agent for waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, and released in Florida. Releases were conducted at 10 sites around the state every 4-6 weeks until late fall then halted until t...

  10. Molecular phylogeny of Triatomini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Triatomini and Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) tribes include the most diverse Chagas disease vectors; however, the phylogenetic relationships within the tribes remain obscure. This study provides the most comprehensive phylogeny of Triatomini reported to date. Methods The relationships between all of the Triatomini genera and representatives of the three Rhodniini species groups were examined in a novel molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the following six molecular markers: the mitochondrial 16S; Cytochrome Oxidase I and II (COI and COII) and Cytochrome B (Cyt B); and the nuclear 18S and 28S. Results Our results show that the Rhodnius prolixus and R. pictipes groups are more closely related to each other than to the R. pallescens group. For Triatomini, we demonstrate that the large complexes within the paraphyletic Triatoma genus are closely associated with their geographical distribution. Additionally, we observe that the divergence within the spinolai and flavida complex clades are higher than in the other Triatoma complexes. Conclusions We propose that the spinolai and flavida complexes should be ranked under the genera Mepraia and Nesotriatoma. Finally, we conclude that a thorough morphological investigation of the paraphyletic genera Triatoma and Panstrongylus is required to accurately assign queries to natural genera. PMID:24685273

  11. DNA Barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, Eric; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage. PMID:25004106

  12. The biology of Dactylopius tomentosus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae).

    PubMed

    Mathenge, C W; Holford, P; Hoffmann, J H; Spooner-Hart, R; Beattie, G A C; Zimmermann, H G

    2009-12-01

    Dactylopius tomentosus (Lamarck) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) is a cochineal insect whose host range is restricted to Cylindropuntia species (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae). This insect has been utilized successfully for biological control of Cylindropuntia imbricata (Haw.) F.M. Knuth in Australia and South Africa. Despite this, its biology has not been studied previously, probably due to the widely held belief that the biology of all Dactylopius species is similar. This study investigated the life cycle and the morphological and reproductive characteristics of D. tomentosus. Results revealed some unique characteristics of D. tomentosus: (i) eggs undergo a much longer incubation period, an average of 17 days compared to <1 day in its congeners; (ii) eggs are laid singly but are retained as an egg mass secured in a mesh of waxy threads attached to the female; (iii) the developmental times of males and females are longer compared to other Dactylopius spp. due to a longer egg incubation period; (iv) D. tomentosus does not undergo parthenogenesis; (v) D. tomentosus is smaller in size than its congeners; and (vi) male mating capacity and reproductive potential were both high and variable between males. There was a significant, strong, positive relationship (r = 0.93) between female mass and fecundity, whereas the relationship between the number of females mated per male that became gravid and their fecundity was negative (r = -0.68). Besides contributing to our knowledge of this economically important species, the finding of unique characteristics of D. tomentosus biology underlines the need to study each species in this genus.

  13. Rediscovering digitules in Aphidomorpha and the question of homology among Sternorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We explore and expand on the morphological term digitule. The term was originally proposed for toe like setae on a species of Phylloxera (Hemiptera, Sternorrhynca, Aphidomorpha) by Henry Shimer, an American naturalist. While it is standard terminology in scale systematics (Hemiptera, Sternorrhynca, ...

  14. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae).

    PubMed

    Favret, Colin; Havill, Nathan P; Miller, Gary L; Sano, Masakazu; Victor, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of which 70 are considered subjectively valid.

  15. Catalog of the phylloxerids of the world (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae).

    PubMed

    Favret, Colin; Blackman, Roger L; Miller, Gary L; Victor, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the phylloxerids (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, three being synonyms. Thirty-five genus-group names, of which six are subjectively valid, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. Ninety-four species-group names are listed, of which 73 are considered subjectively valid. This is the last group of Aphidomorpha to be catalogued, bringing the list of valid extant species to 5,218.

  16. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae)

    PubMed Central

    Favret, Colin; Havill, Nathan P.; Miller, Gary L.; Sano, Masakazu; Victor, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of which 70 are considered subjectively valid. PMID:26668546

  17. Photosharing websites may improve Hemiptera biodiversity knowledge and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Goula, Marta; Sesma, José-Manuel; Vivas, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Internet photosharing websites is a very recent and powerful tool for the study of biodiversity, and a meeting point of general public fond of nature and professional naturalists. The article discusses when an uploaded picture is scientifically valuable, and the benefits of structured hosting websites for the most fruitful information retrieval. Examples are given of faunistic, biological, ecological and conservation results concerning Hemiptera provided by information download from photosharing websites. PMID:24003310

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of a spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Ming-Xing, Lu; Zhi-Teng, Chen; Wei-Wei, Yu; Yu-Zhou, Du

    2017-03-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of a spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The 16 170 bp long genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 20 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region. The A. dispersus mitogenome also includes a cytb-like non-coding region and shows several variations relative to the typical insect mitogenome. A phylogenetic tree has been constructed using the 13 protein-coding genes of 12 related species from Hemiptera. Our results would contribute to further study of phylogeny in Aleyrodidae and Hemiptera.

  19. Casuarinacola, a new genus of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae) from Casuarina (Casuarinaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new genus, Casuarinacola comprising four new species, namely C. equisetifoliae, C. acutialata, C. melanomaculata and C. warrigalensis, of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae), specific to the host genus Casuarina sensu stricto (Casuarinaceae) from Australia, are described. They are characteri...

  20. Variation in male and female genitalia among ten species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...

  1. "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” associated with the psyllid, Bactericera maculipennis (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The psyllid Bactericera maculipennis (Crawford) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) often cohabits field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, Solanales: Convolvulaceae) and other plants with the congeneric psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Bactericera cockerelli is a v...

  2. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chlorotic feeding injury by the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), to pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch) foliage can result in leaf senescence and abscission. The plant growth regulators chlorforfenuron (CPPU), gibberellic acid (GA3) and aminoet...

  3. Host range specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a predator of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Treesearch

    Samita Limbu; Katie Cassidy; Melody Keena; Patrick Tobin; Kelli Hoover

    2015-01-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is...

  4. Preparing sternorrhynchous insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) for microscope examination: Hoyer’s mounting medium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...

  5. Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larval development and predation of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Treesearch

    Samita Limbu; Melody A. Keena; David Long; Nancy Ostiguy; Kelli. Hoover

    2015-01-01

    Development time and prey consumption of Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae by instar, strain, and temperature were evaluated. S. camptodromus, a specialist predator of hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera:...

  6. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Aphids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper identification of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare aphid specimens on microscope slides for examination and indentification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clear...

  7. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

  8. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  9. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Alyrodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper identification of whiteflies (Hemiptera:Alyrodidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare whitefly specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen...

  10. Egg parasitoids of Taosa spp. (Hemiptera:Dictyopharidae)in Formosa Argentina with descriptions of new species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and Platygastridae) of Taosa (Cuernavaca) longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) are reviewed and keyed. This planthopper feeds on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach, and was collected in Formosa, Argentina, where some of ...

  11. Host Range Specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), A Predator of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    PubMed

    Limbu, Samita; Cassidy, Katie; Keena, Melody; Tobin, Patrick; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is closely synchronized with that of A. tsugae and has several characteristics of a promising biological control agent. As a prerequisite to field release, S. camptodromus was evaluated for potential nontarget impacts. In host range studies, the predator was given the choice of sympatric adelgid and nonadelgid prey items. Nontarget testing showed that S. camptodromus will feed to some degree on other adelgid species, but highly prefers A. tsugae. We also evaluated larval development of S. camptodromus on pine bark adelgid (Pineus strobi (Hartig)) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and larch adelgid (Adelges laricis Vallot) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae); a small proportion of predator larvae was able to develop to adulthood on P. strobi or A. laricis alone. Scymnus camptodromus showed no interest in feeding on woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) or woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and minimal interest in cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in choice and no-choice experiments. Scymnus camptodromus females did not oviposit on any host material other than A. tsugae-infested hemlock. Under the circumstances of the study, S. camptodromus appears to be a specific predator of A. tsugae, with minimal risk to nontarget species. Although the predator can develop on P. strobi, the likelihood that S. camptodromus would oviposit on pine hosts of this adelgid is small.

  12. An overview on the ecology of Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Galvão, Cleber; Justi, Silvia A

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, the American trypanosomiasis, is an important neglected tropical illness caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) and transmitted by insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Here we provide an overview on the current knowledge about Triatominae ecology, its association with human, T. cruzi infection and the immediate consequences of habitat fragmentation. We also discuss the geographic distribution of the species and the importance of predicting their distributions to control programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Catalog of the phylloxerids of the world (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Favret, Colin; Blackman, Roger L.; Miller, Gary L.; Victor, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the phylloxerids (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, three being synonyms. Thirty-five genus-group names, of which six are subjectively valid, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. Ninety-four species-group names are listed, of which 73 are considered subjectively valid. This is the last group of Aphidomorpha to be catalogued, bringing the list of valid extant species to 5,218. PMID:27920598

  14. New Midwestern state records of aquatic Hemiptera (Corixidae: Notonectidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chordas, Stephen W.; Chapman, Eric G.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chriscinske, Margret A.; Stewart, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent aquatic Hemiptera collections have yielded 15 new state records distributed among four midwestern States. These records include two species of water boatmen (Palmacorixa gillettei and Sigara mathesoni) new for Indiana, four water boatmen species (Cenocorixa utahensis, Corisella inscripta, Hesperocorixa laevigata, S. decorata), including one genus (Cenocorixa) new for Michigan, four water boatmen species (Corisella edulis, Trichocorixa macroceps, S. decoratella, S. mathesoni) and one backswimmer species (Notonecta indica) new for Ohio, and four water boatmen species (H. kennicotti, H. semilucida, S. compressoidea, S. variabilis) new for Pennsylvania.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bemisia afer (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Ling; Xiao, Na; Yang, Jiao; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Colvin, John; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The length of the Bemisia afer (Priesner & Hosny) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) is 14,968 bp and consists of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNA), 2 ribosomal RNAs and 1 control region. Apart from one serine transfer RNA gene (tRNA-Ser) which is absent, the synteny is consistent with the mitogenomes of other whitefly species. The overall base composition of the heavy strand for A, G, T and C is 28.96, 18.97, 36.7 and 15.37%, respectively, with a slight AT bias. Two rare codons (GTG and TTG) are employed as start codons by some PCGs. B. afer is a group of cryptic species. This first mitogenome cloned from African cassava B. afer, therefore, both enrich the whitefly molecular resource and will aid the sequencing of the other species' mitogenomes. It will contribute significantly to resolving the systematics of the B. afer complex.

  16. Notes on midgut ultrastructure of cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Neves, Clóvis Andrade; Mallet, Jacenir Reis dos Santos; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2009-05-01

    This work studied the ultrastructure of the midgut cells of Cimex hemipterus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). The midgut of adult insects was analyzed on different days after a bloodmeal, and three anatomical regions with different digestive functions were apparent. In the anterior midgut, the digestive cells had many spherocrystals, lipid inclusions, and glycogen deposits, suggesting a role in water absorption, ion regulation, digestion, and storage of lipids and sugars. The digestive cells in the middle midgut contained secretory granules in the apical cytoplasm, lysosomes, and large amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting that this midgut region was active in digestive processes. The posterior midgut contained digestive cells with secretory vesicles, lysosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and spherocrystals, suggesting digestion and ion/water absorption. Also, there was strong evidence that the posterior midgut may be the major site of nutrient absorption. The hematophagous heteropteran groups share many of these blood digestion mechanisms.

  17. Review of the family Veliidae in Romania (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha).

    PubMed

    Berchi, Gavril Marius; Kment, Petr

    2015-05-25

    A critical review of the family Veliidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha) in Romania is provided. In total, two genera and eight species (Microvelia Westwood, 1834-3 species, Velia Latreille, 1804-5 species) are known from the country. Microvelia buenoi Drake, 1920 and Velia serbica Tamanini, 1951 are recorded for the first time from Romania. The occurrence of V. affinis filippii Tamanini, 1947 and V. mancinii mancinii Tamanini, 1947 is confirmed by additional records. Based on proven or suspected misidentifications, V. currens (Fabricius, 1794) and V. rivulorum (Fabricius, 1775) are excluded from the Romanian fauna. A checklist of the Veliidae of Romania and updated distribution maps are provided. Biogeographical aspects of the fauna are summarized.

  18. Effects of irradiation on Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Ravuiwasa, Kaliova Tavou; Lu, Kuang-Hui; Shen, Tse-Chi; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2009-10-01

    Irradiation has been recognized and endorsed as a potential phytosanitary measure that could be an alternative to current quarantine treatments. Dosages of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 Gy were used to irradiate three different life stages (eggs, immatures, and adults) of Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), focusing on females due to its parthenogenesis ability, with an aim to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose to control P. minor. Cobalt 60 was the source of irradiation used. Irradiation of 150-250 Gy has a significant effect on all life stages of P. minor, decreasing its survival rate, percentage of adult reproduction, oviposition, and fertility rate. The adult was the most tolerant life stage in both mortality and fertility rate. All the different irradiated target life stage groups oviposited eggs, but none of the F2 eggs hatched at the most optimal dosage of 150-250 Gy.

  19. Do Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs use vibrational communication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2011-07-01

    Small Auchenorrhyncha use substrate-borne vibrations to communicate. Although this behaviour is well known in adult leafhoppers, so far no studies have been published on nymphs. Here we checked the occurrence of vibrational communication in Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs as a possible explanation of their aggregative distributions on host plants. We studied possible vibratory emissions of isolated and grouped nymphs, as well as their behavioural responses to vibration stimuli that simulated presence of conspecifics, to disturbance noise, white noise and predator spiders. None of our synthetic stimuli or pre-recorded substrate vibrations from nymphs elicited specific vibration responses and only those due to grooming or mechanical contacts of the insect with the leaf were recorded. Thus, S. titanus nymphs showed to not use species-specific vibrations neither for intra- nor interspecific communication and also did not produce alarm vibrations when facing potential predators. We conclude that their aggregative behaviour is independent from a vibrational communication.

  20. Three new Asiatic species of Hyadaphis (Hemiptera, Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Nafría, Juan M Nieto; Hidalgo, Nicolas Pérez; Brown, Paul A

    2016-05-09

    Three new species of Hyadaphis Kirkaldy, 1904 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini) are established: Hyadaphis levantina sp. n. from specimens caught on Lonicera nummulariifolia from Lebanon and Israel, and Hyadaphis anethi sp. n. plus Hyadaphis parva sp. n. from specimens respectively caught on Anethum sp. and Andrachne (?) cordifolia from Pakistan. Apterous viviparous females of all three species, alate viviparae of the first two and males of H. anethi are described. Known and new species of Hyadaphis are grouped for two relevant characters: (1) size and shape of siphunculi, and (2) host plant and life cycle; and the discriminant features of apterous viviparous females of the new species are compared with the already described species of the same group and a key for the Hyadaphis species is provided.

  1. Type Localities of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Ahmet; Fent, Meral

    2017-02-06

    The Heteroptera (Hemiptera) fauna of the Palaearctic Region is represented by 9365 species belonging to 1632 genera of which 1349 species belonging to 469 genera are also recorded from Turkey. Type localities of 237 species are in Turkey of which 108 species and 4 subspecies are endemic for the Heteroptera fauna of Turkey, indicating the importance of the country as a refugium, genetic hotspot and dispersal centre during pleistocene glaciation. Some heteroptera are important in agriculture as predators used in biological control or as ectoparasits and pests on plants. Most heteropteran species are phytophagous feeding on leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds and shoots and cause economic damage. The suborder Heteroptera comprises aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial species.

  2. Rediscovering digitules in Aphidomorpha and the question of homology among Sternorrhyncha (Insecta, Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Mark A.; Miller, Douglass R.; Dickey, Aaron M.; Bauchan, Gary R.; Ochoa, Ronald; Skvarla, Michael J.; Miller, Gary L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We explore and expand on the morphological term digitule. The term was originally proposed for toe-like setae on a species of Phylloxera Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1834 (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha) by Henry Shimer, an American naturalist. While it is standard terminology in scale systematics (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccidomorpha), the term digitule was ignored by aphid specialists despite being the original taxon for which the term was described. Similar setae occur on many arthropod groups, so the homology is poorly understood even within any superfamily of Hemiptera. We provide the etymology of the term, a proposed explanation for why it was used among scale taxonomists and not aphid taxonomists, and discuss briefly options to progress beyond the confusion between terminology for morphology and homology in Sternorrhyncha. PMID:28769728

  3. Rediscovering digitules in Aphidomorpha and the question of homology among Sternorrhyncha (Insecta, Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Metz, Mark A; Miller, Douglass R; Dickey, Aaron M; Bauchan, Gary R; Ochoa, Ronald; Skvarla, Michael J; Miller, Gary L

    2017-01-01

    We explore and expand on the morphological term digitule. The term was originally proposed for toe-like setae on a species of Phylloxera Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1834 (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha) by Henry Shimer, an American naturalist. While it is standard terminology in scale systematics (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccidomorpha), the term digitule was ignored by aphid specialists despite being the original taxon for which the term was described. Similar setae occur on many arthropod groups, so the homology is poorly understood even within any superfamily of Hemiptera. We provide the etymology of the term, a proposed explanation for why it was used among scale taxonomists and not aphid taxonomists, and discuss briefly options to progress beyond the confusion between terminology for morphology and homology in Sternorrhyncha.

  4. Absence of photoperiod effects on mating and ovarian maturation by three haplotypes of potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined the effects of photoperiod on reproductive diapause of three haplotypes of potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), collected from three geographic locations: south Texas (Central haplotype), California (Western haplotype), and Washington State (Northwestern haploty...

  5. Effect of insect density and host plant quality on wing-form in Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a South American species that feeds on waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. (Solms). This species exhibits significant wing dimorphism whereby fully winged adults (macropters) are capable of flight while those with reduced wings (brachtypt...

  6. Prey suitability and phenology of Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) associated with hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Sarah M. Grubin; Darrell W. Ross; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2011-01-01

    Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the Pacific Northwest previously were identified as potential biological control agents for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States. We collected Leucopis spp. larvae from A. tsugae...

  7. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on ...

  8. Driving pest populations: Agricultural chemicals lead to an adaptive syndrome in Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some of the effects of contemporary climate change and agricultural practices include increased pest ranges and thermotolerances and phonological mismatches between pest insects and their natural enemies. The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a serious pest ...

  9. Injury to cotton by adult Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) of different gender and reproductive states

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in the western United States that injures floral buds (squares) and developing fruit (bolls). However, no clear relationship between Lygus population level and plant injury has been established. Age-dependent feedi...

  10. Micro-CT study of the anatomy of the Leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Digital Anatomy Library, DAL, was produced to the anatomy of the glassy-winged sharpshooter adult, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vector of bacteria which cause Pierce’s disease of grapevines. The insect anatomy was elucidated using a high resolution Bruker Skyscan 1172 micro t...

  11. Density and egg parasitism of stink bugs (hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in elderberry and dispersal into crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chinavia hilaris (Say), Euschistus servus (Say), E. tristigmus (Say), and Thyanta custator custator (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are serious pests of crops in the southeastern USA, but little is known concerning the dispersal of these stink bugs from non-crop host plants in woodland habitats into ...

  12. Effects of fertilizer and low rates of Imidacloprid on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Treesearch

    S. V. Joseph; James Hanula; S. K. Braman; F. J. Byrne

    2011-01-01

    Healthy hemlock trees, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere, and hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), populations should favor retention and population growth of adelgid predators such as Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) and Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Sasaji&McClure) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Eastern hemlock trees...

  13. Gut content analysis of a phloem-feeding insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the p...

  14. Resistance of selected potato genotypes to the potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The characterization of resistance of selected potato, Solanum tuberosum L., breeding clones to the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) was investigated. Antixenosis was assessed in choice tests in which a single plant of each genotype was placed inside a rearing cag...

  15. Stridulation by Jadera haematoloma (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae): Production mechanism and associated behaviors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Hemiptera displays a notable diversity of vibratory communication signals across its various families. Here we describe the substrate and airborne vibrations (sounds), the mechanism of production, and associated behaviors of Jadera haematoloma Herrich-Schaeffer, a member of the family, Rhopalida...

  16. Mass rearing and augmentative biological control of Rhynocoris fuscipes (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) against multiple pests of cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhynocoris fuscipes (Fab.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a generalist predator of cotton pests and is commonly found inhabiting cotton growing regions in southern India. With the goal to integrate this predator in standard management practices used against cotton pests on a commercial scale, 1) we deve...

  17. Rhizoecus colombiensis Ramos & Caballero, a new species of hypogeal mealybug (Hemiptera: Coccomor.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Portilla, Andrea Amalia; Caballero, Alejandro

    2016-03-14

    A new species belonging to Rhizoecus Künckel d'Herculais (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Rhizoecidae) is described, with hosts and distribution data in the New World. A dichotomous and illustrated key for the twelve species of Rhizoecus recorded from Colombia is presented.

  18. Field evaluation of potential pheromone lures for Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Mid-South

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) are phytophagous pests of cultivated plants around the world. In the mid-South region of the United States, Lygus lineolaris is a primary pest of cotton, and causes economic damage. Previously published research about the volatiles produced by members of the genus Lyg...

  19. Stylet bundle morphology and trophically related enzymes of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Treesearch

    Kelly L.F. Oten; Allen C. Cohen; Fred P. Hain

    2014-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is a pest of eastern and Carolina hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere and Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann, respectively) in the eastern United States and has already caused catastrophic changes to eastern forests. As one of the significant...

  20. Neostusakia, a new name for preoccupied Stusakia Kment and Henry, 2008 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Berytidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A case of homonymy in the heteropteran family Berytidae is addressed. The genus Stusakia Kment and Henry, 2008 (Hemiptera) is preoccupied by Stusakia Frýda, 1998 (Mollusca: Gastropoda). As a consequence, the replacement name Neostusakia, new name, is proposed. In addition, the only two included s...

  1. Phylogenetics and evolutionary morphology of the Neotropical true bug genus Epipolops (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Geocoridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Species of Epipolops Herrich-Schaeffer (Hemiptera: Geocoridae), comprising the largest genus of Pamphantinae, are among the most bizarre true bugs because of their striking morphology. To elucidate evolutionary morphology in Epipolops, a phylogenetic analysis was performed using 17 species and 36 ad...

  2. Allozyme Variation in Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) from the United States and China

    Treesearch

    V. S& #225; nchez; M.A. Keena; M.A. Keena

    2009-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is a major introduced pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere. Hemlock woolly adelgid in the United States is anholocyclic and an obligate parthenogen, because no suitable primary host (on which sexual reproduction occurs in Asia) is...

  3. Interceptions of Anthocoridae, Lasiochilidae, and Lyctocoridae at the Miami Plant Inspection Station (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Specimens of pirate bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)) intercepted at Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services inspection stations and housed at the Miami Inspection Station were examined and identified to species or genus. The 127 specimens were distributed among 14 genera and 26 identified species...

  4. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  5. The cicada genus Karenia Distant, 1888 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hong-Thai; Constant, Jerome

    2014-08-19

    The cicadas of the genus Karenia are reviewed, and Karenia tibetensis sp.nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) is described from Tibet, China. Pictures of the male adult and illustrations of the male genitalia are provided. A key to the species of Karenia is presented and the distribution of the Karenia species is discussed.

  6. Evaluation of trap designs and deployment strategies for capturing Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive pest that attacks numerous tree fruit crops season-long. For growers to make informed management decisions against H. halys throughout the growing season, an effective monitoring tool must be in place....

  7. Preparation of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for genetic characterization and morphological examination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on a wide range of crops. Due to their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide...

  8. Two new planthopper species (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Caliscelidae) collected in pitfall traps in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chmurova, Lucia; Webb, Michael D

    2016-08-22

    Two new species of planthoppers in the family Caliscelidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) are described from Zambia, i.e., Afronaso spinosa sp. n. and Calampocus zambiaensis sp. n. All specimens are flightless males and nearly all were collected from baited pitfall traps (except for one specimen collected from a yellow pan trap), suggesting that they live near to or on the ground.

  9. Distribution and Abundance of Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Within Hemlock Trees

    Treesearch

    S.V. Joseph; J.L. Hanula; S.K. Braman

    2011-01-01

    We studied the distribution of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), within hemlock trees for three summer (progrediens) and two winter (sistens) generations in northern Georgia. Eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrie` re, trees were treated with 0, 10, or 25% of 1.5 g of imidacloprid per 2.5 cm of tree diameter at breast height...

  10. Survival and feeding rates of four aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on various sucrose concentrations in diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Different concentrations of sucrose were used to investigate how survival and feeding was affected on four species of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Seven sucrose concentrations were evaluated in feeding chambers fitted with a parafilm membranes and infested with nymphs of Aphis glycines, Diuraphi...

  11. First Record of the Hawaiian Endemic Scale, Colobopyga pritchardiae (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), on the Big Island

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Colobopyga pritchardiae (Stickney 1934) (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), an endemic Hawaiian scale insect associated with Pritchardia sp. was recorded for the first time on the Big Island. We began searching for palm scales on the Big Island to include in a host range testing program in quarantine for E...

  12. DNA markers to disentangle complexes of cryptic taxa in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are major pests of a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their high degree of morphological similarity makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. We aimed to identify a set of markers for the genetic characterization...

  13. Genes expressed in field-caught pink hibiscus mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We advanced the understanding of the biology of an invasive pest, the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by using a genomics approach to identify genes expressed within field collected PHM. The information produced provides valuable, new and unique info...

  14. Proteins expressed in the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We produced a dataset of 315 protein sequences which we isolated from the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The dataset was published under accession numbers: EF070444-EF070605 and EF092085-EF091933, in the National Center for Biotechnology Informatio...

  15. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Soft Scales (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...

  16. Potential of three trap crops in managing Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on tomatoes in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in Florida. In this study, we examined the use of three species of trap crops to manage N. viridula in North Florida tomato crops in 2014 and 2015. We used striped sunflower (Helianthus ann...

  17. Two pests overlap: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) use of fruit exposed to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are global economic pests. Both pests may co-occur on small fruits, and we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys woul...

  18. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest.

    PubMed

    Moore, Aubrey; Watson, Gillian W; Bamba, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed.

  19. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed. PMID:24855439

  20. Morphological and genetic reappraisal of the Orius fauna of the western United States (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Examination of minute pirate bugs, Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) from a broad geographic range in the western U.S. prompted a reappraisal of the taxonomic composition and geographic distribution of the fauna native to the western U.S. and Canada. Collecting efforts led to the di...

  1. Nutritional manipulation of adult female Orius pumilio (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) enhances initial predatory performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Commercial shipments of Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae) commonly include water and protein, the latter typically supplied by eggs from a moth such as Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. To determine whether alternative dietary conditions for young adult females might improve predation, O. in...

  2. Identification of a new species of Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) based on distinct morphology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aphis elena Lagos-Kutz and Voegtlin, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is described from specimens collected in Illinois, USA, on the North American native plant, Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) T. Dur. & B.D. Jacks. ex B.L. Rob. & Fernald (Family: Lamiaceae). Both apterous and alate viviparae are desc...

  3. Biology of Leptoypha hospita (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a Potential Biological Control Agent of Chinese Privet

    Treesearch

    Yanzhuo Zhang; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Kristine Braman; Jianghua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The biology of Leptoypha hospita Drake et Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a potential biological control agent from China for Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., was studied in quarantine in the United States. Both nymphs and adults feed on Chinese privet mesophyll cells that lead to a bleached appearance of leaves and dieback of branch tips. L. hospita has five...

  4. Comparisons of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) populations from two distinct geographical regions of Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a major pest of cotton in the state of Mississippi. Economic data indicates that L. lineolaris is a more serious pest of cotton in the Delta region of Mississippi than in the Hills region, however, little data exists comparing the two populations. Two experim...

  5. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  6. Host plant effects on Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphal development and survivorship

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a highly polyphagous invasive species and an important pest of orchard crops in the US. In the Mid-Atlantic region, wild hosts of H. halys are common in woodlands that often border orchards, and H. halys movement from them into orchards poses ongo...

  7. Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

  8. New species of Braggia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on buckwheat in western North America

    Treesearch

    K. S. Pike; G. Graf; R. G. Foottit; H. E. L. Maw; P. Stary; R. Hammon; D. G. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Species of Braggia Gillette and Palmer (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphidinae: Aphidini) feed on various buckwheat, Eriogonum Michx. (Polygonaceae), species in western North America. Two new species, Braggia columbiana Pike n. sp. from Washington and Oregon and Braggia longicauda Pike n. sp. from Washington, Oregon, and northern California, are proposed. Descriptions,...

  9. Influence of trap color on collection of the recently introduced Bean Plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae).

    Treesearch

    Scott Horn; James Hanula

    2011-01-01

    Large numbers of the exotic bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae). were first collected from several northeast Georgia counties beginning in October 2009 (Suiter and Ames 2009, Statewide Pest Alert). How this insect arrived in the United States and where it came from is still not known. The native range of M. cribraria is reported to be...

  10. A new species of Taosa (Hemiptera:Dictyopharide) from South America associated with Water Hyacinth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species of Taosa (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is described. All the stages were collected on the aquatic weed Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae) at several localities on the Paraguay River in Argentina, and the upper Amazon River in Perú. Taosa impictifrons Remes Leni...

  11. Movement of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) adults between huanglongbing-affected and healthy citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a vector transmitting the pathogen of citrus huanglongbing (HLB, also called yellow shoot disease or citrus greening disease). A typical symptom of citrus HLB is leaf yellowing. ACP adults behaved differently on HLB-affe...

  12. The mitogenome of the brown pod-sucking bug Clavigralla tomentosicollis (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown pod-sucking bug, Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stäl (Hemiptera: Coreidae), causes significant damage to cultivated cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walp, a staple crop in sub-Saharan Africa. C. tomentosicollis pierce and suck sap from cowpea pods, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. The compl...

  13. Viable progeny from crosses between geographically isolated populations of Podisus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) indicate a single species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Discrepancies in reports on the presence of Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in the western region of USA, and morphological variations of the species brought into question whether the species existed west of the Rocky Mountains. In this study, morphological variations in color ...

  14. A new genus of the tribe Parahiraciini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) from Hainan Island.

    PubMed

    Meng, Rui; Qin, Daozheng; Wang, Yinglun

    2015-05-12

    A new issid genus in the tribe Parahiraciini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) is erected for Fortunia jianfenglingensis Chen, Zhang et Chang, 2014 (China: Hainan). Male of the species is described and illustrated for the first time. A key for the 15 genera of Parahiraciini is provided. Morphological peculiarity and phylogenetic position of the new genus and the distribution of the tribe Parahiraciini are briefly discussed.

  15. Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

  16. Association of Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), with cotton boll rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  17. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus aggregation pheromone in the field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  18. Use of pheromones for monitoring phytophagous stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophagous native stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), including Euschistus spp., Nezara viridula (L.), Chinavia hilaris (Say), Plautia stali Scott, Chlorochroa spp., and Thyanta spp., are primary pests responsible for millions of dollars in losses and cost of control in most fruit, vegetable, gr...

  19. Wolbachia infection differs among divergent mitochondrial haplotypes of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four mitochondrial (cytrochrome oxidase I) haplotypes of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (S'ulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), have been identified in North America: western, central, northwestern,and southwestern. A recent study found that females of the northwestern haplotype mated by males o...

  20. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Virla, Eduardo G.; Melo, Cecilia M.; Speranza, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults. PMID:26463200

  1. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Virla, Eduardo G; Melo, Cecilia M; Speranza, Stefano

    2015-06-03

    The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  2. How will Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Respond to Global Warming?

    PubMed

    Fonseca, M G; Auad, A M; Resende, T T; Hott, M C; Borges, C A V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the favorable constant temperature range for Mahanarva spectabilis(Distant) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) development as well as to generate geographic distribution maps of this insect pest for future climate scenarios. M. spectabilis eggs were reared on two host plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis(Germain and Edvard) and Pennisetum purpureum(Schumach)), with individual plants kept at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 °C. Nymphal stage duration, nymphal survival, adult longevity, and egg production were recorded for each temperature*host plant combination. Using the favorable temperature ranges for M. spectabilis development, it was possible to generate geographic distribution. Nymphal survival was highest at 24.4 °C, with estimates of 44 and 8% on Pennisetum and Brachiaria, respectively. Nymphal stage duration was greater on Brachiaria than on Pennisetum at 20 and 24 °C but equal at 28 °C. Egg production was higher on Pennisetum at 24 and 28 °C than at 20 °C, and adult longevity on Pennisetum was higher at 28 °C than at 20 °C, whereas adult longevity at 24 °C did not differ from that at 20 and 28 °C. With these results, it was possible to predict a reduction in M. spectabilis densities in most regions of Brazil in future climate scenarios.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Tambocerus sp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Pengfei; Wang, Mengxin; Cui, Lin; Chen, Xuexin; Han, Baoyu

    2017-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Tambocerus sp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Zhejiang and Anhui provinces of China was sequenced. The total length of the mitogenome is 15 955 bp (GenBank accession no. KT827824) and consists of 22 transfer RNAs, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 1 control region. The base composition of the heavy strand for A, T, C, and G is 41.39, 35.02, 14.00, and 9.59%, respectively. All of the protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with ATN. Five protein-coding genes use TAA as stop codons, four use TAG as stop codons, and others use incomplete stop codons ''T--'' or ''TA-''. The control region has a length of 1581 bp which is between rrnS and trnI genes with the AT content high to 85.96%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Tambocerus sp. was clustered in a closely related subgroup with Homalodisca vitripennis and Empoasca vitis. This is consistent with the result of the traditional taxonomy.

  4. Reduction of soybean yield components by Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae).

    PubMed

    Seiter, Nicholas J; Greene, Jeremy K; Reay-Jones, Francis P F

    2013-08-01

    ABSTRACT Since its discovery in the United States, the invasive plataspid Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) has infested soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] fields in often alarming numbers in parts of the southeastern United States. Although a known feeder on soybean, reports of its pest status in its native Asian range are conflicting, and little information exists documenting its impact on soybean yields. Our objective was to examine the relationship between M. cribraria density and soybean yield loss. M. cribraria adults and nymphs were confined to small soybean plots by using walk-in field cages from late vegetative stage to harvest in 2011 and 2012. Adults (0, 5, or 25 per plant) were added at late vegetative stages, and their progeny were allowed to complete a full generation within the caged plots. Densities reached as high as 182.5 +/- 23.1 (SEM) nymphs and adults per plant, and soybean yield was reduced by as much as 59.6% at the highest density treatment. The yield components seeds per pod and individual seed weight were reduced as M. cribraria densities increased, but pods per plant and protein and oil content were not affected. Preliminary economic injury level curves for a range of grain prices and management costs were calculated based on 2012 yield loss data combined with population monitoring. M. cribraria is capable of causing severe reductions in soybean yields at densities that are relevant within its invasive U.S. range.

  5. Local and Landscape Constraints on Coffee Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Diversity.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Chatura; Cruz, Magdalena; Kuesel, Ryan; Gonthier, David J; Iverson, Aaron; Ennis, Katherine K; Perfecto, Ivette

    2017-01-01

    The intensification of agriculture drives many ecological and environmental consequences including impacts on crop pest populations and communities. These changes are manifested at multiple scales including small-scale management practices and changes to the composition of land-use types in the surrounding landscape. In this study, we sought to examine the influence of local and landscape-scale agricultural factors on a leafhopper herbivore community in Mexican coffee plantations. We sampled leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) diversity in 38 sites from 9 coffee plantations of the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. While local management factors such as coffee density, branches per coffee bush, tree species, and density were not important in explaining leafhopper abundance and richness, shade management at the landscape level and elevation significantly affected leafhoppers. Specifically, the percentage of low-shade coffee in the landscape (1,000-m radius surrounding sites) increased total leafhopper abundance. In addition, Shannon's diversity of leafhoppers was increased with coffee density. Our results show that abundance and diversity of leafhoppers are greater in simplified landscapes, thereby suggesting that these landscapes will have higher pest pressure and may be more at-risk for diseases vectored by these species in an economically important crop. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  6. Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

    2013-03-01

    The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks.

  7. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments.

  8. Climbing Ability of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Hottel, B A; Pereira, R M; Gezan, S A; Qing, R; Sigmund, W M; Koehler, P G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about what factors influence the climbing ability of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in relation to the various surfaces they encounter. We examined how sex, time since last fed, and what surfaces the bed bugs were in contact with affected their climbing performance. The effects of sex and time since fed were tested by counting the number of bed bugs able to climb a 45° slope. The pulling force was recorded using an analytical balance technique that captured the sequential vertical pulling force output of bed bugs attached to various surfaces. Recently fed female bed bugs were found to have the most difficulty in climbing smooth surfaces in comparison with males. This difference can be explained by the larger weight gained from bloodmeals by female bed bugs. A variety of vertical pulling forces were observed on surfaces ranging from sandpaper to talc powder-covered glass. For surfaces not treated with talc powder, bed bugs generated the least amount of vertical pulling force from synthetically created 0.6-µm plastron surfaces. This vast range in the ability of bed bugs to grip onto various surfaces may have implications on limiting bed bugs dispersal and hitchhiking behaviors.

  9. Novel Rickettsiella bacterium in the leafhopper Orosius albicinctus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Weintraub, Phyllis G; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Robinson, Wyatt E; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2013-07-01

    Bacteria in the genus Rickettsiella (Coxiellaceae), which are mainly known as arthropod pathogens, are emerging as excellent models to study transitions between mutualism and pathogenicity. The current report characterizes a novel Rickettsiella found in the leafhopper Orosius albicinctus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a major vector of phytoplasma diseases in Europe and Asia. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing were used to survey the main symbionts of O. albicinctus, revealing the obligate symbionts Sulcia and Nasuia, and the facultative symbionts Arsenophonus and Wolbachia, in addition to Rickettsiella. The leafhopper Rickettsiella is allied with bacteria found in ticks. Screening O. albicinctus from the field showed that Rickettsiella is highly prevalent, with over 60% of individuals infected. A stable Rickettsiella infection was maintained in a leafhopper laboratory colony for at least 10 generations, and fluorescence microscopy localized bacteria to accessory glands of the female reproductive tract, suggesting that the bacterium is vertically transmitted. Future studies will be needed to examine how Rickettsiella affects host fitess and its ability to vector phytopathogens.

  10. Biotypic diversity in Colorado Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Aubrey A; Peairs, Frank B; Randolph, Terri L; Rudolph, Jeffrey B; Haley, Scott D; Puterka, Gary J

    2008-04-01

    The biotypic diversity of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), was assessed in five isolates collected in Colorado. Three isolates, RWA 1, RWA 2, and an isolate from Montezuma County, CO, designated RWA 6, were originally collected from cultivated wheat, Triticum aestivum L., and obtained from established colonies at Colorado State University. The fourth isolate, designated RWA 7, was collected from Canada wildrye, Elymus canadensis L., in Baca County, CO. The fifth isolate, designated RWA 8, was collected from crested wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn., in Montezuma County, CO. The four isolates were characterized in a standard seedling assay, by using 24 plant differentials, 22 wheat lines and two barley, Hordeum vulgare L., lines. RWA 1 was the least virulent of the isolates, killing only the four susceptible entries. RWA 8 also killed only the four susceptible entries, but it expressed intermediate virulence on seven wheat lines. RWA 6, killing nine entries, and RWA 7, killing 11 entries, both expressed an intermediate level of virulence overall, but differed in their level of virulence to 'CO03797' (Dn1), 'Yumar' (Dn4), and 'CO960293-2'. RWA 2 was the most virulent isolate, killing 14 entries, including Dn4- and Dny-containing wheat. Four wheat lines, '94M370' (Dn7), 'STARS 02RWA2414-11', CO03797, and 'CI2401', were resistant to the five isolates. The results of this screening confirm the presence of five unique Russian wheat aphid biotypes in Colorado.

  11. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates.

    PubMed

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-10-06

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates--filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates.

  12. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the Maltese Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Mifsud, David; Mazzeo, Gaetana; Russo, Agatino; Watson, Gillian W

    2014-09-25

    Past works on scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the Maltese Archipelago are reviewed. Based on the literature and contemporary collections, a total of 93 species of scale insects belonging to 12 scale insect families are here reported (Aclerdidae 1 species; Asterolecaniidae 4; Coccidae 17; Diaspididae 46; Eriococcidae 5; Kermesidae 1; Margarodidae 1; Micrococcidae 1; Monophlebidae 2; Pseudoccocidae 11; Putoidae 2 and Rhizoecidae 2). Of these, 17 species represent new distribution records. Ten species are excluded from the scale insect fauna of the Maltese Islands. Of the 93 species present, only 29 (31.18%) are probably indigenous and the rest (68.82%) represent established introductions from elsewhere. More than 65% of the indigenous species are typical Mediterranean in distribution, with a few species having a mainly European chorotype. A quarter of the established aliens originate from Eurasia, followed by an East Asian/ Oriental component (20.31%); European (14.06%); Neotropical (14.06%); cryptogenic (14.06%); African (7.81%) and Australasian (4.70%). Movement of live fruit trees and ornamental plants into the Maltese Archipelago from nearby countries is probably the main route for entry of alien scale insects into the country. Some possible future introductions are discussed.

  13. How will Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Respond to Global Warming?

    PubMed Central

    Auad, A. M.; Resende, T. T.; Hott, M. C.; Borges, C.A.V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the favorable constant temperature range for Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) development as well as to generate geographic distribution maps of this insect pest for future climate scenarios. M. spectabilis eggs were reared on two host plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain and Edvard) and Pennisetum purpureum (Schumach)), with individual plants kept at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32°C. Nymphal stage duration, nymphal survival, adult longevity, and egg production were recorded for each temperature*host plant combination. Using the favorable temperature ranges for M. spectabilis development, it was possible to generate geographic distribution. Nymphal survival was highest at 24.4°C, with estimates of 44 and 8% on Pennisetum and Brachiaria, respectively. Nymphal stage duration was greater on Brachiaria than on Pennisetum at 20 and 24°C but equal at 28°C. Egg production was higher on Pennisetum at 24 and 28°C than at 20°C, and adult longevity on Pennisetum was higher at 28°C than at 20°C, whereas adult longevity at 24°C did not differ from that at 20 and 28°C. With these results, it was possible to predict a reduction in M. spectabilis densities in most regions of Brazil in future climate scenarios. PMID:27012869

  14. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates

    PubMed Central

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates—filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates. PMID:23904586

  15. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Tavvs M.; Macrae, Ian V.; Koch, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays. PMID:26470392

  16. Spatial and temporal dynamics of overwintering Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Lak; Perring, Thomas M; Yacoub, Rosie; Bartels, David W; Elms, David

    2006-12-01

    A 4-yr landscape-scale study was conducted to investigate spatial and temporal dynamics of overwintering Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in the lower San Joaquin Valley, California. Spatial structures of H. coagulata distributions were characterized with Moran's I index, and spatial associations between H. coagulata and the surrounding environment were investigated with a geographic information system. H. coagulata was caught consistently with sticky traps throughout the winter, and trap catches formed a distinctive peak in December or January, indicating active flight of H. coagulata during the winter. In 2000-2001, the mean +/-SE trap count was 4.8 +/- 1.21 per trap per wk, and H. coagulata trap catches were spatially autocorrelated within approximately 1.3 km. Approximately 49% of H. coagulata were caught in citrus, 23% in stone fruit, and 11% in grape. After a control program began in spring 2001, the mean trap count was considerably lower (0.041 +/- 0.0004 per trap per wk), and no spatial autocorrelations were detected in 2001-2004. H. coagulata trap catch-crop associations also changed after initiation of the control program. Between 25 and 38% of H. coagulata trap catches were from citrus, between 8 and 20% were from stone fruit, and between 11 and 25% were from grape. Potential for winter-season spread and management of Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., a pathogen causing Pierce's disease, are discussed.

  17. Antennal sensory structures in Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Stacconi, Marco Valerio Rossi; Romani, Roberto

    2012-04-01

    Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha) is a leafhopper vector of a phytoplasma disease, the Flavescence dorée (FD), belonging to the vine yellows group. A scanning and transmission electron microscope study has been carried out to investigate the antennal sensory structures. The first two segments, the scape and the pedicel, are short, covered by cuticular scales and devoid of sensilla, with exception of some scattered hairs on the pedicel. The flagellum consists of a unique, elongated segment in which numerous subunits can be recognized, being separated by a sort of cuticular crown. The proximal five subunits bear most of the sensilla. We discovered the presence of single- and double-walled coeloconic sensilla, campaniform sensilla, basiconic sensilla, and trichoid sensilla. A scolopidium is located within the proximal region of the flagellum. Ultrastructural investigations suggest that the antennal sensilla could be involved in the perception of air-borne vibrations, temperature, and humidity variations. The most relevant feature is the extreme reduction of the olfactory sensilla, both in terms of number of sensory structures and sensory neurons per sensillum. The strong reduction in antennal olfactory sensilla to which this specie has undergone is discussed as possible consequence of the specificity toward the host plant.

  18. Exploration for facultative endosymbionts of glassy-wingedsharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Montllor-Curley, C.; Brodie, E.L.; Lechner, M.G.; Purcell, A.H.

    2006-07-01

    Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae),glassy-winged sharpshooter, was collected in California and severalstates in the southeastern United States in 2002 and 2003 and analyzedfor endosymbiotic bacteria. Hemolymph, eggs, and bacteriomes wereexamined for the presence of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Asubset of hemolymph and egg samples had their 16S rRNA gene ampliconscloned and sequenced or analyzed by restriction digest patterns ofsamples compared with known bacterial DNA. Baumannia cicadellinicola, oneof the primary symbionts of glassy-winged sharpshooter, was found in themajority of hemolymph samples, although it has been considered until nowto reside primarily inside the specialized host bacteriocytes. Wolbachiasp., a common secondary symbiont in many insect taxa investigated todate, was the second most frequently detected bacterium in hemolymphsamples. In addition, we detected bacteria that were most closely related(by 16S rRNA gene sequence) to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, andAcinetobacter in hemolymph samples of one and/or two glassy-wingedsharpshooters, but their origin is uncertain.

  19. Local and Landscape Constraints on Coffee Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Magdalena; Kuesel, Ryan; Gonthier, David J.; Iverson, Aaron; Ennis, Katherine K.; Perfecto, Ivette

    2017-01-01

    The intensification of agriculture drives many ecological and environmental consequences including impacts on crop pest populations and communities. These changes are manifested at multiple scales including small-scale management practices and changes to the composition of land-use types in the surrounding landscape. In this study, we sought to examine the influence of local and landscape-scale agricultural factors on a leafhopper herbivore community in Mexican coffee plantations. We sampled leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) diversity in 38 sites from 9 coffee plantations of the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. While local management factors such as coffee density, branches per coffee bush, tree species, and density were not important in explaining leafhopper abundance and richness, shade management at the landscape level and elevation significantly affected leafhoppers. Specifically, the percentage of low-shade coffee in the landscape (1,000-m radius surrounding sites) increased total leafhopper abundance. In addition, Shannon’s diversity of leafhoppers was increased with coffee density. Our results show that abundance and diversity of leafhoppers are greater in simplified landscapes, thereby suggesting that these landscapes will have higher pest pressure and may be more at-risk for diseases vectored by these species in an economically important crop. PMID:28355478

  20. Systematics of Mepraia (Hemiptera-Reduviidae): cytogenetic and molecular variation.

    PubMed

    Calleros, L; Panzera, F; Bargues, M D; Monteiro, F A; Klisiowicz, D R; Zuriaga, M A; Mas-Coma, S; Pérez, R

    2010-03-01

    The haematophagous insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera-Reduviidae) have great epidemiological importance as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Mepraia was originally described as a monotypic genus comprised of Mepraia spinolai, distributed along coastal areas of northern Chile (from Region I to the Metropolitan Region). Recently, some M. spinolai populations have been ranked as a new species named Mepraia gajardoi. Several populations along the distribution range of the genus were sampled, and genetic differentiation was studied based upon the analysis of three molecular markers: cytogenetics (karyotype and chromosome behaviour during meiosis using the C-banding technique), mitochondrial DNA (a cytochrome oxidase I gene fragment), and nuclear ribosomal DNA (intergenic region including the two internal transcribed spacers ITS-1 and ITS-2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene). The data here presented indicate that populations within the Mepraia genus (excluding Region II specimens) can be divided into two separate lineages. One lineage is comprised of specimens from the northernmost Region I and represents M. gajardoi. The other includes samples from the southern III, IV and the Metropolitan Regions, and represents M. spinolai. Region II individuals deserve particular attention as their relationship to the two identified lineages is not clear-cut. While they appear to belong to M. spinolai based on cytogenetics and rDNA markers, COI results indicate a closer relationship to M. gajardoi. This disagreement can be due to mitochondrial DNA introgression or the retention of ancestral polymorphisms.

  1. Cytogenetics and genome evolution in the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Panzera, F; Pérez, R; Panzera, Y; Ferrandis, I; Ferreiro, M J; Calleros, L

    2010-01-01

    The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), vectors of Chagas disease, includes over 140 species. Karyotypic information is currently available for 80 of these species. This paper summarizes the chromosomal variability of the subfamily and how it may reveal aspects of genome evolution in this group. The Triatominae present a highly conserved chromosome number. All species, except 3, present 20 autosomes. The differences in chromosome number are mainly caused by variation in the number of sex chromosomes, due to the existence of 3 sex systems in males (XY, X(1)X(2)Y and X(1)X(2)X(3)Y). However, inter- and intraspecific differences in the position, quantity and meiotic behavior of constitutive heterochromatin, in the total genome size, and in the location of ribosomal 45S rRNA clusters, have revealed considerable cytogenetic variability within the subfamily. This cytogenetic diversity offers the opportunity to perform cytotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies, as well as structural, evolutionary, and functional analyses of the genome. The imminent availability of the complete genome of Rhodnius prolixus also opens new perspectives for understanding the evolution and genome expression of triatomines. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization for the mapping of genes and sequences, as well as comparative analyses of genome homology by comparative genomic hybridization will be useful tools for understanding the genomic changes in relation to evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation to different environments.

  2. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Corn Farmscapes

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Ted E.; Tillman, P. Glynn

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in corn cropping systems. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes, when corn was adjacent to cotton, peanut, or both, was examined weekly. The spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops in corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. This stink bug was detected in six of seven corn–cotton farmscapes, four of six corn–peanut farmscapes, and in both corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. The frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (89.47%) was significantly higher than in peanut (7.02%) or corn (3.51%). This stink bug fed on noncrop hosts that grew in field borders adjacent to crops. The spatial distribution of C. hilaris in crops and the capture of C. hilaris adults and nymphs in pheromone-baited traps near noncrop hosts indicated that these hosts were sources of this stink bug dispersing into crops, primarily cotton. Significant aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton on some dates within corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. Maps of local clustering indices depicted small patches of C. hilaris in cotton or cotton–sorghum at the peanut–cotton interface. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in corn farmscapes are discussed. PMID:25843581

  3. Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) effects of insect density and bloom period of infestation on cotton damage and yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), has emerged as a threat to cotton in South Texas, causing boll damage similar to boll-feeding stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Verde plant bugs were released into caged cotton for a one-week period to characterize the effec...

  4. Plant growth stage-specific injury and economic injury level for verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), on cotton: Effect of bloom period of infestation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), has emerged as a threat to cotton in South Texas, causing boll damage similar to boll-feeding stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Verde plant bugs were released into caged cotton for a one-week period to characterize the effec...

  5. Spatial Distribution of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A two-year study was conducted in South Carolina wheat (Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae)) fields to describe spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which were sampled weekly with sweep nets. In 2010, the main phytophagous stink bugs caught in a grid sampling plan across two fields were the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), the rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), and the red shouldered stink bug, Thyanta custator (F.), for both adults and nymphs. In 2011, the main phytophagous stink bugs were E. servus, O. pugnax, N. viridula, and T. custator across two fields. Adult stink bug counts adjacent to fallow fields were 2.1-fold greater for all species combined compared with counts adjacent to woods. Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (SADIE) indicated significant aggregation for 35% of analyses for adults and nymph stink bugs at each sampling date. As a measure of spatial and temporal stability, positive SADIE association indices among sampling dates recorded 11, 36, 43, and 16% of analyses for adult E. servus and 7, 50, 50, and 14% for adult O. pugnax in fields A, B, C, and D, respectively. Adult and nymph stink bugs were spatially associated within wheat fields based on SADIE association indices. Seasonal counts of stink bugs were spatially associated with spike counts at least once for each species across the four fields. Future work may investigate practices to reduce stink bug buildup on wheat in the spring and movement to susceptible crops such as corn, Zea mays L. PMID:25205358

  6. Identity of Two Sympatric Species of Orius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Jeffrey P.; Shirk, Paul D.; Kelley, Karen; Lewis, Tamera M.; Horton, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The minute pirate bugs, Orius insidiosus (Say) and Orius pumilio (Champion) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), are closely related species known to be sympatric in north Florida. Here, male and female genitalia, DNA sequences, and the effects of within- and between-species pairings on egg production and egg development were examined to develop a better understanding of the relationship between these two species. Interspecific matings between the two species did not result in viable progeny. Although there were gross similarities in the morphology of the male parameres (external genitalia) between the two species, the cone in O. pumilio was much broader with a greater spiral twist and the flagellum was longer than in O. insidiosus. Correspondingly, there were differences in the morphology of the copulatory tubes of the females of the two species. In O. insidiosus, the organ was somewhat longer than in O. pumilio and oriented parallel to the abdominal midline, while the copulatory tube in O. pumilio tilted slightly towards the midline. Additionally, the copulatory tube for O. pumilio included a sclerotized basal mound that was not present in O. insidiosus. These morphological differences suggest that successful copulation between these species could be difficult. In contrast to conspecific matings, interspecific matings resulted in few or no eggs laid over a period of two weeks and no viable progeny. Comparison of the 18S ribosomal gene ITS-1 sequences between the two species demonstrated only 91% homology. When yolk protein contents were examined to determine whether reproductive physiology had shifted to full egg production, interspecifically mated females contained amounts of yolk protein comparable to that in fed, but unmated females; this was less than 10% of the yolk protein previously found in fed and conspecifically mated females. These findings together confirm that O. insidiosus and O. pumilio are indeed two separate species. PMID:21265614

  7. Repellency of selected chemicals against the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Zhang, Aijun; Liu, Chaofeng

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), became a major public health concern in urban communities. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to control, and their bites are not tolerated by most people. The public has an urgent need for materials and methods to reduce bed bug introduction and bites during work, travel, or sleep. A repellent product will help achieve these goals by discouraging and preventing bed bugs from moving to a protected area. We evaluated the repellency of three commercially available insect repellent or control materials and five nonregistered materials with the goal of identifying safe and effective bed bug repellents. The two commercial repellent products that contained 7% picaridin or 0.5% permethrin had little repellency against bed bugs. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), the most commonly used insect repellent, provided a high level of repellency against bed bugs. When a host cue (carbon dioxide) was present, the minimum DEET concentration to repel > or = 94% of the bed bugs for a9-h period was 10%. The longevity of repellency of DEET was concentration dependent. At 25% concentration, DEET-treated fabric surface remained highly repellent to bed bugs for a 14-d period. However, DEET has a strong smell and dissolves certain plastic materials. Therefore, we evaluated several odorless, noncorrosive, and potentially effective repellents. Isolongifolenone and isolongifolanone, two natural products and recently reported insect repellents, exhibited strong repellent property against bed bugs but at significantly lower levels than DEET. Three novel potential repellent compounds discovered by Bedoukian Research Inc. (Danbury, CT) exhibited similar level of repellency and longevity as DEET for repelling bed bugs. These nonirritant and odorless compounds are promising candidates as alternatives to DEET for reducing the spread of bed bugs and bed bug bites.

  8. Temperature-Dependent Survival of Adult Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, W Rodney; Spurgeon, Dale W

    2015-06-01

    The western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a key pest of many horticultural and agronomic crops in the western United States. Despite its well documented pest status, many aspects of the basic biology, including overwintering ecology, of L. hesperus are poorly understood. We examined the influence of eight constant temperatures from 10 to 35°C on survival of nondiapausing adult L. hesperus held with or without food, and the consequences of exposure to an extended period at 10°C on subsequent reproduction. Survival analyses indicated that, on average, fed insects tended to live longer than unfed insects, females lived longer than males, and the survival time decreased with increasing temperature. Nonlinear regressions indicated that median survival for insects grouped by gender and feeding status declined exponentially with increasing temperature. Survival functions for combinations of insect class (gender and feeding status) and temperature were adequately described by the respective two-parameter logistic functions. When adults were held for 9 d at 27°C with food after a 33-d period at 10°C either with or without food, no deleterious effects of prior starvation on propensity to mate or fecundity were demonstrated. These findings indicate that when temperatures are low, nondiapausing L. hesperus adults are capable of extended host-free survival with little or no impact on subsequent reproduction. Our findings suggest the current understanding of L. hesperus overwintering dynamics is incomplete. In addition, our results provide quantitative baseline information to facilitate more comprehensive investigation of the ecology of L. hesperus overwintering. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-06-18

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  10. Application of RNA-seq for mitogenome reconstruction, and reconsideration of long-branch artifacts in Hemiptera phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Song, Nan; An, Shiheng; Yin, Xinming; Cai, Wanzhi; Li, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Hemiptera make up the largest nonholometabolan insect assemblage. Despite previous efforts to elucidate phylogeny within this group, relationships among the major sub-lineages remain uncertain. In particular, mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) data are still sparse for many important hemipteran insect groups. Recent mitogenomic analyses of Hemiptera have usually included no more than 50 species, with conflicting hypotheses presented. Here, we determined the nearly complete nucleotide sequence of the mitogenome for the aphid species of Rhopalosiphum padi using RNA-seq plus gap filling. The 15,205 bp mitogenome included all mitochondrial genes except for trnF. The mitogenome organization and size for R. padi are similar to previously reported aphid species. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships for Hemiptera were examined using a mitogenomic dataset which included sequences from 103 ingroup species and 19 outgroup species. Our results showed that the seven species representing the Aleyrodidae exhibit extremely long branches, and always cluster with long-branched outgroups. This lead to the failure of recovering a monophyletic Hemiptera in most analyses. The data treatment of Degen-coding for protein-coding genes and the site-heterogeneous CAT model show improved suppression of the long-branch effect. Under these conditions, the Sternorrhyncha was often recovered as the most basal clade in Hemiptera. PMID:27633117

  11. The Western Conifer Seed Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) Has the Potential to Bite Humans.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Kontschán, Jeno

    2017-03-10

    Among true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera), only hematophagous species (families Reduviidae, Cimicidae) have high veterinary and medical significance. In addition, several predatory and plant-feeding bug species, which also have piercing-sucking mouthparts, are known to occasionally bite humans. The majority of such examples are known from the New World. Here, we report the first case concerning the human-biting potential of the western conifer seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Hemiptera: Coreidae). This is a phytophagous bug species, which has become widespread in North America, and has also been introduced into Europe where it shows a rapidly expanding geographical range. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Elevational gradient of Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha) on a tropical mountain in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen W.; Soulier-Perkins, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    Malaise trap sampling of Hemiptera (Heteroptera; Auchenorrhyncha) was conducted at 500 m intervals along an elevational gradient from 200 m to 3,700 m on the east slope of Mount Wilhelm, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Hemiptera had a decrease in morphospecies richness and overall abundance with increasing elevation, however, the Heteroptera did not exhibit either pattern. A few species were relatively abundant at each elevation, whereas the majority of species were represented by ≤5 specimens. Morphospecies richness of Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha, Cicadellidae, Cixiidae, and Derbidae also decreased with increasing elevation but abundance decline was not significant due to the large number of specimens captured at 200 m relative to those captured at higher elevations. The percentage of Cicadomorpha specimens decreased with increasing elevation relative to that of the Fulgoromorpha which increased with increasing elevation. Environmental factors that may influence patterns of species richness along the elevational gradient are discussed. PMID:26056617

  13. Ooencyrtus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), egg parasitoids of the pistachio green stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Mohammad; Mehrnejad, M Reza

    2016-05-31

    This paper deals with three species of Ooencyrtus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) obtained from eggs of the green stink bug, Brachynema germarii (Kolenati) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) infesting pistachio plants in Iran. Two new species, Ooencyrtus iranicus Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov. and O. pistaciae Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov., are described, and O. telenomicida (Vassiliev) is newly recorded from Iran, redescribed and illustrated. A key to some species considered similar to the species treated here is also given.

  14. A New Species of Paracoccus Ezzat and McConnell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Kaydan, M B; Germain, J-F; Botton, M

    2016-12-01

    The worldwide mealybug genus Paracoccus Ezzat & McConnell (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) has eight described Neotropical species, including two species known from Brazil. In this article, we describe a third species from Brazil: Paracoccus galzerae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan sp. n., based on the morphology of adult females collected on the roots of Conyza bonariensis (Asteraceae) in vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul. A revised identification key including the new species is provided for the Neotropical region.

  15. Three new species of the genus Exphora Signoret, 1860 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Tropiduchidae) from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Junkiert, Łukasz; Walczak, Marcin

    2015-03-04

    Three new species of the genus Exphora Signoret, 1860 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha: Tropiduchidae) are described from Madagascar: E. constanti sp. n., E. stroinskii sp. n. and E. ambatolaonaensis sp. n. The male genitalia are described for the first time in this genus. The male genitalia, head and fore wing of the new species are illustrated with photos of habitus provided. Key to the known species of Exphora is given.

  16. The identity and distribution of Fiorinia phantasma (Cockerell & Robinson) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae), with a new synonym.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gillian W; Williams, Douglas J; Miller, Douglass R

    2015-11-25

    The morphologies of Fiorinia phantasma (Cockerell & Robinson) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae) and F. coronata Williams & Watson are reviewed, and the name F. coronata is placed as a junior synonym of the name F. phantasma syn. n. The known geographical distribution and host range of F. phantasma is documented and discussed. An identification key to 12 of the 16 species of Fiorinia known from the Australasian, Nearctic and Neotropical Regions is provided.

  17. First report of Ricania speculum (Walker, 1851) in Europe (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Ricaniidae).

    PubMed

    Mazza, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Fabrizio; Gargani, Elisabetta; Franceschini, Italo; Roversi, Pio Federico; Cianferoni, Fabio

    2014-09-15

    Ricania speculum (Walker, 1851) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Ricaniidae) is reported for the first time in Europe. Both nymphs and adults were observed from 2009 in several municipalities of Liguria (Italy). Since the species is extremely polyphagous and is a real pest for several crops in tropical and subtropical areas, the presence of this alien insect is noteworthy, representing a new possible threat for native species and human activities. 

  18. Discovery of a viral pathogen in the Asian citrus psyllid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We used a Metagenomics approach and discovered an insect-infecting virus in adult Asian citrus psyllids in Florida. Though wide spread in nature, this is the first report of a Fijivirus in North America. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a small insect tha...

  19. Retracted stylets in nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid are held externally against the clypeus by a special paired organ not found in the adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Differences in ultrastructure of the mouthparts in nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera, Psyllidae), vector of the bacterium associated with citrus huanglongbing disease, were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The number of sensilla on the labial tip in...

  20. Attraction of Male Winterform Pear Psylla to Female-produced Volatiles and to Female Extracts and Evidence of Male-Male Repellency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a major pest of commercial pears in North America and Europe. Olfactometer trials have shown that males of both the summerform and winterform morphotype are attracted to female-infested host material. Additional work with the su...

  1. Comparative analysis of Asian citrus psyllid and Potato psyllid antennae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The comparative investigation of the morphological basis for olfactory reception in two psyllid species, Diaphorina citri (the Asian citrus psyllid), and Bacterocera cockerelli (the potato/tomato psyllid) (both species Hemiptera:Psyllidae) was performed using scanning electron microscopy to elucidat...

  2. Sex Attraction in Pear Psylla

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a major economic pest of pears, have been shown to use a female-produced sex attractant pheromone. We compared the chemical profiles obtained from solvent extracts of diapausing and post-diapause winterform males and females, with g...

  3. Identification of a Sex Attractant Pheromone for Male Winterform Pear Psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a major economic pest of pears, have been shown to use a female-produced sex attractant pheromone. We compared the chemical profiles obtained from cuticular extracts of diapausing and post-diapause winterform males and females, with...

  4. ATTRACTION OF MALE SUMMERFORM PEAR PSYLLA TO VOLATILES FROM FEMALE PSYLLA: EFFECTS OF FEMALE AGE, MATING STATUS, AND PRESENCE OF HOST PLANT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a pest of pears throughout North America and western Europe. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that males of the overwintering form (winterform morphotype) were attracted to volatiles from pear shoots infested with post-d...

  5. Gender differences and effect of photophase on Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) feeding behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), thought to be primarily a phloem-feeding insect, transmits the presumptive pathogen for Huanglongbing, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’. Because this bacterium is restricted to the phloem and bacterial transmission is the res...

  6. Chemical and behavioral analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons from Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is presumed to cause HLB. Laboratory and field studies were cond...

  7. Effects on Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) feeding behavior of fenpropathrin and chlorpyrifos within 24 hours of application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease, is one of the most destructive diseases affecting citrus production. The phloem-limited bacterium associated with HLB is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). One component of HLB managem...

  8. Relative attractiveness of colour traps to pear psylla in relation to seasonal changes in pear phenology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study presents temporal color trap preference of pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster, Hemiptera: Psyllidae) over a 24 month duration. Black, blue, brown, clear, green, orange, red, white, and yellow traps were assayed against wild psylla populations. While pear psylla had a strong prefe...

  9. Diurnal patterns in flight activity and effects of light on host finding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an invasive pest of citrus in the United States. The psyllid feeds and reproduces primarily on new flush growth of citrus and other rutaceous plants. Because it vectors the bacterial causal agents of the deadly citrus green...

  10. Responses of the Asian citrus psyllid to volatiles emitted by the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vectors Candidatus Liberibacter spp., the putative causal agents of Huanglongbing. D. citri reproduces and develops only on the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants. Here we examined whether D. citri is attracted to volatiles emitted by the ...

  11. Population levels of Asian Citrus Psyllid in Florida, Texas and Puerto Rico as indicated by yellow sticky traps deployed in citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to compare population levels of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Florida, Texas and Puerto Rico. Four grove locations were studied in Florida, one location near each of the following cities: Leesburg, Vero Beach, Fort Pierce, and Immoka...

  12. Sequencing and annotation of the Wolbachia endosymbiont of Diaphorina citri by the CG-HLB genome resources group reveals candidate sources of interaction with the insect host

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid, is the vector of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of huanglongbing. The D. citri metagenome has been completed to gain a better understanding of the biology of this organism and the potential roles of other psyllid bacter...

  13. Jumping mechanisms of treehopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae).

    PubMed

    Burrows, M

    2013-03-01

    The kinematics and jumping performance of treehoppers (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae) were analysed from high speed images. The eight species analysed had an 11-fold range of body mass (3.8-41 mg) and a 2-fold range of body length (4.1-8.4 mm). Body shape was dominated by a prothoracic helmet that projected dorsally and posteriorly over the body, and in some species forwards to form a protruding horn. Jumping was propelled by rapid depression of the trochantera of the hindlegs. The hindlegs were only 30-60% longer than the front and middle legs, and 47-94% the length of the body in different species. They were slung beneath the body and moved together in the same plane. In preparation for a jump, the hindlegs were initially levated and rotated forwards so that the femora were pressed into indentations of the coxae. The tibiae were flexed about the femora and the tarsi were placed on the ground directly beneath the lateral edges of the abdomen. Movements of the front and middle legs adjusted the angle of the body relative to the ground, but for most treehoppers this angle was small, so that the body was almost parallel to the ground. The rapid depression of the hindlegs accelerated the body to take-off in 1.2 ms in the lighter treehoppers and 3.7 ms in the heavier ones. Take-off velocities of 2.1-2.7 m s(-1) were achieved and were not correlated with body mass. In the best jumps, these performances involved accelerations of 560-2450 m s(-2) (g forces of 47-250), an energy expenditure of 13.5-101 μJ, a power output of 12-32 mW and exerted a force of 9.5-29 mN. The power output per mass of muscle far exceeds the maximum active contractile limit of normal muscle. Such requirements indicate that treehoppers must be using a power amplification mechanism in a catapult-like action. Some jumps were preceded by flapping movements of the wings, but the propulsive movements of the hindlegs were crucial in achieving take-off.

  14. Checklist of the New Zealand Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): an update based on the 2004 to 2013 literature.

    PubMed

    Larivière, Marie-Claude; Larochelle, André

    2014-01-23

    An updated checklist of the New Zealand Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) is provided as a supplement to the "Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue" of Larivière and Larochelle (2004: Fauna of New Zealand 50). A total of 142 genera and 319 species belonging to 28 families are recorded for New Zealand. Changes to the 2004 catalogue are documented. The synonymy and primary type information of taxa described between 2004 and July 2013 are also given. The presence of the anthocorid Macrotrachelia nigronitens in New Zealand is confirmed.

  15. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  16. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  17. Efficacy of orchard-applied insecticides against the brown stink bug Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) attacking pecan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The polyphagous brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch (Juglandaceae), and other agronomic crops across the southcentral and southeastern U.S.A. Management of this pest in both orchards and row crops i...

  18. Review of the biology, ecology, and management of Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in China, Japan and Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Native to China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), was accidently introduced into the United States in the mid-1990s. Since establishing in the United States, this invasive species has caused significant economic losses in...

  19. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  20. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  1. Optimal Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) density and time of introduction for suppression of bruchid progeny in stored legumes

    Treesearch

    Sharlene E. Sing; Richard T. Arbogast

    2008-01-01

    The influences of both predator density and elapsed time between initial infestation and introduction of predators were determined for suppression of bruchids infesting stored grain legumes by Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Predator density treatments consisted of zero, one, two, three, or five male:female pairs of adult

  2. A laboratory study of sex- and stage-related mortality and morbidity in bed bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae) exposed to deltamethrin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exposure of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to varying concentrations of deltamethrin for 24h indicated there was no significant difference in mortality between males, females, and nymphs at 24h or 168h post-exposure. Most bed bugs classified ...

  3. Eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and roots of conifer and willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apterous adult morphs of eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and/or roots of conifer or willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest including Alaska are described, illustrated, and keyed. In total, seven species (Clydesmithia canadensis Danielsson, Melaphis ...

  4. Potential transmission of Pantoea spp. and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) to plants by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key agricultural pest in the western United States. In a recent study, proteins from Pantoea ananatis and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) were identified in diet that was stylet-probed and fed upon by L. hesperus adults. P...

  5. Changes in behavioral responses of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) from various applied signal voltages during EPG recordings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 3rd-generation AC-DC electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitor was used to study feeding behaviors of pre-reproductive adult Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) on pinhead (<3mm) cotton squares, applying different signal voltages at several input impedances. The AC-DC monitor allows a user to s...

  6. Predation of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by a complex of predators and adjoining soybean habitats in Georgia, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Molecular gut-content analysis was used to examine predation on stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by arthropod predators in habitats of soybean with and without buckwheat and adjoining cotton. Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), Chinavia hilaris (Say), and Euschistus quadrator Rolston,...

  7. Effects of atmospheric pressure trends on calling, mate-seeking, and phototaxis of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insects and other animals sometimes modify behavior in response to changes in atmospheric pressure, an environmental cue that can provide warning of potentially injurious windy and rainy weather. To determine if Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) calling, mate-seeking, and phototaxis behaviors w...

  8. A new species in the genus Crisicoccus Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), with a key to Chinese species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang-Tao; Wu, San-An

    2016-06-01

    A new mealybug, Crisicoccus ziziphus sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), collected on the leaves and twigs of Ziziphus jujuba (Rhamnaceae), is described from China. All the female developmental stages (adult, third-instar, second-instar and first-instar nymphs) are described and illustrated. Keys are provided to separate the female instars and to identify adult females of Crisicoccus species from China.

  9. Parasitism of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in organic soybean plots in Georgia, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...

  10. Diversity of stink bug (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae) egg parasitoids in woodland and crop habitats in southwest Georgia, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. They move within and between closely associated crop and non-crop habitats throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their current host plant...

  11. Diramus, a new genus of the leafhopper subfamily Evacanthinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), with description of three new species from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    Diramus, gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae), and three new species, Diramus khaokus sp. nov., Diramus nigromaculatus sp. nov. and Diramus uncatus sp. nov., are described from Thailand. The differences between the new genus and the closely related genus Bundera Distant is discussed.

  12. Review of the grassland leafhopper genus Nephotettix Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Chiasmini) from the Chinese mainland.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yani; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-22

    The Chinese mainland species of the leafhopper genus Nephotettix Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Chiasmini) (Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler), Nephotettix malayanus Ishihara & Kawase, Nephotettix nigropictus (Stål), Nephotettix parvus Ishihara & Kawase rec. n., and Nephotettix virescens (Distant)) are reviewed. This genus is redescribed. Variation is described and illustrated. Keys for their separation are provided together with a worldwide checklist.

  13. Survey of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrot crops affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Norway

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis Förster (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious insect pest of carrot (Daucus carota L.) in northern Europe, where it can cause up to 100% crop loss. Although it was long believed that T. apicalis causes damage to carrot by injection of toxins into the plant, it was re...

  14. First report of seasonal trap capture for Halyomorpha halys (Stal) Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and native stink bugs in central Georgia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive insect pest in the United States, has recently expanded its range to the Coastal Plain region of Georgia. This study was conducted to monitor the BMSB, as well as native stink bugs, near woodland f...

  15. Antifeedant activity and high mortality in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae) induced by biostable insect kinin analogs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The insect kinins are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). A series of biostable insect kinin analogs based on the shared C-terminal pentapeptide core region were fed in solutions of artificial diet t...

  16. Behavioral responses of adult potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), to potato germplasm and transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potatoes that can cause yield loss by direct feeding on crop plants and by vectoring a bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (a.k.a. Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum). In recent years, ...

  17. A chemical lure for stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is used as a kairomone by Astata occidentalis (Hymenoptera: sphecidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The digger wasp Astata occidentalis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) is a predator of pentatomid stink bugs (Hemiptera). In the states of Washington and Georgia, adult females were consistently captured in the field in traps baited with lures that included methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate, a comp...

  18. Activity and Residues of Imidacloprid Applied to Soil and Tree Trunks to Control Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in Forests

    Treesearch

    R.S. Cowles; M.E. Montgomery; C.A.S.-J. Cheah

    2006-01-01

    We studied imidacloprid application methods and timing to control the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in forests. The methods compared were 1) soil injection near the trunk; 2) soil injection dispersed throughout the area under the canopy; 3) soil drench near the base of the trunk; and trunk injection with the 4...

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and phylogenetic relationships of Hemipteran suborders

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The newly sequenced complete mitochondrial genome of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a circular molecule of 16,518 bp with a total A+T content of 76.4% and two extensive repeat regions in A+T rich region. Nucleotide composition and codon usage ...

  20. Effects of fertilization of four hemlock species on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) growth and feeding preference of predators.

    Treesearch

    S.V. Joseph; James Hanula

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how fertilization affects host resistance to hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera:Adelgidae), is important because fertilizers are often used to grow resistant selections to a suitable size for testing. We evaluated four hemlock species (Tsuga) under three different fertilizer regimes to assess whether fertility affected resistance to...

  1. Review of the genus Neotetricodes Zhang et Chen (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhi-Min; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2015-12-11

    Two new species of the issid genus Neotetricodes Zhang et Chen (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae): Neotetricodes longispinus Chang et Chen sp. nov. (China: Yunnan) and Neotetricodes xiphoideus Chang et Chen sp. nov. (China: Yunnan) are described and illustrated. The generic characteristic is redefined. A checklist and key to the species of the genus are provided. The female genitalia of the genus are firstly described.

  2. A review of Chinese tribe Achilini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Achilidae), with descriptions of Paracatonidia webbeda gen. & sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Long, Jian-Kun; Yang, Lin; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2015-12-02

    Planthoppers of the tribe Achilini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Achilidae) from China, are reviewed. A key to the three genera of Chinese Achilini is given. A new genus and species of the tribe from southwestern China: Paracatonidia webbeda gen. & sp. nov., is described. A new genus and species record for China, Cixidia kasparyani Anufriev, is also given.

  3. Biology and host preference of the planthopper Taosa longula (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) a candidate for biological control of water hyacinth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Taosa longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is a planthopper from the South American tropics that feeds on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The biology of T. longula was studied in the laboratory and field to evaluate it as a potential biologic...

  4. Host range of the exotic brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), implications for future distribution

    Treesearch

    Gary Bernon; Karen M. Bernhard; Anne L. Nielsen; James F. Stimmel; E. Richard Hoebeke; Maureen E. Carter

    2007-01-01

    Halyomorpha halys, (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest in eastern Asia on soybeans and woody plants, including broadleaved trees and fruit trees. A population was discovered in Allentown, PA in 2001. H. halys is also a nuisance pest as it overwinters in homes and other buildings. Based on earlier reports to the Lehigh County...

  5. Effects of host plant on development and body size of three haplotypes of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera:Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is an economic pest of solanaceous crops in North and Central America, and (as an introduction) in New Zealand. Four genetic haplotypes of the psyllid have been identified in North America. Three of these haplotypes (Central, West...

  6. Evaluation of hemlock (Tsuga) species and hybrids for resistance to Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) using artificial infestation

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Montgomery; S.E. Bentz; Richard T. Olsen

    2009-01-01

    Hemlock (Tsuga) species and hybrids were evaluated for resistance to the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). The adelgid was accidentally introduced from Asia to the eastern United States, where it is causing widespread mortality of the native hemlocks, Tsuga canadensis (L.)...

  7. Impact of insecticide residue exposure on the invasive pest, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): analysis of adult mobility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty-eight insecticides were evaluated in the laboratory to characterize the impact of specific compounds on locomotory behavior and mobility of adult Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Horizontal distance and angular velocity were measured for individuals exposed to dry insecti...

  8. Evaluation of a method to quantify glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg maturation during a feeding assay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methods to improve an assay relating adult feeding to egg maturation by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were evaluated. The assay consisted of confining adult females to cowpea stems in parafilm enclosures and quantifying adult feeding and egg maturation. Adult feeding was...

  9. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  10. A new species of Aphelocheirus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aphelocheiridae) from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Millán, Andrés; L'Mohdi, Ouassima; Antonio Carbonell, José; Taybi, Abdelkhaleq Fouzi; Dakki, Mohamed

    2016-10-10

    This paper provides the description of a new species of Aphelocheirus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aphelocheiridae), Aphelocheirus pemae sp. nov. from Morocco. The species was found in two sites located in different basins (Sebou and Moulouya rivers) that are separated by approximately 400 km. Photographs of the dorsal habitus of the female and illustrations of the male genitalic structures are provided. A graphical key to species of the genus in Western Europe and the Maghreb is also included. The new species can be easily distinguished by the unique shape of the left and right parameres and absence of apical spines on the aedeagus.

  11. Large-scale gene discovery in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Legeai, Fabrice; Rispe, Claude; Bonhomme, Joël; Dearden, Peter; Dossat, Carole; Duclert, Aymeric; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Ducray, Danièle Giblot; Hunter, Wayne; Dang, Phat; Kambhampati, Srini; Martinez-Torres, David; Cortes, Teresa; Moya, Andrès; Nakabachi, Atsushi; Philippe, Cathy; Prunier-Leterme, Nathalie; Rahbé, Yvan; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Stern, David L; Wincker, Patrick; Tagu, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Aphids are the leading pests in agricultural crops. A large-scale sequencing of 40,904 ESTs from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum was carried out to define a catalog of 12,082 unique transcripts. A strong AT bias was found, indicating a compositional shift between Drosophila melanogaster and A. pisum. An in silico profiling analysis characterized 135 transcripts specific to pea-aphid tissues (relating to bacteriocytes and parthenogenetic embryos). This project is the first to address the genetics of the Hemiptera and of a hemimetabolous insect. PMID:16542494

  12. An annotated checklist of the planthoppers of Iran (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha) with distribution data

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Fariba; Wilson, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A list of Hemiptera Fulgoromorpha (planthoppers) of Iran is provided, based primarily on literature records from 1902 to the present. In total 15 families and 235 species are recorded, with taxonomic details. Distribution data in Iran are given. Iranissus ephedrinus Dlabola, 1980 is transferred from Issidae to Nogodinidae. To resolve nomenclatural difficulty the following new combinations in Issidae are given: Iranodus dumetorus (Dlabola, 1981), Iranodus khatunus (Dlabola, 1981) and Iranodus repandus (Dlabola, 1981). Due to published generic synonomy the following are new combinations: Duilius seticulosus (Lethierry, 1874), Duilius tamaricis (Puton & Lethierry, 1887), Duilius tamaricicola (Dubovsky, 1966) and Duilius v-atrum (Dlabola, 1985). PMID:22287883

  13. The genus Arctorthezia Cockerell (Hemiptera, Ortheziidae) with the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Szita, Éva; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Fetykó, Kinga; Kozár, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes a new species of Arctorthezia Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Ortheziidae) from the Palaearctic region. The specimens were extracted from forest litter in the collections of Muséum d’histoire Naturelle de Genève, Switzerland, using Berlese funnels. Three further species, Arctorthezia cataphracta (Olafsen), Arctorthezia occidentalis (Douglas) and Arctorthezia pseudoccidentalis Morrison, are redescribed and re-illustrated. The genus Arctorthezia now contains five species. An identification key, diagnostic illustrations, photographs of unmounted females and new locality records of the Arctorthezia species currently known are provided. PMID:25632249

  14. Description of a new genus, Galgoria gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadinae: Leptopsaltriini: Leptopsaltriina).

    PubMed

    Lee, Young June

    2016-05-10

    A new cicada genus, Galgoria gen. nov., is described with Tanna herzbergi Schmidt, 1932 (from southern China) as its type species, which is placed in the subtribe Leptopsaltriina Moulton, 1923 of the tribe Leptopsaltriini Moulton, 1923 in the subfamily Cicadinae Latreille, 1802 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae). Tanna herzbergi Schmidt, 1932 is transferred from Tanna Distant, 1905 to Galgoria gen. nov. to become Galgoria herzbergi (Schmidt, 1932) comb. nov. Tanna apicalis Chen, 1940 syn. nov. and Tanna pseudocalis Lei & Chou, 1997 syn. nov. are synonymized here with Galgoria herzbergi (Schmidt, 1932) comb. nov.

  15. Discontinuous color variation in the assassin bug species Tiarodes miyamotoi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Reduviinae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The reduviine assassin bug, Tiarodes miyamotoi Ishikawa, Cai and Tomokuni, 2005 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Reduviinae), has so far been known only from the Yaeyama Islands of Japan and no major intraspecific variation has been reported in this species. New information This is the first record of this species from Okinawa-honto Island as the northernmost locality. Furthermore, an apparently discontinuous intraspecific variation in coloration has been confirmed between populations from the Yaeyama and Okinawa-honto Islands; this variation has been reported for the first time in the genus Tiarodes Burmeister, 1835, which comprises approximately 90 species. PMID:27932922

  16. Does cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) play a direct role in causing soil phytotoxicity?

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Gillian; Marler, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS, Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) was accidentally introduced to Guam in 2003, and has caused acute mortality of the dominant, endemic forest tree Cycas micronesica. A phytotoxic legacy in the soils beneath cycad trees killed by CAS over a period of about three years has been demonstrated. The origin of the toxicity may be large quantities of CAS-encrusted cycad leaf litter. We explore the possibility that a major contribution to this toxic legacy may come from the scale insects, not just from the plant material. PMID:25083170

  17. A new species of Dysmicoccus damaging lavender in French Provence (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Germain, J-F; Matile-Ferrero, D; Kaydan, M B; Malausa, T; Williams, D J

    2015-07-01

    Une nouvelle espèce de Dysmicoccus nuisible à la lavande en Provence (France) (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae). Dysmicoccus lavandulae Germain, Matile-Ferrero & Williams n. sp. est décrite et illustrée. Ses séquences ADN sont présentées. L'espèce vit sur Lavandula x intermedia cultivée pour la production d'essence de lavande en Provence. La liste des espèces de pseudococcines vivant sur les lavandes spontanées en France est dressée. Le statut des 2 genres voisins Trionymus Berg et Dysmicoccus Ferris est discuté.

  18. Occurrence of the Tamarix Leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Virla, Eduardo G.; Logarzo, Guillermo A.; Paradell, Susana L.

    2010-01-01

    The paleartic tamarix leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), can reduce the growth of tamarisk due to the aggregate feeding imposed by their populations. The species was mentioned for Argentina in Metcalf's catalogue (1967) without locality or region reference, and the contributions on Cicadellidae published by many authors after Metcalf omitted this distributional data. Populations of O. stactogalus on Tamarix sp. were found in 12 sites between 28° 48′ to 39° 17′ S and 64° 06′ to 70° 04′ W, located in both the Neotropical and Andean biogeographic regions. PMID:20578887

  19. A new species of Acyrthosiphon (Hemiptera, Aphididae) from France and Spain.

    PubMed

    Nieto Nafría, Juan M; Aldea, Marta; Castro, Marta

    2015-02-17

    A new species in one of the largest genera of Macrosiphini (Hemiptera, Aphididae), Acyrthosiphon pilosum sp. n., is described from apterous and alate viviparous females and oviparous females from French and Spanish Mediterranean localities, living on species of Ononis (Fabaceae), mainly O. natrix. The new species is characterized by the presence of many accessory setae on the ultimate rostral segment, and usually five setae on the first tarsal segments, a combination that is not present in any other known Acyrthosiphon species; in addition marginal tubercles are present on prothorax and several of abdominal segments 2-5.

  20. Does cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) play a direct role in causing soil phytotoxicity?

    PubMed

    Watson, Gillian; Marler, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS, Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) was accidentally introduced to Guam in 2003, and has caused acute mortality of the dominant, endemic forest tree Cycas micronesica. A phytotoxic legacy in the soils beneath cycad trees killed by CAS over a period of about three years has been demonstrated. The origin of the toxicity may be large quantities of CAS-encrusted cycad leaf litter. We explore the possibility that a major contribution to this toxic legacy may come from the scale insects, not just from the plant material.

  1. Occurrence of the Tamarix Leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Virla, Eduardo G; Logarzo, Guillermo A; Paradell, Susana L

    2010-01-01

    The paleartic tamarix leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), can reduce the growth of tamarisk due to the aggregate feeding imposed by their populations. The species was mentioned for Argentina in Metcalf's catalogue (1967) without locality or region reference, and the contributions on Cicadellidae published by many authors after Metcalf omitted this distributional data. Populations of O. stactogalus on Tamarix sp. were found in 12 sites between 28 degrees 48' to 39 degrees 17' S and 64 degrees 06' to 70 degrees 04' W, located in both the Neotropical and Andean biogeographic regions.

  2. Four new species of the genus Mongoliana Distant (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Rui; Wang, Yinglun; Qin, Daozheng

    2016-01-05

    Four new species in the planthopper genus Mongoliana Distant from southern China (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) are reported. Three of them, M. bistriata sp. nov., M. latistriata sp. nov. and M. albimaculata sp. nov., are described and illustrated; the fourth new one, M. arcuata sp. nov., is briefly described for M. triangularis Chen, Zhang & Chang which was a misidentification of M. triangularis Che, Wang & Chou. M. recurrens (Butler, 1875) is re-described and remarks for its current status is given. A key to all known species of Mongoliana is provided. The distribution and morphological peculiarities of the genus are briefly discussed.

  3. The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Damaging Vineyards in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Galzer, E C W; Malausa, T; Germain, J F; Kaydan, M B; Botton, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gaúcha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil.

  4. Cicadidae types (Hemiptera-Cicadomorpha) housed at the Museo de La Plata entomological collection (Argentina).

    PubMed

    De Remes Lenicov, Ana M Marino; Maciá, Arnaldo; Pianzola, Bruno

    2015-06-23

    A catalog of the 161 type specimens of species of Hemiptera Cicadidae housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo de La Plata is presented. This collection represents 52 species grouped in 19 genera. For each species the original and current names, bibliographic references, type category, number of specimens, gender, Museo de La Plata code numbers, and transcription of data from labels (country, province, locality, date of collection, collector's name, and hosts) are given. Information about the state of preservation of the specimens in each series and photographs of each type species are also provided.

  5. Phylogenetic characterization and molecular evolution of bacterial endosymbionts in psyllids (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha).

    PubMed

    Spaulding, A W; von Dohlen, C D

    1998-11-01

    Most sternorrhynchan insects harbor endosymbiotic bacteria in specialized cells (bacteriocytes) near the gut which provide essential nutrients for hosts. In lineages investigated so far with molecular methods (aphids, mealybugs, whiteflies), endosymbionts apparently have arisen from independent infections of common host ancestors and co-speciated with their hosts. Some endosymbionts also exhibit putatively negative genetic effects from their symbiotic association. In this study, the identity of endosymbionts in one major sternorrhynchan lineage, psyllids (Psylloidea), was investigated to determine their position in eubacterial phylogeny and their relationship to other sternorrhynchan endosymbionts. Small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA) from bacteria in three psyllid species (families Psyllidae and Triozidae) were sequenced and incorporated into an alignment including other insect endosymbionts and free-living bacteria. In phylogenetic analysis, all sequences were placed within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Three sequences, one from each psyllid species, formed a highly supported monophyletic group whose branching order matched the host phylogeny, and also exhibited accelerated rates of evolution and mutational bias toward A and T nucleotides. These attributes, characteristic of primary (P) bacteriocyte-dwelling endosymbionts, suggested that these sequences were from the putative psyllid P endosymbiont. Two other sequences were placed within the gamma-3 subgroup of Proteobacteria and were hypothesized to be secondary endosymbionts. The analysis also suggested a sister relationship between P endosymbionts of psyllids and whiteflies. Thus, a continuous mutualistic association between bacteria and insects may have existed since the common ancestor of psyllids and whiteflies. Calculations using a universal substitution rate in bacteria corrected for endosymbiont rate acceleration support the idea that this common ancestor was also the ancestor of

  6. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    PubMed

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields.

  7. Preparation of Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for Genetic Characterization and Morphological Examination.

    PubMed

    Bahder, B W; Bollinger, M L; Sudarshana, M R; Zalom, F G

    2015-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on many different crops. Because of their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide-mounted specimen. The standard mounting technique does not allow for analysis of the genome of the specimen. Conversely, preparatory techniques for genetic analysis of mealybugs cause either loss of the entire individual or physical damage that can make morphology-based identification difficult. This study describes a simple protocol that does not impact physical integrity of the specimen for fixation and microscopic examination yet enables simultaneous DNA extraction for DNA-based identification of four mealybug species. All species prepared yielded high quality slide mounts, identified as Planococcus citri Risso, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, or Rhizoecus californicus Ferris. DNA extracted in this manner had higher purity and yield in the final eluate than in samples extracted using standard methods. DNA extracted was successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers for the cytochrome oxidase I gene and subsequently sequenced for all specimens. This protocol is likely to be applicable to other Hemiptera taxa that are preserved by slide mounting, allowing for both the preparation of a high-quality voucher specimen for morphological identification and simultaneous analysis of DNA for the same specimen. The methods used are technically less challenging than current standard procedures.

  8. A replacement name for Dayus Gerken, 2001 (Crustacea, Peracarida, Cumacea), preoccupied by Dayus Mahmood, 1967 (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Bo; Gerken, Sarah; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    A replacement name is proposed for genus Dayus Gerken, 2001 (Crustacea: Peracarida: Cumacea), preoccupied by Dayus Mahmood, 1967 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The following changes are proposed: Jennidayus new replacement name = Dayus Gerken, 2001 (nec Mahmood 1967); Jennidayus pharocheradus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus pharocheradus Gerken, 2001; Jennidayus acanthus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus acanthus Gerken, 2001; Jennidayus makrokolosus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus makrokolosus Gerken, 2001.

  9. Review of the planthopper genus Neohemisphaerius (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Issidae) with description of one new species from China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng-Guang; Chang, Zhi-Min; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The planthopper genus Neohemisphaerius Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014 (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Issidae) is reviewed to include 3 species: Neohemisphaerius wugangensis Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014 (China: Hunan), Neohemisphaerius yangi Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014 (China: Guangdong) and Neohemisphaerius guangxiensis sp. n. (China: Guangxi). A revised generic diagnosis is given. The new species is described and all species illustrated. A key to these three species is also given. The species Neohemisphaerius signifer (Walker) is transferred back to Hemisphaerius as Hemisphaerius signifer Walker, comb. revived. PMID:27103871

  10. Studies on idiocerine leafhoppers with descriptions of Chinaocerus gen. nov. and three new species from China (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Dang, Li-Hong; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2016-03-08

    A new leafhopper genus of the tribe Idiocerini (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae), Chinaocerus, is described from the southwest China together with three new species, C. kangdingensis Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Sichuan Province), C. bispinatus Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Yunnan Province) and C. shii Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Sichuan Province). Descriptions and illustrations of these three new species are provided, and a key for their separation is also given.

  11. Description of Sangeeta sinuomacula sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Megophthalminae: Agalliini) from Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2015-06-19

    A new species, Sangeeta sinuomacula Li, Dai & Li sp. nov., of tribe Agalliini of subfamily Megophthalminae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is described and illustrated from Yunnnan Province of Southwest China. The new species is easily distinguished from other Sangeeta species by the aedeagal shaft with a pair of slender processes instead of lamelliform lateral expansions. A key to Sangeeta species and updated checklist with distribution are provided.

  12. Planthopper (Hemiptera: Flatidae) parasitized by larval erythraeid mite (Trombidiformes: Erythraeidae)-a description of two new species from western Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Mąkol, Joanna; Moniuszko, Hanna; Swierczewski, Dariusz; Stroiński, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of Dambullaeus adonis Mąkol et Moniuszko SP NOV: (Trombidiformes: Erythraeidae, Callidosomatinae) and Latois nigrolineata Świerczewski et Stroiński SP NOV: (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha, Flatidae) from Madagascar are provided. The first host record for ectoparasitic larvae of Dambullaeus Haitlinger, 2001 and the first evidence on host-parasite association between flatid adult and erythraeid larvae are given. Genus Dambullaeus, known exclusively from larvae and now comprising two species of Gondwanan distribution, is critically reappraised.

  13. Two more new species of Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae), and a note on variation in Aphidura bozhkoae Narzikulov

    PubMed Central

    Nieto Nafría, Juan M.; Blackman, Roger L.; Martin, Jon H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Aphidura Hille Ris Lambers, 1956 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini) are described; Aphidura libanensis sp. n. from Prunus prostrata in Lebanon, and Aphidura corsicensis sp. n. from Cerastium soleirolii in Corsica (France). Studies of Aphidura bozhkoae specimens from different localities have revealed that this species varies in its pattern of dorsal sclerotisation and other morphological characters, within and between populations. An updated key for identifying the world’s species of Aphidura is presented. PMID:25147453

  14. Two more new species of Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae), and a note on variation in Aphidura bozhkoae Narzikulov.

    PubMed

    Nieto Nafría, Juan M; Blackman, Roger L; Martin, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Aphidura Hille Ris Lambers, 1956 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini) are described; Aphidura libanensis sp. n. from Prunus prostrata in Lebanon, and Aphidura corsicensis sp. n. from Cerastium soleirolii in Corsica (France). Studies of Aphidura bozhkoae specimens from different localities have revealed that this species varies in its pattern of dorsal sclerotisation and other morphological characters, within and between populations. An updated key for identifying the world's species of Aphidura is presented.

  15. Morphometric changes of Triatoma flavida Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera:Triatominae) in the transition from sylvatic to laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Jinnay; Fuentes González, Omar; Nodarse, Jorge Fraga; Monzote Fidalgo, Lianet; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The one-generational metric changes occurring in Triatoma flavida (Hemiptera: Triatominae) when carried from its wild habitat (caves) to laboratory, were examined using traditional morphometric techniques. As for other species of Triatoma, Rhodnius or Panstrongylus studied in similar conditions, a significant reduction of head, thorax and wing size was observed. Sexual dimorphism of the wings, while present in the wild sample, was not detected anymore in the laboratory individuals. Biological significance and epidemiological importance are discussed.

  16. Wolbachia infection density in populations of the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, M; Coy, M R; Kingdom Gibbard, H N; Pelz-Stelinski, K S

    2014-10-01

    The symbiotic relationships between bacteria of the genus Wolbachia (order Rickettsiales) and their arthropod hosts are diverse and can range from mutualism to parasitism. Whereas effects of Wolbachia on host biology are well investigated, little is known about diversity and abundance of Wolbachia in their natural hosts. The phloem-feeding Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is naturally infected with Wolbachia (wDi). In the current study, we calculated the within-host density of Wolbachia in Florida D. citri populations using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for detection of the Wolbachia outer surface protein gene, wsp. Gene quantities were normalized to the D. citri wingless gene (Wg) to estimate Wolbachia abundance in individual D. citri. Using this method, significant geographic differences in Wolbachia densities were detected among Florida D. citri populations, with higher infection levels occurring in male versus female hosts.

  17. Bicaudal-C plays a vital role in oogenesis in Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Xin; Huang, Hai-Jian; Yu, Bing; Lou, Yi-Han; Fan, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2015-08-01

    Bicaudal-C (Bic-C) was originally identified in a Drosophila melanogaster mutagenesis screen and plays vital roles in embryogenesis. In this study, we characterized the Bic-C gene in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), an insect pest that undergoes incomplete metamorphosis. Our result showed that N. lugens Bic-C (NlBic-C) is a female-specific gene in this species. It is specifically expressed in developing oocytes and is not expressed in laid eggs. Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) of NlBic-C arrested the uptake of vitelline by oocytes, and resulted in undeveloped ovaries and the complete inhibition of oocyte growth in the ovarioles, suggesting that NlBic-C is required for oogenesis and oocyte maturation. NlBic-C is extremely highly sensitive to RNAi, suggesting that it may be a potential target in RNAi-based insect pest management.

  18. Corroborating molecular species discovery: Four new pine-feeding species of Chionaspis (Hemiptera, Diaspididae)

    PubMed Central

    Vea, Isabelle M.; Gwiazdowski, Rodger A.; Normark, Benjamin B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Chionaspis (Hemiptera, Diaspididae) includes two North American species of armored scale insects feeding on Pinaceae: Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley, and Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch). Despite the economic impact of conifer-feeding Chionaspis on horticulture, the species diversity in this group has only recently been systematically investigated using samples from across the group’s geographic and host range. This paper provides morphological recognition characters for four new species that were recently hypothesized to exist on the basis of molecular evidence. The new species, here described, are Chionaspis brachycephalon Vea sp. n., Chionaspis caudata Vea sp. n., Chionaspis sonorae Vea sp. n. and Chionaspis torreyanae Vea sp. n.  One of the new species, Chionaspis caudata Vea, has a gland spine at the apex of the pygidium, between the median lobes, unlike any other species of Chionaspis. An identification key to the species of Chionaspis feeding on pine in North America is provided. PMID:23717184

  19. Description of the Immature Stages of the Planthopper Lacertinella australis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Batiz, M. F. Rossi; Lenicov, A. M. Marino de Remes

    2014-01-01

    The five immature stages of the planthopper Lacertinella australis (Remes Lenicov and Rossi Batiz) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Saccharosydnini) are described and illustrated. The main characters that allowed us to distinguish the various stages were body size, number of tarsomeres and metatibial spines, and number of teeth on the spur. New biological data based on laboratory rearing and field observations showed that L. australis can carry out its biological cycle successfully on the graminaceous pampas grass (Cortaderia spp. Stapf (Poales: Poaceae)). In addition, the efficient rearing in captivity, the high survivorship registered, and overwintering only on this host plant suggests that L. australis is a potential biocontrol agent of this invasive graminaceous weed. This study provides information about the immature stages, including a key for their identification, based on laboratory reared specimens and field observations. PMID:25199992

  20. Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the epiphyte Tillandsia xerographica (Bromeliaceae) in the semiarid region of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Marroquín, Ricardo; Monroy, Carlota; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2004-05-01

    For the first time, the reduviid bug Triatoma ryckmani Zeledón and Ponce (Hemiptera; Reduviidae) was recorded to inhabit the epiphyte Tillandsia xerographica Rohweder (Bromeliaceae) in the semiarid region of Guatemala. These bromeliads grow mainly in drought-resistant trees with rough bark such as Pereskia lychnidiflora (Cactaceae). In our study site, we investigated 30 T. xerographica, and 53 specimens of T. ryckmani were found. Most T. ryckmani (68.5%) were unfed. Ants (Formicidae) were the predominant (92.2%) insect taxon in T. xerographica. Other insects such as Blattidae (3.0%), Reduviidae (T. ryckmani: 2.5%), Blaberidae (2.2%), Gryllidae (0.1%), and Acrididae (0.1%) were recorded in the bromeliads. T. xerographica is illegally commercialized without previous inspection. This may cause accidental introduction of T. ryckmani to houses and to other countries.

  1. Phylogenetic signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) mouthparts: stylets bundle, sense organs, and labial segments.

    PubMed

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)).

  2. Karyotype and spermatogenesis in Triatoma lenti (Hemiptera: Triatominae), a potential Chagas vector.

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Mendonça, P P; Succi, M; Pereira, N P; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2012-12-17

    All species of Triatominae are susceptible to infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) and consequently, potential insect vectors of Chagas disease. Currently, there are 140 known species of triatomine bugs, which can be grouped into specific species complexes. The species Triatoma lenti (Hemiptera: Triatominae) is found only in Brazil and is considered a potential vector of Chagas disease. We karyotyped male T. lenti and examined its spermatogenesis in detail. The karyotype was found to be 2n = 20A + XY, demonstrating that this organism has the modal chromosome set found in triatomines. This new information concerning males of this species contributed to biological data that will be useful for understanding this potentially important Chagas disease vector.

  3. Genome sequence of "Candidatus Walczuchella monophlebidarum" the flavobacterial endosymbiont of Llaveia axin axin (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Monophlebidae).

    PubMed

    Rosas-Pérez, Tania; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Mora, Jaime; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-03-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidae) constitute a very diverse group of sap-feeding insects with a large diversity of symbiotic associations with bacteria. Here, we present the complete genome sequence, metabolic reconstruction, and comparative genomics of the flavobacterial endosymbiont of the giant scale insect Llaveia axin axin. The gene repertoire of its 309,299 bp genome was similar to that of other flavobacterial insect endosymbionts though not syntenic. According to its genetic content, essential amino acid biosynthesis is likely to be the flavobacterial endosymbiont's principal contribution to the symbiotic association with its insect host. We also report the presence of a γ-proteobacterial symbiont that may be involved in waste nitrogen recycling and also has amino acid biosynthetic capabilities that may provide metabolic precursors to the flavobacterial endosymbiont. We propose "Candidatus Walczuchella monophlebidarum" as the name of the flavobacterial endosymbiont of insects from the Monophlebidae family.

  4. Are Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) distinct species?

    PubMed

    Chatzidimitriou, Evangelia; Simonato, Mauro; Watson, Gillian W; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Zhao, Jing; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-03-24

    Among the Nearctic species of Phenacoccus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris are morphologically similar and it can be difficult to separate them on the basis of microscopic morphological characters of the adult female alone. In order to resolve their identity, a canonical variates morphological analysis of 199 specimens from different geographical origins and host plants and a molecular analysis of the COI and 28S genes were performed. The morphological analysis supported synonymy of the two species, as although the type specimens of the "species" are widely separated from each other in the canonical variates plot, they are all part of a continuous range of variation. The molecular analysis showed that P. solani and P. defectus are grouped in the same clade. On the basis of the morphological and molecular analyses, P. defectus is synonymized under the senior name P. solani, syn. n.

  5. Survival and fecundity of two strains of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Gebhardtsbauer, Ron; Rajotte, Edwin G

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of development of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) under specific environmental conditions could lead to improved management techniques. Developmental rates, age-, and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain and a field strain of bed bugs reared on human blood. Both strains were then crossed reciprocally to produce four F1 generations and subsequent age- and stage-specific life tables were constructed. No significant differences were found in the overall survival of the parental strains, but significant differences were found in development rate within various instars based on strain. Parallel results were derived from the F1 generation hybrids. Stable age distribution calculations predict that 80% of bedbugs within exponentially growing populations will be immature.

  6. An annotated update of the scale insect checklist of Hungary (Hemiptera, Coccoidea).

    PubMed

    Kozár, Ferenc; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Fetykó, Kinga; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The number of scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) known from Hungary has increased in the last 10 years by 39 (16.6 %), to a total of 274 species belonging to 112 genera in10 families. The family Pseudococcidae is the most species rich, with 101 species in 34 genera; Diaspididae contains 59 species in 27 genera; Coccidae contains 54 species in 27 genera; and the Eriococcidae contains 33 species in 8 genera. The other 6 coccoid families each contain only a few species: Asterolecaniidae (7 species in 3 genera); Ortheziidae (7 species in 4 genera); Margarodidaesensu lato (5 species in 5 genera); Cryptococcidae (3 species in 2 genera); Kermesidae (4 species in 1genus); and Cerococcidae (1 species). Of the species in the check list, 224 were found in outdoor conditions, while 50 species occurred only in indoor conditions. This paper contains 22 species recorded for the first time in the Hungarian fauna.

  7. Seasonal population dynamics of Draeculacephala minerva (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and transmission of Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-La Rosa, Juan C; Johnson, Marshall W; Civerolo, Edwin L; Chen, Jianchi; Groves, Russell L

    2008-08-01

    The grass sharpshooter, Draeculacephala minerva Ball (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a very common and often abundant grass-feeding leafhopper in California. Its population dynamics and ability to transmit Xylella fastidiosa were monitored over a 2-yr period in California's San Joaquin Valley. Collections of individuals from natural populations in irrigated pastures and alfalfa, Medicago savita L. fields adjacent to X. fastidiosa-infected almond (Prunus spp.) orchards indicated the occurrence of three discrete generations per year that peaked during the summer. Population densities varied significantly among experimental field survey sites. Insects captured on intercepting mesh traps, yellow sticky cards, and UV-light traps indicated local movement of these insects into and surrounding X. fastidiosa-infected, almond orchards. Local movement and seasonal transmission of X. fastidiosa from infected almonds to Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don indicated that this insect may be partly responsible for the slow spread of almond leaf scorch now recently observed in California's San Joaquin Valley.

  8. Madagascar Flatidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha): state-of-the-art and research challenges

    PubMed Central

    Świerczewski, Dariusz; Stroiński, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The paper provides a historical review of the research on Flatidae in Madagascar and indicates future prospects. While the first two species of Madagascar Flatidae were described by Guérin-Méneville (1844), it was Signoret (1860) who made the first real attempt to enhance our knowledge of the Hemiptera fauna of Madagascar by describing several additional species. Over the following century and a half, several investigators have turned their attention to this group of insects, with the final number of species recorded for the island reaching 79. Despite this long history of research, it is evident that much still remains to be done. Detailed taxonomic research will allow the natural history of Madagascar and changes in the biological diversity of its endemic ecosystems to be better understood. This paper should be considered as an introduction to a complex study on the systematics and phylogeny of worldwide Flatidae planthoppers. PMID:24039526

  9. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  10. An annotated update of the scale insect checklist of Hungary (Hemiptera, Coccoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Kozár, Ferenc; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Fetykó, Kinga; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The number of scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) known from Hungary has increased in the last 10 years by 39 (16.6 %), to a total of 274 species belonging to 112 genera in10 families. The family Pseudococcidae is the most species rich, with 101 species in 34 genera; Diaspididae contains 59 species in 27 genera; Coccidae contains 54 species in 27 genera; and the Eriococcidae contains 33 species in 8 genera. The other 6 coccoid families each contain only a few species: Asterolecaniidae (7 species in 3 genera); Ortheziidae (7 species in 4 genera); Margarodidae sensu lato (5 species in 5 genera); Cryptococcidae (3 species in 2 genera); Kermesidae (4 species in 1genus); and Cerococcidae (1 species). Of the species in the check list, 224 were found in outdoor conditions, while 50 species occurred only in indoor conditions. This paper contains 22 species recorded for the first time in the Hungarian fauna. PMID:23794928

  11. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    PubMed

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented.

  12. An annotated checklist of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles .

    PubMed

    Malumphy, Chris

    2014-07-31

    An annotated list of 83 scale insect species (Hemiptera: Sterorrhyncha: Coccoidea) recorded from Saint Lucia is presented, based on data gathered from UK quarantine interceptions, samples collected in an urban coastal habitat in the North West of the Island in 2013, and published records. Thirty-three species (40%) are recorded for the first time for the country, including Dysmicoccus joannesiae (Costa Lima), a South American mealybug, and Poliaspoides formosana (Takahashi), an Asian armoured scale insect pest of bamboo, which are new for the Caribbean region. The economic, environmental and social impacts caused by introduced exotic species of scale insect are discussed. Two predatory midges Diadiplosis ?coccidivora (Felt) and Diadiplosis multifila (Felt) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) are recorded for the first time from Saint Lucia. The latter species was observed causing 90% mortality of a large infestation of passion vine mealybug Planococcus minor (Maskell) on soursop fruit. 

  13. Chirality and bioactivity of the sex pheromone of Madeira mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsiao-Yung; Ko, Chi-Hung; Cheng, Chao-Chih; Su, Yu-Ting; Pola, Someshwar

    2011-06-01

    Two compounds (trans-1R,3R-chrysanthemyl R-2-methylbutanoate and R-lavandulyl R-2-methylbutanoate) identified from aeration extracts of virgin female Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were synthesized and tested in field bioassays in northern Taiwan over a 1-mo period. In total, 1,492 male P. madeirensis were captured in sticky traps. Our results showed that 1 microg of synthetic trans-1R,3R-chrysanthemyl R-2-methylbutanoate released from a plastic tube dispenser was attractive to the mealybugs. Different stereoisomers of chrysanthemyl 2-methylbutanoate also were tested. The insect-produced stereoisomer was the most attractive of all the isomers tested, and the stereochemistry of the acid moiety proved to be more critical than that of the alcohol moiety. The minor component found in extracts, R-lavandulyl R-2-methylbutanoate, alone was not attractive to male Madeira mealybugs nor did it act synergistically or additively with the main component.

  14. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Xie, Yingping; Xue, Jiaoliang; Fu, Xiaohong; Liu, Weimin

    2012-06-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy, we studied the structure of the integument and wax glands of the mealybug, Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). We observed the ultrastructure of four wax pores including trilocular, quinquelocular, and multilocular pores as well as tubular ducts, recording characteristics of their structure, size and distribution. We found that that the integument of the mealybug consists of three main layers-the procuticle, epidermis and basement membrane-and four sub-layers of the procuticle-the epicuticle, exocuticle, endocuticle and formation zone. The wax-secreting gland cells were closely arranged in epidermis. All of them were complex and composed of one central cell and two or more lateral cells. These complex cells possess a large common reservoir for collection and storage. Synthesized by the glandular cells, the wax is excreted outside integument through canals.

  15. Interaction between Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Sganzerla, Vânia Maria Ambrosi; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) is a soil scale that is considered the main pest of vineyards in Brazil. The ant Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is frequently found associated with this species of scale in infested areas. The effect of the presence of L. micans on the infestation and dispersal capacity of E. brasiliensis on vine roots was measured in a greenhouse, using Paulsen 1103 rootstock seedlings planted in simple and double "Gallotti Cages." Treatments measured were: infestation of roots with E. brasiliensis or L. micans, and infestation with both species together. In the experiment using simple Gallotti Cages, with E. brasiliensis associated with L. micans, higher mean numbers of cysts and ants per plant were recorded, a result significantly different from that found for infestation with scale only. When double Gallotti Cages were used, first-instar nymphs were transported between the cages. The results showed that L. micans transports and aids in the attachment of E. brasiliensis to vine plants.

  16. Fate of a genetically modified bacterium in foregut of glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Ramirez, José L; Perring, Thomas M; Miller, Thomas A

    2008-10-01

    Symbiotic control is a new strategy being investigated to prevent the spread of insect-transmitted pathogens by reducing vector competence. We are developing this strategy to reduce the spread of Xylella fastidiosa by Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) [formerly Homalodisca coagulata (Say)] (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), the glassy-winged sharpshooter. In this study, the fate of a transformed symbiotic bacterium, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans variety denitriicans (S1Axd), in the foregut of glassy-winged sharpshooter when fed on citrus (Citrus spp.) and grape (Vitris spp.) was assessed. TaqMan-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect and quantify bacterial cells remaining in the foregut at 0, 2, 4, 9, and 12 d after acquisition. S1Axd titer dropped rapidly by 2 d after acquisition, but in spite of this, at end of the 12-d experimental period, 45 and 38% of the glassy-winged sharpshooters retained the transformed bacteria, when fed on grape and citrus, respectively.

  17. Two species of symbiotic bacteria present in the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Wille, B D; Hartman, G L

    2009-02-01

    Aphids, which feed solely on plant phloem sap, have developed symbiotic associations with bacteria that provide them with the amino acids that are lacking in phloem. Three soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Mat samura) populations were screened for the presence of Buchnera aphidicola and three common species of secondary aphid symbionts (Serratia symbiotica, Hamiltonella defensa, and Regiella insecticola). Diagnostic polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing showed the presence of two species of symbiotic bacteria present in all three soybean aphid populations tested: B. aphidicola and Arsenophonus sp. Although Buchnera is commonly found in aphids, Arsenophonus is most commonly found in whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), making the soybean aphid unique among aphids that have been tested for the presence of Arsenophonus.

  18. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented. PMID:27081335

  19. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields

    PubMed Central

    Weiser Erlandson, L. A.; Obrycki, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m2 in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August–September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4–9.2 per 0.25 m2 in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields. PMID:26320260

  20. On dorsal prothoracic appendages in treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) and the nature of morphological evidence.

    PubMed

    Mikó, István; Friedrich, Frank; Yoder, Matthew J; Hines, Heather M; Deitz, Lewis L; Bertone, Matthew A; Seltmann, Katja C; Wallace, Matthew S; Deans, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    A spectacular hypothesis was published recently, which suggested that the "helmet" (a dorsal thoracic sclerite that obscures most of the body) of treehoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Membracidae) is connected to the 1st thoracic segment (T1; prothorax) via a jointed articulation and therefore was a true appendage. Furthermore, the "helmet" was interpreted to share multiple characteristics with wings, which in extant pterygote insects are present only on the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) thoracic segments. In this context, the "helmet" could be considered an evolutionary novelty. Although multiple lines of morphological evidence putatively supported the "helmet"-wing homology, the relationship of the "helmet" to other thoracic sclerites and muscles remained unclear. Our observations of exemplar thoraces of 10 hemipteran families reveal multiple misinterpretations relevant to the "helmet"-wing homology hypothesis as originally conceived: 1) the "helmet" actually represents T1 (excluding the fore legs); 2) the "T1 tergum" is actually the anterior dorsal area of T2; 3) the putative articulation between the "helmet" and T1 is actually the articulation between T1 and T2. We conclude that there is no dorsal, articulated appendage on the membracid T1. Although the posterior, flattened, cuticular evagination (PFE) of the membracid T1 does share structural and genetic attributes with wings, the PFE is actually widely distributed across Hemiptera. Hence, the presence of this structure in Membracidae is not an evolutionary novelty for this clade. We discuss this new interpretation of the membracid T1 and the challenges of interpreting and representing morphological data more broadly. We acknowledge that the lack of data standards for morphology is a contributing factor to misinterpreted results and offer an example for how one can reduce ambiguity in morphology by referencing anatomical concepts in published ontologies.

  1. Morphology of the mouthparts of the spittlebug Philagra albinotata Uhler (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea: Aphrophoridae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Pan, Liuxing; Zhang, Yalin; Dai, Wu

    2015-03-01

    Mouthparts associated with feeding behavior and feeding habits are important sensory and feeding structures in insects. To obtain a better understanding of feeding in Cercopoidea, the morphology of mouthparts of the spittlebug, Philagra albinotata Uhler was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The mouthparts of P. albinotata are of the typical piercing-sucking type found in Hemiptera, comprising a cone-shaped labrum, a tube-like, three-segmented labium with a deep groove on the anterior side, and a stylet fascicle consisting of two mandibular and two maxillary stylets. The mandibles consist of a dorsal smooth region and a ventral serrate region near the apical half of the external convex region, and bear five nodules or teeth on the dorsal external convex region on the distal extremity; these are regarded as unique features that distinguish spittlebugs from other groups of Hemiptera. The externally smooth maxillary stylets, interlocked to form a larger food canal and a smaller salivary canal, are asymmetrical only in the internal position of longitudinal carinae and grooves. One dendritic canal is found in each maxilla and one in each mandible. Two types of sensilla trichodea, three types of sensilla basiconica and groups of multi-peg structures occur in different locations on the labium, specifically the labial tip with two lateral lobes divided into anterior sensory fields with ten small peg sensilla arranged in a 5+4+1 pattern and one big peg sensillum, and posterior sensory fields with four sensilla trichodea. Compared with those of previously studied Auchenorrhyncha, the mouthparts of P. albinotata may be distinguished by the shape of the mandibles, the multi-peg structures and a tooth between the salivary canal and the food canal on the extreme end of the stylets. The mouthpart morphology is illustrated using scanning electron micrographs, and the taxonomic and putative functional significance of the different structures is briefly discussed.

  2. On Dorsal Prothoracic Appendages in Treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) and the Nature of Morphological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Mikó, István; Friedrich, Frank; Yoder, Matthew J.; Hines, Heather M.; Deitz, Lewis L.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Seltmann, Katja C.; Wallace, Matthew S.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    A spectacular hypothesis was published recently, which suggested that the “helmet” (a dorsal thoracic sclerite that obscures most of the body) of treehoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Membracidae) is connected to the 1st thoracic segment (T1; prothorax) via a jointed articulation and therefore was a true appendage. Furthermore, the “helmet” was interpreted to share multiple characteristics with wings, which in extant pterygote insects are present only on the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) thoracic segments. In this context, the “helmet” could be considered an evolutionary novelty. Although multiple lines of morphological evidence putatively supported the “helmet”-wing homology, the relationship of the “helmet” to other thoracic sclerites and muscles remained unclear. Our observations of exemplar thoraces of 10 hemipteran families reveal multiple misinterpretations relevant to the “helmet”-wing homology hypothesis as originally conceived: 1) the “helmet” actually represents T1 (excluding the fore legs); 2) the “T1 tergum” is actually the anterior dorsal area of T2; 3) the putative articulation between the “helmet” and T1 is actually the articulation between T1 and T2. We conclude that there is no dorsal, articulated appendage on the membracid T1. Although the posterior, flattened, cuticular evagination (PFE) of the membracid T1 does share structural and genetic attributes with wings, the PFE is actually widely distributed across Hemiptera. Hence, the presence of this structure in Membracidae is not an evolutionary novelty for this clade. We discuss this new interpretation of the membracid T1 and the challenges of interpreting and representing morphological data more broadly. We acknowledge that the lack of data standards for morphology is a contributing factor to misinterpreted results and offer an example for how one can reduce ambiguity in morphology by referencing anatomical concepts in published ontologies. PMID:22272287

  3. Ultrastructure of the salivary glands and bacteria-like structures in the gut and other organs of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of huanglongbing disease bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera, Liviidae) is the principal vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening, currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Liberibacter asiaticus is transmitted i...

  4. Establishment of papaya banker plant system for Parasitoid, Encarsia sophia (Hymenoptera: Aphilidae) against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse tomato production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and other vegetable crops worldwide. To combat this pest, a non-crop banker plant system was evaluated that employs a parasitoid, Encarsia sophia (Girault & Dodd) ...

  5. Deep characterization of the microbiomes of Calophya spp. (Hemiptera: Calophyidae) gall-inducing psyllids reveals the absence of plant pathogenic bacteria and three dominant endosymbionts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacteria associated with sap-feeding insect herbivores include not only symbionts that may increase their hosts’ fitness, but also harmful plant pathogens. Calophya spp., gall-inducing psyllids (Hemiptera: Calophyidae), are being investigated for their potential as biological control agents of the n...

  6. A study of the scale insect genera Puto Signoret (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Putoidae) and Ceroputo Šulc (Pseudococcidae) with a comparison to Phenacoccus Cockerell (Pseudococcidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For almost a century, the scale insect genus Puto Signoret (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) was considered to belong to the family Pseudococcidae (the mealybugs), but recent consensus accords Puto its own family, the Putoidae. This paper reviews the taxonomic history of Puto and family Putoida...

  7. Temperature-dependent development, survival and potential distribution of Ischnodemus variegatus (Hemiptera: Blissidae), an herbivore of West Indian marsh grass (Hymenachne amplexicaulis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bug Ischnodemus variegatus (Signnoret) (Hemiptera: Blissidae) is a fortuitous herbivore of the invasive grass Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Poaceae). This grass is a problematic weed in Florida and Australia but a highly valued forage in Mexico, Cuba and Venezuela. We studied the influence of nine c...

  8. Characterization of a recombinant Cathepsin B-Like cysteine peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae): A putative target control of citrus huanglongbing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) spread by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Among the control strategies for H...

  9. Knockdown and lethal effects of eight commercial nonconventional and two pyrethroid insecticides against moderately permethrin-resistant adult bed bugs, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is undergoing a rapid resurgence in the United States during the last decade which has created a notable pest management challenge largely because the pest has developed resistance against DDT, organophosphates, carbamates, and pyreth...

  10. Characterization of EPG waveforms for the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), on tea plants and their correlation with stylet activities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stylet probing activities of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were studied using the DC electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Seven different EPG waveforms (i.e., Np, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5 and E6) were identified and characterized on susceptible tea leav...

  11. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used ele...

  12. Geographic variation of Chaetosiphella stipae stipae Hille Ris Lambers, 1947 (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Chaitophorinae) and the potential impact of climate change on its habitat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper concentrates on Chaetosiphella stipae stipae Hille Ris Lambers (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Chaitophorinae) and determined all studied individuals of C. stipae stipae are one species, characterized by high morphological variability, reflected mostly in the variability of the number and the sha...

  13. A Multiyear Study on Seasonal Flight Activity Based on Captures of Southern Green Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blacklight Traps in Central Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is cosmopolitan in distribution and feeds on many cultivated plants. On cotton, it reduces yield and transmits fungal and bacterial pathogens that result in necrosis of the locule and boll rotting. Objectives of this study...

  14. Comparative Biology and Life Tables of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter Solanacearum’-Infected and -Free Bactericera Cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) on Potato and Silverleaf Nightshade

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), vectors the pathogen ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Several cultivated and wild plants are reported to serve as alternate hosts for B. cockerelli and Lso, including silverl...

  15. Potential of the bean alpha-amylase inhibitor alpha-AI-1 to inhibit alpha-amylase activity in true bugs(Hemiptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    True bugs (Hemiptera) are an important pest complex not controlled by Bt crops. An alternative source of resistance includes inhibitors of digestive enzymes. aAI-1, an a-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, has been shown to inhibit a-amylases of bruchid pests of grain legumes. Here we quantify t...

  16. Repellency of mustard (Brassica juncea) and arugula (Eruca sativa) plants, and plant oils against the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an economic complex of at least 36 cryptic species, comprising a highly polyphagous and serious pest of vegetable, fiber and ornamental crops. Sustainable alternative measures such as cultural controls can be effective ...

  17. A new species in the indigenous New Zealand soft scale insect genus Kalasiris Henderson & Hodgson (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) on Gahnia setifolia (Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Chris J; Gunawardana, D N; Richmond, J E

    2016-03-14

    The genus Kalasiris Henderson & Hodgson (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) is currently only known from New Zealand. The adult female and pupa of a new species, K. martini Hodgson & Richmond are described and illustrated below and the possible taxonomic relationships of the genus to other New Zealand genera are discussed.

  18. Bionomics of Oncometopia tucumana (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae), a sharpshooter from Argentina, with notes on its distribution, host plants and egg parasitoids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bionomics of the proconiine sharpshooter Oncometopia tucumana Schroder (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae) from northern Argentina is reported. Leafhoppers were monitored during the entire season in a citrus orchard in Horco Molle, Tucuman Province, and also sampled in Jujuy and Salta provinces. The sharpshoot...

  19. Characterization of twelve novel microsatellite markers of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) identified from next generation sequence data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a major pest of rice and has long-range migratory behavior in Asia. Microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) have been widely used to determine the origins and genetic diversity of insect pests. ...

  20. Predation of the newly invasive pest Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in soybean habitats adjacent to cotton by a complex of predators

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic insect found primarily on kudzu, but also on soybean, in the southeastern United States. We used molecular gut-content analysis to document predation on this pest by insects and spiders in soybean; and to d...

  1. Preliminary evaluation of Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae)as a predator of the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The predatory lady beetle Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent against the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants. Adult D. catalinae females were starved for ...

  2. The effect of the armored scale, Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on shoot growth of the invasive plant Arundo donax (Poaceae: Arundinoideae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, the effect of feeding by the armored scale, Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Leonardi, 1920) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on the growth of the plant Arundo donax L. (Poaceae) was evaluated under field conditions in its native range. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of R. donacis, a c...

  3. Impact of the Arundo scale Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on the weight of Arundo donax (Poaceae: Arundinoideae) rhizomes in Languedoc southern France and Mediterranean Spain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arundo donax L. (Poaceae) is native to Mediterranean Europe and invasive in the Rio Grande Basin of North America. Rhizomes from nine sites in France and Spain infested with a candidate control agent, the armoured scale Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) weighed 50% less than those fro...

  4. IPM of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) using trap and refuge crops within tomato fields in North Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Southern Green Stink Bug (SGSB), Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a serious insect pest of tomatoes and numerous vegetable and fruit plants in north Florida. We evaluated three trap crops and three refuge crops to investigate their potential to be used for IPM (Integrated Pest Manag...

  5. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) with oral rim ducts; description of a new genus and species from Turkey, and discussion of their higher classification within the Pseudococcidae.

    PubMed

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Szita, Éva

    2017-02-03

    A new monotypic mealybug genus with oral rim ducts, Bromusicoccus Kaydan gen. n. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae: Pseudococcinae), is described from Turkey. The higher classification of mealybug genera with oral rim tubular ducts worldwide is discussed and a key is provided to separate them.

  6. Effectiveness of glues for harmonic radar tag attachment on Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and their impact on adult survivorship and mobility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the effectiveness of three cyanoacrylate glues (trade names: Krazy, Loctite, and FSA) to securely attach harmonic radar tags on adult Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and quantified the effect of the radar tag attachment on insect survivorship and mobility. In the l...

  7. Interhaplotype fertility and host effects of potato and bittersweet nightshade on selected reproductive traits of three haplotypes of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a serious pest of solanaceous crops in North and Central America and New Zealand. This insect vectors the bacterium that causes zebra chip disease of potato. Four distinct genetic populations, or haplotypes, of B. cockerelli ha...

  8. Biostable and PEG polymer-conjugated insect pyrokinin analogs demonstrate antifeedant activity and induce high mortality in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pyrokinins are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). A series of biostable pyrokinin analogs based on the shared C-terminal pentapeptide core region were fed in solutions of artificial diet to the ...

  9. Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

  10. Survey of resistance to four insecticides and their associated mechanisms in different genotypes of the green peach aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Chile

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of agriculture worldwide that is particularly adept at evolving insecticide resistance very frequently develop insecticide resistance. Seven mechanisms that confer resistance to many insecticide types have been des...

  11. Can we predict brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) abundance in corn using previous pheromone trap capture and early season weather data?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious economic pest of corn production in the southern US. Scouting stink bugs in corn is time consuming and could be improved if scouts were aware of conditions that favored imminent stink bug infestations. Changes in seas...

  12. First record of the leafhopper genus Zyginopsis Ramakrishnan & Menon (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Erythroneurini) from China, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-08-04

    The erythroneurine leafhopper genus Zyginopsis Ramakrishnan & Menon (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) is reported for the first time from China, with descriptions and illustrations of two new species, Zyginopsis paraverticalis and Zyginopsis gracilis spp. nov., and one newly recorded species from China, Zyginopsis verticalis Ahmed n. rec. A key for identification of Chinese species (adult males) is provided.

  13. Injury to apples and peaches at harvest from feeding by Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs early and late in the season

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive species that has become an important orchard pest in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Adults and nymphs feed on tree fruit. Feeding injury from adults has been characterized but the injury from nymphs has not been examined system...

  14. Temporal and directional patterns of nymphal Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) movement on the trunk of selected wild and fruit tree hosts in the Mid-Atlantic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive and polyphagous herbivore that has been problematic in Mid-Atlantic fruit orchards, many of which are adjacent to woodlands containing its wild hosts. Our tree census in woodlands bordering 15 Mid-Atlantic apple orchards revealed 47 ...

  15. Mitochondrial DNA from Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Suggests Cryptic Speciation and Pinpoints the Source of the Introduction to Eastern North America

    Treesearch

    Nathan P. Havill; Michael E. Montgomery; Guoyue Yu; Shigehiko Shiyake; Adalgisa Caccone; Adalgisa Caccone

    2006-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an introduced pest of unknown origin that is causing severe mortality to hemlocks (Tsuga spp.) in eastern North America. Adelgids also occur on other Tsuga species in western North America and East Asia, but these trees are not significantly damaged. The purpose of this study is to use...

  16. Single and multiple in-season measurements as indicators of at-harvest cotton boll damage caused by verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability to monitor verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), and the progression of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., boll responses to feeding and associated cotton boll rot development provided opportunity to assess if a single in-season measurement had value in evaluati...

  17. Organization of the mitochondrial genomes of whiteflies, aphids, and psyllids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha)

    PubMed Central

    Thao, MyLo L; Baumann, Linda; Baumann, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Background With some exceptions, mitochondria within the class Insecta have the same gene content, and generally, a similar gene order allowing the proposal of an ancestral gene order. The principal exceptions are several orders within the Hemipteroid assemblage including the order Thysanoptera, a sister group of the order Hemiptera. Within the Hemiptera, there are available a number of completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes that have a gene order similar to that of the proposed ancestor. None, however, are available from the suborder Sternorryncha that includes whiteflies, psyllids and aphids. Results We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genomes of six species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid. Two species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid have mitochondrial genomes with a gene order very similar to that of the proposed insect ancestor. The remaining four species of whiteflies had variations in the gene order. In all cases, there was the excision of a DNA fragment encoding for cytochrome oxidase subunit III(COIII)-tRNAgly-NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3(ND3)-tRNAala-tRNAarg-tRNAasn from the ancestral position between genes for ATP synthase subunit 6 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5. Based on the position in which all or part of this fragment was inserted, the mitochondria could be subdivided into four different gene arrangement types. PCR amplification spanning from COIII to genes outside the inserted region and sequence determination of the resulting fragments, indicated that different whitefly species could be placed into one of these arrangement types. A phylogenetic analysis of 19 whitefly species based on genes for mitochondrial cytochrome b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, and 16S ribosomal DNA as well as cospeciating endosymbiont 16S and 23S ribosomal DNA indicated a clustering of species that corresponded to the gene arrangement types. Conclusions In whiteflies, the region of the mitochondrial genome

  18. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea) with new records and distribution data

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Masumeh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of Iran is present based mainly on the literature records since 1902. In total, 13 families and 275 species have been recorded and these are listed along with their locality data and host plants. The families are as follows: Asterolecaniidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae, Phoenicococcidae, Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae. The following ten species are recorded for the first time from Iran: Diaspidiotus lenticularis (Lindinger), Diaspidiotus wuenni (Lindinger), Fiorinia proboscidaria Green, Koroneaspis lonicerae Borchsenius, Eriococcus cingulatus Kiritchenko, Eriococcus pamiricus (Bazarov), Eriococcus reynei Schmutterer, Eriococcus sanguinairensis Goux and Eriococcus saxidesertus (Borchsenius) and Porphyrophora victoriae Jashenko. PMID:24163586

  19. First report of a mermithid nematode infecting the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stubbins, F L; Agudelo, P; Reay-Jones, F P F; Greene, J K

    2015-05-01

    Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) has become a pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.), in the United States. While several natural enemies of M. cribraria have been reported, our study is the first to report nematodes beneath the pleural membranes in the abdominal cavities of adults. Morphological and molecular analyses suggest this nematode belongs to the family Mermithidae. This first report of a nematode infection in M. cribraria adds to the current inventory of enemies attacking this insect. Our observations provide a basis for future research to examine the impact of nematodes on M. cribraria mortality and to investigate their capacity to reduce populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A new genus and species of tettigarctid cicada from the early Miocene of New Zealand: Paratettigarcta zealandica (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Tettigarctidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kaulfuss, Uwe; Moulds, Max

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of primitive cicada (Hemiptera: Tettigarctidae) is described from the early Miocene of southern New Zealand. Paratettigarcta zealandica gen. et sp. n. is the first cicada (Cicadoidea) fossil from New Zealand and exhibits wing venation patterns typical for the subfamily Tettigarctinae. It differs from other fossil taxa and the extant genus Tettigarcta in the early divergence of CuA2 from the nodal line in the forewing, its parallel-sided subcostal cell, the early bifurcation of vein M and long apical cells of the hindwing, and in wing pigmentation patterns. PMID:25829843

  1. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  2. [Triatoma delpontei Romaña & Abalos, 1947 (Hemiptera, Tratominae) in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul].

    PubMed

    Salvatella Agrelo, R; Basmadjian, Y; Rosa, R; Puime, A

    1993-01-01

    Triatoma delpontei (Romaña & Abalos, 1947) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) is an ornithophilic sylvatic with a particular association to the psittacid Myiopsitta monachus (Boaddert, 1783). It is found in the continental biogeographical province of the Chaco, where it inhabits the nests or M. monachus, in subtropical xerophytic forests. The authors report the first finding of T. delpontei in Brasil, in the "campanha" region of the State or Rio Grande do Sul (Barra do Quarai, Uruguaiana), on the right bank of the River Cuareim, not far from de Uruguayan border.

  3. A new genus and species of tettigarctid cicada from the early Miocene of New Zealand: Paratettigarctazealandica (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Tettigarctidae).

    PubMed

    Kaulfuss, Uwe; Moulds, Max

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of primitive cicada (Hemiptera: Tettigarctidae) is described from the early Miocene of southern New Zealand. Paratettigarctazealandica gen. et sp. n. is the first cicada (Cicadoidea) fossil from New Zealand and exhibits wing venation patterns typical for the subfamily Tettigarctinae. It differs from other fossil taxa and the extant genus Tettigarcta in the early divergence of CuA2 from the nodal line in the forewing, its parallel-sided subcostal cell, the early bifurcation of vein M and long apical cells of the hindwing, and in wing pigmentation patterns.

  4. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellieu, Louis; Sarrazin, Michaël; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2014-07-01

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  5. Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China, with the first record of whitefly host association (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are described from China, Baeoentedon balios Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Baeoentedon bouceki Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Baeoentedon virgatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Both female and male of Baeoentedon balios were reared from the whitefly Pealius spina (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the bodhi tree Ficus religiosa L. (Urticales: Moraceae). The male and the whitefly host association of Baeoentedon are recorded for the first time. A key is also provided to females of the world species of the genus.

  6. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Dellieu, Louis Sarrazin, Michaël Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2014-07-14

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  7. Two new species of Pleciobates (Hemiptera: Gerromorpha: Gerridae) from India, with a key to the species of Pleciobates.

    PubMed

    Jehamalar, E Eyarin; Chandra, Kailash; Zettel, Herbert; Basu, Srimoyee; Barman, Bijita; Gupta, Susmita; Subramanian, K A

    2014-09-24

    Two new species of water striders in the genus Pleciobates are described from India and compared with allied species. Pleciobates bengalensis Jehamalar, Basu & Zettel sp. nov. is described from the Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal and Pleciobates expositus Jehamalar, Chandra & Zettel sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Gerridae) is described from the Dhubri District, Assam. A key to the species of Pleciobates and a distribution map of the species of Pleciobates from India are provided. For the first time the genitalia of Pleciobates females are described in detail.

  8. Description of a new soft scale insect of the genus Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) from Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirotaka; Kondo, Takumasa

    2015-01-01

    A new soft scale (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) species, Pulvinariacaballeroramosae Tanaka & Kondo, sp. n., is described from specimens collected on twigs of Ficussoatensis Dugand (Moraceae) in Bogota, Colombia. The new species resembles Pulvinariadrymiswinteri Kondo & Gullan, described from Chile on Drimyswinteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Winteraceae), but differs in the distribution of preopercular pores on the dorsum, the presence of dorsal tubular ducts, dorsal microducts, and reticulation on the anal plates; and in its feeding habits, i.e., Pulvinariacaballeroramosae feeds on the twigs whereas Pulvinariadrymiswinteri feeds on the leaves of its host. A key to the Colombian species of Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti is provided.

  9. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea) with new records and distribution data.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Masumeh

    2013-01-01

    A list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of Iran is present based mainly on the literature records since 1902. In total, 13 families and 275 species have been recorded and these are listed along with their locality data and host plants. The families are as follows: Asterolecaniidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae, Phoenicococcidae, Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae. The following ten species are recorded for the first time from Iran: Diaspidiotus lenticularis (Lindinger), Diaspidiotus wuenni (Lindinger), Fiorinia proboscidaria Green, Koroneaspis lonicerae Borchsenius, Eriococcus cingulatus Kiritchenko, Eriococcus pamiricus (Bazarov), Eriococcus reynei Schmutterer, Eriococcus sanguinairensis Goux and Eriococcus saxidesertus (Borchsenius) and Porphyrophora victoriae Jashenko.

  10. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-05-26

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015).

  11. New Guinean Issidae: description of new taxa in a poorly known island fauna (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea).

    PubMed

    Gnezdilov, V M; Le Cesne, M; Soulier-Perkins, A; Bourgoin, T

    2015-01-05

    In the framework of the recent expedition results of "Our Planet Reviewed Papua-New-Guinea 2012-2013" we provide here the first Issidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea) fauna review of New Guinea with the description of three new taxa: one new genus Papunega Gnezdilov et Bourgoin gen. nov. with two new species: Papunega magnifacies Gnezdilov et Le Cesne, sp. nov. (type species), Papunega armocula Gnezdilov et Soulier-Perkins, sp. nov. Tetrica fasciatifrons Melichar, 1906 is transferred to the genus Papugena gen. nov. to become Papugena fasciatifrons (Melichar, 1906) comb. nov. New Guinean Issidae fauna now includes 7 genera and 16 species. 

  12. Study of the external female genitalia of 14 Rhodnius species (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) using scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, João Aristeu; Mendonça, Vagner José; Gardim, Sueli; de Carvalho, Danila Blanco; de Oliveira, Jader; Nascimento, Juliana Damieli; Pinotti, Heloisa; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Cilense, Mario; Galvão, Cleber; Barata, José Maria Soares

    2014-01-09

    Among the vectors of Chagas disease (Hemiptera: Reduviidae:Triatominae), there are eighteen Rhodnius species described and some are difficult to identify. The aim of this article is to contribute to the specific identification of fourteen Rhodnius spp. through morphological characters of the external female genitalia. Female abdomens were cut transversely. The specimens were then prepared for examination by using scanning electron microscopy. The careful examination of the dorsal, posterior and ventral sides revealed characteristics that allowed the identification of each of the fourteen species. The use of external female genitalia as characteristics are proposed as a tool for specifically identifying Rhodnius species, and an identification key for these species is presented.

  13. Bites caused by giant water bugs belonging to Belostomatidae family (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) in humans: a report of seven cases.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Vidal; Schwartz, Elisabeth F; Schwartz, Carlos Alberto; Carvalho, Lucélia Nobre

    2010-06-01

    We report 7 cases of patients bitten by giant water bugs, large predatory insects belonging to the Belostomatidae family (Hemiptera, Heteroptera). These insects have toxic saliva capable of provoking intense pain and paralysis in vertebrates. Victims experienced intense, excruciating pain and 1 manifested hypoesthesia in the forearm. Bites by Belostomatidae are often reported by clinicians working in areas where these insects live, but there are no detailed case reports in the medical literature. There are no specific treatment modalities known to be effective, making prevention an important strategy.

  14. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in Malaysia, with two new country records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartiami, Dewi; Watson, Gillian W.; Mohamad Roff, M. N.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    A survey of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking the national flower of Malaysia, Hibiscus rosa-sisnensis L. and Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) was conducted in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from January to March 2016. Adult females were mounted on microscope slides in Canada balsam. The five species identified were Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel & Miller. Two of these, the invasive species Ferrisia dasylirii and P. solenopsis were introduced and first recorded in Malaysia.

  15. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  16. Genetics, realized heritability and possible mechanism of chlorfenapyr resistance in Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Ullah, Saif; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2016-10-01

    Dusky cotton bug (DCB), Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera) is a serious pest of cotton and other malvaceous plants. Chlorfenapyr, a broad spectrum, N-substituted, halogenated pyrrole insecticide is used extensively to control many insect pests in cotton, including DCB. In this study, we investigated a field strain of DCB to assess its potential to develop resistance to chlorfenapyr. After six generations of continuous selection pressure with chlorfenapyr, DCB had a 7.24-fold and 149.06-fold resistance ratio (RR) at G1 and G6, respectively. The genetic basis of inheritance of chlorfenapyr resistance was also studied by crossing the chlorfenapyr selected (Chlorfenapyr-SEL) and laboratory population (Lab-PK). Results revealed an autosomal and incompletely dominant mode of inheritance for chlorfenapyr resistance in the Chlorfenapyr-SEL population of DCB. The results of the monogenic model test showed chlorfenapyr resistance was controlled by multiple genes. Estimated realized heritability for chlorfenapyr resistance in the tested DCB strain was 0.123. Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide and S, S, S-butyl phosphorotrithioate revealed chlorfenapyr resistance might be due to esterase activity. These results would be useful for devising an effective resistance management strategy against DCB.

  17. Insecticide resistance in field populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Houndété, Thomas A; Kétoh, Guillaume K; Hema, Omer S A; Brévault, Thierry; Glitho, Isabelle A; Martin, Thibaud

    2010-11-01

    The tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), has developed a high degree of resistance to several chemical classes of insecticides throughout the world. To evaluate the resistance status in West Africa, eight insecticides from different chemical families were tested using the leaf-dip method on four field populations collected from cotton in Benin, Togo and Burkina Faso. Some field populations showed a significant loss of susceptibility to pyrethroids such as deltamethrin [resistance ratio (RR) 3-5] and bifenthrin (RR 4-36), to organophosphates (OPs) such as dimethoate (RR 8-15) and chlorpyrifos (RR 5-7) and to neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (RR 7-8) and thiamethoxam (RR 3-7). Bemisia tabaci was also resistant to pymetrozine (RR 3-18) and to endosulfan (RR 14-30). The resistance of B. tabaci to pyrethroids and OPs is certainly due to their systematic use in cotton treatments for more than 30 years. Acetamiprid has been recently introduced for the control of whiteflies. Unfortunately, B. tabaci populations from Burkina Faso seem to be already resistant. Because cross-resistance between these compounds has never been observed elsewhere, resistance to neonicotinoids could be due to the presence of an invasive B. tabaci biotype recently detected in the region. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Susceptibility of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to Insecticides in Laboratory and Greenhouse Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, John C; Prabhaker, Nilima; Reed, Darcy A; Perring, Thomas M; Castle, Steven J; Huang, Ta-I

    2015-04-01

    Field-collected nymphs and adults of Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Penatatomidae) from three locations were evaluated for susceptibility to insecticides representing 10 classes of insecticide chemistry. Although relative susceptibilities differed between leaf-spray and leaf-dip Petri dish bioassays, consistently low LC50 values were determined for chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin. Fenpropathrin and methomyl had intermediate values. Susceptibility to dinotefuran varied depending on the bioassay, possibly owing to leaf substrates used in the two bioassays. In soil systemic bioassays, the LC50 value of dinotefuran was significantly greater than that of two other neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, and the anthranilic diamide, cyantraniliprole. Mortality and feeding damage of B. hilaris and plant growth on insecticide-treated plants in greenhouse trials were consistent with the laboratory bioassays; the best results were seen with bifenthrin, methomyl, and chlorpyrifos. Mortality to the neonicotinoids was not evident; however, feeding damage and plant growth responses on dinotefuran-treated plants damage were similar to the noninfested control. This highlights the apparent antifeedant properties of dinotefuran that may have prevented adults from injuring broccoli plants after exposure to foliar spray residues. Data presented serve as baseline susceptibilities that can be used to monitor for resistance development in field populations of B. hilaris.

  19. Diel activity and behavior of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on desert cole crops.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ta-I; Reed, Darcy A; Perring, Thomas M; Palumbo, John C

    2013-08-01

    Patterns of diel activity and behavior of the Bagrada bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), were investigated in a series of field and greenhouse experiments in Yuma, AZ. Adults of B. hilaris were monitored by on-site direct observation on broccoli and cauliflower plants in large-block experimental plots at various intervals throughout consecutive 24-h periods. In the field trials, mean number of B. hilaris adults differed among sampling times, with peak abundance observed consistently between 1300 and 1800 hours. There was a positive correlation between temperature and numbers ofB. hilaris adults in all fields, and a negative relationship between humidity and adult numbers in 7 of 12 fields. Significant relationships between temperature and B. hilaris numbers were revealed in regression models for all trials. Slopes were not significantly different among all broccoli blocks or in three of the four cauliflower fields. In greenhouse studies, mating occurred throughout the day but peaked between 1000 and 1600 hours. Females of B. hilaris caused more feeding damage than males on the first true leaf of broccoli, and additional differences in behavior between sexes were observed. Our results suggest that higher temperatures increase field activity and influence the behavior of adult B. hilaris, and temperature is a more reliable indicator to predict the activity of B. hilaris than other environmental parameters measured. The implications of these findings for developing monitoring and management programs for B. hilaris in cruciferous crops are discussed.

  20. Lyophilized artificial diet for rearing the Neotropical Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Agustín C.; da Rocha, Aline C. P.

    2016-01-01

    An artificial diet to mass-rear Euschistus heros (F. 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was developed in the laboratory. Biological studies were conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2°C), RH: 60 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Out of 13 diets tested, 2 diets (D9 and D11) were the most suitable. The artificial diets selected had the same composition (green beans, peanuts, sucrose, water, Nipagin, and sorbic acid) except for different antimicrobial agents (D11 has tetracycline, and D9 doesn’t). The 68% viability for the egg–adult period of insects reared on these lyophilized artificial diets (LAD) was almost twice as high as the 38% viability obtained with the natural diet. Although adults reared on LAD weighed 17% less than those reared on the natural diet, mean fecundity was higher than on the natural diet (282 eggs/female), reaching 430 eggs/female. The net reproductive rate (Ro) increased over the generations for the diets with lyophilized material and antimicrobial agents. The opposite occurred with the diet of lyophilized material without antimicrobial agents, showing that the insects either adapted or degenerated through generations. Lyophilized diets supported the production of E. heros through at least 10 generations, with no degeneration. PMID:27126964

  1. Taxonomic corrections to species of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) described by Carl Peter Thunberg.

    PubMed

    Kondorosy, Előd; Rédei, Dávid; Mejlon, Hans

    2014-07-22

    Types of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea) species described by Carl Peter Thunberg, deposited in the Museum of Evolution (formerly Zoologiska Institut), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, were reexamined and the taxonomic and nomenclatural problems that existed among those species discussed and resolved as required. Lectotypes are designated for Cimex caffer Thunberg, 1784, Lygaeus ater Thunberg, 1822, Lygaeus biguttatus Thunberg, 1822, and Pendulinus guttatus Thunberg, 1825. The lectotype of Pendulinus (now Metochus) guttatus is designated as neotype of Pendulinus (now Metochus) uniguttatus Thunberg, 1822; as a result the former name becomes junior objective synonym of the latter. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Lethaeus ater (Thunberg, 1822), new combination (from Lygaeus); Migdilybs biguttatus (Thunberg, 1822), new combination (from Lygaeus) = Migdilybs furcifer Hesse, 1925, new subjective synonym; Metochus uniguttatus (Thunberg, 1822) = Metochus bengalensis (Dallas, 1852), confirmed subjective synonym = Metochus yeh (Dohrn, 1860), confirmed subjective synonym; Raglius alboacuminatus (Goeze, 1778) = Cimex caffer Thunberg, 1874, confirmed subjective synonym. Lethaeus barberi Slater, 1964 does not belong to Lethaeus Dallas, 1852 but currently it cannot be placed with confidence in any existing genus. 

  2. Characterization and evolution of two bacteriome-inhabiting symbionts in cixiid planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Pentastirini).

    PubMed

    Bressan, Alberto; Arneodo, Joel; Simonato, Mauro; Haines, William P; Boudon-Padieu, Elisabeth

    2009-12-01

    Like other plant sap-sucking insects, planthoppers within the family Cixiidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) host a diversified microbiota. We report the identification and first molecular characterization of symbiotic bacteria in cixiid planthoppers (tribe: Pentastirini). Using universal eubacterial primers we first screened the eubacterial 16S rRNA sequences in Pentastiridius leporinus (Linnaeus) with PCR amplification, cloning, and restriction fragment analysis. We identified three main 16S rRNA sequences that corresponded to a Wolbachia bacterium, a plant pathogenic bacterium, and a novel gammaproteobacterial symbiont. A fourth bacterial species affiliated with 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' was detected in PCR assays using primers specific for the Bacteroidetes. Within females of two selected cixiid planthoppers, P. leporinus and Oliarus filicicola, fluorescence In situ hybridization analysis and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that 'Ca. Sulcia muelleri' and the novel gammaproteobacterial symbiont were housed in separate bacteriomes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both of these symbionts occurred in at least four insect genera within the tribe Pentastirini. 'Candidatus Purcelliella pentastirinorum' was proposed as the novel gammaproteobacterial symbiont.

  3. Host suitability and gas exchange response of grapevines to potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Lamp, William O; Miranda, Daniel; Culler, Lauren E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2011-08-01

    Although potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is highly polyphagous, classic host studies do not recognize grapevines (Vitis spp.), as suitable hosts. Recently, injury has been reported and reproduction documented within grape vineyards, suggesting a host expansion for the leafhopper. To document this apparent expansion in host use, we determined whether grape plants were suitable hosts for potato leafhopper reproduction, measured the consequence of feeding injury on gas exchange rates of grape leaves, and compared the susceptibility to feeding injury among cultivars. We found that potato leafhopper adults survived equally well on grape (Vitis vinifera L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). The total number of offspring was greater on fava bean but did not differ between alfalfa and grape. Injury to grapevines was assessed by measuring gas exchange responses of leaves in field cages and in greenhouse tests. We found marginally significant declines in photosynthesis and transpiration rates in the field (9.6 and 13.2%, respectively), and much stronger effects in greenhouse tests (ranging between 22 and 52%). Our results verify that Vitis is a suitable host, and that potato leafhopper is capable of injuring its gas exchange physiology. We discuss possible explanations for the host expansion, and its potential to damage commercial grapevines.

  4. Host Preference of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) on Selected Edible Beans and Soybean.

    PubMed

    Blount, J L; Buntin, G D; Sparks, A N

    2015-06-01

    Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) is an Old World pest of legumes in Asia. Since its 2009 discovery in Georgia, it has become an economic pest of soybeans in the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to determine the host preference of M. cribraria on edible legumes that might incur economic damage from injury of this pest. From 2012 to 2013 choice, no-choice, and field trials were conducted to evaluate the host suitability of several beans of commercial interest including pinto bean, lima bean, winter pea, and black-eyed pea. Choice and no-choice studies were conducted under greenhouse conditions. Plants in greenhouse trials were infested with adults and egg masses collected from kudzu and soybean and monitored for ∼2 wk. Field trials were allowed to be infested by naturally occurring M. cribraria populations. Sweep and whole plant counts of adults, egg masses, and nymphs were used to quantify field infestations. The legume crops found to be suitable developmental hosts are soybean, edamame, and pigeon pea. Low levels of development were seen on fava bean and none on the remaining entries. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Factors affecting water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae) mercury concentrations in lotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, T.D.; Kidd, K.A.; Cunjak, R.A.; Arp, P.A.

    2009-07-15

    Water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae) have been considered as a potential sentinel for mercury (Hg) contamination of freshwater ecosystems, yet little is known about factors that control Hg concentrations in this invertebrate. Striders were collected from 80 streams and rivers in New Brunswick, Canada, in August and September of 2004 through 2007 to assess the influence of factors such as diet, water chemistry, and proximity to point sources on Hg concentrations in this organism. Higher than average Hg concentrations were observed in the southwest and Grand Lake regions of the province, the latter being the location of a coal-fired power plant that is a source of Hg (similar to 100 kg annually), with elevated Hg concentrations in the lichen Old Man's Beard (Usnea spp.) in its immediate vicinity. Across all streams, pH and total organic carbon of water were relatively weak predictors of strider Hg concentrations. Female striders that were larger in body size than males had significantly lower Hg concentrations within sites, suggestive of growth dilution. There was no relationship between percent aquatic carbon in the diet and Hg concentrations in striders. For those striders feeding solely on terrestrial carbon, Hg concentrations were higher in animals occupying a higher trophic level. Mercury concentrations were highly variable in striders collected monthly over two growing seasons, suggesting short-term changes in Hg availability. These measurements highlight the importance of considering both deposition and postdepositional processes in assessing Hg bioaccumulation in this species.

  6. Filling dynamics of the Brindley's glands in the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Palottini, Florencia; González, Andrés; Manrique, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The filling dynamics of exocrine defensive glands is an important component of the defensive capacity of an insect in its natural environment. We studied the filling state and reloading rate of the Brindley's glands in the haematophagous Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Quantitative analyses of isobutyric acid, the main secretion component, were carried out with glands dissected from adults under different scenarios of development, number of discharging events and feeding conditions. The alarm-pheromone function of the gland secretion was also assessed in bioassays with conspecific nymphs. Although pharate adults have their glands completely developed, these were not full until imaginal ecdysis. If kept undisturbed, the adults maintained a constant gland load, and discharged about 75% of the gland contents upon one disturbance event. While the glands can be discharged several times, full replenishing was not complete after one week, unless the insect had access to food. The escape behavior of nymphs in bioassays correlated with the chemical analyses, with nymphs showing significant avoidance only toward gland discharges from undisturbed or disturbed/fed adults. The results are discussed in reference to the feeding frequency and gregarious behavior of T. infestans under natural conditions, which suggest a relevant role of the filling dynamics of the Brindley's glands in the intraspecific communication of the insect.

  7. The Hemiptera (Insecta) of Canada: Constructing a Reference Library of DNA Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Gwiazdowski, Rodger A.; Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, H. Eric L.; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcode reference libraries linked to voucher specimens create new opportunities for high-throughput identification and taxonomic re-evaluations. This study provides a DNA barcode library for about 45% of the recognized species of Canadian Hemiptera, and the publically available R workflow used for its generation. The current library is based on the analysis of 20,851 specimens including 1849 species belonging to 628 genera and 64 families. These individuals were assigned to 1867 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), sequence clusters that often coincide with species recognized through prior taxonomy. Museum collections were a key source for identified specimens, but we also employed high-throughput collection methods that generated large numbers of unidentified specimens. Many of these specimens represented novel BINs that were subsequently identified by taxonomists, adding barcode coverage for additional species. Our analyses based on both approaches includes 94 species not listed in the most recent Canadian checklist, representing a potential 3% increase in the fauna. We discuss the development of our workflow in the context of prior DNA barcode library construction projects, emphasizing the importance of delineating a set of reference specimens to aid investigations in cases of nomenclatural and DNA barcode discordance. The identification for each specimen in the reference set can be annotated on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD), allowing experts to highlight questionable identifications; annotations can be added by any registered user of BOLD, and instructions for this are provided. PMID:25923328

  8. Effects of selected fertilizers on the life history of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B.

    PubMed

    England, K M; Sadof, C S; Cañnas, L A; Kuniyoshi, C H; Lopez, R G

    2011-04-01

    We tested the effects among a purportedly sustainable water-soluble fertilizer, a conventional water-soluble fertilizer, an alternation of these, a controlled-release fertilizer, and a clear water control on the life-history traits of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae; =Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) biotype B reared on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotzch). Free amino acids in petioles were measured to estimate plant nutrient assimilation and phloem nutritional quality for B. tabaci biotype B. The sustainable fertilizer produced plants with the highest concentration of amino acids. In contrast, fecundity of whiteflies was lowest in plants treated with the sustainable fertilizer and the water control. The relationship between total amino acids in phloem and survival was significantly quadratic, with the highest survival at intermediate levels. Fecundity, however, was negatively correlated with total amino acid content of the maternal host plant. Variation in total amino acid concentration in petioles of plants treated within fertilizer treatments makes it difficult to predict whether a particular fertilizer will produce plants with enough amino acids to deleteriously affect both survivorship and fecundity and yet yield a plant of good quality. Despite this limitation, we can conclude that the use of this sustainable fertilizer will not cause increases in whitefly populations relative to plants fertilized with water-soluble and slow-release fertilizers that deliver the same level of nitrogen to the plant.

  9. Impact of Feeding on Contaminated Prey on the Life Parameters of Nesidiocoris Tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Sánchez-Ramos, Ismael; Viñuela, Elisa; Medina, Pilar; Adán, Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide selectivity to natural enemies is an important concern in integrated pest management programs. Although there is a wide range of information concerning pesticide lethal and sublethal effects on contaminated surfaces, little is known when the route of exposure occurs at a trophic level. This study evaluates this route of pesticide intake on the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) for the first time. Under laboratory conditions, prey treated with six insecticides (flubendiamide, spirotetramat, deltamethrin, flonicamid, metaflumizone, and sulfoxaflor) were offered to N. tenuis adults for 3 days. Mortality (24, 48, and 72 h after treatment), offspring production (third until eighth day) and longevity were documented. Metaflumizone and sulfoxaflor were classified as moderately harmful products because although the percentage of mortality was only 28 and 36%, respectively, both products caused a severe decrease in offspring production and longevity. Flonicamid and flubendiamide were classified as slightly harmful products; although they did not have a lethal effect, sublethal impact was important on the parameters studied. Spirotetramat and deltamethrin were insecticides categorized as harmless. This information could be useful for selecting the most appropriate insecticides to control pests in tomato crops in which N. tenuis is a relevant biological control agent. PMID:27694345

  10. Ecology and Management of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Southeastern Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Sriyanka

    2016-01-01

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive exotic pest of soybeans that has been present in the southeastern United States since 2009 and has been rapidly spreading through soybean-producing states. Their primary reproductive hosts in the United States are soybean, kudzu, pigeon pea, black eye pea, lima bean, pinto bean, wisteria, white sweet clover, white clover, red clover, alfalfa, perennial peanut, and American joint vetch. In soybeans, the kudzu bug feeds on vascular fluids at the stem, petiole, and nodes, causing yield losses of up to 60%. The current management recommendation for this pest includes spraying of pyrethroids such as bifenthrin, but this method is not environmentally friendly, as this negatively impacts beneficial insect populations. Sustainable management tactics, including the development of economic thresholds for insecticide sprays, assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of this pest, manipulating cultivation practices, use of biological control, and host plant resistance, are currently being explored. We present an overview of the ecology of the kudzu bug in soybeans and available management tactics to assist with the management of this potentially devastating pest of soybeans as it spreads westward. PMID:27812397

  11. Effect of vermicompost and cucumber cultivar on population growth attributes of the melon aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Razmjou, J; Mohammadi, M; Hassanpour, M

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide, the developing industry of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in greenhouses is threatened by damage from sucking pests, especially aphids. Among these, the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most serious. We tested the effect of two cucumber cultivars ('Royal' and'Storm') and three vermicompost concentrations (0 [control], 20, and 30%) in field soil on the development and fecundity rates of A. gossypii, by using a randomized complete block design with four replicates as a factorial experiment. The developmental times of nymphs reared on plants grown into the three vermicompost concentrations ranged from 5.5 (0%) to 8.7 (30%) d (on Storm) and from 4.3 (0%) to 7 (30%) d (on Royal). The developmental time of melon aphid's nymphs was greatest on plants grown in the culture medium with 30% vermicompost rate and least on plants reared in the soil without vermicompost. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r,,) of A. gossypii ranged from 0.204 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil amended with 30% vermicompost rate (on Storm seedlings) to 0.458 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil without vermicompost (on Royal seedlings). Accordingly, our findings confirm that a combination of a low level of vermicompost and a partially resistant cucumber cultivar might play an important role in managing this aphid on cucumbers in greenhouses.

  12. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    PubMed

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management.

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The, Doan Thi; Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao; An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instars

  14. Geographic variation on biological parameters of Meccus picturatus (Usinger), 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; del Toro-González, Ana Karen; Ventura-Anacleto, Luis Ángel; Montañez-Valdez, Oziel D

    2015-06-01

    The biological parameters related to the life cycles of three populations of Meccus picturatus (Usinger) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae), were evaluated. A cohort of each of three populations from geographically isolated localities in western Mexico was maintained under similar laboratory conditions, after which all three populations were compared to each other. In each cohort, 50.9 to 72.1% of nymphs completed the cycle. The average time from N1 to adult was approximately 175 days and different for the three studied cohorts. The number of blood meals between molts varied from one to three. The hatching rates as well as the fecundity per female per day were different among the three studied populations. Our results show that the three isolated populations are statistically different in some parameters from each other, which points to the importance of studying the biological characteristics of local populations of triatomines for estimating their capacity of transmitting T. cruzi to reservoir hosts.

  15. An Early Holocene Record of Cimex (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) From Western North America.

    PubMed

    Adams, Martin E; Jenkins, Dennis L

    2017-04-04

    The subfossil remains of 14 cimicids (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) were recovered during archaeological investigations of the Paisley Five Mile Point Cave site (35LK3400), an exceptionally well-dated (n = 229 radiocarbon dates) late Pleistocene-early Holocene rock shelter site in south-central Oregon. Nine of the specimens have been assigned to three modern species of Nearctic Cimicidae-Cimex antennatus Usinger & Ueshima, Cimex latipennis Usinger & Ueshima, and Cimex pilosellus (Horváth)-whereas the remaining five individuals were too fragmentary to positively identify. The chronology of the insect assemblage puts one specimen at circa 5,100 calibrated years before present (cal. yr BP), and the remaining 13 range in age from 9,400 to almost 11,000 cal. yr BP. Although fossil and subfossil cimicid remains have been recovered at other archaeological sites, the fossil record for bed bugs is largely undocumented. The Paisley Caves specimens thus far represent the oldest remains of the genus in probable contact with humans on record. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Inter- and intraspecific variation in defensive compounds produced by five neotropical stink bug species (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Pareja, Martín; Borges, Miguel; Laumann, Raúl A; Moraes, Maria C B

    2007-07-01

    The differences in composition of defensive secretions between nymphs, adult males and adult females of Chinavia impicticornis (=Acrosternum impicticorne), Chinavia ubica (=Acrosternum ubicum), Euschistus heros, Dichelops melacanthus and Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) were analysed within and between species using compositional log-ratio statistics and canonical variates analysis. Differences in composition between nymphs, males and females were found for all species, as well as when all species were pooled. In particular, tetradecanal appears to be a predominantly nymphal compound in D. melacanthus, E. heros and P. guildinii. In the two Chinavia species 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and an unknown compound were more dominant in nymphs. The interspecific analysis revealed a good separation of defensive compounds according to their taxonomic relationship. Thus, the two Chinavia species grouped together, with (E)-2-decenal and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, contributing to this separation. The other three species also differed from each other, with (E)-2-octenal associated to D. melacanthus, (E)-2-hexenal to P. guildinii and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and tetradecanal to E. heros. The pooled analysis of stage ignoring species revealed tetradecanal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-decenal (tentative identification) strongly associated to nymphs. Thus, there are predictable differences between stages, and many of the differences are conserved between species. Consideration of these differences could prove to be important in understanding stink bug-natural enemy interactions, and in optimising biocontrol efforts.

  17. Behavioral model for Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae): optimization of host plant utilization and management implications.

    PubMed

    Mizell, R F; Tipping, C; Andersen, P C; Brodbeck, B V; Hunter, W B; Northfield, T

    2008-10-01

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a xylophagous leafhopper native to the southeastern United States and northern Mexico, with recent introductions into California, Arizona, French Polynesia, and Hawaii. It is a primary vector of the xylem-limited bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., the causative agent of Pierce's disease of grape, citrus variegated chlorosis, phony peach, and numerous leaf scorch diseases. H. vitripennis uses several hundred species of host plants for feeding, development, and reproduction. Variation in host utilization allows H. vitripennis to respond to diurnal and seasonal changes in its nutrient-poor food source, xylem fluid, as well as changing nutritional requirements of each leafhopper developmental stage. Here we provide a conceptual model that integrates behavior, life history strategies, and their associated risks with the nutritional requirements of adult and nymphal stages of H. vitripennis. The model is a useful heuristic tool that explains patterns of host plant use, describes insect behavior and ecology, suggests new associations among the ecological components, and most importantly, identifies and supports the development of suppression strategies for X. fastidiosa aimed at reducing vector populations through habitat manipulation.

  18. Species clarification of Isaria isolates used as biocontrol agents against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gallou, Adrien; Serna-Domínguez, María G; Berlanga-Padilla, Angélica M; Ayala-Zermeño, Miguel A; Mellín-Rosas, Marco A; Montesinos-Matías, Roberto; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C

    2016-03-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi belonging to the genus Isaria (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) are promising candidates for microbial control of insect pests. Currently, the Mexican government is developing a biological control program based on extensive application of Isaria isolates against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), a vector of citrus huanglongbing disease. Previous research identified three promising Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307; tentatively identified as Isaria fumosorosea) from Mexico. The goal of this work was to obtain a complete morphological and molecular characterization of these isolates. Comparative analysis of morphology established that the isolates showed similar characteristics to Isaria javanica. Multi-gene analysis confirmed the morphological identification by including the three isolates within the I. javanica clade. Additionally, this work demonstrated the misidentifications of three other Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 310 and 324: I. javanica, formerly I. fumosorosea; CHE-CNRCB 393: I. fumosorosea, formerly Isaria farinosa), underlying the need for a full and correct characterization of an isolate before developing a biological control program. Finally, the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) genotyping method revealed that the CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307 isolates belong to three different genotypes. This result indicates that ISSR markers could be used as a tool to monitor their presence in field conditions. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Martin M; Simons, Nadja K; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H.O; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience. PMID:25977817

  20. Impact of Nosema (Microsporidia) infection and fumagillin treatment on Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    PubMed

    Musser, Fred R; Knighten, Kathy S; Self, Sarah R

    2012-10-01

    A consistent supply of healthy tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae), is necessary for the development of novel management strategies targeting this pest. After being in culture for several years, a substantial portion of a tarnished plant bug colony was found to be infected with a Nosema (Microsporidia) species. Studies were subsequently undertaken to evaluate the impact of Nosema infection on tarnished plant bug productivity and to test the efficacy of fumagillin to treat this infection. Using buffalo black stain, infections could not be reliably detected in adult tarnished plant bugs until adults were 6-8 days post eclosion. Nosema infections reduced adult longevity and fecundity. Maximum fecundity was restored using a concentration of 16.8 ppm fumagillin while maximum longevity for females was at a concentration of 33.6 ppm fumagillin incorporated into the tarnished plant bug diet. Minimum infection scores were obtained at 67.2 ppm, the highest concentration tested. A field survey of tarnished plant bugs in Mississippi found Nosema infections in 3% of wild tarnished plant bugs.

  1. Biology and life table parameters of Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on cauliflower cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Fatemeh; Abbasipour, Habib; Askarianzadeh, Alireza; Hassanshahi, Golamhossein; Saeedizadeh, Ayatallah

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the biology and fertility life table parameters of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), were studied on cauliflower leaves, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), of the cultivars Smilla, Snow mystique, White cloud, Buris, Galiblanka, Snow crown, SG, and Tokita. This study was conducted under controlled conditions: 25 ± 2°C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity (RH), and 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiods. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the different growth stages and the mean number of laid nymphs. Further, the maximum and minimum growth periods were observed on Galiblanka and Buris cultivars, respectively. The shortest nymphal instar growth period was observed on the Smilla cultivar (6.70 d), and the longest lifespan was seen on the White cloud (8.10 d). The Smilla cultivar (39%), in an adult emergence stage, and the SG (88%) revealed the lowest and highest rates of survival, respectively. Aphids reared on the Smilla cultivar were found to have increased due to the high intrinsic (r(m)) and finite (λ) rate of increase and the low doubling time (DT). The results indicated that the application of cultivars affecting adult reproductive parameters could be a good solution to cabbage aphid control management. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  2. Role of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its secondary hosts in plum pox virus propagation.

    PubMed

    Manachini, B; Casati, P; Cinanni, L; Bianco, P

    2007-08-01

    Plum pox virus (family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus, PPV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of plants in the genus Prunus, particularly Prunus persica L. The role of the Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as a vector of PPV-M, and its role in spreading PPV-M, was investigated. PPV-M-infected peach trees were used as inoculum sources, and transmission to 15 herbaceous species commonly present in and around peach orchards was evaluated. The presence of PPV-M in secondary hosts after aphid transmission was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests. The results indicate that Saponaria ocymoides L., Pisum sativum L., Trifolium repens L., Trifolium pratense L., Lepidium sativum L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Centaurea cyanus L., Bellis perennis L., Papaver rhoeas L., and Zinnia elegans L. became infected. Although Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley, Taraxacum officinale L., Achillea millefolium L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., and Linum rubrum L. did not become infected, they are hosts of M. persicae. Among the 10 positive species that were infected, the species most common in peach orchards, T. pratense, T. repens, B. perennis, and M. chamomilla, were used as source plants for the transmission studies to the peach tree. Our study reveals the ability of M. persicae to transmit PPV-M from herbaceous hosts to peach trees, describes PPV-M symptoms in herbaceous species, and discusses the role of M. persicae and its hosts as a source of PPV-M in peach orchards.

  3. Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), defend Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) against its natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aiming; Lu, Yongyue; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2013-04-01

    Mutualism is a common and important ecological phenomenon characterized by beneficial interaction between two species. Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, tend honeydew-producing hemipteran insects and reduce the activity of these insects' enemies. Ant-hemipteran interactions frequently exert positive effects on the densities of hemipterans. We tested the hypothesis that ant tending can increase the densities of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and reduce the densities of the mealybug's predatory and parasitic enemies, the lady beetle, Menochilus sexmaculata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the parasitoid wasp, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). We found that more ants foraged on mealybug-infested hibiscus plants than on mealybug-free plants. The number of foraging ants on plants infested with high densities of mealybugs (62.5 ants per plant) was nearly six times that on mealybug-free plants (10.2 ants per plant). Experiment results showed that ant tending significantly increased the survival of mealybugs: if predatory and parasitic enemies were present, the survival of mealybugs tended by fire ants was higher than that in the absence of tending ants. Furthermore, this tending by fire ants significantly decreased the survival of lady beetle larvae. However, no apparent effect was observed on the survival of parasitoid.

  4. Two Pests Overlap: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Use of Fruit Exposed to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Woltz, J Megan; Wiman, Nik G; Lee, Jana C

    2017-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), are global economic pests that may co-occur on small fruits. We investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys affected subsequent host use by D. suzukii. Laboratory no-choice and choice tests presented D. suzukii with H. halys-fed and unfed raspberries and blueberries immediately or 3 d after H. halys feeding. Resulting D. suzukii eggs, or larvae and pupae, were counted. The number of D. suzukii immatures among fed and unfed fruit was not significantly different in lab studies. There was no relationship between the intensity of H. halys feeding, as estimated by the number of stylet sheaths, and D. suzukii oviposition on blueberry. Lastly, field studies compared D. suzukii infestation between H. halys-fed and unfed raspberries. Raspberries were previously exposed to H. halys for 3 d or simultaneously exposed to both pests for 7 d. Natural infestation by D. suzukii in the field was similar among raspberries previously or simultaneously exposed to H. halys compared to control fruit. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Density and Egg Parasitism of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Elderberry and Dispersal Into Crops

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, P. Glynn; Cottrell, Ted E.

    2016-01-01

    Chinavia hilaris (Say), Euschistus servus (Say), Euschistus tristigmus (Say), and Thyanta custator custator (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are serious pests of crops in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning their dispersal from noncrop hosts in woodlands into crops. This 2-yr study was conducted to investigate whether elderberry [Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli] in woodlands serves as a source of stink bugs dispersing into adjacent crops and to examine parasitism of C. hilaris and E. servus eggs on this plant. Elderberry was a reproductive host for each of the four stink bug species; females oviposited on plants with subsequent nymphs feeding on elderberry and developing into adults. Anastatus mirabilis (Walsh & Riley) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), Anastatus reduvii (Howard), and Trissolcus edessae Fouts (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) were prevalent egg parasitoids of C. hilaris but A. reduvii was the prevalent parasitoid of E. servus. Newly developed stink bug adults were first detected on elderberry around mid-July. Then in late July and early August, as elderberry fruit senesced and cotton bolls became available, stink bugs began dispersing from elderberry into cotton based on recapture of stink bugs on cotton that had previously been marked on elderberry. In addition, in 2015, density of C. hilaris, E. servus, and E. tristigmus was higher in cotton with elderberry than in cotton without it. Over the study, economic threshold was reached for four of seven cotton fields. Elimination of elderberry in woodlands adjacent to cotton may be a viable management tactic for control of stink bugs in cotton. PMID:27773875

  6. Movement, toxicity, and persistence of imidacloprid in seedling Tabasco pepper infested with Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Diaz, Francisco J; McLeod, Paul

    2005-12-01

    Application of imidacloprid to the soil in which Tabasco pepper, Capsicum frutescens L., seedlings were growing was highly effective against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). In just 48 h after the soil drench, aphid numbers on treated plants declined from 292.1 to 33.0 per plant, a reduction of 89%. By 72 and 96 h after the application, the reductions were 97 and 100%, respectively. Reductions in green peach aphid numbers also indicated that imidacloprid readily moved throughout the Tabasco pepper plant. Although, initial green peach aphid reductions at 24 and 48 h after imidacloprid application to soil, were greater on the lower leaves than on the upper leaves, by 72 h toxicity was high throughout the plant. At 48 h, overall green peach aphid reduction on seedlings grown in wet soil was significantly higher than that on plants growing in the drier soil. Regardless of soil moisture or leaf location, no live green peach aphids were detected on treated seedlings after 96 h. After the initial uptake period, toxicity to green peach aphid remained high for 5 wk. Under Tabasco pepper production conditions in Central America, the greatest need for aphid management is just after transplanting. Imidacloprid soil drenches before transplanting should offer the Tabasco pepper producer an extended period of aphid-free production.

  7. Biology of rice bug Leptocorisa oratorius (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Alydidae), population change and alternative host plants.

    PubMed

    Rattanapun, W

    2013-01-01

    Leptocorisa oratorius (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Alydidae) is a major rice pest which feeds on the sap of stems and rice seeds. Some graminaceous weed species serve as an alternative host of L. oratorius causing outbreaks throughout the rice growing season. Population changes of L. oratorius during both rice growing seasons - wet-season rice and dry-season rice - including the influence of alternative host, barnyard grass Echinochloa crus-galli (Graminaceae) on the development of L. oratorius was studied. Results presented that L. oratorius was the dominant pest species during the late phase of rice growth. Adults of L. oratorius started their migrations to wet-season rice at the vegetative stage of rice growth, while they migrated to dry-season rice at the repropuctive stage of rice growth. Leptocorisa oratorius breds rapidly in rice fields. Meanwhile, other adults migrated to the rice field. The population of adults and nymphs significantly increased from the reproductive stage to grain formation and ripening stage in both rice growing seasons. The population of nymphs was greater than adults but not significantly different in their number of individuals. Leptocorisa oratorius had one generation in each rice growing season. The results of the host plant study indicated that L oratorius developed completely in barnyard grass E. crus-galli as well as rice Oriza sativa (Graminaceae). However, L. oratorius preferred rice to barnyard grass for feeding and oviposition.

  8. Ecology and Management of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Southeastern Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Sriyanka; Reisig, Dominic D

    2016-01-01

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive exotic pest of soybeans that has been present in the southeastern United States since 2009 and has been rapidly spreading through soybean-producing states. Their primary reproductive hosts in the United States are soybean, kudzu, pigeon pea, black eye pea, lima bean, pinto bean, wisteria, white sweet clover, white clover, red clover, alfalfa, perennial peanut, and American joint vetch. In soybeans, the kudzu bug feeds on vascular fluids at the stem, petiole, and nodes, causing yield losses of up to 60%. The current management recommendation for this pest includes spraying of pyrethroids such as bifenthrin, but this method is not environmentally friendly, as this negatively impacts beneficial insect populations. Sustainable management tactics, including the development of economic thresholds for insecticide sprays, assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of this pest, manipulating cultivation practices, use of biological control, and host plant resistance, are currently being explored. We present an overview of the ecology of the kudzu bug in soybeans and available management tactics to assist with the management of this potentially devastating pest of soybeans as it spreads westward.

  9. Binomial sequential sampling plan for hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) sistens infesting individual eastern hemlock trees.

    PubMed

    Fidgen, Jeffrey G; Legg, David E; Salom, Scott M

    2006-08-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an exotic insect pest that is killing eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, and Carolina hemlock, Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann, in the eastern United States. We used the sequential interval procedure to develop a binomial sequential sampling plan for A. tsugae sistens on individual eastern hemlock trees that uses nondestructive sampling of new shoots. The actual a (type I) and beta (type II) error rates were essentially 5 and 10%, respectively. Tallies of new shoots infested by at least one A. tsugae sistens were compared with stop values for thresholds of 10 and 30% of new hemlock shoots infested. Twenty to 80 new shoots had to be examined per tree to render a low, high, or indeterminate classification, which took < 2 min per tree regardless of the threshold used. This plan should be an efficient and cost-effective tool in the management of A. tsugae infestations on individual, high-value eastern hemlock trees.

  10. Dose-response relationships of clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam to Blissus occiduus (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    PubMed

    Stamm, M D; Baxendale, F P; Heng-Moss, T M; Siegfried, B D; Blankenship, E E; Gaussoin, R E

    2011-02-01

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber (Hemiptera: Blissidae), has emerged as a serious pest of buffalograss, Buchlod dactyloides (Nuttall) Engelmann. In general, neonicotinoid insecticides effectively control a variety of turfgrass insects, particularly phloem-feeding pests. However, because of well documented inconsistencies in control, these compounds are generally not recommended for chinch bugs. This study was designed to document the contact and systemic toxicity of three neonicotinoid insecticides (clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to B. occiduus. In contact bioassays, thiamethoxam was approximately 20-fold less toxic than clothianidin or imidacloprid to B. occiduus nymphs and three-fold more toxic to adults. In adult systemic bioassays, thiamethoxam was up to five-fold more toxic than clothianidin or imidacloprid. Interestingly, thiamethoxam was significantly more toxic to adults than to nymphs in both contact and systemic bioassays. This was not observed with clothianidin or imidacloprid. Bifenthrin, used for comparative purposes, exhibited 1844-fold and 122-fold increase in toxicity to nymphs and adults, respectively. These results provide the first documentation of the relative toxicity of these neonicotinoid insecticides to B. occiduus.

  11. Location of the mechanism of resistance to Amphorophora agathonica (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in red raspberry.

    PubMed

    Lightle, D M; Dossett, M; Backus, E A; Lee, J C

    2012-08-01

    The aphid Amphorophora agathonica Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important virus vector in red (Rubus idaeus L.) and black (Rubus occidentalis L.) raspberries in North America. Raspberry resistance to A. agathonica in the form of a single dominant gene named Ag1 has been relied upon to help control aphid-transmitted plant viruses; however, the mechanism of resistance to the insect is poorly understood. Aphid feeding was monitored using an electrical penetration graph on the resistant red raspberry 'Tulameen' and compared with a susceptible control, 'Vintage'. There were no differences in pathway feeding behaviors of aphids as they moved toward the phloem. Once in the phloem, however, aphids feeding on resistant plants spent significantly more time salivating than on susceptible plants, and ingested significantly less phloem sap. This suggests that a mechanism for resistance to A. agathonica is located in the phloem. Reduced ingestion of phloem may result in inefficient acquisition of viruses and is a likely explanation for the lack of aphid-transmitted viruses in plantings of resistant cultivars.

  12. Respiratory morphology of the Abedus herberti Hidalgo egg chorion (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Goforth, Christine L; Smith, Robert L

    2011-07-01

    Although giant water bugs (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) are large, aquatic insects known for their obligate paternal egg brooding behaviors, little research has focused on the structure of their eggs. The respiratory requirements of developing embryos likely created selection for brooding, so a thorough understanding of the respiratory morphology of belostomatid eggs could help explain how brooding behaviors facilitate embryonic gas exchange. This study used scanning electron microscopy to document the respiratory microstructure of the eggs of Abedus herberti, a back brooding giant water bug. The exochorion is similar to that of other belostomatids in texture and organization except that the respiratory region is confined to the uppermost quarter of the egg. This is the area exposed to the atmosphere by encumbered males. A plastron network made up of densely packed vertical projections demarcates the boundary between the respiratory and nonrespiratory regions of the chorion. The internal chorion is composed of alternate air-filled and denser layers that likely facilitate the movement of oxygen from the aeropyles at the top of the eggs to the developing embryonic tissues. J. Morphol., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Aphis pomi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) population development, shoot characteristics, and antibiosis resistance in different apple genotypes.

    PubMed

    Stoeckli, Sibylle; Mody, Karsten; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-08-01

    In high-value crops such as apple, Malus X domestica (Borkh.), insecticidal pest control is of high relevance. The use of resistant apple cultivars can increase the sustainability of pest management in apple orchards. Besides variation in plant chemistry that may influence plant resistance by antibiosis or antixenosis, plant growth characteristics also can affect plant susceptibility to pests such as aphids. Variable susceptibility to the apple aphid, Aphis pomi De Geer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has been described for different apple cultivars. These observations were based on phenotypic surveys and no information on genetically based apple resistance to A. pomi is yet available. The objective of this study was to relate shoot growth characteristics with aphid population development, and to assess the genetic background of apple antibiosis-based resistance to A. pomi by quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Aphid population development was repeatedly studied in the field in sleeve cages attached to 200 apple trees of different genotypes. Aphid population development was positively correlated to shoot length and growth, and it also was affected by climatic conditions. Indications for antibiosis-based resistance to A. pomi remained weak in the studied apple genotypes, and the only detected putative QTL on linkage group 11 of'Fiesta' apples was not stable for the different replications of the experiment. This lack of quantifiable resistance may be partly explained by environmental conditions related to aphid development in sleeve cages.

  14. [Characterization of the behavioral and vibrational signals in Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) during courtship and copulation].

    PubMed

    Briceño, R Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a neotropical species belonging to the family Pentatomidae with over 4 000 species described, and is distributed from Florida to Brazil. This study describes the sexual behavior and reported for the first time the production of substrate vibrations by males and females during copulatory behavior and mating. Courtship and copulatory behavior, as well as the diverse signals, were recorded with a phonographic cartridge connected to a video camera. Female vibrations were reproduced in the absence of females and the responses by males were recorded. At least three types of substrate vibrations were distinguished in males and one in females, and these signals were characterized by their low frequency, varying from 127 to 180Hz. The sounds of E. floridianus males were significantly different in frequency, duration and number of pulses, both in courtship and in copulation, for the purring and drumming sounds. The production of sounds in this species is associated principally with mechanical, stimulatory behavior during courtship and copulation. Patterns of behavior and their relation to substrate vibrations suggest that these signals are important for the males in the context of mate location and sexual selection.

  15. Efficacy of commercially available ultrasonic pest repellent devices to affect behavior of bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Yturralde, K M; Hofstetter, R W

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about the potential for acoustic communication in bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), or the use of sound as cues in host location, although many hemipterans are known to communicate with sound. Most behavioral research has focused on bed bug pheromones that are used in aggregation and as alarm signals. We investigated the influence of sound as a deterrent and as an attractant, either of which could ultimately be used to monitor and control bed bugs. Female bed bugs were tested in two-choice tests with four different commercially available ultrasonic repellent devices. We found that female bed bugs were equally likely to occur in arenas with or without sound produced by ultrasonic devices. These devices did not repel or attract bed bugs during choice trials. However, more bed bugs preferred the middle corridor between the test (sound) and control (no sound) arenas when the sound devices were played. Bed bugs were also more likely to exit the middle corridor during control trials compared with treatment trials with ultrasonic devices. Our results confirm that commercial devices producing ultrasound are not a promising tool for repelling bed bugs.

  16. [Faunistic analysis of leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) species in vineyards of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ringenberg, Rudiney; Lopes, João R S; Botton, Marcos; Azevedo-Filho, Wilson S De; Cavichioli, Rodney R

    2010-01-01

    In some American countries, grapevines are affected by Pierce's disease (PD), which is caused by a particular strain of Xylella fastidiosa not yet reported in Brazil. In order to investigate the potential for PD spread in Brazil in case of pathogen introduction, we conducted a faunistic analysis of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated to vineyards in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, with emphasis in the subfamily Cicadellinae (sharpshooters), which includes the main potential vectors of X. fastidiosa. Leafhopper samplings were carried out fortnightly during two years (9/2004-9/2006) in four Vitis vinifera vineyards in the municipalities of Bento Gonçalves and Farroupilha (RS). Thirtyfour leafhopper and six spittlebug species were collected, but most (98.4%) of the 3,893 specimens trapped were leafhoppers, distributed in the subfamilies Cicadellinae (60.2%), Gyponinae (34.1%), Deltocephalinae (3.8%) and Coelidinae (0.3%). The sharpshooter specimens were divided in the tribes Cicadellini (68.5%; 12 species) and Proconiini (31.5%; 11 species). Based on the faunistic indices, five species of Cicadellini, Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg), Dilobopterus dispar (Germar), Macugonalia cavifrons Stal, Sibovia sagata (Signoret) and Spinagonalia rubrovittata Cavichioli, and three of Proconiini, Molomea consolida (Schöder), Oncometopia facialis (Signoret) and Oncometopia fusca Melichar were prevalent in the vineyards. The high diversity of native sharpshooters in Rio Grande do Sul indicates the existence of a high risk of PD spread if the pathogen is introduced in grapevines.

  17. Functional responses of Laccotrephes griseus (Hemiptera: Nepidae) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in laboratory bioassay.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

    2011-06-01

    In integrated vector management programmes, major emphasis is given on the application of biocontrol agents. In the present study, the hemipteran water bug, Laccotrephes griseus (Hemiptera: Nepidae) was evaluated to establish its functional response against the immature Culex quinquefasciatus Say in the laboratory. Adult water bugs (L. griseus) were collected from different ponds in Bankura, West Bengal, India. Predation rate was determined in semi-field conditions. Functional response, regression equation analysis and rate of predation were also determined in the presence of an alternative prey. The long-term predation experiment (up to 30 days) revealed that L. griseus is a very good predator of mosquito larvae. The functional curve analysis of L. griseus exhibited a Type II functional response. Their handling times and coefficient of attack rates were 29.37 min and 2.17 respectively. Regression equations showed that consumption rate was directly proportional to prey and predator densities and inversely proportional to the search area. The selectivity index, niche width and food breadth were also determined. The present study revealed that L. griseus can consume a good number of mosquito larvae in the laboratory conditions. The long-term bioassay also indicates their predatory response against mosquito larvae in the semi-field conditions. The result of selectivity index, niche width and food breadth were also highest for Cx. quinquefasciatus. In these respects, the water bugs L. griseus are indicative of their release in the aquatic habitat where Cx. quinquefasciatus is the most dominant mosquito species.

  18. Interactive influence of temperature and relative humidity on egg parasitoids of Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae).

    PubMed

    Mainali, Bishwo P; Kim, Sangwon; Lim, Un Taek

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies reported that of the two egg parasitoids of Riptortus pedestris (F.) (Hemiptera: Alydidae) found in Korea, Gryon japonicum (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) appears in soybean fields much earlier than Ooencyrtus nezarae Ishii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). To explain this phenomenon, we evaluated the interactive influence of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the biological attributes of these parasitoids, including adult parasitoid longevity and survival. Temperature had significant effects on all the biological attributes examined for both parasitoids, while RH only affected rates of parasitism and adult emergence. Interaction between temperature and species, but not RH and species was found to affect significantly on parasitism. G. japonicum showed higher relative increment in parasitism than O. nezarae at temperatures higher than 25 degrees C. No significant differences in progeny sex ratio were detected for either species at any temperature x humidity combination. RH had no effect on the developmental time of O. nezarae but on the developmental time of G. japonicum, which was longer at low RH. Although the biological attributes of adult parasitoids of both species showed a wide range of adaptability, but it did not explain the patterns of occurrence of these species in the field. However, G. japonicum showed greater longevity than O. nezarae at all combinations of temperature and RH and this may partially explain the seasonal pattern of occurrence of adult parasitoids in the field previously observed.

  19. Spatial distribution of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a summary of the suction trap network.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Nicholas P; O'Neal, Matthew E; Anderson, Paul F; Lagos, Doris; Voegtlin, David; Bailey, Wayne; Caragea, Petrutza; Cullen, Eileen; DiFonzo, Christina; Elliott, Kate; Gratton, Claudio; Johnson, Douglas; Krupke, Christian H; McCornack, Brian; O'Neil, Robert; Ragsdale, David W; Tilmon, Kelley J; Whitworth, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an economically important pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in the United States. Phenological information of A. glycines is limited; specifically, little is known about factors guiding migrating aphids and potential impacts of long distance flights on local population dynamics. Increasing our understanding of A. glycines population dynamics may improve predictions of A. glycines outbreaks and improve management efforts. In 2005 a suction trap network was established in seven Midwest states to monitor the occurrence of alates. By 2006, this network expanded to 10 states and consisted of 42 traps. The goal of the STN was to monitor movement of A. glycines from their overwintering host Rhamnus spp. to soybean in spring, movement among soybean fields during summer, and emigration from soybean to Rhamnus in fall. The objective of this study was to infer movement patterns of A. glycines on a regional scale based on trap captures, and determine the suitability of certain statistical methods for future analyses. Overall, alates were not commonly collected in suction traps until June. The most alates were collected during a 3-wk period in the summer (late July to mid-August), followed by the fall, with a peak capture period during the last 2 wk of September. Alate captures were positively correlated with latitude, a pattern consistent with the distribution of Rhamnus in the United States, suggesting that more southern regions are infested by immigrants from the north.

  20. Characterization of a newly discovered symbiont of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Bing, Xiao-Li; Yang, Jiao; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a species complex containing >28 cryptic species, some of which are important crop pests worldwide. Like many other sap-sucking insects, whiteflies harbor an obligatory symbiont, "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum," and a number of secondary symbionts. So far, six genera of secondary symbionts have been identified in B. tabaci. In this study, we report and describe the finding of an additional bacterium in the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species China 1 (formerly known as B. tabaci biotype ZHJ3). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA and gltA genes showed that the bacterium belongs to the Alphaproteobacteria subdivision of the Proteobacteria and has a close relationship with human pathogens of the genus Orientia. Consequently, we temporarily named it Orientia-like organism (OLO). OLO was found in six of eight wild populations of B. tabaci China 1, with the infection rate ranging from 46.2% to 76.8%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of B. tabaci China 1 in nymphs and adults revealed that OLOs are confined to the bacteriome and co-occur with "Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum." The vertical transmission of OLO was demonstrated by detection of OLO at the anterior pole end of the oocytes through FISH. Quantitative PCR analysis of population dynamics suggested a complex interaction between "Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum" and OLO. Based on these results, we propose "Candidatus Hemipteriphilus asiaticus" for the classification of this symbiont from B. tabaci.

  1. A binomial sequential sampling plan for Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Solanum lycopersicum (Solanales: Solanacea).

    PubMed

    Prager, Sean M; Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2014-04-01

    The tomato-potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of many solanaceous plants, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). In tomato, feeding by nymphs is associated with "psyllid yellows." B. cockerelli also vectors "Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous," an infectious bacterium that causes "vein greening" disease. Decisions about management action are much more effective when guided by robust sampling. However, there are few previous studies of potato psyllid spatial distribution in tomato fields, and no published sequential sampling plans for the pest in tomato. We studied B. cockerelli in various tomato fields in California and used these data to generate a sequential sampling plan. We found that juvenile B. cockerelli in tomato fields exhibit an edge effect, an aggregated distribution, and individuals are primarily located on the bottom of leaves. Psyllids were concentrated in the upper segments of plants, but this changed over time. Finally, we present three binominal sequential sampling plans for managing tomato psyllids in tomato fields. These plans differed from both those for bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) and potato, indicating that B. cockerelli needs to be sampled using crop-specific sampling plans.

  2. High phylogeographic structure in sylvatic vectors of Chagas disease of the genus Mepraia (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Campos, Ricardo; Torres-Pérez, Fernando; Botto-Mahan, Carezza; Coronado, Ximena; Solari, Aldo

    2013-10-01

    The hematophagous Hemiptera of the subfamily Triatominae are a very diverse group with a variety of morphs, behaviors and distributions. They have great epidemiological importance because many of its members are vectors of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease. Mepraia is a genus of Triatominae endemic to Chile responsible for transmitting T. cruzi in the sylvatic cycle. Mepraia includes three species, M. gajardoi (18° 30'-26° 30' S) M. spinolai (26° 30'-34° 20' S) and the recently described M. parapatrica in intermediate zones (24° 36'-26° 51' S). Using mitochondrial DNA sequences, we inferred historical processes that led to the current structure of populations. Phylogeographic analyses identified three lineages, congruent with current taxonomy, and populations were highly structured. The times to the most recent common ancestor suggest that M. spinolai is the oldest lineage. We discuss the taxonomic and biogeographic implications of our results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecotope effect in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) suggests phenotypic plasticity rather than adaptation.

    PubMed

    Batista, V S P; Fernandes, F A; Cordeiro-Estrela, P; Sarquis, O; Lima, M M

    2013-09-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is an important vector of Chagas' disease in both sylvatic and peridomestic ecotopes. Discriminating between these populations of Triatominae has been proposed as a means of investigating re-infestation rates of human dwellings. Geometric morphometrics have been widely applied in the study of Triatominae polymorphisms at species and population levels. This study characterizes morphometric differences between sylvatic and peridomestic populations, as well as between sexes in T. brasiliensis specimens from Jaguaruana, Ceará, in northeastern Brazil. No differences in either the shape or size of the cephalic capsule were apparent between sexes or ecotopes. However, the wings showed differentiation in shape and size. Sexual dimorphism was detected, with females presenting significantly higher values and conformations. Size differentiation was also evident, with sylvatic specimens being generally larger than peridomestic examples. These results indicate that differences in the wings of T. brasiliensis may be related to the existence of phenotypic plasticity, and variations in size and shape may be associated with different ecotopes, possibly as a result of conditions in each micro-habitat, such as temperature, relative humidity, food supply and density. © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida species subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Fernández, Gustavo Mario; Juárez, Marta Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) were ana-lysed by gas chromatography and their structures identified by mass spectrometry. They comprised mostly n-alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes with one-four methyl substitutions. n-alkanes consisted of a homologous series from C21-C33 and represented 33-45% of the hydrocarbon fraction; n-C29 was the major component. Methyl-branched alkanes showed alkyl chains from C24-C43. High molecular weight dimethyl and trimethylalkanes (from C35-C39) represented most of the methyl-branched fraction. A few tetramethylalkanes were also detected, comprising mostly even-numbered chains. Several components such as odd-numbered 3-methylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and trimethylalkanes of C37 and C39 showed patterns of variation that allowed the differentiation of the species and populations studied. Triatoma guasayana and Triatoma patagonica showed the most distinct hydrocarbon patterns within the subcomplex. The T. sordida populations from Brazil and Argentina showed significantly different hydrocarbon profiles that posed concerns regarding the homogeneity of the species. Triatoma garciabesi had a more complex hydrocarbon pattern, but it shared some similarity with T. sordida. The quantitative and qualitative variations in the cuticular hydrocarbons may help to elucidate the relationships between species and populations of this insect group. PMID:24037201

  5. Assessment of the insecticidal potential of Eucalyptus urograndis essential oil against Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Gomes, S P; Favero, S

    2013-08-01

    The resistance of triatomines to pyrethroids has been reported in several Latin American countries, including Brazil, indicating the need for the development of new approaches for the control of vectors of the Chagas disease. In here, we evaluated the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of Eucalyptus urograndis (Myrtaceae) against unsexed third and fourth instars of Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in topical application, fumigation, surface contact, and repellency . The insecticidal activity of the essential oil tested was detected by topical application (LD50 = 0.1731 μL/insect and LD99 = 0.2948 μL/insect for 24 h), fumigation (LC50 = 0.021 mL/mL air and LC99 = 0.1525 mL/mL air for 24 h) and surface contact (LC50 = 0.7073 μL/cm(2) and LC99 = 4.59 μL/cm(2) for 24 h). Mortality observed after 48-72-h exposure was very high and did not allow for any adjustment of the mortality curve. In the repellency assay, an effect was observed on 80% of tested nymphs. However, no repellency was observed after 24 h of exposure. Eucalyptus urograndis essential oil has a high insecticidal and repellent potential for R. neglectus nymphs, whether serving as a molecular model for new substances or as an alternative for the control of these insects.

  6. Asymmetric Spread of SRBSDV between Rice and Corn Plants by the Vector Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Pei; Li, Fei; Han, Yongqiang; Yang, Lang; Liao, Xiaolan; Hou, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses are mostly transmitted by sucking insects via their piercing behaviors, which may differ due to host plant species and their developmental stages. We characterized the transmission of a fijivirus, southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), by the planthopper vector Sogatella furcifera Horváth (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), between rice and corn plants of varying developmental stages. SRBSDV was transmitted from infected rice to uninfected corn plants as efficiently as its transmission between rice plants, while was acquired by S. furcifera nymphs at a much lower rate from infected corn plants than from infected rice plants. We also recorded a high mortality of S. furcifera nymphs on corn plants. It is evident that young stages of both the virus donor and recipient plants added to the transmission efficiency of SRBSDV from rice to corn plants. Feeding behaviors of the vector recorded by electrical penetration graph showed that phloem sap ingestion, the behavioral event that is linked with plant virus acquisition, was impaired on corn plants, which accounts for the high mortality of and low virus acquisition by S. furcifera nymphs on corn plants. Our results reveal an asymmetric spread of SRBSDV between its two host plants and the underlying behavioral mechanism, which is of significance for assessing SRBSDV transmission risks and field epidemiology, and for developing integrated management approaches for SRBSDV disease.

  7. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N. Kirk; Cutler, G. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  8. Impact of Feeding on Contaminated Prey on the Life Parameters of Nesidiocoris Tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) Adults.

    PubMed

    Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Sánchez-Ramos, Ismael; Viñuela, Elisa; Medina, Pilar; Adán, Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide selectivity to natural enemies is an important concern in integrated pest management programs. Although there is a wide range of information concerning pesticide lethal and sublethal effects on contaminated surfaces, little is known when the route of exposure occurs at a trophic level. This study evaluates this route of pesticide intake on the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) for the first time. Under laboratory conditions, prey treated with six insecticides (flubendiamide, spirotetramat, deltamethrin, flonicamid, metaflumizone, and sulfoxaflor) were offered to N. tenuis adults for 3 days. Mortality (24, 48, and 72 h after treatment), offspring production (third until eighth day) and longevity were documented. Metaflumizone and sulfoxaflor were classified as moderately harmful products because although the percentage of mortality was only 28 and 36%, respectively, both products caused a severe decrease in offspring production and longevity. Flonicamid and flubendiamide were classified as slightly harmful products; although they did not have a lethal effect, sublethal impact was important on the parameters studied. Spirotetramat and deltamethrin were insecticides categorized as harmless. This information could be useful for selecting the most appropriate insecticides to control pests in tomato crops in which N. tenuis is a relevant biological control agent.

  9. Heterochromatin base pair composition and diversification in holocentric chromosomes of kissing bugs (Hemiptera, Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Bardella, Vanessa Bellini; Pita, Sebastián; Vanzela, André Luis Laforga; Galvão, Cleber; Panzera, Francisco

    2016-10-01

    The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) includes 150 species of blood-sucking insects, vectors of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis. Karyotypic information reveals a striking stability in the number of autosomes. However, this group shows substantial variability in genome size, the amount and distribution of C-heterochromatin, and the chromosome positions of 45S rDNA clusters. Here, we analysed the karyotypes of 41 species from six different genera with C-fluorescence banding in order to evaluate the base-pair richness of heterochromatic regions. Our results show a high heterogeneity in the fluorescent staining of the heterochromatin in both autosomes and sex chromosomes, never reported before within an insect subfamily with holocentric chromosomes. This technique allows a clear discrimination of the heterochromatic regions classified as similar by C-banding, constituting a new chromosome marker with taxonomic and evolutionary significance. The diverse fluorescent patterns are likely due to the amplification of different repeated sequences, reflecting an unusual dynamic rearrangement in the genomes of this subfamily. Further, we discuss the evolution of these repeated sequences in both autosomes and sex chromosomes in species of Triatominae.

  10. Cryptic speciation in the Triatoma sordida subcomplex (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) revealed by chromosomal markers.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Francisco; Pita, Sebastián; Nattero, Julieta; Panzera, Yanina; Galvão, Cleber; Chavez, Tamara; Rojas De Arias, Antonieta; Cardozo Téllez, Lourdes; Noireau, François

    2015-09-29

    Chagas disease vectors (Hemiptera-Reduviidae) comprise more than 140 blood-sucking insect species of the Triatominae subfamily. The largest genus is Triatoma, subdivided in several complexes and subcomplexes according to morphology, ecology and genetic features. One of them is the sordida subcomplex, involving four species: Triatoma sordida, T. guasayana, T. garciabesi and T. patagonica. Given the great morphological similarity of these species, their taxonomic identification, evolutionary relationships and population differentiation have been controversial for many years and even today remain under discussion. We simultaneously analyzed two chromosomal markers, C-heterochromatin distribution and 45S ribosomal genes chromosomal position, of 139 specimens from several sordida subcomplex populations from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, collected both in nature and from several established insectaries. Our results were compared with COI sequences deposited in GenBank. We recognized five chromosomal taxa with putative hybrids, which each differ in at least one chromosome marker. Most of them present significant differences in their mtDNA sequences. The chromosomal taxa here show a significant chromosome differentiation involving changes in the C-heterochromatin content and in the ribosomal clusters position. This paper identifies several erroneously classified populations by morphological methods, delimits the geographical distribution of each taxon and proposes the existence of a new cryptic species, widely distributed in Argentina. We also suggest that sordida sibling species involve closely related as well as evolutionary distant species. Taxonomic status of each chromosomal taxon is discussed considering phenotypic and genetic results previously published.

  11. Harmonic radar tagging for tracking movement of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Pilkay, Grant L; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K

    2013-10-01

    Harmonic radar tagging was investigated as a method for monitoring the movement of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Because adhesive toxicity and tag weight limit the use of this technology, initial efforts focused on selection of the optimal adhesive and design of harmonic radar tags to reduce impact on the movement of stink bugs. A design consisting of a 6-cm-long 0.10-mm-thick silver-plated copper monopole on the anode terminal of a three-contact Schottky barrier diode attached with Gorilla super glue provided a compromise between unimpaired movement and tracking range, adding an additional 8% to the weight of the stink bug while not significantly (P > 0.05) reducing walking or flying mobility in the laboratory. Recovery of tagged stink bugs in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), and fallow fields ranged from 10 to 75% after 24 h, whereas marked stink bugs were recovered at rates of 0-35% by using sweep net or drop cloth sampling. The distance dispersed in the field was not impacted (P > 0.05) by crop, tagged status, or gender of the insect. Future research should examine possible improvements to the harmonic radar transceiver and the wire antenna to decrease encumbrance.

  12. Effect of population structure and size on aggregation behavior of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Pfiester, Margie; Koehler, Philip G; Pereira, Roberto M

    2009-09-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), occurs in aggregations until the conditions are no longer beneficial, leading to dispersal. Active and passive bed bug dispersal causes migrations from main aggregations either within a room, from room to room within a building, or from building to building. Because bed bug movement is an important factor in the spread of infestations, we wanted to determine how population structure and size affect bed bug aggregations. Engorged bed bugs were placed in glass petri dish arenas at varying densities, sex ratios, and population compositions. Nymphs had a high tendency to aggregate, varying between 94 and 98%, and therefore were not the likely dispersal stage of the bed bug. At densities of 10 and 40 adults at a 1:1 sex ratio, there were significantly more lone females than lone males. When the population composition was varied, the percentage of lone females was significantly higher than that of males and nymphs at population compositions of 40 and 80% adults. When the sex ratio of adults was varied, there were significantly more lone females than males in arenas with 20, 50, and 80% males. Females, being found away from aggregations significantly more often than any other life stage, are potentially the dispersal stage of the bed bug. Active female dispersal away from main aggregations can potentially lead to treatment failures and should be taken into account when using control methods.

  13. Extensive Mitochondrial Heteroplasmy in Natural Populations of a Resurging Human Pest, the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Robison, G. A.; Balvin, O.; Schal, C.; Vargo, E. L.; Booth, W.

    2015-01-01

    Homoplasmy, the occurrence of a single mitochondrial DNA haplotype within an individual, has been the accepted condition across most organisms in the animal kingdom. In recent years, a number of exceptions to this rule have been reported, largely due to the ease with which single nucleotide polymorphisms can be detected. Evidence of heteroplasmy—two or more mitochondrial variants within a single individual—has now been documented in a number of invertebrates; however, when present, heteroplasmy usually occurs at low frequencies both within individuals and within populations. The implications of heteroplasmy may be far reaching, both to the individual in relation to its health and fitness, and when considering the evolutionary dynamics of populations. We present novel evidence for frequent mtDNA heteroplasmy in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Our findings show that heteroplasmy is common, with 5 of 29 (17%) populations screened exhibiting two mitochondrial variants in a ∼1:2 ratio within each individual. We hypothesize that the mechanism underlying heteroplasmy in bed bugs is paternal leakage because some haplotypes were shared among unrelated populations and no evidence for nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences was detected. PMID:26335484

  14. Extensive Mitochondrial Heteroplasmy in Natural Populations of a Resurging Human Pest, the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Robison, G A; Balvin, O; Schal, C; Vargo, E L; Booth, W

    2015-07-01

    Homoplasmy, the occurrence of a single mitochondrial DNA haplotype within an individual, has been the accepted condition across most organisms in the animal kingdom. In recent years, a number of exceptions to this rule have been reported, largely due to the ease with which single nucleotide polymorphisms can be detected. Evidence of heteroplasmy-two or more mitochondrial variants within a single individual-has now been documented in a number of invertebrates; however, when present, heteroplasmy usually occurs at low frequencies both within individuals and within populations. The implications of heteroplasmy may be far reaching, both to the individual in relation to its health and fitness, and when considering the evolutionary dynamics of populations. We present novel evidence for frequent mtDNA heteroplasmy in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Our findings show that heteroplasmy is common, with 5 of 29 (17%) populations screened exhibiting two mitochondrial variants in a ∼1:2 ratio within each individual. We hypothesize that the mechanism underlying heteroplasmy in bed bugs is paternal leakage because some haplotypes were shared among unrelated populations and no evidence for nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences was detected.

  15. Molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) within apartment buildings.

    PubMed

    Booth, Warren; Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Wang, Changlu; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

    2012-05-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has experienced an extraordinary global resurgence in recent years, the reasons for which remain poorly understood. Once considered a pest of lower socioeconomic classes, bed bugs are now found extensively across all residential settings, with widespread infestations established in multiapartment buildings. Within such buildings, understanding the population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal may prove critical to the development of effective control strategies. Here, we describe the development of 24 high-resolution microsatellite markers through next generation 454 pyrosequencing and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by spread are evident in two buildings. Populations within single apartments in all buildings were characterized by high levels of relatedness and low levels of diversity, indicative of foundation from small, genetically depauperate propagules. Regardless of the number of unique introductions, genetic data indicate that spread within buildings is extensive, supporting both active and human-mediated dispersal within and between adjacent rooms or apartments spanning multiple floors.

  16. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossner, Martin M.; Simons, Nadja K.; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H. O.; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2015-03-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience.

  17. Remote sensing and spatial statistical techniques for modelling Ommatissus lybicus (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae) habitat and population densities

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Paul; Welch, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the distribution and prevalence of Ommatissus lybicus (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae) as well as analyse their current biographical patterns and predict their future spread, comprehensive and detailed information on the environmental, climatic, and agricultural practices are essential. The spatial analytical techniques such as Remote Sensing and Spatial Statistics Tools, can help detect and model spatial links and correlations between the presence, absence and density of O. lybicus in response to climatic, environmental, and human factors. The main objective of this paper is to review remote sensing and relevant analytical techniques that can be applied in mapping and modelling the habitat and population density of O. lybicus. An exhaustive search of related literature revealed that there are very limited studies linking location-based infestation levels of pests like the O. lybicus with climatic, environmental, and human practice related variables. This review also highlights the accumulated knowledge and addresses the gaps in this area of research. Furthermore, it makes recommendations for future studies, and gives suggestions on monitoring and surveillance methods in designing both local and regional level integrated pest management strategies of palm tree and other affected cultivated crops. PMID:28875085

  18. Intraspecific Variation of Eysarcoris guttigerus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Japanese Southwest Population Based on Mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Nomura, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The white-spotted globular bug Eysarcoris guttigerus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is widely distributed in East Asia and the Pacific region. In Japan, the species is found in grassy or composite weeds in the western area of the main islands and Ryukyu Islands of Japan. One notable characteristic of the Eysarcoris genus is the two white spots on the scutellum. This is not the case with the Ishigaki Island population, however, which sports red spots instead of white, suggesting that intraspecific variation exists in the species. Therefore, we investigated intraspecific variation in E. guttigerus using mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), cytochrome b (Cytb), tRNA-Serine (tRNA(ser)), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) genes from 13 populations of Japan. The obtained maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was divided into three groups--Group 1: Mainland, Group 2: Central Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa-Amamioshima Islands), and Group 3: South Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki Island). The Ishigaki population was significantly separated from the other populations with consistent differences in spot color. The estimated period of divergence between the Ishigaki population and the other populations was consistent with the period of formation of the Kerama Gap in the Ryukyu arc. Thus, the process of formation of the Kerama Gap may have influenced the intraspecific variation of E. guttigerus.

  19. Brochosomal coats turn leafhopper (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) integument to superhydrophobic state.

    PubMed

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-02-07

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with brochosomes, hollow proteinaceous spheres of usually 200-700 nm in diameter, with honeycombed walls. The coats have been previously suggested to act as a water-repellent and anti-adhesive protective barrier against the insect's own exudates. We estimated their wettability through contact angle (CA) measurements of water, diiodomethane, ethylene glycol and ethanol on detached wings of the leafhoppers Alnetoidia alneti, Athysanus argentarius and Cicadella viridis. Intact brochosome-coated integuments were repellent to all test liquids, except ethanol, and exhibited superhydrophobicity, with the average water CAs of 165-172°, and the apparent surface free energy (SFE) estimates not exceeding 0.74 mN m(-1). By contrast, the integuments from which brochosomes were removed with a peeling technique using fluid polyvinylsiloxane displayed water CAs of only 103-129° and SFEs above 20 mN m(-1). Observations of water-sprayed wings in a cryo-scanning electron microscope confirmed that brochosomal coats prevented water from contacting the integument. Their superhydrophobic properties appear to result from fractal roughness, which dramatically reduces the area of contact with high-surface-tension liquids, including, presumably, leafhopper exudates.

  20. Morphological characterization of the mouthparts of the vector leafhopper Psammotettix striatus (L.) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqin; Dai, Wu; Zhang, Chunni; Zhang, Yalin

    2010-10-01

    The leafhopper Psammotettix striatus (L.) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is one of the most significant economic pests of wheat in Western China. This insect vectors a phytoplasma that causes wheat blue dwarf (WBD), a severe disease limiting wheat production in the Western China. A microscopic analysis of the ultrastructure of the mouthparts of the adult was conducted using scanning electron microscopy and the putative functions of the mouthparts were determined. The piercing-sucking mouthparts of P. striatus are of the conventional type comprising a three-segmented labium with a deep groove in the anterior side, a stylet fascicle consisting of two mandibular and two maxillary stylets, and an uppermost small cone-shaped labrum. The mandibular stylets, located laterad of the maxillary stylets, have sculpture on their tips, which may function in tearing plant tissue, cutting channels into the plant tissues, and attaching the body to the host plant during molting. The maxillary stylets are interlocked to form two separate compartments, a larger food canal and a smaller salivary canal. Two dendritic canals are also found in each maxilla and one in each mandible. Four kinds of sensilla were found on the labium: s. trichodea I, s. trichodea II, s. basiconic I, s. basiconic II. These may be involved in host recognition and are likely chemo- or mechanosensory, or both.

  1. Light environment and leaf characteristics affect distribution of Corythuca arcuata (Hemiptera: Tingidae).

    PubMed

    Barber, Nicholas A

    2010-04-01

    Insect herbivore abundances on host plants are influenced by both plant traits and the physical environment in which that plant grows. This study examined the role of the physical light environment and foliage characteristics in determining abundance of the lacebug Corythuca arcuata Say (Hemiptera: Tingidae) on Quercus alba L. I censused adult C. arcuata across a growing season, quantified leaf characteristics, and measured canopy cover over understory branches of mature Q. alba. Using an information-theoretic approach, a priori hypotheses of the relationship between light, plant traits, and C. arcuata abundance was evaluated. Abundance was best predicted by light environment and carbon content. Adult C. arcuata prefer trees growing under an open canopy and trees with low carbon content; abundance also positively correlated with leaf water content. Although carbon and water did not vary with light in this study, low carbon and high water content are often associated with shadier conditions, suggesting that C. arcuata faces a trade-off between preferences for physical habitat conditions and host plant characteristics.

  2. Biotypic diversity in greenbug (Hemiptera: Aphididae): microsatellite-based regional divergence and host-adapted differentiation.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yiqun; Perumal, Azhaguvel; Burd, John D; Rudd, Jackie C

    2010-08-01

    Nineteen isolates of the cereal aphid pest greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), were collected from wheat, Triticum aestivum L.; barley, Hordeum vulgare L.; or noncultivated grass hosts in five locations from Colorado and Wyoming. Parthenogenetic colonies were established. Biotypic profiles of the 19 isolates were determined based on their abilities to damage a set of host plant differentials, and 13 new biotypes were identified. Genetic diversity among the 19 isolates and five previously designated greenbug biotypes (E, G, H, I, and K) was examined with 31 cross-species transferable microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) markers. Neighbor-joining clustering analysis of marker data revealed host-adapted genetic divergence as well as regional differentiation of greenbug populations. Host associated biotypic variation seems to be more obvious in "agricultural biotypes," whereas isolates collected from noncultivated grasses tend to show more geographic divergence. It seems that the biotype sharing the most similar biotypic profiles and the same geographic region with current prevailing one may have the greatest potential to become the new prevailing biotype. Close monitoring of greenbug population dynamics especially biotypic variation on both crop plants and noncultivated grasses in small grain production areas may be a useful strategy for detecting potentially new prevailing virulent biotypes of the greenbug.

  3. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Ni, Xinzhi

    2010-11-01

    Black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), feeding elicits localized chlorotic injury to pecan foliage [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K Koch] and apparent acceleration of leaf senescence and defoliation. The ability of certain plant growth regulators (PGRs) (forchlorfenuron, gibberellic acid and aviglycine) to prevent M. caryaefoliae from triggering pecan leaf chlorosis and senescence-like processes was evaluated on two dates in both 2006 and 2007. Treatments were applied to orchard foliage and used in laboratory leaf-disc bioassays to assess possible reduction in aphid-elicited chlorosis and concomitant effects on aphid mortality and development. Foliage pretreated with forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid prior to being challenged with aphids resulted in significantly less aphid-elicited chlorosis than did control or aviglycine-treated leaf discs. No PGR affected aphid mortality; however, development time was increased by forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid in 2006 and by aviglycine + gibberellic acid on one date in 2007. Certain PGRs possess the potential for usage on pecan to protect foliar canopies from M. caryaefoliae via changes in the susceptibility of the host leaf to senescence-like factors being introduced by feeding aphids. This protective effect on host foliage and the associated suppressive effect on development of feeding aphids might also be relevant to pest management programs on other aphid-crop systems in which aphid-elicited chlorosis and senescence-like processes can limit profitability. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The transcriptional landscape of insect galls: psyllid (Hemiptera) gall formation in Hawaiian Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Bailey, Sebastian; Percy, Diana M; Hefer, Charles A; Cronk, Quentin C B

    2015-11-16

    Recent studies show that galling Hymenoptera and Diptera are able to synthesize the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (auxin) from tryptophan and that plant response to insect-produced auxin is implicated in gall formation. We examined the leaf transcriptome of galled and ungalled leaves of individuals of the Hawaiian endemic plant Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae) subject to infestation by psyllid (Hemiptera) gall-makers in the genus Trioza (Triozidae). Transcript libraries were sequenced using Illumina technology and the reads assembled de novo into contigs. Functional identification of contigs followed a two-step procedure, first identifying contigs by comparison to the completely sequenced genome of the related Eucalyptus, followed by identifying the equivalent Arabidopsis gene using a pre-computed mapping between Eucalyptus and Arabidopsis genes. This allowed us to use the rich functional annotation of the Arabidopsis genome to assess the transcriptional landscape of galling in Metrosideros. Comparing galled and ungalled leaves, we find a highly significant enrichment of expressed genes with a gene ontology (GO) annotation to auxin response in the former. One gene consistently expressed in all galled trees examined but not detected in any libraries from ungalled leaves was the Metrosideros version of SMALL AUXIN UPREGULATED (SAUR) 67 which appears to be a marker for leaf-galling in Metrosideros. We conclude that an auxin response is involved in galling by Metrosideros psyllids. The possibility should therefore be considered that psyllids (like other insects examined) are able to synthesize auxin.

  5. Local maladaptation in the soft scale insect Saissetia coffeae (Hemiptera: Coccidae).

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Brian

    2006-09-01

    Local adaptation has often been documented in herbivorous insects. The potential for local maladaptation in phytophagous insects, however, has not been widely considered. I performed a two-generation reciprocal cross-transplant experiment with the generalist soft scale insect Saissetia coffeae (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on two common species of host plants in rain forest habitat in Costa Rica. In this system, S. coffeae showed significant local maladaptation at the level of the host species. Lineages originally collected from Witheringia enjoyed a strong advantage over those collected from Lomariopsis when both sets of lineages were placed on Lomariopsis; however, when both sets of lineages were raised on Witheringia, their fitnesses were statistically indistinguishable. While some aspects of the biology of S. coffeae may impair its ability to adapt to local selection pressures, scale insects are often locally adapted on fine spatial scales, and local maladaptation is therefore especially surprising. Other documented cases of local maladaptation in parasites appear to be due to evolution on the part of the host. The possibility that hosts or natural enemies may place local genotypes at a disadvantage, producing a pattern of local maladaptation, is one that deserves more consideration in the context of plant-insect interactions.

  6. Gammaproteobacteria as essential primary symbionts in the striped shield bug, Graphosoma Lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Karamipour, Naeime; Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Fathipour, Yaghoub

    2016-01-01

    Many members of suborder Heteroptra harbor heritable symbiotic bacteria. Here we characterize the gut symbiotic bacterium in Graphosoma lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by using molecular phylogeny, real-time PCR analysis as well as light and electron microscopy observations. The microscopy observations revealed the presence of a large number of rod-shaped bacterial cells in the crypts. A very high prevalence (98 to 100%) of the symbiont infection was found in the insect populations that strongly supports an intimate association between these two organisms. Real-time PCR analysis also showed that the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the crypts. The sequences of 16sr RNA and groEL genes of symbiont showed high levels of similarity (93 to 95%) to Pantoea agglomeranse and Erwinia herbicola Gammaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses placed G. lineatum symbiont in a well-defined branch, divergent from other stink bug bacterial symbionts. Co-evolutionary analysis showed lack of host-symbiont phylogenetic congruence. Surface sterilization of eggs resulted in increased pre-adult stage in the offspring (aposymbionts) in comparison to the normal. Also, fecundity, longevity, and adult stage were significantly decreased in the aposymbionts. Therefore, it seems that the symbiont might play a vital function in the host biology, in which host optimal development depends on the symbiont. PMID:27609055

  7. Repellence produced by monoterpenes on Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) decreases after continuous exposure to these compounds.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Alejandra; Sfara, Valeria; Alzogaray, Raúl Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Botanical monoterpenes are secondary metabolites present in essential oils produced by plants. Some of them are insect repellents. The bloodsucking bug Rhodnius prolixus Ståhl (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is one of the main vectors of Chagas disease in the north of South America and some countries in Central America. In this study, we studied the repellence produced by two monoterpenes, menthyl acetate and geraniol, on fifth instar nymphs of R. prolixus. In the absence of other stimuli, both menthyl acetate and geraniol produced a repellent effect from 740 μg/cm(2) and 74 μg/cm(2), respectively. Pre-exposure to each monoterpene reduced the repellent activity produced by the same substance. Additionally, pre-exposure to one monoterpene decreased the behavioral response of the nymphs to the other one. The repellent effect of both monoterpenes also decreased when nymphs' antennae were previously treated with the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-cysteine. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Intraspecific Variation of Eysarcoris guttigerus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Japanese Southwest Population Based on Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yamaji, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Nomura, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The white-spotted globular bug Eysarcoris guttigerus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is widely distributed in East Asia and the Pacific region. In Japan, the species is found in grassy or composite weeds in the western area of the main islands and Ryukyu Islands of Japan. One notable characteristic of the Eysarcoris genus is the two white spots on the scutellum. This is not the case with the Ishigaki Island population, however, which sports red spots instead of white, suggesting that intraspecific variation exists in the species. Therefore, we investigated intraspecific variation in E. guttigerus using mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), cytochrome b (Cytb), tRNA-Serine (tRNAser), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) genes from 13 populations of Japan. The obtained maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was divided into three groups—Group 1: Mainland, Group 2: Central Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa-Amamioshima Islands), and Group 3: South Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki Island). The Ishigaki population was significantly separated from the other populations with consistent differences in spot color. The estimated period of divergence between the Ishigaki population and the other populations was consistent with the period of formation of the Kerama Gap in the Ryukyu arc. Thus, the process of formation of the Kerama Gap may have influenced the intraspecific variation of E. guttigerus. PMID:26798143

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; Ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  10. Variation in acquisition of Fiji disease virus by Perkinsiella saccharicida (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Ridley, Andrew W; Dhileepan, K; Walter, Gimme H; Johnson, Karyn N; Croft, Barry J

    2008-02-01

    Fiji leaf gall, caused the Fiji disease virus (genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae, FDV), is a serious disease of sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L., in Australia and several other Asia-Pacific countries. In Australia FDV is transmitted only by the planthopper Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), in a propagative manner. Successful transmission of FDV by single planthoppers confined to individual virus free plants is highly variable, even under controlled conditions. The research reported here addresses two possible sources of this variation: (1) gender, wing form, and life stage of the planthopper; and (2) genotype of the source plant. The acquisition of FDV by macropterous males, macropterous females, brachypterous females, and nymphs of P. saccharicida from infected plants was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to diagnose FDV infection in the vector. The proportion of individuals infected with FDV was not statistically related to life stage, gender, or adult wing form of the vector. The acquisition of FDV by P. saccharicida from four cultivars of sugarcane was compared to assess the influence of plant genotype on acquisition. Those planthopper populations reared on diseased 'NCo310' plants had twice as many infected planthoppers as those reared on 'Q110', 'WD1', and 'WD2'. Therefore, variation in FDV acquisition in this system is not the result of variation in the gender, wing form and life stage of the P. saccharicida vectors. The cultivar used as the source plant to rear vector populations does affect the proportion of infected planthoppers in a population.

  11. Dropping Behavior in the Pea Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): How Does Environmental Context Affect Antipredator Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Katharine V.; Preisser, Evan L.

    2016-01-01

    The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisumHarris (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a phloem-feeding insect whose antipredator defenses include kicking, walking away, and dropping from the plant. Aphid dropping, a risky and energetically costly antipredator behavior, can be increased by the release of aphid alarm pheromone; there is also evidence that insect density and plant health can affect the likelihood of aphids engaging in this behavior. We investigated whether interactions between alarm cues, insect density, and plant health can alter the dropping behavior of aphids in response to an artificial disturbance. The presence of the alarm pheromone E-β-farnesene resulted in a nearly 15-fold increase in aphid dropping behavior; the other two factors, however, did not affect dropping and none of the two- or three-way interactions were significant. This was surprising because aphids affected plant health: production of new plant biomass after 5 d of exposure to high aphid densities was 50% lower than in the control treatment. This research adds to our understanding of the factors affecting aphid antipredator behavior; the fact that neither aphid density nor feeding period impacted dropping may reflect the high energetic costs of this activity and an unwillingness to use it in any but the riskiest situations. PMID:27638950

  12. Phenotypic variation and identification of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Watson, Gillian W; Sun, Yang; Tan, Yongan; Xiao, Liubin; Bai, Lixin

    2014-05-23

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug that seriously damages cotton and other important crops. In previous studies in China, the presence of two submedian longitudinal lines of pigmented spots on the dorsum of adult females frequently has been used to identify this species. However, the present study records the occasional absence of pigmented spots in a sample from Guangxi province, China. Specimens without pigmented spots showed all the molecular and morphological characters that separate P. solenopsis from the similar species P. solani Ferris, especially the distribution of multilocular disc pores. In different geographic populations of P. solenopsis in China, mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28SrDNA genes are very similar (99.8-100%), indicating that they are conspecific. For COI, the genetic distance between P. solenopsis and P. solani is more than 3%. A map of the distribution of P. solenopsis in China is given. To help identify both pigmented and non-pigmented P. solenopsis accurately, an identification key to the 16 species of Phenacoccus found in China is provided. The key also identifies five potentially invasive Phenacoccus species not yet established in China, in case they get introduced there.

  13. Life Table Parameters of Three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris) Species (Hemiptera: Miridae) under Contrasted Relative Humidity Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH). Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80%) were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH) had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproductive rate (R0) and the finite rate of increase (λ) for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests. PMID:25541705

  14. Energy storage and synchronisation of hind leg movements during jumping in planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Issidae).

    PubMed

    Burrows, M

    2010-02-01

    The hind legs of Issus (Hemiptera, Issidae) move in the same plane underneath the body, an arrangement that means they must also move synchronously to power jumping. Moreover, they move so quickly that energy must be stored before a jump and then released suddenly. High speed imaging and analysis of the mechanics of the proximal joints of the hind legs show that mechanical mechanisms ensure both synchrony of movements and energy storage. The hind trochantera move first in jumping and are synchronised to within 30 micros. Synchrony is achieved by mechanical interactions between small protrusions from each trochantera which fluoresce bright blue under specific wavelengths of ultra-violet light and which touch at the midline when the legs are cocked before a jump. In dead Issus, a depression force applied to a cocked hind leg, or to the tendon of its trochanteral depressor muscle causes a simultaneous depression of both hind legs. The protrusion of the hind leg that moves first nudges the other hind leg so that both move synchronously. Contractions of the trochanteral depressor muscles that precede a jump bend the metathoracic pleural arches of the internal skeleton. Large areas of these bow-shaped structures fluoresce bright blue in ultraviolet light, and the intensity of this fluorescence depends on the pH of the bathing saline. These are key signatures of the rubber-like protein resilin. The remainder of a pleural arch consists of stiff cuticle. Bending these composite structures stores energy and their recoil powers jumping.

  15. Brochosomal coats turn leafhopper (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) integument to superhydrophobic state

    PubMed Central

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with brochosomes, hollow proteinaceous spheres of usually 200–700 nm in diameter, with honeycombed walls. The coats have been previously suggested to act as a water-repellent and anti-adhesive protective barrier against the insect's own exudates. We estimated their wettability through contact angle (CA) measurements of water, diiodomethane, ethylene glycol and ethanol on detached wings of the leafhoppers Alnetoidia alneti, Athysanus argentarius and Cicadella viridis. Intact brochosome-coated integuments were repellent to all test liquids, except ethanol, and exhibited superhydrophobicity, with the average water CAs of 165–172°, and the apparent surface free energy (SFE) estimates not exceeding 0.74 mN m−1. By contrast, the integuments from which brochosomes were removed with a peeling technique using fluid polyvinylsiloxane displayed water CAs of only 103–129° and SFEs above 20 mN m−1. Observations of water-sprayed wings in a cryo-scanning electron microscope confirmed that brochosomal coats prevented water from contacting the integument. Their superhydrophobic properties appear to result from fractal roughness, which dramatically reduces the area of contact with high-surface-tension liquids, including, presumably, leafhopper exudates. PMID:23235705

  16. Molecular and Morphological Identification of Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian Vineyards

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

  17. Study on the role of olfaction in host plant detection of Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, V; Ioriatti, C; Trona, F; Lucchi, A; De Cristofaro, A; Anfora, G

    2009-06-01

    The American grapevine leafhopper, Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is the vector of the phytoplasma that causes Flavescence dorée, one of the most threatening grapevine yellows disease. The role of olfaction in host plant detection of this species is still unknown. In this study, the attractiveness of a host plant, the grapevine rootstock Vitis riparia x rupestris 101/14, to nymphs was verified through behavioral bioassays in a vertical glass Y-olfactometer. Furthermore, the olfactory sensitivity to odors extracted from grapevine organs headspace and the external morphology of the antennae were studied by electroantennography (EAG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Headspace collections were made from fresh apical shoots and leaves. Concentrated extracts were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify volatile compounds. In EAG experiments, weak responses to plant odors were recorded. SEM observations indicated the presence of few antennal sensilla, potentially associated with olfaction. Our results suggest that olfactory cues may play a role in the host plant detection of S. titanus nymphs.

  18. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level.

  19. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian vineyards.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  20. Citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) movement and population dynamics in an arbor-trained vineyard.

    PubMed

    Cid, M; Pereiro, S; Cabaleiro, C; Segura, A

    2010-06-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the main grapevine pest in vineyards in some countries, such as Spain and Brazil. In Galician vineyards (northwestern Spain), mealybug population levels are low because the accumulated degree-days are lower than in other grapevine-growing areas. The main problem caused by mealybugs is the transmission of viruses, even at low infestation levels. The active period of citrus mealybug in the study vineyard lasted from July until December, with an important movement peak at the end of July and August and a lower peak in November. The mealybug mainly moved upward along arbor-trained plants, and there were no important downward movements at the end of the season as has been described for other grapevine mealybugs. The mealybugs were normally restricted to the woody organs and were only present on leaves, branches, and green canes (always close to woody parts) in plants with high infestations. The movement of mealybugs between plants does not seem to take place by contact between green organs. Passive aerial transport and movement of pruning remains may play an important role in mealybug movement and thus in spread of the virus. The number of mealybugs carrying Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) was found to represent approximately 75% of mealybugs caught in a GLRaV-3 infected vineyard.

  1. A multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Saccaggi, D L; Krüger, K; Pietersen, G

    2008-02-01

    Molecular species identification is becoming more wide-spread in diagnostics and ecological studies, particularly with regard to insects for which morphological identification is difficult or time-consuming. In this study, we describe the development and application of a single-step multiplex PCR for the identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) associated with grapevine in South Africa: Planococcus ficus (vine mealybug), Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) and Pseudococcus longispinus (longtailed mealybug). Mealybugs are pests on many commercial crops, including grapevine, in which they transmit viral diseases. Morphological identification of mealybug species is usually time-consuming, requires a high level of taxonomic expertise and usually only adult females can be identified. The single-step multiplex PCR developed here, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO I) gene, is rapid, reliable, sensitive, accurate and simple. The entire identification protocol (including DNA extraction, PCR and electrophoresis) can be completed in approximately four hours. Successful DNA extraction from laboratory and unparasitized field-collected individuals stored in absolute ethanol was 97%. Specimens from which DNA could be extracted were always correctly identified (100% accuracy). The technique developed is simple enough to be implemented in any molecular laboratory. The principles described here can be extended to any organism for which rapid, reliable identification is needed.

  2. Asymmetric Spread of SRBSDV between Rice and Corn Plants by the Vector Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei; Li, Fei; Han, Yongqiang; Yang, Lang; Liao, Xiaolan; Hou, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses are mostly transmitted by sucking insects via their piercing behaviors, which may differ due to host plant species and their developmental stages. We characterized the transmission of a fijivirus, southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), by the planthopper vector Sogatella furcifera Horváth (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), between rice and corn plants of varying developmental stages. SRBSDV was transmitted from infected rice to uninfected corn plants as efficiently as its transmission between rice plants, while was acquired by S. furcifera nymphs at a much lower rate from infected corn plants than from infected rice plants. We also recorded a high mortality of S. furcifera nymphs on corn plants. It is evident that young stages of both the virus donor and recipient plants added to the transmission efficiency of SRBSDV from rice to corn plants. Feeding behaviors of the vector recorded by electrical penetration graph showed that phloem sap ingestion, the behavioral event that is linked with plant virus acquisition, was impaired on corn plants, which accounts for the high mortality of and low virus acquisition by S. furcifera nymphs on corn plants. Our results reveal an asymmetric spread of SRBSDV between its two host plants and the underlying behavioral mechanism, which is of significance for assessing SRBSDV transmission risks and field epidemiology, and for developing integrated management approaches for SRBSDV disease. PMID:27760223

  3. Heterochromatin base pair composition and diversification in holocentric chromosomes of kissing bugs (Hemiptera, Reduviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bardella, Vanessa Bellini; Pita, Sebastián; Vanzela, André Luis Laforga; Galvão, Cleber; Panzera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) includes 150 species of blood-sucking insects, vectors of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis. Karyotypic information reveals a striking stability in the number of autosomes. However, this group shows substantial variability in genome size, the amount and distribution of C-heterochromatin, and the chromosome positions of 45S rDNA clusters. Here, we analysed the karyotypes of 41 species from six different genera with C-fluorescence banding in order to evaluate the base-pair richness of heterochromatic regions. Our results show a high heterogeneity in the fluorescent staining of the heterochromatin in both autosomes and sex chromosomes, never reported before within an insect subfamily with holocentric chromosomes. This technique allows a clear discrimination of the heterochromatic regions classified as similar by C-banding, constituting a new chromosome marker with taxonomic and evolutionary significance. The diverse fluorescent patterns are likely due to the amplification of different repeated sequences, reflecting an unusual dynamic rearrangement in the genomes of this subfamily. Further, we discuss the evolution of these repeated sequences in both autosomes and sex chromosomes in species of Triatominae. PMID:27759763

  4. The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida species subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Calderón-Fernández, Gustavo Mario; Juárez, Marta Patricia

    2013-09-01

    The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) were ana-lysed by gas chromatography and their structures identified by mass spectrometry. They comprised mostly n-alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes with one-four methyl substitutions. n-alkanes consisted of a homologous series from C21-C33 and represented 33-45% of the hydrocarbon fraction; n-C29 was the major component. Methyl-branched alkanes showed alkyl chains from C24-C43. High molecular weight dimethyl and trimethylalkanes (from C35-C39) represented most of the methyl-branched fraction. A few tetramethylalkanes were also detected, comprising mostly even-numbered chains. Several components such as odd-numbered 3-methylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and trimethylalkanes of C37 and C39 showed patterns of variation that allowed the differentiation of the species and populations studied. Triatoma guasayana and Triatoma patagonica showed the most distinct hydrocarbon patterns within the subcomplex. The T. sordida populations from Brazil and Argentina showed significantly different hydrocarbon profiles that posed concerns regarding the homogeneity of the species. Triatoma garciabesi had a more complex hydrocarbon pattern, but it shared some similarity with T. sordida. The quantitative and qualitative variations in the cuticular hydrocarbons may help to elucidate the relationships between species and populations of this insect group.

  5. Extraction from soil of apterous Pemphigus populitransversus (Hemiptera: Pemphigidae) feeding on cruciferous vegetable roots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong-Xian; Zhang, Yongmei; Yue, Bisong

    2011-06-01

    The poplar petiolegall aphid, Pemphigus populitransversus Riley (Hemiptera: Pemphigidae), is a gall-forming aphid attacking leaf petioles of Populus spp., its primary hosts. Its secondary hosts are the roots of cruciferous (Brassicaceae) plants, where it is also commonly known as the "cabbage root aphid." The apterous forms are destructive pests of cruciferous vegetables in many parts of the world. In our experiments, the root-feeding apterous forms were extracted from the soil using a Berlese funnel, which drives the aphids downward by using light and heat. The results show that a majority of apterous aphids (96.9%) were extracted from the soil in 2 h by using a 15-W light bulb in the Berlese funnels, whereas only 18.2% of aphids were extracted using a 25-W light bulb in a similar time period. The 25-W light bulb in the funnel generated too much heat (40-44 degrees C), which dried the soil too fast so that the aphids were unable to crawl downward to the collecting jars or killed the aphids directly. The advantages of using a Berlese funnel equipped with a 15-W light bulb as the light and heat source for sampling and extraction of the root feeding aphids include a uniform handling of each sample, less time spent, extraction of many samples at the same time, and storage of the aphids in containers for later counting in the laboratory. This technique seems to also be useful for extracting other mobile, small soil-dwelling arthropods.

  6. Life table parameters of three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris) species (Hemiptera: Miridae) under contrasted relative humidity regimes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH). Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80%) were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH) had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproductive rate (R0) and the finite rate of increase (λ) for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests.

  7. Transmission efficiency of tomato apex necrosis virus by Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B in tomato.

    PubMed

    Barajas-Ortiz, M; León-Sicairos, C R; López-Valenzuela, J A; Reyes-Moreno, C; Valdez-Ortiz, A; Velarde-Félix, S; Peraza-Garay, F; Garzón-Tiznado, J A

    2013-08-01

    Tomato apex necrosis virus (ToANV) is a new virus that causes important damage in tomato crops from the Culiacan Valley, Sinaloa, Mexico. To understand the relationship between ToANV and its vector Bermisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) (Gennadius) biotype B, laboratory and greenhouse trials were completed to: 1) determine the acquisition and inoculation access periods of ToANV by B. tabaci from tomato to tomato, 2) understand the transmission efficiency at different B. tabaci population densities, 3) estimate the time from inoculation of the virus at different B. tabaci densities to manifestation of symptoms in the plants, and 4) determine the retention time of the virus by the insect vector. The presence of the virus in plants was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification ofa 795-bp fragment (GenBank JN704068), which is phylogenetically related to ToANV (GenBank EF063242). The results showed that B. tabaci is an effective vector for ToANV with relatively long acquisition (12 h) and inoculation (9 h) access periods; a single adult is capable of transmitting and retaining the virus for up to 7d, suggesting a persistent mode of transmission. These results will help in the development of management strategies for controlling the vector and the disease.

  8. Impact of developmental maturity of soybean on the seasonal abundance of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Rhainds, Marc; Yoo, Ho Jung S; Bledsoe, Larry; Sadof, Clifford S; Yaninek, Steve; O'Neil, Robert J

    2010-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), alternates between a primary overwintering host (buckthorn, Rhamnus sp.) and a secondary summer host (soybean, Glycine max). Selection of soybean cultivars with different maturity groups may provide growers with a management tool for A. glycines, either directly through its effect on summer populations that cause economic damage or indirectly through its effect on the production of migrants that disperse to the primary host in fall. This study investigated the abundance and seasonality of A. glycines on soybean cultivars with different maturity rates in central Indiana. The abscission of soybean foliage occurred earlier for early maturing than late maturing cultivars, but no other consistent difference in development or yield was detected among the cultivars tested in this study. The abundance of aphids did not vary consistently among cultivars when soybean was most susceptible to economic damage. A laboratory assay evaluating the larviposition preference of A. glycines alate females, combined with a 7-yr survey documenting the colonization of buckthorn by winged aphids, indicated that the production of gynoparae on soybean began in mid-September and continued until leaf abscission. The abundance of aphids during this period was higher on late maturing cultivars than on early maturing cultivars in both 2006 and 2008, whereas no significant effect was detected in 2007. Altogether, these results suggest that planting early maturing soybean cultivars has little effect on damage by aphids on the current season crop but may reduce the number of fall migrants to the primary host.

  9. Infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) is associated with housing characteristics in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Justin M; Wilson, Mark L; Cruz-Celis, Adriana; Ordoñez, Rosalinda; Ramsey, Janine M

    2006-11-01

    Long-term control of Chagas disease requires not only interruption of the human transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi Schyzotrypanum, Chagas, 1909 by controlling its domestic triatomine vectors but also surveillance to prevent reinfestation of residences from sylvatic or persistent peridomestic populations. Although a number of potential risk factors for infestation have been implicated in previous studies, the explanatory power of resulting models has been low. Two years after cessation of triatomine vector control efforts in the town of Chalcatzingo, Morelos, 78 environmental, socioecological, and spatial variables were analyzed for association with infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis Stal 1872 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), the principal vector of T. cruzi. We studied 712 residences in this rural community to identify specific intradomestic and peridomestic risk factors that predicted infestation with T. pallidipennis. From numerous characteristics that were identified as correlated with infestation, we derived multivariate logistic regression models to predict residences that were more or less likely to be infested with T. pallidipennis. The most important risk factors for infestation included measurements of house age, upkeep, and spatial location in the town. The effects of certain risk factors on infestation were found to be modified by spatial characteristics of residences. The results of this study provide new information regarding risk factors for infestation by T. pallidipennis that may aid in designing sustainable disease control programs in rural Mexico.

  10. Development and Life Table Parameters of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Four Ornamental Plants.

    PubMed

    Tok, B; Kaydan, M B; Mustu, M; Ulusoy, M R

    2016-08-01

    The development, reproduction, and life table parameters of the Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four ornamental plant species, namely Pelargonium zonale (Geraniaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibicus syriacus (Malvaceae), and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) were investigated under controlled conditions (25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 10% R.H., and 16 h photophase). Life table data were analyzed by using an age-stage two-sex life table. The shortest total immature developmental time of females and males for P. madeirensis was obtained on C. nocturnum (20.42 and 21.90 days, respectively). The highest fecundities were 233 and 232 eggs on C. nocturnum and H. syriacus, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (r  = 0.1511 day(-1)) and finite rate of increase (λ  =  1.1631 day(-1)) were the greatest when mealybugs were reared on C. nocturnum. Net reproductive rate (R 0  =  129.5 offspring) was the greatest when reared on H. syriacus, but this value was not statistically different from that on C. nocturnum. The shortest mean generation time (T  =  31.3 days) was calculated on C. nocturnum. These results indicate that C. nocturnum and H. syriacus are more suitable hosts than H. rosa-sinensis and P. zonale for P. madeirensis.

  11. Analysis of Acquisition and Titer of Maize Mosaic Rhabdovirus in Its Vector, Peregrinus maidis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Barandoc-Alviar, Karen; Ramirez, Girly M; Rotenberg, Dorith; Whitfield, Anna E

    2016-01-01

    The corn planthopper, Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), transmits Maize mosaic rhabdovirus (MMV), an important pathogen of maize and sorghum, in a persistent propagative manner. To better understand the vectorial capacity of P. maidis, we determined the efficiency of MMV acquisition by nymphal and adult stages, and characterized MMV titer through development. Acquisition efficiency, i.e., proportion of insects that acquired the virus, was determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus titer of individual insects was estimated by quantitative RT-PCR. Acquisition efficiency of MMV differed significantly between nymphs and adults. MMV titer increased significantly over time and throughout insect development from nymphal to adult stage, indication of virus replication in the vector during development. There was a positive association between the vector developmental stage and virus titer. Also, the average titer in male insects was threefold higher than female titers, and this difference persisted up to 30 d post adult eclosion. Overall, our findings indicate that nymphs are more efficient than adults at acquiring MMV and virus accumulated in the vector over the course of nymphal development. Furthermore, sustained infection over the lifespan of P. maidis indicates a potentially high capacity of this vector to transmit MMV.

  12. Lyophilized artificial diet for rearing the Neotropical Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Agustín C; da Rocha, Aline C P; Parra, José R P

    2016-01-01

    An artificial diet to mass-rear Euschistus heros (F. 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was developed in the laboratory. Biological studies were conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2 °C), RH: 60 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Out of 13 diets tested, 2 diets (D9 and D11) were the most suitable. The artificial diets selected had the same composition (green beans, peanuts, sucrose, water, Nipagin, and sorbic acid) except for different antimicrobial agents (D11 has tetracycline, and D9 doesn't). The 68% viability for the egg-adult period of insects reared on these lyophilized artificial diets (LAD) was almost twice as high as the 38% viability obtained with the natural diet. Although adults reared on LAD weighed 17% less than those reared on the natural diet, mean fecundity was higher than on the natural diet (282 eggs/female), reaching 430 eggs/female. The net reproductive rate (Ro) increased over the generations for the diets with lyophilized material and antimicrobial agents. The opposite occurred with the diet of lyophilized material without antimicrobial agents, showing that the insects either adapted or degenerated through generations. Lyophilized diets supported the production of E. heros through at least 10 generations, with no degeneration.

  13. Remote sensing and spatial statistical techniques for modelling Ommatissus lybicus (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae) habitat and population densities.

    PubMed

    Al-Kindi, Khalifa M; Kwan, Paul; R Andrew, Nigel; Welch, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the distribution and prevalence of Ommatissus lybicus (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae) as well as analyse their current biographical patterns and predict their future spread, comprehensive and detailed information on the environmental, climatic, and agricultural practices are essential. The spatial analytical techniques such as Remote Sensing and Spatial Statistics Tools, can help detect and model spatial links and correlations between the presence, absence and density of O. lybicus in response to climatic, environmental, and human factors. The main objective of this paper is to review remote sensing and relevant analytical techniques that can be applied in mapping and modelling the habitat and population density of O. lybicus. An exhaustive search of related literature revealed that there are very limited studies linking location-based infestation levels of pests like the O. lybicus with climatic, environmental, and human practice related variables. This review also highlights the accumulated knowledge and addresses the gaps in this area of research. Furthermore, it makes recommendations for future studies, and gives suggestions on monitoring and surveillance methods in designing both local and regional level integrated pest management strategies of palm tree and other affected cultivated crops.

  14. Spatial Distribution of Adults of Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Guava Plants.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, M C S; Barbosa, J C

    2016-04-01

    The psyllid Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest in guava, feeding primarily on new shoots. Despite its importance, there are no studies on the spatial distribution of T. limbata on guava. Such studies are needed to establish sequential sampling plans for decision making in pest control. Thus, an experiment was carried out in a 9-year-old commercial guava orchard divided into 100 sampling units or plots. Double-sided yellow sticky traps were placed on one plant per plot (sample unit) to capture and monitor T. limbata adults from April 2011 to May 2012. To determine the insect distribution in the area, we calculated the variance-to-mean ratio index (I), the Morisita index (I δ ), Green's coefficient (Cx), and the k exponent of the negative binomial distribution. Most of the samples showed that the adults had a moderate to highly aggregated distribution. Statistical models were also used to study the pest spatial distribution by fitting the number of adults captured to the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. The negative binomial distribution model best fitted the data of the number of adult psyllids captured by the traps, which is consistent with an aggregated distribution.

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions. PMID:27313962

  16. Mechanism of entomotoxicity of the Concanavalin A in Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Sprawka, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Parzych, Tina; Goławski, Artur; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity effect of Concanavalin A (Canavalia ensiformis lectin, ConA) to bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), was investigated in the laboratory by using artificial diets containing ConA concentrations. Bird cherry-oat aphid performance was affected by the presence of Con A in artificial diets. The lectin added into the liquid diet increased the prereproductive period, mortality, and the average time of generation development (T) and decreased fecundity and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm). In attempt to unravel the mode of action of ConA, the interaction of the lectin with insect gut and the effect of ConA on feeding behavior were investigated. Extract of gut of treated grain aphid demonstrated DNA fragmentation, and this was accompanied with an increase in caspase 3 activity. Moreover, addition of ConA to the sucrose-agarose gels reduced salivation and passive ingestion of fluids from the gel. The results indicate that the insecticidal activity of ConA on R. padi may involve effects on death of the gut epithelial cells and effects on feeding behavior. This can be employed to create plants that are resistant to aphids. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  17. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Comparison with Other Aphididae Insects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Li-Yun; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2015-01-01

    The mitogenome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a 15,199 bp circular molecule. The gene order and orientation of M. keteleerifoliae is similarly arranged to that of the ancestral insect of other aphid mitogenomes, and, a tRNA isomerism event maybe identified in the mitogenome of M. keteleerifoliae. The tRNA-Trp gene is coded in the J-strand and the same sequence in the N-strand codes for the tRNA-Ser gene. A similar phenomenon was also found in the mitogenome of Eriosoma lanigerum. However, whether tRNA isomers in aphids exist requires further study. Phylogenetic analyses, using all available protein-coding genes, support Mindarinae as the basal position of Aphididae. Two tribes of Aphidinae were recovered with high statistical significance. Characteristics of the M. keteleerifoliae mitogenome revealed distinct mitogenome structures and provided abundant phylogenetic signals, thus advancing our understanding of insect mitogenomic architecture and evolution. But, because only eight complete aphid mitogenomes, including M. keteleerifoliae, were published, future studies with larger taxon sampling sizes are necessary. PMID:26694371

  18. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Bettiga, Larry J; Daane, Kent M

    2010-04-01

    Controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) were developed successfully for control of vine mealybug, Planococcusflcus Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on dormant grape (Vitis spp.) benchgrafts. At 30 ppm oxygen, 3-d ULO treatment at 25 degrees C and 4-d ULO treatment at 150C achieved complete control of all life stages of P. ficus. At a much lower oxygen level (<1 ppm), the two ULO treatments with the same exposure periods of 3 d at 25 degrees C and 4 d at 15 degrees C were tested on six table and wine grape cultivars grafted on rootstocks along with P. ficus. The benchgrafts were then potted in a greenhouse, together with untreated controls, to determine treatment effects on rootstock viability. Both ULO treatments achieved complete control of P. ficus and did not have any negative effects on vine growth, compared with the control. Results indicate that ULO treatments can be used to control P. ficus on dormant grape benchgrafts. The advantages of the ULO treatments are also discussed with respect to hot water treatments.

  19. Maternal effects in the soft scale insect Saissetia coffeae (Hemiptera: Coccidae).

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Brian W

    2004-11-01

    Effects of maternal environment on offspring performance have been documented frequently in herbivorous insects. Despite this, very few cases exist in which exposure of parent insects to a resource causes the phenotype of their offspring to be adjusted in a manner that is adaptive for that resource, a phenomenon called adaptive transgenerational phenotypic plasticity. I performed a two-generation reciprocal cross-transplant experiment in the field with the soft scale insect Saissetia coffeae (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on two disparate host plant species in order to separate genetic effects from possible transgenerational plasticity. Despite striking differences in quality between host species, maternal host had no effect on overall offspring performance, and I detected no "acclimatization" to the maternal host species. However, there was a significant negative association between maternal and offspring development times, with potentially adaptive implications. Furthermore, offspring of mothers reared in an environment where scale densities were higher and scales were more frequently killed by fungi were significantly less likely to suffer from fungal attack than were offspring of mothers reared in an environment where densities were low and fungal attack was rare. Although S. coffeae does not appear to alter offspring phenotype to increase offspring fitness on these two distinct plant species, it does appear that offspring phenotype may be responding to some subtler aspects of maternal environment. In particular, the possibility of induced transgenerational prophylaxis in S. coffeae deserves further investigation.

  20. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza; Hentz, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB), is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida). The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1), Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1), and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6), to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran—Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida—Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan—Punjab) were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks’ lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001). The body length (BL), circumanal ring length (CL), antenna length (AL), forewing length (WL) and Rs vein length of forewing (RL) were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1) Iran, (2) USA (Florida) and (3) Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations. PMID:26038715